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Assignment No. 1
IDEOLOGY:

An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. "An ideology can be thought of as a


comprehensive vision, as a way of looking at things, as in common sense and several
philosophical tendencies or a set of ideas proposed by the dominant class of a society to
all members of this society. The main purpose behind an ideology is to offer change in
society through a normative thought process. Ideologies are systems of abstract thought
applied to public matters and thus make this concept central to politics. Implicitly every
political tendency entails an ideology whether or not it is propounded as an explicit
system of thought.

CONTRIBUTION OF IDEOLOGY IN NATION’S EMERGENCE:-

As ideology is a collection of facts, ideas and thoughts, so, these facts, ideas and thoughts
when become the ideology of a nation, then a nation struggles to achieve independence in
the eye of this ideology. Every nation has its own ideology based on their cultural,
political, religious and other thoughts. When we talk about Islamic ideology, Islamic
Ideology states that in whichever region of the world if there are Muslims in such number
that they can make a sovereign state in order to make their lives according to the
teachings of Islam, they should be allowed to do so. Islamic Ideology is based on
religious purposes, whereas others follow the ideology in the sense of country, political
and cultural thoughts.

IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN:-

The ideology of Pakistan stems from the sense of the Muslim community of South Asia
to maintain their individuality by resisting all attempts by the Hindu society to absorb it.
Muslims of South Asia believe that Islam and Hinduism are not only two religions, but
also two social orders that have given birth to two separate cultures with no similarities.
A deep study of the history of this land proves that the differences between Hindus and
Muslims were not confined to the struggle for political supremacy, but were also
manifested in the clash of two social orders. Despite living together for more than a
thousand years, they continued to develop different cultures and traditions. Their eating
habits, music, architecture and script, are all poles apart. Even the language they speak
and the dresses they wear are entirely different. The ideology of Pakistan took shape
through an evolutionary process. Historical experience provided the base; with Sir Syed
Ahmad Khan began the period of Muslim self-awakening; Allama Iqbal provided the
philosophical explanation; Quaid-i-Azam translated it into a political reality; and the
Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave
it legal sanction. It was due to the realization of Muslims of South Asia that they are
different from the Hindus that they demanded separate electorates. When they realized
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that their future in a 'Democratic India' dominated by Hindu majority was not safe; they
put forward their demand for a separate state.

The Muslims of South Asia believe that they are a nation in the modern sense of the
word. The basis of their nationhood is neither protective, racial, linguistic nor ethnic;
rather they are a nation because they belong to the same faith, Islam. On this basis they
consider it their fundamental right to be entitled to self-determination. They demanded
that areas where they were in majority should be constituted into a sovereign state,
wherein they would be enabled to order their lives in individual and collective spheres in
accordance with the teachings of Holy Quran and Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (S. A. W.).
They further want their state to strengthen the bonds of unity among Muslim countries.

The Ideology of Pakistan has its roots deep in history. The history of South Asia is
largely a history of opposition and conflict between the Hindus and Muslims of the
region. Both communities have been living together in the same area since the early 8th
century, since the arrival of Islam in India. Yet, the two have failed to develop nice
relations.

With the arrival of the British rule in India in 1858, Hindu-Muslim relations entered a
new phase. The British brought with them a new political philosophy commonly known
as 'territorial nationalism'. Before the coming of the British, there was no concept of a
'nation' in South Asia and the region had never been a single political unit. The British
attempt to join the two communities in to a 'nation' failed. The British concept of a nation
did not fit the religious-social system of South Asia. Similarly, the British political
system did not suite the political culture of South Asia. The British political system,
commonly known as 'democracy', gave majority the right to rule. But unlike Britain, the
basis of majority and minority in South Asia was not political but religious and ethnic.
The attempt to enforce the British political model in South Asia, instead of solving the
political problems, only served to make the situation more complex. The Hindus
supported the idea while it was strongly opposed by the Muslims. The Muslims knew that
implementation of the new order would mean the end of their separate identity and
endless rule of the Hindu majority in the name of nationalism and democracy. The
Muslims refused to go the British way. They claimed that they were a separate nation and
the basis of their nation was the common religion Islam. They refused to accept a
political system that would reduce them to a permanent minority. They first demanded
separate electorates and later a separate state. Religious and cultural differences between
Hindus and Muslims increased due to political rivalry under the British rule.

