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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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- Belkhatir Arab Della Missoum Schanz 23
- Frank.pdf
- Geophysical characterization of the Ota–Vila Franca de Xira–Lisbon–Sesimbra fault zone, Portugal
- Updated Site-Characterization Algorithm for Coarse-Grain Soils
- Further Research into the Rational Selection of φ for Bearing Capacity Analysis under Drained-Strength Conditions (Horvath, 2000)
- Handbook of Ripping 12ed CAT
- Permeability CHART
- Issues in Evaluating Capacity of Rock Socket Foundations
- Jet grouting process (Keller, 2006)
- Standard operation for packer test
- CE240LectW032Soilclassification
- Performance based earthquake design using the CPT (Robertson, 2009)
- Evaluation of Soil & Rock Properties (FHWA-IF-02-034)
- Lightweight CPT system
- Intro to Moduli_Briaud
- Evaluating Soil Liquefaction and Post-earthquake deformations using the CPT
- Stress-strain-strength-flow parameters from enhanced in-situ tests (Mayne, 2001)
- Effect of Verification Cores on Tip Capacity of Drilled Shafts
- Unit Conversion

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SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS Val 33, No 4 I-i7, Dee 1m
Sapanse Society of Soll Michi and Founcaton Enalettion
PERFORMANCE OF REINFORCED EMBANKMENT ON
MUAR CLAY DEPOSIT
JINCHUN CHAM and DENNES T. Bexoano!
ABSTRACT
‘The finite element method has been used to analyze two geogrid reinforced embankments on
Muar clay depasit in Malaysia, One embankment is witha berm and the other i without aber,
{In int element modelling, wwo diferent soll/reinfotcement interaction mode, ie. direct shear
and pullout have been considered. The large deformation phenomenon has been tls0
approximately simulated. Comparing the fnite element results with the fild data in terms of
excess pore pressures, settlements, and lateral displacements, the performance of the stage
constructed reinforced embankment can be systematically simulated using the finite element
‘method. The reinforcement tension force and sol/ reinforcement shear stress mobilization proc-
ss and distribution pattern, the soil/reinforeement interaction mode (ditect shear or pullott),
and the effet of reinforcement on embankment stability are also analyzed
Key words: analysis, embankment, reinforced soll, tres, deformation (IGC: E2/E13)
stifness on the soft foundation soll lateral
INTRODUCTION displacements (Hird and Kwok, 1939) and the
For the case of using reinforcement to con- effect of embankment geometry and depth of
structahighembankment on soft round, usu- soft soil deposit on reinforcement tension
ally the reinforcement is placed at the base of force mobilization (Rowe and Soderman,
the embankment to reduce the lateral 1987). However, additional research is war-
spreading force from the embankment and in- ranted with respect 0 modelling the rein-
crease the foundation bearing capacity. The foreed embankment on soft stound, in
Dehavior of base reinforced embankments on _vestigating the variation of tension force inthe
soft ground has been analyzed by several in- reinforcement during the soft ground con-
vestigators using the finite element method — solidation process, and the influence of rein-
(owe, 1984; Rowe and Soderman, 1985, forcement on embankment stability. At pre-
1987; Humphery et al, 1986; Schaefer and sent, the properties of scil/reinforeement
Duncan, 1988; Hird and Kwok, 1989, 1990), interface ae determined by ether direct shear
And some important factors have been found, or pullout tests (Schmertmann et al., 1985).
such a5 the influence of the reinforcement However, these two different veils yield
2 Senor Research Engineer, Kio-Jiban Constants Co Lit, +5 Kado, Chiyodh, Tkyo 02
* Assoute Profesor, Sebo! of Ci Eninenring, Avan Instat of Technology, GPO. Bon 273, Baaghok
1030), Thala
‘Manip nas eave for review on Jy 8,182
‘Westen dcusions on thi paper shold be wbrited before July 1, 1984 tothe Japanese Soci of Soll
Mechais and Function Egineting,Sugayara Bld. 4F, Kanda Awajcho 225, Chiyots tu, Tok 1
‘apa. Uron regan the sing date may be eended ne oth.2 (HAL AND aBRGADO
diferent interface properties, especially for
rid reinforcements. It is necessary in
numerical modelling to use different interface
properties for different interaction modes,
direct shear or pullout (Rowe and Myilevil
1988). In fiite clement analysis, the suitable
way to apply the incremental embankment
load is by placing anew layer of embankment
elements, However, for an embankment on
soft ground, considerable settlement may oc-
Gur dusing the construction period. Tf the
thickness of the fill material is specified, the
coordinates of te elements above the current
construction level need to be updated during
sncremental analysts.
‘The main purpose of using the reinforce-
ment for embankments constructed on sott
ground is to improve the stability of the
system. However, this improvement depends
‘on the magnitude of mobilized reinforcement
tension foree, The analysis of reinforcement
tension force mobilization process, and inter-
face shear stest transfer mechanism and the
Influence factors will help to fundamentally
understand the effect of the reinforcement for
embankment constriction and to imprave the
design methodology.
