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C H A P T E F R O R 1 M 3

S C I N E C E

1.1 ANALYSE THE HUMAN BREATHING MECHANISM

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LEARNING OBJECTIVE

A student is able to: Identify the structure of the human respiratory system Identify the structure of the lung Describe the process of inhalation and exhalation Relate the changes of air pressure in the thoracic cavity to inhalation and exhalation Describe the breathing mechanism

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INDUCTION SET

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RESPIRATORY

WHAT IS RESPIRATION?
All living things in this world breathe in oxygen. Oxygen diffuses into the blood and is used to oxidise food during respiration. Are the processes of breathing and respiration the same? How is air inhaled into our lungs and then exhaled?

In this chapter, you will learn about human respiratory organs, breathing mechanism and how oxygen is used in the cells to oxidise food.

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HUMAN BREATHING MECHANISM


Human respiratory system

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The human respiratory system consist of: (i) diaphragm (ii) ribs (iii) breathing organs (iv) intercostal muscles The breathing organs include the nasal cavity (nostril), the breathing channel (trachea,bronchus and bronchiole) and the lungs. Alveolus, bronchiole and a part of the bronchus are situated in the lungs

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In the lungs, the bronchus branches to form many smaller channels called bronchiole.

Each bronchiole ends with an alveolus.


The function of the nasal cavity is to warm, moisten and filter fine particles like dust from the air that pass through it. The trachea is a channel which branches into two. Each branch is called bronchus which enters the lungs.

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Air is taken into our body through the nose or mouth and then into the trachea. Air is inhaled through the nasal cavity and taken through the trachea, bronchus,bronchiole and finally to the alveolus.

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The ribs protect the lungs and internal organs like the heart The diaphragm is a piece of muscle situated at the bottom of the lungs. The intercostal muscles are situated between the ribs. There are two types of intercostal muscles,

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the internal intercostal muscle and the external intercostal muscle. The intercostal muscles contract and relax to help the breathing process. Each alveoulus has a very thin wall which is moist and contains a large network of blood capillaries

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Breathing mechanism 1) The human breathing mechanism involves two physical processes, inhalation (inspiration) exhalation (expiration) which happen alternately without stopping. 2) Air from the outside is taken into the lungs through the inhalation process. 3) In contrast, air is expelled from the lungs through the exhalation process.

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4) The intercostal muscle raises or lowers the ribs during breathing.

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5) The diaphragm changes the air pressure in the thoracic cavity by increasing or decreasing the volume of the thoracic cavity

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NOTES
During inhalation:

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the external intercostal muscle contracts. This causes the ribs to rise and extend outwards. The internal intercostal muscle relaxes the diaphragm muscle contracts and causes the diaphragm to descend and become flat

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the volume of the thoracic cavity increases. this causes the air pressure in it to become lower than the atmospheric pressure (air pressure on the outside) this occurence causes the air on the outside to be inhaled into the lungs

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Inhalation machanism

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During exhalation: the internal intercostal muscle contracts. This causes the ribs to descend and fall inwards. At the same time, the external intercostal muscle relaxes the diaphragm muscle relaxes and causes the diaphragm to curve upwards

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the volume in the thoracic cavity decreases. The air pressure in it becomes higher than the atmospheric pressure this occurence causes the air in the lungs to be pushed out

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Exhalation machanism

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HOME LEARNING OUTCAMES INDUCTION SET NOTES LABORATORY ACTIVITIES EXERCISES PMR PAST YEAR QUESTION

LABORATORY ACTIVITIES

HOME LEARNING OUTCAMES INDUCTION SET NOTES LABORATORY ACTIVITIES EXERCISES PMR PAST YEAR QUESTION

LABORATORY ACTIVITIES

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Step 1:

LABORATORY ACTIVITIES

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LABORATORY ACTIVITIES

Observation

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LABORATORY ACTIVITIES

Analysis

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LABORATORY ACTIVITIES

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LABORATORY ACTIVITIES

Conclusion:

Inhalation takes place when the diaphgram is flat Exhalation takes place when the diaphgram is curve

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EXERCISES
1. Which of the following conditions correlate with the following information:
High pH High HCO3 High BE Neutral pCO2

