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Best Practice Guidance for Hybrid Concrete Construction

A guide to choosing and using combinations of precast and in-situ concrete for better value structural frames
C. H. Goodchild BSc, CEng, MCIOB, MIStructE J. Glass BA, Dip Arch, DipBRS, PhD, ILTM

Acknowledgements
The Concrete Centre acknowledges and appreciates the support given by many individuals, companies and organisations. These include: The Advisory Group
John Caine Curtins Consulting Engineers Norman Brown ABC Structures Clive Budge British Precast Concrete Federation Mike Downing Downing Associates Charles McBeath whitbybird Rob Moura Ascon/Edmund Nuttall Chris Packer HBG Construction Mahesh Parmar Anthony Hunt Associates Ltd Martin Southcott The Concrete Centre Russ Wolstenholme W S Atkins for DTI Tony Giddings Argent Group Kevin Gill Gill Associates Ray Hull Byrne Brothers Ltd Rob Jones Davis Langdon and Everest Simon Lake Toyota GB Suqlain Mahmood Sir Robert McAlpine Design Group Bob Martin Bison Concrete Products Gavin Murgatroyd Gardiner & Theobald Dominic ONeill Fitzroy Robinson Robert Reed HBG Construction Martyn Reeve Sir Robert McAlpine Ltd Peter Rogers Stanhope plc David Rose Ipswich Town FC Peter Stackhouse Lyons Sleeman & Hoare Thierry Suc Upton McGougan Consulting Engineers George Tootell CV Buchan Dennis Vittle The Marble Mosaic Company Ltd David Walker Trent Concrete Ltd Russell Woby Hoopers Architectural Services

Best Practice Guidance for Hybrid Concrete Construction


Contents
1. Executive summary 2. Introduction 3. Why use Hybrid Concrete Construction? 4. Best Practice Guidance for Hybrid Concrete Construction 5. Achieving best practice 6. Case studies Ipswich Town Football Club: North Stand Toyota (GB) Headquarters West Car Park, West Quay, Southampton Whitefriars, Canterbury 7. Conclusions 8. References and further reading Appendix: Background research A.1 Context A.2 Best Practice Guidance for Hybrid Concrete Construction research project 2 3 5 9 16 28 28 34 39 47 51 52 53 53 55 61

Interviewees and Participants at Workshops


Matthew Allen Sir Robert McAlpine Design Group Roger Bailey Tarmac Precast Concrete Ltd Graham Beardwell Ove Arup & Partners (M&E) Andy Butler Stanhope plc Peter Carruthers Sir Robert McAlpine Ltd Ian Cordingley Upton McGougan Consulting Engineers Mike Crook HOK Sport Ian Curry AMEC John Cutlack Jan Bobrowski & Partners Brian Cutler Independent Consultant Phil Doyle Sheppard Robson Architects Chris Edwards HBG Construction Adrian Falconer Ove Arup & Partners Jim Farley Sir Robert McAlpine Ltd Ian Feast Hammerson plc Andy Fereday Miller Construction Jack Gabrielcyzk Taylor Whalley Spyra

Researchers on Hybrid Concrete Construction for the UK Market


Ghassan Aouad University of Salford Bousmaha Baiche Oxford Brookes University Peter Barrett University of Salford Pal Chana BCA (formerly of Imperial College) Charles Fowler RPEG, University of Reading Colin Gray RPEG, University of Reading Rod Webster CiD

Dedicated to Gerry Shaw.

Published by The Concrete Centre on behalf of industry sponsors Riverside House, 4 Meadows Business Park, Station Approach, Blackwater, Camberley, Surrey GU17 9AB Tel: +44 (0)1276 606800 Fax: +44 (0)1276 606801 TCC/03/09 Published September 2004 ISBN 1-904818-09-9 Price Group L The Concrete Centre
All advice or information from The Concrete Centre is intended for those who will evaluate the significance and limitations of its contents and take responsibility for its use and application. No liability (including that for negligence) for any loss resulting from such advice or information is accepted by The Concrete Centre or their subcontractors, suppliers or advisors. Readers should note that The Concrete Centre publications are subject to revision from time to time and should therefore ensure that they are in possession of the latest version. Front cover: Inland Revenue, Nottingham, interior of building. Photo: Martine Hamilton-Knight/Built Vision. Architect: Michael Hopkins & Partners. British Precast is the trade federation representing the UK precast and concrete masonry industry. The Structural Precast Association is a member of British Precast and is supporting this publication. Website: www.britishprecast.org Tel: 0116 253 6161. CONSTRUCT is an association of member companies dedicated to the task of improving the construction efficiency of in-situ concrete frames and associated structures. For further details contact the Secretary on 01276 38444.

A.3 Structural design

1 Executive summary

Introduction 2

Executive summary
Hybrid Concrete Construction (HCC) is about providing best value in structural frames. HCC provides simple, buildable and competitive structures that answer client demands for better value. It meets industry requirements for increased prefabrication, increased off-site activity, safer and faster construction and consistent performance. Despite the challenges thrown down by the Latham 2 and Egan 3 reports and their successors, the UK has been slow to realise the benefits of HCC. One of the barriers to HCCs more widespread use was found to be the lack of comprehensive guidance, a situation which this publication aims to change. Based upon work carried out under a PII research project, this publication demonstrates how to achieve best practice. The guidance explains the benefits that result from:
early involvement of specialist contractors using a lead frame contractor using best value philosophy holding planned workshops measuring performance trust close co-operation with an emphasis on partnering. Figure 1
Gatwick office project Showing precast floor beams onto in-situ beams and columns.
Photo: J Doyle

Introduction
Hybrid Concrete Construction (HCC) combines all the benefits of precasting (e.g. quality, form, finish, colour, speed, accuracy, prestressing) with all the benefits of in-situ construction (e.g. economy, flexibility, mouldability, thermal mass, continuity, durability, and robustness). HCC can answer client demands for lower costs and higher quality by providing simple, buildable and competitive structures that offer consistent performance and quality. To date, the use of HCC has been confined mainly to bespoke structures. Some of these structures achieved cost savings of up to 30% over more conventional structural frames. Naturally, the concrete industry was eager to identify how this order of saving might be achieved consistently and more widely. As well as responding to the challenges laid down by the Latham 2 and Egan 3 reports, wider use of hybrid structures would significantly improve the productivity and therefore competitiveness of the whole UK concrete frame industry. With this in mind, the Reinforced Concrete Council was successful in gaining government support, through the Department of Trade & Industry Partners in Innovation (PII) scheme, to carry out a research project entitled Best Practice Guidance for Hybrid

The guidance is supported by case studies and shows that although there are intense periods of co-ordination during the design phase, there are tremendous rewards on site and in use. Best value is achieved through communication and measured in terms of buildability, construction speed, aesthetic, quality, environmental and whole-life cost benefits. HCC can achieve very significant cost savings and give rise to some very satisfied clients. This publication is intended to show how this can be achieved.

2 Introduction

Why use Hybrid Concrete Construction? 3

Concrete Construction. The research was completed under the auspices of the Reinforced Concrete Councils successor, The Concrete Centre. This project built on previous research that had identified an enthusiasm for HCC. Combinations of precast and in-situ concrete were found to be broadly cost neutral; construction times were equal if not better than conventional construction methods and HCC offered many other potential benefits such as reduced whole-life costs. Yet its acceptance and more widespread use was hindered by a general lack of experience or guidance.
1

3. Why use Hybrid Concrete Construction?


Hybrid concrete technology is used primarily to achieve fast and cost effective construction by removing labour-intensive operations on-site and replacing them with mechanised production in precasting yards and factories. Potentially there are many other advantages; these are discussed below.

