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JABATAN PERANGKAAN MALAYSIA

DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS, MALAYSIA

PERANGKAAN
TENAGA BURUH SISWAZAH
STATISTICS OF GRADUATES
IN THE LABOUR FORCE

MALAYSIA

PENYIASATAN TENAGA BURUH


LABOUR FORCE SURVEY

JABATAN PERANGKAAN MALAYSIA


DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS, MALAYSIA

NOVEMBER 2011

KATA PENGANTAR

Penerbitan keempat keluaran khas Perangkaan Tenaga Buruh


Siswazah ini

menghimpunkan siri masa perangkaan guna

tenaga dan pengangguran dikalangan siswazah (ijazah dan


diploma) dari tahun 1982 hingga 2010 yang tidak diterbitkan di
mana-mana tetapi diperlukan oleh pengguna data masa kini
dalam menganalisis situasi pasaran buruh. Keluaran ini turut
memuatkan siri masa perangkaan tenaga buruh di Malaysia.
Diharapkan maklumat yang dibentangkan dalam laporan ini
dapat membantu perancang dan penyelidik dalam mengkaji
ciri-ciri siswazah, khususnya yang menganggur.
Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia menghargai kerjasama yang
diberikan

oleh

semua

pihak

penerbitan ini.

Dr. Haji Abdul Rahman bin Hasan


Ketua Perangkawan Malaysia
November 2011

dalam

usaha

menjayakan

PREFACE

The fourth edition of Statistics of Graduates in the Labour Force is


a

compilation

of

unpublished

time

series

statistics

on

employment and unemployment among graduates (degree


and diploma) from 1982 to 2010 which were sought by users in
analysing the labour market situation. This edition also presents
time series data on labour force in Malaysia.
It is hoped that the information presented in this report will assist
both planners and researchers in studying the characteristics of
graduates particularly the unemployed.
The Department of Statistics, Malaysia gratefully acknowledges
and appreciates the co-operation rendered by all parties in
making this publication a success.

Dr. Haji Abdul Rahman bin Hasan


Chief Statistician, Malaysia
November 2011

ii

KANDUNGAN
CONTENTS

Muka surat
Page

Kata pengantar
Preface

i
ii

Senarai jadual
List of tables

Ringkasan penemuan
Summary findings

Jadual utama
Main tables

Jadual Perangkaan Tenaga Buruh


Tables of Labour Force Statistics

31

Nota teknikal
Technical notes

51

iii

SENARAI JADUAL
LIST OF TABLES

SENARAI JADUAL
LIST OF TABLES
JADUAL UTAMA
MAIN TABLES
Jadual
Table

Muka surat
Page

A1a

Perangkaan utama tenaga buruh siswazah, Malaysia, 1982-2010


Principal statistics of graduates in the labour force, Malaysia,
1982-2010

A1b

Perangkaan utama tenaga buruh siswazah (ijazah), Malaysia,


1982-2010
Principal statistics of graduates (degree) in the labour force,
Malaysia, 1982-2010

A1c

Perangkaan utama tenaga buruh siswazah (diploma), Malaysia,


1982-2010
Principal statistics of graduates (diploma) in labour force,
Malaysia, 1982-2010

A2

Bilangan siswazah bekerja mengikut sijil tertinggi diperoleh dan


jantina, Malaysia, 1982-2010
Number of employed graduates by highest certificate obtained
and sex, Malaysia, 1982-2010

10

A3

Bilangan siswazah bekerja mengikut sijil tertinggi diperoleh dan


strata, Malaysia, 1982-2010
Number of employed graduates by highest certificate obtained
and stratum, Malaysia, 1982-2010

11

A4

Taburan peratus siswazah bekerja mengikut kumpulan etnik,


Malaysia, 1982-2010
Percentage distribution of employed graduates by ethnic
group, Malaysia, 1982-2010

12

A5

Bilangan siswazah bekerja mengikut kumpulan umur, Malaysia,


1982-2010
Number of employed graduates by age group, Malaysia,
1982-2010

13

A6a

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah bekerja mengikut


pekerjaan, Malaysia, 1982-2000
Number and percentage distribution of employed graduates by
occupation, Malaysia, 1982-2000

14

Jadual
Table

Muka surat
Page

A6b

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah (ijazah) bekerja mengikut


pekerjaan, Malaysia, 1982-2000
Number and percentage distribution of employed graduates
(degree) by occupation, Malaysia, 1982-2000

15

A6c

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah (diploma) bekerja


mengikut pekerjaan, Malaysia, 1982-2000
Number and percentage distribution of employed graduates
(diploma) by occupation, Malaysia, 1982-2000

16

A7

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah bekerja mengikut sijil


tertinggi diperoleh dan pekerjaan, Malaysia, 2001-2010
Number and percentage distribution of employed graduates by
highest certificate obtained and occupation, Malaysia, 20012010

17

A8a

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah bekerja mengikut industri,


Malaysia, 1982-2000
Number and percentage distribution of employed graduates by
industry, Malaysia, 1982-2000

18

A8b

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah (ijazah) bekerja mengikut


industri, Malaysia, 1982-2000
Number and percentage distribution of employed graduates
(degree) by industry, Malaysia, 1982-2000

19

A8c

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah (diploma) bekerja


mengikut industri, Malaysia, 1982-2000
Number and percentage distribution of employed graduates
(diploma) by industry, Malaysia, 1982-2000

20

A9

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah bekerja mengikut sijil


tertinggi diperoleh dan industri, Malaysia, 2001-2009
Number and percentage distribution of employed graduates by
highest certificate obtained and industry, Malaysia, 2001-2009

21

A10

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah bekerja mengikut sijil


tertinggi diperoleh dan industri, Malaysia, 2010
Number and percentage distribution of employed graduates by
highest certificate obtained and industry, Malaysia, 2010

23

A11

Bilangan siswazah menganggur mengikut sijil tertinggi diperoleh


dan jantina, Malaysia, 1982-2010
Number of unemployed graduates by highest certificate
obtained and sex, Malaysia, 1982-2010

24

vi

Jadual
Table

Muka surat
Page

A12

Bilangan siswazah menganggur mengikut sijil tertinggi diperoleh


dan strata, Malaysia, 1982-2010
Number of unemployed graduates by highest certificate
obtained and stratum, Malaysia, 1982-2010

25

A13

Taburan peratus siswazah menganggur mengikut kumpulan


etnik, Malaysia, 1982-2010
Percentage distribution of unemployed graduates by ethnic
group, Malaysia, 1982-2010

26

A14

Bilangan siswazah menganggur mengikut kumpulan umur,


Malaysia, 1982-2010
Number of unemployed graduates by age group, Malaysia, 19822010

27

A15

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah menganggur mengikut


sijil tertinggi diperoleh dan bidang pengajian terpilih, Malaysia,
2004-2009
Number and percentage distribution of unemployed graduates
by highest certificate obtained and selected field of study,
Malaysia, 2004-2009

28

A16

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah menganggur mengikut


sijil tertinggi diperoleh dan bidang pengajian terpilih, Malaysia,
2010
Number and percentage distribution of unemployed graduates
by highest certificate obtained and selected field of study,
Malaysia, 2010

29

JADUAL PERANGKAAN TENAGA BURUH


TABLES OF LABOUR FORCE STATISTICS

Muka surat
Page

Jadual
Table
B1

Perangkaan utama tenaga buruh, Malaysia, 1982-2010


Principal statistics of labour force, Malaysia, 1982-2010

31

B2

Perangkaan utama tenaga buruh mengikut jantina, Malaysia,


1982-2010
Principal statistics of labour force by sex, Malaysia,1982-2010

32

B3

Perangkaan utama tenaga buruh mengikut strata, Malaysia,


1982-2010
Principal statistics of labour force by stratum, Malaysia,
1982-2010

34

vii

Jadual
Table

Muka surat
Page

B4

Taburan peratus penduduk bekerja mengikut kumpulan etnik,


Malaysia, 1982-2010
Percentage distribution of employed persons by ethnic group,
Malaysia, 1982-2010

36

B5

Bilangan penduduk bekerja mengikut kumpulan umur, Malaysia,


1982-2010
Number of employed persons by age group, Malaysia,
1982-2010

37

B6

Bilangan penduduk bekerja mengikut taraf perkahwinan,


Malaysia, 1982-2010
Number of employed persons by marital status, Malaysia,
1982-2010

38

B7

Bilangan penduduk bekerja mengikut pencapaian pendidikan,


Malaysia, 1982-2010
Number of employed persons by educational attainment,
Malaysia, 1982-2010

39

B8

Bilangan penduduk bekerja mengikut sijil tertinggi diperoleh,


Malaysia, 1982-2010
Number of employed persons by highest certificate obtained,
Malaysia, 1982-2010

40

B9

Bilangan dan taburan peratus penduduk bekerja mengikut


pekerjaan, Malaysia, 1982-2000
Number and percentage distribution of employed persons by
occupation, Malaysia, 1982-2000

41

B10

Bilangan dan taburan peratus penduduk bekerja mengikut


pekerjaan, Malaysia, 2001-2010
Number and percentage distribution of employed persons by
occupation, Malaysia, 2001-2010

42

Bilangan dan taburan peratus penduduk bekerja mengikut


industri, Malaysia, 1982-2000
Number and percentage distribution of employed persons by
industry, Malaysia, 1982-2000

43

Bilangan dan taburan peratus penduduk bekerja mengikut


industri, Malaysia, 2001-2009
Number and percentage distribution of employed persons by
industry, Malaysia, 2001-2009

44

B11

B12

viii

Jadual
Table

Muka surat
Page

B13

Bilangan dan taburan peratus penduduk bekerja mengikut


industri, Malaysia, 2010
Number and percentage distribution of employed persons by
industry, Malaysia, 2010

45

B14

Bilangan penganggur mengikut strata, Malaysia, 1982-2010


Number of unemployed persons by stratum, Malaysia, 1982-2010

46

B15

Taburan peratus penganggur mengikut kumpulan etnik,


Malaysia, 1982-2010
Percentage distribution of unemployed persons by ethnic group,
Malaysia, 1982-2010

47

B16

Bilangan penganggur mengikut kumpulan umur, Malaysia,


1982-2010
Number of unemployed persons by age group, Malaysia,
1982-2010

48

B17

Bilangan penganggur mengikut pencapaian pendidikan,


Malaysia, 1982-2010
Number of unemployed persons by educational attainment,
Malaysia, 1982-2010

49

Bilangan penganggur mengikut sijil tertinggi diperoleh, Malaysia,


1982-2010
Number of unemployed persons by highest certificate obtained,
Malaysia, 1982-2010

50

B18

ix

RINGKASAN PENEMUAN
SUMMARY FINDINGS

RINGKASAN PENEMUAN
SUMMARY FINDINGS
Graduates in the labour force

Tenaga buruh siswazah


Dalam

tempoh

2010,

From the period of 1982 to 2010, the

memasuki

number of graduates that entered the

pasaran buruh meningkat dari tahun ke

labour market had increased from year to

tahun kecuali

bagi 2007. Bilangan

year except for the year 2007. The

siswazah yang memasuki pasaran buruh

number of graduates that entered the

pada

orang

labour market in 1982 was only 231,800

berbanding 2.10 juta orang pada 2010.

persons as compared to 2.10 million in

Trend yang sama dapat dilihat bagi

2010. A similar trend can be observed for

guna tenaga siswazah yang meningkat

the

daripada 228,100 orang kepada 2.03

increased from 228,100 to 2.03 million in

juta orang dalam tempoh yang sama.

the same period.

Semenjak

Since

bilangan

siswazah

1982

1982

1996

yang

231,800

hingga

2010,

terendah

(1.5%)

pengangguran
dicatatkan

hingga

hanya

pengangguran
pada

1982

dicatatkan

manakala

siswazah

pada

1987

kadar

1982

graduates

to

2010,

which

the

lowest

had

of

unemployment rate was recorded in 1996

kadar

(1.5%)

tertinggi
(5.0%)

employed

while

the

highest

rate

of

unemployed graduates was recorded in

iaitu

1987

(5.0%)

caused

by

the

current

semasa kejatuhan ekonomi. Kesan yang

economic downturn. The same effect can

sama

be

juga

peningkatan
siswazah

boleh

dilihat

kadar
mulai

bagaimanapun,

oleh

pengangguran
1998.

mulai

2005,

seen

by

the

increase

in

the

unemployment rate of graduates from

Walau

1998.

kadar

unemployment

pengangguran siswazah menunjukkan

However,

since
rate

of

2005,

graduates

declined from 3.8% to 3.1% in 2010.

penurunan daripada 3.8% kepada 3.1%


pada 2010.

the

Carta 1: Perangkaan utama tenaga buruh siswazah, Malaysia, 19822010


Chart 1: Principal statistics of graduates in the labour force, Malaysia, 19822010

Siswazah

menganggur

mengikut

Unemployed

sijil

certificate

tertinggi diperoleh
Dalam

tempoh

highest

obtained

From the period of 1982 to 1997, the

bilangan siswazah menganggur yang

number of unemployed degree holders

memiliki

2,700

was between 2,700 to 8,200 persons.

hingga 8,200 orang. Namun begitu,

However, since 1998 the number has

mulai 1998 bilangannya menunjukkan

shown a significant increase between

peningkatan yang ketara antara 12,000

12,000 to 33,800 persons.

adalah

hingga

by

1997,

ijazah

1982

graduates

antara

hingga 33,800 orang.


Trend yang sama juga berlaku kepada

A similar trend was also experienced by

siswazah yang memiliki diploma dengan

diploma holders which recorded the

mencatatkan

penganggur

number of unemployed between 1,000

antara 1,000 hingga 6,900 orang dalam

up to 6,900 persons from the period of

tempoh

1997.

1982 to 1997. However, the number of

Bagaimanapun, bilangan penganggur

unemployed diploma holders increased

lulusan

drastically from 1998 to 2004 between

bilangan

1982
diploma

hingga
meningkat

secara

drastik mulai 1998 hingga 2004 dengan

12,100 up to 41,200 persons. However

catatan antara 12,100 hingga 41,200

during the period of 2006 to 2010, the

orang. Namun, dalam tempoh 2006 ke

differences in the total of unemployed in

2010, perbezaan bilangan penganggur

both qualifications had narrowed.

bagi

kedua-dua

kelulusan

adalah

semakin mengecil.
Sebelum tahun 1996, didapati lebih

Before 1996, the number of unemployed

ramai lulusan ijazah yang menganggur

degree holders was higher than diploma

berbanding lulusan diploma kecuali bagi

holders except for the period of 1988

tempoh

1990. On the contrary, beginning from

19881990. Sebaliknya, mulai

1996 hingga 2010 lebih ramai pemegang

1996

diploma

unemployed diploma holders except in

yang

menganggur

kecuali

pada 2001, 2007, 2008 dan 2010.

to

2010,

there

were

more

2001, 2007, 2008 and 2010.

Carta 2: Bilangan siswazah menganggur mengikut sijil tertinggi diperoleh, Malaysia,


19822010
Chart 2: Number of unemployed graduates by highest certificate obtained, Malaysia, 19822010

Siswazah menganggur mengikut jantina

Unemployed graduates by sex

Pada

yang

In

tinggi

graduates was higher in comparison to

Walau

females. However since 1999, there were

didapati

more unemployed female graduates as

1980-an,

siswazah

lelaki

menganggur

adalah

berbanding

perempuan.

bagaimanapun,
lebih

ramai

mulai
siswazah

lebih
1999

perempuan

the

1980s,

unemployed

male

compared with males, except in 2005.

menganggur berbanding lelaki kecuali


pada 2005.
Carta 3: Bilangan siswazah menganggur mengikut jantina, Malaysia, 19822010
Chart 3: Number of unemployed graduates by sex, Malaysia, 19822010

Siswazah menganggur mengikut strata

Unemployed graduates by stratum

Dalam

2010,

During 1992 to 2010, the number of

yang

unemployed graduates in urban areas

tempoh

didapati

bilangan

menganggur
meningkat

1992

hingga

siswazah

di

kawasan

bandar

increased significantly, with a widening

dengan

ketara.

Jurang

unemployment gap between the urban

pengangguran

antara

siswazah

di

and rural areas since 1997. This shows that

bandar dan luar bandar semakin besar

the competition to enter the labour

mulai 1997. Ini bermakna persaingan

market in urban is higher than in rural

untuk mendapat tempat dalam pasaran

areas.

buruh di kawasan bandar adalah lebih


besar berbanding luar bandar.
Carta 4: Bilangan siswazah menganggur mengikut strata, Malaysia, 19822010
Chart 4: Number of unemployed graduates by stratum, Malaysia, 19822010

Siswazah menganggur mengikut bidang

Unemployed graduates by selected field

pengajian terpilih

of

Pada tahun 2010, majoriti siswazah yang

In

menganggur adalah lulusan Sains sosial,

unemployed graduates were in Social

perniagaan dan undang-undang diikuti

sciences, business and law followed by

dengan

Engineering,

bidang

Kejuruteraan,

pembuatan dan binaan.

study
the

year

2010,

the

majority

manufacturing

of

and

construction.

Carta 5: Taburan peratus siswazah menganggur mengikut bidang pengajian terpilih,


Malaysia, 2010
Chart 5: Percentage distribution of unemployed graduates by selected field of study, Malaysia,
2010

JADUAL UTAMA
MAIN TABLES

Jadual A1a Perangkaan utama tenaga buruh siswazah, Malaysia, 19822010


Principal statistics of graduates in the labour force, Malaysia, 19822010
Table A1a

Jumlah
Total

Umur bekerja
Working age

Tenaga buruh
Labour force

Bekerja
Employed

Penganggur
Unemployed

Luar tenaga buruh


Outside labour force

Kadar penyertaan
tenaga buruh
Labour force
participation rate

Kadar pengangguran
Unemployment rate

(%)

Tahun
Year

Bilangan/Number ('000)

1982

245.1

231.8

228.1

3.7

13.3

94.6

1.6

1983

238.6

227.4

221.9

5.5

11.3

95.3

2.4

1984

272.9

257.5

249.5

8.1

15.4

94.4

3.1

1985

298.5

281.8

271.0

10.8

16.7

94.4

3.8

1986

324.0

304.7

291.8

12.9

19.3

94.0

4.2

1987

341.7

320.2

304.1

16.1

21.5

93.7

5.0

1988

353.0

326.1

313.4

12.8

26.9

92.4

3.9

1989

378.6

352.6

337.3

15.4

26.0

93.1

4.4

1990

422.5

391.6

382.5

9.1

31.0

92.7

2.3

1992

499.5

461.9

453.2

8.7

37.6

92.5

1.9

1993

519.5

480.6

471.2

9.4

38.9

92.5

2.0

1995

628.4

572.8

563.1

9.7

55.6

91.2

1.7

1996

761.5

689.9

679.7

10.3

71.5

90.6

1.5

1997

852.9

771.6

759.3

12.3

81.3

90.5

1.6

1998

914.1

829.5

805.4

24.1

84.6

90.7

2.9

1999

1,010.6

884.1

853.6

30.5

126.5

87.5

3.5

2000

1,174.3

1,039.2

1,006.4

32.8

135.1

88.5

3.2

2001

1,279.4

1,135.2

1,098.3

36.8

144.2

88.7

3.2

2002

1,510.1

1,299.7

1,252.2

47.6

210.3

86.1

3.7

2003

1,661.2

1,429.0

1,372.2

56.8

232.2

86.0

4.0

2004

1,792.2

1,543.0

1,479.0

64.0

249.2

86.1

4.1

2005

1,898.5

1,637.2

1,574.3

63.0

261.3

86.2

3.8

2006

1,990.1

1,702.0

1,636.4

65.7

288.1

85.5

3.9

2007

1,819.9

1,581.6

1,528.2

53.5

238.3

86.9

3.4

2008

1,985.4

1,714.4

1,660.3

54.1

271.0

86.4

3.2

2009

2,279.8

1,975.6

1,912.5

63.0

304.3

86.7

3.2

2010

2,434.4

2,096.1

2,030.6

65.5

338.3

86.1

3.1

Jadual A1b
Table A1b

Perangkaan utama tenaga buruh siswazah (ijazah), Malaysia, 19822010


Principal statistics of graduates (degree) in the labour force, Malaysia, 19822010

Ijazah
Degree

(%)

Tahun
Year

Umur bekerja
Working age

Tenaga buruh
Labour force

Bekerja
Employed

Penganggur
Unemployed

Luar tenaga buruh


Outside labour force

Kadar penyertaan
tenaga buruh
Labour force
participation rate

Kadar pengangguran
Unemployment rate

Bilangan/Number ('000)

1982

99.0

93.8

91.1

2.7

5.1

94.8

2.9

1983

95.4

90.2

86.6

3.6

5.2

94.6

4.0

1984

121.5

114.4

109.7

4.8

7.1

94.2

4.2

1985

133.6

126.6

120.2

6.4

7.0

94.7

5.0

1986

144.0

136.0

128.7

7.3

8.0

94.5

5.4

1987

156.7

147.2

139.1

8.2

9.5

94.0

5.5

1988

164.2

152.4

146.0

6.4

11.8

92.8

4.2

1989

167.8

155.9

148.8

7.1

11.9

92.9

4.5

1990

181.5

169.3

165.8

3.6

12.1

93.3

2.1

1992

230.3

215.0

210.2

4.8

15.3

93.4

2.2

1993

253.3

232.3

227.0

5.3

21.0

91.7

2.3

1995

283.5

262.4

256.7

5.7

21.0

92.6

2.2

1996

344.5

315.1

310.6

4.5

29.4

91.5

1.4

1997

378.5

347.1

341.7

5.4

31.4

91.7

1.6

1998

411.1

382.5

370.5

12.0

28.6

93.1

3.1

1999

467.3

420.4

407.4

13.1

46.9

90.0

3.1

2000

529.0

486.2

471.3

14.9

42.8

91.9

3.1

2001

606.7

552.8

533.9

18.9

53.9

91.1

3.4

2002

704.4

625.4

603.2

22.2

78.9

88.8

3.5

2003

755.6

681.2

655.2

26.0

74.4

90.2

3.8

2004

821.3

733.8

711.1

22.7

87.4

89.3

3.1

2005

852.2

758.8

733.5

25.3

93.4

89.0

3.3

2006

945.5

836.4

805.3

31.1

109.1

88.5

3.7

2007

911.0

812.8

784.9

27.9

98.2

89.2

3.4

2008

1,015.8

901.8

874.1

27.7

114.0

88.8

3.1

2009

1,163.1

1,034.6

1,003.8

30.9

128.5

89.0

3.0

2010

1,285.9

1,149.7

1,115.9

33.8

136.2

89.4

2.9

Jadual A1c
Table A1c

Perangkaan utama tenaga buruh siswazah (diploma), Malaysia, 19822010


Principal statistics of graduates (diploma) in the labour force, Malaysia, 19822010

Bilangan/Number ('000)

Umur bekerja
Working age

Tenaga buruh
Labour force

Bekerja
Employed

Penganggur
Unemployed

Luar tenaga buruh


Outside labour force

Kadar penyertaan
tenaga buruh
Labour force
participation rate

Kadar pengangguran
Unemployment rate

(%)

