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Herb, Vegetable, and Fruit Reference

Edible and Medicinal Plants of the South

Herb

Veg

Fruit

www.SouthernComfortHerbs.com

Vegetable, Herb, and Fruit Chart


A ........................................................ 7 Agastache (Agastache) ......................... 7 Agrimony (Agrimonia) .......................... 7 Alfalfa (Medicago) ................................ 8 Aloe Vera Juice (Aloe) ........................... 8 Alum Root (Heuchera) .......................... 9 Amaranth (Amaranthus) ....................... 9 Angelica (Angelica) .............................. 9 Anise (Pimpinella) .............................. 10 Anise Star Pods (Illicium) .................... 10 Apple (Malus) .................................... 11 Arnica (Arnica) .................................. 11 Ashwagandha (Withania) .................... 12 Asparagus (Asparagus) ....................... 12 Astragalus (Astragalus) ....................... 12 ...................................................... 13 Balloon Flower (Platycodon) ................ 13 Baptisia or Wild Indigo (Baptisia) ......... 13 Barberry (Berberis) ............................ 13 Barley (Hordeum) .............................. 14 Basil (Ocimum) .................................. 14 Bay Leaf ........................................... 15 Bayberry (Morella) ............................. 15 Beans (Fabacea) ................................ 16 Bee Balm (Monarda) ........................... 16 Bee Pollen ......................................... 17 Beech (Fagus) ................................... 18 Beet / Swiss Chard (Beta) ................... 18 Birch (Betula) .................................... 19 Bitter Melon (Momordica) .................... 19 Bitter Orange .................................... 20 Bitterweed (Helenium) ........................ 20 Blackberry (Rubus) ............................ 20 Black Cohosh (Actaea) ........................ 20 Black Gum (Nyssa) ............................. 21 Black Haw (Viburnum) ........................ 21 Black Walnut (Juglans) ....................... 21 Blessed Thistle (Cnicus benedictus) ...... 22 Bloodroot (Sanguinaria) ...................... 22 Blueberry/Huckleberry (Vaccinium) ...... 23 Blue Cohosh (Caulophyllum) ................ 23 Blue Vervain (Verbena hastata) ............ 23 Boneset (Eupatorium) ......................... 23 Borage (Borago) ................................ 24 2

Briers (Sarsaparilla) ............................ 24 Buckeye (Aesculus) ............................ 24 Buckwheat (Fagopyron) ....................... 25 Bugleweed (Lycopus) .......................... 25 Burdock (Arctium) .............................. 26 Butchers Broom (Ruscus) .................... 26 Butterfly Weed (Asclepias) ................... 27 Butternut Bark (Juglans) ..................... 27 C ...................................................... 27 Calamus ............................................ 27 Calendula (Calendula) ......................... 27 Caraway (Carum) ............................... 28 Carrot/Queen Annes Lace (Daucus) ...... 29 Cascara Sagrada (Rhamnus) ................ 29 Castor Bean (Ricinus) ......................... 30 Cat Tail (Typha) .................................. 30 Catnip (Nepeta) ................................. 31 Cayenne (Capsicum) ........................... 31 Cedar (Juniperus) ............................... 31 Celandine (Chelidonium) ..................... 32 Celery (Apium) ................................... 32 Chaga (Inonotus) ............................... 33 Chamomile (Matricaria) ....................... 33 Chaste Tree (Vitex) ............................. 34 Cherry (Prunus) ................................. 35 Chickweed (Stellaria) .......................... 35 Chicory (Cichorium) ............................ 36 Cilantro (Coriandrum) ......................... 36 Cinnamon (Cinnamomum) ................... 36 Cinquefoil (Potentilla) .......................... 37 Cleavers (Galium) ............................... 37 Clover (Trifolium) ............................... 38 Cloves (Syzygium or Eugenia) .............. 38 Club Moss (Lycopodium or Huperzia) ..... 39 Codonopsis (Codonopsis) ..................... 39 Columbine (Aquilegia) ......................... 40 Comfrey (Symphytum) ........................ 40 Coriopsis (Coriopsis) ........................... 40 Corn (Zea) ........................................ 40 Cottonwood (Populus) ......................... 41 Cramp Bark (Viburnum) ...................... 41 Cranes Bill (Geranium) ........................ 41 Crape Myrtle (Lagerstroemia) ............... 42 Cress (Lepidium/Barbarea/Nasturtium) .. 42 Cross Vine (Bignomia) ......................... 43

Cucumber (Cucumis) .......................... 43 Cucumber Root (Echinocystis) ............. 43 Culvers or Black Root (Leptandra) ....... 43 Cumin (Cuminum) .............................. 44 D ..................................................... 44 Daisy Fleabane (Erigeron) ................... 44 Dandelion (Taraxacum) ....................... 44 Datura Family (Datura) ....................... 45 Dead Nettle and Henbit (Lamium) ........ 45 Dill (Anethum) ................................... 45 Dodder (Cuscuta) ............................... 46 Dogwood (Cornus) ............................. 46 Dong Quai (Angelica) .......................... 46 ...................................................... 46 Ebony Spleen Wort (Asplenium) ........... 46 Echinacea (Echinacea) ........................ 47 Elderberry (Sambucus) ....................... 47 Elecampane (Inulu) ............................ 48 Eleuthero (Eleutherococcus) ................ 48 Ephedra (Ephedra) ............................. 49 Essiac Tea (Blend) .............................. 50 Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus) ...................... 51 Eupatorium Family (Eupatorium) .......... 51 Evening Primrose (Oenothera) ............. 52 Eyebright (Euphrasia) ......................... 53 ...................................................... 53 False Unicorn (Helonias) ..................... 53 Fennel (Foeniculum) ........................... 53 Fenugreek (Trigonella) ........................ 54 Feverfew or Costmary (Tanacetum) ...... 55 Fig (Ficus) ......................................... 55 Fish Oil / Omega-3 Fatty Acids ............. 56 Flax or Linseed (Linum) ...................... 56 Forsythia (Forsythia) .......................... 57 Frankincense ..................................... 57 Fringe Tree (Chionanthus) ................... 57 ..................................................... 58 Garlic (Allium) ................................... 58 Gaylax or Beetleweed (Galax) .............. 58 Gentian (Gentiana) ............................ 59 Geranium or Cranes Bill (Geranium) ..... 59 Ginger (Zingiber) ............................... 61 Ginkgo (Ginkgo) ................................ 61 Ginseng (Panax) ................................ 62 3

Goats Rue (Galega) ............................ 62 Golden Rain Tree (Koelreuteria) ............ 63 Goldenrod (Solidago) .......................... 63 Goldenseal (Hydrastis) ........................ 63 Gotu Kola (Centella) ........................... 64 Gravel Root (Eupatorium) .................... 64 Grindelia (Grindelia) ........................... 64 Ground Ivy, (Glechoma) ...................... 65 Ground Nut, American (Apios) .............. 65 H ...................................................... 65 Hackberry (Celtis) .............................. 65 Hawkweed (Hieracium) ....................... 66 Hawthorn (Crataegus) ......................... 66 Heal All or Self Heal (Prunella) ............. 67 Helichrysum (Helichrysum) .................. 67 Hepatica (Hepatica) ............................ 67 Hibiscus ............................................ 68 Hickory (Carya) .................................. 68 Holy Basil (Ocimum) ........................... 68 Honeysuckle (Lonicera) ....................... 68 Horehound (Marrubium) ...................... 69 Horse Chestnut (Aesculus) ................... 69 Horseradish (Cochlearia) ..................... 69 Horsetail or Shavegrass (Equisetum) ..... 70 Horseweed (Erigeron) ......................... 70 Hydrangea, Oak Leaf (Hydrangea) ........ 71 Hyssop (Hyssopus) ............................. 71 ....................................................... 72 Indigo Root ........................................ 72 Ipecac (Ipecac) .................................. 72 Irish Moss (Chondrus) ......................... 72 Indian Pipe (Monotropa) ...................... 73 Ironweed (Vernonia) ........................... 73 ....................................................... 73 Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia) .............. 73 Jewel Weed (Impatiens) ...................... 73 Juniper (Juniperus) ............................. 74 ...................................................... 74 Kava Kava (Piper) ............................... 74 Kelp, Bladderwrack, Dulse (Laminaria) .. 75 Kudzu (Pueraria) ................................ 75 ...................................................... 76 Lavender (Lavandula) ......................... 76

Lemon Balm (Melissa) ........................ 77 Lemon Verbena (Aloysia) .................... 77 Lettuce (Lactuca) ............................... 78 Liatris (Liatris) ................................... 78 Licorice (Glycyrrhiza) .......................... 78 Lilies (Hemerocallis) ........................... 79 Lobelia (Lobelia) ................................ 79 Lotus (Nelumbo) ................................ 80 M ..................................................... 81 Magnolia (Magnolia) ........................... 81 Mallows (Althea) ................................ 82 Maple (Acer) ..................................... 82 Marigold (Tagetes) ............................. 83 Marshmallow (Althea) ......................... 83 Mayapple (Podophyllum) ..................... 83 Meadowsweet (Filipendula) .................. 84 Milk Thistle (Silybum) ......................... 84 Milkweed or Pleurisy Root (Asclepias) ... 84 Millet (Eleusine) ................................. 85 Mimosa (Albizzia) ............................... 85 Mints (Mentha) .................................. 85 Motherwort (Leonurus) ....................... 86 Mountain Mint (Pycnanthemum) ........... 87 Mulberry (Morus) ............................... 87 Mullein (Verbascum) ........................... 87 Muscadines / Grapes (Vitis) ................. 87 Mushrooms and Fungus ...................... 88 Mustard Family (Brassica) ................... 89 Myrrh (Commiphora) .......................... 90 N ..................................................... 90 Neem (Azadirachta) ........................... 90 Nettle, Stinging (Urtica) ...................... 91 New Jersey Tea .................................. 91 ..................................................... 92 Oaks (Quercus) ................................. 92 Oats, Oatstraw, Oatgrass (Avena) ........ 92 Obediant Plant (Physostegia) ............... 93 Okra (Abelmoschus) ........................... 93 Onions (Allium) .................................. 93 Orange Peel (Citrus) ........................... 94 Oregano (Origanum) .......................... 95 Oregon Grape (Mahonia) ..................... 95 Osha (Ligusticum) .............................. 96 ...................................................... 96 4

Parsley (Petroselinum) ........................ 96 Partridge Berry ................................... 97 Passion Flower (Passiflora) ................... 97 Pawpaw (Asimina) .............................. 97 Peach (Prunus) ................................... 98 Pear (Pyrus) ...................................... 98 Peas, Southern (Vigna) ....................... 98 Peas, Spring (Pisum) ........................... 98 Peppermint (Mentha) .......................... 98 Peppers (Capsicum) ............................ 99 Periwinkle (Vinca) ............................... 99 Persimmon (Diospyros) ..................... 100 Pine (Pinus) ..................................... 100 Pipsissewa (Chimaphila) .................... 100 Plantain (Plantago) ........................... 101 Pleurisy Root .................................... 101 Plum (Prunus) .................................. 101 Poison Ash (Rhus) ............................ 102 Poison Ivy/Oak (Toxicodendron) ......... 102 Poke (Phytolacea) ............................. 102 Pomegranite (Punica) ........................ 102 Poppy, California (Eschscholzia) .......... 103 Potatoes (Solanacea) ........................ 103 Prickly Ash (Zanthoxylum) ................. 103 Prickly Pear (Opuntia) ....................... 104 Privet (Legustrum) ........................... 104 Psyllium Husk/Seed .......................... 105 Q .................................................... 105 Quinoa (Chenopodium) ..................... 105 Quince (Cydonia) .............................. 105 .................................................... 105 Rabbit Tobacco (Gnaphalium) ............. 105 Ragweed (Ambrosia) ......................... 106 Ragwort (Senecio) ............................ 106 Raspberry, Red (Rubus) ..................... 106 Red Bud (Cercis) .............................. 107 Red Clover ....................................... 107 Red Root or NJ Tea (Ceanothus) ......... 107 Reishi (Ganoderma) .......................... 107 Rhodiola (Rhodiola) .......................... 108 Rice (Oryza) .................................... 108 Rose Hips (Rosa) .............................. 108 Rosemary (Rosmarinus) .................... 109 Rudbeckia (Rudbeckia) ...................... 109 Rue (Ruta) ...................................... 109

.....................................................110 Salvia/Sage (Salvia) ..........................110 Santolina, Green (Santolina) ..............111 Sarsaparilla or Briers (Smilax) ............111 Sassafras (Sassafras) ........................112 Savory (Satureja) .............................112 Saw Palmetto (Serenoa) ....................112 Schizandra (Schizandra) ....................113 Sedum (Sempervivum) ......................113 Self Heal ..........................................114 Senna (Cassie) .................................114 Sesame (Sesamum) ..........................114 Shavegrass (Equisetum) ....................115 Sheep Sorrel (Rumex) .......................115 Shepherds Purse (Capsella) ...............115 Shiitake (Lentimus) ...........................115 Silver Thorn (Eleagnus) .....................116 Skullcap (Scutellaria) .........................116 Slippery Elm (Ulmus) .........................117 Smart Weed (Polygonum) ..................118 Solomons Seal (Polygonatum) ............118 Sorrel (Rumex) .................................118 Sourwood (Oxydendrum) ...................119 Sow Thistle (Sonchus) .......................119 Speedwell (Veronica) .........................119 Spice Bush (Lindera) .........................120 Spikenard ........................................120 Spinach (Spinacea) ...........................120 Spurge (Euphorbia) ...........................121 Squash, Summer (Curcurbit) ..............121 Squash, Winter (Curcurbit) .................121 Squaw Vine (Mitchella) ......................122 St. Johns Wort (Hypericum) ...............122 Stevia (Stevia) .................................123 Stone Root (Collinsonia) .....................124 Strawberry (Fragaria) ........................124 Sumac (Rhus) ..................................124 Sunflower (Helianthus) ......................125 Sweet Gum (Liquidambar) ..................126 Sweet Olive (Osmanthus) ...................126 Sweet Potato (Ipomoea) ....................126 Sweet Shrub (Calycanthus) ................127 .....................................................127 Tag Alder (Alnus) ..............................127 Tarragon (Tagetes) ............................128 5

Tea, Green, White, or Black (Camellia) 128 Tea Tree (Melaleuca) ......................... 128 Thistle (Silybum) .............................. 128 Thyme (Thymus) .............................. 129 Toadflax (Linaria) ............................. 129 Tomato (Lycopersicon) ...................... 130 Toothwort (Cardamine) ..................... 130 Trailing Arbutus (Epigaea) .................. 130 Tribulus (Tribulus) ............................. 130 Trillium (Trillium) .............................. 131 Trumpet Vine (Campsis) .................... 131 Tulip Poplar (Liriodendron) ................. 131 Tulsi or Holy Basil (Ocimum) .............. 131 Turmeric (Curcuma) .......................... 132 U .................................................... 132 Usnea (Folios) .................................. 132 Uva Ursi (Arctostaphylos) .................. 133 .................................................... 133 Valerian (Valeriana) .......................... 133 Verbena, Blue (Verbena) ................... 134 Viburnum, Black Haw (Viburnum) ....... 135 Violets (Viola) .................................. 136

W ................................................... 136 Wahoo (Euonymous) ......................... 136 Watermelon (Citrullus) ...................... 136 White Oak Bark (Quercis) .................. 136 Wild Cherry (Prunus) ........................ 137 Wild Ginger (Asarum) ....................... 137 Wild Indigo ...................................... 137 Wild Strawberry ............................... 137 Wild Yam (Dioscorea) ........................ 137 Willow (Salix) .................................. 138 Wisteria (Wisteria) ............................ 138 Witch Hazel (Hamamelis) ................... 138 Wood Betony (Stachys) ..................... 139 Wood Sorrel (Oxalis) ......................... 139 Wormwood (Artemisia) ...................... 139 Y .................................................... 140 Yarrow (Achillea) .............................. 140 Yellow Dock (Rumex) ........................ 140 Yellow Root (Xanthorhiza) .................. 141 Yerba Santa ..................................... 141 Yucca (Yucca) .................................. 141

Vegetable, Herb, and Fruit Chart Note: If you cant find a plant under a familiar name, look in the Index to see where the topic is located. If reading this from a PDF, note that both the TOC and Index are clickable for easy navigation. You can also click on any red text. The plants in this database fall into the criteria of being edible and/or medicinal and most can be grown in the southeast U.S. (particularly in Central Alabama, Zone 7 to 8). A few herbs that cannot grow here have recently been added because of their superior qualities and easy availability in bulk form or in tinctures. The following are averages for Shelby County: Last Spring Freeze - The average date of the last freeze is March 30, but freezing temperatures have been recorded as late as Apr 23 (1986). The coldest April reading in Birmingham history was 26 degrees on Apr 11 (1973). First Fall Freeze - The average date of the first freeze in Birmingham is Nov 9. The earliest freeze on record was Oct 18 (1948). The latest first freeze was Jan 10 (1932). Rainfall - This area gets an average of 53 (?) of rain yearly. In 2009, we got 74 on the farm, but in the previous two years, we were in a serious drought. Note: In 1929, during a 4-week period (Feb 26-Mar 26), every river in Alabama was flooded. Birmingham received 81.82" of rain that year, a record that still stands. Temps - Maximum: From July 13 - Aug 16, the average high is 91, the average low is 70. Minimum: From Dec __ - Jan __, the average high is 51(?), the average low is 31(?). Zone - In Zone 7b, we can grow plants with a southern range (heat hardiness) down to Zone 8 and a northern range (cold hardiness) up to Zone 7. Chilling Hours - 1200-1300 chilling hours during winter. We live in one of the most southern limestone hill/valley regions and probably get a few more chilling hours than is average for Shelby County. USDA Hardiness Zones:
7a 8a 9a 10a 0 10 20 30 7b 8b 9b 10b 5 15 25 35

Abbreviations: Sun = F (Full), P (Part), or S (Shade) Soil = D (Dry), A (Average), or M (Moist) LDG = Light Dependant Germinator BLF = Before Last Frost, ALF = After Last Frost Favorite Quotes: God sleeps in minerals, awakens in plants, walks in animals, and thinks in man. We shall not cease from exploration. And the end of all our exploring will be to arrive where we started and know the place for the first time. ~ T. S. Eliot Both abundance and scarcity are products of the mind. Food is medicine and medicine is food. Grow your own medicine! Act as if your actions will become universal rules. ~ Immanuel Kant A weed is no more than a flower in disguise. Dont be afraid to go out on a limb. That is where the fruit is. All the herbs of the earth are meant to be used for the betterment of mankind. You are where you eat. 6

If nothing ever changed, there would be no butterflies. A government big enough to give you everything you want, is strong enough to take everything you have. ~ Gerald Ford Education is what remains after one has forgotten everything he learned in school. ~ Albert Einstein Ethno-botanists recognize that the difference between a poison, a medicine, and a narcotic may only be an adjustment in dosage or in preparation. The issue today is the same as it has been throughout all history, whether man shall be allowed to govern himself or be ruled by a small elite. ~Thomas Jefferson Whatever occurs in the mind affects the body and vice versa. The mind and the body cannot be considered independently. When the two are out of sync, then both emotional and physical stress can erupt. ~ Hypocrites

Herbal Medicine - The World Health Organization reports that 80% of people worldwide use herbal medicine. Although the percentage in America is far less, we do spend billions on herbal products and that number increases yearly. Digitalis from the foxglove plant, is used to treat heart disease. Extracts from this plant and its compounds are used in modern heart medications. The herb ephedra has been used in TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) for over 2,000 years to treat asthma. The extract, Ephedrine, is used in commercial asthma medications. Research in other countries has brought many medicinal plants into modern usage in Europe. Germany utilizes over 600 plants in medicines available by prescription. These plant-medicines are prescribed by over two-thirds of German doctors.

A
Agastache (Agastache) Lamiaceae or Mint family: Perennial, easy to grow in moist, sunny, well-drained soil. 912 species, most native to NA. Most are upright, 1-9 tall, with stiff, angular stems with toothededged, lance shaped leaves. Upright spikes of tubular, two-lipped flowers develop at the stem tips, usually white, pink, mauve, or purple. Cultivation: Winter hardiness varies. The hardiest is A. foeniculum. A. nepetoides, rugosa, scrophulariifolia are hardy to zones 35 in the northern parts of their ranges. Propagate from seed or cuttings. Popular cultivars include A. cana 'Heather Queen'. Eastern species are: A. foeniculum. Giant or Anise Hyssop. From Arctic Canada to CO and WI. A. nepetoides. East NA from southern Canada south to Georgia. A. scrophulariifolia. East NA from southern Ontario south to GA.

Internal: A. rugosa has a history of use in Chinese herbology. Leaf tips can be eaten and made into teas. Agrimony (Agrimonia) Agrimonia eupatoria or procera, Rose family: (Church Steeples, Cocklebur, Sticklewort) Found near hedges and fences throughout England. Bears yellow flowers with egg-shaped petals on spikes emanating from hairy stems, exuding a distinctive, pleasant scent that is usually compared to apricots but isn't as sweet. Its seeds stick to clothing. Properties: Astringent, mild bitter, anti-inflammatory, vulnery, circulatory, respiratory, urinary. Has flavonoids. 7

Internal: The tea is a traditional diuretic and a treatment for diarrhea. Sipped slowly, the tannins tan or cross-link proteins in the throat to form a barrier against infection and irritation. Extracts protect against viral infections, especially hepatitis B if made with boiling water. Supports liver function. Relieves tension in nervous system (helps those who feel caught in a bind). EO is distilled from the stem. Good for urinary (UTI, cystitis, incontinence). Harvest: Dried, aerial parts, picked shortly before or during summer flowering. Culpepper (1652): Recommended agrimony to treat sores by bathing and fomenting with a decoction, and added, The decoction of the herb, made with wine and drunk, is good against the biting and stinging of serpents. It also helps the colic, cleanse the breath, and relieve the cough. It draws forth thorns, splinters, or any such thing in the flesh. Research confirms his use to treat various environmental toxins. Alfalfa (Medicago) Medicago sativa: Perennial cover legume crop planted spring or fall, F/P sun. Lime if pH below 6. Broadcast, rake in, keep moist. Deep roots get sub-minerals. 1 lb per 1000 sq ft. Across the west, there are occasional fields of bright green alfalfa grass. It is one of the oldest cultivated plants, used for hay and human food. Its name is Arabic for "father of all foods". Properties: Salty diuretic, slight bitter, mild alterative, general tonic. Digestive, circulatory, structural, glandular (pituitary). Internal: Alfalfa has beta-carotene and C, E, K, plus Ca, Mg, P, K, and trace minerals. It alkalises and detoxes. Sprouts are a rich source of chlorophyll. For arthritis, make tea from fresh alfalfa (the powder can aggravate joints). It has detox properties that remove acid from the blood leading to arthritis. The bitterness acts as a digestive tonic in tea form (combine with peppermint). Drink warm before meals to stimulate appetite and improve digestion. Also for bad breath, ulcers, fatigue, and to lower cholesterol. Large amounts can thin the blood. Precautions: The biggest risk is eating sprouts grown in contaminated water. Avoid limp or smelly sprouts, and rinse before use. For most people, sprouts are safe, but they do interact with certain medications. Don't take too much or for long periods. Parts Used: Seeds, sprouts, aerial parts as a bulk herb, for teas, and in capsules. Prepare: Sprouts are used in salads. Capsules contain leaves or seeds. For tea, steep 1-2 tsp per cup. Vitamin K: Alfalfa is one of the best sources of K, which helps blood clot by moving calcium into proteins that form a microscopic net to capture red blood cells. It also helps bones to knit by working with vitamin D and glutamic acid to activate osteocalcin. The combination of these three nutrients is essential to building good bone. Your body cannot use calcium without it. Alfalfa not only helps keep calcium in bones, it helps keep calcium out of the artery linings. Hardened arteries are a result of calcium replacing cholesterol in the lining of the blood vessel (calcification). Aloe Vera Juice (Aloe) Aloe vera, Lily family: Tender perennial, keep above 40 in shade. A dry succulant, water every 3 weeks (more often if hot and dry). Use suckers from roots for new plants. Plant in horizontal layers of sand and potting soil (in pots). Older plants (7 years +) are better for healing. Pick oldest leaves at the base. Properties: Mucilant for hot, irritated tissues, especially digestive and structural. Astringent, alterative, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, laxative. Caution: The green leaf portion is cathartic. Internal: It repairs tissue inside and out. Use for stomach and intestinal disorders, liver, infections, varicose veins, and arthritis. The juice is a 8

nutritional storehouse, with several vitamins and 18 amino acids. It soothes the tissue lining the digestive tract and contains active compounds that support the digestion and absorption of food and nourish the intestinal system. It helps relieve pain and reduce the size of kidneystones. Dr. Schultzs top herb for miracle healer. Must use fresh plant, not commercial gels or liquids. Most aloe products have lost much of the plants original benefits from over-processing. Beware of juice that claims to have no disagreeable taste. Removing taste can leave you with a product that is only 1015% aloe vera. External: The gel helps speeds healing of burns, cuts, stings, poison ivy. For burns, use ice immediately, then aloe. Cools the skin and has excellent anti-parasitic properties to fight off infection. Natures Sunshine: The leaf is filleted. The green outer portion containing aloin is removed, leaving the gel remaining in the leaf. The gel remains thick when first cut, but in a few minutes, an enzymatic reaction causes it to become liquid and run out. This pure liquid is collected. To prevent bacterial contamination, sodium benzoate is added as a preservative (it is effective in very small quantities, and safely preserves the juice). NSP Whole Leaf Aloe provides a higher level of mucopolysaccharides than filleted aloe vera. Only the intense cleansing components are removed. The gel is created by adding the gelling agent Irish moss extract to the juice. Alum Root (Heuchera) Heuchera villosa (Mapleleaf Alumroot), americana (Common), parviflora (Small-Flowered): (Foam Flower) Perennial, 1-3 tall, zone 4-9, arising from rhizomes, long stalk, palmate 5-7 lobes. Small pink to white flowers. Fruit capsules with dark red seeds. Likes moist, shaded ledges, cliffs. Amaranth (Amaranthus) Amaranthus species: (A. caudatus shown) Full sun, average moisture, 1 W, 2 R. Self-seeding annual grain, handles high temps. Sow in April, thin to 4", keep moist until germ, dont add N. Tip - put seeds in salt shaker and sprinkle. A grain alternative with better proteins and essential acids. A trap (decoy) crop for cucumber beetles (plant near cucurbits). Harvest: 100 days. After frost, cut and thresh seed heads, screen out chaff, winnow the seed, spread in thin layers until cured. Grind in mill, sprout it, pop like popcorn, or use in hot cereal. Angelica (Angelica) Angelica archangelica (Official), venenosa (Wild), Carrot family: (Boar hog Root) (Top 30 Herb) Biennial, part shade, zone 4-8, poordrained, moist soil, 5-8 tall. Short-lived seed, LDG, sow fall to early spring, starts slow then grows fast. Angelica is the European cousin of dong-quai. A graceful flowering plant that has an intense, sweet aroma more like carrots than dill or fennel. It defines the apothecary garden. It has a white flower cluster on top of a long stem. Looks like Queen Annes Lace and Water Hemlock. Crush a leaf - if it does not smell like carrot, it is not QAL (also, the flower heads are more separated than QAL and QAL is dark in center of the flower cluster). If leaf veins go to the tips, it is Angelica, if veins go to notch, it is toxic Water Hemlock (where the leaves look more like parsley). Properties: Warming bitter, pungent, aromatic tonic. May increase photo-sensitivity. Internal: Simple tonic almost as good as ginseng. Builds up entire system. For vitality, heartburn, colds, flu, aphrodisiac. Stimulates blood flow to digestive organs, relieving spasms and gas. A stimulant for the liver, gallbladder, and heart (so dont take for long periods). Aids in production of 9

bile (essential to proper digestion). Arthritis remedy containing anti-inflammatory compounds. Relaxes the windpipe, may be useful for asthma sufferers. Boar Hog Root is a powerful aphrodisiac. The traditional uses include treating tumors, boils, swollen gums, and forcing vomiting with food poisoning. It contains compounds that may prevent the proliferation of tumor cells. Modern herbalists use angelica to relieve loss of appetite, flatulence, GI spasms, and to treat the pain of hacking cough, menstrual cramps. and UTI. Prepare: Stems, seeds, leaves, and root edible with licorice flavor. Use sweet leaves in salads, seafood. Chew on root or stem or steep tea (1 tsp ground root per cup). Good with gentian, yellow poplar, sassafras. Dong Quai (Angelica) Angelica sinensis: Dong quai is often referred to as the "female ginseng" because of its strengthening effects on the female reproductive system. The pungent roots are used in TCM, prescribed as a tonic throughout a woman's life. Dong quai has phytoestrogenic (plant estrogen) properties, which help to balance female hormones. It stimulates pelvic circulation, relieves uterine spasms, and is a mild sedative. Frequently recommended to regulate the menstrual cycle and ease PMS symptoms and menopausal discomfort. As with most hormone-balancing herbs, it takes from 1 month to 1 year to obtain full benefits. Prepare: Commonly available as a liquid extract or in capsules. The sliced, pressed root is found in herb stores. Chinese herbalists recommend simmering the root in broth to make a nourishing tonic soup. It has a sweet, smoky, slightly bitter flavor. For menopause, take one dropperful of liquid extract diluted in a quarter-cup of boiling water or two capsules twice a day. Or add it to homemade chicken soup. Add several slices of root to each quart of broth, and simmer for one hour to extract the healing properties. Often prescribed for men as a tonic to build healthy blood. Anise (Pimpinella) Pimpinella anisum, Carrot family: Of all of the "umbels" in this family, anise has the strongest "licorice" flavor. Its EO is used to flavor licorice candy which is usually made without any licorice. Properties: Antiseptic, antispasmodic, soporific. The sweet fragrance of the fruit and its EO is due to to trans-anethole. Internal: A tsp of fresh ground seed brewed in a tea helps relieve congestion from allergies, colds, or flu, and settle upset stomach with gas. A few seeds taken with water often cures hiccups. It is a great spice to consume for those who have dyspeptic complaints after eating certain dishes. The process of heating anise in baked goods releases compounds that act as very mild stimulants. The anethole released in grinding and baking slows the decay of the baked goods that otherwise might result from fungi or molds. Anise flavors many herbal medicines. Prepare: The dried fruit (seed), whole or ground. Flavor is better if the fruits are stored whole and then ground just before use. Anise balances the flavors of bay leaf and cinnamon. Used to flavor liqueurs. Anise Star Pods (Illicium) Illicium verum (Star Anise), parviflorum, Magnolia family: (Star Pods, Chinese or Indian Anise) Broad-leaf evergreen shrub, hardy, zone 7-8, sun to part shade, soil and moisture tolerant, low maintenance, seldom bothered by pests (another source says it prefers shade and likes zones 79). Foliage popular as accent plants or hedges. Variation among the species determines its shape. It can be oval to a height of 8 or a small pyramid-shaped tree much larger. When crushed, the foliage releases a fragrance similar to root beer and licorice. Small creamy yellow flowers in late spring at the tips of the branches, just above the leaves. The blooms have a starfish-like appearance and can be white, red, purple or yellow. Once pollinated, the flowers give way to follicles, or star-shaped fruits. Native to China and Vietnam. 10

Properties: Like the herb anise, star pods contain an EO that is mostly anethole. The distinctive flavor is due to the presence of cineol, also found in Chinese cinnamon. Internal: Chewed after a meal as a breath mint and carminative (settles stomach). Star pods are more pungent, bitter, and licorice-like than the European anise. Used in Chinese red cooking, where foods are cooked for a long time in soy sauce. Prepare: Tough-skinned, rust-colored fruits are picked and dried before ripening. Grind before storage. Ground star anise added to baked goods protects them from spoilage by bacteria or fungi. Small amounts added directly to cooking. Store in a tightly sealed container in a dark, cool place. The tea is quite strong and only moderate amounts are needed. May also be taken as a capsule or extract. Florida Anise Illicium floridanum: Florida native, upright evergreen, many-branched shrub, zone 6-9, part shade to shade, moist, well-drained soil high in organic matter, 5-8 high, 6-8 wide. Normally smaller than I. parviflorum. 1-2" maroon to red star-shaped flowers in late spring. Alternate, simple, lustrous to dull dark green leaves 2-6" long, fragrant. foliage and fruit are poisonous to livestock. Leaves may discolor in sun or if exposed to harsh winds. Apple (Malus) Malus sylvestrus, Rosa family: F/P sun. The common tree grows to 25-30 tall. Internal: Although an apple has a low vitamin C content, it has antioxidants and flavonoids which enhances the activity of C. Apples provide a whole-body health benefit - lower cholesterol, improved bowel function, healthy lungs (helps prevent COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), reduced risk of stroke, lung cancer, type II diabetes, and asthma. Quercetin helps prevent the growth of prostate cancer cells. Phytochemicals in the skin inhibit the reproduction of colon cancer cells. Foods containing flavonoids reduce the risk of lung cancer. Cultivars: We grow the following on semi-dwarf root stock, 10-18 tall. Gala (produces July-Aug), Ginger Gold (July-Aug), Fugi (Aug-Sep). Crabapple Malus angustifolia (Flowering), M. callaway (Callaway): Normally found in cooler zones, but the ones we have came from Arbor Day and may work. Good in jellies. Internal: Cools fever, appetite stimulant. Arnica (Arnica) Arnica montana, Sunflower family: (Leopard's Bane, Mountain Tobacco) A graceful woodland plant in the western US. Its bright yellow, daisy-like flowers are collected at summer's end and dried for medicinal use. European herbalists apply to the skin to reduce the swelling and soreness of muscle strains, sprains, and bruises. Internal: Used internally only as a homeopathic remedy in extremely diluted form. External: Do not apply to broken skin. The fresh or dried flowers contain powerful anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties. Available as a gel, cream, oil, or liquid extract. For muscle strain, the sooner you apply, the better. Immediately rub on the injured area to prevent bruising. Apply 3 x daily until the soreness or bruising is relieved. Also use cold arnica compresses for treating bruises, sprains, and strains, combining its healing properties with the pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory benefits of cold temperatures. Dilute 1 T of extract in one 11

pint ice-cold water. Dip in a thin cotton cloth, squeeze out excess moisture. and apply to the bruise or sprain for 15-30 minutes at a time, 3-4 times a day, until the swelling and pain are gone. Leftover liquid and the cloth can be stored in the refrigerator for a couple of days. Ashwagandha (Withania) Withania somnifera, Nightshade family: (Indian Ginseng, Avarada). Unlike some other nightshades, it is not poisonous. It is India's answer to Ginseng and is used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat hypertension and stress related ailments. May be a preliminary treatment for male infertility and impotence. Used for those with overworked lives. The root has been used successfully for 3,000 years and empirical evidence of the ages speaks for itself. Properties: Astringent, anti-inflammatory, adaptogen, nervine. Contains glycosides, withanolides, and several alkaloids. Little research on potential hazards. May be a mild abortifacient (not recommended for pregnant women). Internal: It comes highly recommended in times of severe strife and stress-induced discomfort. However, do not consume for long periods (reserve for the times of need). Best results in women, little results in men. Harvest: The dry, cut root is used. Berries of this plant are mildly toxic to the stomach and GI tract. No major studies on the benefits of the leaf. Prepare: Tea decoction from the root, liquid herbal extract, herbal capsules (non-standardized) Crushed or powdered roots can be applied to food or eaten. Asparagus (Asparagus) Asparagus officinalis, Lily family: Tender perennial, full sun, avg moisture, 12 wide, 4 tall. Plant crowns Mar-Apr in sandy soil with good drainage. Bed can last 10-30 years. After soil warms, add 2-3" organic mulch/manure to build soil and stunt weeds. Pick 2 weeks first season, 4 weeks second, then 6 weeks. Stop when spears get smaller. Cut stems near ground level and refrigerate. Properties: Salty, slightly bitter, mild diuretic, kidney tonic, expectorant, demulcent. Helps with kidney/bladder stones, back pain, UTI, lungs. Prepare: Spears and the bitter root. Astragalus (Astragalus) Astragalas membranaceus, Pea family: (Milk Vetch) Taproot herbaceous perennial, full sun, avg to sandy, well-drained, slightly alkaline soil. Propagate by seed spring or fall. A graceful, flowing plant with long stems and paired, pointed leaves and purple flowers. Some pale-flowered vetches are similar, but vetches are more vine-like. Used for food and fodder. Properties: Strengthens respiratory, eliminative, and metabolic functions. A sweet herb that stimulates the immune system, lungs, liver, circulatory, and urinary systems. Lowers blood pressure and blood sugar levels. Contains astragalosides and other immunostimulant polysaccharides, beta-sitosterol, flavonoids, and trace minerals, especially selenium. Non-toxic in any dose. Internal: The main energy tonic of TCM (almost as good as ginseng). Used with Angelica for poor circulation and low energy, for allergies and frequent colds. Also for diabetes, kidney problems, and slow-healing skin eruptions. Used to treat digestive disorders and poor appetite. TCM prescribes for maladies related to deficiencies of spleen, the energy body responsible for digesting food and grounding the energies of the body in the environment. It increases the number of stem cells in bone marrow, and encourages their maturity into active white blood cells. 12

It helps signal the white blood cells to migrate to places needed to fight infection. It stimulates the germ-eating white blood cells (macrophages), activates T-cells and natural killer (NIK) cells, and increases the production of immune globulins. It boosts production of interferon, the body's natural antiviral agent. Shown to decrease the incidence of colds and significantly shorten the course of an existing cold (cutting recovery time in half). Usually taken with other herbs, astragalus as a whole herb eases chronic respiratory infections, aids in recovery from both cancer and the side effects of cancer therapy (can take during chemo), and enhances health in HIV. Harvest: Roots are white when dug out in fall, but become yellow when dried. Used for decoctions, powders, and tinctures. Prepare: TCM recommends 3-5 T whole herb daily as a decoction, made by boiling the dry ground root a few minutes and let brew. The dried root is used in the form of tea, capsule, or as an extract. The powder is mildly sweet and may be sprinkled on food or whipped into a shake or smoothie. Boil roots in soup.

B
Balloon Flower (Platycodon) Platycodon grandiflorum, Bellflower family: Herbaceous perennial, part shade, average moisture, good drainage, 2-3 tall, zones 3-8. Pastel shades of balloonlike flowers all summer. Internal: The bittersweet, ginseng-like root helps thin and eliminate phlegm. Baptisia or Wild Indigo (Baptisia) Baptisia australis, alba, tinctonia, Pea family: (Clover Broom, Horsefly Weed, Indigo Broom, Rattlebush, Shoofly) Perennial native, part shade, dry, poor, well-drained soil in open areas. 1-3 tall, zones 6-10. Pea-like flowers in spikes early summer. Wild Indigo contains dark blue pigment, but the dye is difficult to extract and is inferior to true indigo (Indigofera genus). NE natives used the root to make a wash for severe cuts and wounds. In US Pharmacopea and National Formulary 1916-36 for treatment of scarlet fever, diphtheria, typhoid fever, and dysentery. Properties: Alterative. The root is an antibacterial, antiseptic, astringent, cholagogue, emetic, purgative, and immune system stimulant. Contains isoflavones (estrogenic), flavonoids, alkaloids, coumarins, polysaccharides. Internal: Often recommended in combination with other herbs to treat ear, nose, and throat infections, and by itself as an antiseptic for external wounds and injuries. Caution: Large doses can be toxic, causing vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, asphyxiation, and death. Should be avoided by pregnant women and people with autoimmune disorders, and should be used only under the guidance of a qualified practitioner. Prepare: The roots are used as a decoction (1/2 tsp in 1 C up to 3x daily) or a tincture (1-2 ml 3x daily). The decoction can also be used externally as a wash for cuts and wounds, or combined with non-alcoholic witch hazel and calendula for nursing mothers, as a treatment for cracked nipples. Barberry (Berberis) Berberis vulgaris, thumbergii Rosy Glow: (Trailing Mahonia) (Top 30 Herb) Tall shrub with gray, thorny branches. Bright yellow flowers bloom late spring to become dark, drooping bunches of red berries in fall. Medicinal use dates back to ancient Egypt, when it was combined with fennel seed to prevent plague. Properties: Alterative, bitter tonic, antipyretic, antihemorrhagic, and antimalarial. The alkoloid berberine is infection-fighting. 13

Internal: Berries and bark used. Contains thiamine, C, the carotenoids beta-carotene and lutein, plus chromium, cobalt, and zinc. Stimulates immune system, treats pink eye, UTI. Dr. Schultzs top herbs for liver and gallbladder are Milk Thistle and Barberry (Oregon Grape root can be substituted for barberry). Caution: Limit use to 7 consecutive days, waiting at least a week before using again to help the good intestinal bacteria recover. B6 supplements can give infectious bacteria resistance to the antibacterial toxins in the herb. Given to children with success, but no more than 3 consecutive doses at a time. Prepare: Dried bark and root can be used in tea. The whole herb is available in capsules, fluid extracts, tinctures, and ointments. Puckery but less bitter than cranberries, ripe barberries can be used to make jam. Barley (Hordeum) Hordeum vulgare: A cool-season annual (plant Sep 15 - Oct). Barley grass is grown by soaking the seeds in clean water until they sprout and grow 2" long shoots. A major animal fodder, a base malt for beer and other distilled beverages, used in soups and in barley bread. The fourth largest cereal crop in the world. Properties: Barley grass doesn't contain every nutrient, but it comes closer than any other food. It is appropriate whenever diet fails to provide a full range of nutrients. Internal: Barley grass is rich in many vitamins, minerals, and amino acids. The dried shoot contains glutamic acid (for recharging antioxidants), methionine (to produce natural SAM-e), vitamin C, and Ca. 1 T contains a day's supply of beta-carotene, betaine, biotin, boron, Cu, Fe, lutein, Mg, niacin, riboflavin, and thiamine. It contains significant amounts of ALA (alpha-linoleic acid), oryzanol, K, Se, Zn, and the tocopherols that make up vitamin E. The medicinal action of the dried shoot is due to its content of hordenine. One of the principal growth factors in the barley shoot is melatonin. This may explain the calming effect of the herb. Barley grass has been used in TCM for 1800 years and is preferred to wheat. The tender young shoots of freshly sprouted barley seed were used to treat diseases of the spleen, or poor digestion, but also stagnation of the liver, conditions characterized by an inability to respond to the emotional environment, usually depression after chronic anger or disappointment. Prepare: Add a level T of barley grass powder to teas, smoothies, cereals, or other foods daily. As a capsule or in extract form. Basil (Ocimum) Ocimum (aromatic) basilicum, Mint family: (Sweet, Spicy Globe) Full sun, avg to moist, warm, 1 W, 1-3 H. The most common type of basil is culinary and is a large seed annual (the tea basil is a small seed perennial). The annual var can be grown indoors. For best flavor, it needs hot and dry. Soil should be rich and a bit moist, drying out between watering. Properties: A carminative (inhibits gastric acid secretion), antibacterial. Internal: A relaxant, for memory, headaches. Make tea for decongestant, colds, sore throat, coughs, asthma. Repels: Aphids, flies, mosquitoes. Harvest: Cut flowers for bushy growth. Leaves can be used fresh (best), dried, or frozen. Good with tomato, pasta, or meat. Dig plant in fall for indoor winter use.

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Tulsi, Tulasi, or Indian Holy Basil (O. sanctum, tenuiflorum, or Cnicus benedictus): Holy basil is red or green and different from regular basil. LDG. This Queen of Herbs is popular for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, but most for its success in relieving stress. Properties: A calming adaptogen. In India, the go-to remedy for many conditions and ailments of mind and spirit. It is revered by Hindus, representing the natural trinity of healing - mind, spirit, and body. Internal: Improves immunity levels to protect from other serious complications. Use if you feel your stress level is about to implode. Stress can elevate cortisol levels, which triggers the production of inflammatory COX-2 enzymes. This cascade effect then influences blood sugar changes and increases metabolic inflammation. Ursolic acid and triterpenoic acid improve the body's response to stress. Tulsi shows promise with slow memory, colds, fevers, excess phlegm, coughing, sore throat, kidneystones, heart disorders, mouth infections, bug bites, respiratory problems like asthma, headaches, and eye, skin, or teeth disorders. Prepare: Great for tea. Has more of a clove-like taste than regular basil, making it spicier and with a stronger smell (a scent of cinnamon and lemon). Bay Leaf See Bay Leaf (Magnolia family). Bayberry (Morella) Morella (formerly Myrica) cerifera, Magnolia family: (Wax Myrtle, Candleberry, Wild Cinnamon, Waxberry) (Top 30 Herb) Sun/part shade, 8-10 W, 10-15 H, Zone 7b to 11. Perennial evergreen shrub to small tree, irregular, rounded dense shrub, fast growing, native to SE. Scarify seeds. Hardy to 10. Grows near marshes, in sand, clay, pine barrens, poor fertility. Non-showy flowers, clusters of small, gray globose fruit. Drought tolerant, deer tolerant, fixes atmospheric nitrogen, spreads by suckers. Alternate, glossy olive green leaves with yellow glands on both top and bottom, and very fragrant when rubbed. Colonists used it in candle making. The specific epithet cerifera means "waxbearing" in Latin. The wax may be used to make bayberry candles, though those are usually made from the larger-fruited Northern Bayberry (M. pensylvanica) which has broader leaves. The tree is supposed to impart good luck and prosperity to the house it is planted next to. It was thought that if you burn a bayberry candle on New Years Eve you will have good luck the following year, or if you carry a piece of the bark or berries around in a small satchel, or a dry leaf in your wallet, it will attract money. Also called common wax myrtle, M. cerifera is similar to its less common and much smaller sister species M. pumila (dwarf wax myrtle), which is stoloniferous (spreads by underground runners) and is usually under 3 tall. Wax Myrtle is also similar to the less abundant (but common) Southern Bayberry (M. caroliniensis), but that species has broader leaves with resin glands only on the leaf undersides. Confusingly, M. cerifera is also sometimes called Southern Bayberry. The fruits have a waxy coating, which along with the plant's slightly myrtle-like leaves, gives it the common name Wax-Myrtle. The true Myrtle (Myrtus communis) is a European shrub with small, narrow evergreen leaves. Properties: Astringent (tannins). Internal: Use root or bark for diarrhea and dysentery. The tannins seal over sites of inflammation and infection in the mouth, gums, and throat. Induces coughs that release phlegm. Samuel Thompson recommended it for body heat and for colds, flu, dysentery, and fevers. The original 15

use of bayberry was in treating cankers, at one time understood to be accumulations of cold at various sites in the body. Caution: For occasional use only. Since bayberry can stimulate uterine contractions, avoid during pregnancy. If you are allergic to bayberry wax, use with caution. External: Poultices are usually made by combining bayberry and slippery elm. A strong bark decoction can kill insects. A safe insect repellent for dogs. Prepare: Powders, teas, tinctures, and poultices. Drink the tea hot. A tea gargle may help a sore throat and help to stop bleeding gums. Beans (Fabacea) Pea (Fabacea) family: Many varieties. Most need warmth to germinate (Apr-Jun or Aug), 1 deep in well-drained, weed-free soil. Lime if pH < 6.0. Dont apply N after first 3 weeks. Plant in 2week intervals. Raw beans contain indigestible proteins and must be cooked. Dont freeze seeds. See "Peas" for "Southern" peas. Most Nutritious: Anasazi, Adzuki, Northern, Black, and all the Southern peas. Bush Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris): Plant in narrow rows 18" apart, so rows can fill in and shade out weeds. 6" apart for each plant. Pole Beans (Phaseolus coccinus): (KY Wonder) Bears later than bush with higher yields. Use 68 poles. If using a teepee tripod, plant 6 seeds around in a circle 6-8" from each pole. Snap: Can be tall pole-type, half-runners, or low-growing bush types. Rapid growers with large yields and little attention. Adzuki: Plant early April, frost-free, cool nights. Drought resistant. Soy or Edamame (Glycine max): Bush bean. Lecithin good for liver, gallbladder, brain, heart. Soys heart-healthy nutrients include folic acid and magnesium (which helps maintain normal blood pressure). Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus): (Indian Bean, Egyptian Bean) Food crop in Africa, India, Indonesia. Grows as a vine, producing purple flowers and electric-purple colored seed pods. Lablab bean is a good choice for a quick screen on a trellis or fence. It grows fast, has beautiful, fragrant flowers that attract butterflies and hummingbirds, and produces edible leaves, flowers, pods, seeds, and roots. Dry seeds are poisonous due to high concentrations of cyanogenic glucosides, and can only be eaten after prolonged boiling. It is also grown as forage and as an ornamental plant. Used in Kenya to encourage lactation for breastfeeding mothers. The beans are boiled and mashed with bananas to give it a sweet taste. Fava Bean (Vicia) Vicia (Vetch) faba: (Bell beans) Full sun, 4 W, 18 R, 2-3 H. Plant early Feb for spring harvest, Oct-Dec for March harvest, 85-90 days to harvest, 7-10 days to germ at 40. Hardy to 10-20. Not a good transplant. One of earliest winter vegetables grown by humans. Harvest when pods are green at 3" for edible pods or 4-7" for shelling (dry for a week). Use in hummus instead of chick peas. Bee Balm (Monarda) Monarda fistulosa (Wild Bergamot), didyma (Scarlet or Crimson, Oswego Tea), Mint family: (Horsemint) Herbaceous perennial, F/P sun. Wild Bergamot is a popular and showy perennial, with clusters of lavender, pink, or white flowers on 2-5 stems. somewhat drought tolerant and is heat tolerant, in zones 4 to 8. Fine dense hairs cover much of the stem and leaves. Roots are short, slender, creeping rhizomes. Used medicinally by Indians who knew four varieties with different odors. Used as a diaphoretic for sweat lodges. Linnaeus named the genus 16

Monarda in honor of a 16th century Spanish physician and botanist, Nicolas Bautista Monardes. The red variety is commonly known as Oswego Tea, which comes from the Oswego Indians who taught the immigrants how to use it for tea (in place of English Tea) after the Boston tea party in 1773. (It is not the source of bergamot oil used to flavor Earl Grey tea - that comes from the bergamot orange, a citrus fruit.) Propagation: Best started from spreading rhizomes. Lift and divide every 3 years to contain it, improve air circulation, and improve vigor. Easy to start from seeds which do not need to be cold stratified, but they are light dependant germinators. Thrives in a wide range of soils, from acid to lime, rich to poor, sand to clay, but best in a dry, alkaline soil. It is less tolerant of flooding, but can take it in the winter. Can get spotted with mildew, so provide good drainage and air circulation. Wildlife: Birds, hummingbirds, butterflies. A good companion plant, attracting pollinators and predatory/parasitic insects. Chemical Properties: Antiseptic. Diffusive stimulant, relaxant nervine, anti-spasmodic, diaphoretic, carminative, emmenagogue. Energetics: Warm feeling, but cooling at core, diffusive stimulating/relaxant. Internal: Natural source of the antiseptic thymol, the primary active ingredient in mouthwash formulas. Tea was used to treat mouth and throat infections caused by dental caries and gingivitis. Others used tea as a general stimulant (add sweetener as thymol makes it somewhat bitter). A carminative herb to treat excessive flatulence. An infusion of crushed leaves can treat headaches, colds, and fevers. Steam inhalation is used for sore throats and bronchial catarrh (inflammation of the mucus membrane, causing an increased flow of mucus). External: Use as application for skin eruptions and infections. The Indians recognized its strong antiseptic action, and used poultices for skin infections and minor wounds. Prepare: Get leaves and flowers in bloom and dry. Aerial parts are edible and taste like a mixture of mints and oregano. Leaves are boiled for tea, used for seasoning, or chewed raw or dried. The flowers make an attractive and edible garnish in salads. Fresh or dried leaves are brewed into an aromatic and medicinal tea. An infusion of young leaves are used as a common beverage in many parts of the US. Take 1 tsp dried herb, add 1 cup boiling water, steep, sweeten to taste, take at bedtime. Bee Pollen (not to be confused with propolis) When bees help themselves to nectar to make honey, they coat their legs with pollen in the process. It is collected when they return to the hive where they have to pass through a screen. This screen gently scrapes the pollen off their legs and it drops into a collection tray. Hippocrates and Pythagoras both prescribed bee pollen for its healing properties. Natives wore pouches containing pollen around their necks on long journeys to eat so they could sustain a high level of energy. In China, pollen was first described well over 2000 years ago as sweet tasting and neutral, having diuretic, hemostatic, and stasis-dispersing properties. Later it was used to treat bleeding of various kinds, as well as abdominal pain, painful urination, and mouth sores. China is still the world's major producer of pollen, followed by the US. Constituents: Antioxidant flavonoids, including myricetin, quercetin, rutin, trans-cinnamic acid. Internal: Contains antioxidant compounds chemists call flavonoids. Myricetin helps white blood cells soak up LDL cholesterol. Quercetin is a natural antihistamine - the right kind of pollen can be beneficial for your allergies. Rutin is best known as the remedy for varicose veins. It protects veins throughout the body and may help prevent cancer as well. Your body uses trans-cinnamic acid to make its own antibiotics, and this potent nutrient also powers the detoxifying processes of the liver. Bee pollen is a source of complete nutrition, richer in protein than any flesh-based food. Gram for gram, it contain more amino acids than fish, beef, or eggs. Since the anti-allergy effect of bee pollen is probably due to quercetin than to the particular plants the bees harvested, it is not necessary to use a locally collected bee pollen (or honey). If you have severe allergies to ANY pollen, avoid bee pollen. 17

Prepare: Dried pollen in whole, broken or powdered form. Typically taken in capsule form (up to 10-500 mg daily) as an extract, or it may be sprinkled on food. Extracts are used in some skin care products. Best to refrigerate if stored over 1 month. Beech (Fagus) Fagus grandiflora (American Beech): This is the large tree that people want to carve their names on. The golden autumn leaves stay on the tree through winter. Another sign of a beech is the sticker between the leaves. Internal: Beech nuts are rare but are good to eat. Beech Drop (Epifagus virginiana): This is a parasite that grows off the beech roots and is used for epilepsy. Beet / Swiss Chard (Beta) Beta vulgaris: Biennial, F/P sun, plant Feb 15-Mar or Aug-Sep 15, 4 W, 1 R. Beet and chard cross with each other. Soak seeds overnight and direct sow. Keep moist until established. Do not transplant beets as poorly shaped roots develop. Plant in 20-day intervals through March, maybe April. Light loam pH 6.5 - 7.0 (add lime or wood ash if below). High K for roots. Beet roots suffer if dry or extended heat (harvest early if so). Mulch well. Chard: Similar to spinach, but slower to bolt. Feed every 2 weeks. May grow all summer and is somewhat winter-hardy. In ancient times, beets had elongated roots like carrots and the globular red beet we now eat was hybridized about 300 years ago. Beets have the highest sugar content of all vegetables. Beet juice and powder are used to flavor carrot, celery, and other vegetable juices, and also to color a variety of foods. Roots and leaves were used to treat a wide variety of ailments since the Romans, who used them for fever and constipation. Hippocrates used the leaves as a binding for wounds. In the Talmud, the rabbis recommended "eating beet root, drinking mead, and bathing in the Euphrates" as part of a prescription for a long and healthy life. Many cultures have used roots as an aphrodisiac (beets are a rich source of boron, which plays a role in the production of the human sex hormones). Although the leaves were consumed for many centuries, the root itself was not widely consumed until French chefs recognized its culinary potential in the early 19th century. Properties: Betaine, alanine, alantoin, arginine, beta-carotene, Ca, GABA, glycine, histidine, Mg, P, K, Se, vitamin B1/B5/C, tryptophan, tyrosine, Zn, some zirconium. Internal - Beet roots aid in hydochloric acid production for protein digestion. Beet powder provides a wide range of nutrients, but its most significant phytochemical is betaine, which helps the liver and kidneys recycle the amino acid methionine to maintain the body's stores of sadenosyl-methionine (SAM-e). Betaine also helps the liver process fat. This prevents the accumulation of fatty tissues in the liver (steatosis), especially in heavy drinkers, and it also prevents excessive triglycerides and LDL cholesterol in the blood. Other antioxidants in the root prevent the oxidation of LDL into forms that can become plaques. Beet juice can help lower blood pressure and due to the high content of iron, good for anemia. Harvest: Leaves and root for salads or cooking. Roots mature in 45-60. Clip leaves near base. Cut to 3 in late summer for fall production. Use in stir fry. Freezes well. Prepare: The dried root, powdered. May be administered directly, whipped into a smoothie or drink, or sprinkled on food. Drink 1-2 tsp in water or juice, 2-4 times daily. One teaspoon of powder provides the nutrition in one beet.

