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Chng 10.

QL Tch hp

CHNG 10. Qun l Tch hp D n.


Mc ch.
o M t khung lm vic ca qun l s tch hp d n trong mi quan h vi cc lnh vc kin thc v chu trnh sng ca d n o M t vic pht trin k hoch d n, gm ni dung k hoch d n, dng cc hng dn v cc ti liu mu pht trin k hoch, v phn tch stakeholder qun l cc mi quan h o Gii thch vic thc thi d n, quan h ca n vi hot ng lp k hoch, cc yu t dn n thnh cng, cc cng c v k thut h tr thc thi d n o Hiu c qui trnh iu khin thay i tch hp, lp k hoch v qun l s thay i trong cc d n CNTT, pht trin v s dng h iu khin thay i o M t cch s dng phn mm h tr qun l tch hp d n 10.1. Tm Quan trng ca Qun l Tch hp.
o o o o Qun l ri ro d n l mt ngh thut v nhng nhn bit khoa hc, l nhim v, v s i ph vi ri ro thng qua hot ng ca mt d n v nhng mc tiu i hi quan trong nht ca d n Qun l ri ro thng khng c ch trong cc d n, nhng n li gip ci thin c s thnh cng ca d n trong vic gip chn la nhng d n tt, xc nh phm vi d n, v pht trin nhng c tnh c tnh thc t Mt nghin cu ca Ibbs v Kwak ch ra vic qun l ri ro khng khoa hc nh th no, c bit l trong nhng d n cng ngh thng tin Nghin cu ca KPMG cho thy 55% cc d n ng bng sn bay khng ch trng trong vic qun l ri ro.

Cha kha thnh cng: Qun l tch hp tt. o Ngi qun l d n phi iu phi tt c cc lnh vc kin thc trong sut chu trnh sng ca d n o Nhiu ngi qun l d n mi gp kh khn khi nhn vo bc tranh tng th v mun tp trung vo qu nhiu chi tit o Qun l tch hp d n khng ging nh tch hp phn mm 10.2. Qui trnh QL Tch hp.
Nhng tin trnh chnh bao gm (xem Hnh 1):

Pht trin k hoch d n: ly kt qu ca cc qui trnh lp k hoch khc v a vo thnh mt ti liu nht qun v kt dnh k hoch d n Thc thi k hoch d n: thc hin k hoch d n iu khin thay i tch hp: iu phi nhng thay i trong ton b d n
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Chng 10. QL Tch hp

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Chng 10. QL Tch hp

10.2.1. Pht trin k hoch d n: o K hoch d n l ti liu dng iu phi tt c cc ti liu v hot ng ca d n o Mc ch chnh l hng dn thc thi d n o K hoch d n gip ngi QLDA lnh o nhm d n v nh gi tnh trng d n o Cn phi o vic thc hin d n so vi k hoch Cc thuc tnh ca k hoch d n. o K hoch d n mang tnh duy nht o K hoch phi ng (dynamic) o K hoch phi linh hot (flexible) o K hoch phi c cp nht khi c thay i o K hoch phi ng vai tr ti liu hng dn thc thi d n Cc thnh phn ph bin ca k hoch d n o Tng quan v d n o M t v cch t chc d n o Cc qui trnh qun l v k thut dng trong d n o Thng tin v cc vic phi lm, lch biu, v ngn sch Phn tch Cc Bn tham gia Phn tch Cc Bn tham gia cung cp thng tin quan trng (thng nhy cm) v cc Cc Bn tham gia nh: o Tn v cc cng ty ca Cc Bn tham gia o Vai tr ca h trong d n o Cc s liu thc v Cc Bn tham gia o Mc nh hng v quan tm n d n o xut cho qun l cc mi quan h 10.2.2. Thc thi k hoch d n: o Thc thi k hoch d n i hi qun l v thc hin cc cng vic m t trong k hoch d n o Hu ht thi gian v tin bc c dng trong qu trnh thc thi d n o Lnh vc ng dng ca d n tc ng n vic thc thi d n v sn phm ca d n c to ra trong qu trnh ny Cc k nng quan trng thc thi k hoch d n : o Cc k nng qun l tng qut nh k nng lnh o, giao tip, v chnh tr o K nng v sn phm v kin thc Dng cc cng c v k thut chuyn dng Cc cng c v k thut thc thi d n: o H giao vic (Work Authorization System): mt phng php bo m con ngi iu kin lm vic ng lc v ng trnh t o Hp nh gi tnh trng (Status Review Meetings): cc bui hp thng k trao i thng tin v d n o Phn mm qun l d n (Project Management Software): phn mm c bit h tr qun l cc d n
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Chng 10. QL Tch hp

