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91. Determine the vertical displacement of joint A. Each bar is made of steel and has a cross-sectional area of 600 mm2. Take E = 200 GPa. Use the method of virtual work.

2m

A D 1.5 m 1.5 m

The virtual forces and real forces in each member are shown in Fig. a and b, respectively.

5 kN

## = 0.53646 (10 - 3) m = 0.536 mm T

308

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92.

B

2m

Na

5 kN

D 1.5 m 1.5 m

## = 0.53646 (10 - 3) m = 0.536 mm T

*93. Determine the vertical displacement of joint B. For each member A 400 mm2, E 200 GPa. Use the method of virtual work.

1.5 m

Member AF AE AB EF EB ED BC BD CD

A B 45 kN 2m 2m

## nNL 1 # Bv = a AE 270(103) Bv = 400(10 - 6)(200)(109) = 3.375(10 - 3) m = 3.38 mm T Ans.

309

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*94.

## Solve Prob. 93 using Castiglianos theorem.

1.5 m

A B 45 kN 2m 2m

Member AF AE AB BE BD BC CD DE EF

Na

0N bL 0P

## 0N L 270 dBv = a N a b = 0 P AE AE 270(103) = 400(10 - 6)(200)(109) = 3.375(10 - 3) m = 3.38 mm Ans.

95. Determine the vertical displacement of joint E. For each member A 400 mm2, E 200 GPa. Use the method of virtual work.

1.5 m

A B 45 kN

C 2m

Member AF AE AB EF EB ED BC BD CD

2m

## nNL 1 # Ev = a AE Ev = 236.25(103) 400(10 - 6)(200)(109) = 2.95(10 - 3) m = 2.95 mm T Ans.

310

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96.

## Solve Prob. 95 using Castiglianos theorem.

1.5 m

A B 45 kN 2m 2m

Member AF AE AB BE BD BC CD DE EF

N 0 -(0.8333P + 37.5) 0.6667P + 30 22.5 - 0.5P 0.8333P + 37.5 0 -(0.5P + 22.5) -(0.6667P + 30) 0

Na

0N bL 0P

0N Ev = a N 0P =

## 236.25(103) 400(10 - 6)(200)(109)

97. Determine the vertical displacement of joint D. Use the method of virtual work. AE is constant. Assume the members are pin connected at their ends.

3m

A B C 4m 15 kN 20 kN 4m

The virtual and real forces in each member are shown in Fig. a and b, respectively Member AB BC AD BD CD CE DE n(kN) 0.6667 0.6667 -0.8333 0 -0.8333 0.500 0 N(kN) 10.0 10.0 -12.5 15.0 -12.5 27.5 0 L(m) 4 4 5 3 5 3 4 nNL 198.75 kN2 # m = 1 kN # Dv = a AE AE Dv = 198.75 kN # m 199 kN # m = AE AE T Ans. nNL(kN2 m) 26.667 26.667 52.083 0 52.083 41.25 0 198.75

311

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97.

Continued

*98.

## Solve Prob. 97 using Castiglianos theorem.

3m

A B 4m 15 kN 4m 20 kN C

Member AB BC AD BD CD CE DE

N (kN) 0.6667P + 10.0 0.6667P + 10.0 -(0.8333P + 12.5) 15.0 -(0.8333P + 12.5) 0.5P + 27.5 0

## N(P = 0) kN 10.0 10.0 -12.5 15.0 -12.5 27.5 0

L(m) 4 4 5 3 5 3 4

Na

0N b L (kN m) 0P

## 0N L b Dv = a N a 0 P AE 198.75 kN # m 199 kN # m = AE AE Ans.

312

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99. Determine the vertical displacement of the truss at joint F. Assume all members are pin connected at their end points. Take A 0.5 in2 and E 29(103) ksi for each member. Use the method of virtual work.

500 lb 300 lb 3 ft F E 3 ft D

3 ft

C A B

600 lb

L nNL = [( - 1.00)( - 600)(3) + (1.414)(848.5)(4.243) + ( - 1.00)(0)(3) Fv = a AE AE + ( - 1.00)( - 1100)(3) + (1.414)(1555.6)(4.243) + ( - 2.00)( - 1700)(3) + ( - 1.00)( - 1400)(3) + ( - 1.00)( - 1100)(3) + ( - 2.00)( - 1700)(3)](12) 47425.0(12) = 0.5(29)(106) = 0.0392 in. T Ans.

910.