Tahun
Year

Diploma

1982

146.2

138.0

137.0

1.0

8.1

94.4

0.7

1983

143.2

137.1

135.3

1.8

6.1

95.8

1.3

1984

151.4

143.1

139.8

3.3

8.3

94.5

2.3

1985

164.9

155.2

150.8

4.4

9.7

94.1

2.8

1986

180.0

168.7

163.1

5.5

11.3

93.7

3.3

1987

185.0

173.0

165.0

8.0

12.0

93.5

4.6

1988

188.8

173.7

167.3

6.4

15.1

92.0

3.7

1989

210.8

196.7

188.4

8.3

14.1

93.3

4.2

1990

241.1

222.2

216.8

5.5

18.8

92.2

2.5

1992

269.1

246.8

242.9

3.9

22.3

91.7

1.6

1993

266.1

248.2

244.1

4.1

17.9

93.3

1.6

1995

344.9

310.4

306.4

4.0

34.5

90.0

1.3

1996

417.0

374.9

369.1

5.7

42.1

89.9

1.5

1997

474.4

424.5

417.6

6.9

49.9

89.5

1.6

1998

503.0

447.0

434.9

12.1

56.1

88.9

2.7

1999

543.3

463.7

446.2

17.5

79.6

85.3

3.8

2000

645.3

553.0

535.1

17.9

92.3

85.7

3.2

2001

672.7

582.3

564.5

17.9

90.3

86.6

3.1

2002

805.7

674.3

648.9

25.4

131.4

83.7

3.8

2003

905.6

747.8

717.0

30.8

157.8

82.6

4.1

2004

971.0

809.1

767.9

41.2

161.8

83.3

5.1

2005

1,046.3

878.4

840.7

37.7

167.9

84.0

4.3

2006

1,044.6

865.6

831.0

34.6

179.0

82.9

4.0

2007

908.9

768.8

743.3

25.6

140.1

84.6

3.3

2008

969.6

812.6

786.1

26.4

157.0

83.8

3.3

2009

1,116.7

940.9

908.8

32.2

175.8

84.3

3.4

2010

1,148.5

946.4

914.7

31.7

202.1

82.4

3.3

Jadual A2 Bilangan siswazah bekerja mengikut sijil tertinggi diperoleh dan jantina, Malaysia, 19822010
Table A2
Number of employed graduates by highest certificate obtained and sex, Malaysia, 19822010

Bilangan/Number ('000)
Jumlah
Total

Tahun
Year
Jumlah
Total

Ijazah
Degree

Lelaki Perempuan
Male
Female

Jumlah
Total

Diploma

Lelaki Perempuan
Male
Female

Jumlah
Total

Lelaki Perempuan
Male
Female

1982

228.1

155.6

72.5

91.1

72.5

18.6

137.0

83.1

53.9

1983

221.9

151.5

70.4

86.6

65.7

20.9

135.3

85.8

49.5

1984

249.5

167.2

82.3

109.7

84.0

25.6

139.8

83.1

56.7

1985

271.0

181.4

89.6

120.2

91.7

28.5

150.8

89.7

61.1

1986

291.8

195.1

96.8

128.7

98.5

30.2

163.1

96.6

66.5

1987

304.1

194.1

110.0

139.1

101.7

37.3

165.0

92.4

72.6

1988

313.4

205.2

108.2

146.0

109.4

36.7

167.3

95.8

71.5

1989

337.3

213.4

123.9

148.8

103.5

45.3

188.4

109.9

78.5

1990

382.5

235.3

147.2

165.8

114.8

51.0

216.8

120.5

96.2

1992

453.2

285.0

168.1

210.2

145.7

64.5

242.9

139.3

103.6

1993

471.2

304.0

167.2

227.0

164.1

63.0

244.1

139.9

104.2

1995

563.1

353.1

210.0

256.7

176.2

80.5

306.4

176.9

129.5

1996

679.7

421.4

258.3

310.6

213.7

96.8

369.1

207.7

161.5

1997

759.3

467.9

291.4

341.7

231.0

110.7

417.6

236.9

180.7

1998

805.4

488.8

316.6

370.5

245.4

125.1

434.9

243.3

191.5

1999

853.6

514.1

339.5

407.4

270.1

137.3

446.2

244.0

202.2

2000

1,006.4

589.2

417.2

471.3

300.9

170.4

535.1

288.3

246.8

2001

1,098.3

643.0

455.3

533.9

335.9

198.0

564.5

307.1

257.3

2002

1,252.2

728.4

523.8

603.2

378.9

224.3

648.9

349.5

299.5

2003

1,372.2

778.2

594.0

655.2

391.8

263.4

717.0

386.4

330.6

2004

1,479.0

816.4

662.7

711.1

413.6

297.5

767.9

402.7

365.2

2005

1,574.3

871.3

702.9

733.5

421.1

312.4

840.7

450.2

390.5

2006

1,636.4

900.0

736.4

805.3

457.3

348.0

831.0

442.7

388.4

2007

1,528.2

808.9

719.2

784.9

428.2

356.7

743.3

380.7

362.6

2008

1,660.3

865.4

794.9

874.1

470.9

403.3

786.1

394.5

391.6

2009

1,912.5 1,006.7

905.8

1,003.8

540.2

463.6

908.8

466.5

442.3

2010

2,030.6 1,065.5

965.1

1,115.9

590.6

525.3

914.7

474.9

439.8

10

Jadual A3 Bilangan siswazah bekerja mengikut sijil tertinggi diperoleh dan strata, Malaysia, 19822010
Number of employed graduates by highest certificate obtained and stratum, Malaysia, 19822010
Table A3

Bilangan/Number ('000)
Tahun
Year

Jumlah

Ijazah
Degree

Total

Diploma

Jumlah

Bandar

Luar
bandar

Jumlah

Bandar

Luar
bandar

Jumlah

Bandar

Luar
bandar

Total

Urban

Rural

Total

Urban

Rural

Total

Urban

Rural

1982

228.1

135.6

92.6

91.1

66.0

25.1

137.0

69.6

67.5

1983

221.9

131.9

90.0

86.6

62.6

24.1

135.3

69.4

65.9

1984

249.5

138.2

111.0

109.7

74.5

35.1

139.8

63.7

75.8

1985

271.0

153.5

117.4

120.2

82.2

38.0

150.8

71.2

79.5

1986

291.8

159.0

132.4

128.7

86.8

41.9

163.1

72.2

90.5

1987

304.1

164.6

139.5

139.1

87.7

51.4

165.0

76.9

88.2

1988

313.4

164.9

148.4

146.0

89.9

56.1

167.3

75.0

92.3

1989

337.3

179.1

158.2

148.8

93.2

55.7

188.4

85.9

102.5

1990

382.5

195.0

187.6

165.8

102.6

63.1

216.8

92.3

124.4

1992

453.2

361.0

92.1

210.2

183.9

26.4

242.9

177.2

65.8

1993

471.2

361.1

110.1

227.0

193.6

33.4

244.1

167.4

76.7

1995

563.1

439.6

123.5

256.7

219.8

36.9

306.4

219.8

86.6

1996

679.7

514.2

165.5

310.6

258.0

52.5

369.1

256.2

113.0

1997

759.3

585.1

174.2

341.7

285.4

56.3

417.6

299.7

117.9

1998

805.4

601.8

203.6

370.5

302.0

68.5

434.9

299.8

135.1

1999

853.6

653.7

199.9

407.4

335.6

71.7

446.2

318.0

128.2

2000

1,006.4

721.6

284.8

471.3

361.4

109.9

535.1

360.2

174.9

2001

1,098.3

945.1

153.2

533.9

479.1

54.7

564.5

466.0

98.5

2002

1,252.2

1,084.0

168.2

603.2

543.0

60.3

648.9

541.0

107.9

2003

1,372.2

1,158.6

213.6

655.2

578.9

76.3

717.0

579.7

137.3

2004

1,479.0

1,247.5

231.6

711.1

631.2

79.9

767.9

616.3

151.6

2005

1,574.3

1,342.3

231.9

733.5

655.2

78.3

840.7

687.1

153.6

2006

1,636.4

1,383.0

253.4

805.3

716.5

88.8

831.0

666.5

164.5

2007

1,528.2

1,284.3

243.9

784.9

672.5

112.4

743.3

611.8

131.5

2008

1,660.3

1,394.9

265.4

874.1

754.9

119.3

786.1

640.0

146.1

2009

1,912.5

1,599.9

312.6

1,003.8

860.7

143.0

908.8

739.2

169.6

2010

2,030.6

1,696.2

334.4

1,115.9

952.1

163.8

914.7

744.2

170.5

11

Jadual A4 Taburan peratus siswazah bekerja mengikut kumpulan etnik, Malaysia, 19822010
Percentage distribution of employed graduates by ethnic group, Malaysia, 19822010
Table A4

Warganegara Malaysia
Malaysian citizens
Tahun
Year

1982

Jumlah
Total

(%)

Jumlah
Total

Bumiputera

Cina
Chinese

India
Indians

Lain-lain
Others

Bukan
warganegara
Malaysia
NonMalaysian
citizens

100.0

96.9

50.1

36.5

7.6

2.7

3.1

1983

100.0

96.8

51.7

35.0

7.1

3.0

3.2

1984

100.0

95.6

52.4

34.8

7.0

1.4

4.4

1985

100.0

96.0

52.6

34.9

7.0

1.6

4.0

1986

100.0

96.2

54.7

33.0

7.3

1.1

3.8

1987

100.0

96.9

55.9

32.9

7.1

1.0

3.2

1988

100.0

96.6

56.9

33.0

6.0

0.6

3.5

1989

100.0

97.1

57.2

31.6

7.0

1.4

2.9

1990

100.0

97.4

57.2

32.7

6.6

1.0

2.6

1992

100.0

96.5

57.0

32.3

6.4

0.8

3.5

1993

100.0

95.1

59.7

28.5

5.5

1.4

4.9

1995

100.0

95.6

56.6

31.0

6.2

1.9

4.5

1996

100.0

93.6

55.5

30.0

6.6

1.6

6.4

1997

100.0

93.2

53.8

31.5

6.5

1.4

6.8

1998

100.0

93.7

54.5

31.0

6.4

1.8

6.3

1999

100.0

92.9

54.1

31.1

6.3

1.4

7.1

2000

100.0

96.1

57.3

31.8

6.6

0.4

3.9

2001

100.0

96.9

56.0

33.9

6.7

0.3

3.2

2002

100.0

95.9

54.6

33.8

7.0

0.5

4.1

2003

100.0

96.5

57.0

32.2

6.9

0.4

3.6

2004

100.0

96.6

57.0

32.0

7.1

0.5

3.4

2005

100.0

97.3

58.8

30.5

7.5

0.5

2.7

2006

100.0

97.1

58.7

30.7

7.4

0.3

3.0

2007

100.0

97.6

59.7

30.8

6.8

0.4

2.4

2008

100.0

97.9

60.0

30.4

7.1

0.4

2.1

2009

100.0

97.3

59.4

29.8

7.8

0.3

2.7

2010

100.0

97.8

62.2

27.9

7.2

0.5

2.3

12

Jadual A5

Bilangan siswazah bekerja mengikut kumpulan umur, Malaysia, 19822010

Table A5

Number of employed graduates by age group, Malaysia, 19822010

Bilangan/Number ('000)
Jumlah
Total

Bawah 20
tahun
Below 20
years

20-24

25-29

30-34

35 tahun dan
lebih
35 years and
over

1982

228.1

0.3

33.4

63.5

42.8

88.2

1983

221.9

0.1

30.8

64.8

42.5

83.7

1984

249.5

0.1

23.8

74.0

52.0

99.6

1985

271.0

0.1

27.7

79.9

59.6

103.7

1986

291.8

0.2

26.8

80.7

69.3

115.0

1987

304.1

0.4

29.3

78.4

75.2

120.8

1988

313.4

30.0

86.0

74.9

122.5

1989

337.3

0.3

38.5

87.0

76.7

134.8

1990

382.5

0.2

43.2

105.8

82.8

150.5

1992

453.2

0.3

45.9

126.1

94.1

186.7

1993

471.2

0.7

41.8

135.6

101.3

191.8

1995

563.1

1.1

66.8

145.2

123.9

226.1

1996

679.7

1.6

79.4

164.6

150.8

283.2

1997

759.3

1.7

91.9

194.0

162.6

309.1

1998

805.4

1.4

97.8

199.5

169.3

337.4

1999

853.6

1.3

106.7

214.1

172.4

359.0

2000

1,006.4

2.0

129.5

245.3

215.9

413.8

2001

1,098.3

2.5

151.9

263.1

219.8

461.0

2002

1,252.2

3.9

193.6

311.7

234.0

509.1

2003

1,372.2

3.4

202.8

328.9

259.2

578.0

2004

1,479.0

4.2

196.5

365.6

280.6

632.1

2005

1,574.3

2.7

219.5

403.2

306.7

642.1

2006

1,636.4

3.0

216.8

411.5

304.5

700.5

2007

1,528.2

1.2

174.6

426.1

279.0

647.3

2008

1,660.3

1.1

193.9

447.6

313.3

704.4

2009

1,912.5

1.3

198.3

502.7

376.6

833.6

2010

2,030.6

0.7

197.9

523.3

413.6

895.2

Tahun
Year

13

Jadual A6a

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah bekerja mengikut pekerjaan, Malaysia, 19822000

Table A6a

Number and percentage distribution of employed graduates by occupation, Malaysia, 19822000

Jumlah/Total
Tahun
Year
1982

Jumlah
Total
('000)
(%)

1983

Kategori pekerjaan/Category of occupation 1


1

228.1

172.9

30.9

12.0

4.1

1.8

2.5

3.9

100.0

75.8

13.5

5.3

1.8

0.8

1.1

221.9

165.6

33.0

11.6

4.8

1.2

1.9

1.7

0.6

0.9

1.7

3.8

100.0

74.6

14.9

5.2

2.1

249.5

180.8

37.0

14.6

7.5

2.4

3.4

100.0

72.5

14.8

5.9

3.0

1.0

1.3

271.0

197.7

42.0

15.6

7.3

2.5

2.5

1.5

100.0

73.0

15.5

5.8

2.7

0.9

0.9

291.8

207.4

47.6

15.9

8.8

2.3

4.0

1.2

100.0

71.1

16.3

5.4

3.0

0.8

1.4

304.1

213.2

44.6

23.1

9.9

3.9

3.2

2.0

100.0

70.1

14.7

7.6

3.3

1.3

1.1

313.4

221.5

45.7

21.4

9.8

2.7

3.8

2.1

100.0

70.7

14.6

6.8

3.1

0.9

1.2

2.7

1989

337.3

231.3

46.1

29.2

11.2

4.5

100.0

68.6

13.7

8.6

3.3

1.3

1.6

2.8

1990

382.5

265.5

49.9

34.3

13.8

5.7

3.1

10.2

100.0

69.4

13.1

9.0

3.6

1.5

0.8

1992

453.2

287.2

73.8

41.5

17.8

7.7

4.8

100.0

63.4

16.3

9.2

3.9

1.7

1.1

1993

471.2

285.6

87.5

46.0

19.6

5.9

3.5

100.0

60.6

18.6

9.8

4.2

1.3

0.7

1995

563.1

334.5

95.4

56.9

30.2

11.7

3.9

100.0

59.4

16.9

10.1

5.4

2.1

0.7

1996

679.7

411.2

125.3

64.6

33.8

12.3

4.3

100.0

60.5

18.4

9.5

5.0

1.8

0.6

1997

759.3

447.3

152.6

69.7

36.5

15.0

4.6

100.0

58.9

20.1

9.2

4.8

2.0

0.6

1998

805.4

476.0

163.9

76.5

36.7

16.6

6.4

100.0

59.1

20.3

9.5

4.6

2.1

0.8

1999

853.6

476.6

169.7

92.4

49.0

15.0

5.9

100.0

55.8

19.9

10.8

5.7

1.8

0.7

5.3

2000

1,006.4

573.9

195.4

105.8

57.6

19.1

6.4

48.1

100.0

57.0

19.4

10.5

5.7

1.9

0.6

4.8

1984
1985
1986
1987
1988

5.5

Nota/Note :
1

Pekerjaan dikelaskan mengikut "Kamus Pengelasan Pekerjaan, 1980". Kategori pekerjaan adalah seperti berikut:
Occupation is classified according to the "Dictionary of Occupational Classification, 1980 ". Category of occupation are as follows:
1

Pekerja profesional, teknik dan yang berkaitan


Professional, technical and related workers

Pekerja pentadbiran dan pengurusan


Administrative and managerial workers

Pekerja perkeranian dan yang berkaitan


Clerical and related workers

Pekerja jualan
Sales workers

Pekerja perkhidmatan
Service workers

Pekerja pertanian, penternakan dan perhutanan, nelayan dan pemburu


Agricultural, animal husbandry and forestry workers, fishermen and hunters

Pekerja pengeluaran dan yang berkaitan, operator peralatan pengangkutan dan buruh
Production and related workers, transport equipment operators and labourers

14

3.7
3.3
5.9
6.3
8.5
9.6

2.7

20.4
4.5

23.1
4.9

30.4
5.4

28.3
4.2

33.7
4.4

29.2
3.6

45.0

Jadual A6b

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah (ijazah) bekerja mengikut pekerjaan, Malaysia, 19822000

Table A6b

Number and percentage distribution of employed graduates (degree) by occupation, Malaysia,


19822000

Ijazah/Degree
Tahun
Year
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1992
1993
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000

Kategori pekerjaan/Category of occupation 1

Jumlah
Total
('000)
(%)

91.1

56.1

23.8

5.5

2.6

0.7

1.1

1.4

100.0

61.6

26.1

6.0

2.9

0.7

1.2

1.5

86.6

52.4

25.0

4.9

2.8

100.0

60.5

28.9

5.7

3.3

109.7

67.7

27.3

5.8

4.5

1.2

1.4

1.7

100.0

61.8

24.9

5.3

4.1

1.1

1.3

1.5

120.2

75.5

30.7

6.3

4.1

1.2

1.1

1.2

100.0

62.8

25.5

5.2

3.4

1.0

0.9

1.0

128.7

76.7

35.9

6.1

5.8

1.0

1.2

1.9

100.0

59.6

27.9

4.8

4.5

0.8

1.0

1.5

139.1

85.0

33.3

9.8

5.8

1.6

1.4

2.2

100.0

61.1

23.9

7.1

4.2

1.2

1.0

1.5

146.0

91.1

35.4

8.1

5.7

1.3

1.6

2.9

100.0

62.4

24.2

5.5

3.9

0.9

1.1

2.0

148.8

90.2

35.4

11.1

6.1

1.3

2.2

2.5

100.0

60.6

23.8

7.5

4.1

0.9

1.5

1.7

165.8

100.6

38.9

13.0

7.4

2.3

1.6

1.9

100.0

60.7

23.5

7.9

4.5

1.4

1.0

1.1

210.2

126.9

51.9

12.9

8.8

2.8

2.1

4.8

100.0

60.4

24.7

6.1

4.2

1.3

1.0

2.3

227.0

129.7

61.5

17.7

8.4

1.2

1.7

6.9

100.0

57.1

27.1

7.8

3.7

0.5

0.7

3.0

256.7

150.3

61.4

15.9

15.3

3.7

1.5

8.6

100.0

58.6

23.9

6.2

6.0

1.4

0.6

3.3

310.6

183.2

83.4

18.0

15.5

2.8

1.7

6.0

100.0

59.0

26.9

5.8

5.0

0.9

0.5

1.9

341.7

197.7

96.6

17.1

17.6

4.2

1.5

7.0

100.0

57.9

28.3

5.0

5.2

1.2

0.4

2.0

370.5

216.1

101.4

22.4

16.8

4.7

2.9

6.2

100.0

58.3

27.4

6.0

4.5

1.3

0.8

1.7

407.4

228.5

110.4

27.7

23.6

4.0

2.5

100.0

56.1

27.1

6.8

5.8

1.0

0.6

471.3

271.4

123.6

33.2

26.9

5.7

2.8

7.7

100.0

57.6

26.2

7.1

5.7

1.2

0.6

1.6

0.1

0.1

0.4

1.0

0.5

1.1

10.6

Nota/Note:
1

Pekerjaan dikelaskan mengikut "Kamus Pengelasan Pekerjaan, 1980". Kategori pekerjaan adalah seperti berikut:
Occupation is classified according to the "Dictionary of Occupational Classification, 1980" . Category of occupation are as follows:
1

Pekerja profesional, teknik dan yang berkaitan


Professional, technical and related workers

Pekerja pentadbiran dan pengurusan


Administrative and managerial workers

Pekerja perkeranian dan yang berkaitan


Clerical and related workers

Pekerja jualan

Pekerja perkhidmatan

Sales workers
Service workers
6

Pekerja pertanian, penternakan dan perhutanan, nelayan dan pemburu


Agricultural, animal husbandry and forestry workers, fishermen and hunters

Pekerja pengeluaran dan yang berkaitan, operator peralatan pengangkutan dan buruh
Production and related workers, transport equipment operators and labourers

15

2.6

Jadual A6c
Table A6c

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah (diploma) bekerja mengikut pekerjaan, Malaysia,
19822000
Number and percentage distribution of employed graduates (diploma) by occupation,
Malaysia, 19822000

Diploma
Tahun
Year

Jumlah
Total

Kategori pekerjaan/Category of occupation 1


1

137.0

116.8

7.1

6.6

1.4

1.1

1.4

2.6

100.0

85.3

5.2

4.8

1.1

0.8

1.0

1.9

135.3

113.2

8.0

6.7

1.9

1.2

1.5

2.8

100.0

83.7

5.9

4.9

1.4

0.9

1.1

2.1

139.8

113.1

9.7

8.9

3.0

1.3

2.0

2.0

100.0

6.9

6.3

2.1

0.9

1.4

1.4

150.8

80.9

122.2

11.3

9.3

3.2

1.3

100.0

81.0

7.5

6.2

2.1

0.9

163.1

130.7

11.7

9.7

3.0

1.2

2.8

4.0

100.0

80.1

7.2

6.0

1.8

0.7

1.7

2.5

165.0

128.2

11.3

13.2

4.0

2.3

1.9

4.1

100.0

77.7

6.9

8.0

2.5

1.4

1.1

2.5

167.3

130.4

10.3

13.4

4.1

1.4

2.2

5.6

100.0

77.9

6.2

8.0

2.4

0.8

1.3

3.4

188.4

141.1

10.6

18.0

5.1

3.2

3.2

7.1

100.0

74.9

5.6

9.6

2.7

1.7

1.7

3.8

216.8

164.9

11.0

21.3

6.4

3.4

1.4

8.3

100.0

76.1

5.1

9.8

3.0

1.6

0.7

3.8

242.9

160.3

21.8

28.6

9.0

4.9

2.7

15.6

100.0

66.0

9.0

11.8

3.7

2.0

1.1

6.4

1993

244.1

155.9

26.0

28.3

11.2

4.7

1.8

16.2

100.0

63.9

10.7

11.6

4.6

1.9

0.7

6.7

1995

306.4

184.2

34.0

41.0

14.8

8.1

2.4

21.8

100.0

60.1

11.1

13.4

4.8

2.6

0.8

7.1

1996

369.1

228.0

41.9

46.6

18.2

9.5

2.6

22.3

100.0

61.8

11.3

12.6

4.9

2.6

0.7

6.1

1997

417.6

249.6

56.0

52.6

18.9

10.8

3.1

26.7

100.0

59.8

13.4

12.6

4.5

2.6

0.7

6.4

1998

434.9

259.9

62.5

54.2

19.9

11.8

3.5

23.0

100.0

59.8

14.4

12.5

4.6

2.7

0.8

5.3

1999

446.2

248.2

59.3

64.7

25.5

10.9

3.3

34.4

100.0

55.6

13.3

14.5

5.7

2.4

0.7

7.7

2000

535.1

302.6

71.9

72.6

30.7

13.5

3.5

40.4

100.0

56.5

13.4

13.6

5.7

2.5

0.7

7.6

1982

('000)
(%)

1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1992

1.4

2.2

0.9

1.4

Nota/Note:
1

Pekerjaan dikelaskan mengikut "Kamus Pengelasan Pekerjaan, 1980". Kategori pekerjaan adalah seperti berikut:
Occupation is classified according to the "Dictionary of Occupational Classification, 1980" . Category of occupation are as follows:
1

