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BEST PRACTICES FOR FAMILY GREENHOUSE PROGRAMS


IN THE SACRED VALLEY OF PERU

Information compiled and written by Charlotte Carr and Breeanna Doan

The Andean Alliance for Sustainable Development Calca, Peu http://alianzaandina.org/

Table of Contents

Introduction!
A Change in Values! What is sustainability? ! Food Insecurity ! What problems does a greenhouse address? ! Benets of greenhouse programs what does success look like?! Why family greenhouses? ! Basic Steps of a Greenhouse Project! What needs to be in place before starting a greenhouse program !

1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 8 8 9 10 10 10 12

Planning!
Selecting the community to work with ! Work with local institutions ! What the community needs to know at the beginning of the project -!

Implementing!
Construction! Roong Day! Capacity Building! Topics to be discussed in Workshops! Facilitation! Community members who may need special consideration during workshops!
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Teaching in the Greenhouse ! Farming Methods! Seeds! Diseases and Pests! Irrigation !

12 12 13 14 14 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 19 20 23 24

Monitoring!
Maintenance and Upkeep! Feedback! Success! Why some projects fail! Exit Strategy! The Key to a Sustainable Project!

Annex 1 - Communicating Information Visually! Annex 2 - Facilitation Tips! Annex 3 - Crop Rotation! Annex 4 - Using BioCida to Combat Pests!

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Introduction
This guide offers the best practices for implementing family greenhouse programs in small communities in high altitude regions of Peru. Information was gathered through interviews with staff members from non-prot organizations and governmental agencies that have worked on greenhouse programs in the communities of Maucau, Huacawasi, Cuncani, and Patachanca, Peru. Interviews of the families who received greenhouses through these programs were also conducted as a part of an evaluation of the greenhouses. This guide is intended to serve as a resource for any organization that is already involved in implementing a greenhouse program, or is working to begin one. The following information includes guidelines and ideas for how to create a successful family greenhouse program that will best benet the recipients of the greenhouses.

A Change in Values
The key to success in greenhouse programming is to have families value their greenhouses. Utilizing a greenhouse to grow fruits and vegetables is a complete change of life in very traditional communities. The farming methods and techniques Case study: The Dutch organization Hope International focuses appropriate for growing successfully its family greenhouses programming on 4th graders in the community. These children have a greenhouse at their school in a greenhouse differ from tradiso they are exposed at a young age to its benets. The children tional farming techniques. Successful learned in school how to utilize a greenhouse, and pass this programming is not as easy as buildknowledge on to their families, neighbors, and future generaing a structure and planting things tions. These children placed value on having fresh fruits and inside. For the project to be successvegetables, and brought this value back home with them. The ful and sustainable a change in valfamilies of these children then wanted to have their own famues needs to occur. ily greenhouses. Through this process a sustainable change in

What is sustainability?

values had occurred in the community. .

Ideally the implementing organization of a development project will in time become unnecessary. The community should be able to continue the project without outside help, and the project should be seen as valuable enough to continue. A project is sustainable when it is structured to be able to continue successfully helping a community, without the need of assistance from agencies outside of the community. The best practices in this guide aim to contribute to the sustainability of a greenhouse program.
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Food Insecurity
The geographic location of communities in the high altitude areas of the mountains restricts the ability to grow food. Making this problem more severe, these communities often have limited access to markets. Often the nearest market has to be reached on foot, which can take hours. These families are also often living in poverty, and will be unable to purchase enough food. The inability to grow food, and the extreme difculty in purchasing it means that families often live off a very limited diet. Many people in these communities mainly live off of potatoes and occasionally, meat.

What problems does a greenhouse address?


Malnutrition The lack of a variety of foods contributes to the problem of malnutrition. Most families are eating only potatoes which contain few vitamins and minerals. This causes both physical and mental stunted growth. Hunger Whereas malnutrition refers to a lack of a variety of food, hunger is a lack of food. The bad effects of hunger span from worsened health, to the inability to work or learn as well as one could if one were not suffering from hunger.

Benets of greenhouse programs what does success look like?


Secures stable access to a diversied food source Provides Organic Produce Ownership Being in charge of running their own family greenhouse puts power in the hands of the people in the community, to address their problems on their own. Cost effective Owning a greenhouse saves money and time otherwise used to travel long distances to markets.

Strawberries growing at 4200 m in elevation.

Why family greenhouses?!