## Solve Prob. 99 using Castiglianos theorem.

500 lb 300 lb 3 ft F E 3 ft D

3 ft

C A B

600 lb

0N L 1 b = Fv = a N a [ - (P + 600)]( - 1)(3) + (1.414P + 848.5)(1.414)(4.243) 0 P AE AE + ( - P)( - 1)(3) + ( - (P + 1100))( - 1)(3) + (1.414P + 1555.6)(1.414)(4.243) + ( - (2P + 1700)) ( - 2)(3) + ( - (P + 1400)( - 1)(3) + ( - (P + 1100))( - 1)(3) (55.97P + 47.425.0)(12) + ( - (2P + 1700))( - 2)(3)](12) = (0.5(29(10)6) Set P = 0 and evaluate Fv = 0.0392 in. T Ans.

313

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911. Determine the vertical displacement of joint A. The cross-sectional area of each member is indicated in the figure. Assume the members are pin connected at their end points. E 29 (10)3 ksi. Use the method of virtual work.

2 in2

2 in2 3 in A 3 in2 4 ft 7k
2

2 in2

3 in2 4 ft

B 3 in2 4 ft 3k C

The virtual force and real force in each member are shown in Fig. a and b, respectively.

Member AB BC AD BD CD CE DE

## N(k) -7.00 -7.00 7 22 -14.00 7 22 -4.00 0

L(ft) 4 4 4 22 4 4 22 4 4

## nNL(k2 ft) 28 28 56 22 112 56 22 16 0

nNL 1 k # Av = a AE 1 k # Av = (29 + 28 + 112 + 16)k2 # ft (3in2)[29(103) k> in2] + (56 22 + 56 22) k2 # ft (2in2)[29(103) k> in2]

Av = 0.004846 ft a

12 in b = 0.0582 in. T 1 ft

Ans.

314

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*912.

## Solve Prob. 911 using Castiglianos theorem.

2 in2

2 in2 3 in A 3 in
2 2

2 in2

3 in2 4 ft

B 3 in2 4 ft 3k C

4 ft 7k

Member AB BC AD BD CD CE DE

## N(k) -P -P 22P -2P 22P -(P - 3) 0

0N 0P -1 -1 22 -2 22 -1 0

## N1P = 7k2 -7 -7 7 22 -14 7 22 -4 0

L(ft) 4 4 4 22 4 4 22 4 4

Na

0N b L(k # ft) 0P

28 28 56 22 112 56 22 16 0

## dN L b Av = a N a dP AE (28 + 28 + 112 + 16) k # ft = (3 in2)[29(103)k> m2] + = 0.004846 ft a 56 22 + 56 22 k2 # ft (2 in2)[29(103)k> in2] Ans.

12 in b = 0.0582 in T 1 ft

315

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913. Determine the horizontal displacement of joint D. Assume the members are pin connected at their end points. AE is constant. Use the method of virtual work.

8m D 2k

6 ft C

3k

The virtual force and real force in each member are shown in Fig. a and b, respectively.
A B

6 ft

Member AC BC BD CD

L(ft) 6 10 12 10

nNL(k2

# ft)

## nNL 1k # Dh = a AE 1k # Dh = 170.125 k2 # ft AE 170 k # ft : AE Ans.

Dh =

316

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914.

## Solve Prob. 913 using Castiglianos theorem.

8m D 2k

6 ft C

3k

6 ft

Member AC BC BD CD

L(ft) 6 10 12 10

Na

## dN L b Dh = a N a dP AE = 170.125 k # ft AE 170 k # ft : AE Ans.

317

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915. Determine the vertical displacement of joint C of the truss. Each member has a cross-sectional area of A = 300 mm2. E = 200 GPa. Use the method of virtual work.
A 4m

F 3m

B 4m 3 kN

C 4m 4 kN

D 4m 3 kN

The virtual and real forces in each member are shown in Fig. a and b respectively.

Member AB DE BC CD AH EF BH DF BG DG GH FG CG

n(kN) 0.6667 0.6667 1.333 1.333 -0.8333 -0.8333 0.5 0.5 -0.8333 -0.8333 -0.6667 -0.6667 1

N(kN) 6.667 6.667 9.333 9.333 -8.333 -8.333 5 5 -3.333 -3.333 -6.6667 -6.6667 4

L(m) 4 4 4 4 5 5 3 3 5 5 4 4 3

nNL(kN2 m) 17.78 17.78 49.78 49.78 34.72 34.72 7.50 7.50 13.89 13.89 17.78 17.78 12.00 = 294.89

nNL 294.89 kN2 # m 1kN # Cv = a = AE AE Cv = 294.89 kN # m AE [0.3(10 - 3) m2][200(109) N> m2] T Ans. 294.89(103) N # m

= 0.004914 m = 4.91 mm

318

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*916.

