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Group Members

Muhammad Yaseen Nawaz -24

Muhammad Irfan -31
Mubashar Chuhan -32
Aysha Khan -10
Sadia Serwer -40
Table of contents

Vision ……………………………………………………….1
Mission ……………………………………………………. .2
Values …………………………………………………….....3
Executive summary………………………………………….4
History ……………………………………………………....5
Hierarchy level……………………………………………....6
Symptoms of stress………………………………………….9
Job stress………………………………………………….....10
Managing job stress…………………………………………11
Research about job stress…………………………………....13
Job stress at Mobilink……………………………………….14
Job satisfaction………………………………………………16
Measuring job satisfaction……………………………………18
Practical implications…………………………………………19
Attitudes ……………………………………………………...20
Attitudes at workplace………………………………………...22
Attitudes and job satisfaction at Mobilink…………………….24
Conclusion ……………………………………………………28
Viable suggestions ……………………………………………29
References ……………………………………………………30
Vision Statement

“To be the leading Telecommunication Services Provider in Pakistan by offering

innovative Communication solutions for our Customers while exceeding Shareholder
value & Employee Expectations”.
Mission Statement

“The company is committed to provide its stakeholders maximum level of satisfaction

through excellent services and demonstrate that we as a company meeting our commercial
as well as ethical goals, in ways that a consistent reasonable societal expectations of
responsible cellular companies.”

 Trust and Integrity

 Passion for Business Excellence
 Respect for People
 Commitment to Total Customer Satisfaction
 Responsible Corporate Citizen
Executive Summary

Mobilink GSM (PMCL), a subsidiary of Orascom Telecom, started its operations in

1994, and has become the market leader both in terms of growth as well as having the
largest customer subscriber base in Pakistan - a base of over 30 million and growing.
Being the first cellular service provider to operate on a 100% digital GSM technology in
Pakistan that also provides state-of-the-art communication solutions to its customers.
To get information about attitudes and job satisfaction, we conducted a survey and also
interviewed some employees (off the record). Employees are somewhat satisfied with their
jobs and have positive attitudes toward their jobs but there are few symptoms of job stress.
The company should look carefully at those areas. Moreover Mobilink should increase the
level of satisfaction among the employees to make them more productive.

Mobilink GSM (PMCL), a subsidiary of Orascom Telecom, started its operations in

1994, and has become the market leader both in terms of growth as well as having the
largest customer subscriber base in Pakistan - a base of over 30 million and growing. Pride
ourselves on being the first cellular service provider to operate on a 100% digital GSM
technology in Pakistan that also provides state-of-the-art communication solutions to its


Chief Executive Officer

Chief Op eration al
Of ficer
C.O .O

Vice President Vice President Vice President Vice President

(Customer Service) (Finance) (Administration) (Human Resource)

Director Director Director Director

Customer Services Finance Administration Human Resource

Senior Manager Senior Manager Senior Manager Senior Manager

Continued Continued Continued

Indirect C.S

Service Center Manager

Technical Support to Customer Service Frontline Operational Staff

What is stress?

Hans Selye in 1936 defined it as "the non-specific response of the body

to any demand for change".

Effects of Stress:
Stress is difficult for scientists to define because it is a highly subjective phenomenon that
differs for each of us. Things that are distressful for some individuals can be pleasurable
for others. We also respond to stress differently. Some people blush, some eat more while
others grow pale or eat less.

Types of stress:

 Eustress
 Distress


Stress is not always bad. Sometimes it motivates you and encourages you to
achieve your goals. Such type of stress is known as “Eustress” and is not harmful.