10.2.3. iu khin thay i tch hp: iu khin thay i tch hp gm nhn din, nh gi, v qun l nhng thay i trong sut chu trnh sng ca d n (Ghi ch: Sch PMBOK 1996 gi qui trnh ny l iu khin thay i tng th). Ba mc tiu ca iu khin thay i: o Tc ng n cc yu t to ra s thay i bo m c li o Xc nh nhng thay i a xy ra o Qun l nhng thay i thc t khi xy ra Qui trnh iu khin thay i tch hp c cho bi hnh sau :

Trong Lp K hach ri ro, cn phi c thm K hach d phng, K hach rt lui,

iu khin thay i i vi cc d n CNTT


Cch nhn trc y: Nhm d n cn n lc lm ng theo k hoch, ng thi hn v trong phm vi ngn sch Vn : cc bn tham gia him khi ng ngay t u v phm vi ca d n, cho rng thi gian v chi ph d n l khng chnh xc Cch nhn hin i: Qun l d n l mt qu trnh giao tip v tha thun lin t c Gii php: Thay i thng c li, v nhm d n cn lp k hoch cho iu ny Mt qui trnh mang tnh hnh thc m t cc ti liu d n c th c thay i khi no v nh th no M t ai c php thay i v thay i nh th no Thng gm bng iu khin thay i (CCB), qun tr cu hnh, v mt qui trnh truyn t s thay i Mt nhm ngi chu trch nhim v ph duyt hoc t chi thay i ca d n CCB cung cp nhng hng dn chun b yu cu thay i, nh gi yu cu thay i, v qun l vic thc hin nhng thay i c duyt Gm cc bn tham gia ca ton cng ty
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H iu khin thay i

Ban iu khin thay i (CCB=Change Controlling Board)


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Chng 10. QL Tch hp

Thay i ng lc
Mt s CCB ch thnh thong mi gp nhau, v th nhng thay i c th xy ra qu lu Mt s cng ty c chnh sch cho nhng thay i nhy cm v thi gian chnh sch 48-gi cho php cc thnh vin nhm d n quyt nh, sau h c 48 gi ch ph duyt ca lnh o cp cao a nhng thay i xung mc thp nht c th c, nhng phi thng bo cho mi ngi Bo m sn phm v m t v sn phm l ng v y Tp trung vo qun l cng ngh bng cch xc nh v iu khin cc c trng chc nng v vt l ca sn phm Cc chuyn gia qun tr cu hnh xc nh v vit ti liu v cc yu cu cu hnh, iu khin thay i, lu v bo co nhng thay i, v kim tra sn phm xem c ph hp vi yu cu hay khng
Bng. Vi li v iu khin thay i tch hp Xem qun tr d n nh l mt qui trnh giao tip v tha thun lin tc Lp k hoch thay i Thit lp mt h iu khin thay i hnh thc, gm c Ban iu khin thay i (CCB) Dng qun tr cu hnh Xc nh cc th tc quyt nh ng lc cho nhng thay i nh Dng cc bo co (vit v ni) nhn din v qun l thay i Dng phn mm qun tr d n h tr qun l v truyn t s thay i

Qun tr cu hnh

10.3. Dng Phn mm QL Tch hp.


C th dng mt s phn mm trong qun l s tch hp d n C th to ti liu dng cc phn mm son tho vn bn Dng cc phn mm trnh by (nh Power Point) C th dng bng tnh hoc CSDL theo di Cc phn mm giao tip nh e-mail v Web h tr lin lc Phn mm qun l d n c th ly v ht mi th v cho thy thng tin chi tit v bng tng kt 10.4. Cu hi.
1. Gii thiu khi nim qun tr tch hp dng t ng ring ca bn. Qun tr tch hp c quan h vi chu trnh sng d n, v cc lnh vc qun tr khc nh th no? 2. Cc thnh phn quan trng ca mt k hoch tt. 3. Cc yu t quan trng thc thi d n thnh cng. Trnh by mt v d v d n c thc thi thnh cng, mt v d v d n tht bi. Xc nh nhng khc bit gia hai d n ny. 4. Tm quan trng ca qui trnh iu khin thay i tch hp (integrated change control process) i vi cc d n CNTT. 5. Trnh by ng dng ca cc cng c phn mm sau y trong qun tr tch hp d n: phn mm son tho vn bn (v d Winword), phn mm trnh by (v d Power Point), bng tnh (v d Excel), CSDL (v d Access), enail, Web v phn mm qun tr d n.
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Chng 10. QL Tch hp

T KHA - KEY TERMS.