## Solve Prob. 915 using Castiglianos theorem.

F 3m

A 4m

B 4m 3 kN

C 4m 4 kN

D 4m 3 kN

Member AB DE BC CD AH EF BH DF BG DG GH FG CG

N(kN) 0.6667P + 4 0.6667P + 4 1.333P + 4 1.333P + 4 -(0.8333P + 5) -(0.8333P + 5) 0.5P + 3 0.5P + 3 -0.8333P -0.8333P -(0.6667P + 4) -(0.6667P + 4) P

0N 0P 0.6667 0.6667 1.333 1.333 -0.8333 -0.8333 0.5 0.5 -0.8333 -0.8333 -0.6667 -0.6667 1

N1P = 4 kN2 6.667 6.667 9.333 9.333 -8.333 -8.333 5 5 -3.333 -3.333 -6.667 -6.667 4

L(m) 4 4 4 4 5 5 3 3 5 5 4 4 3

Na

0N b L (k # m) 0P 17.78 17.78 49.78 49.78 34.72 34.72 7.50 7.50 13.89 13.89 17.78 17.78 12.00 294.89

## 0N L 294.89 kN # m Cv = a N a b = 0 P AE AE = [0.3(10-3) m2][200(109) N> m2] Ans. 294.89(103) N # m

= 0.004914 m = 4.91 mm T

319

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917. Determine the vertical displacement of joint A. Assume the members are pin connected at their end points. Take A = 2 in2 and E = 29 (103) for each member. Use the method of virtual work.

E 8 ft

A 8 ft 1000 lb B 500 lb 8 ft C

1 nNL Av = a = [2( - 2.00)( - 2.00)(8) + (2.236)(2.236)(8.944) + (2.236)(2.795)(8.944)] AE AE 164.62(12) = (2)(29)(103) = 0.0341 in. T Ans.

918.

## Solve Prob. 917 using Castiglianos theorem.

E 8 ft

0N L 1 Av = a N a b = [ - 2P( - 2)(8) + (2.236P)(2.236)(8.944) 0 P AE AE + ( - 2P)( - 2)(8) + (2.236P + 0.5590)(2.236)(8.944)](12) Set P = 1 and evaluate 164.62(12) Av = (2)(29)(103) = 0.0341 in. T

A 8 ft 1000 lb B 500 lb 8 ft C

Ans.

320

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919. Determine the vertical displacement of joint A if members AB and BC experience a temperature increase of T = 200F. Take A = 2 in2 and E = 29(103) ksi. Also, a = 6.60 (10 - 6)> F.

E 8 ft

A 8 ft B 8 ft C

## Av = a na TL = ( - 2)(6.60)(10-6)(200)(8)(12) + ( - 2)(6.60)(10-6)(200)(8)(12) = - 0.507 in. = 0.507 in. c Ans.

*920. Determine the vertical displacement of joint A if member AE is fabricated 0.5 in. too short.
E

8 ft

A 8 ft B 8 ft C

## Av = a n L = (2.236)( - 0.5) = - 1.12 in = 1.12 in. c Ans.

321

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921. Determine the displacement of point C and the slope at point B. EI is constant. Use the principle of virtual work.

C L 2 L 2

Real Moment function M(x): As shown on figure (a). Virtual Moment Functions m(x) and mu(x): As shown on figure (b) and (c). Virtual Work Equation: For the displacement at point C, 1# = mM dx EI 0 L
1 x1 P 1 a b a x1 b dx1 d EI L 2 2 0 L

1 # C = 2 c C =

PL3 48 EI

Ans.

## For the slope at B, 1#u = 1 # uB muM dx EI 0 L

L L

1 2 x1 P x2 P 1 = c a b a x1 b dx1 + a1 b a x2 b dx2 d EI L L 2 L 2 0 L 0

uB =

PL2 16EI

Ans.

922.

## Solve Prob. 921 using Castiglianos theorem.

B L 2

Internal Moment Function M(x): The internal moment function in terms of the load P' and couple moment M' and externally applied load are shown on figures (a) and (b), respectively. Castiglianos Second Theorem: The displacement at C can be determined with 0 M(x) x = = and set P = P. 0P 2 L 0 M dx = b Ma 0 P EI 0 L
1 1 P x = 2c a x b a b dx d EI L 2 2 0 L

L 2

PL3 48EI

## To determine the slope at B, with setting M = 0.

L

u =

0 L

Ma
L

0 M dx b 0 M EI
L

uB =

1 2 x1 x2 1 P 1 P a x1 b a b dx1 + a x2 b a 1 b dx2 EI L 2 L EI L 2 L 0 0

## PL2 16EI 322

Ans.

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923. Determine the displacement at point C. EI is constant. Use the method of virtual work.
A B a a

1 # C =

a a

C =

*924.

## Solve Prob. 923 using Castiglianos theorem.

A B a a

0 M1 = x1 0P Set P = P M1 = Px1
L

0 M2 = x2 0P

## M2 = Px2 0M 1 b dx = c (Px1)(x1)dx1 + (Px2)(x2)dx2 d 0P EI L 0 0 L Ans.

a a

C =

0 L

Ma

2Pa3 3EI

323

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925. Determine the slope at point C. EI is constant. Use the method of virtual work.
A B a a

1 # uC =

0 L a

muMdx EI

uC =

Ans.