A. Respiratory alkalosis B. Respiratory acidosis C. Metabolic acidosis D. Metabolic alkalosis 2. Which of the following conditions correlate with the following information: High pH Neutral HCO3 Neutral BE Low pCO2 A. Respiratory alkalosis B. Respiratory acidosis C. Metabolic acidosis D. Metabolic alkalosis

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EXERCISES

3. Which of the following conditions correlate with the following information: Low pH Low HCO3 Low BE Neutral pCO2 A. Respiratory alkalosis B. Respiratory acidosis C. Metabolic acidosis D. Metabolic alkalosis 4. Which of the following information corresponds with a negative TB test? A. 0-4 mm induration at 48 hours B. 0-5 mm induration at 48 hours C. 0-6 mm induration at 48 hours D. 0-7 mm induration at 48 hours

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EXERCISES

5. Which of the following is the most common type of lung cancer? A. Large cell B. Adenocarcinoma C. Oat cell D. Squamous cell 6. What cell type secrets surfactant? A. Plasma cell B. Type I alveolar cell C. Type II alveolar cell D. Type III alveolar cell

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EXERCISES
7. Which of the following pulmonary term
correlates with the definition: noted obstruction of the trachea or larynx. A. Rhonchi B. Stridor C. Wheezes D. Vesicular 8. Normal values for pCO2 are considered: A. 20-40 mm Hg B. 25-30 mm Hg C. 30-40 mm Hg D. 35-45 mm Hg 9. Normal values for HCO3 are considered: A. 15-30 mEq/L B. 20-35 mEq/L C. 22-26 mEq/L D. 24-29 mEq/L

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EXERCISES

10. Pneumoncystis carinii infections are commonly treated with which of the following medications? A. Pentamidine B. Allopurinol C. Iorazepam D. Chlorpropamide 11. Which of the following is not generally caused by COPD? A. Pneumonia B. Right sided heart failure C. Headaches D. Cor pulmonale

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EXERCISES

12. Which of the following is not considered a COPD related disease? A. Bronchiectasis B. Bronchial asthma C. Bronchitis D. Bronchial hypotension 13. Which of the following pulmonary term correlates with the definition: bronchospasm of the bronchial walls? A. Wheezes B. Rhonchi C. Stridor D. Pleural Rub

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EXERCISES
14. Which of the following is considered an expectorant? A. Acetylcysteine B. Guaifenesin C. Theophylline D. Epinephrine HCL 15. Which of the following is considered a bronchodilator? A. Acetylcysteine B. Guaifenesin C. Theophylline D. Epinephrine HCL 16. Which of the following is considered a xanthine? A. Acetylcysteine B. Guaifenesin C. Theophylline D. Epinephrine HCL

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EXERCISES

17. Which of the following is considered a mucolytic? A. Acetylcysteine B. Guaifenesin C. Theophylline D. Epinephrine HCL 18. Which of the following matches the definition: The volume of air that can be inhaled following exhalation of tidal volume? A. Expiratory reserve volume B. Inspiratory capacity C. Inspiratory reserve volume D. Vital capacity

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EXERCISES

19. Which of the following matches the definition: The maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after taking the deepest breath possible? A. Expiratory reserve volume B. Inspiratory capacity C. Inspiratory reserve volume D. Vital capacity 20. The respiratory center is located in the ____ and ______. A. Midbrain and pons B. Pons and Medulla oblongata C. Midbrain and Medulla oblongata D. Pons and Hypothalamus

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PMR PAST YEAR QUESTION

Human respiratory system (PMR 2003,2008)


1. The human respiratory system consists of: a. Respiratory organs (nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi, lung and breathing channel) b. Rib cage c. Diaphragm d. Intercostal muscles e. Our body has two lungs (right & left). f. Each lung consists of the bronchus, bronchioles and alveoli.

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PMR PAST YEAR QUESTION

HOME LEARNING OUTCAMES INDUCTION SET NOTES LABORATORY ACTIVITIES EXERCISES PMR PAST YEAR QUESTION

PMR PAST YEAR QUESTION

HOME LEARNING OUTCAMES INDUCTION SET NOTES LABORATORY ACTIVITIES EXERCISES PMR PAST YEAR QUESTION

PMR PAST YEAR QUESTION