Cost
This publication aims to change that situation. It is the main output from the best practice research project, which itself was based on obtaining a fundamental understanding of customer requirements, design concerns, construction business processes and supply chain issues. This understanding has been achieved through the help of many individuals and companies within the construction industry. It forms the basis of this best practice guidance, which has been written, and therefore should be viewed in the light of broader based initiatives in improving the construction procurement process. These initiatives include:
Constructing the Team (Latham) 2 Rethinking Construction (Egan) 3 Movement for Innovation (M4i) 4 Value management 5 Construction Best Practice Programme 6 Process Protocol 7 Accelerating change 8 Learning from the best 9

Figure 2
Italian floor construction Hollowcore floor units have been placed on in-situ beam formwork with heavy duty falsework.
Photo: Gruppo Centro Nord

Traditionally, cost is the most influential factor in the choice of frame material. Although the structure of a building represents typically only 10% of construction cost, the choice of structural frame material can have dramatic effects on the cost of other elements of construction such as external cladding, services and internal planning. It also affects net-to-gross floor area ratios10. It can even determine whether air conditioning or suspended ceilings are necessary. Selecting the correct structural framing material is vital to a projects feasibility and success. Individually, each structural material has merits, yet there is greater benefit in combining materials. The advantages of one material compensate for the drawbacks of another. In-situ reinforced concrete is commonly viewed as the most economic framing option,

T h eb e l i e fi st h a ti fe verybodyi nvo l ve di nap roj e c tc a nw o r kt oa na g reed s e t ofp rocesses and procedure s ,t h e nw ew i l ln o to n ly be more e ff i c i e n t,b u t w ew i l lb ei n a mu ch b e t t e rp o s i t i o nt om e e tt h ec l i e n t sb u s i n e s sn e e d s . 7 P ro c e s sP ro tocol

3 Why use Hybrid Concrete Construction?

Why use Hybrid Concrete Construction? 3

while precast concrete promotes speed and high quality. Combining the two by adopting hybrid techniques gives even greater speed, quality and overall economy. The resulting elemental cost of the frame may be higher, but total project costs are very often lower than more conventional frames due to time and buildability savings on site. For instance, use of a hybrid concrete frame instead of a composite steel frame on a shell-and-core office project in central London led to savings of 29% and increased net lettable floor area from 33,700 m2 to 38,200 m2 (a 13% increase)11. Whole-life costs are especially important for owner-occupiers and PFI operators. HCCs can help reduce energy requirements they give excellent facility for fabric energy storage using the thermal mass of concrete to moderate energy demands in cooling and heating buildings.

An increasingly frequent maxim is the ratio 1 : 5 : 20014. This represents the relationship between capital cost, operating costs and business costs during the life of a building. It recognises the importance of 'whole life cost' and changes the emphasis from first cost to whole-life cost. Here, HCC can excel, not only in terms of energy demands, which relate to the 5, but also in terms of comfort and aesthetic leading to productivity gains, which relate to the 200. Project cost is inextricably linked to speed as faster programmes mean earlier investment income, lower interest charges, reduced construction preliminaries and, consequently, optimal development cost.

Speed
Table 1
Long-term costs of buildings14

1 CAPITAL COST

5 COST IN USE

200 BUSINESS COSTS

To operate and maintain the building will cost five times the capital costs over the life of the building. However, the cost to the business, including salaries and staff productivity, of occupying the asset is 200 times the capital cost. In some quarters this has been extended by attributing 0.1 to the cost of design and 1000 to the cost of the outputs from the building.

Speed depends on designs that are easy to procure and construct. Encouraging speed of construction through buildability should be a fundamental objective of design. It may take more design effort and require contractual flexibility, but it results in more satisfied clients, designers, contractors and end-users. HCC essentially takes work away from site and into the factory, thus reducing the duration of operations critical to the overall programme on site. Precasting is not constrained by site progress or conditions and can continue independently of on-site operations. Construction on-site should be quick provided there has been sufficient co-ordination and attention to detail. Some HCC techniques can reduce or eliminate the need for follow-on trades such as ceilings and finishes. This enables even faster programme times, but requires greater co-ordination and care in detail and protection.

Figure 3
Toyota (GB) interior Showing exposed precast concrete floor units.
Photo: Barry Bulley/Trent

Buildability

Buildability is the extent to which design simplifies construction and eradicates unnecessary cost, subject to the requirements of the completed building. HCCs key strength is buildability. The nature of HCC forces pre-planning and the resolution of construction issues, for instance, just-in-time deliveries reducing crane hook time become a natural part of the process. High quality finishes can be most easily produced in factory conditions in precast units. In-situ elements and joints are important structurally but may not need to achieve the same quality of finish and so can be hidden from view. Where finishes to in-situ elements are required, the quantities can be minimised.

Construction

Traditional formwork typically accounts for up to 40% of in-situ frame costs and can be a slow option. The trend is towards faster construction, better quality, more prefabrication and reduced site activity. These demands can be met by HCC, where a high percentage of the work is carried out in a factory and requires less skilled on-site labour than traditional methods.

3 Why use Hybrid Concrete Construction?

Best Practice Guidance for Hybrid Concrete Construction 4

Safety

HCC reduces the potential for accidents by providing successive working platforms on a generally less cluttered site. Safety aspects of leading-edge work are similar to, and should be guided by, recommendations for precast flooring12. Precast spandrel beams can provide immediate edge protection. A high proportion of the work is carried out in the precast factory by experienced personnel. On site, the innovative use of HCC and the fact that buildability is a key concern helps ensure that each safety plan is drafted on the individual projects merits.

4. Best Practice Guidance


Best practice
The new processes necessary to achieve best practice in HCC are shown in Figure 4 as the Best Practice Guidance for Hybrid Concrete Construction process map. This process map has been derived from two larger process models developed during the research project described in Appendix A.2. The larger models were developed, refined and honed through a series of thirteen individual interviews with practitioners and five workshops. One model illustrated the whole process and reflected what the interviewees considered to be the how it should be process within an Egan-compliant procurement framework. This is presented as Figure 5. Another model (not featured) described how it is. Figure 4 highlights the differences between the two larger models and shows how to make how it is into how it should be. Figures 4 and 5 are aimed at achieving best value, as defined by the client, through partnering and collaborative team work. They have been aligned with RIBA Stages of Work 15 ; Process Protocol 7, a tool for looking at the procurement process in construction projects; and with research by Gray16 and Barrett17 into in-situ and HCC processes. Usefully, these new route maps can be applied to achieve best practice in all concrete frame construction: they are considered to be equally applicable to in-situ, HCC or precast concrete frame construction.

Other benefits

Concrete produces eminently lettable buildings which are stable, robust, fire resistant and adaptable, as well as solid, quiet and essentially vibration free. Equally concrete's thermal properties can be exploited in naturally ventilated low-energy buildings. The finish and shape of exposed units can be used to help with even distribution of lighting levels and to reduce noise levels.. Structurally, concrete is very versatile. Long spans can be achieved using large units, or by pre-stressing or post-tensioning. Precast units can be 'welded' together using modern very high strength concretes, which allow full tension laps between reinforcing bars to be achieved in laps of only six diameters13.

Summary

HCC has much to offer. It can respond to the often competing needs for economy, safety, speed, quality, flexibility, durability, service integration, appearance, function, material availability and preferred construction methods. HCC requires a high level of commitment from all parties at all stages of the design and construction process and from all the contributors to that process. For full advantage to be taken, HCC should be considered at the beginning of the design process because it becomes progressively more difficult to influence design and reduce costs as design development proceeds. The remainder of this publication is devoted to best practice guidance so that the commitment required might be better directed and the advantages of HCC are fully exploited and delivered consistently.

New processes for best practice

The new processes shown in Figure 4 are explained in more detail below.

Early involvement of specialist contractors


During the early part of the procurement process the project manager should facilitate the involvement of contractors and specialists much earlier than is traditionally the case. Specialists should be appointed during conceptual design while structural options are still being considered. This allows committed specialist knowledge to be brought to bear at the time when options are being chosen. There may be contractual ramifications arising from this change, but design becomes a much more participative affair. For contractors, early appointment allows them to be committed to a project with the confidence that their input will be rewarded. Design decisions are part-owned by the eventual constructors, which benefits the whole project. Without early appointment (or reward) contractors, in a commercial world, will not give more than courteous attention to helping a project in the initial stages when their ideas and experience might ultimately benefit another company. For example, one leading specialist company usually sets a limit of one day of free advice per project. Early appointment of specialist contractors goes against traditional tendering processes, but this is the very nub of partnering. The client has the option of tendering or trusting,

4 Best Practice Guidance for Hybrid Concrete Construction

Best Practice Guidance for Hybrid Concrete Construction 4

but tendering costs time and it also tends to create adversarial relationships from the start. Trust encourages teamwork.

