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Performing Pushover Analysis in ETABS Performing Pushover Analysis in ETABS

Performing Pushover Analysis in ETABS


AI T AI T - - Thailand Thailand
ACECOMS Civil/Structural Engineer
PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC DESIGN Bknee Bknee
ETABS is a software for linear and nonlinear , static and dynamic analysis and
design of buildings in 3D. It can create computer model of a building in the
same fashion as a real building.
Frame and Shear Walls
Lateral Load Resisting Elements
Building Structure
Floor Slab Elements
Gravity Load Resisting Elements
ETABS offers a powerful 3D nonlinear static pushover analysis option which
tracks hinge formation and helps identify the failure mode of the structure that
can be performed either on existing or new construction.
Floor Diaphragm
Lateral Load Transmitting
Element
About ETABS
About ETABS
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ACECOMS Civil/Structural Engineer
PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC DESIGN Bknee Bknee
Building Structural System
Building Structural System
The Gravity Load Resisting Elements


The structural system (beams, slab, girders, columns, etc) that
act primarily to support the gravity or vertical loads.
The Lateral Load Resisting Elements


The structural system (columns, shear walls, bracing, etc) that
primarily acts to resist the lateral loads.
The Floor Diaphragm


The structural system that transfers lateral loads to the lateral
load resisting system and provides in-plane floor stiffness.
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Modeling of Structural Geometry
Modeling of Structural Geometry
(b) Solid Model (c) 3D Plate-Frame (d) 3D Frame
(a) Real Structure
(e) 2D Frame
Fig. 1 Various Ways to Model a Real Struture
Various Ways to Model a Real Structure
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ACECOMS Civil/Structural Engineer
PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC DESIGN Bknee Bknee
Computers assist the structural designer in the creative
phase of the design process, but it is the designer who
rearranges system components so as to optimize both cost
and behavior. Therefore any structural software is not a
substitute for informed human judgment and should only
be used by competent designer with the training and
experience necessary to evaluate and verify any
information generated by the software tools like ETABS.
WARNING:
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Example Application: 3D Concrete Building
Example Application: 3D Concrete Building
Building Description
The building is a seven-story three dimensional (3D) symmetrical concrete
building frame.
Typical Floor Plan and Elevation
6
.
0
m
6
.
0
m
6

@

3
.
0
m
3
.
7
5
m
6.0m 5.0m 6.0m
Columns: 70cm x 70cm
W-E beams: 45cm x 55cm
N-S beams: 45cm x 60cm
Slabs: 135mm
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ACECOMS Civil/Structural Engineer
PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC DESIGN Bknee Bknee
Seismic Design Criteria and Design Earthquake Levels
Understanding the fundamentals of the Code requirements in terms

of strength and ductility
and the behavior of the proposed structural system, two sets of design parameters were
developed for the proposed structural systems seismic performance.
The first design parameter is an explicit set of quantifiable acceptable Design Criteria

defining performance levels, as shown in Table 1.
Design Earthquake
Level 1
(Moderate Earthquake)
Level 2
(Major Earthquake)
Level 3
(Severe Earthquake)
Performance Level No Damage Repairable Damage No Collapse
Column Deformation
(FEMA 273 p. 6-20)
Beam Deformation
(FEMA 273 p. 6-19)
Elastic
Elastic
Rotation < 0.01 radians
Rotation < 0.02 radians
Rotation < 0.02 radians
Rotation < 0.025 radians
Allowable Drift Index
0.005 0.010 0.020
Table 1 Design Criteria
Note: Drift index is the ratio of the horizontal roof displacement to the height of the building relative to the ground.
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PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC DESIGN Bknee Bknee
The second set of design parameter is the Design Earthquake Levels