The most common types of greenhouse programs are school greenhouses, community greenhouses, and family greenhouses. It can be hugely benecial to begin programming with a school greenhouse (as discussed in A Change in Values, and Selecting a Community to Work With). However, community members universally are reported to prefer a famT h e A n d e a n A l l i a n c e f o r S u s t a i n a b l e D e v e l o p m e n t! Best Practices for Family Greenhouse Programs

ily greenhouse. Greenhouses are better utilized when the only people caring for the greenhouse are the ones who primarily harvest and eat the produce. Community greenhouses run the risk of some community members working more in the greenhouse than others, but everyone sharing the produce equally. This can be perceived as unfair, and lead to disinterest in the greenhouse program. Additionally, when plastic needs to be replaced the family greenhouses utilize less plastic and replacement is cheaper. Often community greenhouses fail because a large investment in plastic needs to be made and sharing that cost among families is difcult.

Basic Steps of a Greenhouse Project


Organization enters the community. They may be approached by a community with the desire for a family greenhouse program, or may meet with the community to discuss the possibility of one. Families who are taking part in the greenhouse program build the basic structure of the greenhouse. The implementing organization leads a roong event. Organization provides plastic, wooden poles, nails, alambre (thin wire), and rubber strips. Community works with the organization to build all of the roofs. Organization may provide seeds. Organization provides capacity building workshops on how to use greenhouse. Organization provides monitoring of the project.

What needs to be in place before starting a greenhouse program


A community is identied as in need of the benets of greenhouse programming. The community should genuinely want to participate in the programming. A preexisting good relationship with the community. Get to know who lives in the community, and how the community Case study: In one community the functions. The community should also be implementing organization promfamiliar and comfortable with you. A trustised to provide seeds to community ing relationship is crucial. members, but no families ever reFunding to cover staff time, and building ceived seeds. Many greenhouses are materials. Consider the need to monitor the still not in use, and the community project and the future, and consider who will has lost faith in the organization. be responsible for covering the costs of future repairs to the greenhouses. The ability to follow through with everything you promise. Clearly dictate your organizations role in the program, and be ready to communicate this to the community. It is crucial to the program and
Best Practices for Family Greenhouse Programs

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to your organizations relationship with the community that you follow through with everything you promise. Clear and mutual understanding of what the organization expects of the community, as well as what the community expects of the organization. Expectations need to be manage (if not in line with the organizations or communitys roles/ abilities) and always met.

Planning
Selecting the community to work with
Ideally a community will approach the organization with the request for a greenhouse. Often a group of community members will see greenhouse programming done at a local school, or in a neighboring community, and identify the program as something that would be benecial to their own community.
Case study: In the community of Maucau the organization Andean Alliance for Sustainable Development worked with the local school to build a school greenhouse. The parents of the children at this school saw the success and benets of the school greenhouse and approached the Andean Alliance for Sustainable Development with the desire to have their own family greenhouses.

An organization can also present a community the potential of implementing a greenhouse program. ! Selection of communities and families to work with on a family greenhouse program should be based on level of need.
Case study: The organization Chakana has implemented greenhouse programs in many communities in Peru and Bolivia. They have found income level to have a huge effect on the success of a program. In communities with a slightly larger income, the need for food was less dire, and families were less willing to put time into cultivating their greenhouse. Greenhouses were more successful in lower income communities, where families did not have sufcient income to purchase enough food.

To determine the level of need of a community consider: Distance and access to the nearest market to buy food. How the location of the community affects the ability to grow crops without a greenhouse. (most high altitude communities are unable to grow a variety of crops because of the cold climate). Level of poverty.

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Other factors to consider: The age of the children in a family. The negative effects of malnutrition are most damaging from conception to age 3. Size of the community. How many families in a community can you feasibly provide a greenhouse? Number of organizations already implementing similar programming.

Work with local institutions


For a greenhouse program to be sustainable it should be integrated into the community. The implementing organization should have worked to establish relationships and a known presence in the community. Potential Community Partners Schools The school is a central institution in many Andean communities. It can be benecial to begin the greenhouse program in a school. This allows community members to be exposed to the benets of the programming at a young age, which they can pass on to their families and neighbors. It is also the perfect environment to teach participants about how to best utilize and maintain their greenhouses. Because of the centrality of the school community members will be aware of the project, and may often approach the organization for their own family greenhouse.
Case Study: In one Andean community the local government had received funding for one year of greenhouse programming. The government successfully built many greenhouses in the community, however they did not provide seeds or help with maintenance. Many greenhouses are no longer in use because the owners do not have seeds, or had problems with the structure. There is the potential here for another organization (NGO etc.) to partner with the government and work on continuing the project.