On March 24, 1940, the Muslims finally abandoned the idea of federalism and defined a
separate homeland as their target. Quaid-e-Azam considered the creation of Pakistan a
means to an end and not the end in itself. He wanted Pakistan to be an Islamic and
democratic state. According to his wishes and in accordance with the inspirations of the
people of Pakistan, the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan passed the Objectives
Resolution. The adoption of Objectives Resolution removed all doubts, if there were any,
about the ideology of Pakistan. The Muslims of Pakistan decided once and for all to make
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Pakistan a state wherein the Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in their
individual and collective spheres, in accordance to the teachings and requirements of
Islam as set out in the Holy Quran and Sunnah.
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Assignment No. 2
How do you see Chaudhary Rehmat Ali and his Contribution in
the Muslim Politics of the Sub-Continent?
Answer:
The name of Chaudhary Rehmat Ali will always be remembered in the history with
utmost regard and respect for the devoted services, which he submitted to the cause of the
Muslims of India. He played a commendable role in the establishment of a Muslim state
in the sub-continent. He is known as the architect of the idea of Pakistan in the history of
Muslim India.

Chaudhary Rehmat Ali was born on November 16, 1897 in the district of Hoshiarpur. He
joined Islamia College, Lahore from where he took his Bachelor Degree. He joined
service in a newspaper known as KASHMIR. He then switched over to the teaching
profession and joined Aitchison College, Lahore as a lecturer. Chaudhary Rehmat Ali
went to England for higher studies and obtained the Master’s degree from the Cambridge
University and later on his Bar-at-Law from the University of Dublin.

Chaudhary Rehmat Ali, a great and fiery operator, was full of nationalist feelings. He had
his firm belief in the separate identity of the Muslims and considered them a separate
nation. He was very much in favor of a separate homeland for the Muslims of India and
considered it the untimely destiny of the Muslims. In 1905, while addressing a meeting of
BAZM-E-SHIBLI, he said, the western part of India is a Muslim majority area,
which we will make an independent Muslim State. This can only be possible when
we separate ourselves from the common nationality and sever our relations from the
rest of the India.

During his studies at Cambridge, Chaudhary Rehmat Ali and his three other comrades
issued a pamphlet in 1933 entitled as NOW OR NEVER. In his article, Chaudhary
Rehmat Ali extremely criticized those Muslim leaders who were supporting the federal
system in India. He declared in NOW OR NEVER that the Indian federation was not
suitable to the Indian Muslims. He said that the Muslims were a separate nation with their
own culture and civilization distinct from the Hindu culture and civilization. He said that
to burden together two different and distinct nations in one political system would lead to
complete confusion and bitterness. He pleaded that the only solution to this dilemma was
to divide the sub-continent to establish a separate Muslim state consisting of Punjab,
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Baluchistan, NWFP, Kashmir and Sindh. He suggested the name of PAKISTAN for the
new Muslim state.

Chaudhary Rehmat Ali set up Pakistan National Movement in England in 1933. He


launched a forceful movement of Pakistan from the platform of this organization.
Pakistan National Movement was extremely opposed to the idea of making India a
federation and did not like the Muslims to have any connections with India. This
movement gave a clear explanation and clarification of the Two-nation Theory and
expressed its firm belief in it. The Pakistan National Movement extended it activities to
other parties of Europe and America. This organization educated awareness among
platform of Pakistan National Movement entitled as Objectives of Pakistan National
Movement. In this article, the aims and objects of the Pakistan National Movement were
discussed and the name of South Asia was proposed for the Indian sub-continent. In
1937, Chaudhary Rehmat Ali demanded a Muslim state comprising of Bengal and Assam
and proposed the name of BANG-I-ISLAM. He also suggested the name of
USMANISTAN for the Muslim state of Hyderabad.

