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This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

91. Determine the vertical displacement of joint A. Each bar is made of steel and has a cross-sectional area of 600 mm2. Take E = 200 GPa. Use the method of virtual work.

2m

A D 1.5 m 1.5 m

The virtual forces and real forces in each member are shown in Fig. a and b, respectively.

5 kN

Member AB AD BD BC

n(kN) 1.25 -0.75 -1.25 1.50

N(kN) 6.25 -3.75 -6.25 7.50

L(m) 2.50 3 2.50 1.50

nNL (kN2 m) 19.531 8.437 19.531 16.875 64.375

64.375 kN2 # m nNL 1 kN # Av = a = AE AE Av = = 64.375 kN # m AE 64.375(103) N # m c 0.6(10 - 3) m2 d c 200(109) N> m2 d Ans.

= 0.53646 (10 - 3) m = 0.536 mm T

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92.

Solve Prob. 91 using Castiglianos theorem.


B

2m

Member AB AD BD BC

N(kN) 1.25 P -0.750 P -1.25 P 1.50 P

0N 0P 1.25 -0.75 -1.25 1.50

N1P = 5kN2 6.25 -3.75 -6.25 7.50

L(m) 2.5 3 2.5 1.5

Na

0N b L(kN # m) 0P 19.531 8.437 19.531 16.875 64.375


5 kN

D 1.5 m 1.5 m

0N L b Av = a N a 0 P AE = 64.375 kN # m AE 30.6(10 - 3) m243200(109) N> m24 Ans. 64 # 375(103) N # m

= 0.53646 (10 - 3) m = 0.536 mm T

*93. Determine the vertical displacement of joint B. For each member A 400 mm2, E 200 GPa. Use the method of virtual work.

1.5 m

Member AF AE AB EF EB ED BC BD CD

n 0 -0.8333 0.6667 0 0.50 -0.6667 0 0.8333 -0.5

N 0 -37.5 30.0 0 22.5 -30.0 0 37.5 -22.5

L 1.5 2.5 2.0 2.0 1.5 2.0 2.0 2.5 1.5

nNL 0 78.125 40.00 0 16.875 40.00 0 78.125 16.875 = 270

A B 45 kN 2m 2m

nNL 1 # Bv = a AE 270(103) Bv = 400(10 - 6)(200)(109) = 3.375(10 - 3) m = 3.38 mm T Ans.

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*94.

Solve Prob. 93 using Castiglianos theorem.

1.5 m

A B 45 kN 2m 2m

Member AF AE AB BE BD BC CD DE EF

N 0 -0.8333P 0.6667P 0.5P 0.8333P 0 -0.5P 0.6667P 0

0N 0P 0 -0.8333 0.6667 0.5 0.8333 0 -0.5 -0.6667 0

N(P = 45) 0 -37.5 30.0 22.5 37.5 0 -22.5 -30.0 0

L 1.5 2.5 2.0 1.5 2.5 2.0 1.5 2.0 2.0

Na

0N bL 0P

0 78.125 40.00 16.875 78.125 0 16.875 40.00 0 = 270

0N L 270 dBv = a N a b = 0 P AE AE 270(103) = 400(10 - 6)(200)(109) = 3.375(10 - 3) m = 3.38 mm Ans.

95. Determine the vertical displacement of joint E. For each member A 400 mm2, E 200 GPa. Use the method of virtual work.

1.5 m

A B 45 kN

C 2m

Member AF AE AB EF EB ED BC BD CD

n 0 -0.8333 0.6667 0 0.50 -0.6667 0 0.8333 -0.5

N 0 -37.5 30.0 0 22.5 30.0 0 37.5 -22.5

L 1.5 2.5 2.0 2.0 1.5 2.0 2.0 2.5 1.5

nNL 0 78.125 40.00 0 -16.875 40.00 0 78.125 16.875 = 236.25

2m

nNL 1 # Ev = a AE Ev = 236.25(103) 400(10 - 6)(200)(109) = 2.95(10 - 3) m = 2.95 mm T Ans.

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96.

Solve Prob. 95 using Castiglianos theorem.

1.5 m

A B 45 kN 2m 2m

Member AF AE AB BE BD BC CD DE EF

N 0 -(0.8333P + 37.5) 0.6667P + 30 22.5 - 0.5P 0.8333P + 37.5 0 -(0.5P + 22.5) -(0.6667P + 30) 0

0N 0P 0 -0.8333 0.6667 -0.5 0.8333 0 -0.5 -0.6667 0

N(P = 45) 0 -37.5 30.0 22.5 37.5 0 -22.5 -30.0 0

L 1.5 2.5 2.0 1.5 2.5 2.0 1.5 2.0 2.0

Na

0N bL 0P

0 78.125 40.00 -16.875 78.125 0 16.875 40.00 0 = 236.25

0N Ev = a N 0P =

236.25 L = AE AE = 2.95(10 - 3) m = 2.95 mm T Ans.

236.25(103) 400(10 - 6)(200)(109)

97. Determine the vertical displacement of joint D. Use the method of virtual work. AE is constant. Assume the members are pin connected at their ends.

3m

A B C 4m 15 kN 20 kN 4m

The virtual and real forces in each member are shown in Fig. a and b, respectively Member AB BC AD BD CD CE DE n(kN) 0.6667 0.6667 -0.8333 0 -0.8333 0.500 0 N(kN) 10.0 10.0 -12.5 15.0 -12.5 27.5 0 L(m) 4 4 5 3 5 3 4 nNL 198.75 kN2 # m = 1 kN # Dv = a AE AE Dv = 198.75 kN # m 199 kN # m = AE AE T Ans. nNL(kN2 m) 26.667 26.667 52.083 0 52.083 41.25 0 198.75

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97.