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Government Partnering with the government adds a level of sustainability in that local governments have a consistent presence in communities. Often there will already be government programming in place in the community addressing similar needs to that of greenhouse programming. Work to identify what the government is already doing in the community. If programming is similar to what your organization will be doing, a partnership can be formed to support one anothers operations.

Case Study: The Andean Alliance for Sustainable Development relies on the local government to purchase all the materials needed for building the greenhouses in Maucau. This involvement of the government leads to the government becoming invested in the success of the program. Due to this precedent of helping to create the program, when the need for repairs arise the government is more likely to assist.

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO), or Non-Prots Frequently more than one NGO or non-prot is working in a community. All too commonly two organizations are working on the same project, but without communicating with each other, or working together. Understand what other work is being done by other organizations in the community, and work to partner. Partnering with other organizations can strengthen your programming.

What the community needs to know at the beginning of the project In order for the greenhouse program to be successful everyone involved in the project needs to understand the project in its entirety from the beginning. The value of the program Greenhouse owners need to understand the importance of growing a variety of fruits and vegetables. If they are aware of how the program can help their families with hunger and malnutrition it will contribute to how much the family values their greenhouse. What is expected of community members It is crucial for the greenhouse owners to fully understand what they are responsible for. You should have budgeted for the parts of the program your organization can be held accountable for, and communicate clearly what parts of programming you will not be doing.
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What the community expects from the organization For a good relationship between the community and the organization, expectations need to be clearly dened from the beginning. The organization needs to fully understand how the community is envisioning the program, and understand if this vision can be achieved. Expectations may need to be managed so that they are feasibly attainable. By detailing what a fair expectation of the organization should be, the community will be satised with the program, as long as those expectations are met. Maintaining the greenhouse in the future A main part of explaining the role of the community in the program is clearly dening from the start how the greenhouse will be maintained in the future. There will be damage to structure. There will be a need to acquire more seeds. Ideally the community will be able to take care of these problems themselves. Let the community know these problems will arise and that they will need to x them. You should offer advice for dealing with these problems.
Case study - In Cuncani, the Urubamba government provided greenhouses under a national Peruvian initiative to address malnutrition in children. Only families with children ages three and under, or in which the mother is pregnant are eligible to receive a greenhouse. The rationale behind the criteria is that the negative effects of malnutrition are the most harmful from before birth until age 3. The implementing organization made the criteria clear to the community, so everyone involved understood why some families could not receive greenhouses.

Which families are eligible for a greenhouse - Depending on your project budget you will have to dene how many families, and which families in a community can receive greenhouses. It may be that in a small community any family that builds a greenhouse structure can be part of the programming. If you are working with a larger community you may need to have stricter guidelines. Information on structure and roong day Provide families with information on how to construct the basic greenhouses structure. It is common that families will already be very knowledgeable about the building process. Best Practices for the greenhouse structure: Use an existing wall of the home as one of the walls of the greenhouse. This saves on time and materials as families will only have to build 3 walls, and the home will provide additional heating. Build the walls at a slant so rainwater will not accumulate on the roof. If walls are not built a sufcient slant rainwater will collect and rip the roofs. Rock foundation is good to use for the bottom of the greenhouse wall. This material helps prevent ooding.
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Adobe can be used above the rock as it helps keep the structure warm. Have no holes between the rocks. If these exist, ll them with mud. Holes allow the heat the escape. Determine the best size for the structure more information in the Implementing section under construction. A system of ventilation most commonly a small window covered in plastic that can be opened or closed. The amount of ventilation needed will vary depending on the altitude of the community. At a high altitude very little air should be able to enter and exit the greenhouse. At a lower altitude windows are necessary to cool the greenhouse during the heat of the day.

Set a date in advance for the roong day. Clearly communicate that the structure must be completed by this day in order to receive roong.