Chaudhary Rehmat Ali strengthened his efforts during the Round Table Conference and
advised the Muslim participants of the conference to reject the proposal of Indian
federation. Chaudhary Rehmat Ali was a great supporter of the Muslims of India. His
ideas and thoughts produced hope among the Muslims of India. His scheme of a separate
Muslims state created anguish among the Hindus and British who heatedly negated his
ideas. Chaudhary Rehmat Ali not only invented the name of PAKISTAN but also
launched an effective movement for the achievement of Pakistan. His ideas gained wide
range popularity among the Muslims youth of India. It was Chaudhary Rehmat Ali who
declared the LAHORE RESOLUTION as PAKISTAN RESOLUTION, which was
finally accepted by the Quaid-e-Azam and all the Muslims of India.

The proposals made by other Muslim leaders could not attract a concrete scheme for the
establishment of the Muslim state, came from the first time, from a person of high brain
stature and prestige. With Chaudhary Rehmat Ali, a student of Cambridge University,
propounding his scheme of partition of India, the Muslims, instead of looking upon
themselves as downtrodden minority, now saw themselves as a proud nation entitled to
build a just social order based on Islam in their homeland.

Chaudhary Rehmat Ali coined the word PAKISTAN in which ‘P’ stand for Punjab, ‘A’
for Afghan (NWFP), ‘K’ for Kashmir, ‘S’ for Sindh, and ‘TAN’ for Baluchistan. The
word PAKISTAN itself means the Land of the Pure. Chaudhary Rehmat Ali expanded
his scheme in his famous pamphlet known as NOW OR NEVER and gave it a wide
publicity. He wrote a book as Pakistan the fatherland of Pak Nation, in which he declared
that the northern part of the sub-continent is a Muslim majority area, which we shall
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make an independent Muslim State. He openly rejected the idea of One Nationality and
advocated separation from India.

Chaudhary Rehmat Ali made great contributions to the Muslim politics of India. He died
on 3rd February, 1951. He is buried in Cambridge City Graveyard.
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Assignment No. 3
1. The Lahore Resolution was moved by Moulvi Fazal-ul-Haq.

2. The World War II started in 1939.

3. The Hindus started Quit India Movement in August 1942 seeing British in

trouble.

4. Lord Wavell announced elections in Winter 1945.

5. In December 1945, the elections of Central Legislature were held and the ML

won all 30 Muslim seats.

6. On April 9, 1946, all the newly elected Muslim members pledged in the Delhi

Convention to shatter the Hindu dream of united India.

7. The Interim Government was formed under Nehru on September 2, 1946 and the

ML stayed away.

8. Khizr Hayat Tiwana was a Muslim Leader from the Punjab.

9. First meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held on August 11, 1947 and the

ceremonies on August 14.

10. Lord Mountbatten appointed as Viceroy and he arrived in Delhi on March 22,

1947.
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Assignment No. 4
Question: What were the provincial reforms introduced in the
Indian Act of 1935, and why this act failed to win appreciation
from the various political factions of the Subcontinent?
Answer:
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT 1935:

Nothing could be done in the Round Table Conference to solve the constitutional
problems of India. The only good factor of these conferences was this that they
sufficiently marked the public opinion to enable the government to fully understand the
problems and to take some concrete steps to solve them.

The proposals of the Round Table Conference were contained in a white paper which was
published in 1933 and discussed in the parliament. A committee was arranged under the
leadership of Lord Linlithgow, the Viceroy of India, to consider the proposals of the
white paper. The other members of the committee included Agha khan, Muhammad
Zafarullah Khan, Shafaat Ahmad Khan, Abdur Rahim and A.H. Ghaznavi.

The committee worked for one and half years and finally came out with a draft bill on
February 5, 1935. The bill was discussed in the Parliament for 43 days and finally it was
signed by King of England in July 1935 and was enforced in the country as Government
of India Act 1935.