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Birch (Betula) Betula nigra (River Birch): Soft-wood tree native to cold, northerly climates. Peel the bark - smells like Wriggly gum. A flavoring in root beer and sarsaparilla drinks. The name is probably derived from Sanskrit as the "tree whose bark is written upon". Birch bark easily peels from the tree, but is slow to decay. Removing it from a living tree can kill it if the dark inner bark is damaged, but due to the remarkable preservative properties of birch bark, it can easily be harvested from dead or fallen trees, where it still retains its properties. Birch bark is strong and water resistant, almost like cardboard in pliability, and can be bent, cut, and even sewn. They also used it for canoes, wigwams, scrolls, art, musical instruments, food containers, and clothing. Birch bark has been quite valuable since pre-historic times for its applications in building and crafting. Properties: Betulinic acid, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory. Internal: Immune system stimulate and anti-cancer. Natives used the bark tea for fevers, stomach ache, lung ailments, and fever. A diuretic - do not take birch bark or leaf internally if you have difficulty going to the bathroom. Prepare: The dried, powdered bark is used for tea and poultices. External: Birch bark has been used to treat skin outbreaks for centuries. The chemical betulin may be useful in treating melanoma. Teas of the bark may also relieve joint pain of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or gout. Bitter Melon (Momordica) Momordica charantia, Cucurbit family: (Bitter Gourd) This herbaceous, tendril-bearing vine grows to 15 with simple, alternate leaves. A subtropical vine widely grown for its edible fruit, which is among the most bitter of all fruits. Each plant bears separate yellow male and female flowers. Flowering occurs June-July and fruiting Sept-Nov. The fruit has a warty exterior and is oblong. It is hollow in cross-section, with a relatively thin layer of flesh surrounding a central seed cavity filled with large flat seeds and pith. The fruit is most often eaten green, or as it is beginning to turn yellow. At this stage, the fruit's flesh is crunchy and watery in texture, similar to cucumber or green bell pepper, but bitter. The skin is tender and edible. Seeds and pith appear white in unripe fruits. They are not so bitter and can be removed before cooking. As the fruit ripens, the flesh becomes tougher and too distasteful to eat. Yet, the pith becomes sweet and intensely red. It can be eaten uncooked in this state, and is a popular ingredient in some SE Asian salads. When the fruit is fully ripe, it turns orange and mushy, and splits into segments which curl back dramatically to expose seeds covered in bright red pulp. Internal: In Turkey, it was used as a folk remedy for a variety of ailments, like stomach complaints. The fruit is broken up and soaked in either olive oil or honey. Antihelmintic: Used as a folk medicine in Togo to treat GI diseases, and extracts have shown activity in vitro against a nematode worm. Antimalarial: Used in Asia to prevent and treat malaria. Antiviral: In Togo, used against viral diseases like chickenpox and measles. Tests with leaf extracts have shown in vitro activity against the herpes simplex type 1 virus. Tests suggest that compounds might be effective for treating HIV infection. Cardioprotective: Studies indicate that the seed may have a cardioprotective effect. Diabetes: Found to increase insulin sensitivity. Other compounds found to activate the AMPK, the protein that regulates glucose uptake (a process which is impaired in diabetics). Anticancer: Two compounds extracted from the fruit have been found to induce apoptosis of leukemia cells in vitro. Other uses: Used in traditional medicine for dysentery, colic, fevers, burns, painful menstruation, scabies and other skin problems. It has also been used as abortifacient, for birth control, and to help childbirth. 19

Cautions: The seeds contains vicine and therefore can trigger symptoms of favism in susceptible individuals. In addition, the red arils of the seeds are reported to be toxic to children, and the fruit is contraindicated during pregnancy. Bitter Orange See Bitter Orange (Citrus). Bitterweed (Helenium) Helenium amarum, Aster family: (Sneeze Weeds) Has yellow flowers on top of stem covered with hair like leaves. Flowers in August, found on dry roadsides. Properties: Antiviral, bitter (liver stimulant). Internal: Makes cow milk bitter. Stimulates production of tylin (saliva), bile (a yellow/green fluid produced in the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and passed through ducts to the small intestine, where it plays an essential role in emulsifying fats), bilirubin (brown/yellow substance found in bile, produced when the liver breaks down old red blood cells). Blackberry (Rubus) Rubus fructicosus, argutus (Wild), idaeus (Raspberry), Rose family: (Dewberry, Brambles) Perennial, thorny shrub or vine up to 15 long, F/P sun. Blackberries have green stems with angles. Dewberries have round purple stems like long arching canes that lay all over. Properties: Astringent (root is most potent, then the green or ripe berries, then the leaves). Loaded with A, C, pectin, essential oil, citric and malic acid. Internal: Specific for intestines (the best cure for diarrhea), hemorrhoids, cystitis, prostrate. The astringency pulls moisture out of the intestine, killing the bacteria that causes dysentery. Good for upset stomach. The leaves are a natural antihistamine and are loaded with iron (good blood purifier). Seeds not good for those with IBS (use the jelly, not the jam as it contains seeds). Great for kids. Better than Immodium. Prepare: Gather leaves and root of first year cane and dry for later use. Boil root or infuse leaves (1 tsp dried leaves per cup). Dont drink too much tea as the tannins can take you from diarrhea to severe constipation. The young shoots may be peeled and used in salads. For constipation, eat the whole berries. Kiowa Variety: Thorny erect, largest fruit, produces 6-7 weeks (June - July). Black Cohosh (Actaea) Actaea (formerly Cimicifuga) racemosa, Buttercup family: (Snakeroot, Bugbane, Squawroot). (Top 30 Herb) Part sun, moist, 4-6 H. Bushy, herbaceous perennial with striking foliage and tall white racemes. Cultivate: Raised beds in woods, zone 3-8, ph 5-6. Divide rhizome spring or fall. Cut in vertical sections 2-3 long each with at least one bud. Space 2 apart. Cover top with 2 soil in a 4-6 deep trench (bud pointing up). Cover bed with 3 shredded mulch. Grows 18 per month. Properties: Muscle anti-inflammatory/spasmodic to nerves, muscles, and blood vessels (salicylic acid does this). Anti-microbial, fungicidal. Internal: A natural estrogen to controls hot flashes. Use with Red Maple and Squaw Vine for any menstrual cycle or menopause complaint. Contains coumarin (anti-microbial, fungicidal, and good for cardiovascular system - lowers BP, cholesterol, normalizes heart action). Tincture of fresh root is antidepressant, pain relieving, sedative, 20

peripheral vasodilating, tinnitus. Use dried roots (not too much). Reduces inflammation caused by osteo and rheumatoid arthritis. Also circulatory, painkiller, asthma, coughs. Hot tea acts as a stimulating diaphoretic, causing body to sweat. Has phytoestrogenic (plant estrogen) properties to help ease hormonal shifts that occur during menopause. As estrogen levels drop, the pituitary gland secretes more luteinizing hormone (LH), and increased levels of LH may be responsible for many unpleasant menopausal symptoms. Studies show that extracts reduce LH levels and relieve hot flashes, anxiety, night sweats, vaginal atrophy, and depression. Prepare: Boil 1 tsp ground root in 2 cups water, steep 5 min and strain. Take 1 tsp cold tea 3-5 times daily. It is bitter, so best to take as a liquid extract or in capsules. External: Treats poisonous snakebites. Harvest: Seeds develop Aug-Oct (they make rattling sound if ready). After leaves fall, harvest fall (3-5 years old), clean, dry. Dont use the toxic White Cohosh by mistake - it looks similar until bloom (white var has a short flower stalk with heavy white or red berries). Black Gum (Nyssa) Nyssa sylvatica, Dogwood family: (Tupelo) Up to 80 tall, very hard wood. Leaves up to 6 long by 3 wide, untoothed, glossy dark green top (always have spots), blue-green below, turning to reddish in fall. Bears a 3/8 bluish berry. Roots and sprouts come up everywhere. Leaf resembles Pawpaw. Internal: Quinine used for swamp fever. Chew sticks for gums or grind for toothpaste. Has chemicals that whiten teeth and clean gums. Black Haw (Viburnum) See Viburnum, Black Haw (Viburnum). Black Walnut (Juglans) Juglans nigra, Walnut family: F/P sun, average moisture. Large deciduous tree, 25-75 tall. Likes rich woods. The anti-fungal chemical (juglone) keeps other vegetation from growing beneath. The wood is hard and durable, but easy to split and work. Open-grown trees have shorter trunks and broader crowns, and produce more nuts than forested trees. The nuts are not as popular as the milder tasting English walnut, probably because they are much harder to shell. Properties: Good source of iodine. Internal: Indigestion, laxative, mouth/throat sores, ringworm, fungal and yeast infections, internal parasites. Lowers BP and cholesterol. For mouth ulcers and sores, take bark tea and wash mouth, or take some leaves and chew (hot and peppery). Not for long-term use. External: Bruises, fungal infections, poison ivy, warts. Cut a green hull in half and rub the juice on ringworm or other infection. Tincture can be used for fungal infections. There may be skin sensitivity and it will stain. A leaf decoction is used as a douche and to relieve itching. Salve: Boil down 2 large handfuls of hulls, add 1-2 pounds lard, reduce until thick, optionally add small amount of beeswax to firm it up. Harvest: Get leaves early summer before fruit is fully formed. Get green fruit as soon as it falls in early autumn (put in burlap, drive tires over, or hammer hulls from nuts. Dry hulls or use fresh. Season nuts in a dry, sunny place. If left in hull, worms will develop. Butternut Bark (Juglans) Juglans cinerea: (Lemon Walnut, Oil Nut, White Walnut) The butternut is a walnut with leaves like the black walnut but a grayish, deeply furrowed bark. Native to Midwest and NE. While walnuts 21

are round, butternuts are elongated, like pecans. The have been used by natives for centuries, who boiled them to extract the oil, which was used like a butter. The Iroquois used the butter for toothache relief. The early settlers pickled the kernels. Widely used as a laxative and to support healthy liver functions, as well as for intestinal complaints. Notably, it was used as a vermifuge to expel, rather than kill, internal parasites and worms through the course of a laxative induced cleansing of the system. Properties: Juglandic acid, juglone, tannins. Internal: Butternut bark is a mild laxative, used for the same indications as rhubarb, but unlike rhubarb in that small doses are not constipating. Butternut acts on the lower bowel in 4-8 hours, and does not cause cramping. The herb also encourages the release of bile by the liver, assisting the digestion of fats and helping maintain hormonal balance. Do not use if you have gallstones. Prepare: Inner bark, dried and chopped. Tea or extract. Butternut bark pieces can be soaked in any alcohol as a beverage (such as vodka) with small pieces of ginger or angelica to make an extract for treating chronic constipation. The powder is used to make a syrup for treating tapeworms. Can be taken as an extract or in a capsule. Blessed Thistle (Cnicus benedictus) See Thistle (Silybum). Bloodroot (Sanguinaria) Sanguinaria canadensis, Poppy family: (Indian Paint, Paucon) Perennial, 6-12" tall, leaves distinctly round-lobed. One of first spring flowers. Found in north central US on moist north slope of oak/beech woodlands. The red juice pressed from fresh root is poisonous internally, but externally it can dissolve abnormal growth without disturbing normal tissue. Properties: Expectorant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory. Alkaloids, berberine and coptisine (antibacterial chemicals also found in barberry and coptis), various forms of sanguinarine (blood). Internal: For asthma, bronchitis, coughs, tonic, stimulant. Used in toothpaste and mouthwash for plaque and gingivitis. Good with Lobelia, Vervain, and Skullcap. Since it is in the opium family, it has a mild, morphine like effect. Bloodroot is mainly for external use and should be avoided during pregnancy. External: Useful for any type of skin disease, warts, and cancers. The main use is treating skin tags (acrochordons) which are soft, rubbery, skin-colored growths that typically grow into a droplet shape and hang from the skin by a stalk. They do not become malignant and, except for getting caught in zippers or irritated by rough clothing, do not cause pain or inflammation. They are a cosmetic problem. A dermatologist can snip them off in seconds with a scalpel or scissors. A family practitioner is more likely to burn them off with an electric spark or freeze them off with liquid nitrogen. All of these procedures are at least unpleasant and sometimes painful, and if you're susceptible to skin tags, you may get rid of one crop only to develop another. Bloodroot is a far less expensive way to handle the problem. Do not apply to eyelids, lips, nose, or genitals. It can damage normal and healthy skin tissue, so make sure you only apply the herb to the damaged areas your want to treat. It is extremely effective in treating warts. Dont apply to broken skin. Salve: For skin rash, mix small amount with Jimsonweed, Yellow Dock, Chickweed. Harvest: Get root in early spring when flower in full bloom or late summer when leaves fade. Fresh root can cause irritation. Tinctures and salves are recommended. Prepare: Powder or paste from ground dried root. Can also be administered in extract form.

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Blueberry/Huckleberry (Vaccinium) Vaccinium ashei (Rabbit Eye), arboreum (Highbush), darrowii (Dwarf), macrocarpon (Cranberry), myrtillus (Bilberry), Rose family: (Winter Huckleberry, Deerberry, Farkleberry) Huckleberry is the largest of native blueberry species, growing from shrub to tree after many years, up to 20 tall. Often hard to ID because hybridization occurs frequently among species. Small white flowers on previous years growth, fruit black and dry, persisting into winter. Red fall color and attractive peeling bark. A frost brings out sugar. Properties: Rich in anthocyanosides, an antioxidant (highest of almost any plant). Internal: Any Vaccinium variety is good for regulating sugar/insulin levels in diabetics. Next best herb to reduce swelling of enlarged prostrate behind Saw Palmetto and New Jersey Tea root. Also regulates blood pressure, mouth ulcers, diarrhea. Strengthens night vision and helps with macular degeneration. Prepare: Cambrium layer is thin so take about six 6-12 branch pieces (1-2 diameter). Boil 2 cups inner bark in half gallon (or 2 hands full of leaves) for 20 minutes. Turns the water orangered and smells like boiled cabbage. You can freeze in ice trays and use a couple of cubes in a cup of tea. After taking for a week, regulates blood pressure and blood sugar. Drink 2 cups cold tea daily. Blueberry Cultural: Full sun, avg moisture, 6-8 tall, produces June - July. Tifblue: Produces for 6 weeks, largest rabbit-eye plant, best fall color. Brightwell: Produces for 5 weeks. Premier: Produces for 4-5 weeks. Powderblue: Produces for 6 weeks. Blue Cohosh (Caulophyllum) Caulophyllum thalictroides, Barberry family: (Blue Ginseng, Beechdrops, Blueberry/Papoose/Squaw Root) Airy, lush perennial, 2-3 tall, with yellowgreen to purple-green flowers and fruit like a blueberry in fall. Found near Black Cohosh, Trillium, Bloodroot (down to north Alabama). Looks like Meadow Rue, but has a blue-green underside. Not related to Black Cohosh, though it has similar uses. Properties: Antispasmodic, demulcent, diuretic, emmenagogue, nervine, and stimulant. Internal: It has a shape suggestive of its medicinal uses (doctrine of signatures). Its branches are arranged like limbs in spasm, and the plant is used to treat muscle spasms. Contains potassium, calcium, iron, silicon, and phosphorus. The root is used as a uterine tonic, for arthritis, cramps, hiccups. Used as a dietary supplement that can induce labor, regulate menstrual flow, suppress menstruation, and ease the pain and difficulty that accompany childbirth. Many tribes, herbologists, and mid-wives used it with other herbs for abortive and contraceptive purposes. Blue Vervain (Verbena hastata) See Verbena, Blue (Verbena). Boneset (Eupatorium) See Eupatorium Family (Eupatorium).

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Borage (Borago) Borago officinalis: Borage is a native annual of Southern Europe and is naturalized all over Europe and the US. It grows like a weed in abandoned lawns and garbage dumps. At one time borage was an essential herb for beekeepers, grown to help bees produce more honey. It was also grown as an ornamental, or boiled as a pot herb. It is easily recognized by its white prickly hairs and bright blue, star-shaped flowers. Its dark green leaves are gently curved and its fruits consist of dark brown nutlets (seeds) in groups of 4. It was claimed that borage was used to "exhilarate the mind, comfort the heart, drive sorrow away, and increase ones general happiness". Properties: Contains gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), beta-carotene, choline, mucilage, fiber, B vitamins, and trace minerals. Internal: Use entire plant. Traditionally borage was cultivated for culinary and medicinal uses, although today commercial cultivation is mainly as an oil seed (source of GLA), for which borage is the highest known plant-based source. The oil is marketed as starflower oil or borage oil, although healthy adults typically produce ample GLA through dietary linoleic acid. Naturopaths use borage for regulation of metabolism and the hormonal system, and consider it to be a good remedy for PMS and menopause symptoms (hot flashes). It is sometimes indicated to alleviate and heal colds, bronchitis, and respiratory infections, and in general for its anti-inflammatory and balsamic properties. Caution: Reports that borage seed oil contains toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids are false. However the herb, leaf and flower do and its internal use is prohibited. Not recommended while pregnant or for long term use. External: Thought to be an insect repellant, so is often grown in gardens or used in skin care products. Borage seed oil is used as an anti-inflammatory for chronic conditions, notably arthritis, but also asthma, chronic bronchitis, eczema, psoriasis, and other skin conditions. Borage seed oil is also high in GLA, an essential fatty acid, and thought to assist in weight loss. Borage flower, stems, and leaves are used in diuretics to support treatment of UTI and weak hearts plus support circulation to treat varicose veins. The herb, but not the seed oil, induces sweating and sedates. Prepare: Seed oil, or flower and herb used in tinctures, teas, and encapsulations. The flowers can be infused for its medicinal properties. The flower has a sweet honey-like taste and as one of the few truly blue-colored edible things, is often used to decorate dessert. Can be used as either a fresh vegetable or a dried herb. It has a cucumber-like taste and is used in salads or as a garnish. Briers (Sarsaparilla) See Sarsaparilla or Briers (Smilax). Buckeye (Aesculus) Aesculus pavia (Red): Good for fire making as the wood is very light. Dont eat any part, including the nuts. External: Good for arthritic joints. Soak all parts of plant in rubbing alcohol. Horse Chestnut (A. hippocastanum) The horse chestnut tree grows to 80 with leaves in clusters of 5-7 and white flower spikes growing at the ends of its branches. The tree is not related to the edible chestnut, which is in the oak family. Horse chestnut is gaining popularity because of clinical German studies showing it is safe and effective for treating varicose veins, inadequate vein strength, and related disorders. Currently, it is the third best selling herbal product in Germany behind Ginkgo and St Johns. Properties: Bark contains coumarins, fraxin, scopolin, aesculetin, quercetin, sterols, tannins, and saponins. Leaf contains coumadins, aesculin, scopolin, fraxin, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol, rutin. 24

Prepare: Whole nuts are used to make herbal extracts and infusions for balms and creams. Traditionally the leaves and bark are used as a tea, and can also be used to make tinctures, creams, and infusions. The whole nut is preferable over the leaf and bark for external applications. Sometimes the leaf and bark are combined with other herbs to make cough syrups. The nuts are poisonous and only used externally. Internal: Horse Chestnut has been traditionally used to make a tea to treat diarrhea or hemorrhoids. The leaf has been traditionally used to make teas to strengthen varicose veins or to treat chronic coughs with congestion. Caution - the whole nuts are not for internal use, unless administered by a qualified practitioner. Not recommended while pregnant. Not to be applied to broken or abraded skin. Buckwheat (Fagopyron) Fagopyron esculentum: F/P sun, avg moisture, 1-4 H. Annual, plant late spring to early fall, 2 lb per 1000 sq ft. 30-45 days for green manure crop, 80 days for grain. Deep root mines sub-surface minerals. Fast-growing plants choke out weeds, bees loves flowers. Internal: Non-legume edible for humans and wildlife. Grain alternative with better proteins and essential acids. Use young leaves in salad, grain in cereal. Bugleweed (Lycopus) Lycopus americanus or virginicus, Mint family: (Gipsyweed, Sweet or Water Bugle, Water Horehound, Odorless Mint) Herbaceous perennial, full sun, moist or swampy soils. Creeping rhizomes and short flowering racemes. Hard to find, can be a substitute for boneset. Not to be confused with carpet or common bugle (Ajuga). The colonists grew it for its medicinal qualities. It bears clusters of white, bugle-like flowers where the stems connect to leaves. The botanical name Lycopus refers to the resemblance of the cut leaf to a wolfs paw, which also explains the common names referring to wolves. Properties: Organic acids, lithospermic acid. Internal: Whole plant used. Traditionally used for nosebleeds, heavy menstrual bleeding, coughs, as a sedative and as an astringent. Today used to help relieve an over-active thyroid, including the symptoms - racing heart, shaking and tightness of breath. May cause enlargement of thyroid gland. Don't use for hyperthyroidism. Prepare: Dried leaves and flowers. Teas, and less frequently, tinctures and capsules. For a tea, low boil 1 oz dried leaves or flowers to one pint water for 10 minutes and strain (can also thicken to make a syrup). Mix with any mint, passion flower, red clover, or peach tree bark. Boil and drink a mouthful several times daily. Combine with gromwell or lemon balm to treat thyroid disease. Ajuga reptans or virginicus: Common groundcover, highly variable species, evergreen to semievergreen. Most types only reach 6-9 in full bloom. It is spread by runners, and soon creates a thick carpet of foliage. Excellent erosion control due to its extensive root system. Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions as long as it is well drained. Full sun to full shade. The leaves tend to be smaller in full sun, but it produces more flower spikes. Ajuga prefers moist soil, but will tolerate drought remarkably well.

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Burdock (Arctium) Arctium lappa (Gobo), Aster family: (Poor Man Potatoes, Beggar's Buttons, Gobo, Burr Seed, Cocklebur) (Top 30 Herb) Considered a common weed, burdock is a sturdy biennial plant reaching up to 6 high, with 18" leaves forming a rosette at ground level and smaller versions growing up the thick flowering stem. The dark green leaves can be up to 28 long, with the lower ones heart-shaped, woolly underneath. The leafstalks are generally hollow. Generally flowers Jul to Oct. The roots grow down as much as 3. Hard to find wild around here (found in north GA mountains). May be planted and harvested the same year. A. lappa grows in all zones, 6 weeks to root harvest. The burdocks are sometimes confused with the cockleburs (genus Xanthium) and rhubarb (genus Rheum). The prickly heads (burrs) are noted for easily catching on to fur and clothing (being the inspiration for Velcro). Burrs can cause local irritation. The green, above-ground portions may cause contact dermatitis in humans due to the lactones it produces. Note: Cardoon is not the same as Burdock. Properties: Alterative, diuretic. Internal: The root is delicious and good for diabetics. Good-source of lignans (anticancer compounds). Good for the liver and stimulation of bile production for digestion. A gentle diuretic (helps rid the body of excess water by increasing urine output). Detox (helps kidneys excrete toxins). A galactagogue (increases lactation), sometimes avoided during pregnancy because of uterus stimulation. Useful in rheumatic conditions since it is a blood cleanser. External: A topical remedy for skin problems such as acne, eczema, rosacea and psoriasis. Leaves are used for pain management and to speed healing time in natural burn treatment. Burn care workers say it eases dressing changes, impedes bacterial growth, and provides a great moisture barrier. Caution: Because the roots closely resemble those of Deadly Nightshade (Belladonna), there is a risk that burdock preparations may be contaminated. Be sure to buy products from established companies with good reputations. Do not gather in the wild unless you are certain. Prepare: Boil 1 tsp ground root in 1 cup, steep until cooled, and drink twice daily, especially for gallbladder problems. Compatible plants are sassafras (another purifier), thistle, yellow dock, wild cherry bark. Natives used the whole plant as food, boiling the root in maple syrup to store for long periods. Harvest: Gobo is cultivated in Japan and the taproot of young plants is consumed as an everyday vegetable, like a carrot. It is crisp with a sweet, mild, and pungent flavor. Immature flower stalks may be harvested before flowers appear, the taste resembles that of artichoke, to which it is related. Leaves are also eaten in spring in Japan when a plant is young and leaves are soft (some A. lappa cultivars are specialized for this). Dandelion and burdock is a soft drink popular in England. Butchers Broom (Ruscus) Ruscus aculeatus, Lily family: (Box Holly, Jew's Myrtle, Knee Holly, Sweet Broom). Low, shrubby, evergreen. Its stems were used to protect curing meats from rodents and to make brooms for butchers stalls. Historically used it to improve circulation, relieve constipation, help with water retention, and treat urinary and reproductive disorders. Culpepper reported in the 17th century that a root decoction (orally) and a poultice of the berries (topical) helped in knitting fractured bones. Properties: Mild diuretic. Ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, Ca, chromium, chrysophanic acid, Mg, Mn, niacin, riboflavin, ruscogenin, rutin, Se, tin, zinc. Internal: A therapy for chronic venous insufficiency (related to varicose veins). Pliny the Elder in 60 C.E. noted that it was a treatment for the swelling of veins. The German Commission E also recommended butchers broom for treatment of hemorrhoids. May relieve lymph edema (arm 26

swelling) following treatment for breast cancer. Caution: Rare cases of gastric disorders and nausea have occurred. Prepare: The washed, dried, chopped root is used for tea or extract. For tea, 1 tsp in 1 C and steep for 10 minutes, strain. Butterfly Weed (Asclepias) See Milkweed or Pleurisy Root (Asclepias). Butternut Bark (Juglans) See Black Walnut (Juglans).

C
Calamus Acorus calamus: (Sweet Flag, Cinnamon Sedge, Sweet Myrtle, Sweet Rush) The sharp-edged calamus is a perennial semi-aquatic plant that grows in marshes and muddy banks of streams. The traditional use of calamus was to "open the orifices" to allow the inner spirit to reach out to the world. Chinese physicians reported that calamus "vaporized phlegm," but the word they used refers to not just physical phlegm but also the "residues" of difficult emotions. Calamus was employed to treat winter-time joint pain, wounds, and sores. It was considered a sacred incense by the Sumerians and Egyptians. Calamus was planted by Natives along migratory paths so that it could be harvested at later times. It was used as an antiseptic for toothaches and headaches and as an attractant for muskrats, who voraciously ate the root. They planted it on the edge of villages so they could trap the muskrats. Constituents: Bitters, asarone, calamene and related chemicals, eugenol and related chemicals. Prepare: The rhizome, dried and chopped or ground. Traditionally used as a tea. The varieties of calamus available here are best used as bath additives, gargles, lotions, or washes, unless they are used in combination with other herbs in TCM or Ayurvedic. In TCM, it is used with platycodon to treat laryngitis, turmeric to treat deafness, magnolia to treat any kind of chest congestion. Seldom found as a capsule or extract. External: Walt Whitman wrote 39 poems for Calamus in his Leaves of Grass. Ayurvedic medicine uses it as a rejuvenator of the brain and nervous system, as well as a remedy for digestive disorders. Most effective when used externally, such as to make calamine lotion to relieve skin inflammations of all types. As a bath additive, calamus helps with circulation and joint pain, and as a gargle, relieves sore throat. Precautions: For external use only. Its internal use as a medicinal product should only be administered by someone with experience in using this botanical. Although global cultures have for a great many centuries associated consumption of calamus with long life and good health, the FDA strictly prohibits use in food products. Calendula (Calendula) Calendula officinalis, Aster family: (Pot Marigold) Annual or short-lived perennial. Sow spring in most soils, germinates freely in F/P sun (full sun with rich, well-drained soil). A favorite herb with deep yellow and orange flowers. It has a long history of medicinal use. Culpepper used in the treatment of headaches, toothache, swellings and for strengthening the heart. The flowers were found in many kitchen recipes, including soups and stews. The name 'pot Marigold' refers back to the tradition of adding Marigold to the cooking pot. During the Civil War and WW1, it was used to treat wounds and to prevent them from becoming infected with toxins and bacteria. The flowers were either made into a poultice or an infused oil for application on the wound. 27

Properties: Anti-inflammatory, lymphatic system. No safety considerations. Internal: The flower is used to soothe irritated tissue. It has a affinity to the lymphatic system and places where the sun dont shine. For herpes virus (fever blister, shingles, or genital) external and internal. External: One of the best all-round skin remedies, good for diaper rash, minor cuts and burns, insect bites, acne, dry skin, and chapped lips. Calendula blossoms soothe inflammation and speed wound healing with antibacterial and antiviral action. Calendula is both potent and extremely gentle, making it perfect for all skin types, from infant to elder. Great antiseptic and healing agent in a salve, tincture, or simply mashed and applied to an injury. Heals from the bottom up, making it appropriate for deep wounds. Mild germ-killing action makes it good for earaches. Calendula and tea tree oil can help rid all fungal infections. For acne: The astringent and antiseptic properties make it a good facial wash. Make a strong tea by pouring two cups boiling water over 4 T dried blossoms. Cover, steep until cool, and strain. Use tea as a facial rinse 2-3 X daily. Prepare: Put flowers in net sack to dry, then reseed by simply shaking sack over garden area. Makes good brandy tincture. For diaper rash: Apply a calendula salve each time you change the diaper. Coarsely grind 1/2 cup dried flowers in a blender. Combine with 1 C olive oil in a glass canning jar with lid, and place in sun. After one week, filter through cheesecloth, straining out all herb particles. Combine 1/2 C herbal oil with 1/8 C grated beeswax, heat gently until beeswax is melted. Pour salve into container, cool, and cover with a lid. If stored in a cool, dark place, calendula oil and salve stays fresh for a year. Caraway (Carum) Carum carvi, Parsley family: Biennial or over-wintering annual to 2 tall, full sun, average moisture, LDG. Leaves are similar to poison hemlock and fools or dog parsley. Each seed is half of a fruit. Dried fruit used whole or ground in cooking and medicine. Properties: Caraway's distinct aroma is due to carvones and caveols. The seed contains oil, carbohydrate, antioxidant flavonoids, and protein. It is carminative, expectorant. One of best sources of lomonene to prevent/treat breast cancer. Internal: Caraway promotes gastric secretion and stimulates appetite. It breaks down spasms in the GI tract to prevent flatulence, and also used to treat menstrual cramps and gallbladder spasms. The German commission reports that seeds are antimicrobial, and can relieve the feeling of bloating or fullness associated with indigestion and stomach complaints. The oil is strongly fungicidal, anti-yeast. Used as a flavoring agent in pharmaceuticals, a fragrance in cosmetics and body care products. To keep essential oils at maximum potency, store in a glass container protected from light and heat. Also used for coughs, pleurisy, and infant colic. Prepare: Usually as a tea, but also in infusions, tinctures, capsules. The warming, aromatic seeds give a distinct flavor to rye bread, cabbage, soups, pickles, and spirits. May have been used in Europe longer than any other condiment. A more aromatic and bitter alternative to cumin, it is key to Indian, Dutch, German, Russian, and Scandinavian cooking. It has an affinity to cooked cabbage and coleslaw.

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Carrot/Queen Annes Lace (Daucus) Daucus carota, Carrot (Apiaceae) family: (Queen Annes Lace is wild carrot) Biennial, umbel seed head, F/P sun, Feb 15 - Mar 15, 3 W, 12 R. fall planting Aug - Sep 20. Likes loose, sandy loam, neutral to alkaline, no rocks. Lighten clay soil to 9 (leaf mold/peat). Add mulch after established, keep moist. Dont add manure (too much N), but likes P and K. Sprinkle wood ash for wire-worms. Plant with onions for carrot flies. Danvers var seems best for our soil. Will hybridize with QAL if nearby and ruin the seed. Looks like Poison Hemlock and Fools Parsley which smell bad when crushed and have a smooth stem (QAL is hairy). Internal: Queen Annes Lace is stronger, but the domesticated carrot is somewhat effective. Use leaves, flowers in tea for prostate and urinary stones (blooms both spring and fall). Like chickweed, a good weight reducer (speeds up metabolism). Second best to celery seed for gout (a type of arthritis from an overdose of rich, greasy food), it cleans the liver and reduces buildup of uric acid in the joints. Use root for appetite, digestion, and to expel worms. An adrenal recharger. A tsp of seeds is used as a morning-after pill. The root and leaves are one of the best diuretics (promotes urine flow and rapid removal of metabolic waste). External: Has a latex sap that kills the virus of warts. The leaves contain furocoumarins that may cause contact dermatitis when wet. Prepare: Simmer a large handful leaves or blooms in 1 quart water for 15 min. Drink several cups of cold tea daily. Sleepy time tea. Harvest: The QAL root is edible when young, but gets woody due to its high xylem tissue content. The domestic carrot is a genetic variant that lacks most of this tissue. Harvest entire plant when flowers bloom and dry for later. The flower cluster can be french fried. After seeds set, the umbel closes upward (seeds are good when ripe and a substitute for caraway). Dont wash or cut the carrot root to store. Can overwinter in ground. 50-100 days to harvest. Richo Cech: The wild carrot is botanically identical to the cultivated carrotthe only difference is that over generations, humans have selected carrots for color and edibility. The plant/human relation was deeply intertwined from the start, green blood nourishing red blood, then red blood nourishing green blood, back and forth, ingestion and cultivation, to weave the cloth of early agriculture. The domestication of wild plants allowed early peoples to keep their most useful plants near to home. They carried edible and medicinal plants and seeds with them on their journeys, promoting the distribution of useful plants throughout the globe. The study of ancient peoples use of medicinal plants is known as paleo-ethnobotany. Cascara Sagrada (Rhamnus) Rhamnus purshiana: (Bitter Bark, Buckthorn, Dogwood Bark, Yellow Bark) (Top 30 Herb) Cascara sagrada (sacred bark) is a deciduous shrub of the NW, in moist forests below 5,000. It is harvested in the form of quills and pieces of bark, allowed to age at least a year before use in laxative preparations. It is never used fresh and must be aged at least a year to break down its anthrone chemicals. If the bark is not aged, it is a purgative and causes intense intestinal spasms and vomiting. It can be artificially aged by heating but some useful constituents may be lost. Recently, it is used in sun screens, and as a flavoring agent in foods like candy, frozen dairy deserts, and baked goods. Properties: 1,8-dihydroxy-anthracene derivatives (in the aged bark), aloe-emodin, frangulinemodin, flavonoids, and tannins. Internal: Even conventional physicians often recommend cascara sagrada to patients suffering constipation after surgery for hemorrhoids. The 1, 8-dihydroxy-anthracenes act on the nerves in the intestinal tract, numbing the nerves that hold back stool and stimulating the nerves that propel stool downward. If you experience cramping, you've used too much. For occasional use 29

only as it is a bulk forming laxative and should be taken with adequate fluids. Do not use laxatives if you have appendicitis, Crohn's disease, or ulcerative colitis. Not recommended for children under 12. Unlike buckthorn, it may not be safe for pregnant and nursing mothers. Prepare: Properly aged bark (generally 1 year) for tablets and extracts. Teas are hard to drink but have a gentler laxative action. Castor Bean (Ricinus) Ricinus communis, Spurge family (Euphorbia): Fast-growing, suckering perennial shrub which can reach the size of a small tree, but not cold hardy. Widespread in tropical regions (and widely grown as an ornamental plant). Can vary greatly in growth habit and appearance. Variability increased by breeders who have selected a range of cultivars for leaf and flower colors, and for oil production. Glossy leaves are 618" long, long-stalked, alternate and palmate with 512 deep lobes and coarsely toothed segments. Fatsia japonica, is similar in appearance and is known as the false castor oil plant. Internal: The castor bean is not a true bean. It is the source of castor oil (40-60%) that is rich in triglycerides, mainly ricinolein. The seed contains ricin, a toxin, which is also present in lower concentrations throughout the plant. Medicinal uses (other than oil): Alcoholic extract of the leaf was hepatoprotective in rats. Methanolic extracts of the leaves showed antimicrobial properties and non-toxic. A water extract of the root bark showed analgesic activity. Antihistamine and antiinflammatory properties were found in ethanolic extract of root bark. The toxicity of raw castor beans due to the presence of ricin is well-known. Although the lethal dose in adults is 4-8 seeds, reports of actual poisoning are rare. According to the 2007 Guinness Book of World Records, this plant is the most poisonous in the world. If ingested, symptoms can begin within 2-4 hours. These include a burning sensation in mouth and throat, abdominal pain, purging, and bloody diarrhea. Later, there is severe dehydration, a drop in blood pressure, and a decrease in urine. Unless treated, death can be in 35 days, however a full recovery can be made. Poisoning occurs when animals ingest broken seeds. Intact seeds may pass through the digestive tract without releasing the toxin. Note that commercially available cold pressed Castor Oil is not toxic to humans in normal doses, neither internal or externally. Cat Tail (Typha) Typha latiflora, Grass (Graminea) family: Semi-aquatic perennial, 3-10, forming dense stands from extensive rhizomes. Almost every part has a practical use. It is a 4-season food, a medicinal, and a utility plant. Euell Gibbons called it the supermarket of the swamp. Internal: Once used as a chew for coughs. The green flower spikes were eaten to relieve digestive disorders like diahrea. Roots were steeped to make teas for cramps, diarrhea, and dysentary. External: Crush sticky sap in the shoots for a good wound healer (stops bleeding). Harvest: Strip off the gold pollen in the spring and add to flower. The young heads are good to boil and eat like corn on the cob. Eat the bottom of the shoots (tastes like cucumber before it turns brown). In fall, the roots have little horns on them. Peel down for a good starch to eat or cook with. Chickens like the seed.

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Catnip (Nepeta) Nepeta cataria (Catnip), faassenii (Catmint), Mint family: F/P sun, dry, sandy soil, 3 tall. Gray-green herbaceous perennial. Attracts honeybees. Seeds/cuttings in spring or divide in late summer. Before black teas came from the East, catnip was one of the most popular teas in Europe. Some of the best quality in the world is grown in the state of Washington. Catnip is the herb of choice for cats. It attracts cats of all breeds, who often paw it, roll in it, meow loudly, and then lose interest in it for hours or days until sensitivity to the herb "resets" itself. The feline reaction to catnip is due to the its nepetalactone. Properties: Nepetalactone, cool aromatic and nutritive bitter. Strongly antifungal and a bactericide for Staphylococcus aureus. Internal: The leaf is soothing to stomach and nerves, a digestive antacid (called natures AlkaSeltzer). Combine with fennel for colic in infants, or bloating and gas for children. A tea infusion is a diaphoretic for coughs, fever, congestion, asthma. Oil is similar to the sedative component in Valerian (narcotic effect if overused). Works with sage, passion flower, skullcap, peach and bay leaves. Repels: Contains citronella. Crush the leaves and put around doorways to discourage mice, ants, and other insects. Prepare: As a tea (leaves/flowers) it imparts a pleasant mint flavor. It can also be taken as an extract or lightly sprinkled on food, or as an herbal pillow for cats. Also used as a flavoring in sauces, soups, and stews. Cayenne (Capsicum) See Peppers (Capsicum) on page 99. (Top 30 Herb) Cedar (Juniperus) Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red Cedar): In the past, both men and women drank the bark tea. Indians used it to produce twins. Internal: Leaves are antifungal, antiviral, antiseptic, expectorant, lymphatic cleanser. Good for fertility. Prepare: Berries used to flavor gin and sauerkraut. White powder on the limbs is yeast and can be used to make sourdough bread. Cedar Berry Juniperus monosperma (one-seed juniper) has a long tradition in native medicine. Needlebearing, native to the SW, a hardy tree to 25, with flat, scale-like leaves and blue-green berries. Both male and female trees have flowers, but only the female produces a small waxy pod with a single seed (the berry). While the trees grow slowly, the berries reach maturity in one year. Many parts of the tree are used in traditional medicine, including a paste made of crushed berries. The cedar berry has been used to treat cough, fever, rheumatism, diabetes, tuberculosis, scurvy, toothache and to promote menstruation. Constituents: Alcohols, cadinene, camphene, flavone, flavonoids, glycosides, podophyllotoxin (anti-tumor agent), vitamin C, volatile oils, resin, sabinal, sugar, sulfur, tannins, and terpinene. Internal: This juniper grows in higher, dryer elevations and has traditionally been used in the same ways as the common juniper. While there has been little formal research, some sources note that the chemical constituents of the leaves and berries do have emetic, diuretic, antibiotic, germicidal, and antiseptic properties. Dr. James Duke notes the plant has chemicals that suggest it may help the body fight arthritis, asthma, cough, congestion, hepatitis and muscle stiffness. The berry can be toxic when taken in large amounts. It should not be used by people with kidney or urinary tract problems, or by pregnant or nursing mothers, as it causes contractions. 31

Prepare: Mainly berries, though you can use the twigs and leaves. Berries may be crushed, added whole to food as a flavoring/preservative, steeped in boiling water to make a tea or infusion, or eaten fresh or dried. Sometimes found as a capsule. Cedar Leaf (Thuja) Thuja plicata or occidentalis: (White, Yellow or Swamp Cedar, Canoewood) Native to NA, once used by the Indians to build canoes. Later nicknamed Arbor Vitae (Tree of Life), after curing scurvy during a 16th century expedition. T. occidentalis was imported to Europe for its medicinal properties, but now is mainly an ornamental. Properties: Contains thujone (toxic), pinene, caryophyllene, pinipicrin, tannin, and resin. T. occidentalis is alterative, anthelmintic, antiinflammatory, antiseptic, aromatic, astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, rubefacient. Internal: The leaves have an aromatic flavor and scent, and may be used with caution as a tea (traditionally used to treat fevers, headaches, colds, coughs, absence of menses, bronchitis, and other respiratory problems). Used in homeopathy for acute and chronic infections of the upper respiratory tract. Leaf tincture was used to treat warts, piles, bed sores, painful joints or muscles, and fungal infections. In TCM, leaf used to stimulate blood circulation. Indians used it to treat fevers, coughs, headaches, swollen hands, and rheumatic problems. Dont use for extended periods or pregnant /breast feeding. External: Leaves are used in steam baths for rheumatism, arthritis, colds, and as a wash for swollen feet, burns, vaginal infections, warts, rheumatism, achy muscles, psoriasis, eczema, venereal warts, sores, bruises, swellings, rheumatic pain, and fungal infections. The extract has antibacterial and constricting properties and may be a skin irritant. Leaves used as a perfume, incense, and an insect repellent. Prepare: Leaves, branch tips, bark, seeds, oil. Used as tea, incense, ceremony, sachets, and as an extract. Celandine (Chelidonium) Chelidonium majus, Poppy family: Herbaceous perennial with blue-green, divided leaves and flowers of four yellow petals yielding a pod-like fruit. It has an odd/unpleasant odor and a bitter/ pungent taste. Indigenous to Europe, naturalized here. Produces a buttery yellow dye for yarns and fabrics. In Russia, it is used as an agent against cancer. When burned as incense, celandine is said to be protective and confusing to ones enemies, and reputed to keep away both witches and the police. Constituents: Berberine, sanguinarine, chelidonine, protopine, coptisine, and stylopine. The root has a much greater content of these chemicals than the tops. Internal: Most often used for treating gallbladder problems. It stops spasms at the same time it stimulates the production of bile to flush gallstones away. In TCM, it is more often used as a painrelieving cough medication. Not recommended for use while pregnant. External: The sap of the fresh herb is a traditional remedy for warts. Prepare: The above-ground parts of the plant, dried, cut and/or powdered. Can be used to make teas, but more often used as an extract or encapsulation. Celery (Apium) Apium graveolens, Umbel family: (Wild Celery, Smallage) Biennial, grows in marshy soil. Prefers shade and flowers in late summer. Prior to the Middle Ages, a wild form of celery referred to as selinon, or smallage, was used as a diuretic and a carminative (reduces intestinal gas). James Dukes top 10 herbs. Properties: Like parsley, a urinary system antiseptic. Rich in minerals with over 24 antiinflammatory compounds. Essential oil - limonene and selinene.

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Internal: Celery seed is a traditional remedy for nervous stomach. The seeds EO contains compounds that are mildly tranquillizing and help in relieving arthritic pain. It contains other compounds that stop the carcinogenic effect of environmental toxins in the liver. The EO mildly bactericidal against E coli, listeria, and salmonella. Helps kidneys increase elimination of uric acids from blood. Limonene is a cancer-fighting compound. Do not use the seed during pregnancy, with a kidney infection, or using diuretics. External: Celery seed oil can be used to topically apply for pain relief. Usually it is mixed with a carrier oil like sunflower seed. Prepare: Use roots, seeds. Can be used to make teas, but more often used in cooking. The fruit (seed) has a slightly bitter, spicy taste. Too much seed can overpower a dish, whereas a little brings out flavors in other foods. Seed is used in pickles, casseroles, and Bloody Marys. Chaga (Inonotus) Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) - (Cinder conk, Clinker polypore) A black, parasitic, cankerous mass of fungus that grows in scars and tastes like hot chocolate. Primarily grows north of the 45th parallel and in the Appalachians above 5500. Chaga is a mushroom, a parasitic carpophore that looks like the charred remains of burned wood on the side of a birch tree (sometimes growing on elm and alder). The parasite enters the tree through a wound in the bark of a mature tree. It then grows under the bark until it erupts in a deeply cracked extension. It takes another 5-7 years for it to fully mature, at which point it falls to the forest floor, usually killing the host tree. TCM reports it helpful in maintaining a healthy balance, preserving youth, and promoting longevity. Russians used it for ailments of the stomach, liver, and heart, and as a general tonic. It is still used as a tonic, blood purifier, and pain reliever. In Siberia, it is still used as a tea to treat tuberculosis. Properties: Adaptogen, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant. Has betulinic acid which supports the immune system. Internal: Chaga is extremely high in anti-oxidants, but studies have yet to pinpoint why. It is sold in Russia as a cancer cure and is commonly found in many households where it used as a tonic. Use caution when pregnant and with children. Discontinue use if allergic reactions occur. Prepare: The entire mushroom is used. Typically ingested as tea, but has been made into a tincture. If making a tea, you can re-brew it a second time without loss to flavor or potency. Boil for 2-3 hours. Chamomile (Matricaria) Matricaria chamomilla, Aster family: F/P sun, average to moist, 6 W, 18 H, sandy soil. German variety is an overwintering annual and less bitter, easy to grow. Best planted in Aug by broadcasting seed (LDG) and mixing lightly with soil. Or start in flats in March and transplant after hardening-off. Or direct plant after last frost. Divide in fall. Fertilize at early flowering. Once firmly established, it is extremely hardy and reseeds. Repels the cabbage moth/worm. German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and Roman or English chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) are closely related and have similar healing benefits. Properties: A cool aromatic, warming to the digestive organs with a cooling or relaxing sensation to the rest of the body. Anti-inflammatory. The flower EO has antispasmodic and antiinflammatory properties and helps to ease stomach upsets and menstrual cramps. Contains the natural blood thinner coumarin. Internal: Good for insomnia, nightmares, and other nervous conditions. The list of problems chamomile can help is due to its effects on the nervous and digestive system. An excellent 33

remedy for all manner of womens disorders and for problems arising from stress, anxiety, and tension. It has a wonderfully soothing, sedative, and harmless effect. It will stop an attack of delirium tremens in the early stage. Sometimes used for intermittent fevers. It has a bittersweet flavor that stimulates gastric juices, making it excellent for the liver and digestive system. Yet it is safe enough for infants and is a remedy for colic. Chamomile teas can be used as part of a treatment program for IBS because of its antispasmodic properties. Its antihistamine actions soothe inflammation throughout the digestive tract. Effective for nausea and morning sickness when used with ginger. External: Apply used tea bags directly to affected area. Teas and essential oils are used in skin washes to help heal cuts, scrapes, and abrasions. Creams promote tissue regeneration. Makes an effective hot poultice to reduce swelling, ease pain. One of the few essential oils that can be applied to the skin undiluted. Tea is effective in treating vaginal yeast infections. Prepare: Cut daisy-like flowers daily when open and use fresh or dried in tea. Mix equal parts Chamomile, Catnip and Peppermint to make Tummy Tea. An infusion made from 1 oz flowers to 1 pint makes Chamomile Tea, an old-fashioned remedy for hysterical and nervous afflictions in women and as an emmenagogue. The apple-scented foliage can be used in potpourri. Chaste Tree (Vitex) Vitex agnus-castus (Lilac): (Chaste Berry, Monk's Berry, Monk's Pepper) Small, deciduous shrub to 15 tall with a sunny, dry exposure. Easily grown in warm climates. Has lance-shaped leaves and lavender flowers which exude exotic perfume. The small peppery berries were once believed to have anti-aphrodisiac properties. Monasteries doled them out to residents, hence the name chaste. While theres no truth to this belief, they do have an effect on reproductive health. Its peppery fruit has been used for over 2000 years. Greek physician Dioscorides recommended it in beverages intended to help the wives of soldiers remain chaste while their husbands were in battle. Pliny the Elder noted that Athenian maidens would put the leaves under their beds to help preserve their chastity. It was said to be a vital ingredient in a "black remedy" to cure insanity, the stroke of madness, and epilepsy. It is still sold in Egyptian bazaars as a calming agent to hysteria. Properties: Vitexin. Internal: In Germany, given to women coming off of birth control pills to help re-establish normal ovulation. Berries help regulate menstrual cycles by controlling too-frequent or excessive bleeding, and relieve premenstrual symptoms such as water retention, irritability, and insomnia. Used for centuries to treat constipation, flatulence, and hangovers, and to bring on menstruation and lactation. Mainly used today to treat breast swelling and breast pain caused by excessive secretion of the hormone prolactin during PMS. It can lengthen the first phase of the menstrual cycle and relieve water weight, headache, and fatigue. Caution: Men shouldn't take chaste berry. Testicular atrophy could result after repeated use. Not recommended during pregnancy. Binging on sugar, alcohol, or marijuana block it's action on dopamine receptors in the brain, canceling its effects. Prepare: Dried fruiting berry used as a tincture. It may be cracked and sprinkled on food, producing a slight pepper taste or as a tea infusion.