Implementing
Construction
Materials available to build structure Community members are often required to build the basic structure of the greenhouse. Be aware what materials are available locally, and how they can best be utilized. The most common building materials in these communities are rocks and adobe bricks. Size of Structure It is difcult to keep a high altitude greenhouse warm. The higher up in altitude the greenhouse is located, the smaller the greenhouse should be. Efcient use of plastic also needs to be taken into account. Maximizing plastic is important. Rolls of plastic come in 50m x 6m or 50m x 8m. Dictate greenhouse size to be efcient with these dimensions of plastic. Case study example: Maucau is located at 4200 m in elevation. Because of this level of elevation greenhouses were instructed to be 5m x 6m.
Best Practices for Family Greenhouse Programs

Rocks are used at the bottom of the wall to protect against ooding. Adobe is on top to help keep the structure warm.

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Taking the size of a roll of plastic, this size allows the org to get 10 greenhouses out of one role of plastic. This saves money and most importantly allows the community to save money in the future when they need to replace the plastic

Case study: In the photograph to the left, the greenhouse is built against the side of the home. This saves time and materials during the building phase, as they utilized an existing wall. This also adds in heating the greenhouse as it can receive warmth from inside the home. This location is also ideal because it is between two buildings, but still fully in the sun. Being in between the two buildings blocks it from the wind, which can damage the roong.

Best Location for Structure When deciding where on the families property to build the greenhouse keep in mind: How to best utilize the existing structure of the house. How to have good access to the sun. How to deal with problems with wind. Proximity to water source. Proximity to home Families can more easily access and work in the greenhouse during the day if it is close to the home.

Roong Day
On a typical roong day the organization will come to the community on a date that they have pre-established and communicated to community members. By this date the families who are eligible and who wish to participate in programming should have the basic structure built. The organization will bring the plastic roong, wooden poles, nails, and rubber strips to hold the plastic on poles.
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If a size of the structure was dictated, cutting up the plastic is quicker, as it can all be cut to the specied dimensions. Everyone in the community should bring tools. At the start of the day build one or two roofs as a whole group, then depending on size of the community you may divide up and have small groups help each other roof each others structures together. Be sure to cover all exposed wood with plastic, as it can rot if exposed to rain.

Capacity Building
For a greenhouse program to be successful there needs to be capacity building. Commonly this is done in structured workshops given in the community. Workshops provide the opportunity not only for knowledge transfer, but also allow a continued presence of the organization in the community. Often workshops topics can be exible, and become structured around greenhouse problems that have been in from feedback from the community. ! Communities will be very welcoming of workshops. The main difculty is scheduling times to hold the workshops. Often scheduling needs to be exible to meet the work schedules of the community. Once workshop dates are settled make the schedule of events clear and available to everyone involved in the program. It is also useful to send announcements a few days before every event as a reminder that the workshop will be held.

Topics to be discussed in Workshops !


Bed Preparation Soil Fertility Planning and Planting Techniques Pest and Plague Control Harvesting Plant Based Nutrition

Facilitation
In addition to helping select topics and develop workshop lessons around these topics a huge role of the staff of your organization will be facilitating the workshops. Workshops
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need to be very interactive and hands on, include repetition, and questions. Always follow a common structure for the schedule of the workshop. Basic Facilitation Pointers Type up and print a brief schedule of events for facilitators to reference during the workshop. Ask questions to community members and ask what questions they have. Plan for workshops early, plan often, with all facilitators present. Share important information to the whole group. Demonstrate the techniques you are teaching and then let the community members do it. Have visuals. Before entering a greenhouse talk about what youre going to do. Talk about and reiterate what you did after demonstrating a technique. Dont lecture " Look, listen and learn. Facilitate, dont dominate. Make sure you are allowing room for open participation and discussion. Don t interrupt or interfere. Relax, don t rush. Allow time. Show interest and enthusiasm in learning.

Use probing techniques - When participants give incomplete or irrelevant answers, the facilitator can probe for fuller, clearer responses. A few suggested techniques: . Repeat the questionrepetition gives more time to think. . Convey a limited understanding of the issue and ask for specic details. . Pause for the answera thoughtful nod or expectant look can convey that you want a fuller answer. . Repeat the reply hearing it again sometimes stimulates the conversation . Ask when, what, where, which and how questions. . Use neutral comments Anything else? Why do you feel this way? Control the discussion - In most groups a few individuals dominate the discussion. To balance out participation: Address questions to people who seem reluctant. Intervene, politely summarize the point, then refocus the conversation. Give non"verbal clues.