SALIENT RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE ACT OF 1935:

The Government of India Act contained 14 parts and 10 schedules and consisted of two
parts. Part 1 pertained to provincial subjects while Part II contained federal list of
subjects. The act came into operation on 1st April, 1937 except part II which could not
enforced until a specific number of princely states acceded to the Indian Federation. This
act introduced federal system in the centre. The provincial reforms were as follows.

 The provinces were given more authority and powers and for the first time the
provinces were made the separate entities.

 The system of ‘Diarchy’, which had been established in the provinces by the
Act of 1919, was to be established at the Center. However, it ended in the
provinces.
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 Three lists of subjects were drawn up which were the federal list, the provincial
list and the concurrent list.

 The provincial legislatures were given powers of legislation on provincial and


concurrent subjects.

 The provincial executive was handed over to the representatives of the people
who were accountable before the provincial legislatures.

 The country was divided into 11 provinces.

 Responsible parliamentary system was introduced in the provinces. The


provinces were given the full autonomy. The Ministers were to be chosen from
the representatives of the people.

 Every province was given a council of ministers whose advice was binding on
the Governor. However, in the discharge of his responsibilities the Governor
was to act under the general control the Governor-General.

 Special powers were given to the governors for the protection of the rights of
minorities.

AN UPRAISAL OF THE ACT OF 1935:

The Act of 1935 failed to satisfy several political sections of the country. The Indian
political leaders rejected due to the fact that it did not satisfy the demands of the different
political factions. Quaid-e-Azam declared it as a defective document.

The Federal System introduced by the Act of 1935 was defective in many ways. There
was no guarantee of individual liberties neither it could give a workable dominion status.
The people were not given their rights. All authority was vested in the Parliament which
was under British influence.

The system of Dyarchy, which had failed in the provinces, was introduced in the centre
without any prospective results. Vast authority was given to the Governors in the
provinces and to the Viceroy in the center, which was against the principle of democracy
and provincial autonomy. The minister of State could interfere in the government
services without any reasons.

The central part of the Act could not be enforced and was suspended for some time.
However, the provincial part of the Act was enforced on 1st April 1937, under which the
election were to be held in the country.
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Assignment No. 5
1. The first Martial Law was imposed in Pakistan in October 1958.

2. Provincial Governors are appointed by President on the advice of PM.

3. Hudood Ordinance was promulgated in the country in 1979.

4. The River System of Pakistan is consisted of Indus and other associated rivers.

5. Durand Line was drawn on November 1893 between Pakistan and Afghanistan.

6. Normally 25 percent area of a country should be covered with forests.

7. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was the first civilian chief Martial Law administrator of
Pakistan.

8. Federal Shariat Court was established in 1981.

9. The Constitution of 1962 was abrogated on 25, March 1969.

10. Shahabuddin Commission presented its report on 6th May 1961.


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Assignment No. 6
Question: Comment on the role of Pakistan’s Foreign Policy in
International Relations Particularly with the reference to the
Muslim World.
Answer:
The foreign policy is defined as the relations or friendship among the independent
states. However, in the broader point of view, the foreign policy is said to be those
endeavors of the independent states, which they get on upon to develop close relations
between them in order to benefit from each other’s achievements in various fields of
human activity. The foreign policy is usually referred to as the general principles by
which a state governs its re-action to the international environments.

Foreign policy is a nation’s thought, desire and reflection of domestic political


movement and behavior. It is always the product of interaction of many forces like
ideological, historical, economic, national interests and geo-political locations. These
factors determine the country’s outlook in world affairs. It is more or less, a friendly
stance taken over by a nation in its dealings and connections with other nations with
respect to the affairs falling beyond the territory of the conventional alliances or
convenient settlement.

