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Introduction To

Microgrid

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Out li ne
Introduction to Microgrid.
Microgrid Operating Modes.
The Need of Microgrid.
Interconnected Microgrids – Power Parks.
Environmental Aspects.
Conventional Grid versus Microgrid.
Advantages & Disadvantages of Microgrid.
Future Directions on Microgrid Research.
References.
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Introductio n To Mic ro grid
What is Microgrid?

It is a small-scale power supply network that is


designed to provide power for a small
community.

It enables local power generation for local loads.

It comprises of various small power generating


sources that makes it highly flexible and
efficient.
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Introductio n To Mic ro grid
What is Microgrid?

It is connected to both the local generating units


and the utility grid thus preventing power
outages.

Excess power can be sold to the utility grid.

Size of the Microgrid may range from housing


estate to municipal regions.
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Introductio n To Mic ro grid
Microgrid Components

Distributed Generation
Loads
Immediate storage
Controller
Point of Common Coupling

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Typical Microgrid is shown
below:

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Pomelo, Indonesia - Village microgrid

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Micr ogrid Ope ra tin g Mod es
Grid Connected Mode:

 Utility grid is active.

 Static switch is closed

 All the feeders are being


supplied by utility grid.

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Micr ogrid Ope ra tin g Mod es
Island Mode:

 Utility grid is not supplying power

 Static switch is open.

 Feeder A, B, C are being supplied


by Microsources.

 Feeder D (not sensitive )


is dead.

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The Ne ed Of Mic rog ri d
Microgrid could be the answer to our energy
crisis.

Transmission losses gets highly reduced.

Microgrid results in substantial savings and cuts


emissions without major changes to lifestyles.

Provide high quality and reliable energy supply


to critical loads
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Interco nn ected Mic rog ri ds
Interconnected Microgrids – Power Parks

Practical size of Microgrids is limited to a few


MVA.

For larger loads, it is desirable to interconnect


many Microgrids to form a larger Microgrid
network called Power Parks.

The advantages of this Microgrid structure


insures greater stability and controllability for the
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Power Parks. 11
En vir onm ent al Aspe cts

Microgrid encourages the use of the renewable


energy sources.

Large land use impacts are avoided.

CO2 Emissions are reduced.

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Con vent ion al Grid v s.
Micr ogrid
Efficiency of conventional grid is very low as
compared to Microgrid.

Large amount of energy in the form of heat is


wasted in conventional grid.

Power sources in case of Microgrid (often


referred to as Microsources) are small and are
located in close proximity to load.

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Ad van tage s & Disadvant age s
Microgrid Advantages

 A major advantage of a Microgrid, is its ability, during


a utility grid disturbance, to separate and isolate
itself from the utility seamlessly with little or no
disruption to the loads within the Microgrid.

 In peak load periods it prevents utility grid failure by


reducing the load on the grid.

 Significant environmental benefits made possible by


the use of low or zero emission generators.
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Ad van tage s & Disadvant age s
Microgrid Advantages

The use of both electricity and heat permitted by


the close proximity of the generator to the user,
thereby increasing the overall energy efficiency.

Microgrid can act to mitigate the electricity costs


to its users by generating some or all of its
electricity needs.

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Ad van tage s & Disadvant age s
Microgrid Disadvantages

 Voltage, frequency and power quality are three main


parameters that must be considered and controlled to
acceptable standards whilst the power and energy
balance is maintained.

 Electrical energy needs to be stored in battery banks


thus requiring more space and maintenance.

 Resynchronization with the utility grid is difficult.

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Ad van tage s & Disadvant age s
Microgrid Disadvantages

 Microgrid protection is one of the most important


challenges facing the implementation of Microgrids.

 Issues such as standby charges and net metering


may pose obstacles for Microgrid.

 Interconnection standards needs to be developed to


ensure consistency. IEEE P1547, a standard
proposed by Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers may end up filling the void.

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Fut ure Dire ction s on
Micr ogrid Re se arc h
 To investigate full-scale development, field demonstration,
experimental performance evaluation of frequency and
voltage control methods under various operation modes.

 Transition between grid connected and islanded modes on


interaction phenomena between distribution generation and
high penetration of distributed generation.

Transformation of Microgrid system today into the


intelligent, robust energy delivery system in the future
by providing significant reliability and security benefits.

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Re fere nces
 A. A. Salam, A. Mohamed and M. A. Hannan. "TECHNICAL
CHALLENGES ON MICROGRIDS" (DECEMBER 2008)

http://www.arpnjournals.com/jeas/research_papers/rp_2008/jeas_1208_146.pdf

 S. Abu-Sharkha, R.J. Arnolde, J. Kohlerd, R. Lia, T. Markvarta, J.N.


Rossb, K. Steemersc, P. Wilsonb, R. Yaoc. "Can microgrids make a
major contribution to UK energy supply?" (September 2004)
http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/11276/1/Microgrids.pdf

 John Stevens. "Characterization of Microgrids in the United States",


Sandia National Laboratories (January 2005)
http://www.electricdistribution.ctc.com/pdfs/RDC_Microgrid_Whitepaper_1-7-
05.pdf

 Robert H. Lasseter, Paolo Piagi. "Microgrid: A Conceptual Solution",


University
08/26/09 of Wisconsin-Madison (June 2004) 19
Re fere nces
 "Integration of Distributed Energy Resources - The CERTS MicroGrid
Concept", Consultant Report (October 2003)
http://www.pserc.org/cgi-
pserc/getbig/researchdo/certsdocum0/certspubli/certsmicrogridwhitepaper.pd
f

 "Why the Microgrid Could Be the Answer to Our Energy Crisis"


http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/137/beyond-the-grid.html

 "How a Microgrid Works"


http://science.howstuffworks.com/microgrid.htm

 “The Rise of MicroGrid Power Networks"

http://www.sustainablefacility.com/Articles/Feature_Article/58905d08bd62901
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Thank You

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Queries?

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