Continued

*98.

Solve Prob. 97 using Castiglianos theorem.

3m

A B 4m 15 kN 4m 20 kN C

Member AB BC AD BD CD CE DE

N (kN) 0.6667P + 10.0 0.6667P + 10.0 -(0.8333P + 12.5) 15.0 -(0.8333P + 12.5) 0.5P + 27.5 0

0N 0P 0.6667 0.6667 -0.8333 0 -0.8333 0.5 0

N(P = 0) kN 10.0 10.0 -12.5 15.0 -12.5 27.5 0

L(m) 4 4 5 3 5 3 4

Na

0N b L (kN m) 0P

26.667 26.667 52.083 0 52.083 41.25 0 198.75

0N L b Dv = a N a 0 P AE 198.75 kN # m 199 kN # m = AE AE Ans.

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99. Determine the vertical displacement of the truss at joint F. Assume all members are pin connected at their end points. Take A 0.5 in2 and E 29(103) ksi for each member. Use the method of virtual work.

500 lb 300 lb 3 ft F E 3 ft D

3 ft

C A B

600 lb

L nNL = [( - 1.00)( - 600)(3) + (1.414)(848.5)(4.243) + ( - 1.00)(0)(3) Fv = a AE AE + ( - 1.00)( - 1100)(3) + (1.414)(1555.6)(4.243) + ( - 2.00)( - 1700)(3) + ( - 1.00)( - 1400)(3) + ( - 1.00)( - 1100)(3) + ( - 2.00)( - 1700)(3)](12) 47425.0(12) = 0.5(29)(106) = 0.0392 in. T Ans.

910.

Solve Prob. 99 using Castiglianos theorem.

500 lb 300 lb 3 ft F E 3 ft D

3 ft

C A B

600 lb

0N L 1 b = Fv = a N a [ - (P + 600)]( - 1)(3) + (1.414P + 848.5)(1.414)(4.243) 0 P AE AE + ( - P)( - 1)(3) + ( - (P + 1100))( - 1)(3) + (1.414P + 1555.6)(1.414)(4.243) + ( - (2P + 1700)) ( - 2)(3) + ( - (P + 1400)( - 1)(3) + ( - (P + 1100))( - 1)(3) (55.97P + 47.425.0)(12) + ( - (2P + 1700))( - 2)(3)](12) = (0.5(29(10)6) Set P = 0 and evaluate Fv = 0.0392 in. T Ans.

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911. Determine the vertical displacement of joint A. The cross-sectional area of each member is indicated in the figure. Assume the members are pin connected at their end points. E 29 (10)3 ksi. Use the method of virtual work.

2 in2

2 in2 3 in A 3 in2 4 ft 7k
2

2 in2

3 in2 4 ft

B 3 in2 4 ft 3k C

The virtual force and real force in each member are shown in Fig. a and b, respectively.

Member AB BC AD BD CD CE DE

n(k) -1.00 -1.00 22 -2.00 22 -1.00 0

N(k) -7.00 -7.00 7 22 -14.00 7 22 -4.00 0

L(ft) 4 4 4 22 4 4 22 4 4

nNL(k2 ft) 28 28 56 22 112 56 22 16 0

nNL 1 k # Av = a AE 1 k # Av = (29 + 28 + 112 + 16)k2 # ft (3in2)[29(103) k> in2] + (56 22 + 56 22) k2 # ft (2in2)[29(103) k> in2]

Av = 0.004846 ft a

12 in b = 0.0582 in. T 1 ft

Ans.

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*912.

Solve Prob. 911 using Castiglianos theorem.

2 in2

2 in2 3 in A 3 in
2 2

2 in2

3 in2 4 ft

B 3 in2 4 ft 3k C

4 ft 7k

Member AB BC AD BD CD CE DE

N(k) -P -P 22P -2P 22P -(P - 3) 0

0N 0P -1 -1 22 -2 22 -1 0

N1P = 7k2 -7 -7 7 22 -14 7 22 -4 0

L(ft) 4 4 4 22 4 4 22 4 4

Na

0N b L(k # ft) 0P

28 28 56 22 112 56 22 16 0

dN L b Av = a N a dP AE (28 + 28 + 112 + 16) k # ft = (3 in2)[29(103)k> m2] + = 0.004846 ft a 56 22 + 56 22 k2 # ft (2 in2)[29(103)k> in2] Ans.

12 in b = 0.0582 in T 1 ft

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913. Determine the horizontal displacement of joint D. Assume the members are pin connected at their end points. AE is constant. Use the method of virtual work.

8m D 2k

6 ft C

3k

The virtual force and real force in each member are shown in Fig. a and b, respectively.
A B

6 ft

Member AC BC BD CD

n(k) 1.50 -1.25 -0.75 1.25

N(k) 5.25 -6.25 -1.50 2.50

L(ft) 6 10 12 10

nNL(k2

# ft)

47.25 78.125 13.50 31.25 170.125

nNL 1k # Dh = a AE 1k # Dh = 170.125 k2 # ft AE 170 k # ft : AE Ans.

Dh =

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914.

Solve Prob. 913 using Castiglianos theorem.

8m D 2k

6 ft C

3k

6 ft

Member AC BC BD CD

N(k) 1.50P + 2.25 -(1.25P + 3.75) -0.750P 1.25P

0N 0P 1.50 -1.25 -0.750 1.25

N 1P = 2k2 5.25 -6.25 -1.50 2.50

L(ft) 6 10 12 10

Na

0N b L(k # ft) 0P 47.25 78.125 13.5 31.25 170.125

dN L b Dh = a N a dP AE = 170.125 k # ft AE 170 k # ft : AE Ans.