This type of stress is harmful. It not only affects your performance but also
causes certain health problems.
50 common signs and symptoms of stress:

1. Frequent headaches, jaw clenching or 26. Insomnia, nightmares, disturbing

pain dreams
2. Gritting, grinding teeth 27. Difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts
3. Stuttering or stammering 28. Trouble learning new information
4. Tremors, trembling of lips, hands 29. Forgetfulness, disorganization,
5. Neck ache, back pain, muscle spasms 30. Difficulty in making decisions.
6. Light headedness, faintness, dizziness 31. Feeling overloaded or overwhelmed.
7. Ringing, buzzing or "popping sounds 32. Frequent crying spells or suicidal
8. Frequent blushing, sweating 33. Feelings of loneliness or worthlessness
9. Cold or sweaty hands, feet 34. Little interest in appearance,
10. Dry mouth, problems swallowing 35. Nervous habits, fidgeting, feet tapping
11. Frequent colds, infections, herpes sores 36. Increased frustration, irritability,
12. Rashes, itching, hives, "goose bumps" 37. Overreaction to petty annoyances
13. Unexplained or frequent "allergy" 38. Increased number of minor accidents
14. Heartburn, stomach pain, nausea 39. Obsessive or compulsive behavior
15. Excess belching, flatulence 40. Reduced work efficiency or productivity
16. Constipation, diarrhea 41. Lies or excuses to cover up poor work
17. Difficulty breathing, sighing 42. Rapid or mumbled speech
18. Sudden attacks of panic 43. Excessive defensiveness or
19. Chest pain, palpitations 44. Problems in communication, sharing
20. Frequent urination 45. Social withdrawal and isolation
21. Poor sexual desire or performance 46. Constant tiredness, weakness, fatigue
22. Excess anxiety, worry, guilt, 47. Frequent use of over-the-counter drugs
23. Increased anger, frustration, hostility 48. Weight gain or loss without diet
24. Depression, frequent or wild mood 49. Increased smoking, alcohol or drug use
25. Increased or decreased appetite 50. Excessive gambling or impulse buying
What is Job Stress?

Job stress is something we all face as workers and we all handle it differently. There is no
getting around it. But, not all stress is bad, and learning how to deal with and manage
stress is critical to our maximizing our job performance, staying safe on the job, and
maintaining our physical and mental health

Stress and types of jobs:

Some jobs, by definition, tend to be higher stress, such as ones that are in dangerous
settings (fire, police), that deal with demanding customers (service providers), that have
demanding time pressures (healthcare), and that have repetitive detailed work
(manufacturing) -- but stress is not limited to any one particular job or industry.

Symptoms & Warning Signs of Job Stress:

While the causes can be something other than job stress, here are the most common
symptoms and early warning signs of job stress and burnout:

 Apathy
 Negativism/cynicism
 Low morale
 Boredom
 Anxiety
 Frustration
 Fatigue
 Depression
 Alienation
 Anger/irritability
 Physical problems (headaches, stomach problems)
 Absenteeism
Causes of Job Stress:

There are two schools of thought on the causes of job stress.

 According to one theory, differences in individual characteristics, such as

personality and coping style, are best at predicting what will stress one person but
not another. The focus then becomes on developing prevention strategies that help
workers find ways to cope with demanding job conditions.

 The other theory proposes that certain working conditions are inherently stress-
inducing, such as fear of job loss, excessive workload demands, lack of control or
clear direction, poor or dangerous physical working conditions, inflexible work
hours, and conflicting job expectations. The focus then becomes on eliminating or
reducing those work environments as the way to reducing job stress.

Strategies for Managing Job Stress:

While many of the methods of preventing job stress need to be developed and supported
by the organization, there are things that workers can do to help you better manage job

Here are 10 tips for dealing with the stress from job:

1. Put it in perspective. Jobs are disposable. Your friends, families, and health are not.
If your employer expects too much of you, and it's starting to take its toll on you,
start looking for a new job/new employer.
2. Modify your job situation. If you really like your employer, but the job has become
too stressful (or too boring), ask about tailoring your job to your skills. And if you
got promoted into a more stressful position that you just are not able to handle, ask
about a lateral transfer -- or even a transfer back to your old job (if that's what you
3. Get time away. If you feel the stress building, take a break. Walk away from the
situation, perhaps walking around the block, sitting on a park bench, taking in a little
meditative time. Exercise does wonders for the psyche. But even just finding a quiet
place and listening to your iPod can reduce stress.
4. Fight through the clutter. Taking the time to organization your desk or workspace
can help ease the sense of losing control that comes from too much clutter. Keeping
a to-do list and then crossing things off it also helps.
5. Talk it out. Sometimes the best stress-reducer is simply sharing your stress with
someone close to you. The act of talking it out – and getting support and empathy
from someone else -- is often an excellent way of blowing of steam and reducing
stress. Have a support system of trusted people.
6. Cultivate allies at work. Just knowing you have one or more co-workers who are
willing to assist you in times of stress will reduce your stress level. Just remember to
reciprocate and help them when they are in need.
7. Find humor in the situation. When you – or the people around you -- start taking
things too seriously, find a way to break through with laughter. Share a joke or
funny story.
8. Have realistic expectations. While Americans are working longer hours, we can still
only fit so much work into one day. Having unrealistic expectations for what you
can accomplish sets you up for failure -- and increased stress.
9. Nobody is perfect. If you are one of those types that obsess over every detail and
micromanage to make sure "everything is perfect," you need to stop. Change your
motto to performing your best, and leave perfection to the gods.
10.Maintain a positive attitude (and avoid those without one). Negativism sucks the
energy and motivation out of any situation, so avoid it whenever possible. Instead,
develop a positive attitude -- and learn to reward yourself for little accomplishments
(even if no one else does).
Research about job stress:

 40% of workers reported their job was very or extremely stressful.

 25% view their jobs as the number one stressor in their lives.

 Three fourths of employees believe that workers have more on-the-job stress
than a generation ago.

 29% of workers felt quite a bit or extremely stressed at work.

 26 percent of workers said they were "often or very often burned out or stressed
by their work.

 Job stress is more strongly associated with health complaints than financial or
family problems.

(This information was obtained in the 1990's in large surveys by Northwestern National
Life Insurance Co, Princeton Survey Research Associates, St. Paul Fire and Marine
Insurance Co., Yale University and The Families and Work Institute.)
Job Stress at Mobilink

To access the job stress of employees towards the jobs, we conducted a survey there via
questionnaire. Following are our findings about attitudes, job stress an job satisfaction

The employees at Mobilink are doing well and working environment

is also conducive. But there are some symptoms of job stress among the employees. We
conclude it on following basis:

 Lack of communication:

Sometimes the goals and strategies are not communicated to the employees
properly that leads to frustration and stress at jobs

 Role of leaders:

Leaders are effective but sometimes they are not in a position to implement
strategies properly due to some internal and external constraints

 Long and inflexible working hours:

Working hours are from 9- 6 in Mobilink. Some employees feel stress due to
long and inflexible working hours.

 Lack of participation in decision making:

There is centralized decision making at Mobilink. Employees are not participated

into decision making process which causes job stress.
 Physical working environment:

The working environment is very good and employees are satisfied with it.

 Job uncertainty:

Jobs are relatively on permanent basis. So employees do not feel stress due to jobs

 Compensation:

Employees feel that are fairly compensated. So they do not face job
stress due to this particular factor.
Job satisfaction:

Describes how content an individual is with his or her job. It is a relatively recent term
since in previous centuries the jobs available to a particular person were often
predetermined by the occupation of that person's parent. There are a variety of factors that
can influence a person's level of job satisfaction; some of these factors include:

 The level of pay and benifits

 the perceived fairness of the promotion system within a company
 the quality of the working conditions
 leadership and social relationships
 the job itself (the variety of tasks involved, the interest and challenge the job
generates, and the clarity of the job description/requirements).

Motivation and job satsfaction:

The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job
satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims to
enhance job satisfaction and performance, methods include job rotation, job enlargement
and job enrichment. Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and
culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous work groups. Job
satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations.
Measuring job satisfaction:

There are many methods for measuring job satisfaction. By far, the most common method
for collecting data regarding job satisfaction is the Likert scale (named after Rensis
Likert). Other less common methods of for gauging job satisfaction include: Yes/No
questions, True/False questions, point systems, checklists, and forced choice answers.