Pekerja profesional, teknik dan yang berkaitan


Professional, technical and related workers

Pekerja pentadbiran dan pengurusan


Administrative and managerial workers

Pekerja perkeranian dan yang berkaitan


Clerical and related workers

Pekerja jualan
Sales workers

Pekerja perkhidmatan
Service workers

Pekerja pertanian, penternakan dan perhutanan, nelayan dan pemburu


Agricultural, animal husbandry and forestry workers, fishermen and hunters

Pekerja pengeluaran dan yang berkaitan, operator peralatan pengangkutan dan buruh
Production and related workers, transport equipment operators and labourers

16

Jadual A7
Table A7

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah bekerja mengikut sijil tertinggi diperoleh dan pekerjaan, Malaysia,
20012010
Number and percentage distribution of employed graduates by highest certificate obtained and occupation,
Malaysia, 20012010

Tahun
Year

Jumlah
Total

Kategori pekerjaan/Category of occupation 1


1

Jumlah/Total
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

('000)
(%)

1,098.3

239.7

374.9

343.8

77.6

28.3

2.3

16.3

10.9

4.7

100.0

21.8

34.1

31.3

7.1

2.6

0.2

1.5

1.0

0.4

285.6

403.8

372.3

105.6

40.6

3.9

17.3

14.3

8.7

22.8

32.2

29.7

8.4

3.2

0.3

1.4

1.1

0.7

293.3

441.4

408.7

122.7

48.0

4.7

26.1

20.0

7.4

21.4

32.2

29.8

8.9

3.5

0.3

1.9

1.5

0.5

324.5

475.6

440.3

127.3

55.4

7.3

21.5

19.1

8.0

21.9

32.2

29.8

8.6

3.7

0.5

1.5

1.3

0.5

322.5

477.7

487.5

155.9

60.8

5.4

31.0

23.3

10.0

20.5

30.3

31.0

9.9

3.9

0.3

2.0

1.5

0.6

490.9

512.7

149.0

62.7

8.9

36.0

26.6

10.3
0.6

1,252.2
100.0

1,372.2
100.0

1,479.0
100.0

1,574.3
100.0

2006

1,636.4

339.2

2007

1,528.2

20.7

30.0

31.3

9.1

3.8

0.5

2.2

1.6

295.6

495.5

486.1

141.8

60.1

6.1

20.7

15.3

6.9

19.3

32.4

31.8

9.3

3.9

0.4

1.4

1.0

0.5

309.2

515.1

547.4

169.7

67.4

8.0

19.1

12.3

12.1

1,912.5

18.6

31.0

33.0

10.2

4.1

0.5

1.2

0.7

0.7

357.7

606.7

622.1

179.5

86.4

9.9

25.4

16.1

8.8

100.0

2,030.6

18.7

31.7

32.5

9.4

4.5

0.5

1.3

0.8

0.5

376.4

622.7

684.0

199.8

80.2

9.3

31.0

14.9

12.2

533.9

152.4

274.1

75.8

17.9

6.2

1.1

2.4

2.2

1.8

28.5

51.3

14.2

3.4

1.2

0.2

0.4

0.4

0.3

185.7

194.4

79.2

19.3

14.4

1.1

2.6

4.0

2.6

30.8

48.8

13.1

3.2

2.4

0.2

0.4

0.7

0.4

177.6

332.5

92.0

28.2

14.4

1.1

2.5

4.5

2.4

27.1

50.8

14.0

4.3

2.2

0.2

0.4

0.7

0.4

201.8

361.3

98.1

25.7

13.8

2.2

2.8

3.8

1.6

28.4

50.8

13.8

3.6

1.9

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.1

197.4

357.8

119.3

34.6

15.7

1.1

3.1

3.0

1.5

26.9

48.8

16.3

4.7

2.1

0.2

0.4

0.4

0.2

221.6

376.1

139.7

36.6

17.8

2.7

4.4

3.7

2.6

27.5

46.7

17.3

4.5

2.2

0.3

0.6

0.5

0.3

189.2

375.1

151.4

37.5

19.0

2.1

4.3

3.8

2.5

24.1

47.8

19.3

4.8

2.4

0.3

0.5

0.5

0.3

204.5

406.0

183.3

46.3

21.6

2.7

3.1

1.8

4.9

23.4

46.5

21.0

5.3

2.5

0.3

0.4

0.2

0.6

231.7

480.7

209.2

47.6

23.3

2.6

3.3

3.3

1.9

1,115.9

23.1

47.9

20.8

4.7

2.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.2

252.7

512.8

257.3

52.1

26.2

3.1

5.8

3.5

2.5

100.0

22.7

46.0

23.1

4.7

2.4

0.3

0.5

0.3

0.2

564.5

87.2

100.8

268.0

59.6

22.0

1.2

13.9

8.7

2.8

100.0

15.5

17.9

47.5

10.6

3.9

0.2

2.5

1.5

0.5

2008
2009
2010

100.0
100.0

1,660.3
100.0

100.0

Ijazah/Degree
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Diploma
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010

100.0

603.2
100.0

655.2
100.0

711.1
100.0

733.5
100.0

805.3
100.0

784.9
100.0

874.1
100.0

1,003.8
100.0

18.5

30.7

33.7

9.8

4.0

0.5

1.5

0.6

648.9

100.0

109.4

293.1

86.3

26.2

2.7

14.7

10.3

100.0

15.4

16.9

45.2

13.3

94.5

4.0

33.6

0.4

3.6

2.3

23.6

1.6

15.6

0.9

13.2

4.7

0.5

3.3

2.2

0.7

717.0

115.8

108.9

316.7

100.0

16.1

15.2

44.2

6.1
5.0

767.9

122.7

114.3

342.1

101.6

41.6

5.1

18.7

15.3

100.0

16.0

14.9

44.6

13.2

5.4

0.7

2.4

2.0

0.8

6.3

840.7

125.2

119.9

368.2

121.4

45.1

4.3

27.9

20.3

100.0

14.9

14.3

43.8

14.4

5.4

0.5

3.3

2.4

1.0

8.5

831.0

117.6

114.8

373.0

112.4

44.9

6.2

31.6

22.8

100.0

14.1

13.8

44.9

13.5

5.4

0.8

4.0

3.8

16.4

2.7

11.5

0.9

0.5

2.2

1.5

0.6

7.7

743.3

106.5

120.3

334.7

104.3

41.1

100.0

14.3

16.2

45.0

14.0

5.5

104.7

109.1

364.1

123.5

45.8

5.3

16.0

10.5

7.2

13.3

13.9

46.3

15.7

5.8

0.7

2.0

1.3

0.9

126.0

126.1

412.9

131.8

63.0

7.2

22.1

12.7

6.9

13.9

13.9

45.4

14.5

6.9

0.8

6.3

2.4

25.2

1.4

11.4

0.8

0.7

2.8

1.2

1.1

786.1
100.0

908.8
100.0

914.7
100.0

123.7

109.9

426.8

147.7

54.0

13.5

12.0

46.7

16.2

5.9

Nota/Note :
1

0.7

Pekerjaan dikelaskan mengikut "Piawaian Pengelasan Pekerjaan, Malaysia (MASCO) 1998". Keterangan kategori pekerjaan adalah seperti
di muka surat 58 dan 59
Occupation is classified according to the " Malaysia Standard of Classification Occupations (MASCO) 1998 " . Category of occupation
is described on page 58 and 59

17

4.4

9.7

Jadual A8a Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah bekerja mengikut industri, Malaysia, 19822000
Table A8a Number and percentage distribution of employed graduates by industry, Malaysia, 19822000
Jumlah/Total
Tahun
Year

Jumlah
Total

Kategori industri/Category of industry 1


A

228.1
100.0

3.8
1.7

2.6
1.1

14.7
6.5

1.1
0.5

6.2
2.7

11.3
5.0

2.9
1.3

21.3
9.4

164.2
72.0

1983

221.9
100.0

3.4
1.5

2.7
1.2

13.8
6.2

1.5
0.7

5.8
2.6

13.7
6.2
13.8
5.5

2.3
1.0
4.4
1.8

20.6
9.3

158.1
71.3

1984

249.5
100.0

4.4
1.8

4.3
1.7

17.2
6.9

1.8
0.7

10.8
4.3

26.6
10.7

166.1
66.6

1985

271.0
100.0

3.7
1.4

4.5
1.7

19.7
7.3

1.7
0.6

9.4
3.5

4.5
1.6
5.2
1.8
5.6
1.8
3.9
1.2
8.0
2.4

32.2
11.9

179.4
66.2

37.2
12.8

190.7
65.4

37.6
12.4

201.6
66.3

36.0
11.5

206.6
65.9

9.5
2.8

15.8
5.8
16.0
5.5
18.0
5.9
21.7
6.9
23.2
6.9

1986

291.8
100.0

5.3
1.8

4.8
1.7

21.3
7.3

1.1
0.4

10.1
3.4

1987

304.1
100.0

4.3
1.4

3.4
1.1

23.8
7.8

2.0
0.7

7.9
2.6

1988

313.4
100.0

4.6
1.5

4.0
1.3

23.8
7.6

4.3
1.4

8.6
2.8

1989

337.3
100.0

6.1
1.8

2.9
0.9

28.2
8.3

2.9
0.9

40.2
11.9

216.4
64.2

1990

382.5
100.0

3.2
0.8

5.9
1.5

36.3
9.5

3.3
0.9

9.6
2.5

25.4
6.6

7.1
1.9

48.3
12.6

243.4
63.6

1992

453.2
100.0

6.2
1.4

6.9
1.5

53.5
11.8

3.5
0.8

16.1
3.6

256.0
56.5

66.7
14.2

5.0
1.1

22.1
4.7

68.4
14.5

248.9
52.8

5.4
1.0

7.1
1.3

84.0
14.9

4.2
0.7

33.9
6.0

87.6
15.6

268.3
47.6

679.7
100.0

5.9
0.9

6.2
0.9

97.3
14.3

5.4
0.8

41.9
6.2

12.7
2.8
14.3
3.0
17.2
3.1
21.4
3.1

63.8
14.1

7.4
1.6

34.4
7.6
34.6
7.3
55.3
9.8
64.2
9.4

1993

471.2
100.0

3.6
0.8

1995

563.1
100.0

1996

111.6
16.4

326.1
48.0

1997

759.3
100.0

6.0
0.8

5.9
0.8

109.7
14.4

7.0
0.9

52.0
6.8

345.8
45.5

805.4
100.0

8.9
1.1

4.7
0.6

122.2
15.2

7.8
1.0

50.9
6.3

128.5
16.0

370.5
46.0

1999

853.6
100.0

8.2
1.0

8.8
1.0

136.8
16.0

6.2
0.7

51.9
6.1

149.1
17.5

370.2
43.4

2000

1,006.4
100.0

9.2
0.9

6.4
0.6

165.1
16.4

7.1
0.7

64.2
6.4

28.1
3.7
28.6
3.5
31.1
3.6
33.1

132.1
17.4

1998

72.8
9.6
83.3
10.3
91.3
10.7
109.2
10.9

3.3

157.1
15.6

455.2
45.2

1982

('000)
(%)

Nota/Note:
1

Industri dikelaskan mengikut "Buku Penjenisan Perusahaan Malaysia (Dikemaskini) 1972". Kategori industri adalah seperti berikut:
Industry is classified according to the " Malaysia Industrial Classification, (Updated) 1972 ". Category of occupation are as follows:
A

Pertanian, perhutanan, penternakan dan perikanan

Perdagangan borong dan runcit, restoran dan hotel

Pengangkutan, penyimpanan dan perhubungan

Perkhidmatan kewangan, insurans, hartanah dan


perniagaan

Perkhidmatan masyarakat, sosial dan persendirian

Agriculture, forestry, livestock and fishing


B

Wholesale and retail trade, restaurants and hotels

Perlombongan dan kuari


Mining and quarrying

Pembuatan
Manufacturing

Elektrik, gas dan air

Transport, storage and communications

Finance, insurance, real estate and business services

Electricity, gas and water


E

Community, social and personal services

Pembinaan
Construction

18

Jadual A8b

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah (ijazah) bekerja mengikut industri, Malaysia, 19822000

Table A8b

Number and percentage distribution of employed graduates (degree) by industry, Malaysia, 19822000

Ijazah/Degree
Tahun
Year

Jumlah
Total

Kategori industri/Category of industry

91.1
100.0

2.1
2.3

1.6
1.7

9.8
10.8

0.6
0.6

3.9
4.2

7.4
8.1

1.5
1.6

14.1
15.4

50.3
55.2

1983

86.6
100.0

1.9
2.2

1.8
2.1

9.3
10.7

1.0
1.2

3.2
3.7

8.6
10.0

1.2
1.4

13.0
15.0

46.5
53.7

1984

109.7
100.0

1.9
1.8

2.8
2.6

11.2
10.2

1.1
1.0

7.4
6.7

8.6
7.8

2.9
2.6

18.1
16.5

55.6
50.7

1985

120.2
100.0

1.6
1.4

2.9
2.4

13.6
11.3

1.1
0.9

6.0
5.0

9.5
7.9

2.5
2.1

22.3
18.5

60.6
50.4

1986

128.7
100.0

2.2
1.7

3.4
2.6

13.9
10.8

0.6
0.5

6.4
5.0

10.7
8.3

2.3
1.8

24.2
18.8

65.0
50.5

1987

139.1
100.0

2.1
1.5

2.9
2.1

15.8
11.4

1.6
1.1

4.6
3.3

11.0
7.9

2.6
1.8

24.0
17.2

74.4
53.5

1988

146.0
100.0

2.3
1.6

2.5
1.7

14.4
9.9

3.4
2.3

6.4
4.3

13.5
9.3

2.5
1.7

24.5
16.8

76.5
52.4

1989

148.8
100.0

2.8
1.9

1.8
1.2

16.3
11.0

1.7
1.2

5.6
3.7

13.2
8.8

4.2
2.8

25.3
17.0

78.0
52.4

1990

165.8
100.0

1.8
1.1

4.6
2.8

20.7
12.5

2.4
1.4

4.7
2.8

14.5
8.7

3.7
2.2

30.4
18.3

83.0
50.1

1992

210.2
100.0

2.9
1.4

4.8
2.3

28.0
13.3

2.1
1.0

8.1
3.9

17.6
8.4

6.1
2.9

39.6
18.8

101.1
48.1

1993

227.0
100.0

1.6
0.7

4.5
2.0

38.7
17.0

2.8
1.2

13.3
5.9

16.6
7.3

7.1
3.1

42.0
18.5

100.4
44.2

1995

256.7
100.0

2.6
1.0

3.6
1.4

42.7
16.6

2.1
0.8

16.5
6.4

25.3
9.9

7.5
2.9

49.1
19.1

107.2
41.8

1996

310.6
100.0

2.6
0.8

3.1
1.0

46.8
15.1

2.5
0.8

24.8
8.0

27.6
8.9

10.6
3.4

64.9
20.9

127.6
41.1

1997

341.7
100.0

2.3
0.7

4.6
1.4

47.6
13.9

3.2
0.9

27.1
7.9

31.6
9.3

10.4
3.1

78.2
22.9

136.6
40.0

1998

370.5
100.0

4.3
1.2

2.7
0.7

60.0
16.2

4.6
1.2

26.7
7.2

34.9
9.4

12.5
3.4

71.1
19.2

153.8
41.5

1999

407.4
100.0

3.9
1.0

7.0
1.7

65.0
15.9

3.1
0.8

25.8
6.3

41.5
10.2

14.8
3.6

86.4
21.2

160.0
39.3

2000

471.3
100.0

3.8
0.8

4.5
1.0

76.1
16.1

3.9
0.8

33.4
7.1

47.9
10.2

15.2
3.2

94.0
19.9

192.6
40.9

1982

('000)
(%)

Nota/Note:
1

Industri dikelaskan mengikut "Buku Penjenisan Perusahaan Malaysia (Dikemaskini) 1972". Kategori industri adalah seperti berikut:
Industry is classified according to the " Malaysia Industrial Classification, (Updated) 1972 ". Category of occupation are as follows:
A

Pertanian, perhutanan, penternakan dan perikanan

Agriculture, forestry, livestock and fishing


B

Wholesale and retail trade, restaurants and hotels

Perlombongan dan kuari

Mining and quarrying


C

Perkhidmatan kewangan, insurans, hartanah dan


perniagaan
Finance, insurance, real estate and business services

Elektrik, gas dan air


Electricity, gas and water

Pengangkutan, penyimpanan dan perhubungan


Transport, storage and communications

Pembuatan
Manufacturing

Perdagangan borong dan runcit, restoran dan hotel

Perkhidmatan masyarakat, sosial dan persendirian


Community, social and personal services

Pembinaan
Construction

19

Jadual A8c

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah (diploma) bekerja mengikut industri, Malaysia, 19822000

Table A8c

Number and percentage distribution of employed graduates (diploma) by industry, Malaysia,


19822000

Diploma
Tahun
Year

Kategori industri/Category of industry 1

Jumlah
Total

137.0
100.0

1.7
1.3

1.0
0.8

1983

135.3
100.0

1.5
1.1

1984

139.8
100.0

1985

150.8
100.0

1982

('000)
(%)

1986
1987

4.9
3.6

0.6
0.4

2.3
1.7

3.9
2.9

0.8
0.6

4.5
3.3

0.5
0.4

2.6
1.9

2.5
1.8

1.5
1.1

6.0
4.3

0.6
0.4

2.0
1.4

1.6
1.1

6.1
4.1

0.7
0.4

1.4
1.0

7.3
5.3

113.9
83.1

5.1
3.7

1.1
0.8

7.6
5.6

111.6
82.5

3.4
2.4

5.2
3.8

1.5
1.1

8.5
6.1

110.5
79.0

3.4
2.3

6.2
4.1

2.0
1.3

9.9
6.6

118.9
78.8
125.7

163.1

3.0

1.5

7.4

0.5

3.6

5.3

2.9

13.1

100.0

1.9

0.9

4.5

0.3

2.2

3.3

1.8

8.0

77.1

165.0

2.1

0.5

7.9

0.4

3.3

7.0

3.0

13.6

127.2

100.0

1.3

0.3

4.8

0.2

2.0

4.2

1.8

8.2

77.1

1988

167.3
100.0

2.3
1.4

1.5
0.9

9.4
5.6

0.9
0.5

2.3
1.4

8.1
4.9

1.3
0.8

11.4
6.8

130.0
77.7

1989

188.4
100.0

3.3
1.8

1.1
0.6

11.8
6.3

1.1
0.6

4.0
2.1

10.0
5.3

3.8
2.0

14.9
7.9

138.5
73.5

1990

216.8
100.0

1.4
0.7

1.2
0.6

15.6
7.2

0.9
0.4

4.9
2.3

10.9
5.0

3.4
1.6

17.9
8.3

160.4
74.0

1992

242.9
100.0

3.3
1.4

2.1
0.9

25.5
10.5

1.5
0.6

8.0
3.3

16.8
6.9

6.6
2.7

24.2
10.0

154.9
63.8

1993

244.1
100.0

2.0
0.8

2.9
1.2

28.1
11.5

2.2
0.9

8.9
3.6

18.1
7.4

7.1
2.9

26.4
10.8

148.5
60.8

1995

306.4
100.0

2.9
0.9

3.5
1.1

41.3
13.5

2.1
0.7

17.4
5.7

30.0
9.8

9.7
3.2

38.5
12.6

161.1
52.6

1996

369.1
100.0

3.3
0.9

3.1
0.8

50.4
13.7

3.0
0.8

17.1
4.6

36.3
9.8

10.8
2.9

46.7
12.6

198.5
53.8

1997

417.6
100.0

3.7
0.9

1.2
0.3

62.1
14.9

3.8
0.9

24.9
6.0

41.1
9.8

17.6
4.2

53.9
12.9

209.3
50.1

1998

434.9
100.0

4.6
1.1

2.0
0.5

62.3
14.3

3.2
0.7

24.2
5.6

48.4
11.1

16.1
3.7

57.3
13.2

216.7
49.8

1999

446.2
100.0

4.3
1.0

1.8
0.4

71.9
16.1

3.1
0.7

26.2
5.9

49.8
11.2

16.3
3.6

62.7
14.1

210.2
47.1

2000

535.1
100.0

5.4
1.0

1.9
0.4

89.0
16.6

3.1
0.6

30.8
5.8

61.3
11.5

17.9
3.3

63.1
11.8

262.6
49.1

Nota/Note:
1

Industri dikelaskan mengikut "Buku Penjenisan Perusahaan Malaysia (Dikemaskini) 1972". Kategori industri adalah seperti berikut:
Industry is classified according to the " Malaysia Industrial Classification, (Updated) 1972" . Category of occupation are as follows:
A

Pertanian, perhutanan, penternakan dan perikanan

Agriculture, forestry, livestock and fishing


B

Perlombongan dan kuari

Mining and quarrying


C

Perdagangan borong dan runcit, restoran dan hotel


Wholesale and retail trade, restaurants and hotels
Pengangkutan, penyimpanan dan perhubungan
Transport, storage and communications

Pembuatan

Perkhidmatan kewangan, insurans, hartanah dan

Manufacturing

perniagaan

Elektrik, gas dan air

Finance, insurance, real estate and business services

Pembinaan

Electricity, gas and water

Perkhidmatan masyarakat, sosial dan persendirian


Community, social and personal services

Construction

20

Jadual A9
Table A9

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah bekerja mengikut sijil tertinggi diperoleh dan industri, Malaysia,
20012009
Number and percentage distribution of employed graduates by highest certificate obtained and industry,
Malaysia, 20012009

Tahun
Year

Jumlah
Total

Kategori industri/Category of industry 1


A

1,098.3
100.0
1,252.2
100.0
1,372.2
100.0
1,479.0
100.0
1,574.3
100.0
1,636.4
100.0
1,528.2
100.0
1,660.3
100.0
1,912.5
100.0

8.2
0.7
10.9
0.9
13.5
1.0
15.3
1.0
15.6
1.0
16.4
1.0
17.5
1.1
16.6
1.0
22.6
1.2

0.1
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.7
0.0
1.0
0.1
0.6
0.0
0.9
0.1
1.1
0.1

4.8
0.4
4.3
0.3
4.4
0.3
7.4
0.5
8.5
0.5
10.7
0.7
8.8
0.6
12.8
0.8
19.3
1.0

179.0
16.3
197.6
15.8
222.2
16.2
224.4
15.2
238.5
15.1
270.1
16.5
231.8
15.2
232.8
14.0
260.6
13.6

8.3
0.8
7.8
0.6
12.0
0.9
10.7
0.7
10.7
0.7
17.3
1.1
13.6
0.9
14.7
0.9
15.2
0.8

66.1
6.0
84.1
6.7
82.9
6.0
85.6
5.8
86.1
5.5
102.5
6.3
77.9
5.1
96.7
5.8
103.7
5.4

120.8
11.0
139.7
11.2
156.0
11.4
157.8
10.7
177.4
11.3
170.7
10.4
149.9
9.8
162.3
9.8
187.0
9.8

19.5
1.8
25.7
2.1
28.5
2.1
37.9
2.6
36.1
2.3
32.9
2.0
34.5
2.3
34.9
2.1
45.7
2.4

533.9
100.0
603.2
100.0
655.2
100.0
711.1
100.0
733.5
100.0
805.3
100.0
784.9
100.0
874.1
100.0
1,003.8
100.0

4.1
0.8
4.1
0.7
5.7
0.9
4.7
0.7
5.0
0.7
7.2
0.9
9.1
1.2
6.3
0.7
8.0
0.8

0.1
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.5
0.1
0.3
0.0
0.5
0.1
0.2
0.0

3.4
0.6
3.5
0.6
3.1
0.5
4.8
0.7
4.4
0.6
6.7
0.8
5.9
0.7
8.6
1.0
11.8
1.2

90.0
16.9
88.4
14.7
95.7
14.6
102.6
14.4
106.3
14.5
122.9
15.3
111.3
14.2
118.6
13.6
130.4
13.0