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915. Determine the vertical displacement of joint C of the truss. Each member has a cross-sectional area of A = 300 mm2. E = 200 GPa. Use the method of virtual work.
A 4m

F 3m

B 4m 3 kN

C 4m 4 kN

D 4m 3 kN

The virtual and real forces in each member are shown in Fig. a and b respectively.

Member AB DE BC CD AH EF BH DF BG DG GH FG CG

n(kN) 0.6667 0.6667 1.333 1.333 -0.8333 -0.8333 0.5 0.5 -0.8333 -0.8333 -0.6667 -0.6667 1

N(kN) 6.667 6.667 9.333 9.333 -8.333 -8.333 5 5 -3.333 -3.333 -6.6667 -6.6667 4

L(m) 4 4 4 4 5 5 3 3 5 5 4 4 3

nNL(kN2 m) 17.78 17.78 49.78 49.78 34.72 34.72 7.50 7.50 13.89 13.89 17.78 17.78 12.00 = 294.89

nNL 294.89 kN2 # m 1kN # Cv = a = AE AE Cv = 294.89 kN # m AE [0.3(10 - 3) m2][200(109) N> m2] T Ans. 294.89(103) N # m

= 0.004914 m = 4.91 mm

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*916.

Solve Prob. 915 using Castiglianos theorem.

F 3m

A 4m

B 4m 3 kN

C 4m 4 kN

D 4m 3 kN

Member AB DE BC CD AH EF BH DF BG DG GH FG CG

N(kN) 0.6667P + 4 0.6667P + 4 1.333P + 4 1.333P + 4 -(0.8333P + 5) -(0.8333P + 5) 0.5P + 3 0.5P + 3 -0.8333P -0.8333P -(0.6667P + 4) -(0.6667P + 4) P

0N 0P 0.6667 0.6667 1.333 1.333 -0.8333 -0.8333 0.5 0.5 -0.8333 -0.8333 -0.6667 -0.6667 1

N1P = 4 kN2 6.667 6.667 9.333 9.333 -8.333 -8.333 5 5 -3.333 -3.333 -6.667 -6.667 4

L(m) 4 4 4 4 5 5 3 3 5 5 4 4 3

Na

0N b L (k # m) 0P 17.78 17.78 49.78 49.78 34.72 34.72 7.50 7.50 13.89 13.89 17.78 17.78 12.00 294.89

0N L 294.89 kN # m Cv = a N a b = 0 P AE AE = [0.3(10-3) m2][200(109) N> m2] Ans. 294.89(103) N # m

= 0.004914 m = 4.91 mm T

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917. Determine the vertical displacement of joint A. Assume the members are pin connected at their end points. Take A = 2 in2 and E = 29 (103) for each member. Use the method of virtual work.

E 8 ft

A 8 ft 1000 lb B 500 lb 8 ft C

1 nNL Av = a = [2( - 2.00)( - 2.00)(8) + (2.236)(2.236)(8.944) + (2.236)(2.795)(8.944)] AE AE 164.62(12) = (2)(29)(103) = 0.0341 in. T Ans.

918.

Solve Prob. 917 using Castiglianos theorem.

E 8 ft

0N L 1 Av = a N a b = [ - 2P( - 2)(8) + (2.236P)(2.236)(8.944) 0 P AE AE + ( - 2P)( - 2)(8) + (2.236P + 0.5590)(2.236)(8.944)](12) Set P = 1 and evaluate 164.62(12) Av = (2)(29)(103) = 0.0341 in. T

A 8 ft 1000 lb B 500 lb 8 ft C

Ans.

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919. Determine the vertical displacement of joint A if members AB and BC experience a temperature increase of T = 200F. Take A = 2 in2 and E = 29(103) ksi. Also, a = 6.60 (10 - 6)> F.

E 8 ft

A 8 ft B 8 ft C

Av = a na TL = ( - 2)(6.60)(10-6)(200)(8)(12) + ( - 2)(6.60)(10-6)(200)(8)(12) = - 0.507 in. = 0.507 in. c Ans.

*920. Determine the vertical displacement of joint A if member AE is fabricated 0.5 in. too short.
E

8 ft

A 8 ft B 8 ft C

Av = a n L = (2.236)( - 0.5) = - 1.12 in = 1.12 in. c Ans.

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921. Determine the displacement of point C and the slope at point B. EI is constant. Use the principle of virtual work.

C L 2 L 2

Real Moment function M(x): As shown on figure (a). Virtual Moment Functions m(x) and mu(x): As shown on figure (b) and (c). Virtual Work Equation: For the displacement at point C, 1# = mM dx EI 0 L
1 x1 P 1 a b a x1 b dx1 d EI L 2 2 0 L

1 # C = 2 c C =

PL3 48 EI

Ans.

For the slope at B, 1#u = 1 # uB muM dx EI 0 L


L L

1 2 x1 P x2 P 1 = c a b a x1 b dx1 + a1 b a x2 b dx2 d EI L L 2 L 2 0 L 0

uB =

PL2 16EI

Ans.

922.

Solve Prob. 921 using Castiglianos theorem.