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Cherry (Prunus) Prunus virginiana (Black Cherry), serotina (Wild), caroliniana (Cherry Laurel), Rose family (Stone Fruit): (Wild Black Cherry, Sour Cherry): F/P sun, average moisture. Bark has horizontal bands often with resin oozing out. From ancient times, the cherry was associated with virginity, the red colored fruit with the enclosed seed symbolizing the uterus. Buddhism teaches that Maya, the virgin mother of Buddha, was supported by a holy cherry tree during her pregnancy. In Danish folklore, a good crop of cherries was insured by having the first ripe fruit eaten by a woman shortly after her first child was born. Wild Cherry Bark Properties: Sour remedy for hot, irritated tissues, especially respiratory. Acetylcholine, HCN, kaempferol, p-coumaric acid, prunasin, quercetin, scopoletin, tannins. Internal: Next to peach leaves, cherry bark is used in most formulas. Bark and leaves are used for coughs, colds, asthma, arthritis, rheumatism. Contains hydrocyanic acid (can scrape bark and smell the cyanide) which lessens the spasms of coughs, bronchitis, and heals the lungs (sedates lungs like Lobelia to help tissue re-grow). Good liver cleanser and heart tonic. Caution: All stone fruits (cherries, apples, apricots, peaches, plums, pears) contain very low levels of hydrogen cyanide in their bark and pits. The concentration is low enough to be considered therapeutic, but don't take the whole bottle all at once! Not recommended for small children, nursing mothers, pregnant women, or people with severe kidney or liver disease. Not recommended for long term use. Prepare: Most commonly found in syrup formulas, but may be taken as a tea or extract. Dont use wilted leaves as it releases the acid. Get resin for cough medicine. Thoroughly dry the bark. Low boil a large double handful of inner bark in 1 gallon for 30 min, add 4 pounds sugar, reduce to a syrup. Take 1 tsp as needed. Black Tartarian: Excellent pollinator, early cherry, rich sweet flavor, produces June - July, 1020 tall. Crop often lost with late freeze in warm climates. Compact Stella: Self-fruitful, rich sweet flavor, produces June - July, 10-14 tall. Crop often lost with late freeze in warm climates. Chickweed (Stellaria) Stellaria (star-shaped) media, Nettle or Pink family: Annual, fast-growing in spring and fall. Likes sun or shade and moisture. Good ground cover as it helps soil retain nitrogen. Weak branching stems up to 18 long with succulent green leaves and tiny white flowers. The mouse-eared variety is thicker, but not as tasty in salads. In winter, one of birds few food sources. A delicacy in Europe. Properties: One of most nutritious plants in your back yard, packed with Bvitamins. Internal: The whole plant may be used. One or more types may be found at any time of the year, and all varieties possess the same medicinal qualities. While Queen Annes Lace works by increasing the metabolism, Chickweed suppresses the appetite when eaten before meal. The high lecithin content helps metabolize fats. It contains saponins which, like soap, emulsify and increase the permeability of cell membranes, thus increasing nutrient absorption, especially minerals. Chickweed is a mild astringent, strengthening the stomach and bowels. It is used to stop bleeding in the stomach, bowels, and lungs. An excellent diuretic, it can relieve edemic swelling. A good blood purifier, carrying out toxins, and is sometimes used for blood poisoning. It may dissolve plaque in blood vessels (the same with fatty tumors). It is a liver cleanser, and can treat jaundice. Its diuretic effect is used in relieving kidney, bladder, and UTI, including stones. Helps constipation. A useful cough and cold tonic to break up congestion in lungs and act as an expectorant. A fever reducer (a refrigerant), good for young children. 35

External: Heals itchy skin and soothes inflamed tissues. Apply fresh leaves to burns, boils. As a salve or poultice, it is beneficial for skin fungus, rashes, insect bites, roseola, eczema, reduced scarring, pink eye. Use in lip balms. Tea used as soothing and healing wash to treat acne and skin diseases, and to relieve boils and burns. Prepare: Eat pre-flowering leaves in salad, cook like spinach, or use in tea (1 tsp dry or 2 T fresh per cup). Dry and use in any salve. Freeze for future dishes. For the kidneys, it is best used with pipsessewa, corn silk, dandelion, and yellow dock. Chicory (Cichorium) Cichorium intybus, Aster family: (Coffee Weed) Taproot perennial, F/ P sun, moist, 1-5 stems with milky sap. Flowers usually blue, blooming in morning. A larger relative of the dandelion. A forage cultivar, high in protein. Grown along the Nile and used for liver problems. Pliny the Elder wrote that chicory juice, combined with rose oil and vinegar, was a good headache remedy. Charlemagne listed it as one of the herbs he required in his garden. Properties: High in vitamin C, a powerful antioxidant, and has the highest concentration of inulin of any other plant. Internal: Chicory is nutritionally important as it contains a special class of carbohydrates known as fructans, a group containing inulin and oligofructoses. These carbohydrates feed the symbiotic bacteria living in the intestine rather than the human body itself. They allow the healthy bacteria in the colon to produce short-chain fatty acids that help prevent colon cancer, but they do not serve as a food source of pathogenic bacteria. The bacterial fermentation of fructans in the intestine changes its chemistry so that the human body absorbs Ca and Mg more readily from other foods, so much so that consuming endive and similar vegetables demonstrably builds stronger bones. These complex sugars also lower cholesterol and triglycerides. Avoid excessive consumption if you have gallstones. Prepare: A spring tonic, young leaves and flowers eaten raw in salad or cooked. Imero cultivar used for mesclun mixes or dipping. The large tap root is granulated and roasted and is the most popular coffee substitute. Cilantro (Coriandrum) Coriandrum sativum, Aster family: (Chinese Parsley) F/P sun, sandy, 6 W, 1-3 H. Seed Jan-Feb in succession as it bolts quickly. Cold-hardy, easy to care for. Cilantro is the leaf of the herb most the world knows as coriander. Its use traces back over 5000 years. Hippocrates used it as an aromatic stimulant. Egyptians used as a tea for UTI and headaches. Used to settle upset stomach, similar to fennel or dill. Thought to be an aphrodisiac, as mentioned in Tales of the Arabian Nights over 1000 years ago. Properties: Antimicrobial. Internal: Digestion, fevers, sore throat, arthritis. The EOs are effective against listeria bacteria, and also slow the growth of E. coli and Salmonella. Combine with onion or garlic to keep food fresh. Repels: Aphids, cabbage moth, cabbage worm. Prepare: Use fresh or dried leaves and flowers in soup/salad, seeds as spice. Chop to make teas, but more often used in cooking. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum) Cinnamomum cassia or burmannii: (Cassia) The name cassia is from the Greek kassia, meaning to strip off the bark. Its use in TCM goes back to 2700 BC, acting to help the body's fire and to

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help warm the kidneys and spleen. It is, however, primarily known for the familiar flavor it imparts to any dish. Properties: Antifungal, antiviral, and antibacterial. Cassia bark can contains up to 4% oils, as well as tannins, catechins, proanthocyanidins, resins, mucilage, gum, sugars, calcium oxalate, cinnzelanin, cinnzelanol, and coumarin. Internal: The German Commission E recommends to treat loss of appetite and gastro complaints of cramps, flatulence, and nausea. Its beneficial effects on the digestive tract are attributed to its antioxidant catechins, which may also help fight bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections. Cassia bark has been used for over a thousand years in treating chronic diarrhea, colds, kidney trouble, abdominal and heart pains, hypertension, and even cancer. Has potential for treating diabetes. Prepare: Dried bark in sticks, chips, or ground. Used as a flavoring agent for many foods, as well as in teas, alcoholic beverages, extracts, and tinctures. One of the most recognizable flavors in the world, and has been used at one time or another in just about every type of food product available, as well as the flavoring for a great many pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Cinquefoil (Potentilla) Potentilla canadensis: Typically has 5 leaves and yellow flowers (looks like strawberry which has 3 leaves and white flowers). Cinquefoils have dry, inedible fruit (hence the name barren strawberry for some species). The fruit is usually dry, but may be fleshy and strawberry-like, while the actual seeds are tiny nuts. Internal: Powerful astringent. A poor mans goldenseal. Cleavers (Galium) Galium aparine, Madder family: (Bedstraw, Goose Grass, Catchweed) Easily recognized by its clinging leaves and sticky seeds attaching to anyone passing in early spring, with 6 leaves surrounding stalk. F/P sun. Natives used it as a bath herb for women to be successful in love and as a hair tonic to make hair grow. The French reported it lowered blood pressure. A diuretic once used to encourage urination to reduce the volume of blood to relieve congestive heart failure. Properties: Cooling. Related to both quinine and sweet woodruff. It has no odor, and a slightly bitter taste. Anti-inflammatory (cooling), diuretic. Chlorophyll, citric acid, rubichloric acid, tannins. Internal: Juice of fresh herb is one of best cooling lymphatic tonics and spring cleanser (more gentle than poke root, prickly ash), especially for the reproductive system (helps drain ovarian cysts). For skin problems, arthritis, fevers, digestion, gout, nerves. Reported to dissolve kidney stones, but cleavers (or any other diuretic) should not be used during an acute attack. Great for nerve diseases. No precautions. External: Used in washes and cosmetics to remove freckles as well as for skin problems such as eczema and psoriasis. Prepare: The entire plant is used in medicine, harvested just before it blooms in late spring. Use the aerial parts, dried and chopped. Taken as a tea, but can be eaten or ground fresh. May be lightly sprinkled on food, has a vanilla-like flavor. Use leaves, flowers in soup as a spinach substitute. Steam leaves over boiling water until tender, then serve with butter or a cream sauce. That Velcro feeling is cooked away. Cook and refrigerate to eat later as a cool salad. It has no odor, and a slightly bitter taste. The seeds have caffeine (related to coffee) while still in flower.

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Clover (Trifolium) Trifolium incarnatum (crimson-left), T. pratens (red-right), T. repens (white), Pea (Fabacea) family: Full sun, avg moisture, cool-season annual, sow in fall. Some white vars grows to 6, red and yellow to about 2 tall. Helps force out unwanted weed species. A good cover and forage crop, loosens subsoil, has a symbiotic relationship with bacteria in the root nodules, fixing atmospheric nitrogen into the soil - the primary reason for its use as a rotation crop. Clover, Red Self-seeding annual legume. Plant 0.5 lb per 1000 sq ft Aug 15 - Sep 15. Does well mixed with rye grass. Properties: Alterative, A, B, C, Ca, P, isoflavones. Internal: Fresh flower heads preferable. Rich source of genistein (retards the growth of cancer). Immune system, liver detox, fights infection, ulcers, gout, suppress appetite, purifies blood, relaxant. Expectorant action for spasmodic, persistent coughs (like whooping cough). Bronchitis and asthma are treated using the dried flowers. Certain menopause-related disorders may be treated using the estrogenic effect (browsing animals grazing heavily on clover often tend to develop fertility problems). Flower tincture can be consumed to treat cases of eczema and psoriasis. MSG in many processed foods can kill brain cells in people sensitive to it. Substances in red clover offer protection if consumed before eating MSG. It does its damage by the pathological process "excitotoxicity", in which nerve cells are killed when certain receptors are over-activated. Excitoxicity is commonly caused by food additives that are able to damage parts of the brain not protected by the blood brain barrier. External: All kinds of skin conditions are treated when combined with other purifying herbs like Burdock and Yellow Dock. Speeds up process of wound healing. Fresh crushed flowers are applied or rubbed into irritated skin caused by insect bites and stings. Apply a floral compress to affected area for arthritic pains and gout. Eyewash can be made from diluted tincture. Prepare: Can eat the flowers and leaves which are high in protein. Harvest plant as cover crop in summer and use as hay. Dont harvest in fall (causes GI disturbance in animals). Steep 1 tsp crushed blossoms per cup. Drink 2 cups daily for colds or sleep, but dont drink for too long. Do not use with blood thinners. All clover contains coumarin (blood thinner), but no serious side effects are reported. Melilotus alba (White), officinalis (Yellow): These sweet clovers have similar medicinal properties and are closely related to alfalfa. Eat the leaves and seed pods in a bean soup and the young shoots raw or fresh, but do not dry. The flowers are used as a vanilla flavoring. Cloves (Syzygium or Eugenia) Syzygium aromaticum and Eugenia aromaticum: The aromatic flowers and oil of clove has been used for culinary and medicinal uses for centuries. Native to the Spice Islands, cloves were one of the first globally traded spices in the world, back to 1721 BC. Chinese chewed it before an audience with the emperor to make sure their breath was fresh. By the 1500s, it was the most precious spice, along with nutmeg. Cloves have been used to alleviate pain, prevent and treat bacterial infection, ease toothaches, treat worms and relieve congestion, settle upset stomachs. Properties: Highly antifungal as well as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory. Contains volatile oil, gallotannic acid. Internal: Oil of cloves is a safe and effective ingredient in most OTC toothache remedies because it has both anesthetic and antiseptic properties. It can relieve nausea and indigestion, and may relieve diarrhea caused by intestinal bacteria. Clove oil and clove preparations are generally 38

considered safe. When taken undiluted in large doses, oil can cause vomiting, sore throat, seizures, kidney and liver damage, fluid in the lungs and tissue damage. People who have kidney or liver disorders and those with a history of seizures should avoid the use of cloves. External: A strong germicide, used for its antiseptic properties to treat wounds and infections. For athletes foot, bacteria, and candida infections. Prepare: Dried flower buds (the clove bud) powdered, whole or chopped. EO, teas, chai, baked goods and other food items, and sometimes the extract. Club Moss (Lycopodium or Huperzia) Lycopodium clavatum: (Vegetable Sulphur, Goat's Claw, Stag's Horn, Wolf Claw, Running Pine, Robin Hood's Hatband) Thomas' book says use Chinese Club Moss (Huperzia serrata)?? An evergreen related to ferns (not moss) native to Europe, harvested mostly in Russia. Healers used the entire plant to relieve muscle cramping and as a diuretic. Now, the only part used is the powdered spores by which it reproduces. In Victorian England, used in the theater to create a flash fire, since the high aluminum content caused a bright, fast-burning fire. Constituents: Alkaloids, mainly lycopodine, some clavatine, clavatoxine, nicotine. Internal: Known to be diuretic, analgesic and antispasmodic. Traditionally used to treat kidney and liver complaints, promote healing in wounds, stop bleeding and help drain tissues of excess fluids. A diuretic, may have analgesic and antiseptic properties. The leaves and stems contain two poisons, lycopodine and clavadine, but the spores are completely non-toxic. Widely used in homeopathic medicine to treat a wide variety of ailments, but its effectiveness is not established by research. Do not use long term or if pragnant. Severe overdose can cause gastric distress. External: The spores are highly moisture resistant, and can be used as a dusting powder for skin ailments like eczema, and to prevent chafing, and may be applied to wounded tissue to absorb moisture. Prepare: Whole lichen (spores or moss). Dried spores as a powder, tincture prepared from dried leaves and stems. Usually found in extract and capsule form. Suitable as a tea. Used is as a dusting powder to prevent pills from sticking together. Codonopsis (Codonopsis) Codonopsis pilosula: (Poor Man's Ginseng, Bonnet Bellflower) A twining perennial to 5, with oval leaves and distinct bell shaped greenish purple flowers. Native to Asia, now cultivated worldwide, sometimes only for its ornamental value. Properties: Cooling. Internal: Used extensively in herbal medicine. In TCM, a remedy for chronic fatigue (called "false fire syndrome"). Useful in any illness in which "spleen qi deficiency" a deficiency of digestive energies, is the underlying cause. Strengthens the digestive, respiratory, and immune systems. It has been called the "poor man's ginseng" as it has often been used as a ginseng substitute in herbal formulas when ginseng was too expensive or not available. Used for centuries to treat appetite loss, diarrhea, and vomiting. Studies suggest that extracts act by reducing the secretion of pepsin in the stomach, and by slowing the rate at which the stomach passes food to the intestines. In animals, it can prevent the formation of peptic ulcers induced by stress. Eases asthma attacks by reducing the production of hormones that cause constriction of the bronchia passages. Especially useful for asthma or peptic ulcers that are compounded by loss of appetite, diarrhea, or vomiting. May also be used to assist recovery of cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. A study of 76 cancer patients treated with radiation found that codonopsis teas could delay destruction of healthy cells. Treatment increased the ability of interleukin-2, an immune-system chemical, to fight colorectal cancer, lymphoma, melanoma, and kidney cancer (renal cell carcinoma). Codonopsis also restrained the immune system in lupus, a condition in which the immune system attacks the DNA found in the bodys own skin cells.

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Caution: No restrictions for use. It is a relatively inexpensive herb that is often substituted for Panax ginseng in herbal tonics labeled as ginseng. Prepare: The long, sweet taproot. In teas, tablets, and tinctures. Columbine (Aquilegia) Aquilegia canadensis, Buttercup family (Ranunculacea): (the buttercup family includes Lenten Rose and Peony) Perennial, 1-4, dry limestone woods. Pollinated by hummingbirds. Internal: Crush seed for headache, lice. Tea from root used for indigestion.

Comfrey (Symphytum) Symphytum officinale, Borage family: (Knit Bone) Rough-leaved herbaceous perennial, full sun, moist, well-drained. Offsets should be planted 23 apart with the growing points just below the surface, while root segments should be buried about 2 deep. It has been comforting since early Greek and Roman times. Leaves and roots have long been used for cuts, burns, and wounds. Properties: Mucilant, contains allantoin, high in minerals and amino acids. External: Mucilant for hot, irritated tissues, especially for acute trauma. Allantoin promotes healthy cell growth (absorbed through the skin, where it stimulates cell activity that make connective tissue). Because allantoin is so effective as a skin healer, it is included in a variety of OTC and prescription skin preparations. High in minerals and amino acids, promotes the healing of broken bones and inflamed intestines. Use as a poultice or salve at healing cuts and burns, while preventing scar tissue. Leaves or roots are the most common ingredients found in natural skin healing salves and ointments. Caution: Dont use the seeds. Comfrey contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids that can cause serious liver damage and should never be used internally. There is no danger externally, but do not use on deep wounds, as it can stimulate surface healing before deeper tissue damage has healed, which may cause an abscess to form. Prepare: Mature comfrey plants can be harvested up to 4-5 times a year. It is ready for cutting about 2 high (mid-Spring). Cut shortly before flowering (while nutrients are most potent). Will rapidly regrow, and be ready for further cutting about 5 weeks later. Average yield of 4-6 lbs fresh leaf a year per plant (2-3 lbs dried leaf). Coriopsis (Coriopsis) Coriopsis, Aster family: (Tickseed, Calliopsis) Related to the sunflower. From 1-4 tall. The flat fruits are small and dry and look like bugs. 28 species are native to NA. The flowers are usually yellow with a toothed tip. They have showy flower heads with involucral bracts in two distinct series of eight each. All Coreopsis species were designated the state wildflower of Florida in 1991. Corn (Zea) Zea Mays: (Indian Maize) Mar 15 - May, 4 W, 2 R. Open-pollinated better than hybrid for staggered harvest. Soil > 65 to germ. Succession 2-3 weeks. Hickory King best for pole beans to climb. Cornsilk Properties: Diuretic that contains potassium and regulates the urinary system (kidneys). Internal: Increases flow of urine and the removal of toxins. Tea used for bedwetting (strengthens bladder and kidneys). Corn is a wonderful whole grain 40

food that is a good source of B1, B5, C, folate, fiber, phosphorous, manganese. Folate helps prevent birth defects, lowers the risk of heart attack, stroke and peripheral vascular disease, and reduces the risk of colon cancer. Consuming foods rich in beta-cryptoxanthin, an orange-red carotenoid in corn, may significantly lower the risk of developing lung cancer. Corn is a good source of thiamin, essential to good brain cell health and mental function. The brain uses thiamin to make acetylcholine (neurotransmitter), essential for good memory. Maintaining healthy acetylcholine levels may help reduce the risk of Alzheimers. Whole grains contain many powerful phytonutrients and corn is at the top of this list. Prepare: Steep 2 T dried silks in boiling water. sip thoughout day. The tea also works with watermelon seed. When harvesting, eat quickly or store. Sweet Red Corn (by Richo): Excellent for eating fresh or can be dried to make traditional corn bread. Loaded with healthy anthocyanins--tonifies circulation and helps prevent colon cancer. It is best to plant several rows in order to assure pollination. Make furrows about 4 deep, sprinkle composted chicken manure in the bottom, drop the seeds. Water thoroughly, then hold off on water until the corn shows above the ground. Hot, dry days provide the best conditions for germination, and a hard crust on the surface makes it difficult for crows to pull up the seedlings. After they reach 3 high, thin to 12. Cultivate frequently and shallowly, pushing soil up around the plants as they mature (to give them more wind resistance). When 2 high, undersow with crimson clover. When the clover comes up, it covers the soil and stops weeds. The roots fix atmospheric nitrogen, which is then used by the corn as it matures. Harvest the corn when the silk dries back and the kernals are full and juicy. To save the seed for replanting, let the ears fully mature on the stalks, dry them on screens with good airflow. The crimson clover covers the whole row. Cottonwood (Populus) Populus candicans (Eastern Cottonwood): Heart-shaped leaves. Widely grown for timber production along wet river banks, where the growth rate provides a large crop of wood within 1030 years. The wood is coarse and of fairly low value, used for pallet boxes, shipping crates, and purposes where a cheap but strong enough wood is suitable. Many cottonwoods grown commercially are the hybrid of eastern cottonwood and black poplar. The bark is a favorite medium for artisans. It is usually harvested in the fall after a tree's death, is generally very soft and easy to carve. Populus has 3 species in the genus Populus, the poplars. They are large, deciduous trees 60 130 tall. The seeds are borne on cottony structures to be blown long distances. Tolerant of flooding, erosion and flood deposits. Although each species has a different leaf pattern, they all have the same general diamond leaf shape. P. deltoides (eastern cottonwood) is one of the largest NA hardwood trees. Found VT south to north FL and west to MI. The leaves are alternate and simple. The leaf shape is roughly triangular, hence the name deltoides. Further west (MN south to east TX), the subspecies monilifera (Plains Cottonwood) has somewhat narrower leaves. This is the state tree of NE, WY, and KS. In West TX, NM, and CO, the subspecies wislizeni (Rio Grande Cottonwood) occurs. P. fremontii (Fremont Cottonwood) occurs in CA east to UT and AZ. P. nigra (Black Poplar) is native to Europe and west Asia. Internal: In late fall to early spring, Balm of Gilead buds (brown, yellow, resinous) are used as a pain reliever and for coughs. Cramp Bark (Viburnum) See Viburnum, Black Haw (Viburnum). Cranes Bill (Geranium) See Geranium or Cranes Bill (Geranium). 41

Crape Myrtle (Lagerstroemia) Lagerstroemia speciosa: (Crepe Myrtle, Banaba in Tagalog) Deciduous evergreen up to 30 tall with beautiful flowers. properties: Corosolic acid has insulin-like properties. Internal: Leaves and flowers used for kidney, bladder, weight reduction, diabetes. Helps to control blood sugar. Prepare: Dry leaves and fruit for 2 weeks, cut in pieces, boil 1 cup herb in 1 cup water and steep 30 minutes, strain. Studies show no toxic ingredients. Cress (Lepidium/Barbarea/Nasturtium) Mustard family: All cresses have a peppery, tangy flavor. The following are the different types of cress: Garden Cress (Lepidium sativum): The Lepidium genus includes cress, pepper weed, pepper cress, pepper grass, poor mans pepper, and pepper wort. A fast-growing, leafy vegetable. Annual, 2 tall, with many branches on the upper part, white to pink flowers in branched racemes. Thrives in slightly alkaline moist soil. In Europe, the demand for hydroponically-grown cress exceeds supply, partly because cress leaves are not suitable for distribution in dried form, and thus can be only partially preserved. Edible shoots are typically harvested in 1-2 weeks at 25 tall. Add to soups, sandwiches, and salads for its tangy flavor. Also eaten as sprouts, and the fresh or dried seed pods can be used as a peppery seasoning. Land Cress (Barbarea verna), vulgaris (Winter Cress, Yellow Rocket), (B. vulgaris variegata (Variegated Land Winter Cress): (American Cress, Bank Cress) Small herbaceous biennial or perennial plants. Needs F/P sun and frequent watering. Sow Mar-Aug in drills in semi-shaded moist soil, sprinkle with vermiculite. Dark green, deeply lobed leaves and yellow flowers with four petals. Grows quickly into dandelion-like rosettes of cress-like foliage. Requires less water than watercress and grown easily. Looks and tastes like watercress, used in sandwiches, salads, soup, or cooked like spinach. Water Cress: (Nasturtium officinale, N. microphyllum): F/P sun, 6 W. A creeping, fast-growing perennial, submerged or partly floating in clear water streams and spring heads (the hollow stems float). Grow in garden and water regularly. Crops grown in presence of animal waste can be a haven for parasites such as the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica. Has small white and green flowers in clusters. One of oldest leaf vegetables consumed by humans. Suited to hydroponic cultivation (needs slightly alkaline). Leaves becomes bitter when flowering. One of main ingredients in V8 Juice. New Market, AL was known as the Watercress Capital in the 1940s. Properties: Watercress is a good spring tonic with lots of iron, calcium, folic acid, vitamins A, and C. It acts as a stimulant, a source of phytochemicals and antioxidants, a diuretic, an expectorant, and a digestive aid. Internal: The entire plant is edible. Has cancer-suppressing properties, defends against lung cancer. Good for hypothyroid (high iodine). Hoary Bittercress (Cardimine hirsuta): Winter annual, 4-16" tall, basil rosette. Leaves are milder than those of other cardimine species. Raw or cooked. (We have bunches.)

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Cross Vine (Bignomia) Bignomia capreolata: (Trumpet Flower, Cigar Vine) Orange/red tube flowers with 5 petals. Bean pods appear after flowering. Stays green all winter (leaf bottom solid purple). Hummers and butterflies like. Internal: An adaptogen like ginseng (helps the body adapt to stress and change as it builds the system, providing strength and energy). Works after 3-4 days. Blood purifier. Prepare: Low boil dried or fresh leaves (30 minutes) for a great tea. Strain and put in ice cubes for the winter. Best when mixed with other energy-giving plants like Ginseng, Sarsaparilla, Sassafras, and Greenbrier (Tommie Bass mixed with Pipsissewa to get horses and mules back to work). Some smoke crossvine cigars. Cucumber (Cucumis) Cucumis sativus, Curcurbit family: Apr 15 - May 15, 1 W, 3 R. Full sun, moist, slightly-raised bed, trellis. Water regularly during early seeding and fruiting stage. Fall planting July 1-20. Needs soil > 68 to germ. Harvest: Check daily, pick at 8-12" long. Keep picked as they taste better and the plant will be stimulated to produce more flowers and fruits.

Cucumber Root (Echinocystis) E. lobata: Climbing vine with tendrils found in thickets. Root tastes like a cucumber. Fruit is eggshaped and was called "Egg Die" because it dyed eggs yellow. Internal: Root tea used as bitter tonic. Contains curcurbitacins, which are active as anti-tumor and cytoxic agents. Culvers or Black Root (Leptandra) Veronicastrum or Leptandra virginicum: (Beaumont/Black/Bowman's/Brinton Root, Culver's Physic, Hini, Leptandra, Oxadoddy, Tall Speedwell or Veronica, Whorlywort) Herbaceous perrenial, part shade, 4-6 tall, zone 3-8. Grows across NA in meadows and woodlands with white flowers in summer. Black root has slender stems growing up to 7. Whorls of 3 or more narrow lance-shaped leaves circle the stem at its joints. Small white, pink, or blue flowers (June-Sept) cluster in spikes 3-8" long at the ends of the stems. When the Puritan leader Cotton Mather sought a remedy for his daughter's TB in 1716, he asked for black root, known as a powerful laxative and emetic. It was a violent medication to use for a lung ailment, and Mather's daughter died soon afterward. For ceremonial purifications, Indians induced vomiting by drinking a tea of the dried root. It increase the flow of bile from the liver. Used for liver disorders and chronic indigestion and other conditions thought to arise from liver dysfunction. Properties: Contains a volatile oil, saponins, sugars, and tannins. Internal: Used in small doses as a laxative and a remedy for liver and gallbladder disorders. Treats flatulence and bloating, eases the discomfort of hemorrhoids and rectal prolapse. Occasionally given for skin problems if poor liver function is a factor. Prepare: Dried root, dug in fall and stored a year before use. Decoct 1-2 tsp in 1 cup. Take one cup 3x daily. Tincture: Take 2-4 ml 3x daily. Combines well with barberry and dandelion.

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Cumin (Cuminum) Cuminum cyminum, Parsley family: Annual, full sun, drainage, avg-dry soil, 12 tall. Transplant ALF or grow from seed, needs long, warm growing season with day temps around 86 F, fertile soil. Seeds resemble caraway - oblong and yellow-brown - like other members of the umbell family (caraway, dill). Dont confuse with black cumin (Chinese medicinal herb) or sweet cumin (fennel or caraway). 5000 years ago, Egyptians used it as a spice and in the mummification process. Greeks and Romans regarded it as one of the essential spices. In the Middle Ages, the seed was thought to promote love and fidelity, so it was carried by wedding attendees, and solders were always sent off to battle with a fresh loaf of cumin seed bread. Pungent, sharp, and slightly sweet, the greenish brown powder of this herb is an essential ingredient in Mexican and Indian cuisine. It was so valuable that it could be used for tithing in church. Properties: Appetizer, carminative. Contains 2.5-4% EO (cumin aldehyde dominant). Internal: Stimulates the appetite. May increase lactation in mothers. Traditionally used as a diuretic and to treat stomach upset and flatulence. Promotes a healthy digestive system, stimulates menstruation, and added to gargles to treat laryngitis. External: Poultices used to treat swellings of the breasts or testicles. Prepare: The fruits (seeds), whole or ground, fresh or toasted. Used in cooking or added to other herbs in teas, tinctures, or capsules. Ground cumin should be kept in an air-tight container. Add to cooking in moderation - the pungency of cumin can overwhelm other flavors in a dish.

D
Daisy Fleabane (Erigeron) Erigeron annuus, philadelphicus, Aster family: (Canada Fleabane) Slender annual or perennial with alternate leaves, sparsely haired stems, 1-4 tall with upright stems. Flowers white with yellow centers. Differs from other asters as the flower stalks have no leaves and they bloom earlier (April here) than most asters. Internal: Peppery stimulant that has anti-hemorrhaging effects. Bacterial diarrhea, anti-flea, fever remedy, urinary. Good for change of season afflictions (colds, fever). External: Anti-flea. Prepare: Gather blossoms for spring remedy (for fall remedies, use asters). Dandelion (Taraxacum) Taraxacum officinale, Aster family: (Lions Tooth, Wild Endive) (Top 30 Herb) Herbaceous perennial, self-seeds, moist soil, F/P sun. Properties: Alterative, somewhat bitter, extremely nutritious. Leaves are excellent source of betacarotene, lutein, A, and C, nutrients that act as antioxidants to fight off bacteria and viruses. Internal: Reduces high cholesterol. A gentle laxative, rich in minerals, helps to prevent irondeficient anemia. Cleanses blood, liver, gallbladder (increases bile production), improves function of kidneys, pancreas, spleen, stomach. Root is a diuretic, a good tonic and laxative, good for the digestive tract (aids the stomach lining and hydrochloric acid production). The European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP) recommends dandelion root for indigestion and loss of appetite. The German Commission E expert panel recommends products containing dandelion for treatment of liver disorders, appetite loss, indigestion, and fluid retention. Women with PMS may find the diuretic action helps relieve symptoms of bloating and 44

water weight gain. Dandelion inhibits the growth of Candida albicans, the fungus in vaginal yeast infections. Eating the root helps decrease glucose levels (for diabetics). The flowers are an excellent source of lecithin, elevating brain acetylcholine, which helps maintain brain function and may play a role in stopping Alzheimers progression. Lecithin helps the body maintain good liver function, therefore it is recommended for liver detoxification (and hepatitis). A flower extract has antioxidant properties, and may even help inhibit tumor growth. External: White juice (latex) from stems used for warts. Prepare: Every part of plant can be eaten. Spring leaves are not be as bitter and can be eaten cooked or in a salad. The flowers can be added to salads or battered and fried into fritters. Roasted roots are used as coffee substitute or boil roots for tea, or throw into soups and stews. Steep 1 T ground root or dried leaves in 1 cup water. Datura Family (Datura) Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed), Nightshade family: (includes Angel Trumpet and Moonflower) Full sun, average to dry soil. Internal: Do not take internally as it is one of the most toxic wildflowers. External: Good for skin and goes in salve. Dry leaves and roll into cigarettes for asthma and bronchitis. Opens up the lungs. Caution: one puff good, but 3-4 could be fatal. Dead Nettle and Henbit (Lamium) Lamium purpuream, Mint family: (Purple or Red Dead Nettle) Taproot, with course, heart-shaped leaves (nettle-like, without a sting). The overlapping leaves resemble a Japanese pagoda. Because Dead Nettle and Henbit are mints, they can be used in teas. Both are invasive, cool-weather annuals, 4-16 tall. Henbit (shown right) - L. amplexicaule, Mint family: Has longer flowers than dead nettle. Dill (Anethum) Anethum graveolens: Full sun, avg moisture, well-drained soil, Mar - May, 1 W, 3-4 H. Self-seeding annual in spring and mid-summer. Stress by heat or drought improves its flavor. Large taproot doesnt transplant well. Keep fennel away as it cross-pollinates. Dill has a hollow stem, fennel a solid stem. "Dill weed" refers to the green leaves (and sometimes stems). Dill weed and seed have different chemical compositions, different uses in cooking, and different applications in herbal healing. Properties: The dill seed (the fruit) aroma is due to carvone and limonene. It does not contain the phellandrene and other monoterpenes found in the leaf. Apiole is found in Indian dill seed, but not in the species used mostly. Internal: Calcium, antioxidant, muscle relaxant, digestion, gas, dry coughs and asthma. Seed infusion for gas or cramping. Has carminative effects. Helps settle stomach and nerves. Mildly antibacterial (stop growth of bacteria, yeast, molds). Repels: Cabbage worm, moth worm. Harvest: Prune flowers. Cook leaves with fish and meat. Seeds in bread, stews, and pickling (a salt-substitute). Prepare: The seeds are used whole, added to cooking or pickling. May be taken as a capsule or extract. 45

Dodder (Cuscuta) Cuscuta gronovii (Wild), chinensis (Chinese), epithymum, Morning Glory family: (Love Vine, Vegetable Spaghetti, Hell Weed, Devil's Guts) This parasitic vine is leafless and lacks chlorophyl. A familiar weed around the world with many species. It feeds off other plants through its red and orange threadlike stems which have suckers to draw out nourishing fluids from the stem of the host. It spreads fast and the seeds are viable up to 8 years - a major nuisance weed for many farmers, particularly those who cultivate alfalfa and clover. The small, white flowers have a penetrating sweet perfume smell particularly strong in the cool evening air. Culpeper said that dodder plucked from the thyme it was parasitizing was the most effective. This is an interesting inference - that some of the medicinal benefits are determined by the host plant. Properties: Flavonoids (including kaempferol, quercitin) and hydroxycinnamic acid. Internal: Aerial parts used. Not considered edible, but the Chinese use the seeds for UTI. The tea may be anti-inflammatory. Still valued for problems affecting liver and gallbladder (may be connected to its old use as a purge for black bile). It has a mildly laxative effect, carminative, and anti-bilious properties, may stimulate the appetite, have an anti-cancer effect, and treat gout. Avoid with hemorrhoids. Dogwood (Cornus) Cornus florida: (Flowering Dogwood, Fever Tree) During the Civil War, the South could not get Quinine for malaria, swamp fever, and yellow fever because of the Yankee blockade. The capital of the confederacy was moved from Montgomery because of these fevers. They dried and roasted the berries to make bitter tonics that saved many. Due to its hardness and density, dogwood resists cracking. Has been used for chisel heads, wood golf clubs, artificial teeth, wine and fruit presses. Indians used it for arrow shafts and daggers. Blossoms were a sign to plant corn. Petals were boiled for colds. The bark was chewed for headache. Internal: Antiviral. Use inner bark or berries for malaria, fever, coughs, colds, leg cramps, tinnitus. Works like quinine, but safer and not as bitter. Keeps the virus from being able to replicate itself, so it dies. If berries or bark not dried enough (1 year), it can cause severe stomach cramps. Prepare: Low boil 1 cup inner bark or just twigs (or 1/2 cup dried berries) in half gallon water for 20 minutes, simmer. Dong Quai (Angelica) See Angelica (Angelica).

E
Ebony Spleen Wort (Asplenium) Asplenium platyneuron: A small plant with single-pinnate fronds that tolerates a wide variety of habitats throughout the eastern US, in disturbed sites and on rock. Frequently colonizes masonry. It prefers calcareous rocks (or mortar joints) but will also grow on subacid rock. Sometimes grown as a terrarium or garden plant. It is also known to hybridize with several other spleenworts (Asplenium hybrids). The back of the stem is dark purple. Used to get rid of worms and hives in kids.

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Echinacea (Echinacea) Echinacea purpurea (Purple Coneflower), augustifolia (Narrow-Leaved), Aster family: Herbaceous perennial, 2-4 H, full sun, avg moisture, welldrained, limey soil, 1 apart for taproot species and 2 apart for the rest, such as purpurea. Seed in spring, takes 2 years to flower. Drought-resistant, keep weeded. For heavy soil, mix in sharp sand and compost to lighten it. Properties: Alterative, complex sugars are its immune stimulants: polysaccharides and echinaceoside. A detox for circulatory, lymphatic, and respiratory systems. Internal: An immune stimulate (especially with Goldenseal), for the treatment of colds, flu, sore throat (take with zinc at beginning of cold). Peak immune activity is achieved within 3 days (especially for treating the early phases of bacterial or viral infection). Fresh tinctured root works best, although a dried root decoction works. For arthritis and gout. Helps chemotherapys effectiveness. Dont take with meals as it is protein-binding. Echinacea is also a potent sialagogue - promotes salivation (a test for the quality of a herb or extract is how much it stimulates your saliva). Treats chronic yeast infections in women and prevents UTI in men and women. Dr. Schultzs top herbs for infection are raw garlic and echinacea root (also colon cancer). External: Makes an anti-inflammatory treatment for infected wounds and the bites of reptiles and insects. Beneficial in the treatment of sores, wounds, burns, possessing cortisone-like and antibacterial activity. Prepare: The most potent are the roots and seeds, then the leaves, stems, and flower heads. The best species is angustfolia, then purpurea and pallida. Aerial parts used to make fresh juice, teas, and tinctures. Cut root in late winter, or clump divide in spring every 4 years, or 2 years after division. Roots are tough and earthy, with a crown that grows woody with age. Shake free of dirt and pressure wash. Large crowns must be hacked apart to get lodged dirt. Roots may be coldstored for several days without molding. However, its best to make the fresh root tincture ASAP to minimize oxidation. Dry for decoctions, teas, powders, tablets, tinctures. David Winston: Echinacea purpurea, flower & root. Indicated for acute viral or bacterial infection (colds, flu, bronchitis, septicemia, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus). Echinacea is also used for acute prostatitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, laryngitis, apthous stomatata, and pyorrhea. The Eclectics used this root for blood dyscrasias with dirty, sallow skin, a tendency to form boils and septicemia. Topically it is used for infections, abscesses, and psoriasis. Elderberry (Sambucus) Sambucus canadensis, nigra, Honeysuckle family: (American Elder, Black Elder) (Top 30 Herb) Perennial shrub to 10, looks like sumac, but has canoe-shaped leaves. One bush has many berries. Prefers moist, rich soil and can be an understory. Natives used the flowers, berries, and bark to treat fevers, joint pain. Properties: Sweet/sour tonic for hot, irritated tissues, especially respiratory. Powerful antiviral. Potassium nitrate, sambucin, sambunigrin. The berrys complex sugars are immune-active. Internal: Use as a tonic and blood purifier for colds, flu, cancer, skin sores, arthritis, rheumatism, constipation, asthma. Berries are known to be effective against eight strains of flu (keeps viruses from replicating). Vaccines are only effective against the known strains of flu, and the virus is continually mutating to new strains. Over half who get vaccines report side effects. Elderberry disarms the enzyme that viruses use to penetrate healthy cells in the lining of the nose and

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throat. Taken before infection, it prevents it. Taken after infection, it prevents spread of the virus through the respiratory tract. Caution: Too much may cause nausea and vomiting in some. Stem and roots mildly toxic. Seeds contain hydrocyanic acid and can cause diarrhea if you eat too many. Prepare: Infuse dried, crushed blooms. Hot tea is a diaphoretic, cold tea a diuretic. Combine with yarrow for colds. Ripe berries make great jelly and syrup. Dried fruits are less bitter than fresh. Often combined with propolis or echinacea. Elderberry Syrup: Pour 1 quart boiling water over 2 cups dried berries, cover, and let soak overnight. Then simmer the berries for 30 minutes in the same water in a covered pot. While berries are still warm, puree in a blender with 1/4 cup honey and 1/4 cup lemon juice. Pour in clean glass bottle and store in the refrigerator. For colds and flus: Adults take 1 T syrup throughout day. Elderberry Tea: Simmer 2 tsp dried berries per cup in covered pot, 3-4 cups daily. Chris Kilham (The Medicine Hunter): From Better Nutrition. Hypocrites (400 B.C.) referred to elderberry as his medicine chest. Other classical healers declared the elder and its rich purple berries one of natures greatest healing plants. Science shows that it is heart-protecting, visionenhancing, cell defending, stress-reducing. The purple antioxidant pigments known as anthocyanins possess 3 times the antioxidant capacity of carotenoids. Anthocyanins protect cells from oxidative damage caused by numerous factors including environmental toxins, poor diet, and stress. The extract reduces the damaging effects of LDL. Elderberry compounds discourage platelets from forming to blood vessel walls, thus reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. The pigments enhance night vision by regenerating rhodopsin (visual purple) in the eyes, which enables the eyes to adjust to darkness. It also helps enhance vision by reducing the permeability of fine vessel walls. This protects against retinopathy, in which blood accumulates in the retina, leading to impaired vision and blindness. It also appears to reduce stress. Elecampane (Inulu) Inulu helenium, Aster family: (Aster helenium, Elfdock, Elfwort, Horseheal, Scabwort, Velvet Dock, Wild Sunflower, Yellow Starwort) Large, upright herbaceous perennial with many yellow flowers. Sow spring, part shade, moist, LDG, 2 apart. The name helenium derives from Helen of Troy. It is said to have sprung up from where her tears fell. It was sacred to the ancient Celts. In TCM and Ayurvedic, it is recommended for bronchitis and asthma. Monks in the Middle Ages used it to restore heart health. Said to enhance psychic abilities and is part of a 9-herb bath blend to protect from witches. Used extensively for horses and livestock, specifically for skin diseases. Properties: Bitter substances known as alanto-lactones and up to 45% inulin. Internal: Antiseptic expectorant that relieves congestion in colds and bronchitis. Bitter used to stimulate digestion. An antifungal and helminthic, used to treat yeast infections and parasites. Caution: Not recommended for long term use or if pregnant. Too much can cause cramps, diarrhea, and possibly nausea. Dont use more than 3 grams (< 1 tsp) daily. Prepare: Roots and rhizomes dug from not more than 2-3 year old plants, dried and cut. Usually taken as a tea. Added to cough syrups, expectorants, herbal diuretics, pain remedies, and roborants (for bringing out color from pale skin). Can be taken internally in the form of a capsule or tincture. It has also been known to be candied and eaten as a sweetmeat. Eleuthero (Eleutherococcus) Eleutherococcus senticosus: (Siberian Ginseng) A woodland plant native to Siberia and Korea, and adapted to the damp forests of the west coast. A relative of the more famous red ginseng, used in TCM since 190 AD. Widely cultivated after its use as an adaptogen was discovered in the

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1940s. It was dispensed to entire cities in Siberia in early winter to prevent colds and flu, and used as a treatment for radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident. Properties: Adaptogen - an agent that helps the body deal with stress. Contains eleutherosides and immunostimulant complex polysaccharides. Internal: Helps prevent "adrenal burnout" caused by ongoing physical or mental challenges. Boosts concentration and focus without the letdown of caffeine. It boosts immunity and may enhance athletic performance. A favorite of Olympic athletes in the old Soviet Union. When the word got out, Western scientists put it to the test. A study of six baseball players found that taking eleuthero increased breathing capacity (it gave the players more wind to sprint between bases). It gives strength gain to muscles and increases the body's ability to burn fat through exercise. The benefits are more noticeable in beginning athletes. Take for at least 8 weeks for best results. Combining with other herbs is even better. Taking with schisandra benefits endurance athletes by giving them an immune system boost and helps prevent colds, flu, and other infections after athletic events. Trainers also report a combination of sea buckthorn, wild oats, and stinging nettle increases strength, anaerobic power (muscle output when the athlete is out of breath), endurance time, and even feelings of well being. For best results, increase vitamin C foods in your diet when you take these herbs. May cause insomnia if taken too close to bedtime. Not recommended for persons with uncontrolled high blood pressure. Prepare: The dried root in capsules, tea, tincture, or added to juice and smoothies. Ephedra (Ephedra) Ephedra sinica, sinensis, vulgaris: (Ma Huang, Chinese Ephedra) One of the fundamentals of TCM and modern herbal medicine for respiratory disorders. Used for 5000 years in Asia to treat bronchial complaints, cold and flu, fever, chills, headaches, and aching joints and bones. Aerial parts serve as an antidote for excessive consumption of the root, and treat a wide range of respiratory conditions. German E Commission says for treatment of the respiratory system and mild bronchial spasms. Properties: Ephedrine, pseudopephedrine. Most members of this genus contain medicinally active alkaloids (notably ephedrine) widely used in preparations for the treatment of asthma and catarrh. The stems are also antidote, diaphoretic, diuretic, pectoral, vasoconstrictor and vasodilator, and used internally for asthma, hay fever, and allergic complaints. Internal: The traditional use of ephedra is to stop "leakages" caused by lack of energy and vigor. It stops sweating at night, fluid buildup in the lung, and weak pulse causing "dribbles" of arterial circulation. All of these effects are helpful in colds, flu, and asthma. The stems are a pungent, bitter, warm herb that dilates the bronchial vessels while stimulating the heart and central nervous system. Cautions: Not to be used as a stimulant or for long-term use! Typically used in herbal combinations by a qualified herbalist. Use caution if pregnant, nursing, have high blood pressure, heart or thyroid disease, diabetes, prostate enlargement. Stop if nervousness, tremor, sleeplessness, loss of appetite or nausea occur. Prepare: The stems. Usually teas, but may be taken as a capsule or extract. Mormon Tea Ephedra nevadensis Mormon Tea (UTI??) Ephedra nevadensis: Mormon tea is native to the SW. Called popotillo by Mexicans, and Mormon/Brigham/Teamsters/Squaw tea by early settlers, it was once a very popular folk remedy for venereal disease (syphilis and gonorrhea). Although quite astringent, those who become accustomed to it like it as a pleasantly refreshing beverage. Described as a remedy for colds and kidney disorders, and as a spring tonic. 49

Properties: Contains tannin, resin, volatile oil. Spoerke attributes its activity to the presence of the alkaloid ephedrine, a medication which constricts the blood vessels, dilates the bronchioles, and stimulates the central nervous system. Gottlieb, Mowed, and Castleman state that Mormon tea's active constituent is not ephedrine but norpseudoephedrine, an even more potent central nervous system stimulant. Actually, five different groups of investigators have been unable to detect the presence of ephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, or any other alkaloid in E. nevadensis, and we may safely conclude that the plant is alkaloid-free. This is in keeping with all other North American species of Ephedra which are devoid of alkaloids. A fluid extract or tea produces mild diuresis. The tea, with more water-soluble principles, was more effective than the alcoholic extract. Some constipation, probably due to the tannin, was also noted. The investigators concluded that Mormon tea does not belong to the exceedingly active class of medicinal plants and that the properties usually attributed to it are already "well supplied by some well-established therapeutic agent." This is sound comment. If you enjoy the astringent flavor of Mormon tea and are not concerned about its high tannin content, you will be satisfied. If you expect it to have any pronounced therapeutic effect, you will be disappointed. A stunted, weather-beaten shrub, Mormon tea has furnished a refreshing beverage for residents of Mexico and the American Southwest since Aztec times. By one account the name refers to the early Mormon settlers, who abstained from regular tea and coffee, but drank the beverage made from this plant. The tea is brewed from the powdered twigs. Mormon tea is related to the Chinese plant ma huang (E. sinica), which contains the medication ephedrine-a bronchial dilator, decongestant, and central nervous system stimulant much used in modern medicine. The American species has no ephedrine, however. Prepare: Break the fresh or dried stems into small pieces and boil 12 min. Strain and add more water until it looks the color of regular tea and drink it with sugar. Tea to this day a popular thirst quencher and folk remedy; however, none of its uses in folk medicine have been validated by research. Although no ephedrine is found in the American ephedras, proponents of Mormon tea maintain that it works as a decongestant and asthma remedy, like its ephedrine-rich Chinese relative, ma huang. In the desert, people chew a piece of the twig to relieve the pain of sunburned lips. Essiac Tea (Blend) One version of the tea contains just four herbs: burdock root, rhubarb root, slippery elm bark, and sheep sorrel. Another version adds blessed thistle, kelp, red clover, and watercress. Essiac was promoted and popularized by a Canadian nurse named Rene Caisse, who named the formula with her last name spelled backwards. Born in 1888, Caisse promoted her tea to treat cancer until her death in 1978. Her cure was used for prostate, bladder, and breast cancer. The greatest benefit may be treating prostate cancer, especially with depressed immune systems. It has a mild, pleasant taste, although some of its herbs can aggravate some pre-existing conditions. Properties: Red clover contains compounds that may keep estrogen from stimulating breast cancer cells. Burdock root reduces the rate at which estrogen is reabsorbed into the bloodstream after it has been processed by the liver. The emodin found in rhubarb root greatly enhances the cure rate of conventional chemotherapies. The aloe emodin found in sheep sorrel is effective against leukemia cells. Cautions: Use as directed. Rhubarb and sheep sorrel contain oxalic acid, so avoid with kidney stones. Rhubarb is a stimulant laxative - avoid with any kind of intestinal obstruction. Essiac must be taken on an empty stomach (nausea and indigestion may occur on a full stomach). Diarrhea and GI discomfort may occur because of the laxative effects. Frequent urination may occur. Because of the detox process, drink sufficient water, as it assists the removal of toxins. A low dosage is recommended. There are no known interactions between essiac and other medications or herbs. 50

Prepare: Almost always used as a tea although capsules and extracts are made. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus) Eucalyptus globulus, Myrtle family: Perennial tree. (Australian Fever Tree) An evergreen tree native to Australia. Its leathery blue-green leaves are studded with glands containing a fragrant, volatile oil. There are many species, but the most pleasant-smelling oil is produced by E. globulus. American physicians used the oil for surgical sterilization, and as steam inhalation for asthma, bronchitis, colds and flu, emphysema, and whooping cough. Properties: The major VO in the leaf is eucalyptol. This compound is found in many other herbs in concentrations of 1-5%, but makes up 70% of eucalyptus oil. Internal: Eucalyptus oil acts on nerve receptors in the mucosa of the nose and sinuses in a way that causes release of mucus. Eucalyptol is antibacterial against several strains of Streptococcus (that causes strep throat). A combination of eucalyptus and mint may help relieve snoring. Caution: Never take eucalyptus oil internally. For safety, use eucalyptus leaf teas and steams rather than the oil. Excessive use may upset the GI. Prepare: Leaves make a stimulating, antiseptic tea used as a gargle or a steam to clear congested sinus passages. VOs are released by steam. Eupatorium Family (Eupatorium) Aster family: (Thoroughworts) Eupatorium is a large genus of chiefly tropical composite herbs (asters). All eupatoriums have similar medicinal properties - good for fevers and colds. They are tender perennials that like full sun, moist, or swampy soil. Attracts large butterflies like Monarch and Swallowtail. "Thoroughwort means that the stem appears to grow through the leaves. Boneset (E. perfoliatum) (Feverwort, Indian Sage) Grows 2-5 tall in sunny open fields at edge of forests, along water. Stems are hairy, leaves opposite, 3-8 long, hairy on bottom. The name Boneset was given as it relieved the deep-seated pain in limbs caused by influenza. Properties: Bitter tonic, antiviral. High in C. Internal: For flu, fever, arthritis. The whole plant is safe, but the leaves are usually used (sometimes the roots). Prepare: Harvest late summer as flowering begins. It is bitter, so prepare tinctures and syrups using fresh herb. Also easily dried. Boil a handful of fresh leaves (or infuse 1 tsp dried), add sweetener, and drink a little a few times daily. Hot tea makes you sweat (a diaphuretic used to break fevers that make you feel like your bones are coming apart). Cold tea acts as a mild diuretic and laxative. Dog Fennel (E. capillifolium) (Summer Cedar, Cypress Weed) Tall, erect annual or short-lived perennial, 2-9 tall, flowers Sep-Nov. Seeds spread by wind or it regrows from a woody base. Internal: A diorphoetic (big sweat). Good for flu, virus, fever, typhoid or any viral-related fever.

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Joe Pye Weed (E. fistulosum or purpureum) (Gravel Root, Queen of Meadow, Trumpet Weed, Gravel Weed, Kidney Root, Purple Boneset) Erect perennial, 6-9 tall from seeds and root crown. Purple stem. Leaves come out in sections (6 to each section). Has purple or white flowers. A native of NA, from south Canada through Florida, mostly in wet, wooded areas. Natives used it to treat colds and fevers, and as a wash for joint pain. The Iroquois called a decoction "little medicine water" because of its healing properties. As legend has it, Joe Pye was a native who used gravel root to help cure an outbreak of typhoid. Often considered a good luck charm gamblers carried parts for good luck. Integral ingredient in a mojo bag. Used to treat urinary problems, mainly kidney stones (gravel), to increase urination, and induce sweating to break a fever. Properties: Anti-inflammatory, volatile oils. The herb is a diuretic, astringent, anti-inflammatory and febrifuge. Internal: Use roots for sweating fevers out, viral infections, flu. Treats urinary stones (hence Gravel Root). Roots are excellent for diabetes and backaches from kidneys. It may be used to ease urination with kidney stones, and can help relieve edema associated with gout and rheumatism. Tea helps break a fever by sweating, and is often used to treat diseases of the urogenital tract. Not recommended if pregnant. It should not be used in the long term as it may cause damage to the liver or kidneys. Prepare: Used as tea, in capsules, and as an extract. Decoct 1 oz dried root in 1 pint water. Take in cup doses 4-5 times daily. Tommie Bass: It grows out in the swampy areas and has purplish blooms and smells so good. You can take the root of it and boil it and drink a swaller ever once in a while and in no time at all, it'll give you some relief. It's good for the backache when your kidneys act up, flu and fever, and even works like nothing else on sugar diabetes. I'll go dig it for people when they have arthritis and rheumatism. Summer Boneset (E. seratonin) Late Flowering Boneset or Thouroughwort) Has shotgun-like holes in the leaves, not bitter like regular Boneset. Serotinum means late in flowering or ripening. Internal: The root is real good for backache due to kidneys acting up. Evening Primrose (Oenothera) Oenothera biennis: (Evening Star, Cure All, Fever Plant) Full sun, dry, 1-2 W, 3-9 tall often with woody stems. Biennial, LDG seed or division. Sweetscented yellow flowers bloom early morning Jun-Oct, wilting in sun. Plant in infertile, well-drained soil or it will take over other plants (found in dry, open spaces). Similar to Borage. Internal: Flowers mucilaginous, high in essential fatty acids. For headaches, skin. An effective treatment for women at all stages of breast cancer. The whole plant was used to prepare an infusion with astringent and sedative properties. Considered effective in healing asthmatic coughs, GI disorders, whooping cough, and as a sedative pain-killer. Dukes top 13. External: Poultices used to ease bruises and speed wound healing.

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Harvest: Entire plant edible. Young roots can be eaten like a vegetable (peppery flavor), or the shoots can be eaten as a salad. Eyebright (Euphrasia) Euphrasia officinalis: Small, hardy annual with deeply cut leaves, abundant in the heaths and the pastures of Britain. Euphrasia is hemi-parasitic (food gathering nodules on the roots attach to the roots of any nearby plant to parasitize food materials). Cultivation is very hard and wild populations are the source for the entire supply of eyebright. The flowers resemble bloodshot human eyes and has been used for eye afflictions since the middle Ages. Properties: Eyebright contains iridoid glycosides, tannins, phenolic acids, volatile oils, alkaloids, sterols. Internal: Aerial parts used in conjunctivitis and blepharitis. Reduces inflammation due to tightening the mucous membranes around the eyes. Caution with dry, stuffy congestions as the astringency can worsen disorders in inflamed tissues.