3.6
0.7
3.6
0.6
5.5
0.8
4.3
0.6
4.8
0.7
8.1
1.0
6.2
0.8
8.5
1.0
6.5
0.7

30.7
5.7
37.5
6.2
40.2
6.1
40.8
5.7
36.5
5.0
46.9
5.8
36.5
4.6
47.1
5.4
50.8
5.1

54.0
10.1
62.7
10.4
64.5
9.8
64.9
9.1
68.6
9.3
74.0
9.2
71.7
9.1
70.2
8.0
78.1
7.8

6.6
1.2
8.3
1.4
6.6
1.0
7.4
1.0
9.1
1.2
9.9
1.2
12.3
1.6
10.8
1.2
12.3
1.2

564.5
100.0
648.9
100.0
717.0
100.0
767.9
100.0
840.7
100.0
831.0
100.0
743.3
100.0
786.1
100.0
908.8
100.0

4.1
0.7
6.8
1.0
7.8
1.1
10.6
1.4
10.6
1.3
9.2
1.1
8.5
1.1
10.3
1.3
14.6
1.6

0.2
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.5
0.1
0.5
0.1
0.3
0.0
0.4
0.1
0.9
0.1

1.4
0.2
0.7
0.1
1.3
0.2
2.5
0.3
4.2
0.5
4.0
0.5
2.9
0.4
4.2
0.5
7.4
0.8

89.0
15.8
109.2
16.8
126.6
17.7
121.8
15.9
132.2
15.7
147.1
17.7
120.4
16.2
114.2
14.5
130.2
14.3

4.7
0.8
4.2
0.6
6.5
0.9
6.4
0.8
5.9
0.7
9.2
1.1
7.4
1.0
6.1
0.8
8.8
1.0

35.5
6.3
46.7
7.2
42.6
5.9
44.7
5.8
49.6
5.9
55.6
6.7
41.5
5.6
49.5
6.3
52.8
5.8

66.7
11.8
77.0
11.9
91.6
12.8
92.9
12.1
108.8
12.9
96.6
11.6
78.2
10.5
92.2
11.7
108.9
12.0

12.9
2.3
17.4
2.7
21.8
3.0
30.5
4.0
27.0
3.2
23.0
2.8
22.2
3.0
24.0
3.1
33.3
3.7

Jumlah/Total
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Ijazah/Degree
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009

('000)
(%)

Diploma
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Nota/Note :
1

Industri dikelaskan mengikut "Piawaian Klasifikasi Industri Malaysia (MSIC) 2000". Keterangan kategori industri adalah seperti di muka surat 60
Industry is classified according to the "Malaysia Standard Industrial Classification (MSIC) 2000". Category of industry is described on page 60

21

Jadual A9
Table A9

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah bekerja mengikut sijil tertinggi diperoleh dan industri, Malaysia,
20012009 (samb.)
Number and percentage distribution of employed graduates by highest certificate obtained and
industry, Malaysia, 20012009 (cont'd)

Tahun
Year
Jumlah/Total
2001
('000)
(%)
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Ijazah/Degree
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009

Kategori industri/Category of industry 1


I

47.0
4.3
52.9
4.2
61.5
4.5
64.3
4.3
65.4
4.2
74.6
4.6
66.7
4.4
71.6
4.3
86.4
4.5

79.1
7.2
95.7
7.6
84.3
6.1
98.9
6.7
116.9
7.4
112.1
6.8
120.4
7.9
123.1
7.4
128.2
6.7

113.7
10.4
150.1
12.0
139.3
10.1
171.5
11.6
175.6
11.2
188.9
11.5
175.3
11.5
179.6
10.8
214.4
11.2

93.8
8.5
107.9
8.6
104.3
7.6
118.1
8.0
144.7
9.2
127.4
7.8
121.9
8.0
150.0
9.0
176.4
9.2

297.8
27.1
303.8
24.3
373.2
27.2
395.4
26.7
386.7
24.6
391.8
23.9
392.8
25.7
421.9
25.4
487.6
25.5

41.5
3.8
49.1
3.9
62.3
4.5
65.4
4.4
80.4
5.1
89.1
5.4
90.0
5.9
103.2
6.2
123.0
6.4

17.6
1.6
18.4
1.5
22.8
1.7
22.8
1.5
27.1
1.7
26.8
1.6
23.1
1.5
33.6
2.0
36.2
1.9

1.1
0.1
2.1
0.2
2.5
0.2
1.9
0.1
2.9
0.2
4.0
0.2
2.6
0.2
5.3
0.3
3.8
0.2

0.1
0.0
1.9
0.2
2.1
0.2
1.6
0.1
0.9
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.3
0.0
1.3
0.1

22.3
4.2
23.2
3.9
29.2
4.5
33.1
4.6
30.1
4.1
36.3
4.5
31.9
4.1
31.8
3.6
43.1
4.3

46.1
8.6
55.5
9.2
47.6
7.3
54.9
7.7
61.7
8.4
61.5
7.6
70.4
9.0
70.3
8.0
71.9
7.2

63.4
11.9
85.4
14.2
82.9
12.7
94.6
13.3
100.7
13.7
107.9
13.4
103.3
13.2
107.9
12.3
136.1
13.6

51.9
9.7
56.5
9.4
54.0
8.2
64.0
9.0
69.8
9.5
65.3
8.1
59.3
7.5
75.1
8.6
90.3
9.0

127.9
24.0
141.5
23.4
181.8
27.7
196.8
27.7
189.1
25.8
209.2
26.0
218.9
27.9
257.4
29.4
303.3
30.2

20.2
3.8
23.9
4.0
26.5
4.0
25.6
3.6
32.8
4.5
34.8
4.3
36.2
4.6
39.8
4.6
41.1
4.1

9.0
1.7
8.5
1.4
8.7
1.3
10.4
1.5
12.8
1.7
12.0
1.5
9.6
1.2
17.4
2.0
17.2
1.7

0.3
0.1
0.2
0.0
1.3
0.2
0.7
0.1
0.7
0.1
2.1
0.3
1.5
0.2
3.5
0.4
1.6
0.2

0.1
0.0
0.3
0.1
1.7
0.3
1.2
0.2
0.9
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.5
0.1
0.3
0.0
1.1
0.1

24.7
4.4
29.6
4.6
32.3
4.5
31.2
4.1
35.3
4.2
38.3
4.6

33.0
5.8
40.2
6.2
36.7
5.1
44.0
5.7
55.1
6.6
50.5
6.1

50.4
8.9
64.7
10.0
56.4
7.9
76.9
10.0
74.9
8.9
81.1
9.8

41.9
7.4
51.4
7.9
50.3
7.0
54.0
7.0
74.9
8.9
62.1
7.5

169.8
30.1
162.3
25.0
191.4
26.7
198.6
25.9
197.6
23.5
182.6
22.0

21.3
3.8
25.2
3.9
35.8
5.0
39.8
5.2
47.6
5.7
54.3
6.5

8.5
1.5
9.8
1.5
14.1
2.0
12.3
1.6
14.3
1.7
14.8
1.8

0.8
0.1
1.9
0.3
1.2
0.2
1.2
0.2
2.2
0.3
2.0
0.2

1.6
0.2
0.4
0.1
0.4
0.1
-

34.8
4.7
39.8
5.1
43.4
4.8

50.0
6.7
52.8
6.7
56.3
6.2

71.9
9.7
71.7
9.1
78.3
8.6

62.7
8.4
74.9
9.5
86.2
9.5

173.9
23.4
164.5
20.9
184.3
20.3

53.8
7.2
63.4
8.1
81.9
9.0

13.5
1.8
16.2
2.1
19.1
2.1

1.1
0.1
1.8
0.2
2.2
0.2

0.2
0.0
0.2
0.0

Diploma
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Nota/Note :
1

Industri dikelaskan mengikut "Piawaian Klasifikasi Industri Malaysia (MSIC) 2000". Keterangan kategori industri adalah seperti di muka surat 60
Industry is classified according to the "Malaysia Standard Industrial Classification (MSIC) 2000". Category of industry is described on page 60

22

Jadual A10
Table A10

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah bekerja mengikut sijil tertinggi diperoleh dan industri, Malaysia,
2010
Number and percentage distribution of employed graduates by highest certificate obtained and
industry, Malaysia, 2010

Industri 1
Industry

Jumlah
Total

Ijazah
Degree

Diploma

2,030.6

1,115.9

914.7

Pertanian, perhutanan dan perikanan


Agrilculture, forestry and fishing

24.3

12.2

12.2

1.2

1.1

1.3

Perlombongan dan pengkuarian


Mining and quarrying

18.0

12.3

5.7

267.1

136.2

130.8

13.2

12.2

14.3

17.2

10.5

6.7

0.9

0.9

0.7

Jumlah
Total

('000)
(%)

100.0

0.9

Pembuatan
Manufacturing
Bekalan elektrik, gas, wap dan pendingin udara
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply
Bekalan air; pembentungan, pengurusan sisa dan aktiviti pemulihan

100.0

1.1

100.0

0.6

6.8

2.3

4.5

0.3

0.2

0.5

116.2

60.0

56.3

5.7

5.4

6.2

194.1

79.6

114.5

9.6

7.1

12.5

Pengangkutan dan penyimpanan


Transportation and storage

54.9

24.9

30.0

2.7

2.2

3.3

Penginapan dan aktiviti perkhidmatan makanan dan minuman


Accommodation and food service activities

43.3

13.3

30.0

2.1

1.2

3.3

Maklumat dan komunikasi


Information and communication

91.9

61.1

30.8

Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities


Pembinaan
Construction
Perdagangan borong dan runcit, pembaikan kenderaan bermotor dan
motosikal
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles

Aktiviti kewangan dan insurans/takaful


Financial and insurance/takaful activities

4.5

5.5

3.4

144.7

85.2

59.4
6.5

7.1

7.6

25.5

16.9

8.6

1.3

1.5

0.9

132.6

78.3

54.3

6.5

7.0

5.9

29.4

12.0

17.5

1.5

1.1

1.9

Pentadbiran awam dan pertahanan; aktiviti keselamatan sosial wajib


Public administration and defence; compulsory social security

178.2

93.8

84.4

8.8

8.4

9.2

Pendidikan
Education

527.8

350.5

177.3

26.0

31.4

19.4

Aktiviti kesihatan kemanusiaan dan kerja sosial


Human health and social work activities

116.2

46.8

69.4

5.7

4.2

7.6

Aktiviti hartanah
Real estate
Aktiviti profesional, saintifik dan teknikal
Professional, scientific and technical activities
Aktiviti pentadbiran dan khidmat sokongan
Administrative and support service activities

Kesenian, hiburan dan rekreasi


Arts, entertainment and recreation

15.9

7.8

8.1

0.8

0.7

0.9

Aktiviti perkhidmatan lain


Others service activities

22.7

9.7

13.0

1.1

0.9

1.4

Aktiviti isi rumah sebagai majikan


Activities of households as employers

2.0

0.9

1.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

Aktiviti badan dan pertubuhan luar wilayah


Activities of extraterritorial organizations and bodies

1.7

1.6

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.0

Nota/Note
1

Industri dikelaskan mengikut Piawaian Klasifikasi Industri Malaysia (MSIC) 2008

Industry is classified according to the Malaysia Standard Industrial Classifications (MSIC) 2008

23

Jadual A11 Bilangan siswazah menganggur mengikut sijil tertinggi diperoleh dan jantina, Malaysia, 19822010
Table A11

Number of unemployed graduates by highest certificate obtained and sex, Malaysia, 19822010

Bilangan/Number ('000)
Jumlah
Total

Tahun
Year
Jumlah
Total
1982

('000)

Ijazah
Degree

Lelaki Perempuan
Female
Male

Jumlah
Total

Diploma

Lelaki Perempuan
Male
Female

Jumlah
Total

Lelaki Perempuan
Male
Female

3.7

2.1

1.7

2.7

1.4

1.3

1.0

0.6

0.4

1983

5.5

3.0

2.5

3.6

2.1

1.5

1.8

0.9

0.9

1984

8.1

4.9

3.1

4.8

2.9

1.9

3.3

2.1

1.2

1985

10.8

6.4

4.3

6.4

4.3

2.1

4.4

2.1

2.2

1986

12.9

7.8

5.1

7.3

4.8

2.5

5.5

3.0

2.6

1987

16.1

9.5

6.7

8.2

4.7

3.5

8.0

4.8

3.2

1988

12.8

7.6

5.2

6.4

3.7

2.7

6.4

3.9

2.5

1989

15.4

8.5

6.9

7.1

4.1

2.9

8.3

4.3

4.0

1990

9.1

4.5

4.6

3.6

2.0

1.6

5.5

2.5

3.0

1992

8.7

5.1

3.5

4.8

2.4

2.4

3.9

2.7

1.2

1993

9.4

4.4

5.0

5.3

2.4

2.9

4.1

2.0

2.1

1995

9.7

5.1

4.7

5.7

2.9

2.8

4.0

2.1

1.9

1996

10.3

5.9

4.3

4.5

2.6

1.9

5.7

3.3

2.4

1997

12.3

5.0

7.4

5.4

1.9

3.5

6.9

3.1

3.9

1998

24.1

12.7

11.4

12.0

6.1

5.9

12.1

6.6

5.5

1999

30.5

14.8

15.8

13.1

7.5

5.6

17.5

7.3

10.2

2000

32.8

15.0

17.8

14.9

5.9

8.9

17.9

9.1

8.8

2001

36.8

17.1

19.7

18.9

7.8

11.2

17.9

9.4

8.5

2002

47.6

22.9

24.7

22.2

9.2

13.0

25.4

13.7

11.7

2003

56.8

28.1

28.7

26.0

11.4

14.6

30.8

16.7

14.2

2004

64.0

30.6

33.4

22.7

8.2

14.5

41.2

22.3

18.9

2005

63.0

33.4

29.6

25.3

11.3

14.0

37.7

22.1

15.6

2006

65.7

31.3

34.4

31.1

12.6

18.5

34.6

18.7

15.8

2007

53.5

22.8

30.6

27.9

9.7

18.2

25.6

13.1

12.5

2008

54.1

26.3

27.9

27.7

11.7

16.0

26.4

14.6

11.8

2009

63.0

28.4

34.6

30.9

12.3

18.6

32.2

16.2

16.0

2010

65.5

28.9

36.6

33.8

14.4

19.5

31.7

14.5

17.1

24

Jadual A12 Bilangan siswazah menganggur mengikut sijil tertinggi diperoleh dan strata, Malaysia, 19822010
Table A12 Number of unemployed graduates by highest certificate obtained and stratum, Malaysia, 19822010

Bilangan/Number ('000)
Jumlah
Total

Tahun
Year

Ijazah
Degree

Diploma

Jumlah
Total

Bandar
Urban

Luar
Bandar
Rural

Jumlah
Total

Bandar
Urban

Luar
Bandar
Rural

Jumlah
Total

Bandar
Urban

Luar
Bandar
Rural

1982

3.7

2.6

1.1

2.7

2.0

0.8

1.0

0.7

0.3

1983

5.5

3.5

2.0

3.6

2.3

1.4

1.8

1.2

0.6

1984

8.1

4.6

3.5

4.8

3.4

1.4

3.3

1.2

2.1

1985

10.8

6.2

4.5

6.4

4.4

2.0

4.4

1.8

2.6

1986

12.9

6.9

6.0

7.3

4.4

3.0

5.5

2.5

3.1

1987

16.1

7.6

8.5

8.2

4.3

3.9

8.0

3.3

4.6

1988

12.8

6.5

6.3

6.4

4.3

2.1

6.4

2.2

4.1

1989

15.4

7.3

8.0

7.1

3.9

3.2

8.3

3.4

4.9

1990

9.1

3.4

5.6

3.6

1.6

2.0

5.5

1.9

3.6

1992

8.7

5.5

3.1

4.8

3.4

1.4

3.9

2.1

1.8

1993

9.4

6.3

3.1

5.3

3.2

2.1

4.1

3.0

1.1

1995

9.7

7.2

2.5

5.7

4.7

1.0

4.0

2.5

1.5

1996

10.3

6.7

3.6

4.5

2.9

1.6

5.7

3.8

1.9

1997

12.3

9.1

3.2

5.4

3.7

1.7

6.9

5.4

1.5

1998

24.1

18.6

5.5

12.0

9.1

2.9

12.1

9.5

2.5

1999

30.5

21.5

9.1

13.1

9.2

3.8

17.5

12.2

5.2

2000

32.8

23.4

9.4

14.9

11.5

3.4

17.9

11.9

6.0

2001

36.8

28.3

8.5

18.9

14.4

4.6

17.9

13.9

4.0

2002

47.6

36.2

11.3

22.2

17.9

4.3

25.4

18.3

7.1

2003

56.8

42.3

14.5

26.0

19.8

6.2

30.8

22.5

8.3

2004

64.0

46.0

18.0

22.7

16.6

6.1

41.2

29.3

11.9

2005

63.0

43.2

19.7

25.3

18.0

7.2

37.7

25.2

12.5

2006

65.7

50.7

14.9

31.1

24.5

6.5

34.6

26.2

8.4

2007

53.5

38.1

15.4

27.9

19.7

8.2

25.6

18.4

7.1

2008

54.1

40.7

13.5

27.7

22.1

5.6

26.4

18.6

7.8

2009

63.0

48.2

14.9

30.9

24.2

6.6

32.2

23.9

8.3

2010

65.5

47.3

18.2

33.8

24.0

9.9

31.7

23.3

8.3

25

Jadual A13 Taburan peratus siswazah menganggur mengikut kumpulan etnik, Malaysia, 19822010
Percentage distribution of unemployed graduates by ethnic group, Malaysia, 19822010
Table A13

Warganegara Malaysia
Malaysian citizens
Tahun
Year

Jumlah
Total

Jumlah
Total

Bumiputera

Cina
Chinese

India
Indians

Lain-lain
Others

Bukan
warganegara
Malaysia
NonMalaysian
citizens

1982

100.0

90.1

27.6

51.3

9.4

1.9

9.9

1983

100.0

98.4

53.0

40.6

4.7

1.6

1984

100.0

98.3

50.3

37.3

10.7

1.7

1985

100.0

95.9

52.1

33.3

8.1

2.4

4.1

1986

100.0

98.4

55.5

37.2

3.8

2.0

1.6

1987

100.0

98.1

66.7

24.6

6.0

0.8

1.9

1988

100.0

98.5

62.3

28.2

6.5

1.5

1.6

1989

100.0

97.5

67.8

24.5

3.2

2.1

2.5

1990

100.0

100.0

72.9

23.5

3.0

0.6

1992

100.0

95.8

64.0

21.7

7.3

2.7

4.2

1993

100.0

98.7

64.1

26.5

8.2

1.3

1995

100.0

98.0

61.2

28.3

8.1

0.5

2.0

1996

100.0

93.8

60.1

26.1

7.1

0.6

6.2

1997

100.0

100.0

48.4

33.3

10.5

7.8

1998

100.0

99.8

53.0

38.0

7.5

1.4

0.2

1999

100.0

97.2

64.1

27.2

5.8

0.2

2.8

2000

100.0

98.6

55.5

36.6

5.8

0.7

1.4

2001

100.0

98.0

62.5

25.7

9.8

2.0

2002

100.0

99.1

64.7

27.1

7.1

0.2

0.9

2003

100.0

98.6

64.5

23.6

10.4

1.4

2004

100.0

99.1

73.0

17.3

8.6

0.2

0.9

2005

100.0

99.6

74.5

18.2

6.1

0.8

0.4

2006

100.0

99.4

71.2

19.3

7.7

1.2

0.6

2007

100.0

99.9

74.7

18.7

6.5

0.0

0.1

2008

100.0

99.1

63.6

24.3

9.8

1.4

0.9

2009

100.0

98.7

62.3

26.4

9.8

0.1

1.3

2010

100.0

98.0

70.3

20.8

6.2

0.7

2.0

26

Jadual A14
Table A14

Bilangan siswazah menganggur mengikut kumpulan umur, Malaysia, 19822010


Number of unemployed graduates by age group, Malaysia, 19822010

Bilangan/Number ('000)
Tahun
Year

Jumlah
Total

Bawah 20
tahun
Below 20
years

20-24

25-29

30-34

35 tahun dan
lebih
35 years and
over

1982

3.7

1.8

1.1

0.3

0.4

1983

5.5

2.1

2.1

0.8

0.5

1984

8.1

4.7

2.5

0.4

0.5

1985

10.8

6.3

3.4

0.4

0.7

1986

12.9

0.1

7.5

3.5

1.0

0.8

1987

16.1

0.2

9.0

4.3

0.9

1.8

1988

12.8

7.3

3.3

0.9

1.3

1989

15.4

0.1

8.5

4.6

1.0

1.2

1990

9.1

6.2

1.7

0.4

0.7

1992

8.7

0.1

4.5

3.0

0.3

0.8

1993

9.4

4.1

3.4

0.8

1.1

1995

9.7

0.3

5.3

2.9

0.4

0.8

1996

10.3

0.3

6.0

1.9

0.8

1.3

1997

12.3

0.3

8.6

2.7

0.3

0.4

1998

24.1

0.5

14.0

7.2

1.2

1.3

1999

30.5

0.5

20.4

5.5

1.7

2.5

2000

32.8

0.3

20.3

7.8

0.9

3.5

2001

36.8

1.4

22.0

8.1

1.8

3.5

2002

47.6

0.8

31.9

11.2

1.5

2.3

2003

56.8

1.9

35.1

11.5

4.4

3.9

2004

64.0

1.7

41.5

15.3

3.0

2.4

2005

63.0

1.4

38.1

16.9

2.8

3.7

2006

65.7

1.7

39.8

18.4

2.4

3.3

2007

53.5

0.1

30.7

17.6

3.0

2.1

2008

54.1

0.5

28.3

16.3

2.9

6.0

2009

63.0

0.2

36.2

15.7

3.7

7.2

2010

65.5

0.4

34.1

21.9

5.0

4.2

27

Jadual A15
Table A15

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah menganggur mengikut sijil tertinggi diperoleh dan bidang pengajian
terpilih, Malaysia, 20042009
Number and percentage distribution of unemployed graduates by highest certificate obtained and
selected field of study, Malaysia, 20042009