B L 2

Internal Moment Function M(x): The internal moment function in terms of the load P' and couple moment M' and externally applied load are shown on figures (a) and (b), respectively. Castiglianos Second Theorem: The displacement at C can be determined with 0 M(x) x = = and set P = P. 0P 2 L 0 M dx = b Ma 0 P EI 0 L
1 1 P x = 2c a x b a b dx d EI L 2 2 0 L

L 2

PL3 48EI

Ans. 0 M(x1) x1 0 M(x2) x2 = = 1 , and 0M L 0M L

To determine the slope at B, with setting M = 0.


L

u =

0 L

Ma
L

0 M dx b 0 M EI
L

uB =

1 2 x1 x2 1 P 1 P a x1 b a b dx1 + a x2 b a 1 b dx2 EI L 2 L EI L 2 L 0 0

PL2 16EI 322

Ans.

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923. Determine the displacement at point C. EI is constant. Use the method of virtual work.
A B a a

1 # C =

mM dx 0 EI L 1 (x1)(Px1)dx1 + (x2)(Px2)dx2 d c EI L o 0 L 2Pa3 T 3EI Ans.


a a

C =

*924.

Solve Prob. 923 using Castiglianos theorem.

A B a a

0 M1 = x1 0P Set P = P M1 = Px1
L

0 M2 = x2 0P

M2 = Px2 0M 1 b dx = c (Px1)(x1)dx1 + (Px2)(x2)dx2 d 0P EI L 0 0 L Ans.


a a

C =

0 L

Ma

2Pa3 3EI

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925. Determine the slope at point C. EI is constant. Use the method of virtual work.
A B a a

1 # uC =

0 L a

muMdx EI

uC =

a (x1> a)Px1dx1 (1)Px2dx2 + EI EI 0 0 L L

Pa2 Pa2 5Pa2 + = 3EI 2EI 6EI

Ans.

926.

Solve Prob. 925 using Castiglianos theorem.

Set M = 0
L

A B a a

uC =

0 L a

Ma

dM dx b dM EI (Px2)(1)dx2 EI 0 L Ans.
a

1 (Px1)(a x1)dx1

0 L 2

EI

Pa Pa2 5Pa2 + = 3EI 2EI 6EI

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927. Determine the slope at point A. EI is constant. Use the method of virtual work.
A B a a

1 # uA = uA =

0 L

muM dx EI Ans.

a a x1 1 Pa2 a1 b (Px1)dx1 + (0)(Px2)dx2 d = c a EI L 6EI 0 0 L

*928.

Solve Prob. 927 using Castiglianos theorem.

0 M1 x1 = 1 a 0M Set M = 0 M1 = - Px1
L

0 M2 = 0 0M

A B a a

M2 = Px2
a a x1 0 M dx 1 b = c ( - Px1) a 1 b dx1 + (Px2)(0)dx2 d a 0 M EI EI L 0 L 0

uA =

0 L

Ma

- Pa2 6EI Pa2 6EI Ans.

325

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929. Determine the slope and displacement at point C. Use the method of virtual work. E = 29(103) ksi, I = 800 in4.

6k A B C 12 kft

6 ft

6 ft

Referring to the virtual moment functions indicated in Fig. a and b and the real moment function in Fig. c, we have 1k # ft # uc =
6 ft 6 ft ( - 1)3 - (6x + 12)] ( - 1)( - 12) muM 2 dx = dx1 + dx2 EI EI EI 0 0 0 L L L L

252 k2 # ft3 EI Ans.

uc = and

252(122) k # in2 252 k # ft2 = 0.00156 rad = EI [29(103) k> in2](800 in4) mM dx = 0 EI 0 L L =
L 6 ft

1k # C =

6 ft ([ - (x + 6)]3 - (6x + 12)] ( - x1)( - 12) 2 2 dx1 + dx2 EI EI 0 L

1944 k2 # ft3 EI T Ans.

C =

1944(123) k # in3 1944 k # ft3 = 0.415 in = EI [29(103) k> in2](800 in4)

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930.

Solve Prob. 929 using Castiglianos theorem.


A

6k B C 12 kft

6 ft

6 ft

0 M1 = - 1 and For the slope, the moment functions are shown in Fig. a. Here, 0M 0 M2 = - 1. Also, set M = 12 kft, then M1 = - 12 k # ft and 0M M2 = - (6x2 + 12) k # ft. Thus,
L

uc = uc =

0 L

Ma

0 M dx b = 0 M EI 0 L

6 ft

6 ft ( - 12)( - 1) - (6x2 + 12( - 1) dx2 + dx2 EI EI 0 L

252(122) k # in2 252 k # ft2 = 0.00156 rad = EI [29(103 k> in2](800 in4)

Ans.

0 M1 For the displacement, the moment functions are shown in Fig. b. Here, = - x1 0P 0 M2 and = - (x2 + 6). Also set, P = 0, then M1 = - 12 k # ft and 0P M2 = - (6x2 + 12) k # ft. Thus,
L

C =

0 L

0 M dx b = 0 P EI 0 L =

6 ft

6 ft ( - 12)( - x1) - (6x2 + 12)[ - (x2 + 6)] dx1 + dx2 EI EI 0 L

1944 k # ft3 EI [29(103) k> in2](800 in4) 1944(123) k # in3 = 0.145 in T Ans.

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931. Determine the displacement and slope at point C of the cantilever beam. The moment of inertia of each segment is indicated in the figure. Take E = 29(103) ksi. Use the principle of virtual work.

