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“Caring is essence of nursing and is Culturally-congruent
the distinct, central, unifying form of care:
1. CULTURE CARE control.”  By preserving client’s
DIVERSITY AND • Trans-cultural nursing Nurses must understand familiar life-ways
UNIVERSALITY focuses on both different cultures in order  by re-patterning
(Madeleine. Leininger) differences and to function effectively. nursing care to help
similarities among client move toward
persons in diverse wellness
cultures.  by making
accommodations in
caring that are satisfying
to client.
“Caring in nursing is contextual and Spiritual –ethical caring
is influenced by organizational influences each of the
2. THEORY OF structure.” aspects of the
BUREAUCRATIC • Spiritual-ethical caring for bureaucratic system:
CARING nursing does not question *political
(Mariilyn Anne Ray) whether or not to care in *economic
complex systems, but *physical
intimates how sincere *socio-cultural
deliberations ad ultimately *technological
the facilitation of choices *legal
for the good of others can *educational
or should be accomplished
“Caring is the most common, Six C’s of caring in
3.CARING, THE HUMAN authentic criterion of humanness.” nursing:
MODE OF BEING • Caring is not unique in *compassion
(M. Simone Roach) nursing, because caring is *conscience
the center of all attributes *competence
used to describe nursing. *commitment
“Caring is an altruistic, active *confidence
expression of love, intentional and (1) Respect of persons
4.NURSING AS CARING embodied recognition of value and as caring individual knowing self as a
(Anne Boykin and Savina correctedness.” (2) Respect of what caring person, nurse can
Schoenhofer) • Purpose of profession of matters to them be authentic to self,
nursing is to know the freeing oneself to truly
persons and nurture them be with others.
as persons living and
growing in care.
“Caring is essence of nursing and Emphasizes nursing’s The two individuals
moral ideal of nursing.” commitment to care of (nurse and client) in a
• Caring is the moral ideal of the whole person as caring transaction are
nursing whereby the end is well as a concern for both in a process of
5.THEORY OF HUMAN CARE protection, enhancement health of individuals being and becoming.
(Jean Watson) and preservation of human and groups.
• Human care is basis for
nursing’s role in society.
Therefore, nursing’s
contribution to society lies
in its moral commitment to
human care.
“Caring is nurturing way of relating A client’s well being Caring processes and
to a valued other toward one whom should be enhanced by subdimensions :
one feels a personal sense of a caring nurse who KNOWING
6. THEORY OF CARING commitment and responsibility.” understands common BEING WITH
(Kristen Swanson) • It focuses on the caring human responses to a DOING FOR
processes as nursing specific health problem ENABLING
7. THE PRIMACY OF CARING “Caring is primary because it sets up A caring relationship
(Patricia Benner and Judith the possibility of giving and receiving requires a certain amount
Wrubel) help.” of openness and capacity
• Caring practice requires to respond to care on the
attending to the particular part of the client.
client over time,
determining what matters A caring practice involves
to the person, and using client advocacy and
this knowledge in clinical provides the necessary
judgments. conditions to help the
client grow and develop.