Komputer & teknologi


maklumat
Computer & information
technology

Latihan kemahiran
Skill training

Sains sosial & sains gelagat


Social science & behavioural
science

Latihan perguruan dan sains


pendidikan
Teacher training and
education science

Kesenian
Art

Pendidikan vokasional
Vocational education

Lain-lain
Others

18.6
29.2

12.8
20.0

10.6
16.7

4.3
6.7

2.3
3.7

2.1
3.2

1.6
2.5

1.6
2.5

10.0
15.5

2005

63.0
100.0

17.8
28.2

11.9
18.8

10.0
15.9

3.0
4.8

3.6
5.8

1.2
2.0

1.3
2.0

1.8
2.9

12.4
19.6

2006

65.7
100.0

17.4
26.5

11.9
18.0

11.1
16.9

4.4
6.7

3.7
5.6

1.8
2.8

1.5
2.3

2.1
3.2

11.8
18.1

53.5
100.0
54.1
100.0
63.0
100.0

17.6
32.9
19.8
36.5
20.4
32.4

9.4
17.7
5.9
11.0
9.2
14.6

8.2
15.3
7.9
14.6
10.8
17.2

1.9
3.5
2.6
4.9
3.1
4.9

3.3
6.1
2.3
4.3
2.2
3.4

2.4
4.5
2.7
5.0
1.7
2.7

1.5
2.8
1.5
2.8
0.7
1.2

0.5
0.9
0.8
1.4
1.4
2.2

8.7
16.2
10.6
19.5
13.5
21.5

2004

22.7
100.0

8.5
37.4

3.2
14.1

2.6
11.4

0.5
2.1

1.6
7.0

1.2
5.4

0.3
1.2

0.1
0.3

4.8
21.0

2005

25.3
100.0

7.6
30.1

3.9
15.3

3.2
12.5

0.1
0.5

2.6
10.3

1.0
4.0

0.4
1.5

0.2
0.9

6.3
24.8

2006

31.1
100.0

9.8
31.5

4.0
12.8

3.9
12.7

0.4
1.1

3.3
10.6

1.2
3.7

0.7
2.2

0.4
1.2

7.5
24.2

2007

27.9
100.0

9.3
33.4

3.6
13.0

4.2
15.0

0.4
1.5

2.7
9.6

1.9
6.9

0.4
1.3

0.1
0.2

5.4
19.2

2008

27.7
100.0

9.9
35.7

2.4
8.6

3.5
12.5

0.2
0.6

1.9
6.9

2.1
7.8

1.0
3.4

0.2
0.7

6.6
23.9

30.9
100.0

9.6
31.2

3.4
11.1

4.5
14.7

0.8
2.6

1.9
6.0

1.7
5.5

0.4
1.2

0.2
0.7

8.3
27.1

41.2
100.0

10.1
24.6

9.6
23.2

8.0
19.5

3.8
9.2

0.7
1.8

0.8
2.0

1.3
3.3

1.5
3.7

12.5

37.7
100.0
34.6

10.1
26.9
7.6

8.0
21.2
7.9

6.9
18.2
7.1

2.9
7.7
4.0

1.0
2.7
0.4

0.2
0.6
0.6

0.9
2.3

1.6
4.2

6.1
16.2

100.0

22.0

22.8

20.7

11.7

1.1

1.9

0.9
2.5

1.7
5.1

4.3
12.4

25.6
100.0

8.3
32.4

5.8
22.7

4.0
15.6

1.5
5.7

0.6
2.3

0.5
2.0

1.2
4.5

0.4
1.8

3.3
13.0

26.4
100.0
32.2
100.0

9.9
37.3
10.8
33.6

3.6
13.5
5.8
17.9

4.4
16.7
6.3
19.6

2.5
9.4
2.3
7.0

0.4
1.5
0.3
0.9

0.6
2.2
0.0
0.1

0.6
2.2
0.4
1.2

0.6
2.2
1.2
3.7

4.0
15.0
5.2
16.1

Kejuruteraan
Engineering

Perniagaan & pentadbiran


Business & administration

64.0
100.0

Tahun
Year

Jumlah
Total

Bidang pengajian/Field of study

Jumlah/Total
2004

2007
2008
2009

('000)
(%)

Ijazah/Degree

2009
Diploma
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009

28

5.2

Jadual A16
Table A16

Bilangan dan taburan peratus siswazah menganggur mengikut sijil tertinggi diperoleh
dan bidang pengajian terpilih, Malaysia, 2010
Number and percentage distribution of unemployed graduates by highest certificate
obtained and selected field of study, Malaysia, 2010

Bidang pengajian 1

Bilangan/Number ('000)

Field of study

Jumlah
Total

Jumlah
Total

Ijazah
Degree

Diploma

65.5

33.8

31.7

100.0

100.0

100.0

Program asas/Umum
General programmes

0.3

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.2

0.7

Pendidikan
Education

2.4

1.3

1.1

3.7

3.9

3.4

Kesenian dan kemanusiaan


Art and humanities

4.1

2.7

1.4

6.3

8.1

4.4

Sains sosial, perniagaan dan undang-undang


Social sciences, business and law

25.8

14.2

11.7

39.4

41.9

36.8

Sains, matematik dan pengkomputeran


Science, mathematics and computing

11.7
17.9

6.3
18.6

5.4
17.0

Kejuruteraan, pembuatan dan binaan


Engineering, manufacturing and consctruction

14.2

7.0

7.2

21.7

20.6

22.8

Pertanian, perhutanan, perikanan dan veterinar


Agriculture, forestry, fishing and veterinary

0.9

0.7

0.2

1.4

2.2

0.6

Kesihatan dan kebajikan


Health and welfare

4.2

0.8

3.3

6.4

2.5

10.5

Perkhidmatan
Services

1.9

0.7

1.2

3.0

2.0

3.9

Nota/Note:
1

Mulai 2010, klasifikasi bidang pengajian adalah mengikut International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED)

Starting 2010, field of study is classified according to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED)

29

JADUAL PERANGKAAN TENAGA BURUH


TABLES OF LABOUR FORCE STATISTICS

Jadual B1
Table B1

Perangkaan utama tenaga buruh, Malaysia, 19822010


Principal statistics of labour force, Malaysia, 19822010

Jumlah
Total

Umur bekerja
Working age

Tenaga buruh
Labour force

Bekerja
Employed

Guna tenaga tidak


penuh
Underemployed

Penganggur
Unemployed

Luar tenaga buruh


Outside labour force

Kadar penyertaan
tenaga buruh
Labour force
participation rate

Kadar pengangguran
Unemployment rate

(%)

Tahun
Year

Bilangan/Number ('000)

1982

8,376.0

5,431.4

5,249.0

401.9

182.4

2,944.6

64.8

3.4

1983

8,641.2

5,671.8

5,457.0

520.9

214.9

2,969.4

65.6

3.8

1984

8,982.2

5,862.5

5,566.7

661.6

295.8

3,119.6

65.3

5.0

1985

9,115.0

5,990.1

5,653.4

696.5

336.8

3,124.9

65.7

5.6

1986

9,410.4

6,222.1

5,760.1

789.5

461.9

3,188.3

66.1

7.4

1987

9,703.0

6,456.8

5,983.9

750.6

472.9

3,246.1

66.5

7.3

1988

9,938.6

6,637.0

6,157.2

860.6

479.8

3,301.5

66.8

7.2

1989

10,242.8

6,779.4

6,390.9

665.6

388.5

3,463.5

66.2

5.7

1990

10,519.9

7,000.2

6,685.0

599.1

315.2

3,519.7

66.5

4.5

1992

11,102.7

7,319.0

7,047.8

515.0

271.2

3,783.6

65.9

3.7

1993

11,575.1

7,700.1

7,383.4

653.3

316.8

3,874.9

66.5

4.1

1995

12,190.7

7,893.1

7,645.0

482.4

248.1

4,297.7

64.7

3.1

1996

12,995.0

8,616.0

8,399.3

556.8

216.8

4,379.0

66.3

2.5

1997

13,389.1

8,784.0

8,569.2

509.8

214.9

4,605.1

65.6

2.4

1998

13,817.6

8,883.6

8,599.6

486.9

284.0

4,934.0

64.3

3.2

1999

14,249.9

9,151.5

8,837.8

464.7

313.7

5,098.4

64.2

3.4

2000

14,621.2

9,556.1

9,269.2

491.4

286.9

5,065.1

65.4

3.0

2001

14,939.3

9,699.4

9,357.0

525.0

342.4

5,239.9

64.9

3.5

2002

15,359.9

9,886.2

9,542.6

516.7

343.5

5,473.8

64.4

3.5

2003

15,698.2

10,239.6

9,869.7

529.0

369.8

5,458.6

65.2

3.6

2004

16,076.7

10,346.2

9,979.5

599.3

366.6

5,730.5

64.4

3.5

2005

16,461.6

10,413.4

10,045.4

484.4

368.1

6,048.2

63.3

3.5

2006

16,834.0

10,628.9

10,275.4

471.9

353.6

6,205.1

63.1

3.3

2007

17,219.6

10,889.5

10,538.1

511.3

351.4

6,330.1

63.2

3.2

2008

17,603.8

11,028.1

10,659.6

470.7

368.5

6,575.7

62.6

3.3

2009

17,980.9

11,315.3

10,897.3

478.7

418.0

6,665.7

62.9

3.7

2010

18,373.2

11,517.2

11,129.4

504.0

387.9

6,855.9

62.7

3.4

31

Jadual B2
Table B2

Perangkaan utama tenaga buruh mengikut jantina, Malaysia, 19822010


Principal statistics of labour force by sex, Malaysia, 19822010

Lelaki
Male

Umur bekerja
Working age

Tenaga buruh
Labour force

Bekerja
Employed

Guna tenaga tidak


penuh
Underemployed

Penganggur
Unemployed

Luar tenaga buruh


Outside labour force

Kadar penyertaan
tenaga buruh
Labour force
participation rate

Kadar pengangguran
Unemployment rate

(%)

Tahun
Year

Bilangan/Number ('000)

1982

4,173.8

3,562.3

3,465.3

199.4

97.0

611.5

85.3

2.7

1983

4,313.8

3,693.1

3,570.4

272.1

122.6

620.8

85.6

3.3

1984

4,487.2

3,832.2

3,662.6

346.2

169.6

654.9

85.4

4.4

1985

4,554.3

3,896.7

3,700.5

374.1

196.1

657.7

85.6

5.0

1986

4,703.8

4,037.7

3,753.5

440.6

284.2

666.0

85.8

7.0

1987

4,848.6

4,151.3

3,868.0

395.8

283.3

697.3

85.6

6.8

1988

4,969.3

4,268.7

3,984.0

471.4

284.7

700.6

85.9

6.7

1989

5,126.6

4,389.1

4,155.3

355.1

233.7

737.5

85.6

5.3

1990

5,265.0

4,489.8

4,310.7

303.5

179.1

775.1

85.3

4.0

1992

5,557.9

4,716.5

4,554.2

249.2

162.3

841.4

84.9

3.4

1993

5,863.8

5,043.3

4,853.8

355.0

189.5

820.6

86.0

3.8

1995

6,170.1

5,203.1

5,056.6

249.4

146.5

967.0

84.3

2.8

1996

6,660.0

5,653.9

5,514.2

280.9

139.6

1,006.1

84.9

2.5

1997

6,868.1

5,787.3

5,657.7

248.5

129.6

1,080.8

84.3

2.2

1998

7,101.0

5,904.2

5,718.9

259.1

185.3

1,196.8

83.1

3.1

1999

7,324.6

6,063.5

5,851.2

239.5

212.3

1,261.1

82.8

3.5

2000

7,413.3

6,156.2

5,973.5

252.1

182.7

1,257.1

83.0

3.0

2001

7,612.3

6,268.3

6,055.9

266.6

212.3

1,344.0

82.3

3.4

2002

7,790.6

6,352.3

6,141.8

257.0

210.5

1,438.4

81.5

3.3

2003

7,987.9

6,559.4

6,323.6

268.6

235.8

1,428.4

82.1

3.6

2004

8,178.7

6,615.1

6,390.4

310.2

224.7

1,563.7

80.9

3.4

2005

8,378.0

6,700.9

6,470.5

256.5

230.4

1,677.1

80.0

3.4

2006

8,563.1

6,843.5

6,618.6

253.8

224.9

1,719.6

79.9

3.3

2007

8,757.9

6,963.5

6,747.1

264.3

216.4

1,794.4

79.5

3.1

2008

8,955.7

7,074.6

6,851.1

251.1

223.5

1,881.1

79.0

3.2

2009

9,145.0

7,218.1

6,955.7

249.4

262.4

1,926.9

78.9

3.6

2010

9,341.5

7,351.8

7,112.1

259.1

239.7

1,989.7

78.7

3.3

32

Jadual B2

Perangkaan utama tenaga buruh mengikut jantina, Malaysia, 19822010 (samb.)

Table B2

Principal statistics of labour force by sex, Malaysia, 19822010 (cont'd)

Perempuan
Female

Umur bekerja
Working age

Tenaga buruh
Labour force

Bekerja
Employed

Guna tenaga tidak


penuh
Underemployed

Penganggur
Unemployed

Luar tenaga buruh


Outside labour force

Kadar penyertaan
tenaga buruh
Labour force
participation rate

Kadar pengangguran
Unemployment rate

(%)

Tahun
Year

Bilangan/Number ('000)

1982

4,202.2

1,869.1

1,783.7

202.5

85.4

2,333.1

44.5

4.6

1983

4,327.4

1,978.8

1,886.5

248.8

92.2

2,348.6

45.7

4.7

1984

4,495.0

2,030.3

1,904.1

315.4

126.2

2,464.7

45.2

6.2

1985

4,560.7

2,093.5

1,952.8

322.4

140.6

2,467.3

45.9

6.7

1986

4,706.6

2,184.3

2,006.6

348.9

177.7

2,522.3

46.4

8.1

1987

4,854.4

2,305.5

2,115.9

354.8

189.6

2,548.9

47.5

8.2

1988

4,969.3

2,368.4

2,173.2

389.2

195.1

2,600.9

47.7

8.2

1989

5,116.3

2,390.3

2,235.5

310.5

154.8

2,726.0

46.7

6.5

1990

5,255.0

2,510.3

2,374.3

295.6

136.1

2,744.6

47.8

5.4

1992

5,544.7

2,602.5

2,493.6

265.9

108.9

2,942.2

46.9

4.2

1993

5,711.2

2,656.9

2,529.6

298.3

127.3

3,054.4

46.5

4.8

1995

6,020.6

2,690.0

2,588.4

233.1

101.6

3,330.7

44.7

3.8

1996

6,335.1

2,962.1

2,885.0

275.9

77.1

3,372.9

46.8

2.6

1997

6,521.0

2,996.7

2,911.5

261.3

85.3

3,524.3

46.0

2.8

1998

6,716.6

2,979.4

2,880.7

227.8

98.7

3,737.2

44.4

3.3

1999

6,925.3

3,088.0

2,986.5

225.2

101.4

3,837.4

44.6

3.3

2000

7,207.9

3,399.9

3,295.7

239.3

104.2

3,807.9

47.2

3.1

2001

7,327.0

3,431.1

3,301.1

258.5

130.1

3,895.9

46.8

3.8

2002

7,569.3

3,533.9

3,400.8

259.7

133.1

4,035.4

46.7

3.8

2003

7,710.3

3,680.1

3,546.1

260.4

134.0

4,030.1

47.7

3.6

2004

7,898.0

3,731.1

3,589.1

289.3

142.0

4,166.9

47.2

3.8

2005

8,083.7

3,712.5

3,574.8

227.8

137.7

4,371.1

45.9

3.7

2006

8,270.9

3,785.4

3,656.8

218.1

128.7

4,485.5

45.8

3.4

2007

8,461.7

3,926.0

3,791.0

247.0

135.0

4,535.7

46.4

3.4

2008

8,648.1

3,953.5

3,808.5

219.6

145.0

4,694.6

45.7

3.7

2009

8,835.9

4,097.2

3,941.6

229.3

155.6

4,738.8

46.4

3.8

2010

9,031.7

4,165.4

4,017.3

244.9

148.1

4,866.3

46.1

3.6

33

Jadual B3

Perangkaan utama tenaga buruh mengikut strata, Malaysia, 19822010

Table B3

Principal statistics of labour force by stratum, Malaysia, 19822010

Bandar
Urban

Umur bekerja
Working age

Tenaga buruh
Labour force

Bekerja
Employed

Guna tenaga tidak


penuh
Underemployed

Penganggur
Unemployed

Luar tenaga buruh


Outside labour force

Kadar penyertaan
tenaga buruh
Labour force
participation rate

Kadar pengangguran
Unemployment rates

(%)

Tahun
Year

Bilangan/Number ('000)

1982

3,126.4

2,033.1

1,968.1

78.1

65.1

1,093.3

65.0

3.2

1983

3,104.2

2,063.5

1,990.1

99.9

73.4

1,040.8

66.5

3.6

1984

3,301.7

2,130.9

2,028.9

133.8

102.1

1,170.7

64.5

4.8

1985

3,341.2

2,179.4

2,063.0

138.0

116.3

1,161.8

65.2

5.3

1986

3,306.2

2,157.5

1,996.5

179.2

161.0

1,148.7

65.3

7.5

1987

3,349.1

2,192.3

2,030.4

130.9

162.0

1,156.8

65.5

7.4

1988

3,422.1

2,243.1

2,088.8

170.2

154.3

1,179.1

65.5

6.9

1989

3,516.3

2,297.1

2,172.0

103.4

125.1

1,219.2

65.3

5.4

1990

3,517.7

2,325.4

2,225.7

96.1

99.7

1,192.3

66.1

4.3

1992

6,175.4

4,073.6

3,942.8

148.8

130.8

2,101.8

66.0

3.2

1993

6,326.9

4,228.7

4,068.8

209.8

159.9

2,098.2

66.8

3.8

1995

6,729.7

4,365.2

4,242.2

145.5

123.0

2,364.5

64.9

2.8

1996

6,985.7

4,610.4

4,506.7

155.6

103.7

2,375.3

66.0

2.2

1997

7,205.9

4,764.3

4,665.2

154.0

99.1

2,441.5

66.1

2.1

1998

7,424.9

4,775.3

4,624.0

155.4

151.3

2,649.6

64.3

3.2

1999

7,761.0

4,997.4

4,827.3

150.6

170.1

2,763.6

64.4

3.4

2000

7,894.8

5,174.6

5,027.8

155.1

146.8

2,720.2

65.5

2.8

2001

9,740.9

6,378.3

6,172.9

203.8

205.3

3,362.7

65.5

3.2

2002

10,074.9

6,516.8

6,300.8

184.4

215.9

3,558.2

64.7

3.3

2003

10,226.6

6,697.9

6,466.0

191.1

231.9

3,528.7

65.5

3.5

2004

10,506.7

6,828.8

6,604.1

251.9

224.7

3,677.9

65.0

3.3

2005

10,925.7

7,007.5

6,771.7

198.7

235.8

3,918.2

64.1

3.4

2006

11,167.4

7,131.1

6,900.9

178.8

230.1

4,036.3

63.9

3.2

2007

11,495.2

7,330.4

7,102.0

185.1

228.4

4,164.8

63.8

3.1

2008

11,822.4

7,502.1

7,265.1

189.3

237.0

4,320.3

63.5

3.2

2009

12,106.6

7,690.1

7,411.4

182.2

278.7

4,416.5

63.5

3.6

2010

12,358.6

7,824.4

7,571.6

202.6

252.8

4,534.2

63.3

3.2

34

Jadual B3

Perangkaan utama tenaga buruh mengikut strata, Malaysia, 19822010 (samb.)

Table B3

Principal statistics of labour force by stratum, Malaysia, 19822010 (cont'd)

Luar bandar
Rural

Umur bekerja
Working age

Tenaga buruh
Labour force

Bekerja
Employed

Guna tenaga tidak


penuh
Underemployed

Penganggur
Unemployed

Luar tenaga buruh


Outside labour force

Kadar penyertaan
tenaga buruh
Labour force
participation rate

Kadar pengangguran
Unemployment rates

(%)

Tahun
Year

Bilangan/Number ('000)

