Anda di halaman 1dari 5

AP Biology Cell to Cell Communication

Name ____________________________________

Multiple Choice

 

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____

1.

The

are a class of enzymes that attach phosphate groups to proteins and play a major role in the

 

regulation of the cell cycle.

 

a.

DNA polymerases

b.

growth factors

c.

ICE-like proteases

d.

protein kinases

____

2.

Cell differentiation ________.

 
 

a.

occurs in all complex multicelled organisms

b.

requires unique genes in different cells

c.

involves selective gene expression

d.

both a and c

e.

all of the above

____

3.

The expression of a given gene depends on the ________.

 

a.

type of cell and its functions

b.

chemical conditions

c.

environmental signals

d.

all of the above

____

4.

An operon most typically governs ________.

 

a.

bacterial genes

b.

a eukaryotic gene

c.

genes of all types

d.

DNA replication

____

5.

Eukaryotic genes guide ________.

 
 

a.

fast short-term activities

b.

overall growth

c.

development

d.

all of the above

____

6.

Hormones may

gene transcription in target cells.

 

a.

promote

b.

inhibit

c.

participate in

d.

both a and b

____

7.

Apoptosis is ________.

 
 

a.

cell division after severe tissue damage

b.

programmed cell death by suicide

c.

a popping sound in mutated toes

____

8.

Paracrine signaling

 
 

a.

involves secreting cells acting on nearby target cells by discharging a local regulator into the extracellular fluid.

b.

requires nerve cells to release a neurotransmitter into the synapse.

c.

occurs only in paracrine yeast cells.

d.

has been found in plants but not animals.

e.

involves mating factors attaching to target cells and causing production of new paracrine cells.

1

____

9.

What would be true for the signaling system in an animal cell that lacks the ability to produce GTP?

 
  • a. It would not be able to activate and inactivate the G protein on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane.

  • b. It could activate only the epinephrine system.

  • c. It would be able to carry out reception and transduction, but would not be able to respond to a signal.

  • d. Only A and C are true.

  • e. A, B, and C are true.

____

10.

The receptors for a group of signaling molecules known as growth factors are often

 
  • a. ligand-gated ion channels.

  • b. G-protein-linked receptors.

  • c. cyclic AMP.

  • d. receptor tyrosine kinases.

____

11.

  • e. neurotransmitters. Sutherland discovered that epinephrine

 
  • a. signals bypass the plasma membrane of cells.

  • b. lowers blood glucose by binding to liver cells.

  • c. interacts with insulin inside muscle cells.

  • d. interacts directly with glycogen phosphorylase.

  • e. elevates the cytosolic concentration of cyclic AMP.

____

12.

The general name for an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein is

 
  • a. phosphorylase.

  • b. phosphatase.

  • c. protein kinase.

  • d. ATPase.

____

13.

  • e. protease. Which of the following describes cell communication systems?

 
  • a. Cell signaling evolved more recently than systems such as the immune system of vertebrates.

  • b. Communicating cells are usually close together.

  • c. Most signal receptors are bound to the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope.

  • d. Lipid phosphorylation is a major mechanism of signal transduction.

  • e. In response to a signal, the cell may alter activities by changes in cytosol activity or in transcription of RNA.

____

14.

The toxin of Vibrio cholerae causes profuse diarrhea because it

 
  • a. modifies a G protein involved in regulating salt and water secretion.

  • b. decreases the cytosolic concentration of calcium ions, making the cells hypotonic to the intestinal cells.

  • c. binds with adenylyl cyclase and triggers the formation of cAMP.

  • d. signals inositol trisphosphate to become a second messenger for the release of calcium.

  • e. modifies calmodulin and activates a cascade of protein kinases.

____

15.

Which of the following most likely would be an immediate result of growth factor binding to its receptor?

  • a. protein kinase activity

  • b. adenylyl cyclase activity

  • c. GTPase activity

  • d. protein phosphatase activity

  • e. phosphorylase activity

2

____

16.