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Minimize group pressure - When an idea is being adopted without any general discussion or disagreement, more than likely there is group pressure occurring. To minimize group pressure the facilitator can probe for alternate views. For example, the facilitator can raise another issue, or say, We had an interested discussing but lets explore other alternatives (see annex 2 for general facilitation outlines, and activities/strategies)

Community members who may need special consideration during workshops


Women The women will most likely be the members of the family who are the most involved with the greenhouse, as they more commonly work in the home. However, it is common for men of the community to dominate discussions. Pay special consideration to the women of the workshop and make sure theyre receiving the information they need, and that their questions are being answered. It is benecial to have a female available to teach the workshops. Quechua speakers Many community members will only speak Quechua. It may be vital to have a Quechua speaker to help teach the workshops. Illiterate Be mindful of how information is presented in workshops. Visuals will necessary to communicate information to illiterate community members. (see annex for example of communicating information visually)

Teaching in the Greenhouse


In addition to holding workshops in the community, it is helpful to conduct meetings in the greenhouses themselves. This not only allows community members to have hands on learning experience, it allows the opportunity to present a functioning and successful greenhouse.
Case Study: In Huacawasi, Chakana implemented pasantillas, which were trips to different communities for them to learn different skills such as forestation, production, organization, and cultural practices. All topics were taught as a class with the goal that the communities could learn new skills and bring them back to their communities.

Farming Methods
Farming methods should be considered in planning a greenhouse project. Bio-intensive farming, which uses a small amount of space to maximize production, helps families to best utilize the space in their greenhouse. (See Annex 4 technical information on suggested planting procedures.)

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Seeds
Connecting the community to quality seeds is an important part of the process in any greenhouse project. Some organizations choose to supply the seeds to the community with the greenhouses, while others focus on the building of the greenhouses without providing seeds or information on where to access them. If the organization provides the seeds, they should incorporate seed access in their exit strategy so the community can sustain the greenhouses without the organization. One possibility is to provide the greenhouse owners with the information needed on where to seCase study: In the greenhouse programs in Patacancha, run by Hope International the community has a central hub of a school greenhouse, which has allowed plants to go to seed. The family greenhouse owners can buy seeds from the school greenhouse, allowing local access to seeds on a regular basis. Youth have the training on how to seed save and can transfer that information to their families as well. Additionally, communities could use a central greenhouse for seed saving or allow a portion of their greenhouses to be dedicated to seed saving.

cure quality seeds. This could be coordinated by a community leader for seeds to be distributed on a regular basis, as many of these communities are located large distances from a local market. Another possibility is to train the greenhouse owners to allow some plants to go to seed, thus creating self-sustaining greenhouses. Seed saving takes time and a portion of the space in any greenhouse, however, it is essential if the greenhouses are going to continue to be utilized to their best potential. Seed saving leads to self-sufciency in remote communities, and removes dependency on organizations for aid. It also allows them food security and food variety regardless of distance from markets. Seed saving and access to seeds is essential in all greenhouse projects. Seeds should be provided as promised and information on seed access is necessary for the continuation of greenhouse use over time.
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Diseases and Pests


Disease prevention and response should be considered during the implementation of a program, and needs to be continued in the monitoring process. Before beginning a program, be aware of what diseases the plants in the area are most prone to. The community will learn how to approach these issues best when the problems arise. The implementing institution should understand and be prepared for disease and pest issues as they occur. Also, proper maintenance in general will prevent many of the diseases and pests from becoming a problem. There are some practices that should be used all the time as general prevention. (See the Annex 4 for information on making BioCida to combat pests)

Irrigation
Irrigation and access to usable water should be considered when implementing greenhouse projects. Communities in Cuncani and Huacawasi are confronting the issue of having chlorine in their most accessible water source, which stunts plant growth. All communities of Maucau, Cuncani, and Huacawasi have expressed a need for hoses and pipes to appropriate water sources for plant irrigation, such as access to the local river. Many of the houses are located faraway from a clean water source and may not be maintained due to water access issues. Some communities have created innovations in irrigation, such as rainwater catchment systems. Other communities have worked with NGOs and government entities to create an enclosed aquifer system, which then supplies the whole community. Using these types of innovations as a model for future greenhouse irrigation systems would increase water access and greenhouse maintenance.

Irrigation innovation - water collects on the roof and goes down the home made pipe into an awaiting bucket. Water is then used in the greenhouse.