1982

5,249.6

3,398.3

3,280.9

323.8

117.4

1,851.3

64.7

3.5

1983

5,537.0

3,608.4

3,466.9

421.0

141.5

1,928.6

65.2

3.9

1984

5,680.5

3,731.6

3,537.8

527.8

193.8

1,948.9

65.7

5.2

1985

5,773.9

3,810.8

3,590.3

558.5

220.4

1,963.1

66.0

5.8

1986

6,104.2

4,064.6

3,763.7

610.2

300.9

2,039.6

66.6

7.4

1987

6,353.9

4,264.5

3,953.6

619.7

310.9

2,089.4

67.1

7.3

1988

6,516.4

4,394.0

4,068.4

690.4

325.6

2,122.5

67.4

7.4

1989

6,726.5

4,482.3

4,218.9

562.2

263.4

2,244.3

66.6

5.9

1990

7,002.2

4,674.8

4,459.3

503.0

215.5

2,327.5

66.8

4.6

1992

4,927.2

3,245.4

3,105.0

366.2

140.4

1,681.8

65.9

4.3

1993

5,248.2

3,471.4

3,314.5

443.5

156.9

1,776.8

66.1

4.5

1995

5,461.1

3,527.9

3,402.8

336.9

125.1

1,933.2

64.6

3.5

1996

6,009.3

4,005.6

3,892.5

401.3

113.1

2,003.7

66.7

2.8

1997

6,183.2

4,019.7

3,903.9

355.8

115.7

2,163.6

65.0

2.9

1998

6,392.7

4,108.3

3,975.7

331.5

132.7

2,284.4

64.3

3.2

1999

6,488.9

4,154.0

4,010.5

314.1

143.6

2,334.9

64.0

3.5

2000

6,726.4

4,381.5

4,241.4

336.3

140.1

2,344.9

65.1

3.2

2001

5,198.4

3,321.2

3,184.1

321.2

137.0

1,877.2

63.9

4.1

2002

5,285.0

3,369.4

3,241.8

332.3

127.6

1,915.6

63.8

3.8

2003

5,471.6

3,541.7

3,403.8

338.0

137.9

1,929.9

64.7

3.9

2004

5,570.0

3,517.4

3,375.4

347.4

142.0

2,052.7

63.1

4.0

2005

5,536.0

3,405.9

3,273.7

285.7

132.3

2,130.0

61.5

3.9

2006

5,666.7

3,497.9

3,374.4

293.1

123.4

2,168.8

61.7

3.5

2007

5,724.4

3,559.1

3,436.1

326.1

123.0

2,165.3

62.2

3.5

2008

5,781.4

3,526.0

3,394.5

281.3

131.5

2,255.4

61.0

3.7

2009

5,874.3

3,625.2

3,485.9

296.5

139.2

2,249.2

61.7

3.8

2010

6,014.5

3,692.8

3,557.8

301.4

135.0

2,321.7

61.4

3.7

35

Jadual B4
Table B4

Taburan peratus penduduk bekerja mengikut kumpulan etnik, Malaysia, 19822010


Percentage distribution of employed persons by ethnic group, Malaysia, 19822010

Warganegara Malaysia
Malaysian citizens
Tahun
Year

Jumlah
Total

Jumlah
Total

Bumiputera

Cina
Chinese

India
Indians

Lain-lain
Others

Bukan
Warganegara
Malaysia
NonMalaysian
citizens

1982

100.0

97.4

51.0

33.4

8.7

4.3

2.6

1983

100.0

96.9

49.6

33.3

8.7

5.3

3.1

1984

100.0

96.4

52.2

32.7

8.8

2.8

3.6

1985

100.0

96.3

51.3

33.0

8.7

3.3

3.8

1986

100.0

96.5

52.9

32.9

8.5

2.2

3.5

1987

100.0

96.5

53.4

33.0

8.4

1.8

3.5

1988

100.0

96.1

53.2

32.6

8.5

1.9

3.9

1989

100.0

96.4

53.1

32.6

8.6

2.2

3.6

1990

100.0

96.4

53.0

32.5

8.5

2.4

3.6

1992

100.0

95.1

52.6

31.8

8.4

2.1

5.0

1993

100.0

94.0

54.7

28.7

7.9

2.8

6.0

1995

100.0

93.7

54.8

28.2

7.8

3.0

6.3

1996

100.0

89.3

52.4

26.6

7.4

2.9

10.7

1997

100.0

89.0

52.4

26.5

7.3

2.8

11.0

1998

100.0

88.4

52.3

26.0

7.2

2.9

11.6

1999

100.0

88.1

52.4

25.8

7.0

2.9

11.9

2000

100.0

90.0

55.5

26.1

7.4

1.0

10.1

2001

100.0

90.3

55.9

26.0

7.5

0.9

9.7

2002

100.0

90.3

56.1

25.8

7.5

0.9

9.8

2003

100.0

90.1

56.4

25.4

7.4

0.9

9.9

2004

100.0

90.2

56.0

26.0

7.3

0.9

9.8

2005

100.0

89.9

56.3

25.4

7.4

0.9

10.1

2006

100.0

90.1

56.5

25.3

7.4

0.9

9.9

2007

100.0

90.1

56.9

25.1

7.1

1.0

9.9

2008

100.0

90.2

57.3

24.9

7.1

0.9

9.8

2009

100.0

90.2

57.6

24.7

7.0

0.9

9.8

2010

100.0

90.3

58.3

24.1

6.8

1.1

9.7

36

Jadual B5
Table B5

Bilangan penduduk bekerja mengikut kumpulan umur, Malaysia, 19822010


Number of employed persons by age group, Malaysia, 19822010

Bilangan/Number ('000)
Tahun
Year

Jumlah
Total

1519

2024

2529

3034

3539

4044

4549

5054

5559

6064

1982

5,249.0

582.9

999.8

856.1

712.9

550.3

507.4

390.3

314.0

196.4

138.9

1983

5,457.0

597.5

1,025.1

896.4

744.8

580.0

513.3

427.3

315.9

203.4

153.2

1984

5,566.7

540.5

1,044.2

935.5

779.5

629.4

514.6

451.0

315.9

208.8

147.3

1985

5,653.4

539.5

1,054.3

952.1

791.9

662.0

512.5

464.6

313.8

223.8

138.9

1986

5,760.1

542.3

1,047.6

964.7

825.0

685.2

518.8

471.7

334.6

228.2

142.0

1987

5,983.9

540.2

1,063.2

1,017.3

860.8

730.1

545.0

490.6

354.2

232.0

150.6

1988

6,157.2

560.6

1,080.7

1,033.5

887.6

748.3

575.7

495.5

385.4

233.9

156.0

1989

6,390.9

574.5

1,132.9

1,092.0

919.8

779.1

611.1

506.7

392.8

231.6

150.2

1990

6,685.0

625.5

1,187.3

1,138.8

967.7

799.7

658.0

495.6

417.8

230.8

163.9

1992

7,047.8

591.2

1,249.3

1,202.1

1,036.1

873.7

714.5

525.5

426.3

261.7

167.4

1993

7,383.4

611.0

1,224.5

1,216.5

1,138.2

970.8

790.0

563.6

439.9

269.7

159.2

1995

7,645.0

546.5

1,275.6

1,232.2

1,173.5

1,027.2

845.8

639.9

442.6

289.4

172.2

1996

8,399.3

624.8

1,441.1

1,366.0

1,250.3

1,120.4

910.8

706.4

481.8

305.3

192.4

1997

8,569.2

591.1

1,460.5

1,411.6

1,268.4

1,150.9

952.9

733.9

498.2

311.9

189.5

1998

8,599.6

524.8

1,408.8

1,430.4

1,278.8

1,171.4

984.0

764.8

525.1

312.4

199.1

1999

8,837.8

513.6

1,449.9

1,504.3

1,301.3

1,196.2

1,029.4

785.8

544.7

315.9

196.7

2000

9,269.2

551.5

1,488.5

1,507.7

1,380.9

1,234.1

1,086.5

884.9

586.3

337.0

211.7

2001

9,357.0

509.1

1,424.0

1,501.4

1,406.2

1,286.7

1,123.3

917.7

626.2

353.4

209.0

2002

9,542.6

480.3

1,413.5

1,532.6

1,416.7

1,308.4

1,149.4

988.5

663.8

368.5

220.8

2003

9,869.7

499.2

1,472.1

1,573.3

1,444.6

1,341.7

1,184.9

1,005.0

719.3

396.2

233.4

2004

9,979.5

483.9

1,396.4

1,599.2

1,472.4

1,369.8

1,208.3

1,036.8

760.1

416.2

236.6

2005

10,045.4

426.8

1,424.3

1,645.4

1,480.0

1,377.5

1,233.3

1,041.2

780.0

413.2

223.9

2006

10,275.4

407.2

1,461.2

1,690.5

1,502.9

1,393.8

1,258.3

1,068.9

812.7

437.1

242.8

2007

10,538.1

397.7

1,466.6

1,736.6

1,532.6

1,420.9

1,297.3

1,107.7

860.7

471.2

246.8

2008

10,659.6

393.3

1,475.9

1,776.7

1,557.1

1,421.5

1,313.1

1,119.7

872.7

476.8

252.8

2009

10,897.3

370.2

1,451.1

1,841.8

1,604.1

1,445.7

1,353.0

1,137.9

913.8

521.7

258.0

2010

11,129.4

375.4

1,433.7

1,861.4

1,652.1

1,483.7

1,366.5

1,199.1

934.0

552.9

270.6

37

Jadual B6

Bilangan penduduk bekerja mengikut taraf perkahwinan, Malaysia, 19822010

Table B6

Number of employed persons by marital status, Malaysia, 19822010

Bilangan/Number ('000)
Tahun
Year

Jumlah1
Total

Belum pernah
berkawin
Never married

Berkahwin
Married

Balu/duda
Widowed

Bercerai/berpisah tetap
Divorced/permanently
separated

1982

5,249.0

1,794.4

3,247.4

143.2

63.9

1983

5,457.0

1,838.9

3,401.7

142.6

73.8

1984

5,566.7

1,875.9

3,473.1

146.9

70.9

1985

5,653.4

1,921.0

3,518.1

146.7

67.6

1986

5,760.1

1,954.6

3,595.4

140.4

69.8

1987

5,983.9

2,029.2

3,727.7

147.5

79.6

1988

6,157.2

2,098.4

3,834.3

141.8

82.6

1989

6,390.9

2,223.9

3,948.2

144.7

74.1

1990

6,685.0

2,389.5

4,069.8

149.2

75.4

1992

7,047.8

2,503.1

4,289.3

160.5

89.9

1993

7,383.4

2,506.4

4,639.9

156.9

80.2

1995

7,645.0

2,595.0

4,794.2

186.4

69.4

1996

8,399.3

2,860.4

5,264.0

194.6

79.6

1997

8,569.2

2,872.5

5,428.4

169.3

99.0

1998

8,599.6

2,860.2

5,449.9

186.6

102.9

1999

8,837.8

2,940.6

5,607.6

172.5

117.1

2000

9,269.2

3,128.6

5,846.4

185.6

108.6

2001

9,357.0

3,060.9

5,995.3

180.5

119.0

2002

9,542.6

3,106.5

6,118.5

190.9

126.7

2003

9,869.7

3,246.4

6,291.5

203.3

127.3

2004

9,979.5

3,239.9

6,399.7

203.4

136.0

2005

10,045.4

3,375.9

6,347.9

200.2

121.1

2006

10,275.4

3,430.1

6,513.9

196.3

135.1

2007

10,538.1

3,526.9

6,648.0

210.6

152.6

2008

10,659.6

3,591.0

6,690.3

208.9

167.6

2009

10,897.3

3,570.8

6,938.5

218.3

169.1

2010

11,129.4

3,579.5

7,140.7

225.0

184.1

Nota/Note:
1

Jumlah termasuk taraf perkahwinan "tidak diketahui"


Total includes "unknown" marital status

38

Jadual B7
Table B7

Bilangan penduduk bekerja mengikut pencapaian pendidikan, Malaysia, 19822010


Number of employed persons by educational attainment, Malaysia, 19822010

Bilangan/Number ('000)
1

Tiada pendidikan
rasmi
No formal
education

Rendah
Primary

Menengah
Secondary

Tertiari
Tertiary

1982

5,249.0

830.7

2,237.5

1,861.9

318.2

1983

5,457.0

818.3

2,270.8

2,039.9

327.9

1984

5,566.7

829.1

2,213.1

2,167.8

356.7

1985

5,653.4

796.0

2,243.8

2,227.7

385.9

1986

5,760.1

759.0

2,232.9

2,340.1

428.1

1987

5,983.9

750.9

2,232.3

2,541.3

459.4

1988

6,157.2

726.9

2,292.7

2,654.6

483.0

1989

6,390.9

711.0

2,260.9

2,896.0

523.0

1990

6,685.0

657.6

2,311.0

3,129.2

587.3

1992

7,047.8

645.4

2,165.1

3,525.0

712.3

1993

7,383.4

615.6

2,280.4

3,737.1

750.3

1995

7,645.0

666.0

2,139.0

3,987.4

852.1

1996

8,399.3

662.4

2,391.1

4,341.9

1,003.8

1997

8,569.2

621.9

2,391.4

4,458.6

1,097.2

1998

8,599.6

604.4

2,358.9

4,505.3

1,131.0

1999

8,837.8

585.1

2,332.9

4,755.4

1,164.4

2000

9,269.2

521.8

2,336.9

5,071.7

1,338.7

2001

9,357.0

484.4

2,291.1

5,135.3

1,441.7

2002

9,542.6

509.6

2,279.6

5,163.3

1,588.4

2003

9,869.7

474.8

2,244.7

5,424.1

1,724.7

2004

9,979.5

472.1

2,199.9

5,469.2

1,832.2

2005

10,045.4

466.8

2,102.6

5,565.6

1,908.1

2006

10,275.4

393.0

2,131.7

5,774.3

1,975.2

2007

10,538.1

424.8

2,064.9

5,917.4

2,121.9

2008

10,659.6

474.7

1,978.4

5,961.8

2,244.7

2009

10,897.3

426.0

1,922.2

6,008.2

2,541.0

2010

11,129.4

401.9

1,861.1

6,178.9

2,687.5

Tahun
Year

Jumlah
Total

Nota/Note :
1

Jumlah termasuk angka pencapaian pendidikan "tidak diketahui"

Total includes "unknown" educational attainment

39

Jadual B8
Table B8

Bilangan penduduk bekerja mengikut sijil tertinggi diperoleh1, Malaysia, 19822010


Number of employed persons by highest certificate obtained, Malaysia, 19822010

Sijil
Certificate

Diploma

Tiada sijil
No certificate

Tidak berkenaan
Not applicable

469.2

619.7

49.8

137.0

91.1

7.9

3,052.0

821.8

5,457.0

496.8

698.3

57.4

135.3

86.6

10.7

3,165.2

806.7

1984

5,566.7

555.9

799.7

66.6

139.8

109.7

6.7

3,066.1

821.8

1985

5,653.4

532.0

826.9

70.7

150.8

120.2

9.5

3,156.9

785.7

1986

5,760.1

523.1

905.4

87.5

163.1

128.7

8.4

3,193.7

750.1

1987

5,983.9

578.2

968.4

105.6

165.0

139.1

7.1

3,277.1

743.3

1988

6,157.2

555.3

1,041.8

111.3

167.3

146.0

9.1

3,408.8

714.5

1989

6,390.9

570.6

1,187.5

141.7

188.4

148.8

4.1

3,443.2

706.4

1990

6,685.0

570.1

1,347.8

146.8

216.8

165.8

3.1

3,580.2

654.2

Ijazah
Degree

Jumlah
Total

Tahun
Year

Sijil agama
Religious certificate

STPM atau yang setaraf


STPM or equivalent

5,249.0

1983

PMR/SRP/LCE/SRA atau
yang setaraf
PMR/SRP/LCE/SRA or
equivalent

1982

SPM atau yang setaraf


SPM or equivalent

UPSR/UPSRA atau yang


setaraf
UPSR/UPSRA or equivalent

Bilangan/Number ('000)

1992

7,047.8

918.6

1,610.6

229.2

242.9

210.2

3,190.6

645.3

1993

7,383.4

904.6

1,757.0

228.0

244.1

227.0

3,407.0

615.6

1995

7,645.0

1,067.9

1,968.4

267.5

306.4

256.7

3,106.3

666.0

1996

8,399.3

1,047.4

2,052.1

254.9

369.1

310.6

3,702.0

662.4

1997

8,569.2

1,113.1

2,223.5

277.2

417.6

341.7

3,573.9

621.9

1998

8,599.6

1,162.5

2,249.4

268.1

434.9

370.5

3,510.4

603.5

1999

8,837.8

1,201.7

2,493.7

271.2

446.2

407.4

3,432.1

584.9

2000

9,269.2

1,235.3

2,740.4

284.5

535.1

471.3

3,480.5

521.8

2001

9,357.0

1,256.5

2,847.9

283.5

564.5

533.9

3,382.2

484.4

2002

9,542.6

1,321.9

2,919.0

285.8

648.9

603.2

3,253.1

509.6

2003

9,869.7

1,353.5

3,117.5

298.0

717.0

655.2

3,251.9

474.8

2004

9,979.5

1,363.6

3,164.9

294.4

767.9

711.1

3,204.9

472.1

2005

10,045.4

1,415.8

3,348.9

290.1

840.7

733.5

2,949.4

466.8

2006

10,275.4

1,418.9

3,512.8

301.5

831.0

805.3

3,012.5

393.0

2007

10,538.1

1,453.1

3,655.3

323.9

241.6

743.3

784.9

2,888.9

447.0

2008

10,659.6

1,209.4

1,505.4

3,862.4

340.0

205.0

786.1

874.1

1,402.4

474.7

2009

10,897.3

1,366.4

1,509.2

3,970.6

354.8

234.4

908.8

1,003.8

1,123.5

426.0

2010

11,129.4

1,372.2

1,556.5

4,149.3

354.7

264.6

914.7

1,115.9

Nota/Notes :
1

Mulai 2008, sijil tertinggi diperoleh dikelaskan mengikut International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED)
Starting 2008, highest certificate obtained is classified according to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED)

Jumlah termasuk angka sijil tertinggi diperoleh "tidak diketahui"


Total includes "unknown" highest certificate obtained

Pecahan diantara diploma dan sijil bermula pada tahun 2007


Breakdown of diploma and certificate is available from 2007 onwards

Berdasarkan Banci Penduduk dan Perumahan 1991, kelas-kelas agama/sekolah pondok tidak termasuk dalam istilah pendidikan rasmi
Based on Population and Housing Census 1991, religious classes/'sekolah pondok' are excluded from formal education

40

999.8

401.6

Jadual B9 Bilangan dan taburan peratus penduduk bekerja mengikut pekerjaan, Malaysia, 19822000
Table B9 Number and percentage distribution of employed persons by occupation, Malaysia, 19822000

Tahun
Year

Kategori pekerjaan/Category of occupation 1

Jumlah
Total

5,249.0

375.7

111.5

493.4

510.5

573.2

1,655.3

100.0

7.2

2.1

9.4

9.7

10.9

31.5

29.1

1983

5,457.0

381.3

132.3

520.6

522.7

593.7

1,678.5

1,628.0

7.0

2.4

9.5

9.6

10.9

30.8

29.8

1984

5,566.7

409.8

115.4

541.3

600.0

638.1

1,694.1

1,567.7

7.4

2.1

9.7

10.8

11.5

30.4

28.2

1985

5,653.4

426.6

129.2

551.5

625.9

643.0

1,720.0

1,556.9

7.5

2.3

9.8

11.1

11.4

30.4

27.5

1986

5,760.1

449.0

140.4

544.9

638.5

686.6

1,757.2

1,543.6

7.8

2.4

9.5

11.1

11.9

30.5

26.8

1987

5,983.9

452.0

117.7

566.1

711.9

704.3

1,845.8

1,586.1

7.6

2.0

9.5

11.9

11.8

30.8

26.5

1988

6,157.2

454.1

127.9

574.4

728.1

728.3

1,892.5

1,651.7

7.4

2.1

9.3

11.8

11.8

30.7

26.8

1989

6,390.9

477.0

131.3

605.5

726.0

727.0

1,848.9

1,875.0

7.5

2.1

9.5

11.4

11.4

28.9

29.3

1990

6,685.0

519.8

144.8

655.6

758.7

762.6

1,750.7

2,092.8

7.8

2.2

9.8

11.3

11.4

26.2

31.3

1992

7,047.8

586.4

187.8

732.3

763.5

790.1

1,549.7

2,437.9

8.3

2.7

10.4

10.8

11.2

22.0

34.6

1993

7,383.4

639.5

219.9

789.2

771.8

879.0

1,576.0

2,508.0

8.7

3.0

10.7

10.5

11.9

21.3

34.0

1995

7,645.0

756.6

247.7

832.0

834.9

845.8

1,539.5

2,588.4

9.9

3.2

10.9

10.9

11.1

20.1

33.9

1996

8,399.3

838.0

298.2

905.8

935.7

943.1

1,644.8

2,833.6

10.0

3.6

10.8

11.1

11.2

19.6

33.7

1997

8,569.2

896.6

329.5

963.2

918.5

985.1

1,516.4

2,960.0

10.5

3.8

11.2

10.7

11.5

17.7

34.5

1998

8,599.6

913.1

346.2

946.9

937.5

1,007.9

1,632.6

2,815.4

10.6

4.0

11.0

10.9

11.7

19.0

32.7

1999

8,837.8

937.0

348.3

985.6

991.7

1,052.8

1,633.1

2,889.2

10.6

3.9

11.2

11.2

11.9

18.5

32.7

2000

9,269.2

1,020.4

391.9

1,012.5

1,044.8

1,189.3

1,569.3

3,040.9

11.0

4.2

10.9

11.3

12.8

16.9

32.8

1982

('000)
(%)

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

7
1,529.4

Nota/Note:
1

Pekerjaan dikelaskan mengikut "Kamus Pengelasan Pekerjaan, 1980". Kategori pekerjaan adalah seperti berikut:
Occupation is classified according to the "Dictionary of Occupational Classification, 1980" . Category of occupation are as follows:
1

Pekerja profesional, teknik dan yang berkaitan


Professional, technical and related workers

Pekerja pentadbiran dan pengurusan


Administrative and managerial workers

Pekerja perkeranian dan yang berkaitan


Clerical and related workers

Pekerja jualan
Sales workers

Pekerja perkhidmatan
Service workers

Pekerja pertanian, penternakan dan perhutanan, nelayan dan pemburu


Agricultural, animal husbandry and forestry workers, fishermen and hunters

Pekerja pengeluaran dan yang berkaitan, operator peralatan pengangkutan dan buruh
Production and related workers, transport equipment operators and labourers

41

Jadual B10
Table B10

Bilangan dan taburan peratus penduduk bekerja mengikut pekerjaan, Malaysia, 20012010
Number and percentage distribution of employed persons by occupation , Malaysia, 20012010

Tahun
Year
2001

Jumlah
Total
('000)
(%)

2002

695.0

457.2

1,126.1

890.6

1,291.1

1,265.3

1,160.2

1,476.6

994.9

7.4

4.9

12.0

9.5

13.8

13.5

12.4

15.8

10.6

786.3

483.5

1,194.6

890.3

1,307.7

1,260.8

1,168.1

1,373.0

1,078.2

8.2

5.1

12.5

9.3

13.7

13.2

12.2

14.4

11.3

793.5

530.3

1,219.9

937.8

1,399.4

1,249.8

1,235.6

1,420.7

1,082.6

8.0

5.4

12.4

9.5

14.2

12.7

12.5

14.4

11.0

859.3

561.3

1,211.6

931.2

1,479.7

1,292.8

1,165.2

1,409.2

1,068.5

8.6

5.6

12.1

9.3

14.8

13.0

11.7

14.1

10.7

777.4

555.1

1,266.8

992.3

1,483.7

1,268.6

1,145.5

1,427.5

1,128.3

7.7

5.5

12.6

9.9

14.8

12.6

11.4

14.2

11.2

829.6

565.9

1,307.5

968.3

1,597.1

1,335.9

1,154.8

1,408.0

1,108.4

8.1

5.5

12.7

9.4

15.5

13.0

11.2

13.7

10.8

770.4

596.8

1,400.5

1,029.5

1,705.6

1,355.3

1,133.2

1,347.4

1,199.3

7.3

5.7

13.3

9.8

16.2

12.9

10.8

12.8

11.4

10,659.6

748.8

613.7

1,496.4

1,053.4

1,776.1

1,271.3

1,153.8

1,344.1

1,202.0

100.0

7.0

5.8

14.0

9.9

16.7

11.9

10.8

12.6

11.3

10,897.3

822.9

684.6

1,560.0

1,086.6

1,869.1

1,255.7

1,132.9

1,242.7

1,242.9

100.0

7.6

6.3

14.3

10.0

17.2

11.5

10.4

11.4

11.4

11,129.4

837.5

706.4

1,644.0

1,132.8

1,874.5

1,259.9

1,167.8

1,312.3

1,194.1

100.0

7.5

6.4

14.8

10.2

16.8

11.3

10.5

11.8

10.7

9,357.0
100.0

9,542.6
100.0

2003

9,869.7
100.0

2004

9,979.5
100.0

2005

10,045.4
100.0

2006

10,275.4
100.0

2007

10,538.1
100.0

2008
2009
2010

Kategori pekerjaan/Category of occupation 1


3

Nota/Note:
1

Pekerjaan dikelaskan mengikut klasifikasi "Piawaian Pengelasan Pekerjaan, Malaysia (MASCO) 1998". Kategori pekerjaan adalah seperti
berikut:
Occupation is classified according to the "Malaysia Standard Classification of Occupations (MASCO) 1998" . Category of occupation
are as follows:
Penggubal undang-undang, pegawai kanan dan pengurus
1
Legislators, senior officials and managers
2

Profesional
Professionals

Juruteknik dan profesional bersekutu


Technicians and associate professionals

Pekerja perkeranian
Clerical workers

Pekerja perkhidmatan dan pekerja kedai dan jurujual


Service workers and shop and market sales workers

Pekerja mahir pertanian dan perikanan


Skilled agricultural and fishery workers

Pekerja pertukangan dan yang berkaitan


Craft and related trade workers

Operator loji dan mesin serta pemasang


Plant and machine-operators and assemblers

Pekerjaan asas
Elementary occupations

42

Jadual B11 Bilangan dan taburan peratus penduduk bekerja mengikut industri, Malaysia, 19822000
Table B11
Number and percentage distribution of employed persons by industry, Malaysia, 19822000

Kategori industri/Category of industry 1


Tahun
Year
1982
1983

Jumlah
Total
('000)
(%)

I
1,046.7

5,249.0

1,635.8

51.7

816.0

34.9

377.5

860.9

223.1

202.1

100.0

31.2

1.0

15.5

0.7

7.2

16.4

4.3

3.8

19.9

5,457.0

1,670.9

55.1

894.1

39.3

425.6

897.3

235.9

197.7

1,040.3

100.0

30.6

1.0

16.4

0.7

7.8

16.4

4.3

3.6

19.1

1984

5,566.7

1,695.0

46.5

858.4

32.9

428.0

956.6

242.8

200.5

1,104.1

100.0

30.4

0.8

15.4

0.6

7.7

17.2

4.4

3.6

19.8

1985

5,653.4

1,717.4

44.4

850.4

31.5

419.4

994.3

244.3

218.9

1,131.8

100.0

30.4

0.8

15.0

0.6

7.4

17.6

4.3

3.9

20.0

1986

5,760.1

1,764.5

40.6

874.0

32.4

369.4

1,035.1

242.0

234.6

1,166.9

100.0

30.6

0.7

15.2

0.6

6.4

18.0

4.2

4.1

20.3

1987

5,983.9

1,846.4

33.0

928.9

35.9

336.3

1,091.7

252.0

241.6

1,217.5

100.0

30.9

0.6

15.5

0.6

5.6

18.2

4.2

4.0

20.3

1988

6,157.2

1,883.8

30.7

978.1

41.3

339.9

1,112.6

265.1

229.4

1,275.4

100.0

30.6

0.5

15.9

0.7

5.5

18.1

4.3

3.7

20.7

1989

6,390.9

1,832.5

33.1

1,171.1

40.6

376.9

1,143.9

277.6

253.2

1,261.5

100.0

28.7

0.5

18.3

0.6

5.9

17.9

4.3

4.0

19.7

1990

6,685.0

1,737.6

36.8

1,332.8

46.7

423.9

1,217.8

301.9

258.4

1,328.8

100.0

26.0

0.6

19.9

0.7

6.3

18.2

4.5

3.9

19.9

1992

7,047.8

1,535.8

36.3

1,639.6

45.9

506.7

1,254.5

326.2

299.8

1,403.0

100.0

21.8

0.5

23.3

0.7

7.2

17.8

4.6

4.3

19.9

1993

7,383.4

1,558.6

37.6

1,726.9

60.3

538.8

1,266.2

344.0

330.1

1,520.9

100.0

21.1

0.5

23.4

0.8

7.3

17.1

4.7

4.5

20.6

1995

7,645.0

1,526.7

32.5

1,780.5

48.0

611.3

1,370.7

359.2

363.7

1,552.0

100.0

20.0

0.4

23.3

0.6

8.0

17.9

4.7

4.8

20.3

1996

8,399.3

1,626.2

35.0

1,912.1

44.1

716.5

1,566.7

400.7

412.0

1,686.0

100.0

19.4

0.4

22.8

0.5

8.5

18.7

4.8

4.9

20.1

1997

8,569.2

1,481.3

38.5

2,002.5

50.9

793.0

1,577.9

423.3

447.2

1,754.4

100.0

17.3

0.4

23.4

0.6

9.3

18.4

4.9

5.2

20.5

1998

8,599.6

1,616.5

28.4

1,907.8

50.0

745.9

1,616.0

421.7

425.8

1,787.4

100.0

18.8

0.3

22.2

0.6

8.7

18.8

4.9

5.0

20.8

1999

8,837.8

1,623.7

37.8

1,990.7

50.2

722.8

1,660.6

420.3

466.2

1,865.4

100.0

18.4

0.4

22.5

0.6

8.2

18.8

4.8

5.3

21.1

2000

9,269.2

1,552.4

27.7

2,174.2

49.3

759.9

1,787.2

433.9

474.3

2,010.3

100.0

16.7

0.3

23.5

0.5

8.2

19.3

4.7

5.1

21.7

Nota/Note:
1

Industri dikelaskan mengikut "Buku Penjenisan Perusahaan Malaysia (Dikemaskini) 1972". Kategori industri adalah seperti berikut:
Industry is classified according to the "Malaysia Industrial Classification, (Updated) 1972" . Category of industry are as follows:
A