Lead frame contractors


In the model, a lead frame contractor (LFC) is appointed to take overall responsibility for the structure. This role could be undertaken by a multi-disciplinary firm, a precaster or an in-situ contractor. The LFC could be large enough to undertake the whole frame package themselves or act as the single point of responsibility, procuring various work packages from other specialist suppliers, which might include precasters, in-situ contractors or even steel fabricators. LFC is a function recognised in construction management methods of procurement. An

LFC should be approached and, ideally, appointed after initial conceptual design makes it clear that an HCC solution may be suitable. Specialists knowledge can then be brought to bear in working up concepts into viable schemes and is also available to help with detailed design and buildability issues. The model moves away from the traditional relationship where specialist contractors are detached from the design process.

Best value
The model is devised around a more Eganesque procurement regime, whereby best value, partnering and project feedback play a much stronger part than is the case in more traditional forms of procurement. Traditional procurement routes are based on competitive practices, which often preclude the formulation of teams and the achievement of a best value outcome. The emphasis in this new model is on achieving

Figure 4
Best Practice Guidance for Hybrid Concrete Construction process map

WORK STAGE h BRIEFING DESCRIPTION h


Based on traditional procurement

FEASIBILITY
Is it worth doing?

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN (1)


Consider the options

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN (2)


Choose the option

DESIGN (1)
Work up chosen option

DESIGN (2)
Production information

CONSTRUCTION (1)
Off-site manufacture

CONSTRUCTION (2)
On-site work

USE (1)
Post-handover

USE (2)
Occupancy

Demonstrate the need

PARTY H

v
Define best value. Undertake value and risk assessment.

v
Facilitate early specialist involvement. . Propose HPIs. Carry out best value workshop.Address sustainability. Evaluate quality requirements of frame. Agree HCC option.

v
Agree information flows and approvals procedure. Facilitate contractor help in design.

v
Agree strategy for on-site decision making. Monitor performance against HPIs.

v
Participate in workshop. Arrange workshop. Feedback and make recommendations for future projects.

CLIENT PROJECT MANAGER

ARCHITECT

Think HCC.

Visit specialists. Check for repetition. Integrate structure and services. Agree HCC specification. Check for repetition. Integrate with services. Integrate structure and services. Make recommendations for future projects. Participate in project feedback workshop. z`

ENGINEER

Think HCC.

OTHER DESIGNERS (INCLUDING QS) KEY

Develop FES (Fabric Energy Storage) strategy. Agree terms for early involvement. Agree terms for early involvement. Liaise with specialist suppliers. Provide advice. Provide advice as required.

Agree FES strategy.

Gateway (see Process Protocol)7 Appointment

MAIN CONTRACTOR/ CONSTRUCTION MANAGER LEAD FRAME CONTRACTOR

Agree HPIs. Participate in best value workshop. Agree HPIs. Participate in best value workshop. Provide technical and financial advice. Finalise structural concept. Agree HPIs. Participate in best value workshop. Provide advice. Participate in best value workshop if required.

Liaise with designers to produce final scheme.

Liaise with LFC (and specialist suppliers).

Measure Measure performance Measure performance against HPIs.performance against HPIs against HPIs

Blue text
Recommended new ways of working

Liaise with designers & specialist suppliers. Start production drawings. Provide advice. Run an open book. Start production drawings.

Liaise with specialist suppliers to agree start dates, method statements, H&S plan and production drawings. Generate production drawings. Produce method statement & H&S plan.

Agree programme.

Erect frame. Participate in workshop. Give feedback. Make recommendations.

Black text
Normal practice

SPECIALIST SUPPLIERS END USER WORKSHOPS h


( s e e Ta b l e4 )
0: REUNION 1: DESIGN ROUND TABLE

Participate in virtual run through.

Erect frame.

H P I
Hybrid Concrete Construction Performance Indicators (our version of KPIs)

2: UP START UP 2: START

3: RISK

4: PRE-CONSTRUCTION

5: POST-COMPLETION REVIEW

10

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4 Best Practice Guidance for Hybrid Concrete Construction

Best Practice Guidance for Hybrid Concrete Construction 4

best value for the client. One of the ramifications of this is that the project manager, in particular, has more responsibility for continuous improvement aspects such as running Value Engineering workshops, monitoring on-going progress and organising end-of-project feedback. The question then becomes What is best value? This, of course, has to be decided by an individual client for an individual project. Traditionally, value equated to cost, but notions of whole-life costs, maintenance, comfort, aesthetics, worker efficiency, staff retention, safety, certainty of delivery, the introduction of other Key Performance Indicators 6 etc. make the modern concept of best value much more rational and therefore valid. One of the roles of the design and project management teams is to assess the relative importance of these indicators to particular clients on particular projects. The problem then becomes one of measurement.

Value Indicators and measuring performance


Value-based methods require that value be measured (or at least estimated). First cost should not be the only indicator of value and appropriate performance indicators need to be selected and used. Suitable indicators for HCC are presented in Table 2, with those towards the top being the more important. The top six of these indicators might form the basis of HCC Performance Indicators (HPIs) for a specific project. Various forms of construction can be compared for value by scoring each option against indicators chosen and weighted by the client. Integrating score and weighting gives a measure by which options can be compared, objectively. Another indicator, safety, is an absolute necessity and must always be addressed.

Table 2
Value Indicators: Hybrid Concrete Construction Performance Indicators (HPIs)18

INDICATORS
Speed Cost Spans/lettable area Flexibility in use Fire Services integration Buildability Environmental Finish Quality Site conditions Structure Market conditions

NOTES
Productivity/efficiency on site; time; programme; lead-in time. First cost; running costs; whole-life costs; business costs; cost of package; value for money. Floor depths/building height; preferred grid; vertical access routes; third-party aspects (spans). Low maintenance; good performance. Fire protection; robust fire protection; fire resistance. Air conditioning options; control; sound/thermal insulation; fabric energy storage. Being tolerant; tolerances; planning. Sustainability indicators; operational energy; waste. Certainty of finish; architectural merit; visual surfaces. Certainty of quality of product. Access; site constraints; logistics. Dynamic requirements; load carrying ability; overall stability; temporary stability. Risk; capacity; resources; capacity available; certainty.

Work stages
The procurement process can be broken down into a series of work stages. There are several ways of describing these work stages. Table 3 shows how the work stages used in this publication align with the better known RIBA Stages of Work15 which reflect traditional methods of procurement, and with Process Protocol Phases7, which reflect more contemporary methods of procurement. These work stages were found to best describe HCC. Indeed, they are particularly relevant to the procurement of structure and are certainly relevant to the procurement of all forms of concrete frame construction18.

Table 3
Work stages

WORK STAGE h BRIEFING DESCRIPTION h RIBA PLAN OF WORK STAGE (TRADITIONAL)


Demonstrate the need A Appraisal.

FEASIBILITY
Is it worth doing? B Strategic brief.

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN (1)


Consider the options C Outline proposals. G Tender documents*. H Tender action*.

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN (2)


Choose the option D Detailed proposals.

DESIGN (1)
Work up chosen option E Final proposals.

DESIGN (2)
Production information F Production information.

CONSTRUCTION (1)
Off-site manufacture J Mobilisation. K Construction to practical completion.

CONSTRUCTION (2)
On-site work

USE (1)
Post-handover L After practical completion.

USE (2)
Occupancy

Note * The RIBA stages G and H have been placed in this box for a reason. In traditional procurement, tenders can interfere with RIBA Plan Stage F Production Information, which precludes any benefit to the design process from the early involvement of specialists.

PROCESS PROTOCOL PHASES (NON-TRADITIONAL)

P h a s e0 : Demonstrating the need.

P h a s e1 : Conception of need.

P h a s e2 : Outline feasibility.

P h a s e3 : P h a s e4 : P h a s e5 : Substantive Outline conceptual design. Full conceptual design. feasibility study & outline financial authority.

P h a s e6 : Co-ordinated design, procurement & full financial authority.

P h a s e7 : Production information.

P h a s e8 : Construction.

P h a s e9 : Operation & maintenance.

12

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Project workshops
Project workshops are designed to facilitate better communication, promote best value and prevent, as far as possible, unforeseen problems from arising 18. The workshops lead towards a clear feedback loop for continuous improvement, project and project-toproject learning. The suggested programme of formalised workshops is shown in Table 4. This recommended programme of workshops was perhaps the most insightful theme to emerge from research. There was steady feedback on the importance of inclusive and participative workshops throughout the course of a project. Regular design development and progress meetings would continue as a matter of course.