o BAN (HI NG) IU KHIN THAY I (CCB=CHANGE CONTROL BOARD) mt nhm chnh thc nhng ngi chu trch nhim chp thun hay bc b nhng thay i trn mt d n (a formal group of people responsible for approving or rejecting changes on a project). H IU KHIN THAY I (CHANGE CONTROL SYSTEM) (a formal, documented process that describes when and how official project documents may be changed). QL C hnh (CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT) (a process that ensure that the descriptions of the projects products are correct and complete). IU KHIN S THAY I TCH HP (INTEGRATED CHANGE CONTROL) coordinating changes across the entire project. Qun l Giao din (INTERFACE MANAGEMENT) identifying and managing the points of interaction between various elements of a project. QL TCH HP D N (PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT) (includes the processes involved in coordinating all of the other project management knowledge areas throughout a projects life cycle. The main processes involved in project integration management include project plan development, project plan execution, and integrated change control). Phn mm qun l d n (PROJECT MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE) software specifically designed for project management. K HACH D N (PROJECT PLAN) (a document used to coordinate all project planning document and guide project execution and control. Key parts of a project plan include an introduction or overview of the project, a description of how the project is organized, the management and technical processes used on the project, and sections describing the work to be done, schedule information, and budget information). Pht trin K hach D n (PROJECT PLAN DEVELOPMENT) taking the results of other planning processes and putting them into a consistent, coherent document the project plan. Thc hin K hach D n (PROJECT PLAN EXECUTION) carrying out the project plan by performing the activities it includes. Phn tch cc Bn tham gia (STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS) (an analysis of information such as key stakeholders names and organization, their roles on the project, unique facts about each stakeholder, their level of interest in the project, their influence on the project, and suggestions for managing relationships with each stakeholder). Hp nh gi tnh trng (STATUS REVIEW MEETINGS) Cc bui hp thng k trao i thng tin v d n (regularly scheduled meetings used to exchange project information). H giao vic (WORK AUTHORIZATION SYSTEM) mt phng php bo m con ngi iu kin lm vic ng lc v ng trnh t (a method for ensuring that qualified people the work at the right time and in the proper sequence).

o o o o o

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Chng 10. QL Tch hp

N TP: QUN L TCH HP D N.


Hy chn nhng cu tr li ph hp t lit k sau y vo nhng ch cn trng:
A. Qun l (management) B. Phn tch cc Bn tham gia (stakeholder analysis) C. Hp s kt tnh hnh (status review meetings) D. Thc hin K hach D n (project plan execution) E. Thc hin (execution) F. Hy i b cho ht an ng i b. Walk the walk! G. Tmlc (summary) H. iu khin s thay i (change control) I. C hnh (configuration) J. H Giao Vic (work authorization) K. Pht trin K hach D n (project plan development) L. Tiu chun ha (standardized) M. Quyn Lnh o (leadership) N. Cc Hng dn (guidelines) O. Chi tit ha (detailed) P. S Gantt Q. Ti han tan v ci (Im all for it!) R. iu khin s thay i tch hp (integrated change control) S. Qun l Giao din (interface management) T. Tch hp (integration) U. S Vi (Sai) phn (differentiation) V. Cc Bng mu (templates) W. Cc Gi cng vic (work packages) X. S Mng (li) (network diagram)

1. Ba Qu trnh chnh trong Qun l tch hp l ______, _____, v _____. 2. Mt CCB l mt Ban (Hi ng)________ v c nh ngha nh l mt nhm chnh thc nhng ngi chu trch nhim chp thun hay bc b nhng thay i trn mt d n. 3. Nghin cu cho tht rng cc cng ty no m gii qun l d n th pht trin v trin khai cc H thng kt xut/ cung ng cho d n ________ v thng dng__________ nh l mt b cng c c tch hp ca h. 4. Nhiu ngi coi lnh vc tri thc v qun l ci ______ca d n nh l cha kha cho s thnh cng tng th ca d n, c bit l cc d n ln. 5. Mt cng c m bn c th s dng gip cho bn xc nh c rng lm th no qun l c cc mi quan h vi cc Bn Tham gia then cht l mt ______________________. 6. Nh John Madden ni khi cng b nhng s kin/Bin c ca Super Bowl, cha kha ca thng li l lm ________________. 7. Mt lch biu ____________ th bnh thng l mt cch nhn sc tch trong mt trang lch biu cho tng th d n thng hay thy trong k hach (ca) mt d n, trong khi mt lch biu _________th thng di hn nhiu. 8. Qun l __________ bo m rng cc m t v cc sn phm ca d n l ng n v y . 9. Mt H thng ______ l mt phng php bo m nhng s/cch truyn thng ph hp sao cho nhng ngi c nng lc xng ng c th lm cng vic y ng lc v ng dy cng vic cho mt d n. 10. Khi mt hun luyn vin b thua trong Super Bowl c (b) hi l ng ta ngh g v nhm ca ng ta, th ng ta tr li rng _____________.

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