Pertanian, perhutanan, penternakan dan perikanan

Perlombongan dan kuari

Agriculture, forestry, livestock and fishing


Mining and quarrying
C

Pembuatan
Manufacturing

Elektrik, gas dan air


Electricity, gas and water

Pembinaan

Perdagangan borong dan runcit, restoran dan hotel

Construction
Wholesale and retail trade, restaurants and hotels
G

Pengangkutan, penyimpanan dan perhubungan


Transport, storage and communications

Perkhidmatan kewangan, insurans, hartanah dan perniagaan


Finance, insurance, real estate and business services

Perkhidmatan masyarakat, sosial dan persendirian


Community, social and personal services

43

Jadual B12
Table B12

Bilangan dan taburan peratus penduduk bekerja mengikut industri, Malaysia, 20012009
Number and percentage distribution of employed persons by industry, Malaysia, 20012009

Tahun
Year
2001

Jumlah
Total
('000)
(%)

2002
2003

Kategori industri/Category of industry 1


A

H
585.1

9,357.0

1,288.2

127.5

26.7

2,184.1

57.3

829.8

1,458.1

100.0

13.8

1.4

0.3

23.3

0.6

8.9

15.6

6.3
616.1

9,542.6

1,316.8

107.7

27.5

2,068.9

50.6

905.1

1,497.0

100.0

13.8

1.1

0.3

21.7

0.5

9.5

15.7

6.5

1,592.2

644.2

9,869.7

1,301.2

107.0

29.5

2,131.0

57.6

942.5

100.0

13.2

1.1

0.3

21.6

0.6

9.5

16.1

6.5

2004

9,979.5

1,326.5

126.1

34.7

2,023.0

57.9

890.8

1,607.2

698.2

100.0

13.3

1.3

0.3

20.3

0.6

8.9

16.1

7.0

2005

10,045.4

1,355.2

115.2

36.1

1,989.3

56.6

904.4

1,620.3

671.8

100.0

13.5

1.1

0.4

19.8

0.6

9.0

16.1

6.7

2006

10,275.4

1,375.3

128.2

42.0

2,082.8

75.4

908.9

1,650.5

721.3

100.0

13.4

1.2

0.4

20.3

0.7

8.8

16.1

7.0

2007

10,538.1

1,437.3

120.9

39.4

1,977.3

60.8

922.5

1,712.1

760.7

100.0

13.6

1.1

0.4

18.8

0.6

8.8

16.2

7.2

2008

10,659.6

1,365.6

122.1

54.5

1,944.7

60.5

998.0

1,729.4

783.6

100.0

12.8

1.2

0.5

18.2

0.6

9.4

16.2

7.4

10,897.3

1,349.6

121.5

62.7

1,807.1

58.1

1,015.9

1,831.8

800.5

100.0

12.4

1.1

0.6

16.6

0.5

9.3

16.8

7.3

2009

Kategori industri (samb.)/Category of industry 1 (cont'd)

Tahun
Year
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009

('000)
(%)

468.3

225.3

348.6

664.6

508.6

173.3

190.4

219.9

1.2

5.0

2.4

3.7

7.1

5.4

1.9

2.0

2.4

0.0

496.8

240.5

397.1

663.6

508.6

189.3

192.5

262.7

2.0

5.2

2.5

4.2

7.0

5.3

2.0

2.0

2.8

0.0

481.6

223.4

404.2

666.5

594.3

217.3

216.1

258.0

3.2

4.9

2.3

4.1

6.8

6.0

2.2

2.2

2.6

0.0

532.9

236.1

458.5

684.3

610.7

198.2

231.3

260.9

2.2

5.3

2.4

4.6

6.9

6.1

2.0

2.3

2.6

0.0

544.7

247.4

459.0

728.5

607.1

212.6

234.9

260.6

1.7

5.4

2.5

4.6

7.3

6.0

2.1

2.3

2.6

0.0

539.7

242.3

508.4

674.1

600.1

223.2

247.1

254.7

1.2

5.3

2.4

4.9

6.6

5.8

2.2

2.4

2.5

0.0

538.2

282.2

558.1

716.1

632.7

238.9

266.5

272.7

1.7

5.1

2.7

5.3

6.8

6.0

2.3

2.5

2.6

0.0

583.4

276.0

553.2

751.1

656.5

252.6

274.2

253.0

1.1

5.5

2.6

5.2

7.1

6.2

2.4

2.6

2.4

0.0

592.0

271.5

601.9

813.9

731.4

271.7

303.3

262.5

1.7

5.4

2.5

5.5

7.5

6.7

2.5

2.8

2.4

0.0

Nota/Note :
1

Industri dikelaskan mengikut "Piawaian Klasifikasi Industri Malaysia (MSIC) 2000". Keterangan kategori industri adalah seperti di muka surat 60 dan 61
Industry is classified according to the " Malaysia Standard Industrial Classification (MSIC) 2000 " . Category of industry is described on page 60 dan 61

44

Jadual B13
Table B13

Bilangan dan taburan peratus penduduk bekerja mengikut industri, Malaysia, 2010
Number and percentage distribution of employed persons by industry, Malaysia, 2010

Industri1
Industry

Bilangan
Number
('000)

Peratus
Percentage
(%)

Jumlah

11,129.4

100.0

1,475.1

13.3

55.3

0.5

1,879.7

16.9

51.4

0.5

62.3

0.6

1,019.0

9.1

1,806.5

16.2

531.1

4.8

810.7

7.3

161.9

1.4

305.2

2.7

55.9

0.5

265.4

2.4

328.8

3.0

772.1

6.9

771.7

6.9

276.2

2.5

87.8

0.8

174.6

1.6

236.6

2.1

2.3

0.0

Total
Pertanian, perhutanan dan perikanan
Agriculture, forestry and fishing
Perlombongan dan pengkuarian
Mining and quarrying
Pembuatan
Manufacturing
Bekalan elektrik, gas, wap dan pendingin udara
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply
Bekalan air; pembentungan, pengurusan sisa dan aktiviti pemulihan
Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities
Pembinaan
Construction
Perdagangan borong dan runcit, pembaikan kenderaan bermotor dan motosikal
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles
Pengangkutan dan penyimpanan
Transportation and storage
Penginapan dan aktiviti perkhidmatan makanan dan minuman
Accommodation and food service activities
Maklumat dan komunikasi
Information and communication
Aktiviti kewangan dan insurans/takaful
Financial and insurance/takaful activities
Aktiviti hartanah
Real estate activities
Aktiviti profesional, saintifik dan teknikal
Professional, scientific and technical activities
Aktiviti pentadbiran dan khidmat sokongan
Administrative and support service activities
Pentadbiran awam dan pertahanan; aktiviti keselamatan sosial wajib
Public administration and defence; compulsory social security
Pendidikan
Education
Aktiviti kesihatan kemanusiaan dan kerja sosial
Human health and social work activities
Kesenian, hiburan dan rekreasi
Arts, entertainment and recreation
Aktiviti perkhidmatan lain
Other service activities
Aktiviti isi rumah sebagai majikan
Activities of households as employers
Aktiviti badan dan pertubuhan luar wilayah
Activities of extraterritorial organizations and bodies
Nota/Note :
1

Industri dikelaskan mengikut "Piawaian Klasifikasi Industri Malaysia (MSIC) 2008"

Industry is classified according to the "Malaysia Standard Industrial Classification (MSIC) 2008"

45

Jadual B14
Table B14

Bilangan penganggur mengikut strata, Malaysia, 19822010


Number of unemployed persons by stratum, Malaysia, 19822010

Bilangan/Number ('000)
Tahun
Year

Jumlah
Total

Bandar
Urban

Luar bandar
Rural

1982

182.4

65.1

117.4

1983

214.9

73.4

141.5

1984

295.8

102.1

193.8

1985

336.8

116.3

220.4

1986

461.9

161.0

300.7

1987

472.9

162.0

310.9

1988

479.8

154.3

325.6

1989

388.5

125.1

263.4

1990

315.2

99.7

215.5

1992

271.2

130.8

140.4

1993

316.8

159.9

156.9

1995

248.1

123.0

125.1

1996

216.8

103.7

113.1

1997

214.9

99.1

115.8

1998

284.0

151.3

132.7

1999

313.7

170.1

143.6

2000

286.9

146.8

140.1

2001

342.4

205.3

137.0

2002

343.5

215.9

127.6

2003

369.8

231.9

137.9

2004

366.6

224.7

142.0

2005

368.1

235.8

132.3

2006

353.6

230.1

123.4

2007

351.4

228.4

123.0

2008

368.5

237.0

131.5

2009

418.0

278.7

139.2

2010

387.9

252.8

135.0

46

Jadual B15
Table B15

Taburan peratus penganggur mengikut kumpulan etnik, Malaysia, 19822010


Percentage distribution of unemployed by ethnic group, Malaysia, 19822010

Tahun
Year

1982

Jumlah
Total

Warganegara Malaysia
Malaysian citizens
Jumlah
Total

Bumiputera

Cina
Chinese

India
Indians

Lain-lain
Others

Bukan
warganegara
Malaysia
NonMalaysian
citizens

100.0

98.8

59.6

23.9

10.5

4.8

1.2

1983

100.0

97.1

57.9

24.2

9.5

5.5

2.9

1984

100.0

97.5

61.9

24.1

9.6

2.0

2.5

1985

100.0

97.4

58.8

26.1

9.1

3.5

2.6

1986

100.0

97.9

56.3

30.3

8.9

2.5

2.1

1987

100.0

97.6

59.2

27.5

8.7

2.2

2.4

1988

100.0

98.6

60.2

27.0

9.2

2.2

1.4

1989

100.0

97.7

63.7

23.1

8.2

2.8

2.3

1990

100.0

97.7

66.2

19.8

7.7

4.1

2.3

1992

100.0

97.7

63.5

22.5

8.2

3.6

2.3

1993

100.0

97.0

64.2

20.8

8.3

3.7

3.0

1995

100.0

96.1

66.2

19.2

7.9

2.8

3.9

1996

100.0

93.9

64.6

18.7

6.5

4.0

6.1

1997

100.0

93.7

65.7

15.9

6.5

5.6

6.4

1998

100.0

94.8

61.5

22.3

7.0

4.1

5.3

1999

100.0

94.3

60.8

20.6

8.5

4.4

5.7

2000

100.0

95.2

63.5

22.3

7.9

1.4

4.8

2001

100.0

96.2

67.2

18.5

9.0

1.5

3.8

2002

100.0

96.0

67.6

18.4

9.0

1.1

4.0

2003

100.0

96.9

65.8

20.2

9.7

1.2

3.1

2004

100.0

95.9

68.3

16.8

7.6

3.2

4.1

2005

100.0

96.1

69.9

17.0

8.2

1.1

3.9

2006

100.0

95.7

68.8

16.8

8.9

1.3

4.3

2007

100.0

96.1

69.4

16.8

8.9

1.0

3.9

2008

100.0

95.6

65.4

19.1

9.8

1.2

4.4

2009

100.0

95.9

64.5

19.9

10.4

1.1

4.1

2010

100.0

94.9

67.2

17.7

8.8

1.3

5.1

(%)

47

Jadual B16 Bilangan penganggur mengikut kumpulan umur, Malaysia, 19822010


Table B16 Number of unemployed persons by age group, Malaysia, 19822010

Bilangan/Number ('000)
Tahun
Year

Jumlah
Total

1519

2024

2529

3034

3539

4044

4549

5054

5559

6064

1982

182.4

79.7

62.5

15.8

5.6

5.0

4.1

3.0

2.5

2.7

1.6

1983

214.9

87.3

70.4

22.5

8.3

5.8

4.0

5.1

4.3

4.4

2.8

1984

295.8

117.6

102.3

24.4

13.4

9.4

7.0

6.8

5.5

5.8

3.7

1985

336.8

123.3

117.9

32.7

17.5

11.9

8.7

8.5

6.5

5.7

4.0

1986

461.9

155.8

164.1

50.9

27.6

18.4

11.9

11.3

9.4

8.0

4.5

1987

472.9

167.7

165.0

51.0

24.3

16.3

13.9

12.8

9.2

8.3

4.6

1988

479.8

168.1

177.2

50.4

26.2

17.8

12.4

10.3

7.5

7.3

2.6

1989

388.5

140.0

135.0

44.4

19.2

12.8

8.7

8.3

9.0

6.8

4.4

1990

315.2

123.0

105.1

34.7

16.9

8.8

8.2

5.9

4.9

4.4

3.2

1992

271.2

102.8

88.4

30.3

14.1

9.3

6.5

6.5

5.3

4.5

3.6

1993

316.8

126.2

95.8

36.6

16.4

12.2

7.1

5.3

7.9

6.7

2.4

1995

248.1

96.0

83.6

27.2

12.4

8.0

6.1

4.4

4.0

3.4

3.2

1996

216.8

75.4

71.7

26.1

11.1

9.1

6.3

5.6

4.3

5.0

2.2

1997

214.9

77.8

76.2

24.3

9.5

7.2

6.8

2.9

4.3

3.8

2.0

1998

284.0

78.6

104.8

38.1

18.0

11.8

12.9

8.2

5.4

3.4

2.7

1999

313.7

99.0

111.6

34.0

18.2

14.9

10.8

11.2

6.1

5.9

2.2

2000

286.9

86.0

100.3

36.0

15.0

16.3

10.9

8.3

6.7

4.6

2.8

2001

342.4

108.9

117.3

39.5

23.2

14.1

12.8

8.6

7.9

5.7

4.3

2002

343.5

100.8

127.2

40.6

18.6

15.6

12.1

10.6

8.4

5.9

3.8

2003

369.8

97.8

142.8

45.0

25.7

14.9

13.1

11.6

9.6

5.4

4.0

2004

366.6

94.9

154.5

46.3

18.8

15.8

11.9

8.8

7.6

3.8

4.3

2005

368.1

92.9

152.6

52.2

21.7

13.6

11.8

11.8

6.3

3.0

2.1

2006

353.6

77.2

151.0

55.4

20.2

15.1

9.7

10.8

7.6

5.0

1.4

2007

351.4

78.7

149.2

56.8

19.9

13.0

10.6

9.3

9.2

2.4

2.2

2008

368.5

85.5

143.6

54.7

21.2

16.4

15.1

12.9

9.8

5.9

3.2

2009

418.0

82.2

163.7

63.9

28.4

18.7

16.8

18.8

13.0

8.3

4.3

2010

387.9

77.4

154.0

65.6

24.5

17.7

15.2

11.9

9.4

8.4

3.8

48

Jadual B17
Table B17

Bilangan penganggur mengikut pencapaian pendidikan, Malaysia, 19822010


Number of unemployed persons by educational attainment, Malaysia,19822010

Bilangan/Number ('000)
Jumlah1
Total

Tiada
pendidikan
rasmi
No formal
education

Rendah
Primary

Menengah
Secondary

Tertiari
Tertiary

1982

182.4

7.8

39.6

121.5

13.6

1983

214.9

12.1

56.4

131.1

15.2

1984

295.8

19.9

69.4

184.4

22.1

1985

336.8

19.8

79.3

209.4

28.3

1986

461.9

21.5

115.9

286.1

38.4

1987

472.9

25.8

105.8

300.1

41.2

1988

479.8

16.6

99.7

320.2

43.3

1989

388.5

19.2

75.2

257.8

36.3

1990

315.2

14.2

54.5

218.1

28.4

1992

271.2

14.5

50.6

182.5

23.7

1993

316.8

10.9

62.2

217.5

26.1

1995

248.1

10.8

40.9

174.4

22.1

1996

216.8

11.4

41.4

142.7

21.3

1997

214.9

10.5

37.3

142.5

24.6

1998

284.0

9.4

45.5

192.9

36.2

1999

313.7

7.6

47.7

214.5

44.0

2000

286.9

10.0

43.8

189.3

43.7

2001

342.4

9.6

46.0

236.0

50.5

2002

343.5

13.6

46.4

220.5

63.0

2003

369.8

13.4

45.7

240.9

69.8

2004

366.6

11.1

48.7

230.2

76.6

2005

368.1

9.5

42.2

229.6

86.8

2006

353.6

10.7

41.0

215.1

86.7

2007

351.4

7.7

39.0

216.5

88.2

2008

368.5

14.2

38.2

224.6

91.4

2009

418.0

13.0

48.3

253.9

102.9

2010

387.9

14.5

38.9

233.2

101.2

Tahun
Year

Nota/Note:
1

Jumlah termasuk angka pencapaian pendidikan "tidak diketahui"

Total includes "unknown" educational attainment

49

1
Jadual B18 Bilangan penganggur mengikut sijil tertinggi diperoleh , Malaysia, 19822010
Table B18 Number of unemployed persons by highest certificate obtained, Malaysia, 19822010

Tahun
Year

Jumlah2
Total

UPSR/UPSRA atau yang


setaraf
UPSR/UPSRA or
equivalent

PMR/SRP/LCE/SRA atau
yang setaraf
PMR/SRP/LCE/SRA or
equivalent

SPM atau yang setaraf


SPM or equivalent

STPM atau yang setaraf


STPM or equivalent

Sijil3
Certificate

Diploma

Ijazah
Degree

Tiada sijil
No certificate

Tidak berkenaan
Not applicable

Bilangan/Number ('000)

1982

182.4

33.2

51.3

3.0

1.0

2.7

83.5

7.7

1983

214.9

31.9

51.8

4.3

1.8

3.6

109.2

11.8

1984

295.8

49.4

69.7

5.7

3.3

4.8

143.1

19.6

1985

336.8

55.7

78.3

7.1

4.4

6.4

165.1

19.5

1986

461.9

67.3

112.3

11.8

5.5

7.3

236.2

21.3

1987

472.9

64.9

113.0

14.9

8.0

8.2

238.3

25.4

1988

479.8

65.9

132.0

15.7

6.4

6.4

236.9

16.4

1989

388.5

54.7

102.3

13.4

8.3

7.1

183.6

19.2

1990

315.2

45.2

95.7

10.8

5.5

3.6

140.2

14.2

1992

271.2

43.7

73.1

12.0

3.9

4.8

119.3

14.5

1993

316.8

58.6

85.4

12.6

4.1

5.3

139.8

10.9

1995

248.1

46.3

82.7

9.3

4.0

5.7

89.3

10.8

1996

216.8

38.3

60.7

7.6

5.7

4.5

88.6

11.4

1997

214.9

36.7

72.2

9.2

6.9

5.4

74.0

10.5

1998

284.0

50.9

91.2

10.8

12.1

12.0

97.6

9.4

1999

313.7

55.8

109.0

10.2

17.5

13.1

100.6

7.6

2000

286.9

45.3

105.3

9.7

17.9

14.9

83.7

10.0

2001

342.4

58.7

130.9

11.0

17.9

18.9

95.2

9.6

2002

343.5

48.0

136.4

12.4

25.4

22.2

85.6

13.6

2003

369.8

53.7

151.6

11.2

30.8

26.0

83.1

13.4

2004

366.6

52.4

142.7

10.4

41.2

22.7

86.1

11.1

2005

368.1

44.4

154.8

20.0

37.7

25.3

76.4

9.5

2006

353.6

45.8

146.0

18.5

34.6

31.1

66.8

10.7

2007

351.4

41.8

146.6

19.0

13.7

25.6

27.9

68.6

8.2

2008

368.5

38.6

44.8

158.1

19.2

15.6

26.4

27.7

23.9

14.2

2009

418.0

44.6

54.5

179.9

17.9

17.3

32.2

30.9

27.7

13.0

2010

387.9

41.7

49.6

164.6

17.5

15.0

31.7

33.8

19.5

14.5

Nota/Notes :
1

Mulai 2008, sijil tertinggi diperoleh dikelaskan mengikut International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED)
Starting 2008, highest certificate obtained is classified according to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED)

Jumlah termasuk angka sijil tertinggi diperoleh "tidak diketahui"


Total includes "unknown" highest certificate obtained

Pecahan diploma dan sijil bermula pada tahun 2007


Breakdown of diploma and certificate is available from 2007 onwards

50

NOTA TEKNIKAL
TECHNICAL NOTES

NOTA TEKNIKAL
TECHNICAL NOTES
1. Objektif Penyiasatan

1. Objectives of the survey

Penyiasatan Tenaga Buruh (PTB) yang

The Labour Force Survey (LFS) conducted

dijalankan

oleh

by the Department of Statistics, Malaysia

Malaysia

adalah

Jabatan

Perangkaan

bertujuan

untuk

aims to obtain estimates of labour force,

mendapatkan anggaran tenaga buruh,

employment and unemployment of the

guna tenaga dan pengangguran bagi

population as economic indicators.

keseluruhan penduduk sebagai indikator


ekonomi.
2. Coverage and scope

2. Liputan dan skop


Penduduk

yang

diliputi

dalam

The populations covered in this survey are

penyiasatan ini adalah terdiri daripada

those

penduduk

Malaysia

yang

tinggal

di

tempat

kediaman persendirian di Malaysia dan

living

in

private

excluding

residences

those

living

in
in

institutions such as hostels and others.

tidak termasuk orang yang tinggal di


institusi-institusi seperti asrama dan lainlain.
Hanya siswazah yang ditemui di tempat

The survey covers only graduates living in

kediaman terpilih sahaja yang diliputi

selected living quarters. Thus, LFS is not a

dalam penyiasatan ini. Dengan kata lain,

survey specifically on graduates which

PTB bukan merupakan kajian khusus bagi

can provide a comprehensive profile

siswazah yang dapat memberikan profil

especially

among

siswazah secara komprehensif terutama

graduates.

The

dikalangan

unemployed graduates represent only a

maklumat

penganggur.

Sebaliknya,

penganggur

siswazah

portion

of

the

the

data

unemployed
from

LFS

characteristics

on
of

daripada PTB hanya merupakan salah

unemployed graduates obtained through

satu

the variable highest certificate obtained.

ciri

pembolehubah

penganggur
sijil

tertinggi

melalui
yang

diperoleh.

51

3.