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False Unicorn (Helonias) Chamaelirium luteum or Helionius dioica?: (Blazing Star, Devil's Bit, Helonias Root) Florists favor it for cut flower arrangements because of its lovely lavender spikes (up to 2) of feathery flowers, which flower from the top down. Grows in low, moist, well-drained soil. Flowers early summer and the root is dug up in fall, generally wild harvested. There is some confusion about its use since a number of other herbs have shared similar names. Properties: Contains hormone-like saponins which partly account for its long tradition as an excellent ovarian and uterine tonic. Internal: Used for uterine weakness and over-relaxation, characterized by a dragging sensation, a feeling of downward pressure in the pelvis, often associated with irritability and depression. Has an adaptogenic or balancing effect on sex hormones, helping to relieve many disorders of the reproductive tract, menstrual irregularities, and PMS. Valued as a key remedy for conditions affecting the uterus and the ovaries. It is used to treat endometriosis, uterine infections, ovarian cysts, and menopausal symptoms. The bitter principle has a tonic effect on the liver and digestive tract, which benefits appetite and digestion and helps to relieve nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Used to treat venereal disease, especially gonorrhea. Prepare: A small piece of the root is cleaned, finely chopped, and simmered. Cooled and strained and used both as a vaginal douche and wash to get rid of VD. To eliminate bad breath, gargle with this tea every hour. Fennel (Foeniculum) Foeniculum (little hay) vulgare, Carrot family: F/P sun, avg moisture, 1-2 W, 3-5 H. Biennial or perennial, LDG, sandy soil, self-seeds Feb-May or divide, LDG. May need extra fertilizer for vigor. Cut down to 3" in fall. Plant away from dill (leaves are light green and stems are solid). Anise or licorice taste. Attracts swallowtail butterfly caterpillars. Repels fleas. The similar-named "fennel" is a cool-season annual with stalks like celery and a nutty, anise-flavored bulb. The Roman historian Pliny recorded that when snakes shed their skins, they ate fennel to restore their sight. This led to the popular use of a cooled tea of fennel seed which was used as a

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wash for eyestrain and eye irritations. Chinese and Hindus used the seed for snakebite and Medieval Europeans used it for obesity. Flavors several liquors (like gin and absinthe). Properties: Antiseptic, carminative, expectorant. Internal: For digestion, gas, nausea, heartburn, appetite suppression, sore eyes, improved eyesight, calming bronchial coughs. Good for indigestion and diarrhea in infants. The seed is secretolytic (encourages secretion of saliva and gastric juices). It stops stomach cramps, often added to laxatives to ensure gentle action. Seed teas break up congestion caused by colds and allergies. Regular consumption (as well as green beans, mushrooms, oranges, prunes) may slow osteoporosis progression. The seed powder has almost exactly the same taste and effect as whole seed, except it tends to lose anethole. Powdering makes it less likely to stimulate the production of estrogen (may be desirable or undesirable). Combine with chamomile, catnip, or mint in teas for colic. Combine with licorice, thyme, or poplar buds to treat colds, coughs, and congestion. Combine with chamomile, saffron, anise, fennel, caraway, licorice, and cardamom to treat asthma. Prepare: Use seeds, leaves, stems, roots (fresh only). Use tips in seafood/salads. Roots, stalks boiled as vegetable. Seeds in bread, cakes. All the above-ground parts are edible. The seed is used in cooking as a spice. It may be taken as an extract or capsule. A bright, green seed indicates quality. Store in a tightly closed container in a cool, dry place. Fenugreek (Trigonella) Trigonella foenum-graecum, Pea family: Full sun, 6 W, 2 H. Annual, direct seed late summer to early spring, germinates in cold soil, breaks up clay, contributes N (similar to clover), hardy to -10. Plant where it wont easily blow down. Aromatic foliage with white flowers. Cultivated worldwide as a semi-arid crop. In the 1800s, Arabs prepared a paste of seeds soaked in water as food for diabetics. Romans used as an aid to male potency. In TCM, used for kidney complaints, hernia, impotence. Now used in imitation maple syrups. Properties: Arginine, beta-carotene, coumarin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), luteolin, Mg, Mn, niacin, K, pyridoxine, quercetin, riboflavin, rutin, sulfur, thiamine, trigonelline, tryptophan, vitexin, vitamin C, zinc. Internal: Has mucilaginous compounds that support tissues. Relieves congestion (keeps mucus thin). A good source of the trace mineral selenium, an antioxidant. Fenugreek & Thyme is a good lymphatic for the respiratory system. GI, bowel problems, digestion. Infuse or decoct with 2 tsp seeds. Adding an extract equivalent to 1-3 T seeds daily for diabetics lowers blood sugars, triglycerides, and total cholesterol while raising HDL. Up to 3-1/2 oz (100 g) seeds can be eaten in a single meal without GI side effects. The German E commission lists it as a way to stimulate the appetite. Caution: To lower blood sugar, use powder rather than whole seed as it releases more vanadium as it is digested. Do not take medicinally when pregnant, however moderate use in food is fine. External: Apply to skin to treat inflammation. Seeds are used to form a paste. Prepare: Leaves used as an herb, seed used as a spice, whole or ground. It is bitter, so capsules are better tolerated. The seeds are used as seasoning for many dishes or powdered to mix with rice (as in curry). Young leaves and sprouts eaten as greens. The fresh or dried leaves flavor other dishes. The dried leaves (kasturi methi) have a bitter taste and a characteristically strong smell. Also taken as an extract.

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Feverfew or Costmary (Tanacetum) Tanacetum or Matricaria or Chrysanthemum parthenium, balsamita (Costmary), vulgare (Tansy), Aster family: (Bachelor's Buttons, Featherfew, Featherfoil, and Flirtwort) Herbaceous perennial, full sun, dry, well-drained, LDG, 1 W, 1-3 tall, cold-hardy, daisy-like. Self-seed/divide in fall or spring, basal cutting spring, semiripe cutting summer. Attracts bees. Zones 5-8. Believed to have saved the life of someone who had fallen from the Parthenon, the temple of the goddess Athena on the Acropolis in Athens, hence its name parthenium. Used to treat menstrual cramps in young women in Greek medicine. In Middle Ages, used for colic, inflammation fever, insect bites, psoriasis, toothache, vertigo and arthritis. Properties: Parthenolides and unknown therapeutic substances. The leaves and flowering heads are anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, aperient, bitter, carminative, emmenagogue, sedative, stimulant, stings, stomachic, vasodilator, and vermifuge. Internal: Among the world's bestselling herbs, mainly to treat headache. For migraine caused by excessive heat, headache, arthritis, rheumatism, minor fever, digestion, and menstrual. Eat 2-3 fresh leaves daily for migraine. The effects of treating migraine headaches are usually not noticed for several weeks and vary among individual migraine sufferers. Helpful for migraine sufferers who also have allergies or asthma. Bitter enhances digestion and detoxes. Hot reduces fever, decongestant, antihistamine for allergies, asthma. A tea made from the whole plant is used in the treatment of arthritis, colds, fevers etc. It is said to be sedative and to regulate menses. Caution: Extremely pungent, potent herb, use with caution. Fresh leaf can cause dermatitis and mouth ulcers. Avoid if allergic to ragweed, daisies, chamomile, or yarrow. Do not use while pregnant. External: Insect bites and bruising. Rub on as repellent. Rich in volatile oils, sesquiterpene lactones (insecticidal). Harvest: Pick leaves as required. Cut the top as it flowers and dry for later use. Remove flower before seeds form or it grows as an annual. Prepare: Leaf, flower and occasionally the stem. Use fresh or dried in infusions, liquid extracts, powders, and tinctures. Leaves can be dried in tablets. Open flowers picked and dried for powder. The fresh leaves can be chewed to relive pain, but the herb is most often used in capsule or tincture form. Fig (Ficus) Ficus carica, Mulberry family: F/P sun, average moisture, rich, loamy, well-drained, neutral-to-alkaline soil, 15-25 tall. Self-fruitful, produces July - Sept in Zones 7-9. Most types will re-fruit after a freeze. Internal: The fruit and leaves are used. Highly nutritious, containing high levels of fiber, flavonoids, dextrose sugar, enzymes, acids, vitamins A, C, B6, calcium, potassium, and magnesium. The fruit is a laxative. A demulcent that soothes, protects, and relieves the irritation of inflamed mucous membranes and is particularly soothing to the respiratory passage, relieving the discomforts of colds, coughs, sore throats, inflammation of the trachea and bronchial infection. Fig tea can treat lung problems of all kinds, and convulsions or spasms. To make a tea, steep 1 tsp of the leaves in 1 cup water. Drink 3 cups daily one hour before meals. Figs are highly alkaline and contain a powerful healing agent. The alkalizing properties make it an anti-cancer. Figs also contains ficin, which aids in digestion. It contains a fairly potent bactericide which reduces body heat, and helps to ease inflammation. External: Fig sap contains an anti-fungal latex which rids warts (moles take a few weeks - use a cotton ball in salve and a band-aid). Used as an emollient to soothe hemorrhoids and in poultices 55

for boils and small tumors (skin cancer). A tea made from the leaves is great to wash old sores, remove age spots and discoloration caused by bruises. Lukewarm tea dropped in the ear alleviates the pain of an ear infection. Treats poisonous insect bites, hoarseness, bad breath and sore throat. To bring a painful boil to a head, split a fig, heat it, and place it directly on the boil (also for mouth ulcers). Harvest: One of the sweetest fruits when fully ripe. Highly perishable - pick daily and eat or preserve the same day for best quality and flavor. Dried or fresh figs keep best in the fridge. Fish Oil / Omega-3 Fatty Acids Not a plant, but important to overall health. Omega-3 fatty acids are important because our bodies do not have the enzymes necessary to create these long-chain fatty acids. The major omega-3 fatty acids are ALA (alpha linolenic acid), EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). Omega-3 supplements generally contain flaxseed oil or fish oil. Flaxseed oil contains ALA but no EPA or DHA. Marine algae produce only DHA and no EPA. Cold water fish oil contains primarily EPA and DHA. Fish is best, then nuts and flaxseed. The preferred form of omega-3 fatty acids is triglycerides from fish oil. It is the most bioavailable form. Look for supplements where most of the contaminants, such as harmful PCBs and metals, have been removed during the purification process. Harvard researchers studied commercially available fish oil supplements and found that they have only negligible amounts of mercury. The additional benefit is that large doses can be ingested easily without the risk of toxicity. Arthritis: Omega-3 oils help reduce inflammation and are therefore good for those with rheumatism or rheumatoid arthritis. Cardio: The ability to lower the risk of stroke and heart attacks is well-known. if taken in suficient quantities. The AHA recommends increased fish intake or omega-3 supplements. It slows the progression of atherosclerosis in coronary patients. While increasing intake through foods is preferable, most dont get enough by diet alone. Supplements help people with high triglyceride levels, who need even larger doses. Diabetes: Omega-3 fats convert the harmful very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) into LDL. Dosage: Buy omega-3 supplements with antioxidants (such as vitamin E), which keep them fresh. When combined with antioxidants, the incidences of "fish burps" is minimal. The standard dose is 1-3 grams daily, from supplements that contain at least 1 g of combined EPA and DHA. Generally this is 3 tablets, one with each meal. Flax or Linseed (Linum) Linum usitatissimum: (Linseed) F/P sun, moist, 4-6 W, 2 H. Annual, 90 days, direct seed spring or use as sprouts, pretty blue flower. Protect from wind. Properties: Mucilant for hot, irritated tissues. 50-60% ALA (alphalinolenic acid), a concentrated source of lignans. Internal: Since 80% of Americans may be deficient in the omega-3 essential fatty acids, flax is an important food. Contains phytoestrogenic lignans (as do grains, beans, stinging nettle root) which block xeno-estrogens (environmental chemicals that mimic estrogen). Helps with ulcers, colitis. Flaxseed is a basic anti-inflammatory used to relieve pain and tissue damage caused by rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, lupus, IBS, diverticulitis, gastritis, enteritis, breast cancer, chronic constipation, and colon damage caused by laxative abuse. It lowers cholesterol and may protect against atherosclerosis. The EO helps promote brain health in newborns and unborn children. Caution: Flax fibers can interfere with the absorption of prescription medications, nutritional supplements, or the nutrients in other foods. Take 1 or 2 hours before or after meals, medications, or vitamin supplements. Flax seed should not be used for extended periods of time. A bulk-forming laxative (drink adequate water). 56

External: Seed used as a poultice to draw blood to the surface to remove deep-seated inflammation, or as a moist warm compress to relieve pain or inflammation. Prepare: Whole or ground seeds used. Add liberally to breads and cereals. Forsythia (Forsythia) Forsythiae suspensa: Forsythia fruit is the fruit of those lovely bright yellow bushes that are often the first thing to bloom in spring. Native to China, grows nearly everywhere, here mostly as an ornamental. Named for 18th century English gardening expert William Forsyth, one of the founders of the Royal Horticulture Society. The fruit is used in TCM to treat colds and viral infections with a fever, as an anti-nflammatory, antipyretic, and as part of a cardiovascular tonic. It was generally prescribed for all types of heat-related conditions. Often combined with honeysuckle flowers in honeysuckle-forsythia fruit, possibly the most used cold remedy in China. Properties: Phenylethanoids, forsythiaside and suspensaside, lignans, phillyrin and (+)pinoresinol O-p-D-glucoside and phenylethanoids. Internal: Its most common use (in a honeysuckle-forsythia flower blend) is in a 1789 herbal compendium. There's been little modern research, though the anecdotal evidence for its effectiveness against fever, cough and chest complaints is well-documented in traditional medicine. Constituents in the flower may be helpful in improving cholesterol by increasing good and excreting bad cholesterol. Prescribed in TCM when a broad spectrum antibiotic effect is desired. It seems to have an antimicrobial, antiemetic and antiparasitic effect. There are no reports of harmful side effects of using forsythia fruit. Prepare: Fruit is steamed and dried, used in decoctions and infusions, teas, capsules and extracts. Frankincense ?? Fringe Tree (Chionanthus) Chionanthus virginicus (Grancy Graybeard, Old Mans Beard), Toxicodendron or Rhus vernix (Poison Ash?), retusus (China Snow), Oleacea (Olive) family: (Top 30 Herb) F/P sun, moist. Deciduous native shrub or small tree, hardy to -30, moist woods and riverbanks. Males are showiest with aromatic flowers (name derived from fringe-like petals). Females are ornamental with olivelike 3/4" berries, turning dark blue, birds love them. Desirable in medicinal garden due to quick growth and small size. It has large leaves like the magnolia and they appear later in spring than most other plants and turn yellow in fall. Most plants are from seeds which require over two years to germinate, if at all. Fringe tree bark was used in frontier medicine to treat gallbladder ailments and liver diseases of all kinds. By stimulating release of bile, it acts as a gentle and effective laxative. It stimulates the appetite and increases gastric secretion. Natives used it as a poultice for healing wounds. Properties: Bitters, saponins, phyllyrin, chionanthin. Internal: In kidney, bladder, urinary tract, and lymphatic formulas (use with red root, cleavers). For liver, gall bladder, pancreas. One of best remedies for gall stones, but avoid during gall stone attacks as it increases release of bile and pressure against the stones. Prepare: The almost-odorless root bark is gathered, washed, and dried for medicinal use. Traditionally used as a tea or fluid extract. May be combined with barberry, dioscorea (wild yam?), or euonymous (wahoo) for treating liver diseases. Tincture root and take 1 T before each meal for jaundace.

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Garlic (Allium) Allium sativum, ampeloprasum (Elephant), Lily family: Part sun, moist, plant Feb or Oct-Nov, 3-4 W, 2 H, nonclay soil. Plant cloves 2" deep. Plant in fall except for the elephant variety in spring. Rotate to avoid soil-born diseases and insects. Build soil with green manures as part of your normal crop rotation. Types: Softneck type is the largest, most productive, and keeps well. Elephant type is milder, least cold-hardy (a weakened hybrid). Hardneck type is mild, most cold-hardy. False Garlic (Nothoscordum bivalve - shown on right): (Sweet Onion) Perennial, 4-12 from a bulb. Has an onion-like appearance without the aroma. Very tasty. Properties: Hot, pungent aromatic. Antioxidant, blood thinner, antimicrobial (able to kill bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa, but cooking destroys much of this). Internal: Contains sulfur compound that act as natural antibiotics, killing bacteria on contact and after ingestion. Good for the initial stages of upper respiratory infections and can stop a cold dead (natures penicillin). Good for detox, immune system, ear infections, parasites, coughs. Dr. Schultz top herbs for infection are raw garlic and echinacea root (also colon cancer). Helps with diabetes (reduces blood sugar). It lowers LDL and triglycerides, raises HDL. Two cloves daily for blood pressure, cholesterol, circulation. Selenium-enhanced garlic is even better. Aged garlic extract improves the immunity. Take daily with meals. External: Antiseptic, antifungal. Liquefy raw garlic in a blender or mash well with a fork. Apply to affected area 3 times daily (rivals Tea Tree oil). Recipe for ear oil - 2 oz fresh garlic, 2 oz mullein flowers, 16 oz olive oil, infuse for 1 month. Apply 10 drops in ear for pain and infection. Repels: Cabbage moth, Japanese beetle, aphids, mosquitoes. Harvest: When tops start to shrivel (dont let get brown). Store in cool temps. Cut flowers to encourage bulb production. Spread straw to overwinter. Chives Allium schoenoprasum (regular), tuberosum (Garlic): F/P sun, moist, 1 W, 12 H. Perennial bulb, smallest member of onion family. Seed in April or divide every 2-4 years in spring or fall in 3-6 smaller clumps. Repels aphids. Grows in just about any conditions and almost any type of soil, little tending. Internal: Rich in vitamin C and Iron, helpful in treating anemia. Anti-fungal, insecticidal, immune system. Harvest: Edible flowers and leaves. Remove flowers to stimulate leaf growth. Flavor is a bit like onion and tasty on baked potatoes. Gaylax or Beetleweed (Galax) Galax urceolata: (Beetleweed) Low growing, evergreen perennial. Has round, sawtooth-edge leaves that feel waxy. When white flowers bloom, the area smells like dog doo. Internal: Cleansing diuretic for kidneys pulls garbage out of kidneys and bladder.

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Gentian (Gentiana) Gentiana tibetica, lutea, Gentian family: (Bitter Root) Perennial that likes part to full sun, moisture, sloping mountains with western exposure, cold hardy. Blooms range from yellow to purple. Tibetan var easiest gentian to grow. Many regions in Europe make different forms of a bitter alcoholic beverage prepared from Gentian, almost becoming the regions trademark. Properties: The root is one of the most bitter substances known, which is what makes it such a valuable healer. Bitterness triggers production of saliva, gastric and pancreatic digestive fluids, and bile. By provoking the flow of digestive juices, it allows food to be more easily digested and absorbed. Antiviral. Internal: One of earliest used bitters (the root is classified as the standard bitter that others are measured against). Stimulates liver, gallbladder (treats hepatitis, jaundice). Digestive aid that helps body absorb other nutrients like iron and B12. Bitter tea of dried leaves improves digestion 15-30 minutes before meals. Sweeten with licorice or honey. Bitters formulas combine gentian with good-tasting digestive herbs such as ginger, cardamom, and fennel, but you still get the slightly bitter flavor that stimulates digestion. Caution: If using with heartburn, stomach ulcers, or gastritis. Large doses may cause nausea, vomiting. Prepare: Gentian must come in contact with the taste buds. To make tea, simmer 1 tsp dried, shredded root in 2 C, cool, strain. Because it is so bitter, it is more palatable in a formula. Combine with good-tasting digestive herbs such as ginger, cardamom, and fennel (the slightly bitter flavor stimulates digestion. For poor digestion, take up to 1 tsp bitters 15-30 minutes before eating. Taste Receptors 101: The human tongue distinguishes all known flavors by the use of only four primary taste receptors - sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. Gentian actively stimulates the bitter receptors, boosting saliva and gastric secretions. This stimulates the appetite and improves digestion with increased nutrient absorption. The liver and gallbladder are also stimulated. Geranium or Cranes Bill (Geranium) The genus Geranium contains some 300 species of annual and perennial herbs and sub-shrubs native to temperate areas around the world. Geranium carolinianum, maculatum (Cranes Bill): (Mosquito/Citronella Plant, Wild Geranium, Storks Bill, Foam Flower) Clump-forming woodland perennial with lilac flowers in April. Distinct cranes bill in center of flower enlarges into a seedpod. Deer like it. A 2 high bush with erect, unbranched stems with "toothed" leaves and pinkish-purple flowers. A traditional astringent for bleeding, and essential of Russian herbal medicine for treating diarrhea. Properties: Astringent. Rich in tannins, which oxidize to give the tea a red color, plus gums, resins, starch, anthocyanidins, and calcium oxalate. Tannins cause proteins in mucous membranes and other linings exposed directly to the tea to cross-link to prevent leakage or infection. Internal: Treats diarrhea in children without side effects. The tanning action makes it useful for treating conditions as varied as sore throat, canker sores, ulcers, burns, gingivitis, leukorrhea, hemorrhoids. External: Antifungal, antiviral, antiseptic, astringent, antibacterial. Use in poultices to treat pain from infection or inflammation and to relieve the discomfort of cyclic breast pain. Prepare: Tea, tincture, and poultice. Leaves (of herb Robert) or roots (of Geranium maculatum). Boil when needed - 1 T in quart of water until reduced to 1 cup. Drink quarter cup twice daily. Split the roots, dry in shade, store in jars. 59

Herb Robert Geranium: Part sun or shade, well-drained soil. Sow fall or spring. Annual or biennial naturalized in NA from Canada down to WV. Found in weedy areas on rock ledges. Self-seeds abundantly. In some places, rust (a fungus disease) can be a problem. Remove diseased plants or dust with sulfur if mildly affected. Fresh-crushed leaves said to ward off mosquitoes. Forms a succulent rosette of basal leaves on reddish hairy, sticky, highly branched, sprawling or upright stems. The foliage is hairy and may have a reddish tint. Stems and leaves turn bright red in fall. Opposite leaves up to 4" wide palmate divided into 3-5 pinnate leaflets, giving them a fernlike look. The terminal leaflet is usually stalked. Blooms most of summer, fall color brightens up a woodland garden when other plants have finished. Flowers have 5 sepals, 5 petals, 10 stamens in 2 circles of 5, and a 5-part pistil. The ovary when mature separates from the base into five parts, each containing a seed and each attached to a part of the long style, which curls upward. The styles resemblance to a beak has given the genus the common name cranesbill. Traditionally used to treat a vast range of ailments. Its red stems showed that the herb was good for regenerating the blood and stopping internal bleeding. Herb Robert tea is an ingredient of a folk cancer remedy and has been used to treat malaria, tuberculosis, diabetes, stomach and intestinal disorders including diarrhea, jaundice, and kidney infections. The tea was gargled or swished around to relieve sore throats, mouth sores, or toothache. Internal: Contains tannins, which probably are responsible for its ability to check bleeding and diarrhea and alleviate sore throats and skin irritations. Lowers blood-sugar levels in treating diabetes. It is little used today. External: Tea or poultice used to relieve eye inflammation, skin irritations, bruises, herpes, swollen breasts (and stimulate lactation), fistulas, tumors, ulcers, and felons (inflammations of the tip of the finger or toe). Even thought to mend broken bones. Prepare: Entire plant as it comes into bloom. Dried or used fresh. Scented Geranium/Mosquito Plant (Pelargonium) Pelargonium citrosa: Tender perennial, spreads out. Likes hot, dry places, full sun or light shade. A hybrid of Chinese citronella grass and a scented African geranium. Hardy in zones 8-11, where they can reach 3-4 high and wide. In colder zones, bring in for the winter. New plants can be potted in a 4" or larger pot. Use any potting soil for geraniums. Keep watered and occasionally feed with a soluble plant food, as you would any potted plant. In the fall, move the plants indoors to enjoy as houseplants. Mosquito Repellants: The citrosa geranium is a recent recruit to the campaign against mosquitoes. Catnip and the oil of lemon thyme are also effective repellants. Some plant marigolds to repel insects. Mosquitoes supposedly hate them and aphids detest them when planted around a vegetable garden. The advantage that citrosa geraniums have is that they are robust and easy to over-winter. Just sitting in a pot, they don't repel mosquitoes. If you brush against them, they release a sharp, citrusy odor that is unpleasant to bugs. Put in pots anywhere that people will brush against. External: Crush leaves and rub on skin or soak overnight in rubbing alcohol. Use the infused product like mosquito spray. Not as effective as deet, but is not toxic. Internal: Use in teas, potpourris, sweets.

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Ginger (Zingiber) Zingiber officinale, Ginger family: Part shade to sun, warm, moist, welldrained, 6 W, 4 H. Broadleaf perennial, likes heat and moisture. Plant 1" D. Properties: (Top 30 Herb) Hot aromatic, rich in volatile oils, antioxidants, and limonene used for nausea and motion sickness. Antispasmodic and antiinflammatory actions soothe digestive upsets and helps ease menstrual cramps, headaches, and arthritis. Internal: Good for circulation and cold extremities, promotes perspiration. Take with meals to aid digestive secretions. A digestive and metabolic tonic. For colon cleanse, mucus, headache, colds, flu, and vomiting. Tea is good for osteo/rheumatoid arthritis plus muscle and other joint pains. Anti-inflammatory effect good for gout. In tincture form, take 1 g powdered (caution - pregnant women or those taking anticoagulant drugs should avoid high doses). Used in Asia to treat nausea or stomach aches usually associated with post surgical symptoms, pregnancy, and chemotherapy after effects. Many dietary supplements contain ginger for its anti-nausea and vomit relief. Prepare: To make fresh ginger tea, simmer 2 tsp chopped root in 1 cup. Add 1/2 tsp fennel seeds and licorice root to make a delicious tea. Strain, and sweeten if desired. For arthritis, menstrual cramps, migraine and tension headaches: Drink 3-4 cups tea daily, or take two capsules of dried ginger three to four times a day with meals. For poor digestion, drink one cup after meals. Cancer: A study showed that powdered ginger may help reduce ovarian cancer. Two types of cell death occurred - apoptosis, in which the cells commit suicide, and autophagy, in which the cells attack each other or digest themselves. Most ovarian cancer patients develop recurrent disease that eventually becomes resistant to standard chemotherapy, which is associated with resistance to apoptosis. If ginger can cause autophagic cell death, it may circumvent resistance to conventional chemotherapy. Therefore, ginger is not as harsh as radiation, chemotherapy, or surgery and may inhibit the growth of ovarian cancer cells. External: Antiseptic. For arthritic swelling, use a tea or compress. The anti-inflammatory and analgesics of ginger are used to relieve pain and swelling in arthritic joints. Infusion of a handful of ginger roots in a liter of water. Dip a hot compress and apply for 15-20 minutes on the joints. Repeat every 6 hours. Rub painful area with ginger oil mixed with almond oil. Prepare: Ginger comes in many forms: tablets, capsules, liquid, extract, tea, dried or fresh root (as in pickled kind at oriental restaurants). It can be used in savory dishes like chicken soup or salad dressings and enjoyed in sweet treats (gingersnap cookies and gingerbread). Harvest: Dig up rhizomes and replant leftover. Root may be frozen. May die in cold winters. Note: For Wild Ginger, see Wild Ginger on page 64. Ginkgo (Ginkgo) Ginkgo biloba, Ginkgo family: (Maidenhair Tree) 30 H. Deciduous tree from China. One of worlds oldest trees (>200 million years), hardy to -40. James Dukes top 13 herbs. Properties: Contains compounds called heterosides, potent antioxidants that disable free radicals. Internal: The fan-shaped leaves can prevent or relieve memory loss, poor circulation, impotence, and stroke. Many of the diseases of aging are caused by cell-damaging free radicals, mutant molecules created by environmental pollutants, physical and emotional stressors, and metabolic processes. Ginkgo strengthens capillaries and improves blood flow to the brain, which enhances memory and combats senility. It also improves blood flow to the extremities and is helpful for conditions in which poor circulation is a factor, such as varicose veins, tinnitus, vertigo (dizziness), macular degeneration, and impotence.

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Dosage: Ginkgo is a popular ingredient in many prepared snacks and beverages, but is an imprecise way to improve poor memory or other ailments. Exact doses are easiest to find in extracts in liquid, capsule, or tablet form. Use a standardized extract containing 24% ginkgo heterosides at a dosage of 40-80 mg 3 times a day. Take consistently for at least three months. Ginkgo with Vinpocetine: A flavenoid, works like aspirin without the side effects. Take early in day. 120-240 mg (start with lower dosage). Vinpocetine 10 mg 3 times daily for 1 month (start with lower dosage). Standardize to 24%. Vinpocetine 5 mg. Safety: Ginkgo is safe to use indefinitely, unless you are taking anticoagulant medication. It can cause mild gastrointestinal upset, headaches, and dizziness. Ginseng (Panax) Panax quinquefolium (American), ginseng (Asian), Aralia family?: (King of Herbs) (Top 30 Herb) Herbaceous perennial, Shade, moist, needs cool, humus, calcium-rich, good drainage soil on north slope of deciduous forest. Grows well with goldenseal. Fertilize. A pound of root is worth over $300. Properties: Increases energy, immune system, anti-cancer. Internal: Entire plant can be eaten. Ginseng tea works wonders in treating arthritis. Pain and inflammation are reduced with its analgesic and anti-inflammation action. Ginseng is an adaptogen, which means it helps the body deal with different type of stressors. Richo Cech says Ingesting adaptogen herbs helps normalize blood sugar and pressure, increases energy, alleviates the negative effects of stress by promoting the adrenal gland. Since adaptogenic compounds confer no added survival advantage to the plant, we infer that they are present solely to assist humans. This lends such plants a certain degree of sentience, I think. Prepare: Steep 1 tsp dried, crushed root 10 minutes boiling water. Mix with cross vine. A little tonic twice a week helps strengthen the entire body. The bitter taste is like wild carrot, but when you get past it, there is a surge of energy. Harvest: Roots after 4-7 years. Goats Rue (Galega) Galega officinalis, Tephrosia, Pea family: (Devils Shoestring) Bushy, herbaceous perennial with smooth and hollowed out erect branching stems up to 5. All zones, wet or damp meadows and sites along river banks, nitrogen-fixing. Has bright green compound leaves, each made up of 13-17 leaflets 1-2" long. Pealike flowers in mid-summer range from white to a lilac hue, grown in spikes with red brown seedpods, each with 2-6 kidney-shaped seeds. Feeding it to cows and goats was a common practice to increase milk production. Was also used to treat snakebite, the plague, and intestinal parasites. "Galega" is derived from the Greek word gala" for milk. Properties: Flavonoids, alkaloid compound galegin", saponins, glycosides, bitters, tannin. Internal: Dried leaf and seed used to increase lactation (milk in nursing mothers). Reduces blood sugar levels for diabetics. A diuretic and diaphoretic (reduces fever). Induces lactation in women. Prepare: Flower, leaf, stem, seed dried in the shade out in the open and stored. Infuse 1 tsp dried leaves in 1 cup 2x daily for most purposes.

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Golden Rain Tree (Koelreuteria) Koelreuteria paniculata, Soap Berry family: Full sun, avg moisture, 30 H. Deciduous, hardy to -20, fast-growing. Sow spring or fall. Nick seed, soak overnight, plant in cool soil. Native to China, likes hot, dry river valleys. Bright, yellow flowers early summer, followed by papery, hanging seed pods. Goldenrod (Solidago) Solidago canadensis/gigantea (Official), Aster family: (Wound Wort) Herbaceous perennial with late summer yellow plumes, likes moist soil, 2-6. Leaves alternate, mostly smooth, sharply-toothed, 3-6 long with 3 prominent veins. 63 species in the south. Sweet golden rod smells like licorice. It is wrongly accused of producing hay fever (ragweed is the real culprit). Goldenrod is insect-pollinated, heavy and thick, and cannot become airbourne. The name Solidago comes from Latin solidare, to make whole. The E Commission indicates its use for inflammatory diseases of the lower urinary tract. Historically used as a diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, and anti-spasmodic. It grows wild in Asia and NA, but most medicinal varieties are grown in Eastern Europe. Natives brewed it as a tea for sore throat and fatigue. After the Boston Tea Party, the colonists made goldenrod tea and called it "Liberty Tea". It was also used as a dye. Some say that the stem could be used by some as a divining rod, and that when it grows near a house, the occupants are granted good fortune. Properties: Antiviral. Flavonoids, including kaempferol, rhamnetin, quercetin, quercitrin, astragalin, and afzetin. Also saponins, essential oil, germacrene, pinene, limonene, hydoxycinnamic acid, caffeic acid, and tannins. Internal: For diarrhea, urinary infection, stones. Good for kidney, liver, blood cleanser. Use leaves or partly open flowers to make a licorice tea for allergies, diabetes (regulates blood sugar). The traditional use of goldenrod was to treat kidneystones. The flavonoids and saponins help relieve inflammation throughout the urinary tract while acting as a mild diuretic. Precautions - Do not use during acute attacks of kidneystones or other kidney disorders. Prepare: Use flowering tops and leaves to make a tea. Best time to pick flowers for tea is when flowers are about a third open. The tea should be drunk between meals. Goldenseal (Hydrastis) Hydrastis canadensis, Buttercup family: (Queen of Herbs, Yellow Root, Orange Root) (Top 30 Herb) Shade, moisture, 3 W, 12 R, 16 H. Woodland herbaceous perennial, native to southeastern Canada and northeastern United States, found on the moist north slope of a hardwood forest or shade garden. The stem is purplish and hairy above ground and yellow below ground where it connects to the yellow rhizome. The plant has 2 palmate, hairy leaves with 5-7 doubletoothed lobes and single, small, inconspicuous flowers with greenish white stamens in the late spring. It bears a single berry like a large raspberry with 1030 seeds in the summer. Cultivation: Seeds may take a year to germinate. Horizon Herbs sells 50 pre-stratified (stored in cold, moist sand) seeds for $10. Immediately plant in shady wood beds in fall or very early spring. Allow to grow close together for the first 2 years, then transplant over-crowded plants to achieve 6" spacing. Harvest: 7 years maturity to full-size yellow rhizome. Meanwhile, pick leaves in the late summer and dry for the same indications as the root. Root division in fall (can divide 3-5 times). Properties: Berberine in the root makes it an antibacterial, antibiotic. 63

Internal: The alkaloids berberine and hydrastine make a bitter, astringent tonic that stimulates the gallbladder and liver and for the mucous membranes (cold, flu, sore throat), stomach, liver, digestion. Chewing the root can cure stomach ulcers. Also for infection, inflammation, cleansing, immune system, insulin, BP, allergies, parasites. External: Use as an eyewash for styes and eye infections. At first, there can be a burning sensation prior to healing. Used in skin salve. Prepare: Steep 1 tsp powdered root in 1 cup boiling water. Be careful, not for long-term use. Gotu Kola (Centella) Centella asiatica, Carrot family: (Brahmi, Pennywort, Marsh Penny, Spadeleaf, Tiger's Herb) Weed-like ground cover with heart-shaped leaves, especially in parts of India and Hawaii where it grows prolifically in unusual conditions, such as drainage ditches, gutters. A large cultivated crop in the east, thriving under organic farming. Has leafy greens rich in vitamin C. Widely used Ayurvedic herb for thousands of years and thought to be one of the most spiritual and rejuvenating herbs (increasing psychic sensitivity). Recognized in many countries pharmacopoeias as medicine since 1884. In India used as a folk remedy for leprosy, lupus, and improving mental functions, as well as to fortify the immune system. Used in TCM for colds, sunstroke, UTI, and dysentery. In China, considered one of the miracle elixirs of life. Properties: Mainly consisting of triterpenoid saponins, sapogenins. Anti-bacterial/fungal/ inflammatory/ulcer, vulnerary, sedative. Internal: Ayurvedic physicians prescribe to promote longevity. It has long been used as a brain tonic, and a cup of tea is recommended to clear and calm the mind before meditation. Contains compounds that improve circulation, promote tissue healing, and relax the central nervous system. Therefore, it is often included in formulas to enhance memory. Gotu kola's circulationenhancing properties also make it an effective treatment for varicose veins. It improves blood flow through the legs, strengthens the connective tissue that surrounds the veins, and reduces the hardening of veins. In several clinical trials, a significant majority of patients saw an improvement in blood flow and a reduction in leg-related symptoms, like numbness, heaviness, and night cramps, after taking gotu kola for one month. Prepare: Make tea from dried leaf or use fresh leaf from garden in salads, beverages and medicines. Gotu kola and ginkgo taken together are more effective than either one alone. Available in capsule or liquid extract form. For memory loss, take 2 capsules or one dropper of extract (diluted in a 1/4 cup boiling water) 3 times a day. For varicose veins, use extracts standardized for 70% triterpenic acids, from 60-120 mg daily. It is safe to use indefinitely. Gravel Root (Eupatorium) See Eupatorium Family (Eupatorium). Grindelia (Grindelia) Grindelia camporum, cuneifolia, squarrosa: (gum plant, gum weed, tar weed) Indigenous to the SW in prairies and along the sides of roads. A perennial with leafy stems up to 3. It has yellow flowers surrounded by bracts, which produce a resin. Properties: The active compounds include resins, flavanoids such as kumatakenin and acacetin, and diterpenes of the grindelane type. Internal: Has a calming effect on the heart muscles, which makes it effective in the natural treatment of asthma and bronchial conditions, particularly when these are linked with an increase in the rate at which the heart beats and nervous response. A remedy for whooping cough and respiratory catarrh. A potent expectorant, which helps clear up severe congestion that occurs in

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the case of chronic bronchitis, asthma and emphysema. Used as an antispasmodic and a urinary tract disinfectant. External: Used as a remedy for dermatitis caused by poison oak or poison ivy which contain a strong resin (urushiol) which causes the allergic reaction on skin. The plant was used for this purpose by Natives and in pharmaceutical medications in the early 1900s. Application of the tincture on the affected area will provide relief. Topical preparation can also be used to soothe burns, insect bites and skin rashes. Prepare: Dried aerial parts plucked before the flower buds open and dried as quickly as possible under the sun. Ground Ivy, (Glechoma) David Winston's Specific Indications Glechoma hederacea Part Used: herb Contraindications - Not for use in pregnancy A common weed of lawns and gardens and fortunately is also a useful medicinal herb. It has antiviral, expectorant, diuretic, diaphoretic and anti-inflammatory activities. Ground Ivy is useful for bronchitis, viral pneumonia, cystitis, and renal and biliary calculi. Based on hints in old herbals, this herb has been used clinically for increasing lead excretion from the body with positive results. Ground Nut, American (Apios) Apios americana, Pea family: Herbaceous perennial, trailing vine to 10 long, tubers pop out above ground. Internal: Good to eat the golf-ball size tuber even though it has a milky white, sticky sap. A potato substitute. Blooms are reddish in the shade and bright red in the sun.

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Hackberry (Celtis) Celtis occidentalis (Common Hackberry): A genus of about 60 species of deciduous trees in warm temperate regions. Previously included in the elm family. The APG II system places Celtis in the hemp family (Cannabaceae). Celtis species are generally medium-sized trees, reaching 3382. The leaves are alternate, simple, 16" long, ovate-acuminate, and evenly serrated margins. The fruit is a small drupe 0.240.39" in diameter, edible in many species, with a dryish but sweet, sugary consistency, like a date. Several species are grown as ornamental trees, valued for drought tolerance. Chinese Hackberry is suited for bonsai culture. The Common Hackberry and C. brasiliensis are honey plants and pollen source for honeybees. Hackberry wood is sometimes used in cabinetry and woodworking. Has warts on the tree trunk bark. Internal: Fruit is edible. An old medicine for fevers. A refrigerant like other members of the apple family - cools fever without sweating.

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Hawkweed (Hieracium) Hieracium gronovii (Hairy), paniculatum (Panicled), Aster family: (False Dandelion): Perennial, erect, found in dry, open woods, fields, sandy soil. Hieracium means "hawkweed" as the ancients thought that hawks would tear open the plant and wet their eyes with its juice to improve their vision. Mouse-Ear Var: Perennial growing 3-15" high, grows carpetlike on creeping runners, each of which forms a basal rosette of oval leaves. The leaves are green with white hairs above and gray-green or white with softer hairs below. Flower heads resemble dandelions, borne singly on leafless stalks. Of all the hawkweeds, the mouse-ear enjoyed the longest-lasting reputation as a remedy for a number of common ills. Naturalized in NA. Properties: Contains a coumarin (umbelliferone), fIavonoids, and caffeic acid. Thought to be mildly antifungal. Internal: Relaxes the muscles of the bronchial tubes, stimulates the cough reflex, and reduces production of mucus. Effective against respiratory problems, including asthma and wheezing, whooping cough, bronchitis, and other chronic and congested coughs. Its astringency and diuretic action help to counter the production of mucus, sometimes throughout the respiratory system. Used to control heavy menstrual bleeding and to ease the coughing up of blood. Prepare: Aerial parts when in flower. A tea brewed from the whole herb is used both internally and externally. May be used as a gargle and skin wash or lotion. Infusion: 1-2 tsp dried in 1 cup, drink 3x daily. Tincture: take 1-4 ml 3x daily. For whooping cough, use with sundew, white horehound, mullein or coltsfoot. External: Latex-like white sap used for worts. Mouse-ear may be applied as a poultice to hasten the healing of wounds. Hawthorn (Crataegus) Crataegus oxycantha, monogyna (Apple), phaenopyrum (Washington), laevigata (English), Rose family: (Top 30 Herb) Full sun, avg moisture. Deciduous thorny bush to small tree 1520 tall, looks somewhat like a huckleberry. May not germinate until following spring. Apple var has small delicious apples. Washington var has delicate white flowers in June and red fruit that stays on through winter for songbirds. Thorns have a toxin that will make your skin fester (not all have thorns). Properties: Sour tonic for hot, irritated tissues, especially circulatory. Internal: Most effective and gentle heart and vascular medicine known. Dr. Schultzs top herb for the heart: Contains phytochemicals that protect and heal the heart. In emergency, take with cayenne. For nervous heart, use with lobelia. James Dukes top 13 herbs. Loaded with OPCs (Oligomeric Pro-Cyanidins) and bioflavenoids which help keep heart rhythm regular. Contains many of the same compounds as common tea. Take early in day as it can cause insomnia. The flowers, leaves, and berries of the hawthorn tree have been used for centuries as a heart tonic. In Europe, doctors prescribe as a treatment for cardiovascular disease. Proven effective for virtually all types of heart disease, including angina, congestive heart failure, and high blood pressure. It has some of the same benefits as the commonly prescribed heart drug digitalis, without the harmful side effects such as toxicity and irregular heartbeat. The flowers and berries are rich in flavonoids, potent antioxidants that help to neutralize free-radical damage to capillaries. Hawthorn contains compounds that gently strengthen the contractions of the heart, prevent irregular heartbeats, and help to dilate the coronary arteries, which improves blood supply to the heart. It also helps to reduce cholesterol levels and prevents cholesterol from being deposited on artery walls. Best results obtained when taken consistently for several months.

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Harvest: The berry is best, but the flower and leaf have healing powers. The tart raw fruit can be eaten in moderation. May be dried or cooked as jelly. Prepare: To make a tea, pour one cup of boiling water over two tsp crushed berries or flowers and leaves. For high cholesterol, hypertension, and poor circulation, take one dropperful of liquid extract or drink 3 cups tea daily. Heal All or Self Heal (Prunella) Prunella vulgaris, Mint family: (Self Heal, All Heal) F/P sun, moist, 1-2 T. Creeping tender perennial, all zones, flowers June-Aug. Blossoms over a prolonged period. Became popular when military doctors used it to cure wounds and treat infectious fevers that plagued the German army in the 1500s. In ancient times, the barbs or thorns of the flowers were thought to look like the throat. Hence, it was used to cure mouth and throat inflammations. Properties: Anti-viral (keeps virus from reproducing), bitter. Contains flavonoids (rutin), vitamins A, B, C, K, fatty acids, volatile oil. Internal: Entire plant medicinal. For flu, herpes, canker sores, swine flu, cough, colds, bronchitis, nerves. Makes a refreshing drink and has more rosmarinaric acid than rosemary. May slow down cell division in HIV. Reduces blood pressure by gently widening the vessels. It has antibiotic properties and acts against a wide range of pathogens such as E. coli. External: Apply fresh leaves on open wounds to impede the flow of blood from the wounds and repaired the affected area by fusing up the lips of the wounds. Prepare: Steep 1 tsp dried in 1 cup, sip all day a general tonic. Dry to last all winter as a cough tonic. Use hot tea for nerves and as a diaphoretic. Add yellow root and lemon balm to your flu remedy. Often taken as a gargle to treat sore throats and as infusion or tincture to cure internal wounds. Helichrysum (Helichrysum) Helichrysum arenarium: (Everlasting, Curry Plant, Yellow Chaste Weed) Native to the Mediterranean, the golden yellow flower heads are collected before they open for herbal use to make aromatic, spicy, and slightly bitter teas. The name is derived from Greek - helios (sun) and chrysos (gold). Greeks and Romans used it as a wound healing poultice. It has also been used for a variety of skin infections. The leaves have high levels of anti-oxidants that help to speed the healing process and the formation of scar tissue. In South Africa, it is used as an aphrodisiac and a food. Usually it is seen as a garden ornamental. Properties: Contains flavonoids, notably naringenin, helichrysin, kaempferol glucosides, apigenin, luetolin, quercetin, scopoletin, umbelliferone, and essential oil. Internal: A traditional diuretic. Its flavonoids soothe GI and gallbladder spasms, and the bitters promote gastric and pancreatic secretions, improving digestion, especially of fats. The flavonoids may prevent the oxidation of cholesterol in the linings of arteries into forms that create atherosclerotic plaques. Avoid if there are gallstones. Prepare: Flowers often used to improve the appearance of herbal teas. A key ingredient in the Zahraa tea popular in the Middle East. Strain tea before drinking. Hepatica (Hepatica) Hepatica nobilis (Sharp-Lobed), americana (Round-Lobed), Buttercup family: (Liverleaf, Liverwort) The sharp-lobed var (Liverleaf) has pointed leaf tips and flowers are usually blue/ lavender or pink, sometimes white. The round-lobed var has rounded tips and flowers are often white.

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Hibiscus See Mallows (Althea). Hickory (Carya) Carya tomentosa (Mockernut) glabra (Pignut), XXX (Shagbark): Shagbark is hard, but bends good for making bows. The shag goes up and down (mainly down), while the white oak shags side-to-side. Pecan (Carya illinoinensis: Pecans have many health benefits. All nuts are nutrient dense and cholesterol-free and help reduce LDL cholesterol. Pecans are good for vegetarians, because one serving of pecans can take the place of the protein found in an ounce of meat. Pecans are a rich source of oleic acid (same type of fatty acid in olive oil). Oleic acid has the ability to suppress the activity of a gene in cells thought to trigger breast cancer. Pecans get their cholesterol-lowering ability from both the type of fat they contain and the presence of beta-sitosterol, a natural cholesterol-lowering compound. Pecans, hazelnuts, and walnuts contained the highest antioxidant levels of all nuts tested. Pecans are effective in treating the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland in men. Gamma-tocopherol (the type vitamin E found in pecans), kills prostate cancer cells while leaving healthy cells alone. Several population studies have found that as nut consumption increased, body fat decreased. Holy Basil (Ocimum) See Basil (Ocimum). Honeysuckle (Lonicera) Lonicera japonica, Honeysuckle family: Woody, semi-evergreen, climbing shrub. Full or part sun, vigorous, heat-tolerant, and nearly indestructible. Spreads by root nodes and animal-dispersed seeds. The fragrant flowers attract hummingbirds and butterflies all summer. They are white, but quickly fade yellow. 10 species are in the SE (Japanese most common). The fragrant yellow flowers are used in medicine worldwide for cleansing, consuming, and digesting. Folklore centers around love, the flowers looking like two lovers intertwined. The fragrance is said to induce dreams of passion and love. Properties: Antibacterial, antiviral, respiratory infections, expectorant. Also anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, diuretic. Contains inositol, luteolin, tannins. Internal: The flowers can stimulate circulation to remove inflammation. Powerful antibiotic for both gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Has broad-spectrum antibiotic properties for all infections and inflammations. Especially effective when the infection is in the respiratory tract, but is also for some GI tract inflammations. The leaves and flowers (even the stem) are used as a beverage tea in Japan. Can be used for bronchitis, colds, and flu if Echinacea or garlic is not working. The flowers contain a dozen antiviral compounds. With the rapid evolution of viruses, synergistic combinations of phytochemicals are less likely to lead to resistant viral strains than solitary chemical compounds. Also used to reduce blood pressure. In TCM, the flowers are important for clearing heat and relieving toxicity. It relieves "fire toxicity" manifesting as hot, painful sores or swellings of eyes, throat, or breast. It expels "wind-heat" manifesting as sore throat or headache. It treats "damp heat" manifesting as bladder infection. Research confirmed that the flowers have an inhibitory effect on the bacteria that cause salmonella, staph, strep, pseudomonas, and tuberculosis infections. Flowers act as natural antihistamine, although they are more useful for treating rashes and inflammation than treating coughing and sneezing. Some Japanese products include honeysuckle for treating bloating, nausea, and vomiting caused by hepatitis C. Avoid when there is chronic diarrhea caused by cancer treatment, HIV, hepatitis C, or other chronic disease. 68

External: The flowers act as a natural antihistamine, useful for treating skin rashes and inflammation. Traditionally combined with mint for rashes or outbreaks on the skin following nervous tension, and with skullcap to treat boils. Prepare: Use leaves, flowers harvested just before the bud opens for teas and tinctures. The buds and flowers are made into puddings and syrups. An infusion of stems and flowers help with upper respiratory tract infections. Some products used to treat boils and abscesses include the bark. The vine makes a good basket. Horehound (Marrubium) Marrubium vulgare: (White or Wooly Horehound) A garden mint with green and white leaves and a distinctively bitter taste. Although it grows in a wide range of climates, the best quality is grown in desert heat. Its primary use has been as an expectorant, and is a common ingredient in cough medicines (as in horehound cough drops). The German E Commission reports it is good for loss of appetite and dyspepsia. Its uses go back to the Egyptians and Romans, who used it for coughs, colds, and some poisons. Egyptian priests referred to it as the "Seed of Horus", which some speculate its modern name came from. In medieval Europe it was used to ward off spells by witches. It was one of the "bitter herbs" eaten at Passover. Properties: Respiratory, digestive, heart. Bitter tonic, decongestant, expectorant. Marrubiin (the bitter substance), flavonoids including apigenin, luteolin, and vitexin, caffeic acid and stachydrine, and a small amount of essential oil and tannins. Internal: Used to make cough medicines for upper respiratory symptoms caused by acid reflux. The marubiinic acid both stimulates the release of phlegm and stimulates the release of gastric acids so that digestion is complete more quickly and night time gastric reflux is minimized. This compound is also mildly analgesic, relieving pain caused by cough or indigestion. Caution: Horehound isnt good unless it tastes bad (or at least bitter). The bitter taste activates a reflex action that helps normalize breathing and digestion, and the beneficial effects of the herb are not realized if it is combined with too much sweetener. Generally not recommended while pregnant. If gathering, be sure not to confuse with black or stinking horehound, which can be toxic in large doses. Prepare: The above-ground parts of the plant, dried and cut. Usually as a tea, but also in infusions, tinctures, and capsules. Historically made as a candy or confection. Horse Chestnut (Aesculus) See Buckeye (Aesculus). Horseradish (Cochlearia) Cochlearia armoracea or Armoracia rusticana, Brassica (Cruciferacea) or Mustard family: F/P sun, in rich, moist, well-drained, deep-tilled loam or sandy loam. Herbaceous perennial that spreads and can be invasive. Hardy to -40. The pH range of 6.0-6.8 makes micronutrients available (it has a high requirement for boron). Also, too much nitrogen can result in too much top growth and not enough root growth. The large taproot is spicy hot. Horseradish is rarely attacked by insects and is generally disease-free. Horseradish is established by side roots called sets. To plant, in spring or fall, cut root into 2-8" pencil-width root cuttings with a growing point. Plant 10-18 apart, with the crown about 4-6 deep (the crown is the wide, upper end of the root where new top rowth appears). The root sets produce large spirals of coarse, textured leaves from the crown, 2-3 tall. Properties: Antibiotic, digestant, carminative. Internal: A powerful stimulant for circulation, appetite. Antibiotic properties like watercress/garlic. A digestant and carminative that helps the body break down and metabolize proteins more 69

efficiently (great for meat digestion and assimilation). Also for gout, arthritis, decongestant, colds, coughs, urinary infections. Harvest: Dig after second year. For best flavor, dig roots after first frost or harvest throughout winter. Root eaten with beef/fish. Chop young leaves for salads. Fresh-ground horseradish can be stored in an airtight container 4-6 weeks in a refrigerator, or in a freezer for longer. Store fresh, washed roots in a sealed plastic bag at 32-38 F. Prepared horseradish does not have a long shelf life and must be stored properly. To prepare, cut into small cubes, and chop in a food processor or blender with a little water. When first crushed, the hot smell and flavor is very strong, but when exposed to air, it loses its pungency quickly. Add 1/2 tsp salt to 1 cup chopped horseradish. Add 2-3 T white vinegar (a stabilizer). Add it at the beginning to get mild horseradish. For hot, add the vinegar about 3 minutes after blending. Horsetail or Shavegrass (Equisetum) Equisetum arvense: Possibly the most abundant source of silica in the plant kingdom and can be used for polishing metal (hence the name scouring rush). It was used for kidney and bladder ailments, and as an ingredient in shampoos, skincare products, and in dietary supplements. It has been used as an American folk remedy for gout and gonorrhea, and in TCM for dysentery with blood, sore throat, and malaria. Properties: More than 2/3 inorganic constituents, primarily silica and potassium salts. Horsetail from European sources contains the anti-allergy compound quercetin, but the same herb from NA and Asia usually does not. Also contains small amounts of nicotine. Internal: Used for kidneystones, UTI, inflamed prostate, and anemia. In high doses, a sedative and anticonvulsant, but primarily used as a diuretic. Gently stimulates increased urinary flow, helps "flush" infectious bacteria out of the bladder without altering the body's balance of electrolytes. The powdered form is better when electrolytes may be depleted. May treat agerelated memory impairment. Caution: When taking powder for its diuretic effect, drink extra water for maximum benefit. Avoid if there are kidneystones. Not recommended while pregnant. Toxicity similar to nicotine poisoning has been seen in children who ingest large amounts. Prepare: The above-ground parts of the plant, dried, cut, and powdered. Usually in tea, tinctures and capsules. Universally used in cosmetics. Horseweed (Erigeron) (Erigeron or Conyza canadensis), Aster family: (Canada Fleebane) (same genus as Daisy Fleabane) Annual weed with erect downy stem up to 7 coming out of a tuft of basal leaves that later wilt. Native to NA, thrives on recently cleared land, often invading in large swathes. Dark green lance-shaped alternate leaves, often toothed, with scattered coarse white hairs. Many small flower heads mid to late summer in loose clusters with tiny yellow central flowers and green to lavender petal-like ray flowers, followed by white-tufted, one-seeded dry fruits. Called horseweed because of its large size in comparison to other related species. Called fleabane because it produces a turpentine like oil that repels fleas or because the plant's tiny seeds look like fleas. Later used as a diuretic, a tonic, and an astringent to stop bleeding. Properties: VOs (limonene, terpineol, and linalool), flavonoids, terpenes, tannins. Internal: Contains pain-relieving, antioxidant, spasm-relieving, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer compounds. An astringent herb, horseweed is taken for GI problems like diarrhea and dysentery. A decoction can treat bleeding hemorrhoids. Occasionally used as a diuretic for

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bladder problems, to clear toxins in rheumatic conditions, and to treat gonorrhea and other urinogenital diseases. External: EO in the leaves used as a hemostatic (agent that helps arrest the flow of blood). May be effective in stopping external bleeding because of its tannin content. Used as an insecticide. Prepare: Aerial parts gathered when in flower. Hydrangea, Oak Leaf (Hydrangea) Hydrangea quercifolia: (Seven Bark, Stone Breaker, Nine Bark is similar with smaller leaves and flowers). Likes moist, welldrained, shade. A spreading shrub to 5 tall, multiple stems and reddish, scaly bark. Leaves sharply 5-7 lobed, resembling oak leaves. Flower is white, turning purple with age. Properties: Powerful anti-inflammatory. Internal: Contains vegetable cortisone to relieve aches of arthritis and rheumatism (along with Poke berries). Roots stimulate the liver and gallbladder. With lemon juice, an excellent remedy for gallstones and kidneystones. After several days, the stones slowly dissolve and are passed. Used to treat enlarged or inflamed prostate glands - can be combined with Horsetail (an antioxidant and diuretic). External: Can be peeled and used as an ointment or compress for treatment of bruises, burns, sprains and sore muscles. Prepare: Boil 1 cup chopped root in half gallon 30 min. Take 1 T three times daily. Too much can cause GI problems. Harvest: The root is dug in fall and used as a syrup with honey and sugar. It becomes hard, so cut into pieces and dry for long term use. Hyssop (Hyssopus) Hyssopus officinalis, Mint family: Woody evergreen perennial bush. Full sun, dry, well-drained, 18 W, 2-3 H. Seed (LDG) or divide in early spring or fall, cuttings spring to summer. Companion crop for crucifers and leafy greens. Late summer blue flowers attract butterflies, hummers, bees. Flowers are in whorls of 6-15 blooms. "Purge me with hyssop, and I will be clean" the Bible records. Hyssop has been used for millennia as a holy herb, consecrated for cleaning holy places. Native to southern Europe. Hyssop has been hung in homes to provide protection from the evil eye, and from witches. It has also been planted frequently on graves as protection for the dead from the living. Note: There may be confusion when using common names. There are many plants that are called hyssops. For example, Agastache (giant), Baccopa (water), Anise, Gratiola (hedge). Properties: Bitter, antiviral. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, essential oil. Internal: The turpines make it an antiviral, a bitter good for liver, gallbladder, digestion, gas, nervous system, stimulates appetite, immune system. For respiratory problems, colds, chest infection, asthma, decongestant, fever (use after fever is gone and congestion remains). Make tea with honey to use as expectorant. The tops and flowers have antiseptic properties due to high iodine content. Hyssop is used to move excesses of fluids or phlegm. Teas can help lower the sharp increase in blood sugar after eating common in type 2 diabetes. Precautions - Not 71

recommended while pregnant. Excessive use has been associated with causing seizures and should be avoided by people prone to seizure. Prepare: Collect old flowering tops and dry in sun. Use the flowers (with aromatic, camphor-like, volatile oils) and leaves in tea. The strong flavor seasons poultry, salad, and soup. Since the expectorant qualities depend on its EO, always brew tea in a closed vessel and keep the bottle of hyssop tincture tightly closed. Hyssop has a mint-like taste that makes it a tasty addition to salads in small quantities. It has been considered an aphrodisiac when combined with ginger, thyme, and pepper.

