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The following information should be included in the header of the lesson plan: Kacie Dixon, Monica Athey, Becca

a Farrell, Lauren Determan, Meredith Cotton Dr. Bodle-JMU 10/28/13 12:20 p.m. A. Class President Simulation B. RATIONALE: We will be demonstrating the teaching strategy of simulation during our lesson. This is essential for future teachers to understand in order to teach powerful social studies. Simulation is a great way to engage students in a hands-on relatable way. This demonstration will give students an insight on how simulation can be used in the classroom and how effective it can be. Students will be encouraged to think outside the box, which will be beneficial in their future classrooms. Simulations have a game-like qualitybecause of this many students think that simulations are fun and they are motivated to do their best (Chapin & Messick, p. 70). C. CONTEXT OF LESSON Before implementing a simulation lesson, teachers must make sure the content is appropriate for the specific grade level. They also must make sure that the lesson is relatable to the students so they will be fully engaged. When the teacher is pre-assessing, he/she must make sure that students have the knowledge, skills, and abilities to carry out the simulation. Teachers must make sure that this lesson goes along with the curriculum sequence. Simulation is appropriate for children in elementary school, since it enables them to think critically which is concrete operational stage in Piagets research. Simulation allows students to put themselves in different roles and experience the rewards and consequences of that role. D. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Understand what are the broad generalizations the students should begin to develop? (These can be difficult to assess in one lesson.) U1 Simulation is a powerful and engaging teaching strategy for teaching social studies. Know what are the facts, rules, specific data the students will gain through this lesson? (These knows must be assessed in your lesson.) K1 Simulations place students in situations that closely parallel those in the real world (Brophy and Alleman, p.221). K2 Simulations require students to make decisions and experience the consequences. Do what are the specific thinking behaviors students will be able to do or practice as a result of this lesson? (These will also be assessed in your lesson.) D1 Describe the benefits of using simulation to teach social studies. D2 Give an example of how simulation could be used to teach a social studies topic (other than campaigns).

E. ASSESSING LEARNING: Task: Students will discuss the pros/cons of simulation and be able to think of ways to incorporate this into a classroom.

Diagnostic features: We will look for students to understand how simulation can be implemented in the elementary grades. We will look for students to share aloud their thoughts on simulation and how this can be used to teach powerful social studies.

Support: We will have an exit ticket on how to incorporate simulation into your class, which will accommodate to students who do not want to share their opinion during group discussion.

F. RELATED VIRGINIA STANDARDS OF LEARNING (and NATIONAL STANDARDS if required) CE.3 d) The student will demonstrate knowledge of citizenship and the rights, duties, and responsibilities of citizens by examining the responsibilities of citizenship, including registering and voting, communicating with government officials, participating in political campaigns, keeping informed about current issues, and respecting differing opinions in a diverse society;

G. MATERIALS NEEDED Poster paper Printer paper Markers Chalk Chalkboard Candy Money Powerpoint projector Computer

H. PROCEDURE

Activity Element & Time (in minutes)

Procedures and management

Students

Academic, physical, social & linguistic differentiation, resources, and support We will read the essential question aloud to accommodate for struggling readers We are supporting all students interests by allowing them to choose their own groups and pick where they sit We will walk around the room and scaffold as well as remind students to respect one another as they choose who will run Students will be able to choose what they stand for and what they want their slogan to be based on their interests To support all students, we will tell students to applaud for their classmates to foster a positive classroom community The money serves as a physical object to help students understand (for visual learners) as

Introduction

Essential question: How does a political campaign work?

The students will discuss the essential question with their tablemates at the beginning of class before the lesson begins The students will discuss who should run for President at their tables.

Event 1

We will instruct the students to get into four groups. Within their groups they will nominate one person to run for President of the class.

Transition

We will tell students that they have about 3-5 minutes to make their choice

The students will discuss

Event 2

We will tell each group to come up with a slogan as well as what they stand for

The students will record their slogan and what they stand for on a piece of paper

Transition

We will tell the students who were elected as President of the class to stand to reveal to the class who their candidates will be.

The students who were not elected will applaud for their fellow classmates.

Event 3

We will tell the students that each group will be receiving money as well as a list of resources to use for their campaign.