Roles
Specific feedback on the how it should be model (Figure 5) included comments on roles and responsibilities. Some useful ideas for improving traditional communications between the various professions involved are shown in Table 5.

Table 5
Roles

ARCHITECT CONSULTING ENGINEER CLIENT / DEVELOPER

r Produce separate concrete profile CAD drawings, extracting and isolating the structural frame from its surroundings and making it simpler for the engineer and lead frame contractor to consider. r Hand over drawings and calculations to specialist suppliers to accelerate the taking off process and prevent reinventing the wheel. r Develop a pre-briefing document (including M&E requirements) and with the design team, confirm the business plan, develop the design for it and organise the money for the design. r Keep an interface register between clusters to record anomalies and clashes for easy resolution during design development.

Table 4
Recommended workshops and review meetings

WORK STAGE
Briefing

TITLE
Reunion

FUNCTION / DESCRIPTION
Usually takes place if the project partners are undertaking repeat business, but not exclusively. Aim is to check lessons from previous projects the client, in particular, may have input here. Aim is to clarify client aspirations; to establish what do we want. This takes place after the budget has been agreed. This workshop takes place on appointment of all the specialists (sometimes Value Engineering may be used here as the design concept should be taking shape). Now that the project is understood, the aim is to generate creative solutions for any interface problems that arise, rather than trying to fix them on site. The purpose is to check that everyone is content with the programme on site and to run through the final details with ideally a virtual reality simulation to help the discussion (this should be developed during detailed design). The project review lessons are drawn out during the workshop for the next project. (This is vital as it draws everyone back together after what may be a lengthy project process).

WHO SHOULD ATTEND?


Client, project manager, design team, quantity surveyor (QS) if appointed. Main contractor and perhaps a few selected suppliers may be invited. Project manager will take the lead. Client, project manager, design team. Quantity surveyor, if appointed, will take the lead. Main contractor and/or specialists may be invited. Main contractor/construction manager likely to take the lead. All specialist contractors and suppliers, project manager, design team and QS may be asked to attend. The client may be represented by the project manager. Main contractor/construction manager takes the lead. All specialist contractors and suppliers should attend. Project manager, design team and QS may be invited. The client may be represented by the project manager. Main contractor/construction manager takes the lead. All specialist contractors and suppliers should attend. Project manager, design team and QS will be invited. The client may be represented by the project manager. Client and client advisors will take the lead. All project participants are invited and should attend.

MAIN CONTRACTOR / CONSTRUCTION MANAGER LEAD FRAME CONTRACTOR

Feasibility

Design team ro u n dt a b l e St a rt u p/ b e s t va l u e

r Consider presenting a concrete concept that responds to the clients priorities rather than purely technical performance criteria. r Signal their willingness to work in the consulting engineers office during design development to aid, for example, the design of connections. r Carry out an as built survey at end of construction for the record. r Look at costs more holistically with whole-life costing, providing a better service to the client. r Analyse growth in costs to see where lessons lie in patterns of spending for the next project. r Optimise hook time for cranes on site. r Develop innovative connections.

QUANTITY SURVEYOR PRECAST MANUFACTURER

Conceptual Design (1) Conceptual Design (2)

Conceptual Design (2) Design (1)

Risk workshop

Design (2)

P rec o n s t ru c t i o n

Use (1)

Po s t-completion

14

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5 Achieving best practice


Table 6
Precast Checklist 1: From initial enquiry to contract

Achieving best practice 5

5. Achieving best practice


The how it should be process model is presented in Figure 5. It is the key to best practice for HCC. To achieve best results, best practice needs to be applied throughout the procurement process. Chapter 4 highlighted the new aspects and this chapter expands on these to guide users through the whole procurement process, from feasibility to completion and use. Guidance recommendations are supplemented by anecdotal points. Communication and two-way understanding is central to achieving best practice. Good performance requires contractors to understand what clients want but equally, clients and designers should know what contractors need in order to perform. To help with this, an outline of the process, from the specialist contractors point of view, is presented throughout this chapter as Tables 6, 7, 9 and 10. An understanding of this process and the issues involved will help ensure that agreements on timescales, quality, performance, budgets, costs and rewards are realistic, practical and ultimately produce a highly satisfactory result.

PRE-ENQUIRY
Gain knowledge Think precast at earliest concept stage Evaluate quality requirements Understand what can realistically be achieved Seek specialist advice for initial project concept Be able to discuss outline concepts of project at initial contact e.g. r Type and use r Site geometry and characteristics r Grid requirements r Unit sizes r Site access r Environmental considerations r Building performance/lifetime effect r Adequacy of supply r Skill shortages r Programme requirements r Overall cost r Weight restrictions on units. Dont expect initial answers to be definitive on price or programme, methods, etc. r Arrange to meet precaster r Teamwork/trust does it need to go out to tender? Is partnering feasible?

When precast items are used, negotiations usually go through several stages and everyone benefits if customers and clients have already considered and prepared some answers to the questions highlighted in Table 6. Beware of imposing non-essential constraints as these can restrict flexibility of design later on. Price on value: resist pricing on initial cost only and resist last job syndrome. Definitions of value/value for money are different for different parties, (e.g. some may advocate lowest initial cost, fastest, lowest whole-life cost, or most satisfactory to the user). Do these really reflect the clients requirements? Are design and construction teams influenced by process issues rather than product? The structural design of hybrid forms of construction can be seen as a barrier. However, designers are comfortable with in-situ concrete design and, in general, are comfortable with precast concrete design. They may be less familiar with composite concrete design. However, composite concrete elements may be considered as being monolithic and homogeneous. In the case of proprietary items, design is often covered by manufacturers literature. For bespoke works, temporary load cases, the construction stage loading and final load cases all need to be considered. Notes on the structural design of HCC are given in Appendix A.3. HCC needs a main contractor with commitment to the HCC method as well as civil/structural expertise. Some of the best examples of HCCs have been alternatives driven by trade contractors that have been accepted by enlightened construction managers. In the future, as designs become more sophisticated, the use of HCCs will become more common, increasing the need for specialist design input. Contractors should at least be given the opportunity to comment on initial designs. HCC is a very positive way to create large areas of floor very quickly, but advantages can be lost if the in-situ reinforced concrete work is complex. It is important to obtain specialist knowledge as soon as possible. The degree of importance depends on the degree of innovation/newness and this influences the choice of procurement route. Generally, generic forms of HCC such as using hollowcore slabs on in-situ beams can be constructed using traditional forms of contract but even these relatively simple forms of HCC still benefit from specialist design input. Bespoke types of HCC benefit from using non-traditional contractual arrangements (e.g. construction management, design and build). Using inappropriate forms of contract can result in adversarial relationships and lack of trust. But trust is the very basis of teamwork. Bespoke HCC solutions are more likely to be successful on large projects where investment in design and management time should pay back handsomely. The Standard Method of Measurement (SMM) is ineffective in assessing overall process benefits.

Feasibility stage

ENQUIRY Think HCC! HCC has to be thought of as one of the options to be studied by the architect and structural engineer at feasibility stage. If HCC is not presented early on as an option to address the clients requirements, then it is much less likely to be used and the opportunity will have been lost. HCC solutions can make a project feasible and in design-and-build tenders, it can make the difference between winning and losing. Think in terms of partnering for instance, set up an open book approach for procurement and remember weeks can be lost in a traditional tendering process. An open book arrangement is one whereby:
actual costs are paid with agreed margins for overheads and profit the difference between the actual cost and target cost is shared in a specified way
Define responsibilities Who is responsible for what? Define responsibilities early and expect to maintain a cost-to-risk balance. Ensure other team members take responsibilities commensurate to their earnings and expertise Balance cost versus risk Clarity Who are the players and how do they relate? Seek advice on specifications, both design and architectural, e.g. tolerances and finishes Dont just print off the specification used on the last job Send specifications to precasters for comment prior to issue Commercial terms and conditions, standard / non standard: r Parent company guarantees/performance bonds r Retentions r Warranties r Liquid and ascertained damages r Pass the risk down syndrome Financial Payments when? on time? Dont scatter gun the enquiry: effort will be proportional to chance of getting the job dont expect too many free ideas

between the client and contractor pain and gain are shared on an agreed basis sharing the risk acts as an incentive mechanism to promote efficient working.