926.

## Solve Prob. 925 using Castiglianos theorem.

Set M = 0
L

A B a a

uC =

0 L a

Ma

dM dx b dM EI (Px2)(1)dx2 EI 0 L Ans.
a

1 (Px1)(a x1)dx1

0 L 2

EI

## Pa Pa2 5Pa2 + = 3EI 2EI 6EI

324

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927. Determine the slope at point A. EI is constant. Use the method of virtual work.
A B a a

1 # uA = uA =

0 L

muM dx EI Ans.

*928.

## Solve Prob. 927 using Castiglianos theorem.

0 M1 x1 = 1 a 0M Set M = 0 M1 = - Px1
L

0 M2 = 0 0M

A B a a

M2 = Px2
a a x1 0 M dx 1 b = c ( - Px1) a 1 b dx1 + (Px2)(0)dx2 d a 0 M EI EI L 0 L 0

uA =

0 L

Ma

## - Pa2 6EI Pa2 6EI Ans.

325

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929. Determine the slope and displacement at point C. Use the method of virtual work. E = 29(103) ksi, I = 800 in4.

6k A B C 12 kft

6 ft

6 ft

Referring to the virtual moment functions indicated in Fig. a and b and the real moment function in Fig. c, we have 1k # ft # uc =
6 ft 6 ft ( - 1)3 - (6x + 12)] ( - 1)( - 12) muM 2 dx = dx1 + dx2 EI EI EI 0 0 0 L L L L

## 252 k2 # ft3 EI Ans.

uc = and

252(122) k # in2 252 k # ft2 = 0.00156 rad = EI [29(103) k> in2](800 in4) mM dx = 0 EI 0 L L =
L 6 ft

1k # C =

C =

## 1944(123) k # in3 1944 k # ft3 = 0.415 in = EI [29(103) k> in2](800 in4)

326

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930.

## Solve Prob. 929 using Castiglianos theorem.

A

6k B C 12 kft

6 ft

6 ft

0 M1 = - 1 and For the slope, the moment functions are shown in Fig. a. Here, 0M 0 M2 = - 1. Also, set M = 12 kft, then M1 = - 12 k # ft and 0M M2 = - (6x2 + 12) k # ft. Thus,
L

uc = uc =

0 L

Ma

0 M dx b = 0 M EI 0 L

6 ft

## 6 ft ( - 12)( - 1) - (6x2 + 12( - 1) dx2 + dx2 EI EI 0 L

252(122) k # in2 252 k # ft2 = 0.00156 rad = EI [29(103 k> in2](800 in4)

Ans.

0 M1 For the displacement, the moment functions are shown in Fig. b. Here, = - x1 0P 0 M2 and = - (x2 + 6). Also set, P = 0, then M1 = - 12 k # ft and 0P M2 = - (6x2 + 12) k # ft. Thus,
L

C =

0 L

0 M dx b = 0 P EI 0 L =

6 ft

## 6 ft ( - 12)( - x1) - (6x2 + 12)[ - (x2 + 6)] dx1 + dx2 EI EI 0 L

1944 k # ft3 EI [29(103) k> in2](800 in4) 1944(123) k # in3 = 0.145 in T Ans.

327

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931. Determine the displacement and slope at point C of the cantilever beam. The moment of inertia of each segment is indicated in the figure. Take E = 29(103) ksi. Use the principle of virtual work.

## B IBC 200 in.4 3 ft

C 50 kft

Referring to the virtual moment functions indicated in Fig. a and b and the real moment function in Fig. c, we have 1k # ft # uc = 1k # ft # uc = uc =
3 ft 6 ft ( - 1)( - 50) ( - 1)( - 50) m0M dx1 + dx2 dx = EI EIBC EIAB 0 0 0 L L L L

150 k2 # ft3 300 k2 # ft3 + EIBC EIAB 150 k # ft2 300 k # ft2 + EIBC EIAB + [29(103) k> in2](500 in4) Ans. 300(122) k # in2

150(122) k # in2

## = 0.00670 rad And 1 k # C = 1 k # C = mM dx = 0 EI 0 L L

L 3 ft 6 ft - x1( - 50) - (x2 + 3)( - 50) dx1 + dx2 EIBC EIAB 0 L

225 k2 # ft3 1800 k2 # ft3 + EIBC EIAB 1800 k2 # ft3 225 k # ft3 + EIBC EIAB
2 4

C =

3

225(123) k # in3

## [29(103) k> in2](500 in4)

1800(123) k # in3

= 0.282 in T

Ans.

328

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*932.