(see next slide), that
relates the seismic load design levels stated in the Table 1 of Design Criteria

to the effective
peak ground motion based on the seismic zones. The values of this seismic zone factor related
to the seismic zones from the UBC 1997 can be considered to represent the effective peak
ground acceleration (associated with an earthquake that has a 10% probability of being
exceeded in 50 years) expressed as a function of the acceleration due to gravity. In the
absence of site specific study, the following effective peak ground acceleration (PGA) can be
used, as shown in Table 2.
Seismic Risk Seismic Damage
Zone 1
Minor damage; maximum ground acceleration is 0.07g; corresponds to magnitude 4 to
4.9 of Richter Scale
Zone 2
Moderate damage; maximum ground acceleration is 0.15g; corresponds to magnitude 5
to 5.9 of Richter Scale
Zone 3
Major damage; maximum ground acceleration is 0.30g; corresponds to magnitude 6 to
6.9 of Richter Scale
Zone 4
No collapse; maximum ground acceleration is estimated to be approximately 0.55g;
corresponds to magnitude 7 and higher of Richter Scale
Table 2 Effective PGA
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Levels of
Earthquake Loads
by their Intensities
FEMA Qualitative
Description
Probability of
Occurrence in
50 years
Return Period
(Year)
Corresponding
Effective PGA
(g)
Level 1: MMI VII
Frequently level
Occasional 50% 72 0.12
Level 2: MMI VIII
Design Intensity level
Rare 10% 475 0.25
Level 3: MMI IX
Severity level
Very Rare 2% 2475 0.50
Table 3 Design Earthquake Level
The level 1 earthquake is similar in magnitude to the Code level

elastic design in a moderate
earthquake, which is the serviceability state event (Immediate Occupancy). The level 2
earthquake correspond to the Code ultimate state level in a major earthquake (Life Safety).
The level 3 earthquake correspond to the Code inelastic state level in a severe earthquake
(Collapse Prevention).
The approximate empirical correlations between Modified Mercalli

Intensity (MMI) and the
PGA is shown on next slide.
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PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC DESIGN Bknee Bknee
One often asks: Can my building withstand a magnitude 7.2 earthquake?

But,
the M7.2 earthquake causes different shaking intensities at different locations,
and the damage induced in buildings at these locations is different. Thus,
indeed it is particular levels of intensity of shaking that buildings and
structures are designed to resist, and not so much the magnitude. The peak
ground acceleration (PGA), i.e., maximum acceleration experienced by the
ground during shaking, is one way the engineers and scientists quantify the
severity of the ground shaking (seismic intensity).
Approximate Empirical Correlations Between the MMI Intensities and the PGA
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Seismic Design Loading
Seismic Coefficient C
v

= 0.672
Response spectrum: UBC 1997 Seismic Coefficient C
a

= 0.40
Using the above-mentioned performance based approach; a Code based
equivalent static lateral force analysis and response spectrum analysis were
used to size all the structural members. Following this initial stage of design,
the nonlinear pushover analysis was used to understand the global behavior of
the structural system for its compliance with the design criteria.
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Note:
C
a

and C
v

are the earthquake near-source effect that defines ground motion
response within the acceleration and velocity-controlled ranges of the
design response spectrum.
Ground motion
response within
acceleration controlled
range of the spectrum
Ground motion response within velocity
controlled range of the spectrum
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Static seismic load: UBC 1997 Soil Profile Type = S
c
Seismic Zone Factor = 0.40 Seismic Source Type = A
Distance To Known Seismic Source = 10 km
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Materials
Concrete: 24.131 MPa

Reinforcing steel: ASTM Grade 60 fy

= 415 Mpa
Make sure that you read through the sections of the FEMA-273
Guidelines and Commentary or its updated version FEMA 356 before

you attempt to apply the NSP. The procedures discussed here automate
the process but you still need a thorough knowledge of the method to
ensure valid results. Finally, it is emphasized that the ETABS
documentation for the pushover is not intended to, and does not,

document the pushover analysis method, but rather is intended to

document the pushover analysis capabilities of ETABS.
Design Gravity Loading
Live Load: Roof LL = 1.0 kPa

Floor LL = 2.4 kPa
Dead Load: Toppings = 420 Pa

Partitions = 1 kPa
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ETABS Screen Shots
The following ETABS screen shots outlines the basic flow from creating a
structural model to analysis and design, and to viewing the results of
nonlinear static pushover analysis.
1.

Create an elastic building model just like you would for any other
analysis.
Modeling Phase
Modeling Phase
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2.

Define and assign rigid diaphragm.
Note:
A rigid floor diaphragm simulates the in-plane rigidity produce by the RC
floor slab.
A Diaphragm Constraint causes all of its contrained

joints to translate and
rotate together as a planar diaphragm that is rigid against membrane
deformation.
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3.

Define static load cases.
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4.

Modify lateral loads EQX and EQY.
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5.