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Monitoring
Monitoring is an indispensable part of all greenhouse projects. Many unsuccessful greenhouse projects havent taken this stage into account. When there is no monitoring, greenhouses have the potential to become abandoned structures or animal shelters. Monitoring is important because it supports the sustainability of the project over the long term. By continuing to observe the progress of the project, the farming methods used, and by troubleshooting potential problems, an organization can help the family greenhouses continue. There should be a supporting organization available and agricultural professionals available to address the issues that arise.

Maintenance and Upkeep


When speaking with many family greenhouse communities, many did not know what they would do if they needed to nd replacement plastic or nd materials to maintain the greenhouse. Questions arose about whether they would be able to nance the repairs or maintain the greenhouse over the long run. Many were dependent on the organizing agency to provide the plastic or beams for them if they were to need repairs. Maintenance should be addressed during all stages of the project and information should be shared on where to access supplies and the nancial planning needed for upkeep. The rock and adobe base of the greenhouse uses local materials and is sustainable because these materials can be found easily for low or no cost. However, there needs to be a plan for the sustainability of the plastic roong and beams, which may be inaccessible and located several hours away by car when repairs are needed. Materials should be considered in all stages in the communitys ability to upkeep the greenhouse so it can continue to be used over many years.

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Feedback
Maintaining regular communications and contact with communities that have greenhouse projects is necessary to improve the projects as well as maintain positive relations between the community and the organization. Problems may arise and feedback given can increase the chances the community will continue to use their greenhouses. There should be some opportunity for the community to give feedback such as in community meetings, focus groups, or individual interviews. It should be claried that their honest feedback will improve the project. By maintaining contact and gaining the trust of the community members, an organization can be more impactful over the long term.

Success
What is a successful greenhouse project? There are many ways to gauge various levels of success. In an evaluation one should consider whether the greenhouses are being used correctly or used regularly for consumption. Another way to measure success is by increased food sovereignty and an ability to grow food without the regular need for markets. Greater nutrition levels for the family are also an indicator of success. Moreover, innovations in greenhouse design and cultivation also show a successful project. Knowledge transfer to other members of the community, sharing produce, selling produce, or seed saving can all be varying indicators of a successful greenhouse project. The biggest issue to consider is the sustainability of the project and the long term involvement the community will have in continuing to use the greenhouses to their best potential. This may include a change in value systems in using a new technique. Case Study: Often school greenhouse projects and youth can be good inuencers in the long-term affects of family greenhouses as seen in the community of Patacancha with the organization Hope, as well as with Andean Alliance in Maucau with their connection to school greenhouses in Pampacorral.

Why some projects fail


Some factors should be considered as to why some projects fail. The community need should be reected in the initial stages in planning and is an important factor in which projects actually continue. Those communities which actually need greenhouses due to
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lack of access to markets, poverty levels, and community requests for greenhouse projects are the most likely to succeed. Chakana observed that many communities that were in the lower 30% in income in Peru were more active and innovative in sustaining the greenhouse projects. Communities in the 70% of income in Peru were not as motivated or organized as they had outside sources of income. Additionally, some projects fail due to a lack of familiarity with greenhouse cultivation. The communities need to have capacity building workshops about greenhouse farming methods as well as how to cook with the new vegetables they are growing. Capacity building is essential in the adoption of a new project, both through skills building and building new value systems for greenhouses. Moreover, they need to have access to a good agricultural technician for troubleshooting. Access to technical information should be available throughout the monitoring stage. Finally, access to clean water and irrigation systems are important for sustaining the project. Some areas are incredibly dry and need to use ground wells that pull from the aquifers, while other areas need to access river systems that may be far from their greenhouses. These factors should be taken into account in all greenhouse projects to guarantee their sustainability.

Exit Strategy
Every organization should enter into a project with an exit strategy and determined time frame for the project. It is necessary to inform the community of their role, the role of the organization, and what the community needs to do after the organization leaves. By having clear roles and expectations put forth at the beginning, an organization will encourage the community to take ownership of their greenhouses and guarantee the long-term sustainability of the project. Many organizations have not planned for the period of time after the formal part of the project ends. By not giving clear information about where to access seeds, plastic, or gain more information on cultivation, the organization may impede the ability of greenhouse owners to continue with the project on the long term. Organizations need to be reliable and follow through on their promises of material support or capacity building. Additionally, there should be people in the community that the greenhouse owners can contact if any problems should arise.