## Solve Prob. 931 using Castiglianos theorem.

A IAB 500 in.4 6 ft B IBC 200 in.4 3 ft C 50 kft

For the slope, the moment functions are shown in Fig. a. Here, Also, set M = 50 k # ft, then M1 = M2 = - 50 k # ft. Thus,
L

0 M2 0 M1 = = - 1. 0M 0M

uC =

0 L

Ma

0 M dx b = 0 M EI 0 L

3 ft

## 6 ft - 50( - 1)dx - 50( - 1)dx + EIBC EIAB 0 L

150 k # ft2 300 k # ft2 + EIBC EIAB [29(103 k> in2)](200 in4) 150(122) k # in2 + [29(103) k> in2](500 in4) Ans. 0 M1 = - x1 0P 300(122) k # in2

= 0.00670 For the displacement, the moment functions are shown in Fig, b. Here, and

## 0 M2 = - (x2 + 3). Also, set P = 0, then M1 = M2 = - 50 k # ft. Thus, 0P

L 0 L

C =

Ma

0 M dx b = 0 P EI L 0 =

3 ft

3 2 4

225(123) k # in3

## [29(103) k> in2](500 in4) Ans.

1800(123) k # in3

= 0.282 in T

329

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933. Determine the slope and displacement at point B. EI is constant. Use the method of virtual work.

400 N 300 N/ m

A 3m

Referring to the virtual moment function indicated in Fig. a and b, and real moment function in Fig. c, we have 1 N # m # uB = 1 N # m # uB = uB = And 1 N # B = mM dx = 0 EI 0 L L 1 N # B =
L 3 m ( - x)3 - (150x2 3m ( - 1)[ - (150x2 + 400x)] m0M dx = dx EI EI 0 0 L L L

EI

## 6637.5 N2 # m3 EI 6637.5 N # m3 EI T Ans.

B =

330

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934.

## Solve Prob. 933 using Castiglianos theorem.

300 N/ m

400 N

A 3m

For the slope, the moment function is shown in Fig. a. Here, Also, set M = 0, then M = - (150x2 + 400x) N # m. Thus,
L

0M = - 1. 0M

uB =

0 L

Ma

0 M dx b = 0 M EI 0 L

3m

## - (150x2 + 400x)( - 1) dx EI Ans. 0M = - x. 0P

3150 N # m2 EI

For the displacement, the moment function is shown in Fig. b. Here, Also, set P = 400 N, then M = (400x + 150x2) N # m. Thus,
L

B =

0 L

Ma

0 M dx b = 0 P EI 0 L

3m

## - (400x + 150x2)( - x) dx EI Ans.

6637.5 N # m3 T EI

331

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935. Determine the slope and displacement at point B. Assume the support at A is a pin and C is a roller. Take E = 29(103) ksi, I = 300 in4. Use the method of virtual work.
A 10 ft

4 k/ ft

B 5 ft

Referring to the virtual moment functions shown in Fig. a and b and the real moment function shown in Fig. c, 1 k # ft # uB =
10 ft (0.06667x1)(30x1 - 2x2 muM 1)dx1 dx = EI EI 0 0 L L 5 ft L

+ 1 k # ft # uB = uB = And 1 k # B = mM dx = 0 EI 0 L L
L 10 ft

0 L

## ( - 0.06667x2)(30x2 - 2x2 2) dx2 EI

270.83 k EI

# ft3
Ans.

270.83(122) k # in2 270.83 k # ft2 = 0.00448 rad = EI 329(103) k> in24(300 in4) (0.3333x1)(30x1 - 2x2 1)dx1 EI
5 ft

+ 1 k # B = 2291.67 k # ft3 EI

0 L

B =

## 2291.67(123) k # in3 2291.67 k # ft3 = 0 # 455 in T = EI 329(103) k> in24(300 in4)

Ans.

332

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*936.

## Solve Prob. 935 using Castiglianos theorem.

4 k/ ft

A 10 ft

B 5 ft

For the slope, the moment functions are shown in Fig. a. Here, 0 M1 0 M2 = 0.06667x1 and = 0.06667x2. Also, set M = 0, then 0M 0M
2 # # M1 = (30x1 - 2x2 1) k ft and M2 = (30x2 - 2x2) k ft. Thus, L

uB =

0 L

Ma

M dx b = M EI L 0

10 ft

## (30x1 - 2x2 1)(0.06667x1)dx1 EI

5 ft

+ 270.83 k # ft2 = EI =

L 0

## [29(103)k> in2](300 in4)

270.83(122) k # in2

For the displacement, the moment fractions are shown in Fig. b. Here, 0 M1 0 M2 = 0.3333x1 and = 0.6667x2. Also, set P = 0, then 0p 0P 2 # # M1 = (30x1 - 2x2 1) k ft and M2 = (30x2 - 2x2) k ft. Thus
L

B =

0 L

Ma

0 M dx b = 0 P EI L 0

10 ft

## 30x1 - 2x2 1(0.3333x1)dx1 EI

5 ft

+ 2291.67 k # ft3 = EI =

L 0

## [29(103)k> in2](300 in4)

2291.67(123) k # in3

333

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937. Determine the slope and displacement at point B. Assume the support at A is a pin and C is a roller. Account for the additional strain energy due to shear. Take E = 29(103) ksi, I = 300 in4, G = 12(103) ksi, and assume AB has a cross-sectional area of A = 7.50 in2. Use the method of virtual work.