The peculiar location of Pakistan with its linkages with the West and Central
Asia, its cultural and ideological orientations as well as circumstances surrounding its
birth ending in the partition of the Indian sub-continent make the task of fashioning a
rational approach to international affairs complex and difficult. The wars with its hostile
neighbor, the loss of its eastern part, its policy with regard to Afghanistan and its
friendship and dependence with USA constitute the most important elements of its
foreign relations. To these may be added close links with China and the Muslim countries
especially Saudi Arabia, Gulf States, Iran and Turkey.

The foreign policy of a country reflects the behavior pattern of a nation based on
its collective wisdom in dealing with other nations. It can be based neither permanently
on the dreaming of an individual, nor on the idealism of a group. The national goals,
more or less, at external ends, as collected carefully through records of the nations,
remain consistent, although they may be inharmonious internally with the man and the
groups in power from time to time. A multitude of factors contributes to the making of an
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outlook in dealings with nations of the world abroad. Friends and foes, as with
individuals, are determined by the history and the geography of a nation. No country,
whatever its economic potential, can remain isolated from the outside world any longer.

Pakistan foreign policy is based on the fact to develop friendly relations with
different countries of the world to enhance trade, economy etc. Pakistan fastens a special
value to its relations with Islamic countries and is committed wholeheartedly to all
Muslim causes and the strengthening of cooperation among Islamic countries. This has
been an unshakeable pillar of our foreign policy. Pakistan has earned the respect of the
Islamic world for its consistent and effective support of Muslim causes, specially at the
United Nations. Pakistan’s relations with the Islamic Countries are based on the ideology
of Pakistan. Pakistan was created to meet the irresistible urge of Muslims of subcontinent
to have a homeland of their own where they could preserve in safety and tranquility their
religion, culture and way of life and where they could live in peace and prosperity. The
late Prime Minister of Pakistan Liaqat Ali Khan once said:

“The underlying idea of the movement for the achievement of Pakistan was
not just to add one more country to the collection of countries in the world or to add
one more patch of color to the multi-colored global map. Pakistan came into being
as a result of the urge felt by the Muslims of this subcontinent to secure a territory,
however limited, where the Islamic Ideology and the way of life could be practiced
and demonstrated to the world. A coordinal feature of this ideology is to make
Muslim brotherhood a living reality. It is, therefore, part of the job, which Pakistan
has set before itself to do every thing in its power to uphold closer friendship and
assistance between Muslim Countries.”

The special relations that Pakistan maintains with the countries of the Middle East
have a historical, cultural, religious, strategic and economic basis. The relations are
numbered by mutual trust and confidence that have stood the test of time and are never
been effected even by change of governments. Over the years, Pakistan and the Gulf
states have shown marked awareness of each other security concerns. This has been a
continuing process, unaffected by changes of government or other factors in the
international environment. Pakistan always supported for Arab causes, beginning with the
decolonization process in the Middle East and North Africa and our continuing
commitment to Palestinian self-determination, rooted in our national philosophies, and
dates back to Pakistan’s own creation. Similarly, the Arab states have shown
understanding and support for our position on Kashmir. Every Muslim country has
supported Pakistan in the long-standing issue of Jammu and Kashmir and has said that
this issue should be resolved as per the desires of Kashmiri people.
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Pakistan always wants to have brotherhood and deep friendly relations among
Muslim Countries. Relations with Muslim Countries are an important part of our foreign
policy in order to enhance cooperation. Building friendly relations with Muslim
Countries is important part of Pakistan Ideology. It is also written in the constitution of
Pakistan to build friendly relation with Islamic Countries. Now-a-days, Pakistan has
friendly relations with all Muslim Countries of the world. Pakistan is a member of all
Muslim Organizations. Pakistan has always lifted its voice on the issues of Palestine,
Kashmir, Eritrea, and Bosnia and also supported the all freedom Movements and also
provided them all moral and diplomatic help.

We see that Pakistan foreign policy is consistent towards Muslim Countries in


every Government and this all is because of the fact that our great religion Islam stresses
upon brotherhood and teaches us to be united all the time and this reason has grasped
Pakistan and other Muslim countries at one place.