A IAB 500 in.4 6 ft

B IBC 200 in.4 3 ft

C 50 kft

Referring to the virtual moment functions indicated in Fig. a and b and the real moment function in Fig. c, we have 1k # ft # uc = 1k # ft # uc = uc =
3 ft 6 ft ( - 1)( - 50) ( - 1)( - 50) m0M dx1 + dx2 dx = EI EIBC EIAB 0 0 0 L L L L

150 k2 # ft3 300 k2 # ft3 + EIBC EIAB 150 k # ft2 300 k # ft2 + EIBC EIAB + [29(103) k> in2](500 in4) Ans. 300(122) k # in2

[29(103) k> in2](200 in4)

150(122) k # in2

= 0.00670 rad And 1 k # C = 1 k # C = mM dx = 0 EI 0 L L


L 3 ft 6 ft - x1( - 50) - (x2 + 3)( - 50) dx1 + dx2 EIBC EIAB 0 L

225 k2 # ft3 1800 k2 # ft3 + EIBC EIAB 1800 k2 # ft3 225 k # ft3 + EIBC EIAB
2 4

C =

[29(10 ) k> in ](200 in )


3

225(123) k # in3

[29(103) k> in2](500 in4)

1800(123) k # in3

= 0.282 in T

Ans.

328

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*932.

Solve Prob. 931 using Castiglianos theorem.


A IAB 500 in.4 6 ft B IBC 200 in.4 3 ft C 50 kft

For the slope, the moment functions are shown in Fig. a. Here, Also, set M = 50 k # ft, then M1 = M2 = - 50 k # ft. Thus,
L

0 M2 0 M1 = = - 1. 0M 0M

uC =

0 L

Ma

0 M dx b = 0 M EI 0 L

3 ft

6 ft - 50( - 1)dx - 50( - 1)dx + EIBC EIAB 0 L

150 k # ft2 300 k # ft2 + EIBC EIAB [29(103 k> in2)](200 in4) 150(122) k # in2 + [29(103) k> in2](500 in4) Ans. 0 M1 = - x1 0P 300(122) k # in2

= 0.00670 For the displacement, the moment functions are shown in Fig, b. Here, and

0 M2 = - (x2 + 3). Also, set P = 0, then M1 = M2 = - 50 k # ft. Thus, 0P


L 0 L

C =

Ma

0 M dx b = 0 P EI L 0 =

3 ft

6 ft ( - 50)( - x)dx ( - 50)[ - (x2 + 3)]dx + EIBC EIAB 0 L

225 k # ft3 1800 k # ft3 + EIBC EIAB [29(10 ) k> in ](200 in )


3 2 4

225(123) k # in3

[29(103) k> in2](500 in4) Ans.

1800(123) k # in3

= 0.282 in T

329

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933. Determine the slope and displacement at point B. EI is constant. Use the method of virtual work.

400 N 300 N/ m

A 3m

Referring to the virtual moment function indicated in Fig. a and b, and real moment function in Fig. c, we have 1 N # m # uB = 1 N # m # uB = uB = And 1 N # B = mM dx = 0 EI 0 L L 1 N # B =
L 3 m ( - x)3 - (150x2 3m ( - 1)[ - (150x2 + 400x)] m0M dx = dx EI EI 0 0 L L L

3150 N2 # m3 EI 3150 N # m2 EI + 400x)4 Ans.

EI

6637.5 N2 # m3 EI 6637.5 N # m3 EI T Ans.

B =

330

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934.

Solve Prob. 933 using Castiglianos theorem.


300 N/ m

400 N

A 3m

For the slope, the moment function is shown in Fig. a. Here, Also, set M = 0, then M = - (150x2 + 400x) N # m. Thus,
L

0M = - 1. 0M

uB =

0 L

Ma

0 M dx b = 0 M EI 0 L

3m

- (150x2 + 400x)( - 1) dx EI Ans. 0M = - x. 0P

3150 N # m2 EI

For the displacement, the moment function is shown in Fig. b. Here, Also, set P = 400 N, then M = (400x + 150x2) N # m. Thus,
L

B =

0 L

Ma

0 M dx b = 0 P EI 0 L

3m

- (400x + 150x2)( - x) dx EI Ans.

6637.5 N # m3 T EI

331

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935. Determine the slope and displacement at point B. Assume the support at A is a pin and C is a roller. Take E = 29(103) ksi, I = 300 in4. Use the method of virtual work.
A 10 ft

4 k/ ft

B 5 ft

Referring to the virtual moment functions shown in Fig. a and b and the real moment function shown in Fig. c, 1 k # ft # uB =
10 ft (0.06667x1)(30x1 - 2x2 muM 1)dx1 dx = EI EI 0 0 L L 5 ft L

+ 1 k # ft # uB = uB = And 1 k # B = mM dx = 0 EI 0 L L
L 10 ft

0 L

( - 0.06667x2)(30x2 - 2x2 2) dx2 EI

270.83 k EI

# ft3
Ans.

270.83(122) k # in2 270.83 k # ft2 = 0.00448 rad = EI 329(103) k> in24(300 in4) (0.3333x1)(30x1 - 2x2 1)dx1 EI
5 ft

+ 1 k # B = 2291.67 k # ft3 EI

0 L

(0.6667x2)(30x2 - 2x2 2)dx2 EI

B =

2291.67(123) k # in3 2291.67 k # ft3 = 0 # 455 in T = EI 329(103) k> in24(300 in4)

Ans.

332

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*936.

Solve Prob. 935 using Castiglianos theorem.

4 k/ ft

A 10 ft

B 5 ft

For the slope, the moment functions are shown in Fig. a. Here, 0 M1 0 M2 = 0.06667x1 and = 0.06667x2. Also, set M = 0, then 0M 0M
2 # # M1 = (30x1 - 2x2 1) k ft and M2 = (30x2 - 2x2) k ft. Thus, L

uB =

0 L

Ma

M dx b = M EI L 0

10 ft

(30x1 - 2x2 1)(0.06667x1)dx1 EI


5 ft

+ 270.83 k # ft2 = EI =

L 0

(30x2 - 2x2 2)(0.06667x2)dx2 EI = 0.00448 rad Ans.