An inhibitor of phosphodiesterase activity would have which of the following effects?

 
  • a. block the response of epinephrine

  • b. decrease the amount of cAMP in the cytoplasm

  • c. block the activation of G proteins in response to epinephrine binding to its receptor

  • d. prolong the effect of epinephrine by maintaining elevated cAMP levels in the cytoplasm

  • e. block the activation of protein kinase A

____

17.

Adenylyl cyclase has the opposite effect of which of the following?

 
  • a. protein kinase

  • b. protein phosphatase

  • c. phosphodiesterase

  • d. phosphorylase

  • e. GTPase

____

18.

If a pharmaceutical company wished to design a drug to maintain low blood sugar levels, one

  • a. design a compound that mimics epinephrine and can bind to the epinephrine

 

approach might be to

receptor.

  • b. design a compound that stimulates cAMP production in liver cells.

  • c. design a compound to stimulate G protein activity in liver cells.

  • d. design a compound that increases phosphodiesterase activity.

  • e. All of the above are possible approaches.

____

19.

Which of the following statements is true?

 
  • a. When signal molecules first bind to receptor tyrosine kinases, the receptors phosphorylate a number of nearby molecules.

  • b. In response to some G-protein-mediated signals, a special type of lipid molecule associated with the plasma membrane is cleaved to form IP3 and calcium.

  • c. In most cases, signal molecules interact with the cell at the plasma membrane and

then enter the cell and eventually the nucleus.

  • d. Toxins such as those that cause botulism and cholera interfere with the ability of activated G proteins to hydrolyze GTP to GDP, resulting in phosphodiesterase activity in the absence of an appropriate signal molecule.

  • e. Protein kinase A activation is one possible result of signal molecules binding to G protein-linked receptors.

____

20.

Which of the substances below is a protein that can hold several other relay proteins as it binds to an

  • a. active transcription factor

 

activated membrane receptor?

  • b. third messenger

  • c. ligand

  • d. scaffolding protein

  • e. protein kinase

____

21.

Phosphorylation cascades involving a series of protein kinases are useful for cellular signal transduction because

  • a. they are species specific.

  • b. they always lead to the same cellular response.

  • c. they amplify the original signal manyfold.

  • d. they counter the harmful effects of phosphatases.

  • e. the number of molecules used is small and fixed.

3

____

22.

Binding of a signaling molecule to which type of receptor leads directly to a change in distribution

  • a. receptor tyrosine kinase

 

of ions on opposite sides of the membrane?

  • b. G protein-coupled receptor

  • c. phosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinase dimer

  • d. ligand-gated ion channel

  • e. intracellular receptor

____

23.

The activation of receptor tyrosine kinases is characterized by

 
  • a. dimerization and phosphorylation.

b. binding.
  • b. binding.

  • c. a phosphorylation cascade.

  • d. GTP hydrolysis.

  • e. channel protein shape change.

____

24.

Lipid-soluble signal molecules, such as testosterone, cross the membranes of all cells but affect only

  • a. only target cells retain the appropriate DNA segments.

 

target cells because

  • b. intracellular receptors are present only in target cells.

  • c. most cells lack the Y chromosome required.

  • d. only target cells possess the cytosolic enzymes that transduce the testosterone.

  • e. only in target cells is testosterone able to initiate the phosphorylation cascade leading to activated transcription factor.

____

25.

Consider this pathway: epinephrine G protein-coupled receptor G protein adenylyl cyclase cAMP. Identify the second messenger.

  • a. cAMP

  • b. G protein

  • c. GTP

  • d. adenylyl cyclase

  • e. G protein-coupled receptor

Short Answer

  • 26. Any gene or group of genes together with its promoter and operator sequence is a(n) ________.

  • a. repressor

  • b. operator

  • c. promoter

  • d. operon

  • 27. The operon model explains the regulation of

in prokaryotes.

  • a. replication

  • b. transcription

  • c. induction

  • d. Lyonization

4