Assign

gravity loads.
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6.

Define mass source.
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7.

Define acceleration response spectrum function(s).
Spectrum is a curve showing amplitude (the size of the wiggles on an earthquake
recording)

as a function of frequency or period (the time interval required for one
full cycle of a wave). Design response spectrum is a specification of the level of seismic
design force, or displacement, as a function of natural period of vibration and damping level.
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PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC DESIGN Bknee Bknee
Dynamic Analysis Using Response Spectrum Seismic Loading
Orthogonal Effects in Spectral Analysis (ORTHOGONAL EFFECTS

are the earthquake load effects on
structural elements common to the lateral-force-resisting systems along two orthogonal axes).
A well designed structure should be capable of equally resisting

earthquake motions from all possible directions.
One option in existing design codes for buildings requires that

members be designed for "100 percent of the
prescribed seismic forces in one direction plus 30 percent of the prescribed forces in the perpendicular direction".
However, they give no indication on how the directions are to be

determined for complex structures. For structures
that are rectangular and have clearly defined principal directions, these "percentage" rules yield approximately the
same results as the SRSS method of directional combination. For rectangle building ETABS and SAP2000 can
handle the percentage rule automatically by ABS directional combination with orthogonal scale factor of 1. The
SRSS method can be both used in rectangular or arbitrarily shaped building.
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Definition of Earthquake Spectra Input Applied at Arbitrary Angle

A weakness in the current code is the lack of definition of the principal horizontal directions

for a general three
dimensional structure. If each engineer is allowed to select an arbitrary reference system, the dynamic base shear

will not be unique and each reference system could result in a different design. One solution to this problem that
will result in a unique design base shear is to use the direction of the base shear associated with the fundamental
mode of vibration 1 and 2 (by performing modal analysis in SAP2000) as the definition of the major principal
direction

for the structure. The minor principal direction

will be, by definition, 90 degrees from the major axis.
This approach has some rational basis because it is valid for regular structures. Therefore, this definition of the
principal directions will be used for the method of analysis presented in this presentation..
Angle


= arctan

(Modal Base Shear Y / Modal Base Shear X)
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PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC DESIGN Bknee Bknee
Recommendations On Orthogonal Effects
The required design seismic forces may come from any horizontal direction and, for the purpose of design, they
may be assumed to act non-concurrently in the direction of each principal axis of the structure.
For three dimensional response spectra analyses, it has been shown that the "design of elements for 100 percent of
the prescribed seismic forces in one direction plus 30 or 40 percent of the prescribed forces applied in the
perpendicular direction" is dependent on the user's selection of

the reference system. These commonly used
"percentage combination rules" are empirical and can underestimate the design forces in certain members and
produce a member design which is relatively weak in one direction. It has been shown that the alternate building
code approved method, in which an SRSS combination of two 100 percent spectra analyses with respect to any
user defined orthogonal axes, will produce design forces that are not a function of the reference system. Therefore,
the resulting structural design has equal resistance to seismic motions from all directions.
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PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC DESIGN Bknee Bknee
8.

Define response cases in X and Y direction. Consider orthogonal effect.
Initial scale factor = 1
Using a scale factor equals to 1
has two purpose:
1.

The response spectra
need not be scaled to
match the site specific
spectra and structure
specific criteria.
2.

To obtain the unscaled

RSA elastic response

base shear.
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9.

Set analysis options.
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10.

Run analysis and compare response spectrum RSP base shear with EQX
and EQY base shear.
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PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC DESIGN Bknee Bknee
Response spectrum final scale factor = V
EQ
/V
RSp
Where:
V
EQ
= Static base shear
V
RSp

= Response spectrum base shear
Scaling of Results
After dynamic base shear

are calculated in the major and minor principal direction. The next step is to scale
the previously used spectra shapes by the ratio of static design base shear

to the minimum value of the
dynamic base shear.

This approach is more conservative than proposed by the current

requirements because
only the scaling factor that produces the largest response is used. However, this approach is far more rational
because it results in the same design earthquake in all directions.
The current code allows the use of different scale factors for a

design spectra in two different directions. This
will result in a design that has a weak direction relative to the other principal direction.
The reasons for having to calculate scaling factors are twofold.
1.

If a normalized

or acceleration

spectra was used to calculate the spectral results, the spectral
results must be scaled to match the site specific spectra and structure specific criteria.
2.