Job Descriptive Index (JDI):

Created by Smith, Kendall, & Hulin (1969), is a specific questionnaire of job satisfaction
that has been widely used. It measures one’s satisfaction in five facets: pay, promotions
and promotion opportunities, coworkers, supervision, and the work itself. The scale is
simple, participants answer either yes, no, or can’t decide (indicated by ‘?’) in response to
whether given statements accurately describe one’s job.

Job in General Index:

Is an overall measurement of job satisfaction? It is an improvement to the Job Descriptive

Index because the JDI focuses too much on individual facets and not enough on work
satisfaction in general.


Other job satisfaction questionnaires include: the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire

(MSQ), the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), and the Faces Scale. The MSQ measures job
satisfaction in 20 facets and has a long form with 100 questions (five items from each
facet) and a short form with 20 questions (one item from each facet). The JSS is a 36 item
questionnaire that measures nine facets of job satisfaction. Finally, the Faces Scale of job
satisfaction, one of the first scales used widely, measured overall job satisfaction with just
one item which participants respond to by choosing a face.
Practical implications:

 Job Satisfaction can be an important indicator of how employees feel about their
jobs and a predictor of work behaviours such as organizational citizenship,
absenteeism and turnover.

 Further, job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality

variables and deviant work behaviors One common research finding is that job
satisfaction is correlated with life satisfaction This correlation is reciprocal, meaning
people who are satisfied with life tend to be satisfied with their job and people who
are satisfied with their job tend to be satisfied with life. However, some research has
found that job satisfaction is not significantly related to life satisfaction when other
variables such as nonwork satisfaction and core self-evaluations are taken into

 An important finding for organizations to note is that job satisfaction has a rather
tenuous correlation to productivity on the job. This is a vital piece of information to
researchers and businesses, as the idea that satisfaction and job performance are
directly related to one another is often cited in the media and in some non-academic
management literature
What is an “attitude”?

“A psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a

particular entity with some degree of favour or disfavour.”

“Attitude is a little thing that makes a big difference.”

(Winston Churchill)

Functions of Attitudes:

Value-Expressive function:

Enable us to express who we are and what we believe in

 Ego-defensive function:

Enable us to project internally-held conflicts onto others (e.g., homophobia)

 Knowledge function:

Enable us to know the world

 Utilitarian Function:

Enable us to gain rewards and avoid punishment

Every workplace is different, and accordingly, each has unique challenges. Simple
solutions do not apply to every business, especially if managers and employees are
constrained by rigid labor agreements or ill-conceived business models.

Ways to improve Attitudes at workplace:

Nevertheless, the following time-tested principles should serve as a checklist designed to

assist leader/managers in the never-ending challenge of maintaining a positive overall
attitude in the workplace.

1. The leader/manager should, first and foremost, demonstrate a commitment to the

organization through hard work and responsible behavior.

2. The leader must be competent and worthy of leadership.

3. The leader should have a clear vision of the goals of the organization; the leader
should clearly communicate those goals to the appropriate parties.
4. The leader should translate the organization’s goals into clearly definable work.

5. The leader should establish clear expectations and provide frequent feedback so that
employees will know when they have been successful in their work and when they
have failed.
6. The leader should create an atmosphere of success, one in which employees
confidently believe that they can be successful if they apply themselves.

7. The leader should reward success and praise behavior that meets or exceeds
expectations while dealing forthrightly with behavior that fails to meet expectations.

8. The leader should demonstrate appropriate respect for his or her employees.

9. The manager should understand that attitudes are contagious and that a manager’s
outlook, either positive or negative, will play a major role in the overall attitude of
the workplace.

10.The leader must understand that chronically negative individuals will, inevitably,
have a profound negative impact on the morale of the workplace.
Attitudes and Job satisfaction at Mobilink

Overall employees are somewhat satisfied with their jobs but not completely. There is
need of improvement to make employees more satisfied so that they can perform well.
We derive these results on following basis:

 Training:

Mobilink is providing to its employees. The employees have access to company

sponsored training programs and seminars.

 Career Advancement:

Mobilink is providing clear path for career advancement to its employees. Company
gives full support to its employees in this context.

 Discrimination:

According to the employees, they face or experience not any form of discrimination in
Mobilink. They are fairly treated by their boss.