The Key to a Sustainable Project


Ideally a project can go on without continued involvement from the organization. The organization should provide adequate information not only on the process of the entire project, but also in supportive services such as capacity building and having a qualied
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agricultural technician available. The organization should take into account that there may be things that the organization must do in the monitoring stage, such as x plastic, or have seeds available to sell. If this is not the case, the organization should put in a plan for addressing these issues. An additional way to be sustainable and potentially see a scaling up in projects is to involve the government. By partnering with the local government, one can ensure continued support for projects and additional resources available.

Having a clear timeline and exit strategy will support the ownership the greenhouse owners have to continue cultivating plants in their greenhouses and maintaining them. Giving the owners of family greenhouses clear information through workshops, as well as long-term access to information is the best way to assure a sustainable project.

Case Study: Chakana which received support from the government to build wells to reach aquifers in dry highland communities. They were able to build an enclosed structure, which provided an irrigation system and agricultural area for the surrounding community. The government assisted in piping and construction in order to implement a better irrigation system. The scale of the project would not have been possible without partnering. As a result, those communities have seen a higher success rate in their ability to maintain a variety of plants in their greenhouses and utilize the enclosed agricultural area.

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Annex 1 - Communicating Information Visually

Above is information about preparing Biocida for the greenhouse, provided in both written Spanish, and drawn visually. Many members of the community may be illiterate and it is crucial to include visuals in order for them to fully understand, and be able to reference information given in capacity building workshops.

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Annex 2 - Facilitation Tips


Workshop Schedule for Facilitators 1. Interactive opening - A brief community building exercise (3"5 minutes) 2. A brief overview of the purpose of the session - Introduce key principles. Create an innovative way to introduce the core concepts, principles and beliefs of the approach. Make it engaging. Avoid playing the TEACHER ROLE. 3. A powerful, engaging facilitation, using one of the facilitation methods, and full of deep, searching provocative questions. Demonstrate, practice, or facilitate using some aspect of the approach. The particular context for your facilitation is up to you! Make it real and relevant. 4. Facilitate some discussion of the relevance of the approach. Use the Context Matrix and Purpose Matrix to identify the most appropriate uses of the approach. 5. A closing to the workshop. Facilitation Activities Interactive Lecture (Use when learners dont know very much about the content) ! ! # $Ask participants questions every few minutes. ! ! # $Invite their questions. ! ! # $Digress at will! Be relevant ! ! Guided Discussion A discussion/dialogue between facilitator and learners that is guided by a series of planned facilitator questions (Use this activity to debrief other learning activities (ie, Facilitated Activity; Role Play; etc.) ! For each learning point to be brought out, ! ! # $Craft a question. ! ! # $Note most likely learner responses. ! ! # $Plan follow"up comments. ! # $Use when learners know something about the content and can engage
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it; process a shared experience. Facilitated Activity ($Used with learners who have some knowledge of the content) ! ! # $Learners work together. ! ! # $Share knowledge/experience; or, creates a lived common experience; useful reference for future learning. ! ! # $Uses content at a deeper level. ! ! # $Learners are more active and involved. ! ! # $Facilitators role: organizer, monitor, and guide. ! ! # $Provides a bridge between content and application. Case Story Develop or identify a case story that describes a challenge that participants are likely to have to solve. ! ! # $Stimulates problem"solving and idea generation. ! ! # $The length of the story can be between one paragraph and three pages. ! ! # $Develop or rene question to guide participant discussion of the case story: ! ! # $What would you do in this situation? ! ! # $What are the key dimensions of the dilemma? Role Play # Allows recreation of real"world realities, but with humor and theatre drama. # The unsayable can be said; the hidden can be revealed; power can be mocked. # Allow plenty of time (preparation, performance and discussion tend to take longer than expected. # Caution: avoid reinforcing stereotypes; pay attention to comfort level of participants... One"on"One Appreciative Listening ! ! # $Allows people to share their truth and get into the details of their lived experience. ! ! # $Focused, attentive, appreciative listening helps people feel valued and worthy; overcomes other"ness and feelings of not mattering.
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! # $Allows one to build up from lived experience to theory and analysis; ensures that peoples experiences and selves are part of the process.