[29(103)k> in2](300 in4)

270.83(122) k # in2

For the displacement, the moment fractions are shown in Fig. b. Here, 0 M1 0 M2 = 0.3333x1 and = 0.6667x2. Also, set P = 0, then 0p 0P 2 # # M1 = (30x1 - 2x2 1) k ft and M2 = (30x2 - 2x2) k ft. Thus
L

B =

0 L

Ma

0 M dx b = 0 P EI L 0

10 ft

30x1 - 2x2 1(0.3333x1)dx1 EI


5 ft

+ 2291.67 k # ft3 = EI =

L 0

(30x2 - 2x2 2)(0.6667x2)dx2 EI = 0.455 in T Ans.

[29(103)k> in2](300 in4)

2291.67(123) k # in3

333

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937. Determine the slope and displacement at point B. Assume the support at A is a pin and C is a roller. Account for the additional strain energy due to shear. Take E = 29(103) ksi, I = 300 in4, G = 12(103) ksi, and assume AB has a cross-sectional area of A = 7.50 in2. Use the method of virtual work.

4 k/ ft

A 10 ft

B 5 ft

The virtual shear and moment functions are shown in Fig. a and b and the real shear and moment functions are shown in Fig. c. 1 k # ft # uB =
L muM nV ka dx + b dx EI GA 0 0 L L 10 ft 10 ft 0.06667x1(30x1 - 2x2 0.06667(30 - 4x1) 1) 1c dx1 + d dx1 EI GA 0 L 5 ft ( - 0.06667x2(30x2 - 2x2 0.06667(4x2 - 30) 2) dx2 + 1c d dx2 EI GA 0 L L

0 L

5 ft

0 L

270.83 k2 # ft3 + 0 EI Ans.

uB = And

270.83(122) k # in2 270.83 k # ft2 = 0.00448 rad = EI [29(103)k> in2(300 in4)] mM nV dx + ka b dx EI GA 0 0 L L


10 ft 0 L 10 ft (0.3333x1)(30x1 - 2x2 0.3333(30 - 4x1) 1) dx1 + 1c d dx1 EI GA 0 L 5 ft L L

1 k # B =

0 L

5 ft (0.6667x2)(30x2 - 2x2 ( - 0.6667)(4x2 - 30) 2) dx2 + 1c d dx2 EI GA 0 L

100 k2 # ft 2291.67 k2 # ft3 + EI GA 2291.67 k # ft3 100 k # ft + EI GA [29(10 ) k> in ](300 in )


3 2 4

B =

2291.67(123)k # in3

[12(103) k> in2](7.50 in2) Ans.

100(12) k # in

= 0.469 in T

334

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937.

Continued

335

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938. Determine the displacement of point C. Use the method of virtual work. EI is constant.

w0

A L __ 2 C L __ 2

Referring to the virtual and real moment functions shown in Fig. a and b, respectively, w0 3 1 w0L a ba x x b 2 4 3 L mM = dx = 2 dx EI 0 EI L L 0
L
L 2

1 # C

C =

w0L4 120EI

Ans.

336

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939.

Solve Prob. 938 using Castiglianos theorem.

w0

A L __ 2 C L __ 2

0M 1 The moment function is shown in Fig. a. Here = x. Also, set P = 0, then 0 P 2 w0L w0 3 M = xx . Thus 4 3L
L

C =

0 L

Ma

0 M dx b = 2 0 P EI L 0 T

L 2

w0 3 1 w0L x x b a xb 4 3L 2 dx EI Ans.

w0L4 120EI

337

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*940. Determine the slope and displacement at point A. Assume C is pinned. Use the principle of virtual work. EI is constant.
A B 3m

6 kN/ m

C 3m

Referring to the virtual moment functions shown in Fig. a and b and the real moment functions in Fig. c, we have 1 kN # m # uA =
3m ( - 1)( - 0.3333x3 muM 1) dx = dx1 EI EI 0 0 L L 3m L

+ 1 kN # m # uA = uA = And 1 kN # A = 1 kN # A = 9 kN EI
2

0 L

(0.3333x2)(6x2 - 3x2 2) dx2 EI

# m3
Ans.

9 kN # m2 EI

mM dx = 0 EI 0 L L 22.95 kN2 # m3 EI

3m

3m ( - x1)( - 0.3333x3 ( - x2)(6x2 - 3x2 1) 2) dx1 + dx2 EI EI 0 L

A =

22.95 kN # m3 T EI

Ans.

338

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941.

Solve Prob. 940 using Castiglianos theorem.

6 kN/ m

A B 3m 3m C

0 M1 = -1 The slope, the moment functions are shown in Fig. a. Here, 0M 0 M2 2 = - 0.3333x2. Also, set M = 0, then M1 = 0.3333x3 and 1 and M2 = 6x2 3x2. Thus 0M L 3m 3m ( - 0.3333x3 (6x2 - 3x2 0 M dx 1)( - 1) 2)(0.3333x2) Ma uA = b = dx1 + dx2 0 M EI EI EI 0 0 0 L L L uA = 9 kN # m2 EI Ans.