Conceptual Design (1)

The decision to prefabricate should come early. Where HCC or indeed precast construction is a possibility, seek advice from a precaster or talk to a LFC. Preferably make visits to precasters. Precasters should be chosen not only on cost and value but also on suitability, availability and quality.

COMMITMENT
Financial Contractual Ability to provide and deliver

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Achieving best practice


Figure 5

Achieving best practice 5


FEASIBILITY
[B]
Is it worth doing?
Agree business plan. Agree M&E. Define best value. Liaise with PM on contracts, etc. Agree costs; agree budgets. SOFT GATE Decide Is it worth it?

The how it should be process map

WORK STAGE h BRIEFING


[A]

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN (1)


Consider the options
Liaise with PM to facilitate early involvement. Agree terms for early involvement. Provide comment as required.

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN (2)


[D & G/ H: TENDERS]
Choose the option
Provide comment as required. GATE Approve scheme design.

DESIGN (1)
[E]
Work up chosen option
Provide comment as required. Give final approvals. GATE Agree final design drawings.

DESIGN (2)
[F]
Production information
Provide comment as required. Give approvals as required.

CONSTRUCTION (1)
[K]
Off-site manufacture
Provide comment as required.

CONSTRUCTION (2)
[K]
On-site work
Provide comment as required. Check progress.

USE (1)
[L]
Post-handover
Participate in project feedback workshop. Agree recommendations for future projects. Receive building from MC/CM.

USE (2)

DESCRIPTION h PARTY H

Demonstrate the need


Obtain user pre-briefing document, discuss funding mechanisms. Brief project manager (if used); brief architect; brief QS. GATE Agree needs/ aspirations.

Occupancy

Based on traditional procurement feedback. Develop

CLIENT

v
Propose terms for early involvement. Identify appropriate specialists. Establish design parameters. Manage design development. Propose HPIs. Carry out best value workshop. Address sustainability Agree overall programme. Agree scheme design.

v
Agree design information flows, agree design approvals procedure, facilitate contractor involvement in design, convene final approvals process. Manage design process. Agree main contract; appoint MC or CM; liaise with MC/CM. Agree communication strategy for on-site decision making. Manage design process. Liaise with designers. Liaise with MC/CM. Manage construction process. Liaise with MC/CM. Liaise with MC/CM on HPIs and performance monitoring. Manage construction process. Liaise with MC/CM. Agree payments with QS. Carry out project feedback workshop. Feedback on HPIs to client. Make recommendations for future projects.

PROJECT MANAGER

Discuss funding mechanisms, define team roles, make contract conditions clear, make terms and conditions fair, instigate no blame culture. Agree services required by client.

(latest)

Expect to pay for LFC/ specialists advice. Undertake value assessment. Undertake risk assessment. Agree form of contract.

This is a generic model based on what is considered to be good practice within an Egan-compliant procurement framework. The model describes a scenario in which a project manager facilitates early involvement of contractor and specialists. The whole model is oriented towards achieving best value (as defined by the client) via partnering and collaborative team working.

ARCHITECT

Agree services required by client. Establish client needs.

DELIVERABLE Define client needs/ aspirations.

(latest)

DELIVERABLE Present design ideas.

Obtain outline planning permission. Think hybrid (HCC)! Refine client needs. Formulate design ideas.

Develop scheme design. Develop specification. Generate floor plans etc. Seek advice from specialists; discuss plans with engineer.

Obtain full planning permission. Evaluate quality requirements of frame. Agree scheme design.

DELIVERABLE Present scheme design.

Generate concrete frame profile drawings. Visit specialists, agree HCC specification, check design for optimum repetition, integrate structure and services. Work up final drawings; refine specification;liaise with engineer; liaise with other designers. Review costs. Review budgets. Report to PM as required.

DELIVERABLE Hand over final drawings.

Liaise with LFC on production drawings. Invite LFC to work in engineers office. Obtain Building Regs approval. Check against specification. Produce some detail drawings.

Oversee manufacture. Approve moulds. Approve finishes.

Provide information as required. Oversee construction. Give final approvals?

GATE Sign off works.

Make recommendations for future projects. Participate in project feedback workshop.

v
Review costs. Review budgets. Review contracts. Review costs. Review contracts. Agree payments with PM. Analyse growth in contract costs. Participate in project feedback workshop.

QUANTITY SURVEYOR

Discuss funding mechanisms. Agree services required by client.

(latest)

Liaise with PM on cost plans. Expect to pay for LFC/specialists advice. Assess costs; assess budgets; advise PM as required.

Provide whole-life cost information. Review forms of contract. Provide advice as required.

Help administer contracts. Provide advice as required. Agree scheme design.

KEY
[ A ]
Approximate correlation with RIBA Plan of Work stages

ENGINEER

Think hybrid (HCC)! Agree basic M&E strategy. Advise PM as required.

Assess HCC options. Develop structural concept. Discuss plans with architect; seek advice from specialists; discuss construction programme.

Agree HCC option. Agree scheme design.

DELIVERABLE Produce scheme drawings.

Red text
Activities that should take place to achieve best practice

Hand over design drawings /calcs to LFC/ specialists. Agree HCC specification, check design for optimum repetition. Integrate structure and services. Work up GA drawings; carry out design calculations; liaise with architect; liaise with other designers;discuss mainmethod statement with MC/CM. Integrate structure and services. Work up layouts; liaise with engineer; liaise with architect.

DELIVERABLE Hand over GA drawings.

Check method statements. Check specialists drawings. Refine GA drawings (if required). Generate RC drawings.

Oversee manufacture. Approve moulds. Approve finishes.

Provide information as required. Oversee construction. Give final approvals?

GATE Sign off works.

Make recommendations for future projects. Participate in project feedback workshop.

DELIVERABLE Hand over layouts. Provide Institutional checks. Provide Building Regs approval. SOFT GATE Agree schedule based on VR erection run-through. Refine layouts (if required). Provide information as required. Provide information as required. Oversee construction. Give final approvals? GATE Sign off works. Make recommendations for future projects. Participate in project feedback workshop.

OTHER DESIGN PROFESSIONALS


e.g. M&E Engineer

Think HCC! Agree basic M&E strategy. Advise PM as required. Advise on planning permission.

Develop FES strategy. Develop services strategy. Provide advice as required. Provide institutional checks.

Agree FES strategy. Agree scheme design.

v
Oversee construction. Confirm HPIs. Continue to use VR erection program. Liaise with LFC (and specialist suppliers). Liaise with engineer. Agree method statements. Agree H&S plans. Agree deliveries. Carry out final VR run-through. Measure performance against HPIs. Carry out enabling works. Measure performance against HPIs. Measure specialists performance. Manage construction. GATE Hand over to client. Participate in project feedback workshop. Feedback on HPIs to PM/client. Feedback on specialists performance. Make recommendations for future projects.

Blue text
Evidence from interviews

CHECKING AUTHORITIES MAIN CONTRACTOR / CONSTRUCTION MANAGER LEAD FRAME CONTRACTOR


(i.e. Multi-disciplinary firm, in-situ contractor or precaster)

Advise on planning permission. Provide institutional checks.

Provide Building Regs approval.

B l a ck t e x t
Normal practice

Optional entry point. Provide advice as required.

Define packages / clusters. Advise on site logistics/buildability. Agree terms for early involvement. Provide advice as required.

GATE An activity that must be completed for the project to continue Formal entrance/ appointment of a party DELIVERABLE A key deliverable that must be produced for the project to continue

Establish an interface register. Agree HCC frame responsibilities with LFC. Agree HPIs, participate in best value workshop. Provide advice as required.

Start using VR erection program. Liaise with designers to produce final scheme. Generate main method statement. Produce H&S plan. Produce construction programme. Agree specialist sub-contracts.

v
Agree programme to ensure site delivery times (e.g. mould procurement, precast unit production) with specialist suppliers. Carry out enabling works. Carry out full as-built survey. Erect frame to agreed programme.

v
Participate in project feedback workshop. Negotiate partnering on future projects.

Optional entry point.

Liaise with MC/CM. Agree frame responsibilities. Present the concrete concept. Agree HPIs, participate in best value workshop, provide technical and financial advice as required, finalise desired structural concept.

Agree terms for early involvement. Liaise with potential specialist suppliers, provide advice as required (e.g. potential structural solutions, budget costings of alternative HCC combinations).

