Anda di halaman 1dari 22

Introduction To


08/26/09 1
Out li ne
Introduction to Microgrid.
Microgrid Operating Modes.
The Need of Microgrid.
Interconnected Microgrids – Power Parks.
Environmental Aspects.
Conventional Grid versus Microgrid.
Advantages & Disadvantages of Microgrid.
Future Directions on Microgrid Research.
08/26/09 2
Introductio n To Mic ro grid
What is Microgrid?

It is a small-scale power supply network that is

designed to provide power for a small

It enables local power generation for local loads.

It comprises of various small power generating

sources that makes it highly flexible and
08/26/09 3
Introductio n To Mic ro grid
What is Microgrid?

It is connected to both the local generating units

and the utility grid thus preventing power

Excess power can be sold to the utility grid.

Size of the Microgrid may range from housing

estate to municipal regions.
08/26/09 4
Introductio n To Mic ro grid
Microgrid Components

Distributed Generation
Immediate storage
Point of Common Coupling

08/26/09 5
Typical Microgrid is shown

08/26/09 6
Pomelo, Indonesia - Village microgrid

08/26/09 7
Micr ogrid Ope ra tin g Mod es
Grid Connected Mode:

 Utility grid is active.

 Static switch is closed

 All the feeders are being

supplied by utility grid.

08/26/09 8
Micr ogrid Ope ra tin g Mod es
Island Mode:

 Utility grid is not supplying power

 Static switch is open.

 Feeder A, B, C are being supplied

by Microsources.

 Feeder D (not sensitive )

is dead.

08/26/09 9
The Ne ed Of Mic rog ri d
Microgrid could be the answer to our energy

Transmission losses gets highly reduced.

Microgrid results in substantial savings and cuts

emissions without major changes to lifestyles.

Provide high quality and reliable energy supply

to critical loads
08/26/09 10
Interco nn ected Mic rog ri ds
Interconnected Microgrids – Power Parks

Practical size of Microgrids is limited to a few


For larger loads, it is desirable to interconnect

many Microgrids to form a larger Microgrid
network called Power Parks.

The advantages of this Microgrid structure

insures greater stability and controllability for the
Power Parks. 11
En vir onm ent al Aspe cts

Microgrid encourages the use of the renewable

energy sources.

Large land use impacts are avoided.

CO2 Emissions are reduced.

08/26/09 12
Con vent ion al Grid v s.
Micr ogrid
Efficiency of conventional grid is very low as
compared to Microgrid.

Large amount of energy in the form of heat is

wasted in conventional grid.

Power sources in case of Microgrid (often

referred to as Microsources) are small and are
located in close proximity to load.

08/26/09 13
Ad van tage s & Disadvant age s
Microgrid Advantages

 A major advantage of a Microgrid, is its ability, during

a utility grid disturbance, to separate and isolate
itself from the utility seamlessly with little or no
disruption to the loads within the Microgrid.

 In peak load periods it prevents utility grid failure by

reducing the load on the grid.

 Significant environmental benefits made possible by

the use of low or zero emission generators.
08/26/09 14
Ad van tage s & Disadvant age s
Microgrid Advantages

The use of both electricity and heat permitted by

the close proximity of the generator to the user,
thereby increasing the overall energy efficiency.

Microgrid can act to mitigate the electricity costs

to its users by generating some or all of its
electricity needs.

08/26/09 15
Ad van tage s & Disadvant age s
Microgrid Disadvantages

 Voltage, frequency and power quality are three main

parameters that must be considered and controlled to
acceptable standards whilst the power and energy
balance is maintained.

 Electrical energy needs to be stored in battery banks

thus requiring more space and maintenance.

 Resynchronization with the utility grid is difficult.

08/26/09 16
Ad van tage s & Disadvant age s
Microgrid Disadvantages

 Microgrid protection is one of the most important

challenges facing the implementation of Microgrids.

 Issues such as standby charges and net metering

may pose obstacles for Microgrid.

 Interconnection standards needs to be developed to

ensure consistency. IEEE P1547, a standard
proposed by Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers may end up filling the void.

08/26/09 17
Fut ure Dire ction s on
Micr ogrid Re se arc h
 To investigate full-scale development, field demonstration,
experimental performance evaluation of frequency and
voltage control methods under various operation modes.

 Transition between grid connected and islanded modes on

interaction phenomena between distribution generation and
high penetration of distributed generation.

Transformation of Microgrid system today into the

intelligent, robust energy delivery system in the future
by providing significant reliability and security benefits.

08/26/09 18
Re fere nces
 A. A. Salam, A. Mohamed and M. A. Hannan. "TECHNICAL

 S. Abu-Sharkha, R.J. Arnolde, J. Kohlerd, R. Lia, T. Markvarta, J.N.

Rossb, K. Steemersc, P. Wilsonb, R. Yaoc. "Can microgrids make a
major contribution to UK energy supply?" (September 2004)

 John Stevens. "Characterization of Microgrids in the United States",

Sandia National Laboratories (January 2005)

 Robert H. Lasseter, Paolo Piagi. "Microgrid: A Conceptual Solution",

08/26/09 of Wisconsin-Madison (June 2004) 19
Re fere nces
 "Integration of Distributed Energy Resources - The CERTS MicroGrid
Concept", Consultant Report (October 2003)

 "Why the Microgrid Could Be the Answer to Our Energy Crisis"

 "How a Microgrid Works"

 “The Rise of MicroGrid Power Networks"
08/26/09 20
Thank You

08/26/09 21

08/26/09 22