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Indigo Root See Baptisia or Wild Indigo (Baptisia). Ipecac (Ipecac) Syrup of ipecac is derived from the dried rhizome and roots of the ipecacuanha plant, and is a well known emetic (substance used to induce vomiting). Ipecac was used in cough mixtures as an expectorant or an emetic from the 18th until the early 20th century. Ipecac and opium were used to produce Dover's powder, which was used in syrup form. Ipecac syrup is still used to induce vomiting, though it is no longer widely recommended. A 2005 review concluded that vomiting alone does not reliably remove poisons from the stomach. Indications for its use were rare. Its potential side effects, such as lethargy, can be confused with the poisons effects, complicating diagnosis. Properties: The actions are mainly those of its major alkaloids, emetine (methylcephaeline) and cephaeline. They both act locally by irritating the gastric mucosa and centrally by stimulating the medullary chemoreceptor trigger zone to induce vomiting. Prepare: Commercial preparation of ipecac consists of 1/14 of a alcoholic extract of the roots and rhizomes. The rest is composed of glycerin, sugar syrup, and methylparaben. Ipecac root itself is a poison, but due to the normal strengths used and the inability of the patient to keep the solution ingested, it is seldom fatal. Irish Moss (Chondrus) Chondrus crispus: Irish or carrageen moss is a species of red algae which grows abundantly along the rocky parts of the Atlantic coast. Fresh, the protist is soft and cartilaginous, varying in color from a greenish-yellow to a purplish-brown. When softened in water it has a sea-like odor, and because of the abundant cell wall polysaccharides it forms a jelly when boiled, containing 20100 times its weight of water. used as an industrial source of carrageenan, commonly used as a thickener and stabilizer in milk products such as ice cream and processed foods (lunch meat). Used as a clarifying agent in the process of brewing beer. A small amount is boiled with the wort, attracting proteins and other solids, which is then removed from the mixture after cooling. Properties: A mucilaginous body, made of the polysaccharide carrageenan (55%). The protist also consists of nearly 10% protein and about 15% mineral matter, and is rich in iodine and sulfur. Irish or Scotch Moss (Sagina Subulata) Though not a true moss, it forms a tight mound like moss does, and it works well as a ground cover around stepping-stones and in rockeries. Thrives in zones 6-9. Water well until soil is completely moist, weekly during the first year and in summers with no rainfall. Dig up any new grass root growth coming through moss in the early spring. This really reduces the incidence of more grass "invaders" later in the summer (the only big problem). I love my carpet of scotch moss, it fills in between flat stones beautifully and stays green most of the winter!

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Indian Pipe (Monotropa) Monotropa uniflora, Ericaceae (formerly Monotropaceae) family: (Ghost Plant, Corpse Plant) Herbaceous perennial native to temperate regions. It is generally scarce but common in some areas in eastern NA. Unlike most plants, it is white and does not contain chlorophyll. Instead of generating energy from sunlight, it is parasitic getting its energy from trees. Since it is not dependent on sunlight to grow, it can grow in dark environments as in the understory of dense forest. The complex relationship that allows this plant to grow also makes propagation difficult. The stems bear only a single flower with 3-8 petals from early summer to early autumn. It associates with a small range of fungal hosts, all members of Russulaceae. Ironweed (Vernonia) Vernonia gigantea (Tall), glauca, Aster family: (Queen of the Meadow) Perennial, 3-10, blue-green, Leaves 4-12 long, alternate, simple, lanceolate, on stem only, not at base. Big flowers late summer. For unexplained reason, the blooms can never be reproduced photographically. Internal: Indians used roots as a blood tonic, to regulate menses, pain after childbirth, for bleeding, stomach aches.

J
Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia) Fallopia japonica, Polygonaceae family: (fleece flower, fleece vine, monkey weed, elephant ears, pea shooters, donkey rhubarb, American bamboo) Large, herbaceous perennial, classified as invasive in several countries. Has hollow stems with distinct raised nodes that give it the appearance of bamboo, though not closely related. While stems may reach a height of 10 each season, they are typically smaller. The flowers are small, cream or white, produced in erect racemes 615 cm long in late summer and early autumn. The flowers are an important source of nectar for honeybees, at a time of year when little else is flowering. It yields a monofloral honey (called bamboo honey by NE beekeepers), like a mildflavored version of buckwheat honey (a related plant). Internal: A concentrated sources of resveratrol, replacing grape byproducts. Many large supplement sources of resveratrol now use Japanese knotweed. Also a concentrated source of emodin, used as a nutritional supplement to regulate bowel motility. The roots are used in TCM as a natural laxative because of the emodin. Prepare: The young stems are edible as a spring vegetable, with a flavor similar to mild rhubarb, a cousin which also contains oxalic acid, which may aggravate conditions such as rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidneystones or hyperacidity. Jewel Weed (Impatiens) Impatiens capensis (Balsaminacea) family: (Touch-Me-Not) Annual, sun or shade, moist, 6 W, 2-5 tall. Gets its name because water droplets on leaves twinkle like jewels. External: Crush and apply to skin affected by poison ivy, stinging nettles.

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Juniper (Juniperus) Juniperus communis, Cypress family: Evergreen tree abundant in central Texas and Eastern Oregon. An Egyptian papyrus from 1500 BC tells of its use in treating tapeworms. It was the symbol of the Canaanites fertility goddess Ashera. The Romans used it for all types of stomach ailments, and Culpepper said it was a treatment for flatulence. Natives used it to relieve infection and ease the pain of arthritis. The Hopi boiled the berries and parts of the tree and consumed it to treat stomach disorders. European folklore tells that if a juniper tree is planted by the door to your home, a witch cannot enter. Juniper incense has also been used by the Scottish to ward off the evil eye, and by the Tibetans to remove demons. Properties: The berry contains primarily sugars, but also pinene, limonene, tannins, and antioxidant flavonoids. Internal: Dr. Schultzs top herb for kidney & bladder are Juniper berries. Should be blue to purple, not brown. A diuretic and urinary disinfectant which kills bacteria in kidney and bladder. Also dissolves kidneystones. The best known use of juniper berries is the main flavoring agent in Gin. They are a mild diuretic that stimulates urination without causing loss of electrolytes. Added to food, berries prevent gas and heartburn. Historically used to treat bladder and kidney infections. Caution: If you have been using juniper berry tea for several weeks and you urine smells like violets, you have been using too long. Continued overdose can cause renal irritation and blood in the urine, so only use in moderation. Since juniper berries can stimulate uterine contractions, avoid during pregnancy. They should not be used by anyone who has inflammation of the kidneys. Prepare: Berries harvested in early fall for culinary and medicinal use. Used whole, ground, or rubbed through a sieve. To prevent loss of EO, process just before use. Frequently combined with birch leaf, horsetail, parsley seed in diuretic teas. May be taken as a tea, extract or capsule, and may be liberally sprinkled on food or added to drinks and smoothies. David Winston: Contraindications - Not for use in pregnancy, Not for use exceeding 4 to 6 weeks in succession. Inflammatory kidney disease. A urinary antiseptic, diuretic, alterative, carminative, expectorant and emmenagogue. The strong volatile oils are responsible for much of its activity. Juniper can be used for cystitis with a mucus discharge, deficient hydrochloric acid production and cold/damp lung problems. Sebastian Kneipp, the famous naturopathic monk, used Juniper berries for a two week cleansing program for his most difficult cases. He felt this helped to increase the elimination of metabolic wastes and promote the vital force within.

K
Kava Kava (Piper) Piper methysticum: (Top 30 Herb) A traditional herb of the Pacific Islands for over 3000 years. It continues to flourish as a ceremonial beverage. Tom Harrison, in his book "Savage Civilization" (1937) said "You cannot hate with kava in you". Pacific Islanders have for centuries used Kava to calm nerves and help with relaxation. Properties: Kava lactones, kawahin, yanoginin, methysticin, glycosides. Internal: Can be highly sedative and numbing. Typically safe in controlled amounts and it makes a fine evening drink with no documented or substantiated side effects. Considered safe by the German E Commission. Caution: Not to be used while pregnant or nursing. Not recommended with a pre-existing liver condition. Excessive consumption may impair ability to drive. Prepare: Whole roots, with the smaller rootlets that tendril from the main shaft being higher in active compounds. Powdered root is best. Can be a milky drink, liquid herbal extract, capsule, or cut root added to decoction tea. 74

Kelp, Bladderwrack, Dulse (Laminaria) Kelp Laminaria digitata and Ascophyllum nodosum: (Seaweed) An underwater plant with a majestic form, deep green color, and high nutrition. This botanical beauty is not from the common "seaweed" but rather a different plant entirely. You should know its origin. Many of the world's oceans are polluted. Hawaii, Iceland, Canada, and the Northwest have quality Kelp products. A great source of nutrients and can be added easily to any diet from both the digitata and nodosum varieties. Properties: Mucilant for hot, irritated tissues. Iodine, Ca, Iron, K, Vitamin B1, B2, B12, polysaccharides. Internal: High Iodine assists with healthy thyroid function and an effective treatment for hypothyroidism. May be effective in the supplemental treatment of tumors. Caution: Don't use daily more than 2 weeks at a time, taking a 2 week break before using again. This prevent you from overdosing iodine with potential imbalance in thyroid function. Not to be used while pregnant. Prepare: Powdered or granulated whole kelp plant, which has been sun dried, cleaned, and processed. Powdered kelp can be easily included in practically every dish. Sprinkle on entrees, soups, salads, and it makes a great green smoothie. Add in teas and iced drinks. Bladderwrack A brown seaweed harvested from cool ocean waters around world, easily recognized by its air-filled thalli or "bladders" that keep the plant afloat. Properties: Alginic acid, iodine. Internal: Alternative to soy is supporting women's health. Women who consume bladderwrack can experience normalization of short menstrual cycles and relief from severe PMS. It encourages production of progesterone when there is excess production of estrogen. Ellingwood's American Materia Medica (1919) describes bladderwrack in detail: This agent is used for the specific purpose of reducing unhealthy fat in excessive adiposity. If given in doses of from 1/2 to 2 drams, 3-4 times daily, it has reduced excessively fat patients in a satisfactory manner without interfering in any way with the normal health functions. It is in the obesity of individuals of the lymphatic temperament that the beneficial effects of this drug are the most marked. It has little or no influence in the reduction of the fleshiness of persons of active habits or of those of the sanguine temperament. In these cases strict regulation of the diet affords the only prospects of relief, but owing to the keenness of the appetite usually present, this regulation is rarely enforced. Caution: Don't use on a daily basis for more than 2 weeks at a time, taking a 2 week break before using again. This prevents iodine overdose and imbalance in thyroid function. The alginic acid creates a feeling of fullness that helps you eat less, but also interferes with the absorption of iron. Not to be used while pregnant. Prepare: Entire plant. Added to soups and stocks, taken as tablets, as an extract, or drunk as a tea 2-3 times a day. Kudzu (Pueraria) Pueraria lobata or montana, Legume family: Herbaceous, semiwoody, perennial vine with trifoliate leaves, from Asia. Rapid growth (up to 90 per growing season), low maintenance. Survives under adverse environmental conditions. A single root crown may produce as many as 30 vines. Has an extensive root biomass up to 7 in diameter and 6 long. Used in China in 500 BC for cold and flu symptoms, fever, and headache. Used in TCM to "vent" 75

pathogens and pathogenic influences: the tension in the neck muscles caused by nervous tension or occurring just prior to a cold, the "heat" in the stomach causing unusual thirst, the "toxins" manifesting as rashes and skin inflammation, or the improperly digested food that causes diarrhea. Properties: Ash, calcium, daidzein, genistein (same compound in soy), riboflavin. Internal: Helps regulate blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and cholesterol levels. The Chinese use the root for headaches, neck pain from hypertension, chest pains, allergies, respiratory problems, and diarrhea. Kudzu root contains polyphenols. Sold as a dietary supplement for menopausal symptoms. Recent clinical uses have included treatments for hypertension, angina, pectoris, and migraine headaches. Kudzu powder is also taken internally on a regular basis to prevent recurrences of colds sores, shingles, and genital herpes. Prepare: Eat whole plant (seeds, roots, leaves and blooms). Can make jelly out of the blooms. The washed and dried root is added to teas. Combine with bupleurum or scutellaria for hives and skin rashes associated with nervous tension. Combine with dioscorea for diarrhea. Combine with chrysanthemum flowers for hangovers. The starch can be cooked into noodles and pastes and as a thickening agent in sauces. It is often used in Asian soups where it is cut into slices and slowly cooked for many hours, sometimes with tangerine peel, meat, and other various ingredients.

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Lavender (Lavandula) Lavandula augustifolia (perennial - English, Lady, Munstead), stoechas (annual - Spanish, French), Mint family: Aromatic, perennial, evergreen shrub. Full sun, dry, 1 W, 3 H. Mulch with sand. Augustifolia types start from seeds (grows slowly). All others are propagated by cuttings in summer (cut non-flowering side shoots). Native to the Mediterranean, now cultivated in cool-winter, dry-summer areas in Europe and the west. Spanish var best in South. Needs drainage and wind protection. Discorides wrote that internally, lavender helps with indigestion and sore throats, and externally cleans wounds and burns. Used as an after-bath perfume by the Romans (the Latin lavare means to wash). During the Great Plague of 1665, grave robbers washed their hands in a concoction called "Four Thieves Vinegar", which contained lavender, wormwood, rue, sage, mint, rosemary, and vinegar and they rarely became infected. English folklore tells that a mixture of lavender, mugwort, chamomile, and rose petals will attract sprites, fairies, brownies, and elves. Properties: Essential oil containing borneol, camphor, geraniol, and linalool, also coumarins, caryophyllene, tannins, and other antioxidant compounds. Internal: Antiseptic and sedative. Use flowers in small quantities for nausea, indigestion, headaches, gas, antibacterial, decongestant. Tea for fever, detox. Thought for centuries to enflame passions as an aphrodisiac. One of the most recognized scents in the world. The German Commission E commended lavender for treating insomnia, nervous stomach, and anxiety. The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia lists lavender as a treatment for flatulence, colic, and depressive headaches, and many modern herbal practitioners use the herb to treat migraines in menopause. In Spain, lavender is added to teas to treat diabetes and insulin resistance. External: Insect repellent, fragrance. Repels beetles, flies, and moths. Harvest: Prune in full bloom to re-bloom. Break off dead stems. Use the flowers. Teas, tinctures, and added to baked goods. Cosmetically it has a multitude of uses and can be included in ointments for pain and burn relief. For best results, avoid heating the herb directly with boiling water, although a simmer is fine. 76

Lemon Balm (Melissa) Melissa officinalis, Mint family: Herbaceous perennial, F/P sun, avg/moist, LDG, 2 W, 3 H. Edible flowers. Seeds, cuttings, divide every 3 years. Note that the Monarda genus (Bee Balm, Bergamot) has larger flowers and leaves. Cut stems before flowering to encourage new growth. Its name Melissa is taken from Greek for bee, indicative of the attractive power for bees and useful insects of all kinds. The term "balm" refers to balsam, the ancient world's most important sweet-smelling oils. Herbalists have used lemon balm to treat any kind of disorder of the central nervous system. The London Dispensary (1696) says: "An essence of Balm every morning will renew youth, strengthen the brain, relieve languishing nature and prevent baldness." John Evelyn wrote: "Balm is sovereign for the brain, strengthening the memory and powerfully chasing away melancholy." Alcoholic tinctures of lemon balm were combined with lemon peel, angelica root, and nutmeg to make Carmelite water, a nineteenth-century tonic for migraine headache and neuralgia. Properties: Antiviral, contains rosmarinaric acid. The oil content of the leaf is 2-3 times higher if the plant is grown under conditions of drought and heat. Internal: Useful for treating nervous disturbances of sleep and chronic GI disorders, but its primary use is in treating viral infections of the skin, especially herpes, both genital herpes and cold sores. Although it does not eliminate flare-ups, it relieves itching in hours and helps the lesions heal over in a few days. Make sure the product you are using is lemon balm, and not the less expensive citronella. External: Antibacterial, antifungal. Crush fresh leaf, rub on insect bites or as repellent. For herpes virus (fever blister, shingles, or genital) external and internal. Prepare: The leaf, dried and cut. Taken as a tea and added to skin ointments. Can be an extract or capsule. Combined with valerian for a sleep aid. Infusion for fever, allergies, congestion. Add Yellow Root and Heal All to flu remedy. Use leaves and flowers in salads. Adds lemon scent to drinks and all types of food. Oils are volative, resulting in more aroma than flavor. Lemon Verbena (Aloysia) Aloysia triphylla: (A. citriodora, Lemon Beebrush) F/P sun, moist. Sprawling, tender herb, may need to be overwintered inside after cutting back all leaves, store in cool area until spring. Sometimes called vervain, it is the most strongly scented and intense of the lemon-scented plants. The scent has moved writers to poetry in an effort to describe its essence, both crisp and relaxing at the same time. Introduced to England in 1700s, the bushes can grow to 15. Has an incredibly strong minty-citrus scent when harvested fresh. The dried is less over-powering and more subtle. Used medicinally as many other plants with mint or camphor content. Properties: Oil of verbena contains many constituents. All of these are present in less concentration in the leaves and flowering tops most often used for tea. Internal: The tea is used to soothe colon and stomach spasms, lower fevers and calm itching. It has a relaxing effect, and can help ease muscle tensions. Prepare: Leaves and flowering tops used in tea infusions, hot or cold. Seldom found in food and capsules. The licorice and camphor make the VOs stronger than most other lemon-scented herbs, so use sparingly as a flavoring in baking, jelly and preserving. The flavor is likened to a cross between licorice and camphor. Can replace oregano, particularly in fish and poultry dishes.

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Lettuce (Lactuca) Lactuca sativa (Common), virosa/canadensis/serriola (Wild), Aster family: Plant Jan15-Feb or after Aug 15. Use transplant in spring only. Seed wont germinate if over 80 (for fall, germ in fridge). Thrives at 60-65, can go down to 20. Wild lettuce is the ancestor to garden lettuce. Wild Lettuce Properties: The white latex, dried and smoked (known as Lacucarium or poor mans opium) has a mild, opium-like effect, but nonnarcotic. Internal: A powerful, gentle pain killer, for insomnia, nervousness, hysteria, muscle spasms, colic pains, painful menstruation and coughs. All garden lettuce makes you sleepy and stimulates the heart. Good for pain, RSD. Prepare: Simmer leaves to make sedative tea (poor mans opium) and take 1 T an hour before bedtime. Simmer a large handful of leaves (or 2 tsp dried) in 1 cup water for 10 min, strain. Take 1-2 T an hour before bed for quiet, restful sleep. No cautions. You can tincture the plants over and over until you have a good strong tincture then simmer it down to a black paste. Take a pinch of that to a cup of tea and good night. External: Sap rids warts, moles, and skin cancers (latex works like fig and dandelion). Apply several times daily. Harvest: Early in day for best quality, max sweetness. Loose Leaf - 6" W Non-heading lettuce, mature 40-50 days, somewhat heat tolerant. Next to Romaine in nutritional value. Easiest to grow, most resistant to bolting. Can be planted closer together than other types, but must have some air circulation. Variety: Curly or Royal Oak Leaf, Salad Bowl, Red Sails, Blackseed Simpson. Bibb - 10" W Round, mature 55-70 days. Best for cooler regions, not very bolt-resistant. Variety: Aquarius, Buttercrunch, Summer Bibb. Cos (Romaine) - 10 W Upright, tall. Most nutritious type of lettuce. Fairly good boltresistance, moderately tolerant of heat and shade. Variety: Green Towers, Parris Island Cos. Crisp Head - 6" W Plant in fall, mature 80-100 days, bolts the quickest. Variety: Arugula, Chicory, Corn Salad, Iceberg. Arugula needs loose, rich, moist soil. Successive sow 2-3 weeks apart March or Sept. Liatris (Liatris) Liatris spicata, Aster family: (Blazing Star, Gayfeather) Herbaceous perennial, full sun, regular soil. Butterflies love it. If you pull the plant up the root has what looks like a little tuber or nut on it (called pig nuts). Internal: Beet-like root is a urinary tonic. Strong astringent for diarrhea (maybe even stronger than blackberry root). External: Poultice against snakebites. Licorice (Glycyrrhiza) Glycyrrhiza glabra (Official), Pea family: (Top 30 Herb) Herbaceous perennial, full sun, dry. Scarify and sow in spring. Hardy to 20. What we think of as licorice flavor is actually anise (Licorice tastes sweet and musty). Not related to anise, star anise, or fennel, a source of similar flavoring. Licorice root is widely-used worldwide and the single most-used herb in TCM. Pliny the Elder recommended it to clear the voice and alleviate thirst and hunger. Dioscides, when traveling with Alexander the Great, recommended that his troops carry and use licorice to help with stamina for long marches, as well as for thirst in areas of drought. In Middle Ages it was taken to alleviate the negative effects of highly spicy or overcooked food. Western herbalists rank it as the 78

10th most important herb used in clinical practice. Over 5,000 Chinese herbal formulas use it to sweeten teas and to "harmonize" contrasting herbs. Properties: Sweet Tonic, glycyrrhizin, antacid, complex immune-stimulant sugars. Internal: A demulcent and expectorant for chronic fatigue syndrome, adrenal exhaustion, coughs, congestion. A mediator with most mixed herbal formulas. Has crucial anti-inflammatory and antiallergic effects like cortisone. Helps with adrenal recovery after the toxic shock of chemo is delivered into the bloodstream. The most common use is to treat coughs and colds, especially with sticky phlegm, or for treating colds that accompany stomach upset. Gastric and duodenal ulcers and canker sores can be treated with the herb or with its derivative, deglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL). If you use DGL, you must chew the capsules. Saliva activates DGL. For many centuries, the English have consumed large amounts of licorice water (tea) as they feel that it helps to purify the blood. Caution: Don't use with high blood pressure, and don't use with a meat and potatoes diet. Your body needs potassium from fruit and vegetables to compensate for the excretion of potassium stimulated by licorice. If you use steroids or an asthma inhaler, licorice will increase both the effectiveness of the drug and the severity of its side effects. Its long term use is not recommended, and it is not recommended for use by pregnant women. May cause stomach upset if taken in large quantities. External: Contains at least 25 fungicidal compounds, more than most other herbs. Use the root and boil for 20 minutes. Apply to affected area 1-3 times a day. Prepare: Produces pencil-thin roots used in commerce. Takes time to dig and cure. The root in dried form is used in teas, tinctures, and in capsules. The whole sticks and slices may be chewed straight and are pleasant tasting. Lilies (Hemerocallis) Hemerocallis fulva (Common or Orange Daylily), caroliniana (Spider Lily): Full sun, average moisture. Tender perennial spreads from bulbs. Internal: Eat flowers and rhizomes, not the leaves or stems. Before the blooms open, you can steam them. After they open, eat or dry them and add to soups and stews. The roots have little tubers like little Jerusalem artichokes, with a good nutty flavor to add to salads. Do not eat the leaves or stems as they can swell your throat. Old kidney medicine. Lobelia (Lobelia) Lobelia inflata (Official), cardinalis (Cardinal Flower), siphilitica (Great Blue): (Indian or Wild Tobacco, Pukeweed, Asthma Weed, Vomit Wort) (Top 30 Herb) Part sun, moist, 6 W, 3-6 H. LDG, short-lived seed, sow spring or fall, a slow grower. Mature plants, if potted in fall, can provide new growth for cuttings in spring. Good border or ground cover. Cut back by half after first blooms fade. Properties: Acrid, similar to nicotine. L. inflata is most powerful var. Internal: Coughs, colds, bronchitis. Potent muscle relaxant, good for lungs, relaxes the bronchial nerves. A diaphoretic like boneset, it causes a cleansing sweat. Use in small doses (1-2 drops), it relieves nausea and vomiting. Clears the stomach of mucous. Relaxes it in cases of hiatal hernia. Combine with peppermint for abdominal pain and bloating in adults (relaxes the colon and expels gas).

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Dr. Schulzs top emergency herb - used for seizures, convulsions. When in doubt, alternate between cayenne and lobelia every 30 minutes (hot and cold). Helps with cramps and nervousness. Most potent are seed pods, then leaf and stalk, and then the root. Used as a sedative (valerium root is also good or make a tea from hops, lavender flower, and passion flower). It is a physical relaxant, and can serve as a nerve depressant, easing tension and panic. Often used as part of a smoking cessation program. The combination of lobeline to reduce the craving for nicotine and the expectorant action of the tea make it a powerful aid for those who want to quit smoking. Lobelia is also an emetic, and one of the fastest antispasmodics. It can be given to help relax bronchial spasms during an asthma attack, and is often used by herbal practitioners as a catalyst to prepare the body to accept another active ingredient. Caution: Excessive use causes nausea and vomiting. Best administered by a practitioner qualified in its use. External: Use for skin problems and a safe muscle relaxant. Mix with Slippery Elm to make a healing poultice for localized pain. Mix with mullein for ear conditions. Prepare: Aerial parts used during the seeding stage. Steep 1 T dried in 1 C. No more than 1 tsp 3 x daily. Tinctures and syrups are alternatives. Compatible with skullcap, blue verbena, mints. Lobelia is best used as a tea or in smoking blends. Lotus (Nelumbo) Nelumbo nucifera or lutea (American Yellow), Lotus family: (Sacred Water Lily, Bean of India, Chinese Arrowroot, Egyptian Bean) Aquatic perennial, full sun, up to 3 above the water surface, the largest native American wildflower with 2 leaves and heavy yellow flowers. Scarify rounder end of seed until the white endosperm is just exposed. Put in water at room temperature and a light source to germ in 3-7 days. Fish find refuge in its underwater stalks. Held sacred by Buddhists, Hindus, and Egyptians, who believe the Lotus flower brings prosperity, fertility, and allow the inner being to bloom. It was brought to India from Egypt, where it was associated with the sun: the lotus, like the sun, opened in the morning and closed at night. Associated with the god Horus, who was often depicted sitting or standing on the lotus, like Brahma and the Buddha after him. In Egypt, the flower was blue and white, and was seen as a flower of resurrection, and used in funeral rights and depicted in the artwork in tombs. In India, it represents birth and rebirth, Brahma was born seated on a lotus flower. Properties: Astringent, cardiotonic, febrifuge, hypotensive, resolvent, stomachic, styptic, tonic and vasodilator. Lotusine, demethyl coclaurine, neferin, and nuciferine. Internal: The entire Lotus plant is used in TCM to treat diarrhea, abdominal cramps, cardiac diseases, bleeding gastric ulcers, and other ailments. The flower is used to treat mushroom poisoning, bloody discharges, jaundice, excessive menstruation, hemorrhoids, post-partum hermorrhage, syphilis, the treatment of premature ejaculation, as a cardiac tonic, and for its diuretic, astringent, and cooling properties. Considered relatively safe for long-term use, with no known negative side-effects. Prepare: Seeds, flower petals, flower stamens, pods, and leaves. Flower petals and leaves are typically made into a tea or decoction for internal and external use. They may also be used as a garnish, smoked, floated in soups, and the fresh petals used as a wrap in Asia. Petals steeped in wine or tea may have a calming effect.

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Magnolia (Magnolia) Magnolia acuminata (Cucumber Magnolia): (Cucumber Tree, Cowcumber, Umbrella Tree) Deciduous magnolia with leaves up to 3 long and huge blooms. Internal: All magnolias have medicinal properties (especially for the liver) and the Cucumber Magnolia is the best. A bitter tonic, anti-inflammatory for arthritis, rheumatism, liver, arthritis, an adrenal recharger. Antiviral, antibacterial, diaphoretic, promotes perspiration (break fevers and lessen cold symptoms). Has Relacore, a non-sedating, mild, antianxiety mood enhancer, which claims to specifically target belly fat related to mild stress and anxiety, all while increasing energy. Helps you lose or gain weight, whatever your body needs to do. Can inhibit formation of bacterial plaque. The flowers are used for nasal and sinus congestion, and hypertension. Prepare: Get bark or limbs in spring and low boil in a tea. Substitutes are any Magnolia, Tulip Poplar, Bay Laurel, Dogwood. Add Prickly Ash for best arthritis relief (also add bromelein in pineapple core). Take 1 tsp 3x daily and 1 T at night if not too much of a laxative. The Southern Magnolias flowers may be pickled and eaten. Magnolia virginiana (Bay Laurel or (Sweet Bay) Rounded evergreen shrub, F/P sun, average to moist, 5-10 tall, zone 5-9, moderate to rapid growth, hardy when well established (down to 0), often grown in a container until older. Native, often multi-trunk, smooth bark, shallow roots. 3-5" light gray green foliage, underside is blue to silver. 2-3" creamy white flowers with lemon scent late spring to late summer, bright red seeds. Aromatic spicy leaves and twigs, fruit attracts birds, larval food for swallowtails. Internal: Use leaves and inner bark (although just the leaves are good) as a general tonic, liver stimulate, arthritis, Bells Palsy (shaking). Prepare: Infuse 3 dried leaves to 1 cup, add sweetener as it is bitter. Tea settles upset stomach, nerves, makes you sleepy. Hot tea is diaphoretic (makes you sweat) for a fever. Harvest: Bay leaves are used in many dishes, especially Mediterranean. Dried fruit and flower buds used as spice. Crumble up dried leaves and put them in dishes or use them whole and remove them after you have absorbed the flavor in your cooking. Aromatic odor repels insects. Bay Leaf (Magnolia family) Laurus nobilis is also called Bay Laurel, Sweet Bay, Sweet Laurel (?) Native of Mediterranean. Grows best in damp, shady sites. Likes any moderately fertile and well watered soil, but grows best in soils that retain moisture and well drained. Can also grow in dry soils. Bay laurels do not withstand heavy frost but require hot, dry summers for production of concentrated essential oils. At the Temple of Delphi, the priestesses would eat bay leaves before diving the future. Because it is mildly narcotic, it may have helped induce the trance state. The greatest commercial production today is Turkey. The Greeks and Romans crowned victors with wreaths of laurel. The term baccalaureate means laurel berry, and refers to the ancient practice of honoring scholars and poets with garlands from the bay laurel tree. Ever since humans have been using bay leaves, they have been associated with good luck, and warding off evil. 81

Properties: Mostly 1,8-cineol, with smaller amounts of alpha- and beta-pinene, phellandrene, linalool, geraniol and terpineol. Internal: Culpepper's "Complete Herbal" recommended bay leaf oil for pimples and "all manner of griefs and pain proceeding from wind". A modern medical application is increasing insulin sensitivity, lowering blood sugars, and retarding weight gain, used as one of many similar herbs, including cinnamon, cloves, and turmeric. Prepare: Dried leaf whole or broken, picked all year. Whole or crumbled added to cooking, or consumed as a tea. Bay leaf with parsley and thyme results in the flavorful blend known as Bouquet Garni, and enhances the taste of any stew, soup or sauce. An important ingredient in many French, Moroccan and Turkish dishes. Mallows (Althea) Althaea officinalis (Marshmallow), Mallow family (includes Hibiscus sabdariffa, Rose of Sharon, Sundew): F/P sun, moist, 2 W, 4 H. Herbaceous perennial (2-5 years to harvest). Scarify seed lightly, sow spring, good drainage not necessary. Large white flowers on multiple stalks. Flowers and roots are the origin of the original marshmallows. Used as an ornamental for its pointed foliage and purple flowers. References to marshmallow leaf as a healing herb are found in Homer's Iliad, written over 2,800 years ago. Its name Althaea comes from the Greek altho to cure. The leaf was widely used in traditional Greek medicine and spread to Arabia and India, where it became important in Ayurvedic and Unani healing. It was used as a soothing agent: demulcent, diuretic, emollient, and vulnerary. German E: both the leaf and the root arre good for sore throat and dry cough. Pliny the Elder believed that mallows could cure all the diseases of man and even wrote that "whoever shall take a spoonful of the mallows shall that day be free from all diseases that came to him". The Romans used it primarily as a roasted vegetable, and was mentioned in both Arabic and Chinese literature as a good food during times of famine. Properties: Mucilant for hot, irritated tissues, especially urinary. Mucilage, antioxidant flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins, and volatile oil. Internal: Entire plant contains high-grade immune-stimulating mucilage, soothing expectorant for sore throat, congestion, indigestion, UTI, IBS. Chewing leaves or flowers gets real slimy, but coats any irritation of the intestines or any inflamed surface. Its primary use is to relieve sore throat, but it also relieves perianal inflammation (when taken orally) caused by severe diarrhea. The leaf coats better than the root, but the root has greater antibacterial and anti-allergy effects. The leaf is completely non-toxic, but its mucilage can interfere with the absorption of other medicines if taken at the same time. Prepare: The dried leaf. Cold macerations, warm infusions, tincture, and fluid extract. May also be taken as a capsule. Reputable suppliers test the product for its ability to swell when mixed with water. Maple (Acer) Acer rubrum (Red), saccharinum (Silver-left), saccharum (Sugar-right), negundo (Box Elder), palmatum (Japanese): Great landscape tree ranging from the Japanese maple (10 - 20) to the Sugar Maple (80 - 100). Internal: Using inner bark is a slow, but sure remedy for hot flashes (although not as fast as Squaw Vine or long term as Wild Yam). Combined with squaw vine, good for menstrual cramps. Prepare: Low boil 2 cups inner bark in half gallon water for 20 min. Drink a hot cup as needed during day. 82

External: Used as an eye wash (pink eye). Marigold (Tagetes) Tagetes patula (French Dwarf), Aster family: Full sun, average soil, moisure. Self-seeding companion plant, Apr-June. French variety is best against pests. (Still unsure as to how it relates to Calendula or pot marigold.) Internal: Immune system, infections (flu, fungal, bowel), digestion, liver, worms, detox, lymphatic and blood circulation. External: Cuts, burns, stop bleeding, speed healing. Harvest: Prune old flowers. Use flowers for soups, salads. Marshmallow (Althea) See Mallows (Althea). (Top 30 Herb) Mayapple (Podophyllum) Podophyllum (foot leaf) peltatum (shield-like), Buttercup Family (Ranunculacea): (American Mandrake, Love/ Devils/Hog/Indian Apple, Umbrella Plant, Ground/Wild Lemon, Ducks Foot, Mayflower). Herbaceous perennial, colony-forming, zone 4-8, pH 5-6. Shoots are often connected by systems of thick, red-brown tubers and rhizomes. Grows 1-2 tall with two palmate leaves (each with 5 to 9 deeply cut lobes). Young or weak plants produce a single leaf and no flower, mature plants produce two leaves. A single white flower appears below the leaves, maturing into a yellow-green fruit early summer. Traditional Uses: The Indians used the herb as a laxative, for intestinal worms, warts, and moles. They used the root, fruit, and even the decoction of the entire plant to prepare insecticides for their crops. Early ethnic groups drank a ferment prepared from the dehydrated and crushed rhizomes to cure worms in the intestines. It was sold as Carters Little Liver Pills over the counter as a laxative. The mature fruit is edible (almost tasteless) and some prepared jellies and juices with it. Internal: Despite being used to treat problems from liver to cancer, it is still known as a laxative. The FDA lists it as unsafe owing to its potent purgative properties. The rhizome contains lignans, flavonoids, resin, and gums. Lignans are responsible for the rhizomes purgative action. External: Root extracts (in poultices, creams, or ointments) are used on the skin surface to cure genital warts or moles and sometimes to combat skin cancers. Toxicity: The ripened fruit is edible only in moderate amounts. Everything else is poisonous or must be used with caution. Mayapple contains podophyllotoxin, a fatal ingredient, which is used as a cytostatic and topically in the treatment of viral and genital warts. It stops cell division and has features that can restrain tumors. The FDA has approved two drugs prepared from podophyllotoxin. Etoposide is used to cure testicular and small-cell lung cancer. Teniposide is used in conditions like brain tumor and infancy leukemia. Although the plant was used confidently in the 19th century, the drug is not now taken internally owing to its cytotoxic properties (its ability to kill cells). Prepare: The rhizome is harvested in fall when the plant dies down. It is dried and pulverized into fine particles. Steep 1 tsp root (only the parts between the nodes) in 1 pint water. Take 1 tsp 2-3 times daily. Combine with yellow dock, wild ginger, and dandelion to lessen cramps. Eat the ripe fruit (may cause slight catharsis), but all green parts are poisonous.

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Meadowsweet (Filipendula) Filipendula ulmaria: (Dropwort, Bridewort, Queen of the Meadow, Trumpet Weed, Meadow Wort) Used to be labeled "Spirea". Referred to nature's aspirin, meadowsweet is a common herb through the east coast. It was one of the three sacred herbs renowned by Druids, along with vervain and water mint. Nicholas Culpepper wrote in 1652 that it "helps in the speedy recovery from cholic disorders and removes the instability and constant change in the stomach". Properties: Sour tonic for hot, irritated tissues, especially digestive. Astringent and demulcent. Salicin, polyphenolic tannins, flavonoids, quercetin, VO, mucilage, and ascorbic acid. Internal: Long tradition of use as a treatment for coughs and colds. Germany recognizes the tea as a treatment for fever, colds and coughs. An ingredient in herbal preparations for treating flu, rheumatism, and kidney and bladder complaints. It contains salicylic acid with its analgesic and fever-reducing properties. Used to relieve pain associated with rheumatism, menstrual cramps, headache, arthritis and low fever. Effective against bacteria that causes diarrhea and may inhibit blood clotting. Since it contains small amounts of salicilate, it should not be used by people with a sensitivity to aspirin or similar products or taking blood thinning medications. Prepare: Leaves and aerial parts for medicine, and usually the flowers for flavoring. In tea infusions, as a capsule or extract and sometimes included in food. The flowers are used as a natural sweetener for teas, foods and other beverages. Milk Thistle (Silybum) See Thistle (Silybum). Milkweed or Pleurisy Root (Asclepias) Asclepias syriaca (Common - shown on left), tuberosa (Pleurisy Root or Butterfly Weed shown on right), incarnata (Swamp), Mexican (curassavica), Milkweed family: Herbaceous perennial butterfly weeds with long-lasting flowers, full sun, easy to grow, poor soil, sow early spring, taproot (a bad transplant), 1-3. Milkweeds are an important nectar source for bees and other nectar seeking insects, and a larval food source for monarch butterflies. Pluerisy Root (Butterfly Weed, Canada Root, Yellow or Orange milkweed) Native to eastern NA. A popular plant in country gardens. Used medicinally by many tribes for centuries. Much of the plant is edible, including the young shoots, flower buds, and stems. The fibers can make fabric or rope. Has been used to treat sore throat and cough, pleurisy, and other bronchial and pulmonary problems, to treat diarrhea and to help encourage milk production in mothers. Used as an emetic, an antitoxin, and a contraceptive. Properties: Milky juice contains alkaloids, latex, and other complex compounds. Resinoids, glycosides. Internal: Chemicals that occur in the root can reduce the thickness of mucus in the lungs and encourage coughing, which can relieve the pain and congestion associated with pleurisy and other lung problems. Other constituents mimic the action of estrogen in the body, which has made concoctions useful for menstrual problems, specifically bringing on delayed menstruation, or for use as an abortifacient.

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Caution: The alkaloids can be toxic in the mature plant. Considered toxic to livestock. Not recommended for pregnant or breastfeeding women, or for children. Should be avoided with heart problems or if taking heart stimulant meds. May interact with other drugs and herbs. Not recommended with pre-existing liver conditions. May cause GI upset. External: Root poultice used for bruises, swelling, rheumatism. Prepare: Root and sometimes the leaves and plant. In tea infusions, as an extract and very seldom in capsules. Millet (Eleusine) Eleusine coracana (Finger Millet): F/P sun, avg moisture. Non-legume, warm-season annual, good for borders, 3 high. Plant Brown Top Apr 1 - Aug 15, Pearl Apr 15 - Jul 1. One pound per 1000 sq ft. Attracts doves. Millets are a group of small-seeded species of cereal crops or grains, widely grown around the world for food and fodder. They do not form a taxonomic group, but rather a functional or agronomic one. Their essential similarities are that they are small-seeded grasses grown in difficult production environments such as those at risk of drought. They have been in cultivation in East Asia for the last 10,000 years. Internal: Use as flour or cereal. The protein content in millet is very close to that of wheat, both provide about 11% protein by weight. Millets are rich in B vitamins, especially niacin, B6, and folic acid, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, and zinc. Millets contain no gluten, so they are not suitable for raised bread, but suited for flatbread. As none of the millets are closely related to wheat, they are appropriate foods for those with coeliac disease or other forms of allergies/intolerance of wheat. However, millets are also a mild thyroid peroxidase inhibitor and probably should not be consumed in great quantities by those with thyroid disease. Mimosa (Albizzia) Albizzia julibrissin, Pea family: (Silk Tree) Internal: Blossoms make a tea for mood, for minor depression. Prepare: Bark is deeper-acting. Half bark and half flowers is a good tincture.

Mints (Mentha) Mentha spicata or viridis (Spearmint), piperita (Peppermint), Agastache foeniculum (Licorice mint or Anise Hyssop): Tender perennial, part sun, moist, cool soil, 6 W, 1-2 H. Large group with many species, wide range of flavors, hybridizes freely. Divide in spring or fall or use cuttings. Handles clay soils and potash. Spearmint is one of easiest to grow. Properties: Aromatic, high in antioxidants. Ca, A, C, riboflavin (dont boil). Internal: All types are good for tea. Use infusion for itching, achy muscles, fever, nausea, GI, bowels. 1 T per cup for circulation, congestion, fever. Rapidly relieves gas, colic, indigestion, and stress. Dont drink too much as it can inhibit iron absorption. IBS and Menthol: An old remedy for many abdominal woes. The extracted peppermint oil contains many compounds, but the most abundant and pharmacologically important is menthol. The oil is fairly effective at relieving IBS, a collection of symptoms that includes abdominal pain and cramping, bloating, constipation, and diarrhea that affects 5-20% of people. Menthol blocks 85

calcium channels, which relaxes the smooth muscles in intestinal walls. Instead of popular OTC drugs, peppermint oil should be the first line of defense against IBS. Menthol is helpful in subduing many disease-producing bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Most effective species are from the mint family, including M. villosa and catnip with bacteria-busting abilities. EO from horseradish, garlic, hyssop, basil, marjoram, oregano, winter savory and thyme also showed potent antimicrobial activity. These oils may soon be sprayed over food to inhibit the bacterial growth responsible for Listeria, Staph, E. coli, and Salmonella infections. Plant EOs are lipophilic (they gravitate to fat). In the cell membrane of bacteria, there is plenty of fat, which serves as a seal. EOs are attracted to this fat and, as their molecules squeeze in between the fat molecules, they cause leakage of the membrane. This leakage causes a meltdown that can eventually kill the bacteria. External: Use EO in salves for its antiseptic and sedative properties. Peppermint can temporarily ease itching caused by insect bites, eczema and other lesions, including poison ivy rash. The tea can be used as a mouthwash for babies with thrush (yeast in the mouth) or for reducing nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Menthol is in many conventional OTC products, including toothpaste, mouthwash, chewing gum, breath mints, chewing tobacco substitutes, cough lozenges, and various muscle pain ointments. Menthol stimulates the nerves that sense cold, creating a cooling sensation, and inhibits those that react to painful stimuli, temporarily relieving the pain of muscles and organs that are cramped and in spasm. Even though the effect doesnt last long, sometimes a brief reprieve from a hacking cough or aching muscle can work wonders. Repels: Ants, beetles, caterpillars, mice. Harvest: Cut back in summer for growth (before bloom). Cut stems, bundle, hang, dry, store in jars or freeze. Good with potatoes, peas, and carrots. Motherwort (Leonurus) Leonurus cardiaca (Official), Mint family: (Throw Wort, Lions Ear, Lions Tail) Short-lived herbaceous perennial, F/P sun, moist, 2 apart, 4-6 tall. Flowers appear in leaf axils on the upper part of the plant, blooming June - August. The flowers are small, pink to lilac often with furry lower lips. Harvest early for two cuttings. It can be found along roadsides and in vacant fields and other disturbed areas. A mint with dull green, hairy leaves and intensely bitter. Leonurus refers to resemblance of the leaves to a lion's tale. The German E says it may be useful for nervous cardiac disorder and as an adjuvant for thyroid hyperfuntion. Culpepper said it will make "the mind cheerful, blithe, and merry". Maude Grieve wrote that there is "no better herb for strengthening and gladdening the heart". A useful herb for the transition period of a women's life. Properties: Emmenagogue. Internal: Treats tachycardia, palpitations, and associated hysteria. The traditional use of motherwort is the treatment of racing heart (tachycardia) caused by nervous tension. Long-term use may reduce the formation of clotting factors and also lower total cholesterol and triglycerides. Also used to treat menstrual tension. It treats false labor pains, and it is useful in the stimulation of delayed or suppressed menstruation, especially when prolonged emotional stress is factor. Use caution if you take prescription medication for your heart. Prepare: All the above-ground parts of the plant, gathered after flowering, dried, and cut. Traditionally used as a tea. Frequently combined with hawthorn. May also be taken as an extract or capsule.

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Mountain Mint (Pycnanthemum) Pycnanthemum albescens, incanum or virginianum (Mountain): (Hoary Mountain Mint) Tender perennial. Note: Although this is sometimes called Horse Mint, that species (plus Wood Mint) are in the Blephilia genus. Internal: Leaves good for coughs, colds, sinus, allergies, asthma, bronchitis. A nerve tonic (nervine), a medicine that acts therapeutically upon the nerves, particularly in the sense of a sedative that serves to calm ruffled nerves. Prepare: Infuse leaves for good sleepy-time tea. Steep 1 tsp in 1 cup for 10 minutes and sip as desired. Drink whole cup to sweat. For sinuses, boil a few handfuls of leaves and inhale the steam. Mulberry (Morus) Morus rubra (Red Mulberry): Leaves are mittenshaped with both unlobed and 3 lobed. Internal: Edible fruit when it turns almost black. Do not eat too much of the green fruit because it is a hallucinogen. External: Milky latex sap helps rid warts and is the only white sap that gets rid of worms too. Mullein (Verbascum) Verbascum thapsus (Wild), nigrum (Black), bombyciferum (Silk), olympicum (Greek), densiflorum (Dense-flowered), Figwort family: (Donkeys Ears, Bunnys Ears, and Velvet Plant) Full sun, avg/dry moisture, 1 W, 1-6 H, biennial, self-seeding LDG, lay on soil, pack hard. Internal: Lymphatic, Respiratory, Salty. Its high mucilage content and mild saponins make it a support for the respiratory system. Mucilage absorbs water in the windpipe and becomes slippery. For asthma, coughs, sore throat, sinus, lung congestion, nerves, insomnia. High coumarin content makes it good blood thinner. External: Flower extracts good for ear infection (mix with Lobelia in water or olive oil for ear drops). Leaf poultice used for varicose veins or other inflammation. Prepare: Make tea from the inner leaves, not the larger outside ones, or you may have nightmares. Steep 1 tsp dry leaves in 1 cup boiling water, sweeten. Drink 1 cup hot tea twice daily for colds. For relieving pain, make a tea or tincture from the open yellow flowers. Mix with red clover and peach leaves when making a sedative or with wild cherry bark and sweet gum for colds. Harvest: Entire plant contains coumarin and rotenone (seed has highest concentration). Indians used grounded seeds as paralytic fish poison (rotenone has been linked to Parkinsons disease and is an insect repellent). Seeds can cause internal hemorrhaging. An active ingredient in many alternative smoking blends. Muscadines / Grapes (Vitis) Vitis rotundifolia (Muscadine), vinifera (Grapes), Vitacea family: (Possum Grapes) Full sun, average moisture. Vining perennial, produces Aug-Sept. The berries range from bronze to purple/black when ripe, while many wild varieties stay green through maturity. Properties: Muscadines are loaded in potassium, Vitamin C, and fiber. 90% of the nutritional benefits are in the skin and seeds. The thick skin 87

(40% of weight) gives Muscadines a natural resistance to disease, fungi, and insects. Internal: Contains a unique balance of phytonutrients absent in other grapes. It has significantly more antioxidant power (skins have 6 times the antioxidant capacity as whole blueberries). Boosts heart function and promotes a healthy heart, helps reduce or balance cholesterol levels, helps regulate blood pressure, boosts the immune system, protects against mild memory loss. Also contains Gallic acid (anti-fungal and anti-viral). Resveratrol: (anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, blood-sugar-lowering, anti-aging) is produced by many plants, due to its antifungal properties. It is a polyphenol that increases the bodys defense level against circulatory diseases, diabetes, and cancer by blocking the cell cycle. It provides an energy boost and reduces wrinkles (a natural longevity compound). Studies show positive effects of Muscadine phenolics against blood, colon, and prostate cancer. Phenolic compounds like resveratrol produce specific responses such as reducing inflammation and improving health of the heart and other organs. The order of total phenolic content is vines, then roots, then seeds, then skins, then leaves, then pulp. Muscadine contains almost as much Resveratol as Japanese Knot Weed, where commercial Resveratol comes from. Muscadine Wine has a higher Resveratol content of any other wine (7 to 10 times). Ellagic Acid: A polyphenol antioxidant, more specifically a phenolic acid (a form of tannin), found in many fruits and vegetables including berries, walnuts, pecans, pomegranates, and only one type of grape - Muscadine. Ellagic Acid has been the focus of many studies for its anti-cancer and tumor fighting effects. It may prevent cancer from occurring or growing. An extract of the skin can inhibit growth of prostate cancer cells by inducing programmed cell death. Prepare: Strip leaves, dry vines, burn, use a spoonful of ashes with 8 oz. water. Purifies the blood for internal cancers and diabetes and builds up the system to fight off cancers. Scuppernong: A large type of green muscadine. The oldest cultivated grapevine in the world is the 400-year old scuppernong Mother Vine growing on Roanoke Island, North Carolina. The scuppernong is the state fruit of North Carolina. We have the following Muscadine varieties plus four other unknown types: Fry: Needs a cross-pollinator, Tara: Self-fruitful. Mushrooms and Fungus Note: The following three are not located here. Look for them in this document alphabetically: Chaga, Reishi, Shiitake. Culture: Shade, moisture. Prepare: Cook all mushrooms first (preferably in olive oil). (Chicken of the Woods) - Yellow/orange (Sulfur Shelf). For urinary infections, ecoli. Antibiotic, infection of the urinary system. Good burn ointment.

(Cracked Cap Poly Pore) - Grows only on Black Locust trees.

(Turkey Tail) - Next best to Reishi in fighting cancer. Immune system stimulant. Good for colon, breast, and kidney cancers.

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Armillaria mellea (Honey Mushroom) - Fall, ringed variety most common.

Auricularia auricula (Wood Ears): Rubbery, bland, medicinal, use in soup, grows all year.

Hericium erinaceum (Lions Mane) - Fall, winter. Tastes like lobster. Regenerates the mycelin (electrical conductive covering) around the nerve endings in the brain.

Mustard Family (Brassica) Brassica (Mustard) family: (Black Mustard shown in picture.) Feb 15Mar 15, Aug 15-Sep 15, 1 W. 4 sepals, 4 petals, 6 stamens. The 4 petals make a cross (hence the name cruciferous). Transplant in spring, direct seed in fall. Rich, moist loam, mulch thick, water often (irrigation best). Tendency to bolt affected more by soil than air temp. Seeds need warmth and strong light. Once hardened, hardy to 20. Arugula (Euruca sativa): Feb 15 - Mar 15. Water regularly. Cut outside leaves as needed. When leaves are 3, harvest by cutting 2 above soil surface. Water after harvesting. Fall planting Aug-Sept. Bok Choi (B. rapa var. chinensis): Chinese cabbage used for white, succulent midribs and inner leaves. Plant in spring or fall (preferable). Broccoli (B. oleracea): More heat-sensitive than cabbage. Collards (B. oleracea var acephala): More heat-tolerant, year-round production. Clip leaves before 12" long. Raw in salads or cook. Kale (B. oleracea var acephala): Spring, fall, or winter crop (best in fall, likes frost, cool). Harvest: Best flavor when cooked. Kohlrabi (B. oleracea var gongylodes): Resistant to most insects and diseases. Eat young leaves in salad, cook older leaves. Stores well in fridge. Get roots < 2" diameter. Mustard (B. juncea, rapa): 6" apart. Leaves eaten raw or cooked. B. Alba is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. It contains an irritating substance that is activated only when seeds are grounded coarsely and mixed with some liquid. This ointment when applied on the joints produces the necessary irritation for the counter-irritant effect. Apply Frenchs mustard over joints. Radish (Raphanus sativus): Germinates 4-7 days. Keep watered. Inter-plant with slower crops. Fall planting Sep - Oct 15. China White: Roots up to 18" long. Plant 6" wide. Cool temps produce mild flavor, high temps make it strong and pithy. Rutabaga (B. napus var napobrassica): 4-6" W. Harvest after several frosts, chilling improves flavor. In early winter, trim tops, mulch with 1 of straw, and continue harvesting through winter. Turnips (B. rapa var rapifera): 4-6" W. Needs loose soil for root expansion. Harvest before hard freeze (< 25). Roots and leaves eaten raw or cooked.