Liaise with designers to produce final scheme. Liaise with specialist suppliers, start production drawings, provide technical and financial advice as required.

Send team to work in engineers office. Participate in VR erection program. Liaise with specialist suppliers to agree start dates during erection. Produce own method statement, produce own H&S plan, liaise with MC/CM. Develop inventive connections. Optimise hook time. Generate production drawings. Produce own method statement, produce own H&S plan.

DELIVERABLE Agree production drawings.

SPECIALIST SUPPLIERS
(e.g. in-situ contractor, precaster or steel fabricator)

Optional entry point (with LFC).

Liaise with LFC, establish an order of cost. Agree HPIs, participate in best value workshop, provide advice as required (e.g. costs, programme, structure, environmental aspects and finishes). Participate in best value workshop if required. Provide comment as required.

Run an open book. Start production drawings.

DELIVERABLE Finalise production drawings.

Participate in VR frame erection run through.

Erect frame to agreed programme.

Participate in project feedback workshop.

Engage in a negotiation to obtain letter of intent. Provide advice as required (e.g. costs, programme, structure, environmental aspects and finishes). Make requirements known. Undertake survey of user needs. Provide comment as required. Provide comment as required.

H P I
Hybrid Concrete Construction Performance Indicators (our version of KPIs)

END USER WORKSHOPS h

Provide comment as required.

Participate in project feedback workshop (if required).

0: REUNION
Only held if project participants

1: DESIGN ROUND TABLE


Client and design team meet for the first time, with others invited if appropriate.

2: START UP
Held when all participants are appointed. Value engineering may be used.

3: RISK WORKSHOP
Now the project is understood, effort is made to iron out any problems.

4: PRE-CONSTRUCTION
Everyone convenes prior to start on site to agree procedures etc.

5: POST-COMPLETION REVIEW
Everyone participates in this postmortem.

Exact timing will depend on contract have worked together previously. type (partnering or prime contracting).

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Quality needs to be defined, planned and managed. It needs commitment and accountability which are best achieved by a formal Quality Assurance scheme. Various aspects must be considered including:
accuracy or quality of surface finish quality of design or construction performance effect on other elements or processes fitness for purpose.

Potentially, HCC can result in interface problems or clashes which are different from traditional contracts (e.g. storage, phasing). If identified early on, these risks can be managed and controlled. HCC is good for single point responsibility, hence the advocacy of a LFC. An interface register should be set up and maintained to highlight the possible risks/interface difficulties that might occur, particularly between packages or clusters, i.e. frame and cladding, frame and services. While there is a need for good services integration, HCC timescales do not necessarily tally with services design timescales. Usually, the M&E services design will need to be well developed by the time an HCC scheme is finalised, and it should be finalised by the time an HCC scheme is detailed. Although this is not a problem specific to HCCs, it can have detrimental effects on HCCs if late changes are required. Managing information about service voids, especially large ones, is important. For example, is the coring of holes a strategy or defeat? Tolerances must be realistic and the precaster and engineer should discuss, establish and agree the scope and practicality of tolerances for a specific project. Equally, it is important to address any differences between tolerances for precast and in-situ elements. This is also a good time to discuss fixings the precaster should give early advice. Teamwork with buy-in from all parties early on creates confidence. There needs to be a high degree of co-ordination and this leads to ownership of the project and team bonding. All parties become motivated to work closely together. There may be a need to assure the client that HCC is the right option. The architect, or more often the engineer, needs to act as a champion, explaining and promoting the benefits of HCC. When LFCs come on board, they can confirm budgets and establish can do confidence.

Factory conditions for precast element production allow high standards of workmanship, whereas in-situ elements may not achieve the same standards. If necessary these in-situ elements can usually be hidden from view but if not, agree and issue guidelines on consistency of finish including a strategy on protection and making good any damage. Continue to make a case for HCC.

Conceptual Design (2)

When considering forms of contract, it should be recognised that traditional forms of contract can make HCC difficult because they preclude the vital early involvement of specialist contractors. The traditional tender process involves a large amount of often unproductive work and usually there is a mass of information to assimilate at once. Negotiating with the various sub-contractors in a short tender period can be difficult when there are many issues to be resolved. Alternative forms of agreement can minimize these difficulties. They can reduce delays in getting prices and reduce the risk of these delays inhibiting progress. Where first cost is a prime concern, trust can be enhanced using an open book policy. The lead frame contractor (LFC) is usually the most likely party to promote this idea. It enables the LFC to test the markets capacity and readiness, to compare estimates and talk in detail to potential suppliers without resorting to formal competitive tendering. The client and project manager must trust the LFC to undertake this task, so the LFC will have to make a good case and demonstrate that there will be full transparency during the use of an open book. Pre-assembly requires considerable off-site management of off-site activities. There is increased management of design, integration of design, early service design decisions, approvals and communications. Design co-ordination means understanding supply chains, planning and producing design information and approvals on time, for example, services designs will have a significant impact on structure. The project manager should map out the processes involved and issue guidelines on, for example, issuing information, approvals procedures, change control and the methods by which production and assembly knowledge are fed into the total design process. Project managers should choose people who can deal with such issues.

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Design (1)

Before the design work begins in earnest there should be a pause to reflect and, importantly, get client feedback. If an open-book approach has been agreed, its administration and success will depend on close working and good communication between the designers, the precasters, QS and/or LFC. For teams with less experience of such an approach, an experienced member should lead and ensure complete transparency. Reassurance and regular checking will be necessary. Because of the amount of information in circulation, HCC may not necessarily be an easy process to manage. People need to be clear about their inputs to the process and team ethos, especially when thinking and working outside traditional methods. The use of 3D modelling techniques, Virtual Reality (VR) simulation programmes, or animation based on CAD should all be considered. Such tools can be very powerful in managing/optimising the construction programme for an HCC structure, especially because the method often involves quite specific sequences of component installation and in-situ stitching on site, which can benefit from detailed visualisation. Correct decisions made promptly and without later changes are key to managing the process. Regular meetings with a one-stop client and all other parties involved are essential because time constraints will put pressure on design. This demands good DESIGN

Table 7
Precast Checklist 2: From design to start on site

oral exchange of information and informal, as well as formal, co-ordination between architect, structural engineer, precaster, LFC, etc. on such issues as finishes, positions for services, lifting sockets, etc. The precaster should give early advice to the design team, to prevent problems later (e.g. on fixings etc). Precasters are at their most efficient when they are able to progress whole packages, rather than hit-and-miss sections. Units with an architectural quality of finish need special attention from all. Details should be discussed and resolved amongst the whole team designers (architectural and structural), contractors, precasters and the LFC. For example, lengths of bearing for hollowcore units on one project were specified from a structural perspective as being 75 mm minimum, 150 mm was achieved, but 225 mm was wanted on site to facilitate buildability. The message didnt get across to the design team that the constructors wanted wide bearings. Equally, counter-arguments from the designers (and quantity surveyors) did not get through to the constructors. This issue should have been aired and decided upon well before construction. Most of the issues that will need to be resolved with the precaster are highlighted in Table 7. That said, buildability of HCCs is usually good because almost all the issues will have been discussed and agreed before the building goes to site. But it must be designed in. Agree and issue guidelines on:
Tolerances. Dimensional constraints. Making things fit together (e.g. cast low, fill or pack). Craneage and transportation. Design of temporary works. Propping (e.g. Is temporary propping a real problem costwise, timewise or just

General arrangement drawings Mould drawings Unit details Repeatability Calculations Approval periods Interface with other disciplines notably services Freeze dates Approval procedures

MOULD PROCUREMENT
Standard/non standard/ complexity Internal/external/resourcing Type timber/steel Quality

PRODUCTION
Reinforcement, plates, bars, inserts Capacity Finishing Stripping Handling

Figure 6
Inland Revenue Building interior The competition brief required value for money and a fast-track construction programme. The design fully exploited the potential of precast concrete and prefabrication of other major structural elements to achieve real buildability. The superstructure was manufactured almost entirely off site, at the same time as the in-situ construction of the substructure took place.
Photo: Martine Hamilton-Knight/Built Vision

Storage

DELIVERY & ERECTION


Unit size restraints Site restraints Management Falsework and formwork Health & safety/CDM

IN-SITU WORK
Responsibilities Finish Falsework and formwork Reinforcement Concrete Concreting Curing and protection Depropping

perception? Props at 1/2 or 1/3 spans may be considered satisfactory as they may not freeze-up an area. However, staging left in place may well do so). Concreting on site: r special measures r non-shrink concretes r ready-mixed supply or batch small volumes on site r can in-situ concrete be poured into tight positions (e.g. under the hollowcore unit?) r self compacting concrete. Preparing precast units for concrete pours. Detailing rules as traditional construction? Should loose splice bars lap with bars within the precast units? Protection of finishes, details and projections. Differential floor cambers on adjacent floor units. How to stop joints leaking and the cost of sealing joints. Alternative details (e.g. would continuity reinforcement get over the need for a nib?).

