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ALARMS

AIS(Alarm indication signal)


Alarm indication signal (AIS) is a signal transmitted by a system that is part of a concatenated telecommunications system to let the receiver know that some remote part of the end-to-end link has failed at a logical or physical level, even if the system it is directly connected to is still working. ther systems attached to a system transmitting AIS then relay the AIS indication onwards to other systems.!here are a number of types of AIS signals, which signal failure of different logical or physical segments of the system

PPI-AIS
Significance : An AIS has been detected in the incoming 2 Mbit/s signal. Note 1: If the 2 Mbit/s signal is unstructured , AIS may be a valid signal. If the ort is configured for an unframed signal, monitoring of the alarm is disabled. Note 2: !his alarm is not raised for "#/#$ Mbit/s tributaries. Impact : Invalidates the synchroni%ation source. Possible causes : AIS being generated by receding 2 Mbit/s e&ui ment. Corrective action : If the signal is structured, investigate receding e&ui ment for the cause of AIS.

TU-AIS
!'.

Significance : An AIS has been detected in the ointer bytes of the Im act :
1(!raffic affecting on un rotected aths. 2(!em orary traffic hit on rotected aths if aths s)itched to aggregate containing alarm. Possible causes: !' AIS being generated by another multi le*er on the net)or+.

AU-AIS
Significance : An AIS has been detected in the ,1 and ,2 bytes indicating a failure in the u stream ath. Impact : 1(!raffic affecting on un rotected aths. 2( !em orary traffic hit on rotected aths. Possible causes : A' AIS being generated by far multi le*er.

Note: A' AIS is not intentionally generated by the !N-1. multi le*er and should not be raised in a !N-1. to !N-1. system.

MS-AIS
Significance : An AIS has been detected in the /2 byte in the section overhead indicating a failure at the far multi le*er. Impact: 1(!raffic affecting on un rotected aths. 2( !em orary traffic hit on rotected aths. Possible causes:MS AIS generated at far multi le*er or by a regenerator in bet)een 0if a licable(. Note: MS AIS is not intentionally generated by the !N-1. multi le*er and should not be raised in a !N-1. to !N-1. system.

LP-PLM
Significance : !he value of the signal label bits in the 1$ byte 01.-12( or .2 byte 01.-"( does not corres ond )ith the e* ected value as follo)s: 1(for 1.-12s a value of 213 or 223 is e* ected if the traffic is in the 2on3,2auto3 or 2standby3 mode, a value of 243 is e* ected if the traffic is 2off3. 2( for 1.-"s a value of 213 or 2#3 is e* ected if the traffic is in the 2on3,2auto3 or 2standby3 mode, a value of 243 is e* ected if the traffic is 2off3. Impact: !raffic affecting. Possible causes 1(Incorrect traffic settings. 2( Incorrect ath connection. "( 5aulty local or far !N-1. multi le*er.

PPI-D !
Significance : !he 678 of the code violations in the incoming tributary signal has e*ceeded 14-$. Impact: !raffic affecting. Possible causes: 1(7rrored in ut signal. 2(5aulty in ut circuit on !N-1. multi le*er.

PPI- "C
Significance :!he 678 of the code violations in the incoming tributary signal has e*ceeded 14-".

Impact !raffic affecting. Possible causes 1(7rrored in ut signal. 2(5aulty in ut circuit on !N-1. multi le*er.

TU-L#P
Significance:!he ointer value in the ointer bytes of the !' is invalid for three consecutive frames. Impact 1(!raffic affecting on un rotected aths. 2(!em orary traffic hit on rotected aths if aths s)itched to aggregatecontaining alarm. Possible causes 1(5aulty local !N-1. multi le*er. 2(5aulty far !N-1. multi le*er. "( Incorrect connection settings $e%g% &C-' against a &C-() connection*%

LP- "C
Significance: !he 678 of the 6I9-2 01.-12( or 6I9-: 01.-"( error chec+ has e*ceeded14-". Impact 1(!raffic affecting on un rotected aths. 2(!em orary traffic hit on rotected aths. Possible causes 1(7rrors on net)or+. 2( 5aulty local !N-1. multi le*er. "(5aulty far !N-1. multi le*er.

I+T-LP-#P,-uffer
Significance :!he 5I5; in the dema ing/demulti le*ing direction is either in the underflo) or overflo) state. Impact !raffic affecting. Possible causes 1(Synchronisation roblems in net)or+. 2(5aulty local !N-1. multi le*er.

I+T-LP-IP,-uffer
Significance: !he 5I5; in the ma underflo) or overflo) state. Impact ing/multi le*ing direction is in an

!raffic affecting. Possible causes 1( Incoming tributary signal out-of-limits. 2(5aulty local !N-1. multi le*er.

PPI-L#.
Significance: !he <.=4# frame synchronisation has been lost. Note: !his alarm is not raised for "#/#$ Mbit/s tributaries. Impact !raffic affecting. Possible causes 7rrored in ut signal.

PPI-T.
Significance : !he out ut tributary signal has fallen belo) a redefined threshold. Impact >oss of 2 Mbit/s or "#/#$ Mbit/s traffic out ut. Possible causes 1(9hysical ?um ering roblem 2(5aulty local !N-1. multi le*er.

/ecc-Comms,.ail
Significance : .ommunication over the 7mbedded .ontrol .hannel 07..( has been lost )ith the ad?acent multi le*er on a s ecific S!M-1 lin+. Impact 1(Non-traffic affecting. 2( Inter-site data communications are unavailable.