The UBC sets minimum values for the design base shear.
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Analysis Phase
Analysis Phase
The task in the analysis phase can be divided into Structural Analysis

tasks, Behavior
Assessment

tasks, and Demand-Capacity

tasks. The Structural Analysis

tasks are for
running structural analyses and design/check the structure. The Behavior Assessment

tasks
allow you to examine and check the behavior of the analysis model. The Demand-Capacity

tasks allow you to calculate performance point, and hence make decisions about the
performance of the structure.
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1.

Run and review the results of the basic linear and dynamic analysis to
verify the behavior of the building prior to running pushover analysis.
Structural Analysis Tasks
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2.

Start the design/check of structure.
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3.

Unlock model and assign the reinforcement for columns to be checked.
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4.

Assign the reinforcement overrides for beams which are specified areas
of longitudinal steel that occurs at the top and bottom of the left and right
ends of the beam.
Note:
Refer to the ETABS User Manual how these overrides are used by ETABS.
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Note:
Refer to the ETABS User Manual how these overrides are used by ETABS.
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Phenomenological


Microscopic
Note:
RC structures

can be modeled for Nonlinear Response Analysis by:
I
n
c
r
e
a
s
i
n
g

l
e
v
e
l

o
f
R
e
f
i
n
e
m
e
n
t

a
n
d

C
o
m
p
l
e
x
i
t
y
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ACECOMS Civil/Structural Engineer
PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC DESIGN Bknee Bknee
Phenomenological
Lumped Nonlinearity
Distributed Nonlinearity
Inelastic Hinges
F
D
KINEMATIC
F
D
ORIGIN-ORIENTED
F
D
PEAK-ORIENTED
F
D
CLOUGH DEGRADING TRILINEAR TAKEDA
HYSTERESIS MODEL ARE:
KINEMATIC
ORIGIN-ORIENTED
PEAK-

ORIENTED
CLOUGH
DEGRADING TRILINEAR
TAKEDA
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Microscopic
Fiber Models
Fiber Section
Concrete Cell Steel Cell
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Phenomenological


Microscopic
I
n
c
r
e
a
s
i
n
g

l
e
v
e
l

o
f
R
e
f
i
n
e
m
e
n
t

a
n
d

C
o
m
p
l
e
x
i
t
y
Lumped Nonlinearity (used in the presentation)
Distributed Nonlinearity
Fiber Models ; the most promising model
~ Adequate Accuracy & Efficiency
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PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC DESIGN Bknee Bknee
5.

Define hinges to columns if the default hinge is not used.
Note:

There are three types of hinge properties in

ETABS. They are default hinge properties, user-defined
hinge properties and generated hinge properties. Only
default hinge properties and user-defined hinge
properties can be assigned to frame elements.
(Currently, hinges can be introduced into frame objects
only and assigned at any location along the frame
object).

When these hinge properties are assigned to a
frame element, the program automatically creates a
different generated hinge property for each and every
hinge.
The built-in default hinge properties are typically based
on FEMA-273 and/or ATC-40 criteria and cannot be
modified.
The generated hinge properties are used in the analysis.
They can be viewed, but they can not be modified.
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Assign hinges to columns to generate an inelastic building model.
Note:

Relative distance is measured from
the I-end of the beam, and is based on the
clear length between rigid end offsets. A
0

relative distance indicates the hinge is
at the I-end of the beam. A 1

relative
distance indicates the hinge is at the J-end
of the beam. Hinges may be located
anywhere along the length of the beam.
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6.

Define hinges to beams if the default hinge is not used.
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Assign hinges to beams to generate an inelastic building model.
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7.

Rerun the analysis and the design/check of structure.
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8.

Define the static nonlinear load cases. (Note: Typically the Load to Level Defined By
Pattern option is used to apply gravity load, and the Push To Displacement Magnitude of option is
used to apply lateral pushes. Pushover analysis takes time. Since it is a step-wise linear analysis,
analysis time and results is very much dependent on the number of analysis cycle. Whenever there
is load increment on the structure, a new analysis cycle starts.)
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9.