The groups will come up one by one to receive money for their campaign as well as a list of resources they can choose from to use during the

campaign.

Transition

We will give students 3-5 minutes to look through the resources and decide how they want to spend their money

The students will discuss with one another at their tables about how they want to use their money.

Event 4

After discussion, we will tell the students that they can come to our campaign office and receive materials and/or time in front of the class in exchange for the money they choose to spend.

The students will bring their money to our campaign office and exchange it for materials and/or time in front of the class.

Transition

Once the students receive their materials, we will set them free to plan how they want to campaign to the class.

Event 5

ELECTION DAY! We will call each group one by one

The students will be at their tables planning their methods of campaigning and executing nonwhole group campaign actions. (We will save the whole group actions such as speeches and commercials for the end of the campaign) The students will each be given a ballot to vote for one of their candidates but they cannot vote for their own

Conclusion:

We will facilitate a discussion about the campaign: How did you feel during the election

The discussion will be studentcentered as students will be able to freely discuss the questions that we

well as a list of resources for students to continually reference back to. The money serves as a physical object to help students understand (for visual learners) as well as a list of resources for students to continually reference back to. The process aspect of the lesson is differentiation because students have a choice of what materials they want to use and how to uniquely use those materials The process aspect of the lesson is differentiation because students have a choice of what methods they want to use to campaign. The students will be voting in private and therefore, will not feel pressured when freely selecting their own product a.k.a. President! We will be sure to observe and ensure that all students are

process when other groups had more money than you did? How do you think this simulation relates to real life campaigning and politics? Do you think the campaign process is fair? What are some cons/negatives to the campaigning process? What are some ways that the campaign process could be made fair and do you think there should be restrictions? Next, we will make a community list based on a discussion about simulation lessons: What are some benefits of using simulation in the classroom? What are some of the negatives of using simulation in the classroom? What is an example of how simulation could be used to teach a social studies topic (other than campaigns)?

present based on their own opinions.

given a voice during the discussion. If we notice that some are dominating the conversation, we will scaffold and direct the conversation to some who havent had a chance to speak.

I.

DIFFERENTIATION: This lesson accommodates for all students in a variety of ways. We made our lesson very open-ended and filled with choices, giving students the freedom to express their opinions and beliefs. We differentiated based on interest by allowing them to choose their own groups as well as where they sit/work. We also allowed them to choose their own campaigning materials and candidates according to their interests. We accommodated for different learning profiles by incorporating drawing, acting, public speaking, and creative writing. Another aspect of our lesson that accommodates for a variety of learners is the fact that the lesson is very hands-on, minds-on but would not exclude anyone with physical disabilities. The structure of the lesson ensures that all students are actively engaged. This lesson focuses on fostering a positive classroom community in many ways. Students are working in groups, but interacting with the whole class. Encouragement and team work are emphasized through encouraging one another during the campaign, working

together to make decisions, and applauding for one another when getting elected. During discussions, we will be sure to give all students a chance to contribute to the conversation as it makes students feel that they have a voice. Students will all finish around the same time because of how the lesson is structured so we did not need to consider an alternative for students who finish early. We will be there to scaffold and address any confusion in case any student is struggling with the instructions or objectives.

J. WHAT COULD GO WRONG WITH THIS LESSON AND WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT? When teaching using a simulation, there are some areas in which it could get a bit chaotic and you could encounter some issues. As simulation is a very hands-on teaching technique, and the students may get rowdy and noisy. Especially if there is a competitive aspect to the simulation, and in many cases there is, the students may get rambunctious and get caught up in winning instead of gleaning the knowledge that the teacher is trying to get across from the process. Another issue that might occur would be if there are certain roles that are more important than others. This could easily cause hostility among the students. Students who dont occupy the more crucial role may get upset about it being unfair and decide they dont matter enough. If they start off the simulation thinking this, they may decide they dont want to participate. It could cause issues of jealousy and make the students loose sight of the situation that is being simulated. Lastly, if simulations are too complex, they may not be as effective as possible. If the rules are too complicated for students to understand, they may loose interest quickly. Especially for elementary students, long explanations about rules will go over students heads and they may either break rules unintentionally during the simulation, or decide not to participate at all.