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Connections need to be well designed. They should be simple and adaptable with realistic tolerances and plenty of repetition. Repeated use of the same details allows optimisation of construction method. Establish early on the responsibilities for falsework, remembering that the supply of relevant information is a duty under Health & Safety Act/CDM regulations. The National Structural Concrete Specification (NSCS) 20 is ideally suited to in-situ, precast and HCC. Under the NSCS approach, the specialist concrete contractor (SCC) builds what is shown on the drawings to a specified standard of workmanship. Prescriptive restraints have been avoided to enable the SCCs experience to be used to achieve efficient construction. This specification helps innovation, efficiency and competition. All parties involved in the construction process benefit from the client to the subcontractor:
Clients receive better, less costly construction. Designers no longer have to devise their own standard specifications, but may

and reference should be made to the National Structural Concrete Specification (NSCS) 20, which covers tolerances under Construction Accuracy (Table 8).

To arrive at the optimum cost and buildability, a common understanding on tolerances for the structure, cladding and finishes should be shared by all parties. Discussion is needed at the design stage on any tighter tolerances envisaged, since they will result in higher costs and may not, in any event, be realistic. Common sense must prevail should any item fail to meet the tolerance specified. It is important to consider whether the work is still acceptable, having regard to the operations that follow and the intended use of the structure. Checking must be carried out as construction proceeds so that any remedial work which is required can be sensibly planned and executed. N a t i o n a l St r u c t u ra lCo n c re te S p e c i fi c a t i on20

concentrate their efforts on writing the individual project specification. Contractors are able to identify more clearly the risks and requirements of the project and have more freedom to innovate and develop their own solutions. Make sure the processes of HCC are clear to all. Programming problems mostly arise from lack of familiarity with techniques and uncertainty of procurement and are particularly likely to affect smaller projects, which do not necessarily have the management resources to understand and control unfamiliar processes.

The clauses provided in NSCS are intended to simplify tolerances. It should be noted that the fit-up of abutting elements with different permitted deviations requires careful consideration. The factory-based precast concrete industry works to improve upon the component tolerances specified in BS 8110. A strategy to overcome potential problems should be put in place. For instance, guidance for landing precast elements onto in-situ elements, especially in-situ columns, should be developed. In this case a preferred detail might be to either:

Design (2)

This is a busy period for the designers in co-ordinating design and technical information.
cast columns 100 mm low, place a collar around the column, place precast floor

A high level of communication is required, especially between architect, structural engineer and services designers as well as with the contractors, because of the large amount of design checking perceived to be necessary. Interchanges need commitment underpinned by mutual trust. HCC requires team players prepared to work closely together and to ensure that others are not let down. Paper based communication will not be sufficient. Regular round-table meetings with oral exchanges resolve issues faster than a more conventional approach. Resolving all the design details at the design stage gets it right on site. 3D, VR or physical models help enormously. The architect and others in the design team need to be supportive of the structural engineer to resolve issues such as impact of builders work on site. Late tweaking of details distracts effort and costs money, these should have been resolved earlier. Realistic tolerances must be allowed for; small numbers in specifications are no answer. Precast units are generally quality assured; nonetheless, realistic tolerances are needed

elements and concrete the remaining column with the floor topping or
with beam soffits temporarily supported in place with help from the column

formwork, cast the whole column in-situ as one.

Table 8
Extract from the National Structural Concrete Specification 20

TOLERANCES FOR FORMED ELEMENTS


The linear dimension of formed elements shall be accurate to within the following distances (where L is length, height or width of element in the direction considered). L Up to and including 600 mm Over 600 mm up to and including 1.5 m Over 1.5 m up to and including 8 m Over 8 m up to and including 15 m Over 15 m up to and including 30 m Over 30 m Permitted deviation, D mm 8 mm 10 mm 15 mm 20 mm 30 mm 30 mm + 1 mm per metre or part

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5 Achieving best practice

Achieving best practice 5


Table 9
Precast Checklist 3: Delivery, erection and construction

The LFC must be given unambiguous information and instructions by the design team, especially the architect. Avoid late decisions and design changes because the effects are magnified further along the process and supply chain. Despite pressures on the design team, especially the structural engineer, to release information quickly, it is important to manage and co-ordinate information. Sufficient time should be made available to get it right. In the interests of good communications, it is advantageous to invite the LFCs team to work in the engineers offices. Problems need to be identified and notified early to mitigate additional costs. For instance, lack of basic setting-out information could lead to delays or piecemeal production, which is more expensive or could lead to acceleration charges. Repeatability is key to economy in precast production. It should be appreciated that minor changes, curves/radii etc. have major impacts on design time and mould re-use. The aim should be to rationalise numbers of units and moulds. The cost and speed of manufacture of precast concrete units, particularly the bespoke units, is dependent on mould use and demouldability. The optimum use of timber moulds is about 30 units (tolerances are difficult to maintain after about 30 uses); for steel moulds about 90 units is optimum 21. If the precaster can achieve a faster casting cycle time, then the overall cost and time will decrease. Issues such as demoulding, optimising hook time for cranes on site, protection strategy for precast units on site also need to be resolved. Design of the units should be finalised under guidance from the precaster. Avoid using units where projecting reinforcement is intended to lap with reinforcement projecting from adjacent precast items unless tolerances can be guaranteed to avoid clashes. Use loose splice bars.
Figure 7
Paternoster Square office development The structural scheme consisted of precast vaulted ceiling units onto in-situ beams and columns. It was chosen to demonstrate speed and minimum construction depth in comparison to rival materials.
Photo: J. Doyle

Construction (1)

At this stage delivery, erection and construction issues should have been agreed (see Table 9). Where feasible, a final VR run through should be carried out. Confidence can be strengthened by having warranties for materials/units stored off site and by inspecting prototypes of any bespoke precast units this gives excellent evidence on aesthetics and value.

DELIVERY
More than just maximising payloads Just in time delivery planning Correct sequence Nil damage deliveries Weight/size restriction Loading for minimal site handling Storage on trailers if necessary

ERECTION AND CONCRETING


Competent and trained workforce Access/hardstanding Erection sequence following trades Craneage mobile/static

Construction (2)

To save crane time, mark each precast item with a reference identifying orientation and lifting point positions (consider bar-coding/e-tagging). It is vital to protect precast units on site, particularly architectural units, otherwise they will not retain their ex-mould appearance. There needs to be a strategy for protection so propping and protection must be carefully planned. For instance, damp marine ply may mark architectural units.

Shared services cranes/scaffolding etc Survey of previous works Erection procedures H & S/CDM Falsework and formwork: checks and responsibilities Reinforcement, post-tensioning Welding, bolting, grouting Concrete deliveries Curing and protection procedures Matching finishes Depropping and release to following trades

STABILITY PROTECTION
Avoidance of damage Repair strategy

The main contractor should be instructed not to carry out any unauthorised remedial works or builders works to the precast units. These are specialist tasks. Procedures for remedial works should be included in the specification. Construction on site tends to be very quick; this is the reward for the effort in working up the co-ordinated design. Examples are given in the case studies in chapter 6.

At post-construction stage

The post-completion workshop allows Precast Checklist 4: Feedback all parties to the project to give feedback to others and to learn from the other FEEDBACK members of the design and construction Performance team and from users (see Table 10). Price Experiences for next time The outcome should be measured in terms of Performance Indicators and, in particular, the Hybrid Performance Indicators used to make the value judgements during the conceptual design process.