Run the static nonlinear analysis.
Pushover analysis will continue until any of the following three

conditions is satisfied:
a)

Cumulative base shear is less than or equal to the base shear defined

by the user.
b)

Displacement at the control joint in the specified direction exceeds specified
displacement.
c)

The structure becomes unstable.
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Behavior Assessment Tasks
Push 2 (Load Pattern Acceleration X-direction)
1.

Deflected shapes. Display the pushover deformed shape on step-by-step basis
to view the pushover displacement shape and sequence of hinge formation
(hinges appear when they yield and are color coded based on their state).
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Note: The color of the
hinges indicates the state
of the hinge, i.e, where it
is along its force
displacement curve.
In step 7 the building deformed
at Life Safety performance
level.
Click
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Note: To view the displacements of
individual nodes right click them.
Click
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In step 8 the building
deformed beyond


ductile limit point
(Collapse Prevention
performance level). It
is at this level where
significant strength
loss begins in the
second story beams.
Click
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Click
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Demand-Capacity Tasks
Push 2 (Load Pattern Acceleration X-direction)
1.

Display the pushover curve to view the building responses according to the
performance point or to adjust the intensity of ground shaking and the
damping ratio to determine the appropriate levels of ground motion and
performance objectives for the building in order to meet the owners
expectation.
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The pushover analysis provides
a Shear vs. Displacement
pushover curve to indicate the
inelastic limit as well as lateral
load capacity of the building.
The changes in slope of this
curve gives an indication of

yielding of various structural
elements. When the slope of
the curve does not change it
means that structural elements
remains elastic.
Click
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Pushover curve when Ca = 0.4
and Cv

= 0.672.
The Shear vs

Displacement
pushover curve is converted to
the Acceleration vs

Displacement Response
Spectrum. The pushover curve
also shows the demand
spectrum, and various
performance points. The
performance point represents
the global response of the
building.
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2.

Adjust the intensity of ground shaking and the damping ratio to determine the
appropriate levels of ground motion and performance objectives for the
building in order to meet the owners expectation.
The pushover curve when
Ca = 0.4 and Cv

= 0.9
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Notes:
When the capacity spectrum option is chosen, the pushover

curve is displayed in
ADRS(Acceleration-Displacement Response Spectrum) format. Refer to ATC-40 for a
discussion of this format which is essentially a plot of spectral acceleration versus spectral
displacement. In ETABS, the force-displacement pushover curve is converted to the ADRS
format by converting the resultant base shear to a spectral acceleration , Sa, and the control
displacement in the control direction to a spectral displacement, Sd, generally based on
equations 8-1 thru 8-4 in ATC-40.
The single demand spectrum (variable damping) curve is constructed by doing the following
for each point on the ADRS pushover curve:
Draw a radial line through the point on the ADRS pushover curve.

This is a line of constant
period.
Calculate the damping associated with the point on the curve based on the area under the
curve up to that point.
Construct the demand spectrum, plotting it for the same damping level as associated with the
point on the pushover curve.
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The intersection point of the radial line and the associated demand spectrum represents a
point on the Single Demand Spectrum (Variable Damping) curve.
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Structural Behavior Type is classified in the table below.

Select A, B or C to obtain a
reduction factor applicable for effective damping
Shaking
Duration
Essentially
New
Building
Average Existing
Building
Poor Existing
Building
Short Type A Type B Type C
Long Type B Type C Type C
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3.

Since the performance point (intersection of the ADRS pushover curve
and the single demand spectrum (variable damping)) represent the

global
response of the building, display the pushover capacity/demand
comparison table to determine what step that the structural member begin
to reached its limit state on the particular ground motion and damping
ratio.
Ca = 0.40 Cv

= 0.672
AI T AI T - - Thailand Thailand
ACECOMS Civil/Structural Engineer
PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC DESIGN Bknee Bknee
Ca = 0.40 Cv

= 0.90
In the Pushover Capacity/Demand Comparison table take note of the following:


Step identifies the step number in the pushover curve.


Teff

is the effective period at the associated step.


eff

is the effective damping at the associated step.


Sd(C) and Sa(C) define a point on the ADRS capacity curve for the associated step.


Sd(D) and Sa(D) define a point on the single demand spectrum (variable damping)
curve for the associated step.


Alpha is the factor used in converting the base shear to spectral acceleration at the
associated step.


