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Social Studies Vocabulary We know that some words are special to this particular topic of social studies, world

history. As you read this book, you will be more successful if you know the meaning of the words in the following list.

* Time
AD
refers to dates afterJesus's birth
refers to dates before the birth ofJesus of Nazareth BCE

refers to "Before Common Erai' dates before the blrth ofJesus of Nazareth

CE

refers to "Common Eral' dates afterJesusb birth a period of 100 years a period of 10 years a period of time

century
decade

The Earth and lts Resources


the weather conditions in a certain area over a long
period of time

geography landforms
physical features

the study of the earth's physlcal and cultural features the natural features of the land's surface the features on the land's surface, such as mountains
and rivers an area with one or more features that make it different from surrounding areas materials found on the earth that people need and value

region
resources

i People and the Way They Live


civilization
the culture of a particular time or place the knowledge, beliefs, customs, and values of a group of people
a repeated practice; tradition

economy

the system in which people make and exchange goods


and services government

politics ritual
scholar society

the regular form for a ceremony or observance


a person who has completed advanced study
a group of people who share common traditions

trade

the exchange of goods or services

READING SOCIAL STUDIES

smfrWolds
lfonly
.

lf only reading in school was like reading a letter from your best friend. lf only reading in History was like reading Harry Potter It can be . . .if you learn the language!

There is a reason that you might feel uncomfortable with reading academic textbooks. Common words in these books account for less than 2o/o of the words in your favorite novels. No wonder reading in school seems so different from reading for fun! Academic vocabulary refers to words that are used in most of your school subjects. The Holt Social Studies program has identified Academic Words that will be highlighted throughout this textbook. The Holt program provides structured practice to help support and improve your knowledge of this specialized vocabulary.

acqurre

agreement
aspects

to get a decision reached by two or more people or groups parts

affect
aspects

authority
classical

authority
cause

powe[ right to rule the reason something


happens referring to the cultures of ancient Greece or Rome a binding legal agreement creatlon to divide among a group of people

development

classical

efficient/ efficiency
element establish features impact influence innovation logical

to change or influence parts power; right to rule referring to the cultures of ancient Greece or Rome the process of growing or improving productive and not wasteful part to set up or create characteristics effect, result change, or have an effect on a new idea or way of doing something reasoned, well thought out rule, course of action basic belief, rule, or law a series of steps taken to accomplish a task a series of steps by which a task is accomplished to fight against authority assigned behavior a plan for fighting a battle or war the way something is set up or organized
customary, time-honored ideas that people hold dear and try to live by

contract
development distribute

effect
establish ideal

the results of an action or


decision to set up or create ideas or goals that people try to live up to effect, result
a way of doing something

policy principle
procedure
process

impact
method neutra!

primary principle
process

purpose rebel

role strategy vary

unbiased, not favoring either side in a conflict main, most lmportant basic beliel rule, or law a series of steps by which a task is accomplished the reason something is done to fight against authority a part or function a plan for fighting a battle or war to be different

rebel

role strategy structure traditional


values

various

of many types

AcADEMTc woRDs

absuact
acquire advocate agreement
aspects

authority
circumstances

complex concrete
consequences

expressing a quality or idea without reference to an actual thing to get to plead in favor of a decision reached by two or more people or groups parts powet right to rule surrounding situation difficult, not simple specific, real

contemporary criteria
develop/ development

the effects of a particular event or events existing at the same time rules for defining the process of growing or improving
separate productive and not wasteful part to set up or create to perform, carry out fully revealed without vagueness to bring about
CAUSCS

distinct

efficient/ efficiency
element establish execute

explicit facilitate factor function implement


implications

implicit
incentive influence innovation method motive neutral

use or purpose to put in place effects of a decision understood though not clearly put into words something that leads people to follow a certain

policy primary principle


procedure
process

reaction role

strategy
vary/various

course of action change, or have an effect on a new idea or way of doing something a way of doing something a reason for doing something unbiased, not favoring either side in a conflict rule, course of action main, most important basic belief, rule, or law a series of steps taken to accomplish a task a series of steps by which a task is accompllshed a response assigned behavior a plan for fighting a battle or war of many types

ACADEMIC WORDS