 Communication:

Organization properly communicates its strategies to its employees to carry good

results but sometimes it is not up to the mark. Only few people have ready access to
important information

 Salary:

Employees are somewhat satisfied with their salaries, bonuses and other incentives
given by Mobilink. But we also got some responses that showed that employees think
that their salaries are not matching with their responsibilities.
 Working environment:

Almost all the employees are satisfied with physical working environment of

 Relationship with supervisors:

Mostly employees somewhat agree that their supervisors communicates with them
properly and also provide counseling. They believe that their mangers effectively lead
the departments.

 Supportive colleagues and coworkers:

The morale of the employees at Mobilink is satisfactory and they have good team spirit
in their work environment. They are satisfied wit their professionalism of their

 Recognition:

According to employees, their performance is individually recognized and they are

appreciated according to the performance.

(We have gathered some pictures showing the award for individual and team
recognition of Mobilink employees).

Overall employees are satisfied with their company and jobs. To some extent they are
given empowerment to do their work. Most of them agree that their jobs are not
creating any physical or mental problems for them. But according to our research,
employees are facing job stress. It is a fact that cannot be denied. Because we know that
stress is inevitable, it can only end up with the end of life But company deals this
problem very well and provides them proper counseling. Most of the employees have
positive attitude toward their jobs.

If we see an overall picture, then it is clear that they are

somewhat satisfied with their jobs and they don’t have a lot of stress on them. But still
there is a need of improvement in strategies of Mobilink to make work force more

To develop good will and positive impression of Mobilink among employees and
customers, company should adopt the following things:

 Increase total customer satisfaction.

 Provide clearer path to the employees by supporting their families.
 Enhance more promotion opportunities for their employees.
 Redesign compensation package for the employees.
 Encourage employees to participate in decision making.
 The concept of empowerment should be implemented in a true sense.


 Organizational Behavior by Fred Luthans, 11th edition

 Organizational behavior by Stephen.P.Robbins, 8th edition

 Mr. Moman Hadi (Service Centre Manager)

 Mr. Khalid Khan Niazi (Customer Care Officer)

 We also met some employees off the record


1) Do you frequently try to do everything yourself?

◊ Yes

◊ No

2) Do you frequently blow up easily?

◊ Yes

◊ No

3) Do you frequently make a "Big Deal" of everything?

◊ Yes

◊ No

4) Do you frequently keep everything inside?

◊ Yes

◊ No

5) Do you frequently ignore stress symptoms?

◊ Yes

◊ No
6) Are you working in unsafe condition (loud, noise, the threat of things falling on your
head), or is your office environment depressing?

a) Hardly Ever
b) Sometimes but not often
c) Frequently
d) Always

7) Do you think that you are not paid enough or you don’t have chances for advancement?

a) Hardly Ever
b) Sometimes but not often
c) Frequently
d) Always

8) Do you forget or not get a chance to take your legally guaranteed break?

a) Hardly Ever
b) Sometimes but not often
c) Frequently
d) Always

9) Do you feel that technologies or policies in your workplace are changing too fast? Do
you feel constant pressure to learn about new computer programs in your office time,
just to keep up?

a) Hardly Ever
b) Sometimes but not often
c) Frequently
d) Always
10)Are you given the responsibilities but not the authority to carry that

a) Hardly Ever
b) Sometimes but not often
c) Frequently
d) Always

11)What is your gender?

a) Male
b) Female

12)How long you have worked for (company)?

a) Less than 3 months

b) 3 months – 1 year
c) 1 - 4 years
d) 4 – 7 years
e) More than 7 years

13)Which of the following best describe your position here?

a) Clerical
b) Technician
c) Managerial
d) Accounting
e) Project Manager
f) Others

14)The company clearly communicates its goals and strategies to me?

a) Strongly Disagree
b) Somewhat Disagree
c) Neutral
d) Somewhat Agree
e) Strongly Agree
15) Would you refer a friend to apply for a job at this company?

f) Definitely
g) Probability
h) Not Sure
i) Probability Not
j) Definitely Not

(Your inputs will remain confidential. Thanking you for your cooperation).