4 k/ ft

A 10 ft

B 5 ft

The virtual shear and moment functions are shown in Fig. a and b and the real shear and moment functions are shown in Fig. c. 1 k # ft # uB =
L muM nV ka dx + b dx EI GA 0 0 L L 10 ft 10 ft 0.06667x1(30x1 - 2x2 0.06667(30 - 4x1) 1) 1c dx1 + d dx1 EI GA 0 L 5 ft ( - 0.06667x2(30x2 - 2x2 0.06667(4x2 - 30) 2) dx2 + 1c d dx2 EI GA 0 L L

0 L

5 ft

0 L

uB = And

## 270.83(122) k # in2 270.83 k # ft2 = 0.00448 rad = EI [29(103)k> in2(300 in4)] mM nV dx + ka b dx EI GA 0 0 L L

10 ft 0 L 10 ft (0.3333x1)(30x1 - 2x2 0.3333(30 - 4x1) 1) dx1 + 1c d dx1 EI GA 0 L 5 ft L L

1 k # B =

0 L

## 100 k2 # ft 2291.67 k2 # ft3 + EI GA 2291.67 k # ft3 100 k # ft + EI GA [29(10 ) k> in ](300 in )

3 2 4

B =

2291.67(123)k # in3

## [12(103) k> in2](7.50 in2) Ans.

100(12) k # in

= 0.469 in T

334

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937.

Continued

335

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938. Determine the displacement of point C. Use the method of virtual work. EI is constant.

w0

A L __ 2 C L __ 2

Referring to the virtual and real moment functions shown in Fig. a and b, respectively, w0 3 1 w0L a ba x x b 2 4 3 L mM = dx = 2 dx EI 0 EI L L 0
L
L 2

1 # C

C =

w0L4 120EI

Ans.

336

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939.

## Solve Prob. 938 using Castiglianos theorem.

w0

A L __ 2 C L __ 2

0M 1 The moment function is shown in Fig. a. Here = x. Also, set P = 0, then 0 P 2 w0L w0 3 M = xx . Thus 4 3L
L

C =

0 L

Ma

0 M dx b = 2 0 P EI L 0 T

L 2

w0 3 1 w0L x x b a xb 4 3L 2 dx EI Ans.

w0L4 120EI

337

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*940. Determine the slope and displacement at point A. Assume C is pinned. Use the principle of virtual work. EI is constant.
A B 3m

6 kN/ m

C 3m

Referring to the virtual moment functions shown in Fig. a and b and the real moment functions in Fig. c, we have 1 kN # m # uA =
3m ( - 1)( - 0.3333x3 muM 1) dx = dx1 EI EI 0 0 L L 3m L

+ 1 kN # m # uA = uA = And 1 kN # A = 1 kN # A = 9 kN EI
2

0 L

## (0.3333x2)(6x2 - 3x2 2) dx2 EI

# m3
Ans.

9 kN # m2 EI

mM dx = 0 EI 0 L L 22.95 kN2 # m3 EI

3m

## 3m ( - x1)( - 0.3333x3 ( - x2)(6x2 - 3x2 1) 2) dx1 + dx2 EI EI 0 L

A =

22.95 kN # m3 T EI

Ans.

338

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941.

## Solve Prob. 940 using Castiglianos theorem.

6 kN/ m

A B 3m 3m C

0 M1 = -1 The slope, the moment functions are shown in Fig. a. Here, 0M 0 M2 2 = - 0.3333x2. Also, set M = 0, then M1 = 0.3333x3 and 1 and M2 = 6x2 3x2. Thus 0M L 3m 3m ( - 0.3333x3 (6x2 - 3x2 0 M dx 1)( - 1) 2)(0.3333x2) Ma uA = b = dx1 + dx2 0 M EI EI EI 0 0 0 L L L uA = 9 kN # m2 EI Ans.

0 M1 = - x1 and The displacement, the moment functions are shown in Fig. b. Here, 0P 0 M2 2 = - x2. Also, set P = 0, then M1 = - 0.3333x3 1 and M2 = 6x2 - 3x2. Thus 0P L 3m 3m ( - 0.3333x3 (6x2 - 3x2 0 M dx 1)( - x1) 2)( - x2) A = Ma b = dx1 + dx2 0 P EI EI EI 0 0 0 L L L = 22.95 kN # m3 T EI Ans.