0 M1 = - x1 and The displacement, the moment functions are shown in Fig. b. Here, 0P 0 M2 2 = - x2. Also, set P = 0, then M1 = - 0.3333x3 1 and M2 = 6x2 - 3x2. Thus 0P L 3m 3m ( - 0.3333x3 (6x2 - 3x2 0 M dx 1)( - x1) 2)( - x2) A = Ma b = dx1 + dx2 0 P EI EI EI 0 0 0 L L L = 22.95 kN # m3 T EI Ans.

339

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942. Determine the displacement at point D. Use the principle of virtual work. EI is constant.

8k 3 k/ ft

A 4 ft 4 ft

B 4 ft

D 4 ft

Referring to the virtual and real moment functions shown in Fig. a and b, respectively, 1 k # D = mM dx = 0 EI 0 L L
L 4 ft 4 ft ( - 0.5x1)( - 12x1) [ - 0.5(x2 + 4)][ - (20x2 + 48)] dx1 + dx2 EI EI 0 L 4 ft

+ 2 1 k # D =

0 L

( - 0.5x3)(12x3 - 1.50x2 3) dx3 EI

1397.33 k2 # ft3 EI 1397 k # ft3 T EI Ans.

D =

340

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943. Determine the displacement at point D. Use Castiglianos theorem. EI is constant.

8k 3 k/ ft

A 4 ft 4 ft

B 4 ft

D 4 ft

The moment functions are shown in Fig. a. Here,

0 M1 = - 0.5x, 0P

0 M3 0 M2 = - (0.5x2 + 2) and = 0.5x3. Also set P = 0, 0P 0P M1 = - 12x1, M2 = - (20x2 + 48) and M3 = 12x3 - 1.50x2 3. Thus,
L

D =

0 L

Ma

0 M dx b = 0 P EI 0 L

4 ft

( - 12x1)( - 0.5x1) dx1 EI


4 ft 0 L

[ - (20x2 + 48)][ - (0.5x2 + 2)] dx2 EI (12x3 - 1.50x2 3)(0.5x3) dx3 EI Ans.

4 ft

+ 2

0 L

1397 k # ft3 1397.33 k # ft3 = T EI EI

341

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*944. Use the method of virtual work and determine the vertical deflection at the rocker support D. EI is constant.
A

600 lb 10 ft B

8 ft

( D)x =

mM dx = 0 L L 0 EI =

Lo

L (10)(750x)dx (x)(600x)dx + + 0 EI EI L 0

D C

440 k # ft3 T EI

Ans.

945.

Solve Prob. 944 using Castiglianos theorem.


A

600 lb 10 ft B

8 ft

Set P = 0, ( D)v =
10 1 (600x)(x)dx (750x)(10)dx M 0M a b dx = + + 0 EI EI 0 EI 0 P 0 0 L L L L

D C

440 k # ft3 T = EI

Ans.

342

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946. The L-shaped frame is made from two segments, each of length L and flexural stiffness EI. If it is subjected to the uniform distributed load, determine the horizontal displacement of the end C. Use the method of virtual work.

C w L

1 # Ch =

mM dx 0 EI L
L L

A B L

Ch

wx2 l wL2 1 = c (1x1) a b dx1 + (1L) a b dx2 d EI L 2 2 0 0 L = 5wL4 8EI Ans.

947. The L-shaped frame is made from two segments, each of length L and flexural stiffness EI. If it is subjected to the uniform distributed load, determine the vertical displacement of point B. Use the method of virtual work.

C w L

A B L

l # Bv =

mM dx 0 EI L wx2 l wL2 1 c (0) a b dx1 + (L - x2) a b dx2 d EI L 2 2 0 0 L wL4 4EI Ans.


L L

Bv =

343

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*948.

Solve Prob. 947 using Castiglianos theorem.


w

A B L

P does not influence moment within vertical segment. M = Px 0M = x 0P Set P = 0


L

wL2 2

B =

0 L

Ma

0 M dx wL4 wL2 dx b = ab (x) = 0 P EI 2 EI 4EI 0 L

Ans.

949. Determine the horizontal displacement of point C. EI is constant. Use the method of virtual work.

400 lb/ ft

A 10 ft

8 ft

Referring to the virtual and real moment functions shown in Fig. a and b, respectively, 1 k # Ch = 1 k # Ch = Ch = mM dx = 0 EI 0 L L 1147.73 k2 # ft3 EI 1148 k # ft3 ; EI Ans.
L 8 ft

200 lb/ ft

( - x1)(0.1x2 1) EI

10 ft

dx1 +

( - 8)[ - (0.2x2 2 EI

+ 6.40)]

0 L

dx2

344

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949.

Continued

950.

Solve Prob. 949 using Castiglianos theorem.

400 lb/ ft

A 10 ft

8 ft

0 M1 0 M2 = - x1 and = - 8. Also, 0P 0P 2 2 set P = 0, then M1 = - 0.1x1 and M2 = - (0.2x2 + 6.40). The moment functions are shown in Fig. a. Here, Thus,
L

200 lb/ ft

Ch =

0 L

Ma

0 M dx b = 0 P EI L 0 =

8 ft

10 ft ( - 0.1x2 [ - (0.2x2 1)( - x1) 2 + 6.40)]( - 8) dx1 + dx2 EI EI 0 L

1147.73 k # ft3 1148 k # ft3 = ; EI EI

Ans.

345

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951. Determine the vertical deflection at C. The crosssectional area and moment of inertia of each segment is shown in the figure. Take E = 200 GPa. Assume A is a fixed support. Use the method of virtual work.