Sampling design

Reka bentuk pensampelan berstrata dua

stratified

peringkat telah digunakan. Terdapat dua

adopted.

peringkat strata iaitu:

stratification, that is:

Strata utama - Terdiri daripada negeri-

Primary stratum

3. Reka bentuk pensampelan

two-stage

There

are

levels

of

states in Malaysia.

Strata kedua - Terdiri daripada strata


dan

two

was

- made up of the

negeri di Malaysia.

bandar

sample

Secondary stratum - made up of the

luar

urban

and

rural

bandar yang dibentuk

and formed within

di dalam strata utama.

the

primary

stratum.
Sampel-sampel telah dipilih secara bebas

Samples are drawn independently within

bagi setiap peringkat pada strata kedua.

each level of the secondary stratum. The

Unit-unit pensampelan peringkat pertama

first stage units of sample selection are the

ialah blok penghitungan (BP), sementara

enumeration blocks (EBs) while the second

unit-unit peringkat kedua ialah tempat

stage units are the living quarters (LQs)

kediaman (TK) di dalam BP tersebut. TK

within the EBs. All households and persons

terpilih meliputi kesemua isi rumah dan

within the selected LQs are canvassed. At

orang yang tinggal di dalamnya. Di

every stage of selection, the units are

setiap peringkat pemilihan, unit-unit telah

selected

dipilih

probability

secara

sistematik

dengan

kebarangkalian yang sama dalam strata

systematically
within

each

with
level

equal
of

the

secondary stratum.

kedua.
Saiz

sampel

bagi

PTB

boleh

dirujuk

The sample size of the LFS can be referred

daripada Laporan Penyiasatan Tenaga

in

Buruh, Malaysia yang diterbitkan setiap

Malaysia which is published annually.

tahun.

52

the

Labour

Force

Survey

Report,

4. Estimation procedures

4. Prosedur menganggar
Teknik

anggaran

nisbah

bergabung

The combined ratio estimated method

(wajaran yang disesuaikan1 dan faktor

(adjusted weight1 and population factor2)

penduduk2)

was used to obtain the estimate of a

digunakan

mendapatkan

anggaran

untuk

sesuatu

ciri

specific

characteristic

in

the

survey

tertentu bagi populasi penyiasatan. Faktor

population. Population factor uses mid-

penduduk

year population estimates by age group,

menggunakan

anggaran

penduduk pertengahan tahun mengikut

sex, ethnic and state as benchmarks.

kumpulan umur, jantina, etnik dan negeri


sebagai penanda aras.
5. Concepts and definition

5. Konsep dan definisi


Definisi

yang

Penyiasatan

diterimapakai
Tenaga

Buruh

dalam

The definition used in the Labour Force

adalah

Survey is based on the guidelines of the

berdasarkan garis panduan International

International Labour Organisation (ILO).

Labour Organisation (ILO).


Umur bekerja merujuk kepada mereka

Working age refers to those who are

yang berumur 15 hingga 64 tahun (dalam

between 15 to 64 years age group (in

tahun genap pada hari lahir terakhir)

completed years at last birthday) during

semasa

ada

the reference week, and who are either in

berada di dalam tenaga buruh atau di

the labour force or outside the labour

luar tenaga buruh.

force.

_________________________________________

_________________________________________

minggu

rujukan,

sama

Mulai tahun 2004, wajaran yang disesuaikan

digunakan bagi mengambil kira kes tidak respon.


2

Starting 2004, adjusted weight is used to take into

account the non-response cases.

Dalam reka bentuk pensampelan berperingkat,

In two-stage sampling design, the sample size is a

saiz sampel adalah pembolehubah rawak dan

random variable and aggregates directly estimated

jumlah

from the survey

aggregat

penyiasatan

yang

boleh

dianggar

daripada
ralat

External weight is used to minimise sampling error

external

and in Labour Force Survey the external weight is the

ralat

population factor. The population factor is obtained

pensampelan dan dalam Penyiasatan Tenaga

through up-to-date estimates of population totals

Buruh, wajaran external yang digunakan ialah faktor

which is used to inflate the various rates and ratios

penduduk.

estimated from the survey.

pensampelan

yang

digunakan

untuk

Faktor

menghasilkan

can have large sampling errors.

tinggi.

Wajaran

meminimumkan

penduduk

diperoleh

melalui

anggaran terkini jumlah penduduk di mana ianya


digunakan untuk mengubahsuai kadar dan nisbah
yang dianggarkan daripada penyiasatan.

53

PTB

menggunakan

pendekatan

taraf

The LFS uses the actual status approach,

sebenar di mana seseorang itu dikelaskan

where a person is classified on the basis of

berasaskan kegiatannya dalam tenaga

his

buruh

semasa

reference week. The activity status is

aktiviti

ini terbahagi kepada

minggu

rujukan.

Taraf

kategori

labour

force

activity

during

the

categorised as follows:

berikut:
(i) Tenaga buruh

(i) Labour force

Tenaga buruh merujuk kepada mereka

Labour force refers to those who, during

yang berumur 15 hingga 64 tahun (dalam

the reference week, are in the 15 to 64

tahun genap pada hari lahir terakhir)

years age group (in completed years at

semasa

last

minggu

rujukan,

sama

ada

birthday)

and

who

are

either

bekerja atau menganggur.

employed or unemployed.

(ii) Bekerja

(ii) Employed

Semua orang yang bekerja sekurang-

All persons who, at any time during the

kurangnya sejam semasa minggu rujukan

reference week worked at least one hour

untuk mendapatkan upah, keuntungan

for pay, profit or family gain (as an

atau

employer,

keuntungan

keluarga

(sebagai

employee,

own-account

majikan, pekerja, pekerja sendiri atau

worker or unpaid family worker). Also

pekerja

Juga

considered as employed are persons who

dianggap sebagai bekerja ialah mereka

did not work during the reference week

yang

minggu

because of illness, injury, disability, bad

rujukan disebabkan sakit, kecederaan,

weather, leave, labour dispute and social

tiada

bercuti,

or religious reasons but had a job, farm,

pertelingkahan buruh dan sebab-sebab

enterprise or other family enterprise to

sosial

return to.

keluarga
tidak
upaya,
atau

mempunyai

tanpa

bekerja
cuaca

gaji).

semasa
buruk,

keagamaan
pekerjaan,

tetapi
ladang,

Also included are those on

temporary lay-off with pay who would

perusahaan atau perusahaan keluarga

definitely

lain untuk kembali bekerja. Termasuk juga

Employed persons at work and who had

ialah mereka yang tidak bekerja buat

worked less than 30 hours during the

sementara waktu tetapi bergaji dan pasti

reference week because of the nature of

akan dipanggil bekerja semula. Mereka

their work or due to insufficient work and

yang sedang bekerja dan bekerja kurang

are able and willing to accept additional

dari

hours

30 jam

semasa minggu rujukan

be

of

called

work

to

considered

are

nevertheless

underemployed

disebabkan

included in the employed category.

kerja

dan

berkeupayaan serta sanggup menerima

54

work.

are

disebabkan bentuk kerja mereka atau


kurang

but

back

beban

kerja

tambahan

dianggap

sebagai guna tenaga tidak penuh dan


dimasukkan dalam kategori bekerja.
(iii) Unemployed

(iii) Menganggur
Penganggur

dikelaskan

dua

The unemployed are classified into two

kumpulan iaitu penganggur aktif dan

that is the actively unemployed and

penganggur tidak aktif. Penganggur aktif

inactively

termasuk

bekerja

unemployed include all persons who did

semasa minggu rujukan tetapi bersedia

not work during the reference week but

untuk

mereka

bekerja

pekerjaan

kepada

yang
dan

dalam

tidak

unemployed.

The

actively

aktif

mencari

were available for work and actively

minggu

tersebut.

looking for work during the reference

Penganggur tidak aktif adalah seperti

week.

berikut:

include the following categories:

mereka

yang

tidak

Inactively

unemployed

persons

mencari

persons who did not look for work

pekerjaan dalam minggu rujukan

because they believed no work was

kerana

percaya

pekerjaan

tidak

terdapat

available

ataupun

tidak

qualified;

or

that

they

were

not

berkelayakan;
mereka

yang

mungkin

mencari

persons who would have looked for

pekerjaan jika tidak kerana sakit

work if they had not been temporarily ill

atau cuaca buruk;

or had it not been for bad weather;

mereka yang menunggu jawapan

persons who were waiting for results of

permohonan pekerjaan; dan

job applications; and

mereka

persons who had looked for work prior

yang

telah

mencari

pekerjaan sebelum minggu rujukan.

to the reference week.

(iv) Luar tenaga buruh

(iv) Outside labour force

Penduduk yang tidak dikelaskan sebagai

All persons not classified as employed or

bekerja atau menganggur sebagaimana

unemployed

yang dinyatakan di atas, dikategorikan

classified

sebagai luar tenaga buruh. Termasuk

Included

dalam kategori ini ialah suri rumah, pelajar

(including those going for further studies),

(termasuk mereka yang akan melanjutkan

retired, disabled persons and those not

pelajaran), mereka yang telah bersara

interested in looking for a job.

atau tidak berkeupayaan dan mereka


yang

tidak

berminat

untuk

mencari

pekerjaan.

55

as

as
are

stated

outside

above
labour

housewives,

are

force.
students

Kadar penyertaan tenaga buruh

Labour force participation rate

Kadar penyertaan tenaga buruh ialah

The labour force participation rate is the

perkadaran penduduk di dalam tenaga

proportion of persons in the labour force

buruh kepada jumlah penduduk di dalam

to the total population in the working age

umur bekerja iaitu 15-64 tahun. Kadar ini

15-64 years. This rate measures the level of

mengukur penyertaan di dalam tenaga

participation

buruh mengikut ciri-ciri tertentu penduduk.

according to specific characteristics of

in

the

labour

force

the population
Kadar pengangguran

Unemployment rate

Kadar pengangguran ialah perkadaran

Unemployment rate is the proportion of

penduduk

unemployed

yang

menganggur

(tidak

population

to

the

total

bekerja) kepada jumlah penduduk di

population in the labour force. This rate

dalam tenaga buruh. Kadar ini mengukur

measures the percentage of unemployed

peratus penduduk di dalam tenaga buruh

population in labour force.

yang tidak bekerja.


Graduate

Siswazah
Siswazah

adalah

merujuk

kepada

Graduate refers to diploma and degree

pemegang ijazah dan diploma.

holder.

(i) Ijazah

(i) Degree

Ijazah

merujuk

kepada

ijazah

Degree refers to all university degrees

universiti sama ada Sarjana Muda, Sarjana

(Bachelor, Masters or Ph.D) obtained from

atau Doktor Falsafah yang diperoleh dari

public or private institution of higher

institusi-institusi

awam

learning

dan swasta di dalam dan di luar negara

abroad.

pengajian

semua

tinggi

or

its

equivalent

including

yang diiktiraf.
(ii) Diploma

(ii) Diploma

Sebelum 2007, diploma merujuk kepada

Prior to 2007, diploma refers to diploma

diploma atau sijil yang setaraf dengannya

obtained or equivalent certificate obtained

dan diperoleh selepas SPM/MCE dan

after SPM/MCE and STPM/HSC and its

STPM/HSC dan yang setaraf daripada

equivalent

universiti, kolej, maktab atau politeknik

polytechnic prior to a degree qualification.

sebelum peringkat ijazah.

56

from

university,

college

or

Mulai 20073, diploma merujuk kepada

Starting 20073, diploma refers to diploma

diploma yang diperoleh (selepas SPM

obtained (after SPM or STPM) from college

atau

or

STPM)

dari

kolej,

maktab

atau

polytechnic

that

offer

formal

politeknik yang menawarkan pendidikan

education. Duration of certification is less

rasmi. Tempoh pensijilan adalah kurang

than two years. Certificate in teaching is

daripada

dua

perguruan

tahun.

adalah

Sijil

maktab

equivalent to diploma. Malaysian Skill

setaraf

dengan

Certificate

diploma. Sijil Kemahiran Malaysia tahap

level

four

to

five

is

also

categorised as diploma.

empat hingga lima juga dikategorikan


sebagai diploma.
6. Kebolehpercayaan data

6. Reliability of data

Memandangkan anggaran penyiasatan

Since the survey estimates are based on a

adalah berdasarkan kepada penyiasatan

sample survey, they are subjected to

sampel, ia adalah tertakluk kepada ralat

sampling and non-sampling errors.

pensampelan

dan

ralat

bukan

pensampelan.
7. Rounding of estimates

7. Pembundaran anggaran
Hasil

tambah

kategori

The sum of individual figures may not

mungkin tidak sentiasa sama dengan

always equal to the total shown in related

jumlah yang ditunjukkan dalam jadual

tables because of independent rounding

yang

to one decimal place. However, the

secara

bagi

berkaitan
bebas

perpuluhan.

sesuatu

kerana

pembundaran

kepada

Walau

satu

titik

differences are insignificant.

bagaimanapun,

perbezaan ini tidak signifikan.

_________________________________________
3

________________________________________

Mulai 2007, pengkelasan sijil tertinggi diperoleh

Starting 2007, classification of highest certificate

telah diperhalusi dan diselaraskan dengan klasifikasi

obtained was refined and coordinated with ISCED-

pendidikan ISCED-97. Definisi juga telah diperjelaskan

97 education classification. The definition has been

dan semua sijil pendidikan yang terdapat di negara

clarified and all certifications of education in this

ini termasuk sijil kemahiran telah diambil kira.

country

including

accounted.

57

skill

certificate

have

been

8. Lain-lain

8. Others

Penerangan lanjut berkenaan PTB boleh

Further details regarding the LFS may be

dirujuk daripada

referred

Laporan Penyiasatan

Tenaga Buruh, Malaysia yang diterbitkan

to the

Labour Force

Survey

Report, Malaysia published annually.

setiap tahun.
Data tenaga buruh bagi tahun 2000, 2001

Labour force data for 2000, 2001 and 2004

dan 2004 yang dibentangkan dalam

presented in this report has been revised.

laporan ini telah disemak semula.


PTB tidak dijalankan pada tahun 1991 dan

LFS was not conducted in 1991 and 1994.

1994.
9. Notes and symbols

9. Nota dan simbol


Sebelum

2001,

pekerjaan

mengikut klasifikasi

dikelaskan

Prior to 2001, occupation is classified


according

Kamus Pengelasan

to

the

Dictionary

Classification,

of

Pekerjaan, 1980 terbitan Jabatan Tenaga

Occupational

1980

Rakyat, Kementerian Sumber Manusia.

published by the Manpower Department

Kategori pekerjaan adalah seperti berikut:

of the Ministry of Human Resources. The


industry categories are as follows:

Pekerja profesional, teknik dan yang

1 Professional,

berkaitan

technical

and

related

workers

Pekerja pentadbiran dan pengurusan

2 Administrative and managerial workers

Pekerja

3 Clerical and related workers

perkeranian

dan

yang

berkaitan
4

Pekerja jualan

4 Sales workers

Pekerja perkhidmatan

5 Service workers

Pekerja pertanian, penternakan dan

6 Agricultural,

perhutanan, nelayan dan pemburu


7

Pekerja
berkaitan,

pengeluaran
operator

dan

animal

husbandry

and

forestry workers, fishermen and hunters

yang

peralatan

pengangkutan dan buruh

7 Production

and

transport

equipment

labourers

58

related

workers,

operators

and

Mulai

2001,

pekerjaan

dikelaskan

Starting 2001, occupation is classified

mengikut klasifikasi Piawaian Pengelasan

according

Pekerjaan,

1998

Classification of Occupations (MASCO)

International

1998 based on the International Standard

Standard Classification of Occupations

Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88).

(ISCO-88).

The occupation categories are as follows:

Malaysia

berasaskan

(MASCO)

kepada
Kategori

pekerjaan

adalah

to

the

Malaysia

Standard

seperti berikut:
1

Penggubal undang-undang, pegawai

1 Legislators, senior officials & managers

kanan dan pengurus


2

Profesional

2 Professionals

Juruteknik dan profesional bersekutu

3 Technicians and associate professionals

Pekerja perkeranian

4 Clerical workers

Pekerja perkhidmatan dan pekerja

5 Service workers and shop and market

kedai dan jurujual


6

Pekerja

sales workers

mahir

pertanian

dan

6 Skilled agricultural and fishery workers

perikanan
7

Pekerja

pertukangan

dan

yang

7 Craft and related trade workers

mesin

serta

8 Plant and machine-operators and

berkaitan
8

Operator

loji

dan

pemasang
9

assemblers

Pekerjaan asas

Tahun

9 Elementary occupations

1982-2000,

mengikut

Buku

industri

dikelaskan

Penjenisan

Perusahaan

Malaysia

(Dikemaskini)

diterbitkan

oleh

1972

Jabatan

Year

1982-2000,

according

to

industry

the

is

classified

Malaysia

Industrial

Classification (updated) 1972 published by

yang

Perangkaan

the

Department

Standard Industrial Classification of All

Industrial Classification of All Economic

Economic Activities, (ISIC)

Activities,

(ISIC),

1968.

Standard

The

industry

livestock

and

categories are as follows:

Pertanian, perhutanan, penternakan

dan perikanan
B

International

Malaysia

based

industri adalah seperti berikut:

the

Statistics,

Malaysia, berasaskan kepada International


1968. Kategori

on

of

Agriculture,

forestry,

fishing

Perlombongan dan kuari

Mining and quarrying

C Pembuatan

Manufacturing

Elektrik, gas dan air

Electricity, gas and water

Pembinaan

Construction

Perdagangan

Wholesale and retail trade, restaurant

borong

dan

runcit,

restoran dan hotel

and hotels

59

G Pengangkutan,

penyimpanan

dan

perhubungan
H

Perkhidmatan

kewangan,

insurans,

H
I

persendirian

mengikut

and

Finance, insurance, real estate and


business services

Perkhidmatan masyarakat, sosial dan

Tahun

storage

communications

hartanah dan perniagaan


I

Transport,

Community,

social

and

personal

services

2001-2009,

industri

Piawaian

dikelaskan

Klasifikasi

Year

2001-2009,

according

Industri

to

industry

the

is

classified

Malaysia

Standard

Malaysia (MSIC) 2000 yang diterbitkan oleh

Industrial

Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia, berasaskan

published by the Department of Statistics,

kepada

Industrial

Malaysia

Activities

Standard Industrial Classification of All

(ISIC), Revision 3. Kategori industri adalah

Economic Activities (ISIC), Revision 3. The

seperti berikut:

industry categories are as follows:

Pertanian, pemburuan dan perhutanan

Agriculture, hunting and forestry

Perikanan

Fishing

C Perlombongan dan kuari

Mining and quarrying

Pembuatan

Manufacturing

Bekalan elektrik, gas dan air

Electricity, gas and water supply

Pembinaan

Construction

Wholesale and retail trade; repair of

International Standard

Classification

of

All

Economic

G Perdagangan jual borong dan jual


runcit;

pembaikan

kenderaan

motor

bermotor, motosikal dan barangan

Classification
based

on

vehicles,

the

(MSIC)

2000

International

motorcycles

and

personal and household goods

persendirian dan isi rumah


H

Hotel dan restoran

Pengangkutan,

penyimpanan

dan

Hotels and restaurants

Transport, storage and communications

Financial intermediation

Real estate, renting and business

komunikasi
J

Pengantaraan kewangan

Aktiviti

hartanah,

penyewaan

dan

perniagaan
L

activities

Pentadbiran awam dan pertahanan;

keselamatan sosial wajib

Public administration and defense;


compulsory social security

M Pendidikan

Education

Health and social work

Other community, social and personal

Kesihatan dan kerja sosial

O Aktiviti perkhidmatan komuniti, sosial


dan persendirian lain

service activities

60

Isi rumah persendirian dengan pekerja

bergaji

Private households with employed


persons

Q Organisasi dan badan-badan di luar

wilayah

Extra-territorial

organizations

and

bodies

Pada 2010, industri dikelaskan mengikut

In 2010, industry is classified according to

Piawaian

the

Klasifikasi

Industri

Malaysia

Malaysia

Standard

Industrial

(MSIC) 2008 yang diterbitkan oleh Jabatan

Classification (MSIC) 2008 published by

Perangkaan Malaysia, berasaskan kepada

the Department of Statistics, Malaysia

International

based

Standard

Industrial

on

the

International

Standard

Classification of All Economic Activities

Industrial Classification of All Economic

(ISIC), Revision 4. Kategori industri adalah

Activities (ISIC), Revision 4. The industry

seperti berikut:

categories are as follows:

Pertanian, Perhutanan dan perikanan

Agriculture, forestry and fishing

Perlombongan dan pengkuarian

Mining and quarrying

Manufacturing

Electricity,

C Pembuatan
D

Bekalan

elektrik,

gas,

wap

dan

pendingin udara
E

Bekalan

air;

gas,

steam

and

air

conditioning supply
pembentungan,

pengurusan sisa dan aktiviti pemulihan

Water

supply;

management

sewerage,
and

waste

remediation

activities
F

Pembinaan

G Perdagangan

borong

dan

runcit,

Construction

Wholesale and retail trade, repair of

pembaikan kenderaan bermotor dan

motor vehicles and motorcycles

motosikal
H

Pengangkutan dan penyimpanan

Transportation and storage

Penginapan dan aktiviti perkhidmatan

Accommodation and food service

makanan dan minuman

activities

Maklumat dan komunikasi

Information and communication

Aktiviti kewangan dan insurans/takaful

Financial

and

insurance/takaful

activities
L

Aktiviti hartanah

M Aktiviti profesional, saintifik dan teknikal

Real estate activities

Professional, scientific and technical


activities

Aktiviti

pentadbiran

dan

khidmat

sokongan

activities

O Pentadbiran awam dan pertahanan;

aktiviti keselamatan sosial wajib


P

Administrative and support service


Public administration and defence;
compulsory social security

Pendidikan

61

Education

Q Aktiviti kesihatan kemanusiaan dan

kerja sosial

Human

health

and

social

work

activities

Kesenian, hiburan dan rekreasi

Arts, entertainment and recreation

Aktiviti perkhidmatan lain

Other services activities

Aktiviti isi rumah sebagai majikan

Activities of household as employers

Aktiviti badan dan pertubuhan luar

Activities

wilayah

of

extraterritorial

organizations and bodies

Penyiasatan

Tenaga

tidak

Labour Force Survey does not classify the

mengelaskan aktiviti pengeluaran barangan

subsistence goods- and services-producing

dan

activities of households as persons who are

perkhidmatan

kegunaan

isi

Buruh

sara

rumah

hidup

sendiri

untuk
sebagai

economically

active.

Therefore,

the

penduduk yang aktif dalam ekonomi. Oleh

classification of industry by MSIC 2008 for

itu, klasifikasi MSIC 2008 bagi industri Aktiviti

Activities

isi

undifferentiated

rumah

sebagai

majikan;

aktiviti

of

households
goods

as

employers;

and

services-

mengeluarkan barangan dan perkhidmatan

producing activities of households for own

yang tidak dapat dibezakan oleh isi rumah

use

untuk kegunaan sendiri hanya mengambil

households as employers.

only

accounted

for

Activities

kira Aktiviti isi rumah sebagai majikan.

Kosong/tiada kes

0.0 Less than half the smallest unit shown.

0.0 Kurang daripada setengah unit terkecil


yang

ditunjukkan. Misalnya

Nil/no cases

For example, less than 0.05 per cent.

kurang

daripada 0.05 peratus.

62

of

Boleh diperoleh dari:


Obtainable from:
Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia,
(Department of Statistics, Malaysia)
Blok C6, Kompleks C,
Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan,
62514 Putrajaya,
Malaysia.
Tel.
Faks/Fax
E-mel/E-mail
Laman Web/Website

: 03-8885 7000
: 03-8888 9248
: jpbkkp@stats.gov.my
: http://www.statistics.gov.my