339

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942. Determine the displacement at point D. Use the principle of virtual work. EI is constant.

8k 3 k/ ft

A 4 ft 4 ft

B 4 ft

D 4 ft

Referring to the virtual and real moment functions shown in Fig. a and b, respectively, 1 k # D = mM dx = 0 EI 0 L L
L 4 ft 4 ft ( - 0.5x1)( - 12x1) [ - 0.5(x2 + 4)][ - (20x2 + 48)] dx1 + dx2 EI EI 0 L 4 ft

+ 2 1 k # D =

0 L

## 1397.33 k2 # ft3 EI 1397 k # ft3 T EI Ans.

D =

340

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8k 3 k/ ft

A 4 ft 4 ft

B 4 ft

D 4 ft

## The moment functions are shown in Fig. a. Here,

0 M1 = - 0.5x, 0P

0 M3 0 M2 = - (0.5x2 + 2) and = 0.5x3. Also set P = 0, 0P 0P M1 = - 12x1, M2 = - (20x2 + 48) and M3 = 12x3 - 1.50x2 3. Thus,
L

D =

0 L

Ma

0 M dx b = 0 P EI 0 L

4 ft

## ( - 12x1)( - 0.5x1) dx1 EI

4 ft 0 L

[ - (20x2 + 48)][ - (0.5x2 + 2)] dx2 EI (12x3 - 1.50x2 3)(0.5x3) dx3 EI Ans.

4 ft

+ 2

0 L

## 1397 k # ft3 1397.33 k # ft3 = T EI EI

341

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*944. Use the method of virtual work and determine the vertical deflection at the rocker support D. EI is constant.
A

600 lb 10 ft B

8 ft

( D)x =

mM dx = 0 L L 0 EI =

Lo

L (10)(750x)dx (x)(600x)dx + + 0 EI EI L 0

D C

440 k # ft3 T EI

Ans.

945.

## Solve Prob. 944 using Castiglianos theorem.

A

600 lb 10 ft B

8 ft

Set P = 0, ( D)v =
10 1 (600x)(x)dx (750x)(10)dx M 0M a b dx = + + 0 EI EI 0 EI 0 P 0 0 L L L L

D C

440 k # ft3 T = EI

Ans.

342

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946. The L-shaped frame is made from two segments, each of length L and flexural stiffness EI. If it is subjected to the uniform distributed load, determine the horizontal displacement of the end C. Use the method of virtual work.

C w L

1 # Ch =

mM dx 0 EI L
L L

A B L

Ch

## wx2 l wL2 1 = c (1x1) a b dx1 + (1L) a b dx2 d EI L 2 2 0 0 L = 5wL4 8EI Ans.

947. The L-shaped frame is made from two segments, each of length L and flexural stiffness EI. If it is subjected to the uniform distributed load, determine the vertical displacement of point B. Use the method of virtual work.

C w L

A B L

l # Bv =

## mM dx 0 EI L wx2 l wL2 1 c (0) a b dx1 + (L - x2) a b dx2 d EI L 2 2 0 0 L wL4 4EI Ans.

L L

Bv =

343

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*948.

w

A B L

L

wL2 2

B =

0 L

Ma

## 0 M dx wL4 wL2 dx b = ab (x) = 0 P EI 2 EI 4EI 0 L

Ans.

949. Determine the horizontal displacement of point C. EI is constant. Use the method of virtual work.

400 lb/ ft

A 10 ft

8 ft

Referring to the virtual and real moment functions shown in Fig. a and b, respectively, 1 k # Ch = 1 k # Ch = Ch = mM dx = 0 EI 0 L L 1147.73 k2 # ft3 EI 1148 k # ft3 ; EI Ans.
L 8 ft

200 lb/ ft

( - x1)(0.1x2 1) EI

10 ft

dx1 +

( - 8)[ - (0.2x2 2 EI

+ 6.40)]

0 L

dx2

344

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949.

Continued

950.

## Solve Prob. 949 using Castiglianos theorem.

400 lb/ ft

A 10 ft

8 ft

0 M1 0 M2 = - x1 and = - 8. Also, 0P 0P 2 2 set P = 0, then M1 = - 0.1x1 and M2 = - (0.2x2 + 6.40). The moment functions are shown in Fig. a. Here, Thus,
L

200 lb/ ft

Ch =

0 L

Ma

0 M dx b = 0 P EI L 0 =

8 ft

## 1147.73 k # ft3 1148 k # ft3 = ; EI EI

Ans.

345

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951. Determine the vertical deflection at C. The crosssectional area and moment of inertia of each segment is shown in the figure. Take E = 200 GPa. Assume A is a fixed support. Use the method of virtual work.