Card & Chart ! ! # $To gather and organize information around a common theme. ! ! # $To work together through a process of rening and coming towards consensus. ! ! # $Works particularly well when participants are considering a multi"faceted topic with diverse options for action. ! ! # $Engages many people in the creation of a product; democratizing ground Small Group Coaching Sessions Before breaking into small groups, the facilitator gives the following instructions: Take a moment to think about the challenges youre dealing with in your life and work. Choose one or two challenges that are especially troublesome. These are places where youre struggling and would really like some wise and supportive input. You will soon form groups of six (5"7). In these groups, you will each be in the spotlight for 15 minutes. This means that you will have the total, complete, undivided attention of all of the other members. You can use those 15 minutes in any way you wish. You can take one minute to share your problem(s) and then have 14 minutes of input and reections from everyone. Or, you can just ask to be listened to for 15 minutes. You can have ask the group to give you input, ideas, reections, or to just ask questions. YOURE in charge. Let your group know how they can support you with their time, insights and/or attention. Please honor the 15"minute guideline, so everyone gets the same amount of time. The participants then count off in a circle to create groups of 6 (or 5"7). Each group nds a space to meet and begin. They should be in a common space, but out of earshot of each other. Each group selects a facilitator and passes the watch to keep time for each other. Small group coaching can be used a few times in a gathering, if you like, though it is great to have on your last morning. Its also best to go from this activity into a meal, as groups will likely nish at different times. %Free Write: think of an example of powerful learning. Recreate the experience in as much detail as possible (7 mins). %Pair Share: share your story with a partner; partners just listen (3 mins each) %Table Talk: Generate a list of common principles; ingredients of powerful learning.
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Annex 3 - Crop Rotation


Crop Rotation and Companion Planting Crop Rotation: Rotating crops to balance nutrient loads in the soil and to support healthy growth of microbes in the soil. Some plants give or take more nitrogen and other nutrients from the soil Restore this balance by prepping a bed with compost prior to plating The way you rotate crops also contributes to building soil health o Heavy feeders, light feeders, heavy givers o Fruiting varieties, leang varieties, rooting varieties, leguminous varieties You cannot always follow this pattern but it is recommended to avoid soil imbalances; healthy soil means healthy plants, and thus less pest and plagues Companion Planting: Planting crops that support each others growth Some plants compliment each other nutrient wise by what they give and take Some plants hinder each others growth Some plants act as natural pest repellents, either attracting benecial insects that feed on a companions pests, or by repelling pests themselves o Aromatic herbs such as lemon balm, manzanilla, mint, oregano, basil valerian root, cilantro, etc. ! Plant at the edges/borders as some of these are perennial Examples of companions (inter-planted or splitting beds) o Basil and sweet peppers o Bush beans, lettuce and tomatoes o Corn, beans, cucumber o Tomatoes, onions, carrots o Cabbage/brassica family and onions Examples of plants that dislike each other: o Carrots and dill

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Annex 4 - Using BioCida to Combat Pests


Biocida is a natural pest repellent used to both control and prevent pests from attacking plants. It can be used on small plants and should continue to be used on a bi-weekly basis. It can also be used at times when pests are attacking a normally healthy plant. But it is mainly a preventative solution rather than a control once pests have infested a plant. Ingredients: Bitter and aromatic herbs, plants, etc. growing in your garden and wild around your garden these act as repellents Leaf of a Cactus: Ideally the agave cactus or Tuna but any cactus will work acts as a sticky substance that keeps the solution on the leaves (if you dont have this, it will still work) Water Onion repellent Garlic repellent Hot pepper (i.e. a jalapeo) repellent Standard Biocida (this is the one we use) Crush up the plants into small pieces Mix in a bucket with water (1/2 plants;1/2 water) Let sit for 24 hours so the active ingredients of the plans soak into the water Filter out the plant particles inot a backpack or other spraying device Dilute with water (i.e. if you have 1 6 liter backpack, 2liters should be bioicida and the rest water) Spray on the leaves of all plants Biocida Tea: Boil water Add all the leaves, garlic, onion, pepper, and cactus Mix into the boiled water and let sit for 2 -3 minutes Dilute with more water (1/4 biocida to 3/4 water) Spray on leaves of all plants Biocida Infusion

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Place plants in a bucket with boiled water. Use a bucket that can be hermetically sealed for about 10 minutes. If using stems, roots, or plants with hard outer leaves, you may need to leave them in the infusion for 20-30 mins. Spray on the leaves of plants

Notes The spray is strong. Dont spray on plants you plan to harvest within the next week Apply after watering plants and dont water for 12 hours after to prevent the bioicida from washing off the leaves Enjoy pest free plants!

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