Ta thie paper, the concepts of modelling rsin-
forced embankment on soft ground system
land the mcthodology for stability enalysi are
discussed fist. Then, the results of finite ele-
feat alysis of Gro gougsids ruforeed
Dankments on a Muar clay deposi
presented and compared witn the Neld data in
terms of excess pore pressures, settlements,
‘and lateral displacements. Finally, the hme
element results on the reinforcement tension
force and interface shear stress mobilization
process and distribution pattern have been dis-
‘cussed, The influence of the einforcement on
‘embankment stability has been analyze.
are
FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING
Goneral Aspects
“The reinforced embankment on soft ground
systems tias been siodelled by finite element
method under a plane strain condition. The
Aiserete material approach is used to model
the reinforced wall/embankment on soft
ground system because the properties and
response of the sol/ reinforcement interaction
can be directly quantified. The soil elements
are 6018 node linear strain elements. The con-
solidation elements have additional 3 (for 6
rode elements) or 4 (for 8 node elemeats) pore
pressure degrees of freedom. Roth 3 node bar
elements and 6 node zero thickness interface
lements are used to represent the rsinforce
‘ment and soil/ reinforcement interface, respec-
tively.
“The behavior of the soft foundation soll is
conuolled by the modified Cam day model
(Roscoe and Burland, 1968). The backfill sll
4 modelled by hyperootte consicurve taw
(Duncan et al., 1980). The consolidation proc-
58 ihe sot clays simulated by coupled con-
solidation theory (Biot, 1941.
Modelling of Interface Behavior
Soil/ reinforcement interaction mode can be
either direct shear or pullout. In order to
Simulate these two different interaction
modes. the interface elements above and
below” the reinforcement, work as pait
elements nd the signe ofthe shene sees in the
interface elements above and below the rein-
forcement are compared to determine whether
the direct shear mode (Same sign) or the
pullout mode (different sign) is the acting
‘mode, This approach basically follows the con-
tept proposed by Rowe and Myllevile (1985).
Different constitutive models are used to
simulate the diferent soll/ reinforcement In-
teraction modes. The hyperbolic shear
slress/shear displacement model (Clougt and
Duncan, 1971) is used to represent the direct
shear soil/reinforcement interaction mode.
While pullout of reinforcement, especially the
grid reinforcement from the sol, is truly
three dimensional problem. and it can only be
approximately modelled in & two-dimensional
i tesietance of grid reinforce.
jction from the
longitudinal membere and bearing resistance
from the transverse members. Based on
Laboratory pullout test results of steel bars, the
skin friction is modelled by linear elastic-
perceclyplastc model and she pullour bearing
resistance is simulated by an empirical hyper-esto EMUARRMENE UN LAY a
bolic bearing resistance model which is only
valid for grid reinforcements (Chai, 1992)
For soil/reinforcement pullout interaction
mode, the interface shear siffaetsconciet of
skin ftition resistance part, ky, and passive
bearing resistance part, Ky respectively. The
total equivalent tangential shear sifaess, ky is
Ue st of Aya hy
heaky the w
‘The kiy con be expressed as follows:
(cobonten d)-Ay
he
deta, °
where cz is adhesion between reinforcement
friction area and soi; 5 is skin friction angle;
Aris skin friction area: du is limit relative
displacement (when the relative displacement
ie greater than dy, there ena moe inceeate in
fiction resistance and ky becomes 20); 4,15
total interface area above or below the rein-
forcement; and o, is normal sess acting on
the interfaces,
‘The expression of ky is derived from the em-
pital yperbolie pullout sesistame aiodel
(Chai, 1992) and as follows:
kgnse (1-257) 2,
ay rs) @
where Dis thickness ofthe reinforcement bear-
ing member (or diameter; Sis spacing of bear-
ing members; Rj is pullout failure ratio, and
the value is approximately the same at the
failure ratio ofthe backfill material in triaxial
test; £, is initial slope of pullout bearing
rasstance (stres), a, versus normalized
pullout displacement, dy, curve (@, is the
pallout displacement divided by the bearing
member thickness, D); gq is maximum
pullout bearing stress_on grid bearing
members; and r is equivalent interface shear
sissy frou pullout beating. sesisauce, uy
which is calculated by the empirical hyperbolic
function,
a
Ripe
All the parameters are as defined previously.
06 o
Correction of Node Coordinates During In-
cremental Analysis
‘The node coordinates are updated to con-
sider the large deformation phenomenon
during. inctemental analysis, For the ém-
‘banlements to be analyzed, the Bl thickness is
specie. In order to simulate the actual con-
suuction procedase and eusute tal he xe
plied fll thickness is the same as the eld
value, iis necessary to allow tne embankment
elements above the current construction level
{0 follow the settlement of the foundation
soil, The method used in this study is 9 cor-
rect the coordinates of the embankment
elements above the current construction level
at the end of each ineremencal analysis, The
following assumptions are used: (a) for finite
element mesh above current construction
level. the original vertical lines are kept ver-
tical, and the horizontal lines remain straight,
(h) the incremental ienlacemente af the nadet
above current construction top surface are
linearly interpolated from tho incremental
displacements of the two end nodes (eft and
right) of current construction top surface ae-
cording to their horizontal coordinates.
‘As shown in Fig. 1, node C (x, 7) is above
current consteuction top surface. The in-
cremental Uplacement of node € (Ax, A)
is caleulated by using the incremental
displacements of node A (4%, 4).), Node &
(4%, 49»), and their xooordinates, x, and x,
as follows:
Fle 1. Conteuation of 2 embankment

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