ABC 6.5(103) mm2 IBC 100(106) mm4 AAB 18(10 ) mm IAB 400(106) mm4
3 2

C 1m

50 kN

A 3m

( C)v =

3 (3 - x)(50)(103)dx mM + 0 dx = EIAB 0 EI 0 L L

## 3150(103)x - 25(103)x243 0 EIAB 225(103) 200(109)(400)(106)(10 - 12) Ans.

= 2.81 mm T

*952. Solve Prob. 951, including the effect of shear and axial strain energy.

ABC 6.5(103) mm2 IBC 100(106) mm4 AAB 18(10 ) mm IAB 400(106) mm4
3 2

C 1m

50 kN

A 3m

See Prob. 951 for the effect of bending. nV nNL + Ka b dx U = a AE GA 0 L Note that each term is zero since n and N or v and V do not occur simultaneously in each member. Hence, ( C)v = 2.81 mm T Ans
L

346

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953.

## Solve Prob. 951 using Castiglianos theorem.

ABC 6.5(103) mm2 IBC 100(106) mm4 AAB 18(10 ) mm IAB 400(106) mm4
3 2

C 1m

50 kN

A 3m

( C)v =

## 3150(103)x - 25(103)x243 0 EIAB 225(103) 200(109)(400)(106)(10 - 12) Ans.

= 2.81 mm T

954. Determine the slope at A. Take E = 29(103) ksi. The moment of inertia of each segment of the frame is indicated in the figure. Assume D is a pin support. Use the method of virtual work.

4

5 ft C

uA =

## (75 - 25 + 25) 75(144) = 0.414(10 - 3) rad = EIBC 29(103)(900)

Ans.

347

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955.

5 ft B

## IAB 600 in.4 12 ft ICD 600 in.4

Set M = 0, uA =
5 5 (6x)(1 - 0.1x)dx (6x)(0.1x)dx M 0M + + 0 + 0 a b dx = EI 0 M EI EIBC 0 0 0 L L L BC L

## (75 - 25 + 25) 75(144) = 0.414(10 - 3) rad Ans. = EI 0 C 29(103)(900)

*956. Use the method of virtual work and determine the horizontal deflection at C. The cross-sectional area of each member is indicated in the figure. Assume the members are pin connected at their end points. E = 29(103) ksi.

2k B

1 in.2

5k

4 ft 2 in.2

1 in.2 2 in.2

3 ft

(1)(5)(3)(12) ( - 8.33)( - 1.667)(5)(12) 1.33(4.667)(4)(12) nNL + + 0 + = ( c)h = a AE 2(29)(103) (1)(29)(103) (1)(29)(103) = 0.0401 in. : Ans.

348

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957.

B

2k

1 in.2

5k

## N force 1.33P + 4.667 P+5 -1.667P - 8.33 0

0N 0P 1.33 1 -1.667 0

4 ft 2 in.2

1 in.2 2 in.2

(5)(1)(3)(12) (4.667)(1.33)(4)(12) 0N L + + 0 b = 3 0 P AE 2(29)(10 ) (1)(29)(103) ( - 8.33)( - 1.667)(5)(12) + = 0.0401 in. : (1)(29)(103) Ans.
A D

3 ft

958. Use the method of virtual work and determine the horizontal deflection at C. E is constant. There is a pin at A, and assume C is a roller and B is a fixed joint.

400 lb/ ft B 6 ft 10 ft

A
4 10 (0.541x)(1849.17x - 200x2)dx (0.325x)(389.5x)dx mM dx = + EI EI EI 0 0 0 L L L L

45

( c)h =

## 1 3 10 c (333.47x3 - 27.05x4)|6 0 + (42.15x )|0 d EI 79.1k.ft3 : EI Ans.

349

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959.

B

400 lb/ ft

C 6 ft

10 ft

Set P = 0.
L

45

( c)h =

## 1 3 10 c (333.47x3 - 27.5x4)|6 0 + (42.15x )|0 d EI 79.1k.ft3 : EI Ans.

*960. The frame is subjected to the load of 5 k. Determine the vertical displacement at C. Assume that the members are pin connected at A, C, and E, and fixed connected at the knee joints B and D. EI is constant. Use the method of virtual work.

6 ft D 5k

10 ft

8 ft

8 ft

( c)v =

## (0.25x)(1.25x)dx ( - 0.25x)( - 1.25x)dx mM dx = 2 c + d EI EI EI 0 0 0 L L L = 1.25(103) 4.17 k # ft3 = T 3EI EI Ans.

10

10

350

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## 961. Solve Prob. 960 using Castiglianos theorem.

6 ft D 5k

10 ft

8 ft

8 ft

Set P = 5 k. ( c)v =
10 10 (1.25x)(0.25x) dx ( - 1.25x)( - 0.25x) dx M 0M a b dx = 2 c + d EI EI 0 EI 0 P 0 0 L L L L

Ans.

351