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Design of Bridges

Introduction
3rd to 4th July 2012
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FUNCTION OF A BRIDGE
To connect two communities which are separated by streams, river, valley, or gorge, etc.

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EVOLUTION OF BRIDGES

1. Log Bridge or Culvert

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2. Improved Log -Tree trunk Bridge

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3. Clapper Bridge - Stones

Arching principle
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4. Canoes joined with timber

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5. Rope bridges

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6. Improved Rope Bridge

Suspension bridge principle


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COMPONENTS OF A BRIDGE
Deck or Slab: supported roadway on abridge Beam or Girder: A rigid, usually horizontal, structural element Abutment: The outermost end supports on a bridge, which carry the load from the deck Pier: A vertical supporting structure, such as a pillar Foundation
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Truss Bridge

All beams in a truss bridge are straight. Trusses are comprised of many small beams that together can support a large amount of load and span great distances.
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Types of Bridges
Beam Bridge

Consists of a horizontal beam supported at each end by piers. The weight of the beam pushes straight down on the piers. The farther apart its piers, the weaker the beam becomes. This is why beam bridges rarely span more than 75.00 m.

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Types of Bridges
Beam Bridge
Forces When something pushes down on the beam, the beam bends. Its top edge is compressed together, and its bottom edge is pulled apart.

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Types of Bridges
Arch Bridges
The arch has great natural strength. Thousands of years ago, Romans built arches out of stone. Today, most arch bridges are made of steel or concrete, and they can span up to 800 feet. Forces

The arch is squeezed together, and this squeezing force is carried outward along the curve to the supports at each end. The supports, called abutments, push back on the arch and prevent the ends of the arch from spreading apart.

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Types of Bridges
Suspension Bridges
This kind of bridges can span 600 m to 2000 m -- way farther than any other type of bridge! Most suspension bridges have a truss system beneath the roadway to resist bending and twisting.

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Types of Bridges
Suspension Bridges
Forces
In all suspension bridges, the roadway hangs from massive steel cables, which are draped over two towers and secured into solid concrete blocks, called anchorages, on both ends of the bridge. The cars push down on the roadway, but because the roadway is suspended, the cables transfer the load into compression in the two towers. The two towers support most of the bridge's weight.

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Cable Stayed Bridge


The cable-stayed bridge, like the suspension bridge, supports the roadway with massive steel cables, but in a different way. The cables run directly from the roadway up to a tower, forming a unique "A" shape. Cable-stayed bridges are becoming the most popular bridges for medium-length spans of between 160m and 1,000m

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Decision On Type Of Bridge


Bridge Survey flood plain cross sections inspection reports existing bridge information (scour, etc) water elevations existing roadway profile photos
Factors affecting choice of superstructure

location, city or rural span length vertical clearance maintainability environmental aspects transportation to site issues cost
Factors affecting choice of substructure

Geotechnical Report soil / geological formations slopes and grading foundation problems soil properties

location and geometry subsoil conditions height of support members (piers and abutments)

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Design Parameters
Bridge Structures are designed depending on the following parameters: Available Hydrological data

Effective Span Conditions of subsoil Loads to be applied Materials Shapes

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SUPERSTRUCTURES
Cross sections of bridge superstructures

known as Shallow Superstructures

(a) Slab bridge

(b) Slab-on-girder bridge with for T-beam type of construction Lecture SPIN Training at the
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(c) Slab-on-girder bridge with steel girders

(d) Voided slab bridge

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Cross sections of Cellular type of bridges

(a) Single-cell bridge

(b) Multicell bridge


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(c) Multispine bridge with steel boxes

(d) Multispine bridge with concrete boxes

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Bow string arch

Frame (Portal)
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Drainage Culverts
Culverts are normally designed to allow water flow beneath an embankment where the traffic passes. The simplest types being steel and concrete pipes. Rectangular frame culverts are more common for large streams.

Embankment

Single cell concrete box culvert

Double cell concrete box culvert


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Circular Culverts (Concrete)


Embankment Embankment

Circular concrete culvert (precast)

Double vault circular concrete culvert (cast in-situ)

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Embankment

Steel pipe culvert


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Other Drainage Structures


Ford or Trough
Water on slab

Water in pipes (and on slab during rain season) fill

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