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Myrrh (Commiphora) Commiphora molmol or myrrha: With its smoky, earthy scent, myrrh has a long history. A native to Ethiopia and Somalia, it has been used as long ago as 3000 BC by the Egyptians in embalming, and as an incense burned during cremations and funerals to disguise any foul odors up through the 15th century. It has also been used to anoint kings, and scent fabrics for those traveling to holy places. The Romans valued it as much as gold, using it as security for monetary debts. Used for the treatment for spasms, infections, coughs, colds, failure of menstruation, and chronic fatigue. In Ayurvedic, used for rejuvenation and disease prevention, especially as a spring tonic. Its use has declined over the past few centuries. Properties: Gums, resins, sterols, volatile oils. Internal: Used in TCM formulas to treat uterine fibroids, but not used alone. Avoid use when you have "red" symptoms (fever, blistering, hot flashes, or nervous tension). Not recommended if pregnant and excess may cause nausea or vomiting. External: A topical antiseptic for cuts, scrapes, scratches, and abrasions, and as an addition to toothpastes, mouthwashes, and gargles to control infections of the mouth and throat. German E states that it is good for the topical treatment of oral inflammations, and as an antiseptic. Prepare: Dried exudates (resin) from the bark. Tincture, rarely tea or encapsulation, included in Ayurvedic and TCM mixtures. Used in conjunction with other ingredients for the development of many cosmetic applications.

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Neem (Azadirachta) Azadirachta indica: Modern research has been confirming the traditional uses of the neem tree in Indian folk medicine. Its many properties and uses has given neem the reputation as Friend and Protector in Indian villages. It is used to fight infection, both bacterial and viral, and to treat diarrhea, fever, burns, urinary disorders, skin diseases, and inflammatory conditions. From cleaning teeth and preventing gum disease to promoting restful sleep as a filler for pillows, the neem tree has earned its reputation as a "wonder tree". An evergreen tree tolerant of both heat and drought, it can grow up to 20 in three years. It has pesticide, germicide and medicinal properties, is resistant to termites and is often used in reforestation efforts. The tree begins bearing fruit at three to five years, and each tree can produce up to 110 pounds of fruit in a year. Its fast growth, quick maturity and high production combined make the neem tree one of the most valuable plants in India. Properties: Anbibacterial and antiviral. Alkaloids and liminoids, including azadirachitin, gedunin, nimbin, nimbidin, nimbinene desacetylnimbinase, nimbandial, nimbolide and quercentin. Internal: Neem leaf tea is used to treat malaria, infection, pneumonia, ulcers, gout, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. Dont use if pregnant. External: The leaves are often used in cosmetic and skin treatment preparations. It is an effective insect repellant, and its astringent properties make it an excellent treatment for skin conditions ranging from acne to eczema. Used to treat ringworm and other parasitic skin infections and promotes healing of wounds. The oil should not be applied to broken or heavily abraded skin. Prepare: Dried leaf, and oil from the seeds. Incorporated into creams, pastes, and ointment. Oil may be applied directly. Sometimes used as a tea and in extract form.

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Nettle, Stinging (Urtica) Urtica dioica, Nettle family: (Top 30 Herb) Herbaceous perennial, sun or shade, moist, self-seeds in spring, 3-7 tall. Opposite leaves 1-6 long, widely spread, bright yellow rhizomes and stolons. Likes N and P. The leaves and stems are hairy with non-stinging and stinging hairs (trichomes), whose tips come off when touched, transforming the hair into a needle that injects several chemicals (acetylcholine, histamine, 5-HT, or serotonin), causing a sting. The pain and itching from a nettle sting can last from a few minutes to as long as a week. Properties: Salty, rich in vitamins A, C, D, iron, potassium, manganese, calcium, micronutrients, and protein. Internal: Powerful antihistamine with no drowsiness side effects. Also provides minerals (iron, silica and potassium) that support the excretory system, increases total urine flow, helps with gout. Detox or spring tonic, a galactagogue, can ease eczema. Hot tea used for congestion, allergies, fever. Root is good tonic for prostrate. Juice is used as a diuretic for patients with congestive heart failure. Assists in removal of accumulated toxins and removal of metabolic wastes. Extracts used to treat anemia, hay fever, kidney problems, and pain. The leaf extract contains active compounds that reduce inflammatory cytokines for the treatment of arthritis. Root extracts used as a treatment for symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Certain extracts are used by bodybuilders to increase free testosterone by occupying sex-hormone binding globulin. Nettle is said to make hair more glossy, which is why some farmers include a handful of nettles with cattle feed. External: Urtication, or flogging with nettles, is the process of deliberately applying to the skin in order to provoke inflammation - a rubefacient is something that causes redness. A folk remedy for rheumatism, providing temporary relief from pain. Harvest: Leaves and flowers, cut early growth (up to 2). Cook young shoots and leaves in soup (similar to spinach). Soaking in water or cooking removes the stinging chemicals. After it enters its flowering and seed stages, the leaves develop gritty particles, which can irritate the urinary tract. Nettles are used in polenta and pesto and are cooked with Indian spices. Notes: In the UK, there is an annual Stinging Nettle Eating Championship, where competitors eat as much of the raw plant as possible. Competitors are given 20 stalks, from which they strip the leaves and eat them. Nettle cordial is a soft drink made from a refined sugar and water solution flavored with nettle leaves. It is an aromatic syrup, and when mixed with sparkling water, very refreshing. Commercially produced cordials are concentrated and usually diluted by one part cordial to ten parts water. The high concentration of sugar in nettle cordial gives it a long shelf life. To nettle someone is to annoy them. To grasp the nettle means to take on a problem that has been ignored. The metaphor may refer to the fact that if a nettle plant is grasped firmly rather than brushed against, it does not sting so readily, because the hairs are crushed down flat and do not penetrate the skin so easily. New Jersey Tea See Red Root or NJ Tea (Ceanothus).

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O
Oaks (Quercus) Quercus alba (White), falcata (Southern Red), rubra (Northern Red), nigra (Water), phellos (Willow), stellata (Post), Bur (macrocarpa), Chestnut (prinus), Laurel (laurifolia), Live (virginiana), Sawtooth (acutissima), Shumard (Shumardii), Swamp (michauxii): "Quercus" comes from the Celtic quer (fine) and cuez (tree). All oaks contain tannins, especially the Southern Red Oak, with the largest group of polyphenols. Tannins come from the bark, leaves, and insect galls of oaks. This is what Granny called stump water on the Beverly Hillbillies and it is what makes the creeks brown in Florida. There are 2 broad classifications of oaks - the white oaks and the red/black oaks. White oak leaves have rounded tips and include the Black Jack, White, and _____. The red/black group have pointed tips and include the Red, Water, _____. White Oak Bark This magnificent tree can live to 1000 years, up to 6 diameter, and 90 high. The sacred tree of the Druids. Tanners did not get consumption because they inhaled finely powdered white oak bark in their trade. The bark was listed in the US Pharmacopoeia from 1820 to 1910. The bark in decoction was required in medicine wagons during the civil war. Its astringent powers have been known for thousands of years. The Romans used decoctions to treat chronic diarrhea, dysentery, and hemorrhage. Herbalists of the 1800-1900s used it to "tan" the lining of the throat to stop pain and prevent reinfection from viruses and bacteria. Properties: Starch, tannins, resins, calcium oxalate, quillaic acid. Internal: Tannins protect mucus membranes, prevent inflammation, stops diarrhea. Quercitin strengths the circulatory system. Good for hepatitis, cirrhosis, a wet cough. The nuts may be used, but primarily the bark is used in tinctures, capsules, infusions, teas, and creams. Makes good substitute for quinine, especially with chamomile. For wasting diseases like TB, acorns are leached in running water, then cooked to porridge consistency. It dissolves kidneystones and stops growth of the surrounding bacteria. Regular consumption may lower cholesterol, although there are more effective herbs for this. Oak bark infusions, extracts, and tinctures taken internally should be timed so that any medication (especially any taken on an alkaline or empty stomach) is not in the digestive tract. Take 4 hours before or after any medication. External: Stops bleeding from small wounds. For chemo/dentures, mix half oak bark/acorns with half Yellow Root and boil until it is dark and nasty. The tannins tighten loose teeth and relieve bleeding gums. Used often in skin salves. As a bath additives and gargle, it stops bacterial and viral infections. An alcohol tincture painted on the skin or used to make a cream helps fight staph infections. Avoid bathing a large area of inflamed skin all at once. Prepare: Dried or toasted bark, ground before storage. Gentle dry heat increases the concentration of healing VOs in pieces, but destroys VOs once powdered. Oats, Oatstraw, Oatgrass (Avena) Avena sativa, Grass family: (Groats) F/P sun, avg moisture. Not a legume, sow early spring, harvest mid to late summer, thresh, and winnow. Crack in mill for oatmeal. To overwinter, sow late summer (dies at 10). Easy to work under for early spring crops like peas, potatoes. 1.5 lb per 1000 sq ft. Oat straw is the aerial part left after harvesting the grain. Humans have eaten oats since prehistoric times. German E Commission says oats are good for chronic anxiety and stress. In Europe, oat straw is a long-trusted additive to soaps and skin conditioners. Oats are a staple of breakfast cereals and known to help with healthy skin, hair, and nails. Some claim oatstraw may help with erectile dysfunction. 92

Properties: Contains carbohydrates and silicic acid. Also saponins, flavonoids, minerals (Ca, Mg, Si, K, Fe), alkaloids, steroidal compounds, vitamins B1, B2, D, E, carotene, wheat protein (gluten), starch, fat. Internal: Oats are considered an energy food, a nutritious whole grain that helps prevent heart disease and diabetes. It contains the fiber beta-glucan that lowers cholesterol and has helps with diabetes (low glycemic). Antioxidant compounds prevent free radicals from damaging LDL, reducing risk of cardiovascular disease. Europeans use oat straw as a nervous system restorative, to strengthen a weakened constitution, and to treat genital herpes and shingles. Oat straw stimulates the release of luteinizing hormone (sexual stimulant). No precautions unless you are allergic to oats. Gluten sensitivity is not activated by oat straw on the skin. External: Has an emollient and cleansing action. The silicic acid is soothing on skin. In bath water, it sooths itchiness and skin problems. A poultice can be gently rubbed into skin to treat skin conditions like eczema, cold sores, and shingles. Prepare: The threshed and dried stem and leaf, and the dried or fresh milky tops. Baths, tinctures, teas, and skin care products. Oat Straw Tea: The expression "he feels his oats" symbolizes a lively, energetic young person. Green oats, harvested just before bloom, deliver active ingredients in their juice. Green straw tea, made of the "still green" grain, rids the body of harmful waste products. Good for arthritic joint inflammation and high uric acid in the urine, as in gout. Fresh tea best, but dried okay. Formula: (other herbs support the action of the oat straw): 2.7 oz. oat straw, 0.4 oz. stinging nettle, 0.2 oz. alpine lady's mantle (Alchemilla alpina), 0.4 oz. St.John's wort. Mix all these dry ingredients for your tea blend. Add 1-2 T to 2-3 cups boiling water, simmer. Or, start the tea cold, letting the herbs steep for several hours, then simmer and steep. Drink 3 cups daily, if possible, unsweetened. Obediant Plant (Physostegia) Physostegia virginianum, angustifolium: (False Dragon-Head) We have Alabama var. Perennial, Sun to part shade, moist, 3 tall. Smooth, erect, often-branching stem, 2-5" sharply toothed lanceshaped leaves. 1" pale purple to rose flowers borne in a showy terminal spike, the corolla is swollen at the throat, upper lip is domed, lower lip is spreading and has three lobes. Flowers late summer to fall. Flowers tend to stay put when bent from their normal position (obediant). Okra (Abelmoschus) Abelmoschus esculentus, Mallow family: Full sun, average to dry, Apr 10 Jun, 1 W. Likes long, hot summers, and a sandy loam. Freeze and then soak seeds overnight to speed germ in soil > 65, 3/4" deep. Keep moist until established. Avoid rich soil, which produces large leaves, little fruit (withhold excess N). Has a hibiscus-like flower. Internal: One of best medicinal plants raw or slightly cooked. Coats the colon walls to promote healing. Harvest: Get immature pods 3-5" long. Prune by 1/3 late summer to create lateral branches. Onions (Allium) Allium: F/P sun, Moist, Jan 15-Mar 15, Sep 15-Oct 15, 3 W, 12 R. Likes humus, weed-free, NPK (heavy feeders). Plant short-day types with pointed end just above soil. Harvest when tops fall. Green stems are known as scallions. Properties: Except for white types, a rich source of cancer-fighting quercetin. Internal: Garlic and onions help protect against stomach cancer. It inhibits the growth of liver and colon cancers. For dry coughs, bake well with sugar stuffed inside. Squeeze juice out and take a little at a time. (Also works with turnips.) 93

Bulb (Storage): Sets sold as yellow, white, red. Harvest when tops are 6-8" high and bulbs are swelling. Bunching (Green): Plant Oct-Feb, divide at ground-level like multiplier onions (w/o forming large bulbs). Once established, divide periodically. Orange Peel (Citrus) Citrus sinensis, Sweet Orange family: (Valencia, Ruby, Navel) There are more enzymes, flavonoids, and phyto-nutrients in the orange peel than in the fruit. The peel is where all the essential components accumulate. Most oranges are produced in FL, CA, and the Mediterranean. Properties: Vitamin C, B1, choline, folic acid, over 60 known flavonoids, d-limonene, alphacarotene, beta-carotene, aldehydes, numerous minerals and vitamins. Internal: Acts as anti-inflammatory due to the high flavonoid content, and as an anti-bacterial and anti-microbial agent. One of the major components (d-limonene) is reported to have anticarcinogenic activity. Used in TCM to "reduce accumulation" whether gas in the intestine, pressure from cramping, stool in the bowels, phlegm in the lungs and throat, or "too much blood energy" resulting in high blood pressure. Pregnant women should not takeit and there have been a few cases where children developed intestinal colic. Large doses may cause photo-toxicity in some. Prepare: Fruit is picked when ripe and the peel is dried. Used as a tea or powdered to add a sweet, fizzy flavor to drinks. Its light flavor makes it easy to add into tea blends, and the peel can also be used in jam, jelly, stir-fry dishes. Bitter Orange (Citrus) Citrus aurantium: (Seville/sour/bigarade/marmalade orange) Many varieties are utilized for their essential oil, used in perfume and flavoring. Slivers of rind are used to give marmalade its characteristic bitter taste. The fruit and leaves make lather and can be used as soap. The hard white or light yellow wood is used in woodworking and made into baseball bats in Cuba. Varieties: C. amara is a spiny evergreen tree native to south Vietnam, but widely cultivated. It is used as grafting stock for citrus trees, in marmalade, and in liqueur like triple sec, Grand Marnier. Also cultivated for the essential oil expressed from the fruit, and for neroli oil and orange flower water, which are distilled from the flowers. Seville orange (or bigarade) is a tart orange which is now grown throughout the Mediterranean. It has a thick, dimpled skin, and is prized for making marmalade, being higher in pectin than the sweet orange. Bergamot orange, C. bergamia is cultivated for the production of bergamot oil, a component of perfume and tea, especially Earl Grey tea. Medicine: The extract of bitter orange (and bitter orange peel) is marketed as dietary supplement for weight-loss and appetite suppressant. It contains the tyramine metabolites N-methyltyramine, octopamine and synephrine, substances similar to epinephrine, which act on the adrenergic receptor to constrict blood vessels and increase blood pressure and heart rate. Following bans on the stimulant ephedra, bitter orange is substituted into "ephedra-free" herbal weight-loss products by manufacturers. Like most dietary supplement ingredients, it has not undergone formal safety testing, but it is believed to cause the same spectrum of adverse events as ephedra. Reports have linked bitter orange supplements to strokes, angina, and ischemic colitis. Reported to be associated with fainting, heart-rhythm disorders, heart attack, stroke, and death. It may have serious drug interactions with statins similar to grapefruit.

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Oregano (Origanum) Origanum vulgare (Common or Wild), heracleoticum (Greek), Mint family: Full sun, avg/dry, 1 W, 1-2 H. Tender perennial. LDG seed, cutting is best method, divide in spring. Greek type most flavorful. Easy to grow, but do not overwater. Likes well-drained soil and can grow in rocky, poor soil. Origanum marjorana or hortensis (Sweet Marjoram): Tender perennial grown as annual. Transplant or self-seed late spring, cuttings summer, divide root in fall. Repels ants. Resembles oregano, but milder. Properties: Highest antioxidant value of most plants. Antiseptic, carminative. Internal: For sinus, asthma, respiratory, promotes healthy flora in GI tract, relaxant, circulation, stress, gout, infections, colds, sore throat, fever. Since free radicals occur in case of inflammation, growing, age and degenerative arthritis, oregano, being a powerful antioxidant, prevents cell damage from free radicals. Infuse 1 tsp dry or 2 tsp fresh for colds, stress, digestion. Mix with honey for horseness. Oregano oil contains four main groups of chemicals that contribute to its potent healing power. 1) Phenols, such as carvacrol and thymel, act as antiseptic and antiioxidents. 2) Terpenes have antiseptic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anesthetic properties. 3) Linalool and bonreol are two long-chain alcohols found in oregano oil, which add to the antiviral and antiseptic qualities. 4) Esters are potent antifungal agents. External: Oregano can be applied on affected areas. It may be diluted by adding 3-5 drops of olive oil with 1 drop oregano. Harvest: Prune to promote bushy growth. Cut stems halfway down and dry or use fresh leaves in any tomato dish (also in egg, cheese, meat dishes). A staple in most Italian cooking. Oregon Grape (Mahonia) Mahonia aquifolium or Berberis aquifolium, Barberry family: (Oregon Holly Grape) Evergreen, woody perennial with holly-like leaves and many yellow flowers. F/P sun, regular or clay soil. A tall, evergreen, flowering shrub that grows among the firs, spruces, and pines of the mountainous NW. The state flower of Oregon. The root is a substitute for the over-harvested goldenseal. It is not as fussy about its habitat than the closely related barberry, and easier to find. As a purely bitter herb, it is used with TCM in treating various symptoms of "damp heat", such as: abdominal fullness and distention, constipation alternating with diarrhea, foul-smelling loose stools, general feeling of heaviness, nausea, reduced appetite, reduced thirst although with the sensation of dry mouth, sticky thick yellow or green mucous discharges, watery oozing skin eruptions, and "Red" symptoms: red tongue, hot flushes, bad temper, rapid pulse. Properties: Bitter. Root contains berberine, plus phytochemicals with similar activity, including columbamine, hydrastine, and tannins. It does not contain the range of nutrient vitamins and minerals found in barberry. The leaves contain flavenoids that enhance the antibacterial activity of root. Internal: The root is used to stop diarrhea. It slows the passage of stool through the small intestine, but also keeps bacteria from implanting themselves in the lining. Herbs that contain berberine are proven to protect against bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans, helminthes (worms), and chlamydia. It may increase blood platelet counts and counteract the proliferation of cancerous tumors of the bladder and colon. It has a sedative effect on the smooth muscles lining the digestive tract and can relieve stomach cramps and abdominal pain. Why use Oregon grape root as a whole herb and why not take a berberine concentrate - the root contains tannins that cross link proteins in the linings of the nose and throat, or in the digestive tract, to seal them against infection. 95

Caution: Adults should limit use of any herb containing berberine to 7 consecutive days, waiting at least a week before using again. This gives the natural, helpful bacteria of the intestine a chance to recover. Taking B6 supplements can give infectious bacteria resistance to the antibacterial toxins in the herb. Do not take if taking antibiotics for diarrhea. The herb is not a problem for nursing mothers unless the baby has jaundice, however it should not be used while pregnant. External: The tannins make it useful in the treatment of chronic inflammatory skin conditions such as psoriasis, characterized by the rapid multiplication of cells in the skin. A cream containing the root eases inflammation, irritation, and itching. Prepare: Topical creams containing 10% tincture of root. Also used as tea, tincture, or in capsule form. Proper dosage is important: Tea: 1 to 2 grams (1/2 to 1 tsp) dried root steeped in 2/3 cup of hot water for 15 minutes 3x daily. This is not the same dosage as for the chopped herb. Tincture: 3 to 6 ml. (1/2 to 1-1/2 tsp) 3x daily (but no more than three doses of any kind of Oregon grape root product per day). Skin disorders: 10% tincture in ointment, applied to the skin three times daily.

Osha (Ligusticum) Ligusticum porteri: (Bear Medicine, Colorado Cough Root, Chuchupaste, Porter's Wild Lovage, Indian Root, and Mountain Ginseng) A native of the higher altitudes of the Rockies and the Southwest. Sometimes confused in the wild with poisonous hemlock. The difference is that the osha root is extremely "hairy" and smells like incredibly strong celery. Osha doesn't like to be domesticated, and is all but impossible to grow under cultivation. Virtually all commercial osha is wild harvested. Osha got he name "bear medicine" because it was noted by natives and early settlers that bears would seek it out when they first emerged from hibernation as a means to stimulate their appetite, as well as chewing it into a "cud" of sorts and then dripping it down and rubbing it into their fur. Chinese physicians used plants like osha to "open the interstices" or sweat out a respiratory infection. Osha induces sweating, thought to prevent the development of a full-blown cold or flu. Used to help coughs become productive. Natives used it as part of a smoking blend to soothe sore throats. Like other bitter herbs, osha stimulates appetite ("feeds a cold"). Used by natives for stomach pain and cramping. Properties: Contains furanocoumarins, mucilage. Internal: The dried root is a native treatment for indigestion and upper respiratory infections. The related Ligusticum wallichii has been used for nearly 2,000 years in TCM, and most studies of osha were actually performed on the Asian species. Prepare: Teas, tinctures, encapsulations. Tinctures and extracts vary widely in concentration. Also used is steams and saunas.

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Parsley (Petroselinum) Petroselinum crispum (Italian), hortense (French, Plain Leaved), Apium graveolens (Par-Cel), Carrot family: F/P sun, moist, 6 W, 12 H. Biennial, seed early spring, germ 3-4 weeks. Sow midsummer for winter use or indoor pots. Deep taproot, hardy, easy to grow, curly or flat leaf, minimal care in rich soil. Doesn't like heat.

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Properties: Antiseptic. Good source of minerals including iron, Ca, P, K, C, and beta-carotene. Internal: Breath freshener - eat fresh, but not too much (can irritate kidneys). Stops spread of tumor cells, expels worms, appetite, digestion, gas, asthma, urinary infections, anti-depressant. Restores vitality. Seeds have a stronger diuretic action than leaves, and may be substituted for celery seeds for gout, rheumatism, and arthritis. Encourages the flushing of waste products from inflamed joints and elimination by the kidneys. Harvest: Outside leaves. Partridge Berry See Squaw Vine (Mitchella). Passion Flower (Passiflora) Passiflora incarnata (Maypop, Apricot Vine), Pilutea (Yellow), Violet family: Herbaceous or woody vine needing a trellis. F/P sun, A/D soil. Official wildflower of TN. Attracts butterflies. Get soft cuttings. A climbing vine native to South Texas and Mexico. Can grow to 30. The vine bears three-lobed leaves and yellow-to-orange egg-shaped fruit. The name comes an analogy between the plants ornate flower to the crucifixion of Jesus, white and purple to symbolize heaven and purity, five stamens for the five wounds, three styles for the three nails used. The Spanish doctor Nicolas Monardes was the first to document the flower used in Peru in 1569, which he brought back to Europe with him, where its popularity spread quite rapidly as a sedative. Herbalists in Mexico, Central America, and Texas have used passionflower as a calmative and sleeping aid for over 200 years. It was classified by Linnaeus in 1745, when he noted over 20 species. There are over 400 different species. Properties: Chrysin, harmane, harmaline. Internal: Whole flowering plant used as a sedative to help sleep. Leaves and tender stems infused for tea as a gentle hypnotic for insomnia, anxiety, hyperactive children, pain killer, eye wash. Yellow "lemons" in the fall make a great lemonade high in C to lower fever and help with colds. Good for swollen glands. Relieves muscle tension, lowers blood pressure, and calms anxiety. A source of chrysin, which helps stimulate the production of testosterone, and may aggravate conditions caused by excessive testosterone (baldness and prostate problems in men, unusual aggression, hair growth, and skin problems in men and women) so dont consume too much. Pregnant women should avoid, since it can stimulate uterine contractions. May intensify the effects of other sedatives. Prepare: Dried leaves and stems used in teas, tinctures, and capsules. Boil 1 tsp dry or a few leaves in 1 cup water and drink warm before bed. Use with red clover tops, peach leaves, lettuce, mint, sage, or mullein for sleepy tea (tranquilizer). The powder must be stored below 77 degrees, and should be used within six months of purchase. Sometimes found in relaxing bath blends and sleep pillow mixes. Pawpaw (Asimina) Asimina triloba, Custard Apple family: (Northern Banana) Deciduous native 10-25 tree, weakly self-fertile, zone 5-9. Likes shade, avg to moist, slightly acid, welldrained soil. 6-12" alternate, simple leaves with unpleasant odor when crushed, yellow fall foliage. Maroon flowers early spring. Difficult to transplant, best along edges of property, may form clumps from root sprouts, larva food for zebra swallowtail butterflies. Resembles young Black Gum trees. Internal: Fruit is a sedative and laxative. 97

Harvest: Americas largest edible fruit up to 6" long, turning from green to yellow-brown when ripe. Tastes like banana custard. Peach (Prunus) Prunus persica (Common Peach), Rose family (Stone Fruit): (Top 30 Herb) F/P sun, avg moisture. Deciduous tree 12-18 tall, self-fruitful with orange-yellow flushed red fruit. Prefers sandy soils. Properties: Sour tonic for hot, irritated tissues, especially digestive, hepatic, intestinal, respiratory, and urinary. Leaves are sweeter than the bark, which is more bitter. Internal: The leaves and bark may have more uses than any other herb. Warm tea is good for morning sickness, stomach upset, nausea, flu (hot tea can make you throw up). Cold tea is a laxative. Good for hair, make you sleep. Prepare: Boil 4 oz bark in 1 qt water 15 min, strain, take 1 swallow periodically. Avoid wilted leaves. Warm tea from leaves will make you sleep like a baby. Pear (Pyrus) Pyrus, Rosa family: F/P sun, Avg moisture. The common pear can grow to 50 tall, tree ripen. The "Callery" type from China is the most-used root stock. The following Oriental pears produce up to 3/4 pound firm, crisp fruit: Housi: 15-20 tall, produces July-Aug, fruit lasts up to 6 months. Korean Giant: 20 tall (maintain at 14), produces Aug-Sept. Shinko: 15-20 (maintain at 12), Aug-Sep, fruit lasts 2-3 mo. Peas, Southern (Vigna) Vigna unguiculata, Fabacea family: Apr-June, 1 D, 3 W, 2 R. These legumes are actually beans, not peas. Needs well-drained, weed-free soil. Best pH 5.8 - 6.3. Dont apply N after first 3 weeks. Plant in 2-week intervals. See "Beans" for trellising methods. Types: There are 4 types of peas: Field Pea (Iron/Clay) - Viny type with smaller seeds. Crowder Pea - Starchy seeded types that are "crowded" into the pods Cream Pea - Smaller plant type with light-colored seeds. Black Eyed Pea (Pinkeye Purple Hull) - Intermediate in plant type. Peas, Spring (Pisum) Pisum sativum, Fabacea family: Feb-Mar 15, 3 W, 3 R. Two types are shelling (garden peas) and edible pods (snap, snow). Cold-hardy to 25 for a brief period. Dont plant too deeply, they dont like to push through too much dirt. Each pea seedling is precious--do not thin them! Instead provide a trellis (chicken wire is best) stretched between a couple of 4-foot wooden stakes or fenceposts, located directly above the seedlings. If peas dont start climbing early they tend to stunt. Weed carefully so as not to injure the fine roots. Harvest: Get shelling peas when seeds are fully rounded. Peppermint (Mentha) See Mints (Mentha). (Top 30 Herb)

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Peppers (Capsicum) Capsicum frutescens (Cayenne), annuum (Jalapeno, Paprika), Nightshade (Solanacea) family: Apr-Jun, Full sun, avg moisture, 1 W, 3 R. Best as transplants. Likes warm temps (60 to 85). Wait until hot to mulch. Water regularly, but not too often. Add horticultural lime or calcium nitrate fertilizer when planting. Needs P, but dont fertilize after flowering begins. There are three types of peppers: Sweet Bell, Sweet Non-Bell (Banana, Cubanelle), and Hot (Capsicum: Cayenne, Habanero, Jalapeno). Properties: Hot, pungent aromatic, diaphoretic. Internal: Produces rapid short-lived heating, but ultimately is cooling (diaphoretic). Drying to tissues. Cayenne helps to rid parasites, increase heart action (not blood pressure), lower cholesterol, for colds, flu, ulcers, blood thinner, antioxident. All red peppers contain the pain relieving chemical capasacin and the aspirin-like compound salicylate. It provides relief from arthritis pain, when ingested or topically. It is the most powerful herb for increasing circulation, both internally or externally (heat causes body to produce endorphin, a natural painkiller). Richard Schultzs top herb for emergency and blood moving - Habanero, Jalapeno, Cayenne are best. External: Place on wound, stops blood loss - dissolves clots. Best healer for broken skin. Used in salves to promote circulation to the area. Harvest: Wait for most peppers to turn yellow or red for max nutrition. Harvest often to continue production. Cut with tool, not by hand. Eggplant (Solanum) Solanum melongena, Nightshade (Solanacea) family: Apr 15, 18 W, 3 R. Best as transplants. Culture similar to peppers (likes heat). Dont rush season. Harvest: Pick often to keep producing. Ripe when skin glossy and fruit resilient to thumb pressure. Periwinkle (Vinca) Vinca major: (Vinca minor, Myrtle) Hardy evergreen spreading perennial. Divide roots in spring or stem cutting in fall. F/P sun, moist. 1-2 long, flowers Mar-May. Use flowers. The garden periwinkle is the source of a chemical that can be turned into vinpocetine, a natural treatment for aging minds. From Madagascar, periwinkle has a variety of medicinal applications. In Europe, teas were used for diabetes. In Hawaii, it was boiled to make a poultice to stop bleeding. In China, it is cough medicine. Used in India to stop the pain of wasp stings. Used in the Caribbean to treat infections and to protect against voodoo magic. Properties: Contains vincamine, precursor chemical vinpocetine, in leaves, seeds. Internal: Diarrhea, digestive tract inflammation, stops bleeding, clears phlegm, reduce blood sugar for diabetics. Vinpocetine may increase blood flow to the brain, increasing oxygenation, and also protect brain cells from damage by a chemical called phosphodiesterase. Volunteers with dementia experienced improvement after treatment. Vinpocetine is recommended for memory enhancement in health people, and tried as a means of reducing brain injury after strokes. Caution: Although periwinkle is the source of vinpocetine, it is not pure vinpocetine. Minimal processing is recommended as it has a rounded blend of healing chemicals. Periwinkle does not cause any known interactions with blood thinning medications (aspirin, Coumarin, Plavix, Ticlid, or Trental), although extracted vinpocetine does. Vinpocetine can cause either increased or decreased bleeding depending on the medication. External: Stops bleeding of cuts, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, gargle for sore throat. Prepare: Leaves, seeds. Usually a tincture, but also in capsules or served as tea.

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Persimmon (Diospyros) Diospyros virginiana (Wild), Ebony family: F/P sun, average moisture. Deciduous, hardy to -25, up to 50 tall. Ripe fruit is yellow-red or orange-red and an inch or more in diameter. Edible after first frost. Internal: Diarrhea, sore throat, ulcers, IBS. Boil 1 tsp powdered bark in 1 cup, steep for 10 min. External: The green fruit is a good astringent - it gently contracts moist tissue. Fuyu: Non-astringent, 15-20 tall, self-fruitful, produces in October, pick before first frost. Zones 8-10, so cover below 10. Pine (Pinus) Pinus strobus (White), taeda (Loblolly-left), __ (Short-Leaf- right), palustris (Long-Leaf): Properties: Needles are high in A and C. Bark has flavenoids which makes C more effective. Internal: For coughs, colds, fever, bronchitis, kidney, and scurvy. Pour boiling water over tops and inhale steam to treat a chest cold (also mix with Rabbit Tobacco, Mountain Mint). White Pine best, but all are good. External: Use resin as a band-aid on cuts (seal it and heal it). All pine oils are antiseptic, antifungal, and detoxifying, containing phenols, with acid germ-killing properties, effective against yeast spores, E. Coli, germs, mold, and mildew. Several drops of pine oil in a cup of warm water repels fleas on dogs. Prepare: Low boil 2 cups inner bark in half gallon water for 20 min. Or boil a large handful fresh needles in 1 quart water, sip hot for colds. Suck on a small piece of resin for a sore throat. Put turpentine (cooked out of the lighter pine) on a sugar cube for coughs and colds. Pipsissewa (Chimaphila) Chimaphila maculata (Spotted Wintergreen), umbellate, Wintergreen family: (Rats Vein, Striped Wintergreen, Rheumatism Weed) Perennial, likes pine forests, 4-12". A small, perennial evergreen native to southern Canada and north US. Used by natives to treat UTI, and to reduce sweating and treat fever. Its scientific name literally means "winter loving," but its leaves are collected in late summer for medicinal use. The leaves have very little scent until they are rubbed to release a pleasant but mildly "puckery" scent. The whole plant has been used as an antibacterial, astringent, diuretic, stimulant and tonic. It is currently used as a flavoring in root beer production, and in candy. Properties: Mild anti-inflammatory. Contains arbutin, chimaphilin, resins, oil. Internal: Entire plant used short term for UTI and kidney infections. As a diuretic, it helps "flush out" infectious microorganisms. For arthritis, rheumatism. Used to help animals that were hide bound. Used as a substitute for uva-ursi, especially for those unable to eat a vegetarian diet to alkalize the urine. External: Treats infections of the skin (with lotions). As an astringent, helps the skin heal over and prevents infection. Some people seem to react to the oil produced by crushing the leaves and may break out as a result. Prepare: Dried leaf usually, although all parts including stems are medicinally active. Infuse 1 T dried, crushed leaves in cup water, drink 1/4 cup twice daily as a short term tonic. Mix with cross vine for energy.

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Plantain (Plantago) Plantago major (Broad Leaf), lanceolata (Narrow/Lance Leaf): (Rib Wort) A common perennial weed brought over from England. F/P sun. Tender perennial, green-yellow flowers and a spike of seeds. Self-seed, LDG. The American Indian name is life medicine. Properties: Leaves, seeds, and roots are highly mucilaginous for hot, irritated tissues, especially structural. Internal: Psyllium seeds contain up to 30% mucilage which swells in the gut, acting as a bulk laxative and soothing irritated membranes (also helps rid parasitic worms). Anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, good for urinary issues (bladder and kidney), high cholesterol, respiratory, digestive, urinary systems, dry coughs, colds, sinus, allergies, asthma, cholesterol, decaying teeth. Causes an aversion to tobacco and is used in stop smoking preparations. Use caution with IBS. External: Plantain is one of the more powerful healers and infection killers for the skin and is usually put in skin salves to help skin and wounds (makes new tissue grow). Apply fresh leaf to poison ivy, stinging nettle, bee sting, mosquito, flea, and snake bites. For toothache, earache. Toxin neutralizer, antidote to poisons (best herb for brown recluse spider). Use with potato salve and make poultice in blender. Or put plantain leaves and hot water in a blender. Apply as a poultice or fomentation to the affected area to draw out thorns, splinters, and inflammation. Distilled water made from the plant makes an excellent eye lotion. Prepare: Leaves are good in salad or cooked. They are eaten in early spring (later they become fibrous, but it is always available in a pinch). Chop it up very tiny, put it in a soup or stew and possibly it wont be too noticeable. For colds and flu, use 1 tsp dried seeds or 1 T dried leaves in a cup of boiling water, strain, sweeten, and drink during day. It becomes very mucilaginous and is effective for constipation. Seeds also mix with water to form gel for a bulk laxative (psyllium). Metamucil uses Plantain seeds. Harvest: The whole plant is used. The leaves are the most-used part in current herbal preparations. Roots are lifted in spring or autumn. Pleurisy Root See Milkweed or Pleurisy Root (Asclepias). Plum (Prunus) Prunus angustifoilia (Wild), Rose family (Stone Fruit): (Chickasaw or Wild Yellow Plum) F/P sun, avg moisture. Deciduous tree to 33 tall, with yellow, red, or purple fruit. Thin fruit 4-6" apart. Internal: A good syrup for asthma and bronchitis can be made by boiling down the fruit (or inner bark at other times). Prunes (dried plums) are a good source of fiber and are a nutrient-rich fruit with multiple health benefits. They slow the aging process in the body and brain. Antioxidant values are ranked using an ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbency Capacity) analysis. Prunes topped the list. Prepare: Low boil 2 large handfuls bark (or fruit) in 1 gallon 30 min, add sugar and reduce to syrup. Even domesticated plums work, but less so. Methley: Japanese self-fruitful, produces in June with dark, red flesh, 7-10 tall. Susceptible to bacterial leaf spot. Ozark Premier: Japanese cross-pollinator, produces June-July, 7-10 tall. Largest fruit and one of the most beautiful plums (yellow flesh). 101

Poison Ash (Rhus) See Sumac (Rhus). Poison Ivy/Oak (Toxicodendron) Toxicodendron radicans (Poison Ivy), Sumac family: Has 3 leaflets per leaf. It grows low like a bush, climbs like a vine, and is colorful in fall. Internal: Eat one small leaf a day (in a capsule or in bread) for one week for immunity to protect you from the skin-irritating urushiol oil that causes rash. External: Can cure herpes, palsy, paralysis, acute rheumatism, and other skin rashes (especially when food-related). It spreads on the skin only by scratching, not on its own. Wash ASAP with soap and warm water or neutralize immediately with crushed Plantain (or Virginia Creeper) leaves. Then keep the affected area dry. The urushiol oil can remain viable for years and even centuries. Never burn it as the oil is carried in the smoke. The milky juice is used as an indelible ink for marking linen and finishing boots or shoes. Poison Oak (Toxicodendron toxicodendron): Has 5 leaflets per leaf. Mostly found out west. English Ivy: Some people have a reaction to this common ivy. It creates more of a psoriasis effect rather than the large blisters of Poison Ivy. Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia): Has 5 leaflets, not 3. Good for getting rid of poison ivy rash except in fall when red. Use hot tea on poison ivy rash to clear it up in a day or two, although Plantain is better for this. Poke (Phytolacea) Phytolacea americana, Nettle family: (Phytolacca) Tender perennial. Dr. Porcher: Poke was greatly appreciated for it use as a medicinal herb, particularly in the treatment of external cancers. It was said that it ate the cancers out by the roots. The juice of the berries was used along with extracts of the roots for this purpose. Poke Root, while considered very poisonous, was popular in the treatment of rheumatism. Extracts of roots and berries were emetic and purgative. Poke berries also used as indelible ink. Properties: Lymphatic. Internal: Swallow 2-3 berries whole every 2-3 days for arthritis. The seeds are toxic and go through your system as with birds. Helps move lymph, good for liver, anti-cancer. Tincture a small amount of the root as an antiviral for flu (take 2-5 drops) and to stimulate the immune system (root is toxic and must be used with caution). Tea made from ripe berries good for losing weight. Prepare: Boil 1 T chopped root in 1 pint water for 10 min, strain, take 1 tsp twice daily. For poke wine, strain the seeds. Young shoots are edible (before stalk is red), but use caution with the rest. Boil the leaves and throw the water off three times to make it edible. External: Combined with yellow dock in a salve, a cure for the "itch" (without the kerosene and sulfur as used in the past). Pound the root to use as a poultice for pulling out breast cancers. Pomegranite (Punica) Punica granatum: F/P sun, Winter-hardy in Zones 8-10 (cover if below 20). Drought-tolerant, self-fruitful, thinning not necessary. Leaves can develop fungus in humid zones. A fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing 15-25 tall. Native to the Caucasus and the Himalayas in North India. Grenada: Self-fruitful, 8-10 tall, produces Sept-Oct. 102

Properties: The juice provides vitamin C, B5, potassium, and polyphenols, such as tannins and flavonoids. The seeds are high-fiber and supply unsaturated oils. Internal: High in antioxidants. The juice reduces heart disease risk factors, including LDL oxidation, macrophage oxidative status, and foam cell formation. In Ayurveda medicine, it is used as a source of traditional remedies for thousands of years. The rind of the fruit and the bark of the tree is used as a traditional remedy against diarrhea, dysentery and intestinal parasites. The seeds and juice are considered a tonic for the heart and throat, and classified as a bitterastringent (pitta or fire) and considered a healthful counterbalance to a diet high in sweet-fatty (kapha or earth) components. The astringent qualities of the flower juice, rind and tree bark are considered valuable for stopping nose and gum bleeds, toning skin, (after blending with mustard oil) firming-up sagging breasts and treating hemorrhoids. The juice is used as eyedrops to slow the development of cataracts. Poppy, California (Eschscholzia) Eschscholzia californica: (Western or Gold Poppy) Reseeding annual, full sun, well-drained, drought tolerant, hardy zones 6-10, 12-15" tall. Brightorange cup-shaped flowers, attractive lacy foliage. State flower of California, a tender perennial plant bearing blue-green leaves and 2-4" flowers that open in bright sun and close on cloudy days and night. One of the oldest remedies for stress-induced maladies including sensitivity to changes in the weather. An ancient plant whose origins are not entirely known. Natives prized them as a source of food and for the oil that could be extracted. Properties: Bitter, mild antispasmodic, hypnotic. Alkaloids, principally cryptopine. Internal: A calming sedative gentle enough for children. Used to provide restful sleep without the side effects of benzodiazepine drugs such as Librium, Valium, and Xanax. Poppy in combination with hawthorn and magnesium salts is safe, effective, and free of side effects for the treatment of mild to moderate anxiety. The advantage is relief from tension without morning grogginess, nausea, vomiting, or constipation. Prepare: Above-ground parts of the plant, dried. Mostly used as a tincture. Combined with hawthorn and magnesium salts for relieving anxiety. Also combined with birthwort, nightblooming cereus, kava, lavender, passionflower, St. Johns wort, and valerian. Can also be taken as a tea or capsule. Seed is for ___________?? Potatoes (Solanacea) Solanacea, Nightshade family: Feb, Aug, 1 W, 3 R. Cut pieces no smaller than an egg with at least 2 eyes. Dry pieces overnight to prevent rot. Plant cut side down. Plant 4-6" deep and cover with 2-4" soil. When 6" high, mound soil and compost up to top leaves. Hill again after another 6" growth. Use seed potatoes (stores may treat potatoes to inhibit sprouting). Harvest: Dig after stems are dead and dried to ground level. Each seed should produce at least 5 potatoes. Prickly Ash (Zanthoxylum) Zanthoxylum clava-herculis (Southern Hercules Club), americanum (Northern), fraxineum, Rue? family: (Szechuan pepper, Toothache Tree, Yellow Wood) (Top 30 Herb) Before prickly ash was used medicinally, it was applied in the Imperial Court as the sole anesthetic for the operation by which the Emperor acquired his court eunuchs. TCM uses it to warm the "middle burner", the energies in the middle of the body that power the immune response and help digest food. Also

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used to kill parasites and to alleviate abdominal pain, particularly when the source is a parasitic infection. Properties: Volatile oil containing geraniol. Internal: The bark relieves chronic pain. Always seek diagnosis with acute abdominal pain. TCM says it should be avoided when there is fever with profuse sweating, and used with caution during pregnancy. It can stop lactation in nursing mothers. External: The powder is used as a poultice applied to the abdomen to treat abdominal pain (recommended over teas or tinctures). Test on a small area of skin to make sure you are not among the few people sensitive or allergic to the herb. Prepare: The bark or fruit, dried and chopped. The chopped bark is used to make teas or tinctures when combined with: ginger or ginseng for relieving chronic abdominal pain. Ginger to treat nausea and vomiting in long-term illnesses, Mume fruit and coptis or Oregon grape for treating symptoms caused by roundworms (usually vomiting). The seed or "eyes" of prickly ash are used in teas as an acrid, bitter, and cooling treatment for wheezing or swelling. Devils Walking Stick (Aralia) ? Aralia spinosa (?). LOOK UP - The rest may refer to prickly ash: Prefers sun, moist soil. Related to Ginseng. Full of thorns. Big head of white flowers with black berries later. Properties: Anti-inflammatory. Internal: Second only to cucumber tree for arthritis, rheumatism. Also for circulation, gout. Chew on inner bark for toothache or gums (stings for a second and then numbs the gums). Peel bark off for blood purifier. Young shoots are edible. Next to Poke root, good for opening lymph glands. Prepare: Cooked berries not toxic and can be tinctured - fill a quart jar with 6 oz berries, cover with 1 pint whiskey for 2 weeks, turning it twice daily, strain, and take 1 tsp daily. Use with Cucumber Magnolia. Make jelly out of the fruit. Prickly Pear (Opuntia) Opuntia ficus-indica, Cactus family: (Nopal is the Aztec name) Large genus in cactus family. Long, sharp spines protrude from the pads, but the small spines at the base (glochids) can irritate the skin for days, so handle with gloves and scrape off with a blunt knife or passing over a flame. Internal: Entire plant (dried pads, flowers, fruit) is used. Contains many vitamins and minerals.Has an insulin effect (lowers blood glucose). Helps with GI infections, digestive tract tissue, cholesterol. Caution if you take diabetes drugs or are pregnamt/breast feeding. External: Heals minor scrapes and burns. Privet (Legustrum) Legustrum sinense (Chinese), japonicum (Japanese), lucidum, Olive family: Strong berries. Native to China, now naturalized throughout the world. The glossy fruit is one of the oldest Chinese herbal remedies, used since the Materia Medica written in 190 BC. It has cooling properties that help the yin, and augment weakness in the liver and kidneys. Known as the "female chastity seed," the fruit was an ancient remedy for premature graying of hair, ringing in the ear, spots before the eyes, and lower back pain, all associated with excessive sexual activity. Often combined with chrysanthemum and wolfberries and used as a tonic. Note that the Japanese variety (big, glossy leaves) is poisonous, but rarely found here. Properties: Tannins, oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, ursolic acid. Contains many of the same saponins as soy.

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Internal: The seeds are a powerful immune stimulant. Boil 1 tsp green/purple berries in 1 cup water. Sweet and bitter at the same time, the fruit is added to herb combinations to clear out the "heat" associated with infection and emotional tension. TCM uses it to treat dizziness and blurred vision, especially if symptoms are worst during times of emotional stress. The fatty acids in fruit are helpful for protecting the body from contamination with heavy metals, notably arsenic and cadmium. Avoid when there is chronic diarrhea. Prepare: Fruit, dried and either whole or powdered. Make teas, tinctures, capsules, frequently mixed with other herbs. Psyllium Husk/Seed See Plantain (Plantago).

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Quinoa (Chenopodium) Chenopodium, a species of goosefoot: Pronounced keen-wah. F/P sun, average moisture. Not technically a cereal grain like wheat or oats, but has been cultivated and eaten as a cereal for thousands of years by South Americans. Quinoa is the tiny seed of the Chenopodium Quinoa, a leafy plant that is a distant relative of spinach and beets. Quinoa was called the mother grain by the Incas. Internal: Grain alternative with better proteins and essential acids, a nutritional powerhouse. Quinoas 16% protein content is higher than that of any other grain. Wheat also has a high protein content (14%) but the protein in wheat and most other grains is lacking in the amino acid lysine, which Quinoa has in abundance. In fact, the amino acid composition in Quinoa is almost perfect. The World Health Organization has judged the protein in Quinoa to be as complete as that in milk. In addition, Quinoa contains more iron than most grains, and is a good source of calcium, phosphorus, folate, and many B vitamins. Eating whole grains like Quinoa six times each week is a good idea for postmenopausal women with high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or other signs of cardiovascular disease (it slows the progression of atherosclerosis). Quince (Cydonia) Cydonia oblonga, Rose family: F/P sun, Avg moisture. Deciduous fruit tree, self fertile, same pome family as apple and pear, 1525 tall and 1218 wide. The sole member of the genus Cydonia and native to warm-temperate southwest Asia. Turkey ranks first in quince production by producing a quarter of the total. Pineapple: This var is self-fruitful, produces in Sept, 15-20 tall, good for eating and jellies. Susceptible to fire blight in humid, warm areas (avoid pruning and heavy fertilizers during this type weather).

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Rabbit Tobacco (Gnaphalium) Gnaphalium obtusifolium: (Everlasting, Cudweed, Catsfoot) Annual or biennial, 1-3 tall, sandy soil, flowers Aug-Oct. Internal: The best antiviral (gets whiter when turpines are best). Use leaves and flowering tops for asthma, bronchitis, coughs, colds, sinusitis. An astringent and expectorant. Best to gather before frost, but can be found almost all winter. 105

Prepare: Boil handful leaves in 1 quart for 20 min. Drink 1/4 cup 2-3 times daily. External: Mix with plantain for good rash treatment. Tommie: If you have a cold in your head and can't breathe, take you a handful of it and put it in a pot of boiling water. Put a towel over your head and breath the steam. It'll open you right up and is good for colds too if you drink the tea. Now, you can use Mullein with it also. I use lots of it in my cough and cold tonics every winter. People really do love that tonic cause it clears their lungs right up. Ragweed (Ambrosia) Ambrosia trifida (Giant Ragweed - left), artemisiifolia (Common Ragweed - right), Aster family: The pollen produces widespread allergies and is the main cause of hay fever (not Goldenrod, which is insect-pollinated, heavy and thick, and cannot become airbourne). The flower hangs over as opposed to Goldenrod. Blooms July-Aug. Seeds are an important bird winter food. Plant is used by the larvae of some moths and butterflies. Internal: Treats hay fever. Leaves are stimulating, astringent, and bitter. Also for weight loss, epilepsy, rabies. External: For nosebleed, stuff crushed leaves up nose. A hemostat. Prepare: Use fresh top for tea or tinctured in alcohol. Ragwort (Senecio) Senecio anonymous (Southern), aureus (Golden), obovatus (Roundleaf): (Groundsels) Annual or perennial, full sun, 1-2 tall, alternate leaves. Although Indians used the herb for heart trouble and as a female remedy, it contains toxins that increase blood pressure, cause liver damage, and has cancer-causing compounds. Raspberry, Red (Rubus) Rubus idaeus (Wild Raspberry), Rosa family: Raspberry leaves are among the most pleasant-tasting of all herbal remedies, with a taste much like black tea, without the caffeine. Raspberries were said to have been discovered by the Olympians gods themselves while searching for berries on Mount Ida. The first records of domestication come from the writings of Palladius, a Roman agriculturist. King Edward the 1st (1272-1307) was said to be the first to call for mass cultivation of raspberries, whose popularity spread quickly throughout Europe. Leaf tea was given to native women. Properties: Sour remedy for hot, irritated tissues. Flavonoids, tannins, elagic acid. Prepare: Leaves are gathered in spring before the plant flowers for the highest antioxidant content. To make raspberry leaf tea, pour 1 cup over 1-2 tsp dried leaf, sweeten to taste. During pregnancy, drink 2-3 cups daily, warm. Tea can be mixed with slippery elm powder to make a soothing poultice for minor burns and skin infection. Some make tinctures with Partridgeberry for use by expectant mothers. Many herbal teas include raspberry to "stabilize" the other ingredients. Internal: Leaf tea has been used for centuries as a folk medicine to treat canker sores, cold sores, gingivitis, anemia, leg cramps, diarrhea. Beneficial during pregnancy, for morning sickness and as a uterine relaxant.

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Red Bud (Cercis) Cercis canadensis: (Judas Tree) Internal: Inner bark used as an astringent for diarrhea, wet coughs, inner bleeding because of the tannins. Cook beans, roast older beans. Edible flowers. External: Good for bleeding and poison ivy. Seeds and flowers have been used for tinnitus. Prepare: Make a tea out of bark or leaves as a gargle for a hoarse sore throat. Low boil 1 cup inner bark or the green been in half gallon water for 20 min. Use hot tea as gargle or in compresses, or sip on cold tea during day for internal bleeding and diarrhea. Cook and eat the beans or roast them to take the bite out of the tannins. Flowers have a bean taste and are good on salads. Red Clover See Clover (Trifolium). Red Root or NJ Tea (Ceanothus) Ceanothus americanus, Buckthorn family: (Mountain Sweet, Tobacco Brush, Deer Brush, and Wild Snowball) Perennial woody shrub to 3, dying partly back annually, part sun, extremely tough, drought tolerant, cold hardy. Excellent permaculture plant, nitrogen fixer. Native to Appalachia with showy, lilac-scented white flowers in clusters early summer. Its root is bitter and its tea has a bite. Used as a substitute for tea during the Revolutionary War. Natives used it to treat skin cancer, lesions, venereal sores, bronchial problems, and to treat fevers and problems of the mucous membranes such as catarrh and sore throats. TCM used it for lymph system support. As an astringent, it helps shrink tissue. Useful in mouthwash to relieve sore throat and help reduce dental plaque. Properties: Astringent and lymphatic with ceanothine and tannins. Internal: The astringent, expectorant, and antispasmodic actions are useful to treat asthma, bronchitis and coughs. Its astringency helps shrink tissue. Expectorant that loosens phlegm in the lungs and alleviates the discomfort of chronic bronchial issues. Fast acting for severe IBS. Stimulates the liver and spleen. For mouth ulcers, swish hot tea and swallow. For swollen prostate, use this or winter huckleberry (blackberry root is next choice). A gargle stops the sniffling and salivation with colds, flu, bronchitis, and asthma. Used in teas to stop dribbling of urine caused by UTI. Dont take if pregnant as it may interfere with the absorbtion of iron and other minerals. Prepare: Leaves and roots used. Tasty, non-caffeine substitute for black tea. Root bark used in tinctures, capsules, or as a natural dye. Boil 1 cup chopped root 30 minutes in 1/2 gallon, drink 1 cup daily. OR boil 1 tsp root/bark in 1 cup water, take 1-2 cups a day. Reishi (Ganoderma) Ganoderma lucidium: (Lucky Fungus) Reishi is that age old medicine cited thousands of years ago as a tonic for emperors. TCM likes it as a tonic for vital energy or "Qi", and it is popularly prescribed for many maladies. Reishi is a polypore mushroom, growing in damp, dark forests and the occasional rotting log. Modern day demand has forced its cultivation in Japan, China and the US which is promising for the wild stands of Reishi. Properties: An array of alkaloids, triterpine acids, ergosterols, fumaric acid, coumarins, lactone, mannitol, and many polysaccharides. 107

Internal: Has anti-aging properties. An effective treatment for cancer. Taken during chemo, can help reduce the side effects of fatigue, hair loss, loss of appetite, and infection risk. It is recommended as a daily dietary supplement and all research indicates that regular consumption is safe and effective. Prepare: The whole mushroom top, with as little shaft as possible. The larger the better. Tea decoction from the dried mushroom (1-8 grams dried per cup). Powdered mushroom is sprinkled on food or in beverages, as a liquid herbal extract, and as a capsule product from whole mushroom tops. Rhodiola (Rhodiola) Rhodiola rosea: ??