PF* is the factor used in converting the displacement to spectral displacement at the
associated step.
AI T AI T - - Thailand Thailand
ACECOMS Civil/Structural Engineer
PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC DESIGN Bknee Bknee
Damping is a measure of the dissipation of energy in the structure. It represent the frictional
characteristics and energy losses of the structure. Typically, a

reinforced concrete building
will have 1 to 2% damping prior to an earthquake. As cracking and structural and
nonstructural damage develop during earthquake, this increase to

about 5%.
AI T AI T - - Thailand Thailand
ACECOMS Civil/Structural Engineer
PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC DESIGN Bknee Bknee
Evaluation of Performance
Evaluation of Performance
Displacement Response


Looking at the Pushover curve, the inelastic roof displacement of 0.190 meter at the
performance point generated by the severe earthquake with seismic design level

coefficient Ca = 0.4 and Cv

= 0.672 represents the reliable displacement capacity of a
building.


Looking at deflected shape of Life Safety limit state the highest inelastic roof
displacement is 0.270 meter as it is about to reach its ductile limit state (Collapse
Prevention), where significant strength loss begins.


When Cv

= 0.9 in the Pushover curve, the performance point changed to an inelastic
roof displacement of 0.251 meter, which represents the highest reliable roof
displacement capacity of a building as it reaches its limit of structural stability when the
specified ground motion is exceeded.
Push2 (Load Pattern Acceleration X-Dir)
AI T AI T - - Thailand Thailand
ACECOMS Civil/Structural Engineer
PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC DESIGN Bknee Bknee
Design Implication


Structural Damage Objective

Typically the threshold of structural damage is associated
with some inelastic behavior. From a displacement perspective, the building highest
inelastic drift

of 0.251 meter when the specified earthquake magnitude is exceeded

is
about to produce permanent inelastic deformation. If laterally deformed beyond 0.251
meter, the structure can experience instability and collapse.


Life Safety Objective

The highest earthquake design level performance inelastic
building drift

is 0.190 meter giving a drift ratio of

/H = 0.190/21.75 = 0.009 and this is
less than

idealized inelastic drift index of 0.01.


Collapse Prevention Objective

The highest inelastic performance building drift

when
the earthquake

design level is exceeded

is 0.262 meter giving a drift ratio of

/H =
0.251/21.75 = 0.012 and this is less than

idealized inelastic drift index of 0.02.
AI T AI T - - Thailand Thailand
ACECOMS Civil/Structural Engineer
PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC DESIGN Bknee Bknee
Design Implication (Continued)


Capacity

Pushover deformed shape shows that life safety is reached in step 7 and
collapsed in the second story beams in step 8.


Ductility -

In the Pushover curve the severe event of earthquake design level
performance base shear is 4633 kN

and the severe event of earthquake design level
inelastic roof displacement is 0.190 meter, while the Code design elastic base shear is
1467 kN

and the Code design elastic roof displacement is 0.059 meter.
AI T AI T - - Thailand Thailand
ACECOMS Civil/Structural Engineer
PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC DESIGN Bknee Bknee
Conclusion


There is a possibility that the beams in the second story will be damaged in step 8 to an
earthquake intensity with earthquake near source effect Ca = 0.4

and Cv

= 0.672, that
defines the ground motion response within the acceleration and

velocity controlled
ranges of the design response spectrum.


Since the computed drift ratio (/H) = 0.012) when the specified earthquake magnitude
is exceeded

is less than

idealized inelastic drift index of 0.02 and the inelastic response
of the building in the earthquake design level shows life safety

capacity, the design of
the building is within Life Safety and Collapse Prevention performance objectives.


The building reliable inelastic displacement of 0.190 meter has increased to
0.251 meter when the specified earthquake magnitude is exceeded,

that is, when Ca and
Cv

are 0.4 and 0.9 respectively.


The roof displacement corresponding to the severe event of earthquake design level is
0.190/0.059 = 3.22 times the roof displacement at Code elastic design level.
AI T AI T - - Thailand Thailand
ACECOMS Civil/Structural Engineer
PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC DESIGN Bknee Bknee


The overall result of the pushover analysis in X-direction indicated that the capacity and
ductility of the seven story RC building is adequate to sustain the severe earthquake
excitation, and some members of the moment resisting frame remain elastic and thus
maintain the stability of the building structure.
Analysis results for other load pattern will be demonstrated by running ETABS
Conclusion (Continued)