ABC 6.5(103) mm2 IBC 100(106) mm4 AAB 18(10 ) mm IAB 400(106) mm4
3 2

C 1m

50 kN

A 3m

( C)v =

3 (3 - x)(50)(103)dx mM + 0 dx = EIAB 0 EI 0 L L

3150(103)x - 25(103)x243 0 EIAB 225(103) 200(109)(400)(106)(10 - 12) Ans.

= 2.81 mm T

*952. Solve Prob. 951, including the effect of shear and axial strain energy.

ABC 6.5(103) mm2 IBC 100(106) mm4 AAB 18(10 ) mm IAB 400(106) mm4
3 2

C 1m

50 kN

A 3m

See Prob. 951 for the effect of bending. nV nNL + Ka b dx U = a AE GA 0 L Note that each term is zero since n and N or v and V do not occur simultaneously in each member. Hence, ( C)v = 2.81 mm T Ans
L

346

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953.

Solve Prob. 951 using Castiglianos theorem.

ABC 6.5(103) mm2 IBC 100(106) mm4 AAB 18(10 ) mm IAB 400(106) mm4
3 2

C 1m

50 kN

A 3m

( C)v =

3 (50)(103)(3 - x)dx M 0M + 0 a b dx = 0P EIAB 0 EI 0 L L

3150(103)x - 25(103)x243 0 EIAB 225(103) 200(109)(400)(106)(10 - 12) Ans.

= 2.81 mm T

954. Determine the slope at A. Take E = 29(103) ksi. The moment of inertia of each segment of the frame is indicated in the figure. Assume D is a pin support. Use the method of virtual work.

12 k 5 ft B IBC 900 in.


4

5 ft C

IAB 600 in.4 12 ft ICD 600 in.4

uA =

5 5 (1 - 0.1x)(6x)dx (0.1x)(6x)dx muM dx = + + 0 + 0 EI EIBC EIBC 0 0 0 L L L

(75 - 25 + 25) 75(144) = 0.414(10 - 3) rad = EIBC 29(103)(900)

Ans.

347

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955.

Solve Prob. 954 using Castiglianos theorem.


5 ft B

12 k 5 ft C IBC 900 in.4

IAB 600 in.4 12 ft ICD 600 in.4

Set M = 0, uA =
5 5 (6x)(1 - 0.1x)dx (6x)(0.1x)dx M 0M + + 0 + 0 a b dx = EI 0 M EI EIBC 0 0 0 L L L BC L

(75 - 25 + 25) 75(144) = 0.414(10 - 3) rad Ans. = EI 0 C 29(103)(900)

*956. Use the method of virtual work and determine the horizontal deflection at C. The cross-sectional area of each member is indicated in the figure. Assume the members are pin connected at their end points. E = 29(103) ksi.

2k B

1 in.2

5k

4 ft 2 in.2

1 in.2 2 in.2

3 ft

(1)(5)(3)(12) ( - 8.33)( - 1.667)(5)(12) 1.33(4.667)(4)(12) nNL + + 0 + = ( c)h = a AE 2(29)(103) (1)(29)(103) (1)(29)(103) = 0.0401 in. : Ans.

348

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957.

Solve Prob. 956 using Castiglianos theorem.


B

2k

1 in.2

5k

Member AB BC BD CD Set P = 0, ( c)h = N a

N force 1.33P + 4.667 P+5 -1.667P - 8.33 0

0N 0P 1.33 1 -1.667 0

4 ft 2 in.2

1 in.2 2 in.2

(5)(1)(3)(12) (4.667)(1.33)(4)(12) 0N L + + 0 b = 3 0 P AE 2(29)(10 ) (1)(29)(103) ( - 8.33)( - 1.667)(5)(12) + = 0.0401 in. : (1)(29)(103) Ans.
A D

3 ft

958. Use the method of virtual work and determine the horizontal deflection at C. E is constant. There is a pin at A, and assume C is a roller and B is a fixed joint.

400 lb/ ft B 6 ft 10 ft

A
4 10 (0.541x)(1849.17x - 200x2)dx (0.325x)(389.5x)dx mM dx = + EI EI EI 0 0 0 L L L L

45

( c)h =

1 3 10 c (333.47x3 - 27.05x4)|6 0 + (42.15x )|0 d EI 79.1k.ft3 : EI Ans.

349

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959.

Solve Prob. 958 using Castiglianos theorem.


B

400 lb/ ft

C 6 ft

10 ft

Set P = 0.
L

45

( c)h =

4 10 (1849.17x - 200x2)(0.541x)dx (389.5x)(0.325x)dx M 0M a b dx = + EI 0 P EI EI 0 0 0 L L L

1 3 10 c (333.47x3 - 27.5x4)|6 0 + (42.15x )|0 d EI 79.1k.ft3 : EI Ans.

*960. The frame is subjected to the load of 5 k. Determine the vertical displacement at C. Assume that the members are pin connected at A, C, and E, and fixed connected at the knee joints B and D. EI is constant. Use the method of virtual work.

6 ft D 5k

10 ft

8 ft

8 ft

( c)v =

(0.25x)(1.25x)dx ( - 0.25x)( - 1.25x)dx mM dx = 2 c + d EI EI EI 0 0 0 L L L = 1.25(103) 4.17 k # ft3 = T 3EI EI Ans.

10

10

350

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961. Solve Prob. 960 using Castiglianos theorem.

6 ft D 5k

10 ft

8 ft

8 ft

Set P = 5 k. ( c)v =
10 10 (1.25x)(0.25x) dx ( - 1.25x)( - 0.25x) dx M 0M a b dx = 2 c + d EI EI 0 EI 0 P 0 0 L L L L

1.25(103) 4.17 k # ft3 = T 3EI EI

Ans.

351