Rice (Oryza) Oryza sativa: Full sun. Use long grain brown rice. Fill plastic bucket with 6" dirt and potting soil. Add water to 2" above soil level. Toss rice in without stirring. Keep water 2" above soil until plants are 5-6" high, then make the water level 4". Dont water any more - let it almost dry. Harvest: Matures in fourth month. Stalks go from green to gold. Cut stalks, dry in warmth, wrapped in newspaper. Rose Hips (Rosa) Rosa canina, Rosacea family: Rose hips are small fruits that grow on the rose plant after it blossoms. They resemble small tomatoes growing at the tip of the stem and are usually red or orange. Natives used roses and hips as part of their cuisine for centuries. During WWII, Englanders got creative with rose hips in meals because citrus fruits were hard to come by with no overseas shipping allowed. All roses are edible, but we are most familiar with the roses cousins (plums, apples, blackberries). All have small, rose-like white or pink flowers before setting fruit. A rose hip is merely the fruit of the rose plant, but doesnt have much flesh beneath the skin. Instead, they are filled with tiny seeds covered with silky hairs. The skin of the hip, often tasting like an apple, is where most of the nutrition lies. Varieties: Wild roses grow throughout the world with thousands of varieties. Most have been part of the human diet. Look for R. rugosa that develops many large, bright red hips that look and taste like small apples. R. gallica is a favored old garden rose. The Dog Rose (R. canina or majalis) is cultivated specifically for vitamin C. We have Choctaw, Yellow Lady Banks, and wild varieties. Rose Hips Properties: Antioxidant. Sour remedy for hot, irritated tissues, especially intestinal, respiratory, and structural. A rich source of bioflavanoids, pectin, Vitamin E, selenium, manganese, B-complex, and trace amounts of magnesium, potassium, sulfur, and silicon. Internal: The antioxidant properties support the kidneys, liver, adrenals, and immune system. It shows promise for rheumatoid arthritis and joint pain. Harvest: As the petals fade, a green hip (hypanthium) begins to swell at the base of each blossom (it must be left on the plant to naturally fade and fall for hips to develop0. Gather from mid-Sept into Oct when fully red and ripe (before fall colors make the hips harder to see). An abundant source of hips is from wild hedgerows and thickets, where they can be gathered in quantities for cooking and storing. Drying takes about 2 weeks - they will be darker in color, hard, and semi-wrinkly. Prepare: Use to make soup, wine, jelly, and tea. A syrup can be made to ward off colds. The tea is a tasty beverage that can be made from fresh or dried hips. Steep 1 T of hips in 1 cup boiling water for 10 minutes, and sweeten.

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Rosemary (Rosmarinus) Rosmarinus officinalis (Official, Tuscan Blue), Mint family: F/P sun, avg-dry, 2-4 W, 3-4 H. Evergreen shrub with many cultivars that vary in size, shape, and flavor. Seed in spring (LDG). Best propagated by taking 3" stem cuttings in spring. Strip a third of the lower leaves and use a rooting hormone. Roots in 2-3 weeks. In heavy soil, use peat or compost. A bad transplant. Likes alkaline soil (add limestone) and good drainage. Zones 8-10 with at least 4 hours of midday sun. Some cultivars allow the temp to go below zero. "Tuscan Blue" is hardy to 5. Properties: Antioxidant, Ca, Mg, P, Na, K, A, C. Internal: Nervous system, memory, headaches, depression, colds, sore throat, digestion, detox. Infuse 1 tsp in 1 cup for 10 min, no more than 2 cups day for a week at a time. Contains rosmarinaric acid (as does Lemon Balm). The leaves contain 4 anti-inflammatory substances so, for arthritis tea, steep oz leaves in 1 qt for 30 minutes. Take 1 cup before bed and 1 in morning. External: Infusion of 1 cup dried to 2 quarts, steep 10 and strain. Use for sore muscle rub. Simmer to aromatize home. Repels beetles, fleas. Harvest: Leaves and flowers for veg or meat dishes. Prune to shape. Rudbeckia (Rudbeckia) Rudbeckia hirta (Gloriosa Daisy): (Blackeye or Browneye Susan) Has a yellow flower with a brown center. Internal: Use the root or entire plant. Antibiotic. Brown-eyed is almost as good as echinacea as immune stimulant, mainly the little brown button (seed head) in the center of the flower. Gray or green coneflower almost as good as brown. Rue (Ruta) Ruta graveolens: (Common Rue, Herb of Grace) Rue has a long history of use in both medicine and magic, and is considered a protective herb in both disciplines. The hardy evergreen shrub is mentioned by Pliny to Shakespeare, as an herb of remembrance, of warding and of healing. Early physicians considered rue an excellent protection against plagues and pestilence, and used it to ward off poisons and fleas. Once believed to improve the eyesight and creativity (Michelangelo and Da Vinci used the small, trefoil leaves for this). In playing cards, the symbol for clubs may be modeled on a leaf of rue. One of the most well-known of magical protective herbs and is often used in spells of warding and protection in modern magic. Properties: Caprinic, plagonic, caprylic and oenanthylic acids - also a yellow crystalline body, called rutin. Internal: Although used for centuries for both culinary and medicinal purposes, as well as in general use as a strewn herb to discourage pests, many herbalists suggest it should not be taken internally. Despite this concern, small amounts are often used in salads, egg dishes, and cheeses in Mediterranean countries, and herbalists may prescribe it in low doses to help with a variety of GI ills. Caution: There are concerns that rue is poisonous and can cause violent gastric reactions when taken in large doses. Best administered by a practitioner. It should not be taken by pregnant women because it may affect uterine contractions and blood flow. It should also be avoided by children and nursing women, and by those who are allergic to the plant. May cause photo toxicity in some individuals. Prepare: Leaves and stems used in tinctures and teas. The bitterness of the leaves is only evident in large doses. In smaller amounts, it imparts a pleasant, musky flavor to cream cheeses and light meats.Can also be made into a wash. 109

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Salvia/Sage (Salvia) Salvia officinalis (Garden Sage), elegans (Pineapple), Blue Anise Sage (guaranitica), Cherry Sage (greggii), Mealycup Sage (farinacea), Mint family: F/P sun, avg/dry, 2-3 W, 1-3 H. Small, evergreen shrub, lavender-balsam aroma. Well-drained, neutral to alkaline soil, drought resistant. Seed, divide, or layer older bushes in fall. For softwood cuttings, take 3-4 stem cuttings in spring and use a rooting hormone. Zone 4-8. Pineapple var good for butterflies, hummers. Spanish or narrow-leaf for medicinal. Internal: Antioxidant, A, B, C, niacin, K, Ca, Fe. Antiseptic, astringent, tonic herb. For fever, immune and nervous systems, uterus stimulatant, has expectorant and estrogenic effects, regulates sugar metabolism. Detox for arthritis/gout, digestion (especially after fatty meals). Prepare: Eat in small amounts. Steep small handful of leaves or flowers for 5 min, strain, sweeten. Seed makes a stimulating beverage, high in fiber and oil. External: Burn to cleanse air. Antiseptic for cuts, burns. Harvest: Pick leaves for fresh use (flavor for meat, dressing, sauce). For drying, cut before flowering. Dried leaves used in infusions, liquid extracts, tinctures. Dont crumble leaves until used. Cut new shoots to stimulate bushy growth. Chia Salvia hispanica): (California Sage, Chia Pet Seed) Likes limey soil, sow 3 W and thin to 1 apart. Grows 4 tall. A staple in Incan, Mayan, and Aztec cultures. Chia is the Mayan word for strength and the seeds were called "Indian Running Food". Warriors sustained themselves by bringing the seeds along on conquests. Used by Indians and missionaries as a poultice for gunshot wounds and other injuries. Properties: Digestive, disinfectant, febrifuge, and ophthalmic. High in easily digestible protein, soluble fiber, antioxidants, minerals. Contains EFA (alpha-linolenic and linoleic acid), mucin, strontium, 30% protein, Vitamins A, B, E, and D, and Ca, P, K, sulphur, Fe, iodine, Cu, Zn, NA, Mg, Mn, niacin, thiamine, silicon. Internal: Seeds are being used for their nutritional and medicinal properties, athletic endurance, appetite suppressant, weight loss, leveling blood sugar, and for aiding intestinal regularity. Chia seeds readily dissolve in water, creating a gelatin. This action is due to the soluble fiber in the seed. This same gel-forming phenomenon takes place in the stomach when seed is consumed, thus creating a physical barrier between carbohydrates and digestive enzymes and slowing the conversion of carbohydrates into sugar, thus helping with endurance and metabolic rates. The seeds are an appetite suppressant, and the gel may be used to replace food within recipes. Bulking up a meal with gel helps lessen the amount of food consumed, since gel is primarily made up of water. Chia gel may also be used in place of fats in recipes, even within baked goods. Chia seed has hydrophilic properties, absorbing more than 12 times its weigh in water. This can prolong hydration, help retain moisture and regulate more efficiently the body's absorption of nutrients and body fluids, including electrolyte balance. Prepare: The seeds (raw, cooked, or sprouted) have a pleasant nutty flavor. 1-4 T may be used daily, mixing into water, juice, or smoothie. Seeds can be ground into a powder and substituted for flax seeds in recipes. Sprouted seeds are added to salads and sandwiches. To make a gel, put 1/3 C seeds in a container, add 2 C water, and whisk briskly. Let sit 5-10 minutes, whisk again, and refrigerate. It turns into a gel, lasting up to 3 weeks. Take 3 T three x daily in cereal, yogurt, smoothies, etc. One pound seed makes 24 C gel.

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Sage Salvia officinalis: One of the more popular herbs in the Middle Ages through the 1700s, sage has drifted into lesser use as more delicate flavors grew more popular. It is enjoying a resurgence of late as it can flavor and preserve nearly any meat or cheese, and is often used in soups and salads. Properties: Thujone, camphor, borneol, bornyl esters, a-pinene and salvene. Internal: Shown to prevent blood clots from forming, and has a long tradition of healing and treating digestive ills. The VO thujone is hallucinogenic, addictive, and toxic when taken in excess. The plant and tea made from it should be avoided by pregnant women. Long term use is not recommended. Prepare: Leaves and stems. Dried or fresh leaves in food, and as a tea. Sometimes found in washes and cosmetics. White Sage Salvia apiana: Best for smudging. A few dried leaves curled up in the bottom of an abalone shell will ignite with the touch of a flame and emit a cloud of white, purifying smoke. Growing outside its native range can be challenging, but given the high value of the leaves, it is worth the effort. Sow seed shallowly in very sandy soil and water once daily (germ 14 days). Wait until the seedlings have their second set of leaves and transplant 2 apart. It loves a dry, sunny exposure with perfect drainage. Use a thick mulch of sand to improve heat retention and reflect light back up into plant. Hardy to 20, otherwise cultivate as an annual or bring indoors. Plants that overwinter will produce more northern-hardy seed. Santolina, Green (Santolina) Santolina virens, pinata: Evergreen perennial, fragrant foliage, 1-2 tall, full sun, well-drained, zone 7-9, dense mound. Button-like head of yellow flowers in spring. Useful in rock gardens, planters. Sarsaparilla or Briers (Smilax) Smilax officinalis, glauca, rotundifolia, ornata (Sarsaparilla), Lily family: (Sawbrier, Greenbrier, Catbrier) Shade, moist, perennial. Sawbrier has long vines with thorns and knobby roots, challenges kudzu as a creeping pest. One of top 10 herbs for the herbalist to keep on hand. The original sarsaparilla (red) drink. Makes an Irish briar pipe. The 19th century American ginseng. Properties: Anti-inflammatory, hormone precursors, blood tonic for liver and gallbladder. Internal: As with all Smilax, the root contains steroid precursors (normalizes testosterone) and is the only plant that contains both male and female hormone precursors (builds muscle mass in men and breast tissue in women). An anabolic agent for wasting conditions (TB). Put in muscle-builder formulas. A great blood tonic and purifier for liver and gallbladder (unlike an anabolic steroid that hurts your liver). An anti-inflammatory for arthritis and rheumatism (like a shot of cortisone). Also for coughs, cold. The tender tip is edible, used after menopause as a bone builder (the testesterone effect). External: Put in skin salve for acne, eczema, and psoriasis. Note: "Wild Sarsaparilla" for acne is not the same plant. Prepare: Boil 1 cup root (sarsaparilla) in 1 gallon for 30 min (note that the root is hard to get). Drink 1 cup twice daily. Tincture for better results. Drink as a tea for poison ivy, acne, psoriasis, and eczema. Mix with red clover, yellow dock, prickly ash.

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Sassafras (Sassafras) Sassafras albidum, Lauracea genus: Deciduous tree to 65 tall. Likes woods and thickets. Note that the isolated chemical "safrole" is considered illegal. Properties: Antiviral, great blood tonic and purifier. Internal: Stems are aromatic, but roots are best for boiling to make root beer tea. Used for liver, gallbladder, thick blood (tonic gets blood moving), glandular system, cancer, fever, colds (a diaphoretic makes you sweat like boneset). Gives strength and energy all day. Its alterative and diuretic properties make it useful in rheumatic conditions and gout. External: Soak center of medium-size stem (pith) in hot water for sore or pink eye. Tea makes hair grow and conditions it. Put on bruises. Also for shingles. Prepare: Use dried leaves for file gumbo (thickening agent for soups), chew for mucilage, sleep aid, dreams. Low boil 2 handfuls chopped root in half gallon for 20 min. Drink a hot cup to sweat or sleep. Mix with Yellow Root (drink daily for both antiviral and antibacterial activity), or for a sleepy-time tea. Dr. Porcher: For measles, mumps, pneumonia, rheumatism, bronchitis, fevers, and colds. The roots and leaves were gathered dried and used as a substitute for flaxseed, marshmallow root and gum arabic. Lice-ridden soldiers used an infusion of the leaves as a hair wash. A hot infusion of the bark and roots was used to promote perspiration in the treatment of fevers. Savory (Satureja) Satureja montana (Winter Savory): Full sun, Avg moisture, 1 W, 1 H. Mint family, aromatic shrub. Propagate by seed (LDG) or stem cuttings in summer. Likes well-drained soil. Has a strong, pine flavor used in game meats and pates. Satureja hortensis (Summer Savory): Milder than winter savory and used in a wider variety of foods. Georgia savory has pink flowers in late summer and is a heat-tolerant substitute. Internal: Carminative. Harvest: Cut pre-flower tops often, shade dry, rub out stems for perfect spice. Saw Palmetto (Serenoa) Serenoa repens, Palmae family: (Sabal serrulata, Palmetto scrub, Cabbage palm) A miniature palm growing 2-4 high, likes sandy flatlands from SC to South TX. Used as a food source and general tonic for natives in FL, and a survival food for early settlers. American botanist John Lloyd noted the positive effects the fruit had on grazing animals and concluded that this may very well carry over to humans. By the 1870s, it was used widely for general health and disposition, and an appetite stimulant. It fell out of favor in the 1950s as science could not seem to account for the observed actions of the berries. Once the preferred treatment for prostate disease, it regained its status in the 1960s when researchers demonstrated positive effects on the prostate. Properties: Sour remedy for hot, irritated tissues. Contains beta-sitosterol, capric acid, ferulic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid. Internal: May help heal Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatitis by stopping the conversion of 5-dehydro-testosterone into testosterone, but the whole berries have a gentler effect on the hormone producing effects which help preserve male potency, while offering a wider range of effects to treat the conditions. In cases of prostate infection, the berries gently stimulate urination, thus flushing out the infectious microorganisms. Other modern uses include natural breast enlargement and for hair loss (not verified). According to the German E Commission monograph, there have been extremely rare cases of stomach problems. 112

Prepare: Whole berries, dried and cut or powdered. Used in teas, tinctures, capsules. Schizandra (Schizandra) Schizandra chinensis: (Magnolia Vine) An ornamental plant found in many fine gardens throughout the world, it is a woody vine with oval pink leaves and bright red berries and can grow upwards in a creeping fashion. Chinese folklore says it can calm the heart and quiet the spirit, and it has a long history in TCM. Used as a male tonic and adaptogenic. Its Chinese name is wu-wei-zi, which means five taste fruit (sour, sweet, bitter, warm, and salty). TCM used it as a lung astringent, coughs, and asthma, as well as the vines and roots for painful joints and rheumatism. It is said to help with wei chi, the defense energy of the body, helping to build resistance to infection. Russian hunters consumed it for centuries as a tea to help with fatigue. Properties: Sour remedy for hot, irritated tissues. Up to 19% of the fruits weight consists of lignans. Internal: Studies suggest it can help those with hepatitis. The lignans in the berry protect the liver by stimulating cells that produce needed antioxidants. Because of its adaptogenic properties, it has been applied next to some herbal medicines like Ginseng as a stimulator for the central nervous system, increased brain efficiency, improved reflexes, and an accelerated rate of endurance. Because it is a mild sedative, it allows lower doses of prescription tranquilizers. May cause GI upset in some. Should not be used by pregnant women as it is a uterine stimulant. Prepare: The whole or powdered berry. Asian users take 1 tsp daily. It makes a lovely infusion in fruit juice. Pour cup in 1-gal of a dark fruit juice and soak for 1 day. Strain and drink as necessary. Can also be added to tea decoctions, herbal brews (soft simmer) and is effective as a liquid herbal extract and herbal capsule. You can make an effective syrup by soaking berries in Glycerin for 1 month. Sedum (Sempervivum) Sempervivum tectorum (Henand-Chicks - left), Stonecrop (Crassulacea) family: Evergreen perennial succulent, hardy up to zone 5. The flowers are hermaphrodite (self-fertile - both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees and flies. The name Crassulaceae means thick or dense. The genus name Sedum means to sit, because they tend to creep along, low to the ground. Sow tiny seed on surface and keep moist until germ. Prefers well-drained soil, tolerates dry and nutritionally poor soil, but cannot grow in the shade. Likes dry, sunny locations on rocks (hence the name stone crop), roofs, and walls. Established plants are drought tolerant. Can be invasive, spreading at the roots. Internal: All sedums have edible leaves, although the species with yellow flowers may cause stomach upsets if eaten in quantity. The leaves, raw or cooked, are rich in C, but have a bitter acrid, lemony taste. The main interest in this plant is as a survival food, since it grows wild in the driest deserts as well as in arctic conditions. The herb is a laxative, an oral astringent for a sore throat. Best used fresh during the spring and summer. In Asia, sedum is sold as a medicinal herb as a general gastric and renal regulator, and a source of herbal estrogen. External: A substitute for aloe vera - the slime is good for burns and cuts. Good corn remover, can bring boils to a head. The bruised fresh plant is applied as a poultice to wounds and minor burns (may cause some skin irritation). A homeopathic remedy is made to treat piles and anal irritations. 113

Harvest: It is best to dry the leaves (which can be difficult because they are very fleshy), then powder them. Add to salads as a peppery spice, cook with other vegetables, or add to soup. Sedums with yellow flowers lose their toxicity when cooked. Varieties: White Stonecrop: Leaves used in a soothing application for hemorrhoids. Biting Stonecrop: Taken to get rid of worms. Sedum telephium: For diarrhea when the leaves are boiled in milk and taken 3-4 times a day. Also good for the kidneys, piles, and hemorrhages. Self Heal See Heal All or Self Heal (Prunella). Senna (Cassie) Cassie senna, hebecarpa (Wild), alexandrina, Partridge Pea (Cassia or Chamaechrista fasciculata), angustifolia, Pea family: (Alexandrian, Khartoum, and Tinnevelly senna) Annual or herbaceous perennial to 4 tall, F/P sun, dry, open thickets. Yellow flowers on mimosa-like leaves, attracts butterfies. 1" flowers with five bright petals, reddish purple spots at the base, 4 of 10 stamens have yellow anthers and 6 have purple ones. Flowers summer, fall. Pinnately divided into 10-15 pairs of small leaflets which fold together when touched. The sennas are scrubby desert plants of North Africa. Used worldwide for thousands of years as a laxative. Properties: 1-3% hydroxyanthracene glycosides, mainly sennosides A and B, which are rheindianthrones, and smaller amounts of sennosides C and D; flavonoids (derivatives of kaempferol and isorhamnetin); 10-12% mineral matter; 7-10% mucilage (galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid); about 8% polyol (pinitol); sugars (glucose, fructose, and sucrose); and resins. Internal: Chew 2 leaves in afternoon for a strong stimulant-type morning laxative. Encourages bowel movement by inhibiting the smooth muscles that retain stool and stimulating the smooth muscles that push stool through the intestine. The herb doesn't work unless the sennosides are transformed into rheinanthrones by beneficial bacteria in the colon. The leaf of senna is fairly powerful and for a more mild effect, it is recommended that you use the pods. Caution: If you experience cramping or abdominal pain, you've taken too much. Don't take senna or any other stimulant laxative if you take Lasix (furosemide) - can lead to potassium depletion. Do not use over extended periods as it is a bulk forming laxative and must be taken with adequate fluids. Prepare: Dried leaf, and/or pods. Usually as an extract, capsule or tablets. Can be taken as a tea. Sesame (Sesamum) Sesamum indicum: (Benne, Ajonjoli, Tahini when ground) Sesame seeds are thought to be the world's oldest condiment, one of the first plants to be used for edible oil, and an integral part of eastern cuisine for thousands of years. Archeological evidence shows that the use of sesame oil as a food goes back to at least 3000 BC, and that Babylonians were using it for a base for their perfumes. They were used as a tonic for kidney and liver ailments, and as a mild laxative. The phrase "open sesame" was used to open up a sealed cave where a group of thieves resided. The reason this term was used is because a ripe sesame seed pod will burst open at the slightest touch. Properties: Sesamin, sesamolin, sesamol, sesami indicin, oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, arachic acid, glycerol, calcium, vitamin E. Internal: The seeds contain lignans, which contains sesamin, a remedy for high blood pressure, the early stages of high cholesterol, and for postmenopausal women. Improves blood lipids and antioxidant ability. Decreases cholesterol. In TCM, seeds fortify the liver and the kidneys, relieve blurred vision, tinnitus, and dizziness, and help patients recover from lengthy illnesses. They also relieve constipation caused by inactivity. Avoid with diarrhea, and if you are allergic.

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Prepare: Whole seed, often dry toasted or steamed just prior to use. May be sprinkled liberally on food. Shavegrass (Equisetum) See Horsetail or Shavegrass (Equisetum). Sheep Sorrel (Rumex) See Sorrel (Rumex). Shepherds Purse (Capsella) Capsella bursa-pastoris, Mustard family: (Lady's Purse, Mother's Heart, Shepherd's Bog, Case weed, Pick Pocket, Witches pouch) A biennial weed with an erect stem emerging from a rosette of leaves at its base. It bears four-petal white flowers that produce heart or purse-shaped seedpods. Its name comes from its resemblance to a shepards pouch in the middle ages. All aerial parts are used in herbal medicines. During the 1800s, it was used by doctors as the principal remedy for uterine bleeding, especially if ergot and goldenseal were not available. TCM adds it to formulas to brighten vision (to correct blurriness and spots before the eyes). Used for swelling and UTI. The E Commission reports its use internally for menorrhagia, and metrorrhagia, and topically for nose bleeds and superficial bleeding skin injuries. Properties: Ascorbic acid, beta-sitosterol, choline, citric acid, diosmin, histamine, inositol, rutin, tannic acid, tannins. Internal: Contains a protein that acts in the same way as the hormone oxytocin, constricting the smooth muscles that support and surround blood vessels, especially those in the uterus. Other chemicals may accelerate clotting. Other compounds help the uterus contact, explaining the long-time use of the herb to help the womb return to normal size after childbirth. Extracts are used as an ingredient in many drugs and teas used to treat PMS. Also a mild diuretic, providing potassium to replace that lost through increased urination. Not recommended with severe liver or kidney disease. Prepare: Seed pods, crushed before making tea. Used in teas, tinctures, and capsules. Shiitake (Lentimus) Lentimus edodes: (Oriental Black Mushroom) Grows on oaks, close to Reishi, native to China, prized in TCM for over 6,000 years. Chinese believe that shiitake are more like animals than plants, and are even thought to have a social aspect to their lives. They are now the second most cultivated mushroom in the world. In the 1930s, the Japanese developed a way to cultivate them using saw cuts in wood, and by drilling holes in cut wood. The various nutrients are found to reduce cholesterol, inhibit the growth of cancer cells, and contain the highest concentration of a potent antioxidant of any other food tested. Cultivation: Hardwood trees (such as beech, oak, birch, chestnut, alder, maple, cottonwood, willow, and poplar) are suitable. Oak logs produce mushrooms intermittently each summer for 56 years before they rot. Properties: lentinan, eritadenine, iron, vitamin C, protein, L-ergothioneine, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, B2, B12, and high levels of vitamin D. Internal: Anti-tumor, antiviral, possible treatment for severe allergies and arthritis, proven to reduce cholesterol. Excellent source of protein, source of trace minerals, B, and D. Prized for their smoky, rich flavor and health-giving properties. Modern medicine has confirmed that the constituents are beneficial in fighting cholesterol and its related ills, and may help reduce the risk of cancer as well as encouraging the growth of natural cancer fighting cells in the body. As a food, it has all 8 essential amino acids in a higher, more condensed proportion than soy beans, meat, or eggs. Caution: If you are prone to gout or kidneystones, or any other health condition 115

related to uric acid, it's best to limit your intake of shiitake mushrooms as they contain a substance, purine, which can be broken down to form uric acid. Prepare: The fungus (whole mushroom) is eaten raw, cooked, or reconstituted from dried mushrooms. Added to soups and sauce and sauteed with vegetables, meat or tofu or eaten in salads. Also used as a tea, in capsules and as an extract. Silver Thorn (Eleagnus) Eleagnus (Croton): Not sure of name. It grows in lowlands, along creeks, invasive, likes shade. Has great-smelling flowers (late summer?). Can make jelly and wine from the ____. Olive complexion with top of leaf more colorful and darker than the dull underside. Thorny Elaeagnus (Elaeagnus pungens): Zones 6-8, Sun to part shade, Spreading, dense, pendulous branches, 812' or 6-10', Fragrant flowers in fall, spring fruited, attracts birds. Skullcap (Scutellaria) Scutellaria, Mint family: F/P sun, avg-moist, 1-3 H. Herbaceous perennial, division in spring, semiripe cuttings in summer. Flowers Jun-Sep. Pretty border for herb garden. Pinch out tops to encourage branching. Properties: Bitter. Secondly, it is an astringent, emmenagogue, digestive aid, refrigerant. Contains Ca, K, Mg. Internal: A pain reliever, sedative tonic herb that relaxes spasms, lowers fever, and stimulates kidneys. For nervous and compulsive complaints, insomnia, irritability, neuralgia. Excess causes giddiness, stupor, confusion, and twitching. It has been used to treat the weak, elderly, convalescents, achy individuals, delirium tremens (drug or alcohol withdrawals), epilepsy, seizures, PMS, nervous exhaustion, rabies, anxiety, hysteria, tension headaches, restlessness, insomnia, and neuralgia. It works well on conditions that are the result of fatigue and depression, and especially on conditions resulting from mental turbulence or emotional conflict. Its ability to strengthen the pulse, quiet the nerves, and promote restful sleep is what makes it one the best tonics around. It allows the body to rest peacefully, encouraging the body to heal itself. Its sedative qualities come from Scutellain, an effective sedative. It also contains catapol, bitter irridoids, volatile oils, and tannins. Its gentle action on the digestive system and nerves make it an excellent choice for those suffering from anemia. Increases appetite (for anorexia) and improves the blood. Its effect on the spinal cord nerves, the brain, and the sympathetic nervous system make it an excellent anti-spasmodic, although it is best combined with Lobelia, Cayenne, or some other nervine diffusive. As a sedative, it mixes well with Passion Flower, Wild Lettuce, or Oatstraw. It was used by Native Americans to bring on menstruation, thus making it an abortifacent. It should be used wisely during pregnancy or not at all. It is currently being used with ADD, and may offer some relief to those suffering from fibromyalgia. Prepare: Steep 1 tsp dried leaves in 1 cup and drink a mouthful throughout the day. Hot tea makes you sleepy, without any groggy feeling when you awake. Dry and grind up leaves to make pepper. The herb is rendered inert when boiled, and even high heat reduces its potency. Steep in warm water to maintain its qualities or better still tinctured. Because of poor preparation, many arent aware of its incredible healing abilities. The tea has a bitter unpleasant taste, though it does combine well with other herbs to improve its taste. Its bitter qualities are what make it a digestive aid. To really experience the benefits, take the herb for a long time. As a tincture, take small doses every 2 to 4 hours. Harvest: Harvest the leaves and flowers, although the entire plant is medicinal. Roots of the Baical variety can be dug in fall or spring from 3-4 year old plants and dried for a decoction. Other 116

varieties are usually cut when flowering and used for infusions, tinctures, or dried for tablets. Gathered in bloom when its potency is greatest. It is soluble in water and alcohol, though much more potent in alcohol. Eclectic Medical Journal: Tincture 1 lb herb to 8 oz alcohol after partially dried. If not tincturing, let it dry in shade and store in an airtight jar in the dark. S. Lateriflora (Official, Mad Dog, American): Part shade, moist, hardy to -20. Too lightcolored, low yielding, and low in curcumins. Whole plant used. The Cherokee used to promote menstruation. Had been found useful in treating rabies. S. baicalensis (Baical): Full sun/part shade, tolerates drought, sharp drainage, sow spring. Grows slow, but easiest to grow. hardy to -20. Dried root for contagious diseases. Has flavanoids that improve liver function and have anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. S. barbata (Barbat): Part shade, sow in spring. A detoxicant for certain cancers, liver diseases, poisonous bites, and pharyngitis. Slippery Elm (Ulmus) Ulmus fulva (Slippery), americana (American), rubra: (Red), alata (Winged), parvifolia (Lacebark): (Top 30 Herb) The Slippery Elm is on the at-risk list primarily because of Dutch Elm disease, but also because most of the big trees have been harvested, leaving only smaller ones. It has serrated leaves like the elm, but its leaves are larger than other American varieties, have an oblique base, and are rough feeling on both top and bottom. Unfortunately, Slippery Elm has also been used as an abortifacient (ability to induce an abortion). The sale of whole bark has been regulated in several states by elm stick laws which forbid the sale of large pieces. The sale of whole bark has been banned in several countries. Properties: Mucilant for hot, irritated tissues, especially digestive. Internal: Treats anything related to the stomach and intestines. Coats the GI track for constipation, diarrhea, IBS, sore throat, and ulcers (chew on inner bark and swallow slimy juice for these conditions). Reduces inflammation, regenerates tissue. For food poisoning, the powder combines with (buffers) poisons in the stomach and bowels to decrease toxic absorption. Helps neutralize excess stomach acid, and the mucilage may cause the stomach to produce more of its own protective mucous. Nutritionally rich and easy to digest, it can be ground into a gruel which one could survive on solely for a time (used as a survival food by early settlers, and Washingtons soldiers during the winter at Valley Forge). The winged elm is a general astringent. Dr. Schultzs top herb for emergency is Slippery Elm. External: Anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial. Coarsely ground powder is good for use in poultices that provide relief for wounds, burns, boils, shingles, and skin inflammation. Useful because it has a cohesive quality that helps hold other herbs together. Prepare: The mucilaginous inner bark is stripped, dried, and pounded into a powder. The powder is nutritious as an easy-to-digest food for invalids to build their system and allow digestion of other foods. Same food value as oatmeal. Other Uses: The inner bark is fibrous, strong, durable, and can be spun into thread, twine, or rope. It can make bow strings, clothing, musical instruments, and woven mats. The wood is shock resistant because of the interlocking grains, and is used for wagon wheels hubs. Once cured, the wood grinds into a flammable powder under friction, excellent for firemaking.

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Smart Weed (Polygonum) Polygonum hydropiper or pensylvanicum, Nettle family: (Pennsylvania Smartweed, Knot Weed, Ladies Thumb) Loves water. Internal: Antiviral, a catalyst (potentiator) with other herbs, good for kidney, diarrhea, GI problems, great in tonics, one of most useful herbs found in nature. Prepare: Dry seed heads to put in soups (tastes like black pepper). Boil a handful leaves in 1 quart for 5 min. Tincture even better (soak 2 large handfuls leaves in quart of alcohol for 1 week). Take 1/2 tsp twice daily. Solomons Seal (Polygonatum) Polygonatum odoratum, biflorum (Giant), Lily family: Herbaceous perennial moist woodland, 1-3 tall, zone 3-9, flowers droop from leaf axils, not in terminal clusters like False Solomon Seal. When the plant's stalk withers away from its root in fall, it leaves a scar shaped like a star of David, hence the common name. Known in Chinese as "jade bamboo", it was used for the lungs and stomach since the Divine Husbandman's Classic of the Materia Medica (over 2,000 years old). Properties: convallamarin, convallarin, quercitol, vitamin A. Internal: All parts used. Root can be eaten raw, good for IBS, joints (lubricates ligaments). Berry is delicious, but seed is very hard. In TCM, used to moisten dryness, relieving symptoms of cough, dry throat, irritability, or thirst. It also extinguishes wind, sometimes by relieving flatulence, but also by stopping pain and spasms of various kinds. Because its effects are gentle, it can be used by weak constitutions. A somewhat cold and sweet herb, it is considered a yin tonic and can help lower blood pressure. Avoid with nervous stomach or other digestive disorders. Prepare: The rhizome should be long, thick, and yellow-white. Make teas with other herbs. Used with coix (Job's tears) to relieve chest congestion. Used with mint and soy to treat allergies, asthma, and infections after exposure to heat or cold. May also be taken as a capsule or extract. False Solomans Seal (Maianthemum or Smilacina racemosa), Lily family: Perennial, 1-2, flowers in terminal clusters. Sorrel (Rumex) Rumex acetosella (Sheep), acetosa (Garden?), Buckwheat family: Same genus as Yellow Dock (Rumex), but not the same as Wood Sorrel (Oxalis). Herbaceous perennial, F/P sun, moist, 3 tall. For garden sorrel grown as an annual, sow March-April (LDG), thin to 10", hardy to 12. Sheep Sorrel Rumex acetosella: (Common Sorrel, Garden Sorrel, Dock, and Red Sorrel) Regarded as a noxious weed, but the small, creeping plant has a long reputation as medicinal. It has been used to treat diarrhea, cancer, fever, and scurvy. It has some culinary value as a garnish and a tart flavoring agent in salads and soups, a main ingredient in Chinese hot and sour soup. Properties: Glycosides: Hyperoside, quercitin-3d-galactoside, Anthraquinones: Emodin, aloe emodin, chrysophanol, rhein, physcion, Vitamins: A, B complex, C, D, E, K, oxalates, tannins.

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Internal: Ingredient in Essiac anti-cancer formula (LINK). Reported as a treatment for fever, scurvy, cancer, and inflammation, but not proven. Sorrel does make a wonderfully cooling beverage and soup, and its tart flavor is a perfect foil for hot and spicy herbs and seeds. Caution: The anthraquinones may stimulate peristalsis and increase mucous production in the intestines, which may promote diarrhea rather than curing it. Because it contains oxalic acid, do not use in large amounts for extended periods as it can cause mineral deficiencies and liver damage. People with rheumatism, arthritis, gout, or kidneystones should avoid sorrel as it can worsen their conditions. Prepare: All aerial parts used. Get only a few leaves from each plant at a time. Good addition to salads or in soups and sauces. Leaves best picked young as they get astringent with age. Also used in tea, soup and chilled beverages Sourwood (Oxydendrum) Oxydendrum arboreum: (Sorrel Tree) Often leans and the stems shoot straight up, therefore good wood to make arrows or spears. Internal: Easy-to use medicinally. Chew on leaves (sour like a pickle) or inner bark for ulcers, gas (acts like an antacid). Relieves hunger and thirst. Sourwood honey can ease ulcers. A refrigerant that cools fevers from the core, not by sweating. Has oxalic acid, so do not use with kidneystones. Harvest: When tree leans over, the limbs go straight up - good to make arrows. The sap in spring may be clear, but causes a blue/purple stain that lasts weeks. Leaves make good jelly. Sow Thistle (Sonchus) Sonchus arvensis, Aster family: From distance, looks like wild lettuce, has hollow center. Most of the species are annuals, but a few are perennial. Annuals are known as sow thistles. All are characterized by soft, somewhat irregularly lobed leaves that clasp the stem and initially form a basal rosette. The stem contains a milky sap and get 1-6 tall. Flower heads are yellow and range in size from 1/21", the florets are ray type. Sow thistles are common roadside plants in temperate regions. Sow thistles exude a milky latex when any part of the plant is cut or damaged, and it is from this fact that the plants obtained the common name, as they were fed to lactating sows in the belief that milk production would increase. Sow thistles are common host plants for aphids. Gardeners may consider this a benefit or a curse. Aphids may spread from sow thistle to other plants, but alternatively the sow thistle can encourage the growth of beneficial predators such as hoverflies. In this regard sow thistles make excellent sacrificial plants. Internal: In traditional medicine, it has nearly the same properties as Dandelion. Edible as a leaf vegetable. Old leaves and stalks can be bitter, but young leaves have a flavor similar to lettuce. When cooked, the flavor is like chard. External: Latex used for warts, moles, sunburn, and other skin disorders. Speedwell (Veronica) Veronica americana, officinalis (Gypsyweed, Physic Root): Small, perennial, 612" high with a semi-climbing stem, adorned with oval, small flowers growing in lateral clusters. Likes acid and moist grasslands and the edge of deciduous forests. Can be confused with skullcap and other mints, but has round stems. Edible and nutritious with a flavor similar to watercress. Indians used it as an expectorant tea to alleviate bronchial congestion with asthma and allergies.

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Historically considered a panacea, herbalists once used it for a variety of symptoms and it was thought of as a medicinal staple. Properties: Organic acids, sugars, red pigment, flavonoids, bitters, resin, tannins. Internal: Speedwell tea, brewed from the dried flowering plant, is a cough remedy. The somewhat bitter and astringent taste and green tea-like smell led to its use as a tea substitute in 1800s France, where it was called "Europe Tea". External: Tea used as a lotion for irritated or infected skin. Prepare: Whole plant. Tea prepared from the dried flowering plant is a diuretic and expectorant. Eat raw in a salad in early spring or add to soup. In a decoction: 1 flowering stem or 1/10 oz in 1 cup helps treat edema, digestive discomfort and, over the long term, chronic skin disorders. These can also be treated with external lotions: 2/3 oz of the whole plant in 1 cup boiling water and strained in a compress applied to the area to be treated. Multipurpose Springtime Tincture: 1 cup slightly acidic white wine, 1.75 oz whole, fresh speedwell (early summer). Chop in a food processor and add the wine. Let stand for 1 month, shaking every 2-3 days. Strain. Consume over the course of a year. For sluggish digestion, intestinal insufficiency or eczema, take 1 t (5 ml) before each meal. Spice Bush (Lindera) Lindera, Lauraceae family: (Spicewood, Benjamin Bush) A genus of 80-100 species of flowering plants, with 3 in eastern NA. The species are shrubs and small trees. Leaves are either deciduous or evergreen, alternate, entire or three-lobed, and strongly spicy-aromatic. The flowers are small, yellowish, with six tepals. The fruit is a small red, purple or black drupe containing a single seed. From Dr. Porcher: A wonderful stimulant and tonic, used in the treatment of fevers and as a substitute for green teas as a beverage. It found some use in the treatment of bruises and for rheumatic limbs. A hot infusion of the twigs and leaves caused profuse perspiration and was used for pneumonia, coughs and colds. It was also used as a substitute for allspice. Spikenard Aralia racemosa, Ginseng family: (Fleabane, Manroot, Wild Sarsaparilla, Indian Root, Life-ofMan, Old Man's Root, Petty Morel, Pigeon Weed, Spignet) Named in the Old Testament as one of the ingredients in the incense burned in the holy temple of Jerusalem. The powdered root is cited in some Islamic traditions as the forbidden fruit Adam ate in the garden of Eden against God's wishes. In medieval Europe spikenard was part of the spice blend used in Hypocras, a sweetened wine drink. Native to the Eastern US, spikenard is a fragrant plant with a pungent root. The root has a spicy, earthy aroma said to repel fleas. It has been used as a poultice to treat broken bones and deep bruising. Used to treat rheumatism, syphilis, coughs and cold symptoms, and shortness of breath. In the Appalachians, root tea is a traditional treatment for backache. It has a mild, pleasant licorice like flavor, and has been often used as a substitute for sarsaparilla. Constituents: Volatile oil, tannins, and diterpene acids. Internal: This member of the ginseng family has often been used as a substitute for sarsaparilla, and is used in many of the same ways. It is known to be an alterative, have antimicrobial action and may act as an expectorant in upper respiratory coughs caused by asthma conditions. Like ginseng, spikenard can help the body adapt to stressful situations. The essential oil is grounding, calming, and anti-fungal. Prepare: Decoction of the root as a tea, seldom found in extracts and capsules. Spinach (Spinacea) Spinacea oleracea: Feb 15-Mar 15, Aug 15-Sep, 4-6 W. Likes cool temps, short days (fall better than spring), successive sow every 2 weeks, pH 6.5 - 7.5 (sprinkle limestone in rows), water regularly. Temp > 60 first 6 weeks may cause bolting. Mulch to keep roots cool. May overwinter 120

for a spring crop. Smooth-leaf types do better in summer. Savoyed (crinkled) types do better in cool temps. Seeds dont store well. Used medicinally and for its nutritional properties. Properties: The leaves contain protein, iron, fiber, vitamin C, A, K, folic acid, Mn, Ca, P, Na, betacarotene, thiamine, riboflavin, carotenoids, niacin, chlorophyll, antioxidants, lutein, phytochemicals, and lipoic acid. Internal: Excellent source of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, builds red blood cells, boosts the immune system, provides energy, and contains chlorophyll. Shown to be effective for hypoglycemia, cataracts, heart disease, cancer, memory loss, stroke, osteoporosis and bone loss, increasing brain function, age-related cognitive problems, and circulation. The leaves are also used for their laxative and cooling properties, anemia, indigestion, to detoxify and cleanse the colon, in the treatment of difficult breathing, inflammation of the liver, jaundice, febrile conditions, urinary calculi, inflammation of the lungs, arthritis, and it relieves the temporary symptoms of asthma and allergies. Caution: Those with rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidneystones or hyperacidity should limit use. The leaves are high in oxalic acid. Prepare: Cut outside leaves as needed (2-3 leaves per plant every 10 days). Powdered spinach may be added to smoothies, stir fries, soups, casseroles, salad dressings, or other dishes. 1-2 capsules may be taken 1-2 times daily with meals. Spurge (Euphorbia) Euphorbia pubentissima (False Flowering Spurge), commutata (Wood), corollata (Flowering), Chamaesyce maculata (Prostrate): Annual or perennial. The name spurge mean to purge. Related to Christmas poinsettias. External: Prostrate Spurge is also called Milk Purslane for its milky sap, which is good for removing warts, molds, and skin cancers. Squash, Summer (Curcurbit) Curcurbit species: Apr, 1 W, 3 R. Warm season, soft-skin varieties. If planted in hills, space hills 3-4 apart and space rows 4-6 apart, with 3 plants in each hill. Slip a piece of cardboard underneath to prevent rot. Types: Yellow (Crookneck or Straightneck), Zucchini. Harvest: Check daily and get when 6" long. Keep picked at early maturity, as they taste better that way, and the plant will be stimulated to produce more flowers and fruits. Squash, Winter (Curcurbit) Curcurbita species: April, Jul 15-Aug 15, 2 W, 6 R. Hard-skin varieties. Plant in rows or hills of 57 seeds. Feed twice monthly with water-soluble plant food. Keep moist, but not waterlogged. Slip a piece of cardboard underneath to prevent rot. Good for long-term storage. Types: Acorn, Butternut, Pumpkin, Spaghetti. Pumpkin Seed Properties: X Internal: Pumpkin seeds are highly beneficial (the others probably less so): Anti-inflammatory. Beneficial for the teeth, gums, nerves, hair, nails. Relieve nervous exhaustion, because it contains L-tryptophan, a compound effective against depression. Relieve constipation, and catarrh (the condition of fluids running from mucous membranes). Stimulates appetite and helps reduce weight, Dissolve gallstones and help prevent the formation of kidneystones. Good for diabetics (like cucumber and bitter gourd). Promote overall prostate health and alleviate the difficult urination associated with an enlarged prostate (also has zinc for prostrate health). Contain phytosterols, compounds to reduce cholesterol and prevent some cancers. Helps 121

prevent osteoporosis because of its calcium content. For parasitic worms in the digestive tract, liquefy 3 T pumpkin seeds that have been soaked for 3 hours, a small onion, 1/2 cup soy milk, and 1 tsp honey. Take this amount 3 x daily for 3 days. Harvest: Should be left to mature on the vines and are usually harvested right after the first light frost. Cut the stems, leaving a stem nub on each fruit, to disallow formation of mold at the stem scar. Wash with cold water, dry in the sun, then store in a cool, dark, dry place. They develop sweeter flesh if allowed to cure for a week or more before eating. Seed Preparation: (Mainly for pumpkin, but other seeds in family will work) Can be eaten raw, baked, roasted, or toasted. Remove the excess pulp. Spread evenly on a paper bag to dry overnight. Place in a single layer on a cookie sheet and oven-roast at 160-170 F for 15-20 minutes. By roasting a short time at a low temperature you can help to preserve their healthy oils. Store seeds tightly sealed in the fridge. For a tasty salad dressing, grind seeds with fresh garlic, parsley and cilantro leaves, then mix with olive oil and lemon juice. Squaw Vine (Mitchella) Mitchella repens (repens means creeping), Madder family: (Twin Berry, Partridge Berry, Winter Clover) Perennial ground cover with 6-12 prostrate trailing vines. Grows in dry woods, among hemlock trees, and in swampy places. Takes two flowers to make one berry. Properties: tannins, glycosides, and saponins. Internal: Leaf tea used by women for menstrual, hot flashes, cramps, bladder infection. Indian and colonial women drank a tea 2 weeks before to ease childbirth. Nursing mothers applied a lotion to their breasts to relieve soreness. Helps stop postpartum bleeding. Squaw vine is still used to help women get through childbirth safely. Indians ate the berries and made them into a jelly, eaten in case of fevers. Has a calming effect on the nervous system and thought to improve digestion. It resembles in its action Pipsissewa, for which it is often substituted. Its also taken for menstrual trouble and to treat diarrhea and inflammation of the large intestine (colitis). External: Entire plant used as salve for hemorrhoids (with Jimsonweed). Prepare: Boil 1 tsp dried leaves in 1 cup for 5 min, drink one cup twice daily. Tincture by soaking 2 large handfuls leaves in quart of alcohol for 1 week. Take 1/4 tsp twice daily. Fruit tastes like a pithy apple. St. Johns Wort (Hypericum) Hypericum calycinum or perforatum: Woody-stem perennial. F/P sun, avg/dry, well-drained, sandy, 2 W, 18 H, LDG seed, divide roots in spring, cuttings in late spring to summer, likes sand. Blooms from about St. Johns Day (late June) to late summer. A useful ground cover for dry, barren, shady areas. Leaves are balsam-scented. Yellow, star-shaped, lemon-scented flowers. It rose from virtual obscurity to become the fifth best selling dietary supplement, after research showed that it was effective for mild to moderate depression. The Greek physician Hippocrates (460-377 BC) spoke of the health benefits and it as been used to treat anxiety, neurosis, and depression since the time of Paracelsus (1493-1541), when it was declared to be "arnica for the nerves." Folklore uses include treating bedwetting, rheumatism, and gout. The blossoms added to olive, sunflower, or wheat germ oil used for centuries for treating wounds and burns. Properties: Cooling, bitter, sedative, anti-inflammatory, astringent, and most famously as an antidepressant. Contains hypericin and related compounds, rutin, bitters, and tannins. Internal: James Dukes top 13 herbs. Anti-depressant for mild chronic depression and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Helps with SAD (increases sensitivity to sunlight), menopause, infections, 122

sleep, shingles, worms. May decrease effectiveness of birth control pills. For gout, relaxation of the nervous system is important when associated with stress or depression. Its diuretic properties assist the elimination of toxins. As a whole herb (as yet to be extensively researched) gives the body "just enough medicine" to overcome the physical aches and pains and mild viral infections that keep the brain from recovering from depression. Extracts may increase sensitivity to sunlight and risk of sunburn, but this is extremely rare when the whole herb is used. Not to be used with a MAO or Protease inhibitor. External: Antiviral and wound healer for burns, cuts, sprains, varicose veins, sunburn. Makes a dark red liquid or tincture good for burns. Use as an antiseptic wash, or make into a salve, for skin sores and bruises. Use infused oil or salve for burns and muscle or joint inflammations, including tennis elbow, neuralgia, and sciatica. Do not use on broken skin. Harvest: Leaves and flowers (shortly after blooming). Harvest flowers is midsummer on a dry morning (oil content is highest). Harvest the aerial parts in the fall by cutting 2" above ground with pruners. Prepare: Traditionally used as a tea, also used to make a red oil for use in liniments and lotions, but only from fresh material. Flowers are used as an infusion to soothe the digestive system, for anxiety, nervous tension, irritability or emotional upsets, especially if associated with menopause or PMS. A tincture is made from aerial parts and is used for long-standing nervous tension leading to exhaustion and depression and for childhood bed-wetting. Take for two months. Pine Weed (H. gentianoides): (Orange Grass) Looks like a thin grass. Tangy taste and smells good. Stevia (Stevia) Stevia rebaudiana, Aster family: (Sweet Leaf, Yerba Dulce, Sweet Herb of Paraguay, Honey Leaf) F/P sun, moist, rich soil, 12 H, 18 W. Tender perennial in temperate climates, well-drained soil, allow drying between good waterings. Hardy to 10 (for us, it died in ground, but was replaced with cuttings left inside during winter). Sow seed on surface (LDG), press in, keep moist and very warm. Native to South America and used for centuries to sweeten. Leaves are said to be from 30-300 times sweeter than sugar though the amount of sweetness varies from leaf to leaf and plant to plant. It adds no calories, has no harmful side effects, and is more palatable with less aftertaste than any artificial, chemical sweetener. Used in Japan since artificial sweeteners were banned. Stevia is one of the most promising sugar alternatives available. Stevoside is approved as a food additive in Korea, and is widely available throughout Asia. The tea is touted as anti-aging and for weight reduction. Properties: Diterpene glycosides, steviol, dulcoside, rebaudioside, isosteviol, stevioside, jhanol, flavonoid glycosides, quercetin. Internal: Treatment for hypoglycemia, digestive aid. Harvest: Use leaves as a sugar substitute in tea, food, and beverages. Sometimes in capsule or extract form. Most commercial stevia is a white crystalline color that is the dried powdered extract of stevia and not the whole leaf.

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Stone Root (Collinsonia) Collinsonia canadensis (Horsebalm, Stone Wort), serotina (Southern Horsebalm), Mint family: Upright, 1-4 herbaceous native perennial from a thick, hard, rhizomelike tuber, rich woods. Yellow flowers mid-summer smell like lemon or citronella. Whole plant has a pungent, spicy taste. Properties: Antiflamatory, stimulant, diuretic, calming nerve tonic, kidney medicine. The active chemical is collinsonin. Internal: The fresh root is used. Good for throat problems with garlic and honey. The name Clergymans Friend comes from the ability to help sore or hoarse throats (as gargle or tincture added to honey). External: Leaves are used as poultice for wounds, bruises, sprains. Prepare: Whole plant can be used. Use infusion or decoction. Strawberry (Fragaria) Fragaria vesca (domestic), virginiana (Wild): F/P sun, 6 W. Hardy perennial. Plant runners in spring or fall, sandy soil, pH 5.5-6.8. Space 15-24 apart in 3 rows. Produces end of April to June. Strawberry has 3 leaves and white flowers, Cinquefoil has 5 leaves and yellow flowers. Indian (barren) strawberry is what we have hollow on inside. Internal: Strawberries are high in C and have the highest total antioxidant power among major fruits and protect the body from cancer-causing, blood vessel-clogging free radicals. Infuse leaves as astringent for diarrhea, GI. Mix with St. Johns or Meadowsweet for arthritis or with celery seed for gout. The bitter root stimulates liver, digestion. The fruit relieves fever, constipation, gout. Whitens teeth. Harvest: Use leaves, fruit, root. Berries need to be harvested every other day during peak production. After plants are dormant, mulch with 2-4 straw. Move the mulch into the aisles in spring when the first new leaves show. Sumac (Rhus) Rhus glabra (Scarlet or Smooth-shown on left), copallina (Winged or Dwarf), aromatica (Fragrant), coriaria (Sweet Sumac), hirta (Staghorn), Cashew family: (Winged - berries spread out, not as pretty as Scarlet) (Staghorn is native farther north, a more fuzzy ornamental) Deciduous tree to 15, all zones. Only red berry var is good (poison sumac has a white seed head hanging downward and found near swamps). The sumac is a relative of poison ivy - its leaves can cause skin reactions, but its berries do not. Native in the Mediterranean, especially Italy and Iran. It is naturalized to most of the US. Sour and astringent, berries are used in place of lemon peel in Lebanese and Turkish cooking. Juice is added to salad dressings and marinades and the powdered form is used in stews and vegetable and chicken casseroles. A mixture of yogurt and sumac is often served with kebabs. Zather is a blend of sumac and thyme to flavor labni, a cream cheese made from yogurt. In Arabic and Unani medicine, used in herbal combinations to reduce fever. Romans used the juice to add a tart flavor to foods and for digestive complaints. Natives and Appalachian settlers used sumac for fevers, colds, and skin diseases. The bark was used for basket weaving, and the leaves, seeds, roots and berries for making different colored dyes for cloth.

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Properties: Calcium maleate, fatty oils, tannins, anthocyanins, and organic acids (malic, citric, and tatric acid). Internal: Fruit covered with a fuzzy layer of malic, ascorbic, or shikimic acid, high in vitamin C. Astringent full of tannins, a powerful antiviral, good for kidneys, diuretic good for flu, hemorrhoids, diarrhea, sinus, coughs, cold, mouth ulcers. A gently diuretic and laxative. Not for those with a history of liver or kidney conditions. Prepare: Red berries used to make regular or sun tea. Sweeten, take swallows 3-4 X daily. Gather bark before frost for flu treatment. Berries either used whole or dried and crushed to make a powder. Whole berries can be soaked in warm water for 2 hours and then mashed to release a lemon-like juice. Sumac Leaf Rhus coriaria: Besides being put to a wide variety of medicinal and culinary uses by natives, the leaves were applied as a poultice for skin ailments, and chewed to relieve sore gums. Usually used in cooking as a rub for kebabs before grilling and may be used this way for fish and poultry. The Middle Eastern spice mixture zatar contains sumac, thyme, and sesame. A mixture of yogurt and sumac is often served with kebabs. In folk remedies, the leaves were used as a medicine for mouth and throat diseases, upset stomach, fever, or bowel complaints. Due to tannins, the leaves have also been used as a tanning agent in the leather industry. Poison Ash (Rhus vernix) Smooth semi-evergreen swamp shrub. Neutralizes intestinal poisons, but is not poisonous. A laxative, diuretic, helps regulate the liver. A decoction of the inner bark pulls toxins out of system and is used for cirrhosis of the liver, jaundice, hepatitis, gallstones, and acute dyspepsia (upper abdominal pain, bloating). For an infusion, pour a cup of boiling water on 1-2 tsp bark for 10-15 minutes. Take 3 times a day. Sunflower (Helianthus) Helianthus annuus, Aster family: Full sun, dry, plant April, 1 W, 3-9 H. Absorbs water from damp areas, thus reducing diseases. Blooms mid summer. One of Indian Four Sisters (Corn, Beans, Squash and Sunflowers) Internal: Sore throat, colds, coughs, asthma. Seeds for fever, gout, arthritis and are rich in protein, Ca, Fe, K, Mg. Harvest: Use seeds, flowers, leaves. Swamp Sunflower (H. angustifolius): 3-6 tall. Persists by root crowns or spread by seeds. Jerusalem Red Artichoke (H. tuberosus): Herbaceous perennial, 3-9 tall. Native to the west, but naturalized in the east. Not related to the real Artichoke. Multi-stemmed plant makes small yellow flowers and big red tubers that are crunchy when fresh and when cooked make a soup like potato soup. Delicious if a bit gassy. The tubers are a valuable source of inulin and diabetic-friendly fructose. Possibly a cure for the common cold. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus): Full sun, avg moisture, 2 W 5 H. Globe type grown as an annual (hardy to 20). Internal: The flower (or head) is said to enhance sexual desire. Relieves excess water gain, reduces cholesterol, improves liver/gallbladder function. Cardoon or Globe: Herbaceous perennial (hardy to -10), grown like the globe type. High in folic acid and Mg. A liver stimulant and laxative.

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Sweet Gum (Liquidambar) Liquidambar styraciflua: The American Sweet Gum has hundreds of the bright green balls. A traditional stimulating expectorant, Sweet Gum has had a long and honored use in the South among all ethnic groups. Internal: The active anti-viral ingredient in Tamiflu is shikimic acid (usually derived from Star Anise). A tea or tonic is an excellent medicine for viral infections, bronchitis and, in particular, lung and sinus infections (a stimulating expectorant for coughs. The seed is the main source, but leaves, bark, and resin are also used. Prepare: Smash and freeze balls for tea or tincture later. Make a quart packed with vodka. Simmer and drink 30-60 drops 3 times daily, after getting the flu. Scar the tree trunk and in 3-4 weeks produces a golden red resin that is good for chewing (after it softens as it can pull fillings out). This resin is the best part to use for medicine. Add Lemon Balm and Heal All to your flu remedy. External: Works like cucumber tree bark to reduce inflammation of arthritis. Place a poultice of young leaves over area. Salve made by burning balls to an ash and mix with lard (resin works the same - good for wounds). Sweet Olive (Osmanthus) Osmanthus fragrens: Evergreen shrub, S/P, 8-10 or 12-15?, 6-8 apart, water regularly, do not overwater. White, fragrent flowers bloom repeatedly. Aromatic foliage, smooth-textured. Propagate from hard or softwood cuttings. Allow seedheads to dry on plant, does not store well; sow asap. Osmanthus americanus: (Devilwood, Wild Olive): Evergreen, S/P, 15-25, avg to wet, zone 6-9. Panicle of creamy white flowers early spring; fragrant, 0.5" dark blue-purple fruit in fall on females. Opposite, simple, leathery dark olive green leaves, 2-5" long; yellow-green winter color in sun. Fruit attracts birds, very strong wood, native to SE, drought tolerant once established. Burkwood Osmanthus (O. x burkwoodii): Dense, rounded evergreen shrub, zone 6-8, S/P, moist, well-drained, acidic soil, 6-10. Small white, fragrant flowers in spring. Opposite, simple, lustrous dark green leaves 1-2" long. Drought tolerant. Fortune's Osmanthus (Osmanthus x fortunei): Oval, compact, dense evergreen shrub, S/P, zone 7-10, moist, well-drained, acidic soil, 15-20. Small white fragrant flowers in fall. Opposite, simple, leathery, lustrous dark green leaves; 2-4" long, 10-12 spine-tipped teeth on each side. Drought tolerant, excellent for screening. Holly Tea Olive; Holly Osmanthus; False Holly: Dense, upright, oval to rounded evergreen shrub, zones: 6 to 9, S/P, moist, well-drained, acidic soil. 8-10. Small white flowers in fall; very fragrant; bluish purple-black drupes. Opposite, simple, leathery, lustrous dark green leaves; 1-2.5" long, spiny pointed. Drought and heat tolerant, can be severely pruned, makes a good screen. Sweet Potato (Ipomoea) Ipomoea, pandurata (Wild Potato Vine), purpurea (Common Morning Glory): Apr 15-Jun 15, 1 W, 3 R. Annual vine. Tolerates acidic soil. Keep soil moist to prevent cracked tubers. Feed with a low N plant food. Avoid planting in same place for 3-4 years. Yams and sweet potatoes are two unrelated species. Making Slips: Like white or red potatoes, sweet potatoes are grown from seed potatoes, but there is an extra step involved - making slips 8-10 weeks BLF. Stick 3-4 toothpicks around the circumference of a whole sweet potato about halfway down its length. Place in jar and fill with water, leaving half above the water line and propped up with the toothpicks. Soon it will grow roots in the water, and then sprouts (slips) appear on the part 126

above water. Once 4-5 long, they can be cut, planted in small pots of soil and allowed to root. From March-April, plant slips 3-4 deep, with 3-4 nodes (where a leaf attaches to the stem) beneath the soil. Once rooted, plant the slips 12-18 apart in rows 3-4 apart in well-drained soil. Harvesting: Plants cant tolerate frost and should be harvested BFF (late August up to first frost). At the latest, harvest before the vines are killed. If the vines get killed by frost, cut them. Harvest ASAP after cutting the vines because cold weather adversely affects the storage time. In short, harvest 2-3 weeks before the average killing frost in your area. Tony Glover (Botanical Garden): Right before first frost, cut the vines off, wait a couple days, water to moisten (prevents damage), then dig out a few potatoes. If there are huge ones with tiny roots, get them all because they are starting to make new roots (becoming fibrous and crack). If they arent huge with small roots forming, you can leave them in the ground until it gets down to 20 degrees. Wash them only right before eating. Curing: Break off the thin root parts that hang off and lay them on ground to cure for a few hours. Then place them in a ventilated warm, humid place, ideally between 85 to 90 degrees. Allow to cure for 2 weeks. Then, store cool/dry (55-60), but not below 50 degrees. Cooler temps encourage decay, warmer temps sprouting. Do not handle while in storage except to choose a few to cook, although they may be wrapped in newspaper. Curing correctly triggers sweetness and nutrition. It also seals wounds for a lengthy storage. The bathroom is a good place (keep the door shut for humidity). I. purpurea: This is the common Morning Glory. I. pandurata: (Wild Potato Vine - shown on left) A large, white morning glory with a red center. Big, tuberous root. Root tea used as diuretic, laxative, expectorant, for coughs, asthma, a blood purifier. Convolvulus: (Field or Hedge Bindweed) Has Morning Glory flowers similar to Wild Potato Vine, but without the reddish center. Sweet Shrub (Calycanthus) Calycanthus floridus: (Carolina Allspice) Deciduous shrub 3-10 tall, aromatic leaves, maroon or brown flowers. Found in moist woods. Internal: A tea made from the root and bark was used by the Cherokees as a diuretic for kidney and urinary complaints and as eye drops for vision loss.

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Tag Alder (Alnus) Alnus serrulata: (Smooth, Red, or Black Alder) Found on creek banks. Blooms in winter - get bark in late winter. Internal: A blood purifier, liver cleanser, and for thrush. Tannins and other astringents pull the moisture from a fungus, causing it to die. Prepare: Boil a handful of inner bark in a half gallon for 20 min, Drink 1/4 cup twice daily for diarrhea (too much can cause constipation). Scrape the bark from the base up. The inner bark makes an orange die.

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Tarragon (Tagetes) Tagetes lucida (Mexican Mint Marigold): F/P sun, avg moisture, 1 W, 2-4 H. Herbaceous perennial, hardy to 5 (zone 8-10). Easy stem cuttings. The Mexican var is a heat and drought-tolerant substitute for true culinary, French tarragon. Has anise-scented leaves. Harvest: When using in cooked dishes, add it at the end as heat tends to decrease its flavor. Unlike most other herbs, tarragon loses its flavor when dried. It is frequently preserved in vinegar, which captures its essence and creates a tasty condiment that can be used in dressings. Tea, Green, White, or Black (Camellia) Camellia sinensis (White, Green, Black), Aspalathus linearis (Rooibos): Tea is the agricultural product of the leaves, leaf buds, and internodes of various cultivars, processed and cured using various methods. Tea also refers to the aromatic beverage prepared from the cured leaves by combination with hot or boiling water, and is the common name for the Camellia sinensis plant itself. After water, tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. It has a cooling, slightly bitter, astringent flavor which many enjoy. The term herbal tea usually refers to infusions of fruit or herbs containing no actual tea, such as rosehip tea or chamomile tea. Alternative terms for this are tisane or herbal infusion, both bearing an implied contrast with tea. Properties: White tea contains EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate), which has been shown to significantly suppress colon cancer. Tea Tree (Melaleuca) Melaleuca alternifolia: Antiseptic (terpenes). Apply a few drops oil directly to the fungal infection 3 times daily. For sensitive skin, dilute with a few drops of vegetable oil. Dont ingest (like many essential plant oils, small amounts like a few teaspoons, can be fatal). Thistle (Silybum) Silybum marianum (Milk), Cirsium vulgare (Bull), Cnicus benedictus (Blessed), Carduus nutans (Nodding), Aster family: (Bull Thistle is more common here) Annual or biennial, big earth protectors, edible and/or medicinal. 15 tall. Self-seeds in spring or fall in full sun. Bright purple flower heads. Internal: (Milk Thistle) Liver remedy (silymarin) for jaundice, hepatitis, cirrhosis, gallstones. Helps liver regulate bile from gallbladder. A great liver support herb for cancer patients. Treats digestion, motion sickness, kidney, spleen, prostate disorders. Leaves and roots are high in chlorophyll removes toxins from system. Seeds also used. Improves detoxification and protection of liver and brain. A phytonutrient for diabetics. Dr. Schultzs top herbs for the liver and gallbladder are Milk Thistle and Barberry (Oregon Grape root can be substituted). James Dukes top 13 herbs. Milk thistle protects from liver damage and hepatitis. Contains phytochemicals that protect and heal the liver. Bitter herbs stimulate digestion and the liver and flush bile from the gallbladder. Prepare: Boil roots to make tea or use seed in tea. Fat soluble (take with food). External: For stings, crush to get out the liquid chlorophyll to stop the sting and neutralize the venom rapidly.

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Harvest: All parts edible. Young shoots and leaves (spines removed) are a delicacy, tap root cooked, unopened flower heads eaten like artichokes, seedlings added to salads. Split stem just below the bloom and eat the inner part to quench thrust. Blessed Thistle: Cnicus benedictus (Holy or Spotted Thistle, St. Benedict Thistle) A weed with prickly leaves and yellow flowers surrounded by purple spikes. Cultivated by monks in the 1500s where it gained the title blessed (benedictus) used to treat the black plague. Noted as a type of panacea in herbal texts primarily due to its use during the plague. Properties: Bitter principles, primarily cnicin. Antibacterial. Internal: Used to treat digestive ailments caused by insufficient secretion of stomach acid. The bitter taste triggers a reflex reaction that releases gastric juices into the stomach, especially those needed to digest fats. For this reason, it is helpful for loss of appetite, upset stomach, and gas, although it may be better to take the herb before these symptoms occur (such as before eating a fatty meal), rather than after. Prepare: Dried leaves, stems, and flowers. As a tea infusion, in capsules or as an extract, or externally as a poultice for boils and wounds. Thyme (Thymus) Thymus vulgaris (Garden/Common Thyme), Mint family: Shrubby, evergreen perennial, full sun, average to dry, well-drained, sandy soil, zones 5-8, little care. Attracts bees. Seed or divide in spring, layer in fall when center dies. Take 3 tip cuttings of new growth in summer (2 weeks to root). Properties: Antioxidant with A, D, niacin, P, K, Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn. Internal: Used to support respiratory health. Antiseptic, immune system, colds, sore throat, fevers, asthma, dry cough, digestion, gas. Infuse 1 tsp dry or 2 tsp fresh, strain, add honey. Dont drink too much with high BP or thyroid problems. Fenugreek & Thyme is a good lymphatic for respiratory system. External: Essential oil can be applied undiluted to infected nails (1 drop per nail twice daily). Harvest: Prune after flowering and in fall for bushy growth. Harvest halfway down and dry. Use in meat, soup, sauce, dressing, bean dish. Calamint, Nepitella (Calamintha) Calamintha nepata: (Basil Thyme, Mountain Mint) Sun, 6-8" high, avg moisture, culinary. Basil thyme grows 1-2 tall, creeping rhizomes, hairy perennial. Divide in spring, cuttings rooted in sandy compost for maximum survival. Has blunt, oval toothed, aromatic leaves (similar in shape to thyme). Flowers late summer from pure white to pink lilac, each 1/2 inch long. Flowers are in loose clusters on the very tips of the stems and branches. Calamint comes from the Greek kalaminthe (beautiful mint). Herbalists recommend using a decoction or extract to bring on perspiration to break a fever, or as an expectorant. None of these claims have been verified by present day pharmacological scientists. Toadflax (Linaria) Linaria: (Butter-and-Eggs) A genus of about 100 species of herbaceous annuals and perennials traditionally placed in the figwort family Scrophulariaceae. Due to new genetic research, it has now been placed in the vastly expanded family Plantaginaceae. The genus is native to temperate regions. The name means "resembling Linum" (flax), which the foliage of some species resembles. 129

Internal: Common toadflax is especially valued for its strongly laxative and diuretic activities. Internally it us used in the treatment of edema, jaundice, liver diseases and skin problems. Externally it is used in an ointment to treat hemorrhoids, skin eruptions, sores and ulcers. The juice of the plant is a good remedy for inflamed eyes, though should be used with caution. Dosage is critical and it should not be given to pregnant women, since the plant might be slightly toxic. Tomato (Lycopersicon) Lycopersicon lycopersicum, Nightshade (Solanacea) family: Apr-May. Best as transplants when soil temp > 60. Seed indoors 5-6 weeks BLF - can be worked up in larger pots until transplanting. Space at least 2 apart in every direction. Needs high P, Ca, low N. To prevent blossom-end rot, add horticultural lime or calcium nitrate fertilizer when planted. Use 8 stakes. Mulch well, water deeply and infrequently. Lack of iron causes leaves to turn yellow. Internal: Lycopene, an antioxidant which gives tomatoes their red color, helps remove free radicals and prevents formation of oxidized LDL. Lycopene is the most potent nutritional antioxidant found to date and is good raw or cooked (the bioavailability is greater when cooked). The human body does not produce lycopene alone and relies on its consumption. It protects against cancer of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, colon, prostrate, cervix, rectum, lung, bladder, and skin. Lycopene is deposited in the liver, lungs, prostate gland, colon, and skin. Its concentration in body tissues tends to be higher than all other carotenoids. Lycopene also reduces the risk of macular degenerative disease. Other lycopene-rich foods are red watermelon, pink grapefruit, and Japanese persimmons. Harvest: Eat fresh, cook, or canned. Ripening continues off the vine, even in dark (wrap in newspaper). Varieties: Large: Beefsteak and Husky Gold. Medium: Celebrity, Atkinson, Better Boy, and Monte Carlo. Small: Sweet Chelsea, Small Fry, and Cherry varieties. Toothwort (Cardamine) Cardamine diphylla, Mustard family: (Crinkle Root) Perennial, 6-14" with creeping rootstock, one of earliest wildflowers. Internal: Eat whole plant. Peppery root used for toothaches. Trailing Arbutus (Epigaea) Epigaea repens, Heath family: (Mayflower) Trailing perennial to 6", pink flowers bloom in clusters and very fragrant, edible. Sandy, rocky slopes. Internal: Spring blooms are very good for kidneys. Use for kidney infections in same manner as Sumac berries or cranberries. Use whole plant. Contains arbutin (although effective as urinary antiseptic, it hydrolyzes to hydroquinone, a toxin). Tribulus (Tribulus) Tribulus terristris: (Puncture Vine, Caltrop, Yellow Vine, Goat Head, Devil's Thorn or Weed, Tackweed, Ground Caltrop, Sand-burr, Bullhead, Cats Head, Gokshura). Considered a pest weed in vacant lots and on roadsides. Tribulus fruits consist of several single-seeded nutlets, each of which bears two or three spikes sharp enough to puncture bicycle tires. In southern Africa these spikes may be coated with the sap of a bushman's poison (a cardiotoxin) and used 130

as a weapon. Most popularly believed to improve sexual functioning, and is often used as an aphrodisiac. One study linked it to improved blood flow to the genitals and improved sexual behavior. It may work by relaxing smooth muscles and allowing greater blood flow. Trials suggest that tribulus may lower both blood pressure and cholesterol and increase muscle mass, making it a popular supplement among athletes and bodybuilders. Constituents: saponins (protodioscin, furostanol), glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, resins, tannins, sugars, sterols, essential oils, Terrestrinins A and B, protodioscin. Internal: Seems to work by increasing the levels of luteinizing hormone, signaling the body to start producing its own natural testosterone. This leads to increased libido and increased muscle mass. An ovarian stimulant that normalizes ovulation, improving chances for conception. Not for persons with stomach inflammation, ulcers, serious digestion or liver disorders. May cause GI upset. Prepare: Whole or diced fruit and powder. Tea, extract, and capsules. Trillium (Trillium) Trillium cuneatum (Sweet Betsy), Lily family: (Beth Root, Birth Root) Herbaceous perennial, shade, moist, hardy to -30, dark purple flowers. Internal: Root (harvested after flower fades), sometimes leaf. Astringent, uterine tonic, expectorant. Use with caution.

Trumpet Vine (Campsis) Campsis radicans, Trumpet Creeper family: (Cow Itch) Looks like Cross Vine, but this is all orange. External: Not good for fair-skinned people - can break out like English Ivy. Some people used to dry the leaves to make an itching powder.

Tulip Poplar (Liriodendron) Liriodendron tulipifera, Magnolia family: (Yellow Poplar) Grows in damper areas. Internal: Good for arthritis, rheumatism (muscle aches and pains), heart (high homocystein level), fever, appetite. Anti-inflammatory (takes the inflammation out of joints). Considered a bitter tonic even though it is not bitter. Stimulates the liver and production of bile, which helps break down fatty acids and aids digestion - stimulates appetite. Regulates weight - lose weight by better liver function or gain weight by helping with digestion. Prepare: Boil 2 cups inner bark (young branches okay) in 1 gallon for 20 min, drink 1 cup tea as desired. Make a tea and drink hot to make you sweat (a diaphoretic like other magnolias) for fever. Drink it cold to stimulate appetite (a bitter tonic). In spring, peel large strips of bark and leave in water for 2 weeks to separate the fibers. Leaves/stem make good tincture. Can be put in capsules. Tulsi or Holy Basil (Ocimum) See Basil (Ocimum).

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Turmeric (Curcuma) Turmeric (Curcuma longa or domestica, amada (Mango Ginger), Ginger family: (Gauri, Haldi, Indian Saffron, You Jin) A tropical herbaceous perennial, 3 tall. At the base of the stem, there is a knobby rhizome somewhat like ginger. Most herbal traditions use turmeric to "invigorate the blood". In ancient times, turmeric was reserved for patients who were relatively weak. Gives Indian curries a golden color. Properties: The roots key ingredient is curcumin, a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. As effective as the drugs cortisone and phenylbutazone in decreasing inflammation, without the harmful side effects. Internal: Nurtures skin and vital organs, bolsters immunity and vital essence. Filled with cancerfighting compounds. Turmeric is the main anti-inflammatory herb of Ayurvedic medicine. Used to relieve arthritis and for its effects on the cardiovascular system. Reduces high cholesterol by blocking its absorption in the intestinal tract and aids in breaking down and eliminating excess cholesterol. Also used for relief of nasal pressure. Used for diseases of the liver. Turmeric is antioxidant and antimutagenic (helps prevent new cancers caused by chemo or radiation). May help prevent the pain of arthritis, bursitis, and tendonitis. The antioxidants fight atherosclerosis by deactivating platelet-activating factor (PAF). This protein seals leaks in blood vessels by stimulating the growth of a protein "net" on which a cholesterol plaque can form. Curcumin helps prevent hardening of the arteries with diabetes, and also helps stop the loss of protein through the kidneys. In the lab, the antioxidants kill cultures of cancer cells from the skin, bloodstream, and ovaries. Curcumin may stop the action of a liver enzyme that activates environmental toxins into carcinogenic forms, and may be especially useful in deactivating the carcinogens in cigarette smoke and chewing tobacco. Turmeric increases the production of enzymes that digest fats and sugars, and stop cholesterol from forming gallstones. It prevents the release of histamine in the stomach, quelling nervous stomach and counteracting food allergies and it fights gum inflammation by halting the action of a gene that creates irritant chemicals. Without the irritation, bacteria cannot find a place to grow, and the absence of bacteria reduces both bad breath and gingivitis. Caution: Too much turmeric for extended periods may cause stomach distress. Since turmeric is used in Ayurvedic formulas for birth control, women trying to become pregnant should limit consumption, and avoid while pregnant. Avoid excess with congestive heart failure. Curcumin activates a gene called p53 which deactivates cancer cells, but it also deactivates damaged cells in the heart. Prepare: The rhizome, dried and ground. Used in teas, tinctures, and poultices. Combined with dong quai for menstrual cramps. Ayurvedic uses turmeric with guggul for treating liver disease. Many of the benefits have been attributed to curcumin, a group of antioxidant compounds found in the rhizome. Although curcumin is available as a standardized extract, the whole herb is more beneficial than the curcumin extract: Only very small amounts of curcumin are absorbed into the bloodstream. Turmeric as a whole herb stays in the digestive tract longer than curcumin, releasing antioxidant curcumin along with other beneficial substances.

U
Usnea (Folios) Folios Lichen, Usnea longissima or Usnea barbata: (Old Man's Beard, Beard Moss, Tree Moss, similar to Reindeer Moss) Good as a fire starter (turpines). It isn't a plant, but a lichen, which is a combination of algae and fungi functioning as a single organism. It grows on old trees in cool, damp forests, most commonly in the pacific NW. It is incredibly abundant and has the potential of devastating entire forests because of its 132

parasitic nature. The various species of usnea are hard to distinguish, but have equivalent uses in herbal medicine. Has been used in TCM for 3000 years - taken orally as an expectorant and topically to treat infections and ulcers. Properties: Powerful antibiotic, antifungal. Considered a bitter, cool medicine, usnea is also antispasmodic, antipyretic, and analgesic. Contains usnic acid, essential fatty acids, mucilage, and sterols. Internal: Used as a tincture or infusion to treat tuberculosis and bronchitis, and applied locally to help heal infected wounds. The E commission approve it for treating inflammations of the mucous membranes in the mouth and larynx, and herbalists use it to treat lung infections, tuberculosis, UTI, Candida albicans, and strep throat. No precautions. External: Usnic acid is an antibiotic ointment for third-degree burns. Tincture with alcohol for MRSA, a staff infection that is getting antibiotic resistant. Prepare: The dried thallus or lichen strands of collected plants. Tea infusion is good, but an alcohol tincture is best. To eat, boil with ash to neutralize the acids. Usually used to make cough and cold lozenges. Can be consumed as a tea and in extract form. externally as a compress or poultice. Uva Ursi (Arctostaphylos) Arctostaphylos uva ursi, Ericaeae family: (Bearberry, Kinnikinnick) (Top 30 Herb) Before there were antibiotics, doctors prescribed uva ursi to treat UTI. Related to cranberry and blueberry, it is a low-lying evergreen perennial bush whose berries are a favorite of bears. However, it is the leaves that are used medicinally. Properties: A diuretic, urinary antiseptic, and astringent. Arbutin, hydroquinone, tannins, iridoids, flavonoids, volatile oils, ursolic, malic and gallic acids. Internal: It does not kill the bacteria that cause UTI. Instead, it releases complex polysaccharides that keep the bacteria "rooting" in the lining of the bladder and urethra, allowing the infectious microorganisms to be flushed away with the flow of urine. It is more effective when the urine is alkaline - when plant foods (especially leafy greens and dried foods) are eaten in greater quantities than animal foods (smoked fish and hard cheese causing the greatest acidity). Effective against chronic diarrhea, E. coli, high blood pressure, cold sores, herpes and vaginal infections. Caution: Cranberry juice sweetened with sugar cancels out the benefits. Do not take vitamin C on days you take uva ursi - it cancels out its effects. Use no more than two weeks at a time, no more than 5 times a year. Should not be taken by young children, pregnant women, or by persons with severe liver or kidney disease. Prepare: Dried leaves and stem fragments. Traditionally used as a tea or tincture. Frequently combined with buchu, cleavers, dandelion leaf, parsley fruit, or juniper berries. May also be taken in capsule form.

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Valerian (Valeriana) Valeriana officinalis: F/P sun, moist, 1-2 W, 5 H. Long-stemmed perennial with small, aromatic white flowers in sprays. Seed in spring (short-lived, LDG), divide in fall every 3 years. Reseeds well. Companion plant, attracts earthworms. Get Valeriana Officinalis, not the red variety. Contrary to myth, the drug Valium is not derived from valerian, and there is no relationship. The root has a long history as a sedative in Western Europe, dating back to Hippocrates (460-377 B.C). Prescribed by the Greek 133

physician Galen for headaches, insomnia, nervousness, restlessness, menstrual problems, nervous stomach, and hysteria. The roots have an unpleasant odor, but the pink or white flowers are actually quite fragrant, and were used as a perfume in the 1500s. Properties: A calmative and tranquilizer. Acetic acid, ascorbic acid, beta-ionone, calcium, caffeic acid, magnesium, manganese, quercitin, valeric acid. Internal: Infusion smells and is bitter. Treats insomnia, especially that accompanies menopause. The advantage of valerian over tranquilizers such as Valium and Xanax is that it reduces sleep latency, the time required to fall asleep, without a period of bedtime drowsiness and without grogginess the next day. Valerian has greatest effect in treating chronic insomnia, rather than short-term sleeplessness. It also soothes the digestive system and may prevent cramping caused by IBS. Caution: If you use for several months and suddenly stop use, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as headache, insomnia, racing heart, and general grouchiness. Reduce dosage for a week to discontinue using the herb suddenly. Harvest: Root and rhizome, although all parts are active. Dig roots late fall after 2nd year and dry slowly, below 105 for its active compounds to form. Prepare: In teas, tastes sweet and spicy if somewhat bitter. Combine with St. John's to increase ability to reduce anxiety, or with hops, passionflower, lemon balm, chamomile, and lavender to strengthen its sleep-inducing properties. If the taste is unpleasant, try a capsule or extract. Chop up dried roots and put in size 00 gelatin capsules. Take 2 at night, but not too often. Verbena, Blue (Verbena) Verbena hastata (Blue Vervain) or brasiliensis, Mint family: (Indian Hyssop, Wild Hyssop) A native creeping perennial, F/P sun, well-drained soil, 3-4, sow early spring. Fast grower, flowers in spikes JuneSept. Likes prairies, meadows, and open woodlands. Grows close to ground and bears many small lilacblue flowers. "Vervain" comes from the Celtic "to drive away a stone", referring to its use in treating kidneystones. Used by natives for colds, coughs, fevers, and stomach cramps. Several of the names for vervain (Herb of the Cross, Herb of Grace, Holy Wort) refer to the legend that the wounds of Jesus were dressed with vervain when he was taken down from the cross. It was also used as an ingredient in pagan love potions. Note: Lemon Verbena is Aloysia triphylla. Properties: Antiviral. Mucilages, bitters, iridoid glycosides (hastatoside, verbenalin), caffeic acid, EO. Internal: Good calming sedative and pain reliever (not as strong as Lobelia or Skullcap). An emmenagogue that promotes and regulates menstrual flow, a galactogogue that increases milk production in nursing mothers, and promotes breast development by regulating hormone production. Diuretic used to treat bladder infections and helps gout by removing uric acid from the body. Used with smartweed and peppermint leaves for appendicitis. A good vermifuge that kills and expells worms. For aches, pains, and muscle spasms, mix with lobelia, skullcap, and passionflower in tincture form (absorps quicker than tea form). An analgesic tea for hemorrhoid sufferers (usually drunk but also useful as a wash), an expectorant used to treat chronic bronchitis, and an antirheumatic used to relive joint pain. Exernal: Vervain or other mints may be poulticed with lobelia and slippery elm for local pain relief. Vervain can be used externally for wounds, bruises, and sores. Prepare: Aerial parts gathered before flowering and dried. Traditionally used as a tea, but also as a tincture, syrup, foot soak or bath herb, salve, or cream. Roots have a bitter, somewhat astringent and unpleasant taste, but is stronger and more effective. Infuse 1 tsp dried leaves in 1

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cup and sip as needed (see the Tommie Bass cough and cold formula). Leaves and seeds used as food by Indians. Seeds were soaked several times, then dried, roasted, and ground into flour. Viburnum, Black Haw (Viburnum) Viburnum prunifolium (Black Haw), acerifolium (Maple Leaf-left), dentatum (Arrow Wood), nudum (Possum Haw), rufidulum (Rusty Blackhaw-right), Honeysuckle family: Native deciduous shrub, moist woods, and stream banks, all zones. Leaves opposite, leaf scars are V-shaped or 3-lobed. Red berries ripen in August, and turn blue through winter. Natives used it for a variety of things including painful menses, to prevent miscarriage, as a postpartum antispasmodic, and in some cases for asthma. The King American Dispensatory (1854) said that black haw was good for boosting fertility and to preclude abortion. Many southern slave owners believed they could produce more slaves by coercing their female slaves to eat the berries regularly. Properties: Acetic acid, amentoflavone, arbutin, esculetin, myristic acid, oleanolic acid, salicylic acid, scopoletin, tannins, ursolic acid. Internal: Good for womens issues - menopause, menstrual irregularities, hot flashes, cramps. Also a urinary tract sedative and for mouth ulcers. Contains salicin (similar to salicylic acid or aspirin), an anti-inflammatory used to relieve arthritis inflammation and pain. Black haw is a stronger uterine relaxant than cramp bark, and large or frequent doses may lower blood pressure. It is safe in pregnancy, and may even prevent miscarriage. It is not recommended by those with a history of liver or kidney problems and its use may produce GI upset. External: Good for black and red mange in dogs. Make a tea with the leaves and wash the dog. Prepare: The berries may be eaten fresh or made into jams. Too many berries may cause nausea for some. Root bark is collected in autumn, the stem bark in spring and summer. Make tea from dried bark if you dont have Yellow Root or other astringent. Prune a couple branches in spring for all you need. Low boil 1 cup inner bark in 2 quarts water 20 minutes, simmer, strain, drink 1 cup 2x daily. Or tincture. Black Haw (left - Viburnum prunifolium) Cramp Bark (right - Viburnum opulus) (Guelder rose, Cranberry Tree, May Elder, May Rose, King's Crown) Cramp Bark is a large deciduous shrub up to 15 tall and wide. Naturalized to moist forests of northern US. The bark is stripped before the leaves change color or before buds open in spring. Has large white flowers, up to 5" across with red berries in fall. The berries are eaten like cranberries, although moderation is recommended. Internal: Cramp bark is used to treat cramps and spasms of all types. The bark is antispasmodic, astringent, and sedative, especially in the uterus. As a muscle relaxant, it also relaxes the intestines and skeletal muscles. Used by natives and pioneer women to relieve menstrual cramps and spasms after childbirth. Popular in combinations for asthma and nervous tension. Caution: Non-toxic, although large quantities of fruit or leaf can cause diarrhea. Some reports have shown that people with sensitivity to aspirin may also have a sensitivity to cramp bark. Prepare: Dried bark, harvested in the autumn before leaves change color, or spring before leaves open. The leaves and fruit are used in laxatives. Tea or tincture. Often combined with corydalis or valerian for pain.

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Violets (Viola) Viola odorata (Sweet), sororia (Common Blue), papillionacea (Blue Butterfly), Violet family: Herbaceous perennial, forms slowspreading colonies. Likes part or full shade, moist soil, and is not susceptible to most herbicides used to kill common lawn weeds. Propagates by seed in fall or runners in spring/fall. Flowers March to April. Properties: Euelle Gibbons says the flowers have 3 times the Vitamin C of oranges, also rich in A and a type of antioxidant called an anthocyanin. The leaves contain some salicylic acid (aspirin). Internal: Ranging from treatment of cough to cancer, the effects are gentle. Chew the white root for quick heartburn relief. Drink hot tea to calm a fever. It is soothing and a cough expectorant. Flowers contain rutin that strengthens blood veins and capillaries (stops spider veins) and are used as a blood purifier for internal cancers. A gentle laxative. Harvest: Flowers are harvested in spring, leaves and roots can be eaten anytime. The leaves can be used in salad or steamed like spinach. Good in cold salad with other greens.

W
Wahoo (Euonymous) Euonymous altropurpureus, americana: (Hearts a Burstin, Strawberry Bush) Native to SE, shady woodland, average to moist soil, 4-6 tall, zone 6-9, deciduous, moderate to slow growth, open, airy form, green stems, suckers. Small creamy white flowers early summer, warty scarlet capsules open to reveal raspberry-orange berries in fall, yellow-green fall foliage, green stems in winter. Drought tolerant; fertilize lightly; best used in or near natural area. Indian witch doctors would jump around and scream "wahoo" while giving the bad-smelling brew to frightened patients. Internal: For flu, fever, very strong alternative for digitalis to slow and regulate the heart beat. Prepare: Use in small amounts and only after much experience. Boil 1 tsp dried bark, steep for 5 min, drink 1/4 cup twice daily. Combine with Joe-Pye. Watermelon (Citrullus) Citrullus lanatus: Apr-Jun, 5 W, 6 R. A warm season crop that needs lots of water, avoid wetting leaves and handling wet plants. A heavy feeder. Place cardboard under ripening fruit. Blossom-end rot occurs with a lack of calcium (low pH, low calcium, or irregular uptake of water). All vines and little fruit is due to too much N or planting too close. Internal: Thirst quencher composed of 92% water. Packed with giant dose of glutathione, which helps boost our immune system. Also a key source of lycopene the cancer fighting oxidant. Other nutrients are vitamin C and Potassium. Seed Properties: ? Harvest: When the tendril closest to the fruit turns brown. White Oak Bark (Quercis) See Oaks (Quercus). (Top 30 Herb)

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Wild Cherry (Prunus) See Cherry (Prunus). (Top 30 Herb) Wild Ginger (Asarum) Asarum canadense, Birthwort (Aristolochiacea) family: Herbaceous perennial spread by rhizomes, likes shade, moisture. Divide in spring or early fall to use as a ground cover. European wild ginger has died out in Zone 8, so we may have the Canadian variety, which has not. Wild ginger is not related to commercial ginger. Internal: Hot tea makes you sweat - an anti-viral for sore throat, coughs, colds, flu, fever, a good diaphoretic and expectorant. Also for heart, cramps, ulcers, colitis. The powdered leaves will clean the sinuses. Stems are dried and pulverized for spice. Rhizomes make tea for indigestion. Can be used for colic in children. No cautions according to some, but others say the compound aristolochic acid is a toxin that can both cure and cause (induces mutations) cancer. Prepare: To 1 pint of boiling water, add 2 tsp powdered or crushed root, steep 20 min, sweeten to taste, drink in cup doses throughout the day for stomach problems or colds and flu. One of the flavors used in root beer and sarsaparilla. External: Powerful antiseptic for cleansing wounds. Dr. Porcher: Considered an aromatic, stimulant tonic and diaphoretic, used extensively in the treatment of fevers, coughs, gas, and colic. The leaves dried and powdered were considered to be excellent for sinus trouble. The root was used as a substitute for culinary ginger. Some writers of the day promoted its use in the treatment of heart ailments due to the shape of the leaves. This belief in what was known as the Doctrine of Signatures was to strongly affect the selection of many wild plants for their medicinal uses. Wild Indigo See Baptisia or Wild Indigo (Baptisia). Wild Strawberry See Strawberry (Fragaria). Wild Yam (Dioscorea) Dioscorea villosa (Colic Root), Lily family: (Top 30 Herb) Tender climbing perennial vine with a cluster of heart-shaped leaves around stem (the doctrine of signatures would say that this plant treats many systems from the center). Found in eastern hardwood forests, hardy to -10. Not related to commercial yams. Blooming flowers look like Chinese lanterns. Properties: Anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic Internal: Anti-spasmodic for uterus and GI tract, ulcers, colitis, hip joints. For IBS, diverticulitis, menstrual cramps, nausea, and morning sickness with pregnancy, osteoporosis, and menopausal symptoms. Good for gallbladder and liver. Most steroid hormones used in medicine are derived from Wild Yam. Used as a source of estrogen or progesterone. Michael Moore: It has no progesterone, or any other steroid hormone. The first generation of synthetic steroids was made using diosgenin (from Mexican Yam) and the Marker. By the mid1950's stigmasterol (a soy-derived lipoid) took its place, and other methods are now used. It contains NO "precursors"...the only true human steroid precursor is low density cholesterol OR some other steroid hormone. Wild Yam creams usually contain synthetic natural progesterone. 137

Caution: Can interfere with heart medications. The original birth control pill. Fresh plant may induce vomiting. Prepare: Tea: 1-2 tsp dried root to 1 cup water. Pour boiling water over dried root, steep 5 minutes. Drink three times a day. Decoction: Boil 1 oz chopped root in pint of water for 15 minutes, turning the water red and slimy. Drink 1-4 oz 3 times daily for arthritis and rheumatism. Good with Black Cohosh and Chaste Tree. Harvest: Chop up root immediately as it gets hard, then let dry. Willow (Salix) Salix babylonica (Weeping), purpurea (Purple), alba (White), nigra (Black), Willow family: F/P sun, moist. Fast growing to 50. Weeping var contains most rooting hormones (soak for 1 week). Purple var highest in salicilates (aspirin). Black Willows comprise 99% of all the willows in Alabama on creek banks. As a branch dries, smell-good chemicals are released which Indians used to make sick rooms smell better. Internal: For headaches and fever. The bark works like aspirin (painrelieving and anti-inflammatory). It contains salicin, which is changed into salicylic acid (a blood thinning aspirin easier on the stomach). Willow works slower but lasts longer than aspirin and the tannins protect the stomach. Prepare: Burn a dry branch to release the salicylic acid (can also use birch, sassafras, poplar bark). Take 1 tsp ash in a glass of water and drink as needed for aspirin effect. Make a tea from the bark for headache and fever. Boil the leaves for a mild aspirin drink. Harvest: Contains a root growth hormone - soak branches in water for a week to make a plant growth stimulant. Wisteria (Wisteria) Wisteria sinensis (Chinese), floribunda (Japanese), Pea family: Deciduous, long-lived climbing vine. Internal: Blooms are edible, but rest is poison.

Witch Hazel (Hamamelis) Hamamelis virginiana, Witch Hazel family: (Spotted Alder) F/P sun, dry, to 15 H. Perennial shrub to small tree. Seed in spring, layer in fall, or cut suckers for new plants. Blooms yellow flowers late fall to early spring when other trees along creek look dead. Properties: Astringent. Internal: Tannins in bark make it a good astringent to slow internal bleeding, ulcers, diarrhea. Can be made in water or alcohol decoction for internal bleeding or bacterial infection. External: Lotion for burns, skin problems, sprains, insect bites, inflamed eyes, ivy, hemorrhoids, varicose veins. Prepare: Steep a T of powdered bark 5 min in a cup of boiling water to drink. For external use, chop and soak bark in rubbing alcohol for a week or more. Harvest: Use leaves, bark, twigs.

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Wood Betony (Stachys) Stachys officinalis, Mint family: (Betony, Lousewort, Bishopwort, Common Hedge-Nettle) Herbaceous perennial, moisture-loving. Sow early spring, 2 W, native to Europe, bearing a spike of purple flowers on a long, central stem 1-2 high. All leaves are rough to the touch and are also fringed with short, fine hairs. The surface is dotted with glands containing a bitter, aromatic oil. Once considered an herbal "magic bullet" for dispelling a wide variety of diseases. Caesars chief physician catalogued 47 conditions he treated with the herb. Properties: Betaine, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, harpagide, rosmarinic acid, stachydrine, tannins. Internal: Centuries of European herbalists used wood betony as a calming remedy and to treat eczema, hives, and shingles. Wood betony teas also treat sore throats caused by allergies or colds, heartburn, and inflammation due to UTI. The herb is used in combination with other treatments to remove intestinal parasites. Russian research indicates the traditional warning for nursing mothers not to use it is not warranted. Drink the tea at a meal for maximum benefit. Prepare: The whole herb, collected in dry weather. Used in gargles, extracts, and teas. Fresh leaf tea or tincture is a general pain reliever and tonic nervine. Wood Sorrel (Oxalis) Oxalis corniculata, montana (Common), europaea (Yellow): (False Shamrocks, Fairy Bells) Perennial, 6-10", three clover-like heartshaped leaflets. Grows in lawns and fields in sun to part shade. In sun, the leaves fold in half. Alabama varieties include Creeping, Pink, Violet, and Yellow. Sorrel means sour and Oxalis means sharp or acidic. Internal: All varieties are edible. Strong, lemony taste (oxalic acid gives it the tart flavor). Fresh leaves and flowers are high in C, P, K, Ca, Mg. Leaves chewed for nausea, mouth sores (ulcers). Leaf decoction reduces fever. A diuretic (elevates the rate of urination), relieves indigestion, an astringent (constricts body tissues), blood cleansing, anti-cancer. Works like Sheep Sorrel in Essiac tea. Caution: Large doses can cause oxalate poisoning. Dont use if you have ulcers, blood-clotting problems, pregnant or breast-feeding. Do not eat a lot if you are subject to kidneystones. Oxalic acid leaches calcium from the bones, but so will a lot of spinach. External: Fresh leaves poulticed for cancer, sores, ulcers, worts. Reduce swellings and inflammation. Wormwood (Artemisia) Artemisia annua (Sweet Annie shown), absinthium (Absinthe): (Top 30 Herb) Full sun, avg/dry, 2-5 H. Related to mugwort. Woody perennial, popular for its silver, aromatic leaves. Cuttings in summer, self-seeds (LDG) early spring. Properties: Anti-malarial, antiviral, anti-cancer, vermifugal. Internal: (Sweet Annie) Large world demand for its anti-malarial, antiviral, anti-cancer, and vermifugal properties. This bitter herb stimulates appetite and digestion. Used for the liver, worms/parasites, detox, food poisoning, immune system, colds, flu, fever, skin problems. Some consider wormwood hazardous for internal use. Repels: moths, ants, cabbage worm. Harvest: Flowers July-August. Use leaves and flowers. 139

Absinthe: This alcoholic drink was popular among bohemians in the 20th century, due to its mildly psychoactive punch from two of its main ingredients, Wormwood and Star Anise. Both herbs are also potent anti-virals and were imbibed by French troops in North Africa to ward off Malaria. While later on it was used strictly as a social drink, Absinthe was initially a medicinal tonic. Richo Cech: Plants produce bitter compounds as a self-protective mechanism, to make them be less tasty to would-be eaters. Wormwood is so bitter that it is rejected as a food source by most insects and mammals. But when taken by humans in measured doses, it acts as a valuable medicine. Bitters stimulate production of essential digestive enzymes. Truly, humans and plants co-evolved their need for bittersthe plant to limit predation, the human to build digestive force. We know that primates self-medicate. Chimps suffering from intestinal parasites consume antiparasitic plants that healthy chimps wont eat (known as zoopharmacology). Chimps know that herbs work. Early people self-medicated, learning from watching other beasts and by tasting green things to learn their hidden mysteries: stimulating, sleep inducing, digestive, eliminative, purgative, poisonous, psychoactive, etc.

Y
Yarrow (Achillea) Achillea millefolium, Aster family: (Top 30 Herb) Full sun, avg/dry, fast-drain, 1 W, 1-2 H. Evergreen perennial. Seed or divide in spring or fall on two-year cycle. Attracts butterflies, good insects. Properties: Antiviral, astringent, antiinflammatory, hemostatic. High in EO. Internal: Antiviral tea for colds, flu, fever. Apigenin provides antiinflammatory effects and is a diuretic (for gout). For UTI, digestion, diarrhea, nervous system. Infuse 1-2 tsp, mix with red clover and catnip as fever remedy. Too much can cause headache, vertigo, increase in skin photosensitivity. External: Antiseptic for wounds, cuts, burns, skin conditions, insect bites. Crush leaf and apply to stop bleeding (coagulates blood) and to heal. Make tincture to have on hand. Harvest: Cut leaves and flowers halfway down after blooming and dry. Yellow Dock (Rumex) Rumex crispus, Buckwheat family: (Curly Dock, Bitter Dock) Related to sorrel. Herbaceous perennial, part shade to sun, moist. The name "dock" refers to a genus of broad-leaved wayside weeds related to rhubarb. Like rhubarb, all the docks can be used as laxatives or purgatives and are rich in tannin. Yellow dock has long curly leaves that appear to have been "crisped" at their edges. It bears multiple clusters of three-winged flowers. Its seeds are green in the summer but become deep red as they mature. The root is bright yellow below the bark and is used in herbal medicine, harvested in late summer after the seeds begin to turn red. Properties: Bitter alterative. Contains emodin, magnesium, nepodin, oxalic acid, selenium, silicon, sodium, tannins. Internal: Keeps you healthy and full of energy (along with yellow root and sassafras). Great for liver, gallbladder, kidney. Leaves are eaten like spinach and are packed with vitamins, minerals, and vegetable iron, also a great laxative. A blood cleanser good for cancer. Roots have tannins for diarrhea. Yellow dock is the kinder, gentler alternative to laxatives made with buckthorn, 140

cascara sagrada, frangula, rhubarb, or senna. It encourages both bowel movement and good digestion by stimulating the release of gastric juices. Precautions: If you experience cramping, you've taken too much. Start with a small dose and increase slowly until you get the desired effect. Unlike small doses of rhubarb, small doses of yellow dock are not constipating. Not recommended for use while suffering from Kidney stones. External: Fungicidal and antimicrobial, contains berberine. Root salve heals skin problems, including cancers. Tommie Bass believed that eczema was caused by an inactive liver. Prepare: Dried root, chopped. Traditionally used as a tea or tincture. Steep 1 tsp powdered root in 1 cup boiling water. Drink 1/2 cup 2x daily. Yellow Root (Xanthorhiza) Xanthorhiza simplicissima, Buttercup family: Small shrub, 2-5 years to harvest, 1-3 tall, moist woods. Cut stem leaving the root to reproduce. Internal: A bitter tonic which contains the alkaloid berberine (a natural antibiotic) which stimulates the secretion of bile and bilirubin and aids in digestion. Many Europeans drink a bitter before and after meals to aid digestion. Chew stems for mouth ulcers or to stop smoking cravings. For mouth and stomach ulcers (H pyloric bacteria causes 90% of stomach ulcers), canker sores, colitis, IBS, parasites, liver cleansing (bile production and flow), reducing blood pressure. Liver and gallbladder stimulant, regulates blood sugar. Caution: Can interfere with heparin and can cause miscarriage. Potentially toxic in large doses. External: Entire plant is a fungicide and antimicrobial, effective on candida as well as conditions like psoriasis and eczema. Prepare: Simmer one cup of roots in a quart of water for 20 minutes. Strain and use 1-2 tablespoons of the decoction 2-3 times a day. You can boil stems again until the yellow is gone. For mouth ulcers and canker sores, drink hot. Drink a small amount a few times daily for stomach ulcers. Drink cold for stomach ulcers. Root used as a gentle antibiotic substitute for Goldenseal and can be used on a more long-term basis. Mix yellow root and sassafras root 50/50 tea to keep you healthy during the cold and flu season. Also used in skin salves. Tommie: I use an awful lot of Yellowroot. It is wonderful for things such as mouth sores and when you have stomach ulcers or those hernias in your chest. It grows all over sandy creeks up on the mountain. Yerba Santa Eriodictyon californicum, trichocalyx, glutinosum: (Holy Herb, Bearsweed, Consumptive's Weed, Mountain Balm, Tarweed). Yerba santa is a sticky-leafed evergreen native to the southwest. Most of the nations supply comes from CA with most stands existing in the Sierra Nevada and parts of southern CA. Spanish priests were impressed with its use in treating coughs, colds, asthma, pleurisy, tuberculosis, and pneumonia, and gave it the name holy weed (yerba santa). Unlike other astringent herbs, it has a pleasant taste. It is used as a food flavoring and as an additive to herbal cough syrups to disguise the taste of other ingredients. Constituents: Bitter resins, eriodictyol, eriodictyonic acid, eriodictyonine, essential oil, tannins. Internal: Yerba santa is a warm and pungent herb that is both astringent and stimulant. A study in 1951 notes that the resins are mildly antibacterial. Prepare: Dried leaves. Can be used as a tea, but must be allowed to steep for at least half an hour to dissolve the resins. More often used as an alcohol tincture. Yucca (Yucca) Yucca baccata (Banana), glauca (Soapweed or eastern), schidigera (Southern), brevifolia (Western), filamentosa (Mexican), Agave or Lily? family: (Soap-tree, Soapweed, Soapwell, Soap 141

Root, Adam's Needle) Sun, dry soil, abundant in southwest. Roots historically used as a foaming cleanser. Natives used the leaves for treating psoriasis, dandruff, hair loss, skin sores and inflammation, including joint inflammation due to rheumatism and arthritis. SW Tribes use the leaves to make soaps, shampoos, and dental floss. In NM, healers use a tea brewed from leaves to treat asthma and headaches. Research suggests that the saponins are a precursor to cortisone, which prevents the release of toxins from the intestines that restrict the growth of cartilage, making yucca useful in treating arthritis and other soft tissue inflammatory diseases. Constituents: Saponins that are both water and fat soluble. Internal: Source of steroidal saponins to treat arthritis. This also accounts for its lathering ability. Provides powerful nutritional support to the structural system (saponins support structural health due to their influence on joint health and function). The leaf extract may prevent blood clots. Prepare: Root. Usually in tea, capsules and as an extract.

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Absinthe 139 Ajuga 25 Alder 127 All Heal 67 Angel Trumpet 45 Arrow Wood 135 Arrow Wood Viburnum 135 Artichoke 125 Arugula 89

Devils Shoestring 62 Dewberry 20 Dog Fennel 51 Dong Quai 10 Dulse 75

Balm of Gilead 41 Bay Laurel 81 Bedstraw 37 Beetleweed 58 Berberis 95 Bergamot 16 Bilberry 23 Bindweed 127 Birth Root 131 Black Haw 135 Blackeye Susan 109 Bladderwrack 75 Blazing Star 78 Blessed Thistle 128 Blue Vervain 134 Boarhog Root 9 Boneset 51 Box Elder 82 Briers 111 Broccoli 89 Bugbane 20 Bull Thistle 128 Butterfly Weed 84

Eggplant (Solanum) 99 Ellagic Acid 88 Elm 117 English Ivy 102 ESCOP 44 European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy 44 Everlasting 105

Fleabane 44 Fungus 88

Gayfeather 78 German Commission E 44 Grancy Graybeard 57 Grapes 87 Gravel Root 52 Greenbrier 111

California Poppy 103 Canada Fleebane 70 Cardoon 125 Carolina Allspice 127 Cayenne 99 Chard or Swiss Chard 18 Chia 110 Chinese Ephedra 49 Collards 89 Collinsonia 124 Coneflower 47 Costmary 55 Cow Itch 131 Crabapple 11 Cramp Bark 135 Cranes Bill 59 Cucumber Magnolia 81 Curly Dock 140

Hearts a Burstin 136 Hen-and-Chicks 113 Henbit 45 Herb Robert 60 Heuchera 9 hibiscus 82 Hoary Mountain Mint 87 Holly Tea Olive 126 Holy Basil 15 Horse Chestnut 24 Horse Mint 87 Huckleberry 23 Hyacinth Bean 16 Hyssop 134

Indian Paint 22

Jerusalem Artichoke 125 Jimson Weed 45 Joe Pye Weed 52 Juniper 31

K L

Kale 89 Linseed 56 Love Vine 46

Devils Walking Stick 104 143

Ma Huang 49 Magnolia family 15 Magnolia Vine 113 Mahonia 95 Maple Leaf Viburnum 135 Marigold 27 Marjoram 95 Marshmallow 82 Maypop 97 Mexican Marigold 128 Milk Thistle 128 Monarda 16 Moonflower 45 Morning Glory 127 Mosquito/Citronella Plant 59 MSG 38 Myrica 15

New Jersey Tea 107

Sawbrier 111 Seaweed 75 Self Heal 67 Seven Bark 71 Shavegrass 70 Sheep Sorrel 118 Siberian Ginseng 48 Smilax 111 Snakeroot 20 Spearmint 85 Spotted Alder 138 Star Anise 10 Stinging Nettle 91 Stone Wort 124 Stonecrop 113 Summer Boneset 52 Summer Cedar 51 Sweet Annie 139 Sweet Bay 81 Sweet Onion 58 Swiss Chard 18

Oak Leaf Hydrangea 71 Olive 126 Omega-3 Fatty Acids 56 Oswego Tea 16

Partridge Berry 122 Partridge Pea 114 Pecan 68 Peppermint 85 Pine Weed 123 Pleurisy Root 84 Poison Ash 57, 125 Poison Oak 102 Possum Grapes 87 Pot Marigold 27 Psyllium 101 Pumpkin 121

Thoroughworts 51 Thuja 32 Touch-Me-Not 73 Trumpet Flower 43 Tulsi Basil 15 Tupelo 21 Turnips 89 Twin Berry 122

Veronica 119 Vinca 99 Vinpocetine 62 Virginia Creeper 102 Vitamin K 8

Queen Annes Lace 9, 29 Queen of Herbs 63 Queen of the Meadow 52

Radish 89 Rats Vein 100 Red Cedar 31 Red Clover 38 Red Raspberry 106 Reindeer Moss 132 Resveratrol 88

Water Cress 42 Water Hemlock 9 Wax Myrtle 15 White Oak Bark 92 White Sage 111 Wild Geranium 59 Wild Indigo 13 Wild Lettuce 78 Wild Potato Vine 127 Winter Huckleberry 23 Wintergreen 100

Yellow Poplar 131 Yellow Root 63

Sage (Salvia) 111 SAM-e 18 144