Table 10

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6 Case studies

Case studies 6

6. Case studies
These case studies show how HCC has been used with great success on a range of building types and locations. The studies come from a series of 'knowledge capture' workshops that were convened in order to identify key events and evaluate what went right and what could have been improved on particular projects. In addition to producing evidence of the successful use of HCC, they provided a way of testing the process maps being developed at the time. They were, in essence, facilitated post-completion workshops, which the participants found to be enormously valuable.
Above: Figure 9 From the North

Ipswich Town Football Club: North Stand

From the outset, the design and construction of the new 7,500-seater North Stand at Ipswich Football Club (Figure 8) was dominated by a tight schedule. Work on site could not start until the end of the 2000/2001 football season but had to be completed as soon as possible during the next. It was clear to the design team that to achieve this goal, the following aspects had to be considered:
The use of off-site prefabrication. Minimal use of applied finishes. Inherent structural fire resistance of the structure. Ease of erection. Reduced erection time by minimising the number of components.

Photo: Hufton+Crow/View Pictures

Right: Figure 10 Typical cross-section of the stand North

All these factors indicated that precast concrete would be the most appropriate material for the project, and this was reflected in the structural design which was essentially precast augmented by in-situ stitches and toppings and steel beams and a steel roof.
Figure 8
North Stand Ipswich Town Football Club
Photo: C. Goodchild

It became apparent early in the design process that quality of manufacture and tolerance control was going to be critical to the achievement of the required erection programme. The number and complexity of the interfaces between precast and steelwork and the need for continuous co-ordination between suppliers and the erection crew led to the conclusion that supply and erection of the entire structure should form one subcontractor package. As a result an LFC was appointed whose entire package was negotiated from its inception on an open-book basis. This allowed the earliest possible specialist input into the design process and gave continuity through to the construction phase. The structure itself has 14 massive precast concrete shear walls each 3 m wide and over 11 m high. As may be seen from Figures 9 and 10, they form the backbone to the stand, taking the vertical and lateral loads from the upper tier and roof. Each wall consists of an upper and lower unit. To maintain accuracy of fit and alignment, these wall units were match-cast in pairs with steel shoe connectors at mid height. These shoes were then welded together on site. Particular care had to be taken to place coupler fittings correctly within the walls to receive steel beams. A high level of accuracy was achieved: the general level of tolerance was 50% of the limits specified in BS 8110: Part 1: 1997 22. The interfaces between precast and steelwork and the co-ordination required for successful construction is illustrated by Figures 12 to 16. These show details of the wall unit W1, part of the cantilever shear wall system, and its fitments. The upper tier of the stand is a balanced cantilever with the shear walls providing stability against over-turning forces and wind loads. The lower tier consists of precast

Figure 11
Shear walls and staircases during construction
Photo: Jan Bobrowski and Partners

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Inset right:

Figure 13
Detail B

Figure 12
General arrangement Elevation on a lower wall unit, type W1 Below: Figure 14 Wall type W1 RCC details

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Right: Figure 19 Detail through end of terrace unit Above:

Figure 20
Section 4-4

Above left: Figure 15 Detail of mild steel shoe for wall type W1 Above right:

Figure 16
Section 7-7

Right: Figure 17 Steel beam connection onto wall type W1 and its designer. Note: also angle support for stair landing above
Photo: C. Goodchild

North Stand began in May 2001. Superstructure erection began on 16 July and was completed in 23 weeks by Christmas 2001. The lower tier was used for the first time on 16 November. Amongst the best aspects of this project were thought to be: regular meetings with all involved and with a one stop client early and firm decisions being made; prompt decisions made everything else work unambiguous instructions helped progress the timescale having a LFC on board went hand-in-hand with the hybrid form of construction having an open book policy reduced delays on getting prices, and reduced risk of these delays inhibiting progress which relied on trust.

Far right: Figure 18 Stair core showing shear wall W1


Photo: C. Goodchild

concrete staircase-like units, which span, unconventionally, front to back. They provide the propping forces necessary to stabilise the shear walls in the transverse direction. There are 499 units in the upper tier, as opposed to only 289 on the lower tier which occupies almost the same plan area. Fewer units in the lower tier resulted in a substantial saving in erection time. On the lower tier, around 800 m of grouting was undertaken, whereas the more traditional form of construction on the upper tier required nearly 2300 m. To differentiate their appearance from the upper tier units, the lower tier units were made from different concrete mixes. Stitching together the primary and secondary elements into a single entity resulted in considerably fewer elements and a structure that could be erected as a self-finished article. The precast units required no additional fire protection or applied finishes. Longitudinal stability is provided by a combination of moment connections and diaphragm action from the floors and tiers. The roof structure is essentially a separate structure spanning 92 m onto Vierendeel towers. Secondary trusses cantilever to the front and rear of the main truss. The initial structural design brief was given in January 2001 and demolition of the old
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Project Team:
Client Ipswich Town FC Architect HOK Sport Engineers Jan Bobrowski & Partners M&E Engineers Hannan Associates Supervising Architect Hoopers Architectural Services Quantity Surveyor Gill Associates Main Contractor Jackson Building Ltd Lead Frame Contractor ABC Structures Precast Suppliers Trent Concrete Ltd, Tarmac Topfloor Steel Suppliers H Young Structures & Westbury Tubular Steel Ltd

References:
Concrete April 2002 Concrete Quarterly Winter 2003

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Toyota (GB) Headquarters

Located in Epsom, Surrey, this exciting and glamorous building entirely meets the clients brief for the most advanced and innovative workplace possible. The modern and flexible office environment has been fully realised by using an exposed hybrid concrete structure to get best value in the clients terms. The project started as an architectural design competition, which resulted in the concept of a two storey building orientated around a dramatic entrance rotunda. Four 15 m wide office wings radiate from a glazed street where circulation and informal meeting facilities are concentrated. The building is designed for up to 500 people and has a gross floor area of 14,200 m2. Daylight potential is maximised in the offices by the use of large areas of clear glazing offering largely uninterrupted views of a pleasant landscape.

A hybrid of exposed precast and hidden in-situ reinforced concrete was chosen for the building frame after an intense design period with collaboration between all members of the design team. It was selected because of its visually striking appearance, ceiling height, energy efficiency, flexibility and speed. It was also integral with the concept of using a low energy displacement ventilation system for comfort conditioning within the offices. The exposed structural soffits of the floors act as reservoirs for storing coolth, a feature which contributes to the lowering of heat loads across the daily cycle of occupation. HCC allowed a high proportion of the frame to be manufactured in quality controlled factory conditions off-site and led to high speed construction on site. During the design development process, the design was continually modified to accommodate lighting, extract ducts, buildability and architectural developments, and yet maintain repetition. Detailed models were made of the office floor showing the relationship of the precast units to other key components and interfaces, such as the glass faade, the suspended lighting units and the central services distribution zone. Each floor of the wing is constructed from precast concrete coffered floor panels supported by an in-situ concrete perimeter beam and by an internal shoulder beam system. The shoulder beam system consists of two in-situ concrete downstands hung from an upstand column head (named drup a drop that goes up). The floor panels were fully integrated with the services with pre-formed slots and holes for ducts and conduits.

Figure 21
A model of Toyota (GB) headquarters
Photo: C. Goodchild

Figure 23
Section through office wing
Photo: whitbybird

Figure 22
Interior of one of the offices at the Toyota (GB) headquarters
Photo: C. Goodchild

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An in-situ concrete structural topping locks all the floor members together in composite action. Each floor plate uses 34 panels of approximately 6 x 3 m plan dimension within a 9.0 x 7.5 m column grid. By careful detailing it was possible to limit the number of panels in each floor plate to seven. The repetition reduced costs, increased efficiency of production and helped avoid site errors. The maximum weight of panel was restricted to 10.5 tonnes for handling purposes. Because of the complex shape and presence of service voids within the panels, the design of floor plates included finite element analysis. The reinforcement also had to be planned and modelled in three dimensions prior to production.
Figure 24
Falsework
Photo: whitbybird

The buildings columns are generally 8.5 m high structural steel encased in 500 mm diameter pre-cast concrete with a similar finish to the floor panels. Advantage was taken of the stiffness of the columns to act as vertical cantilevers for the frame stability against horizontal loading. This also helped to preserve the clear open space within the building, as no internal bracing was needed. The column encasement was held back at floor levels, which enabled perimeter beam reinforcement to pass through the web of the steel column and thus help ensure a moment connection necessary for the frame action assumed. Air is supplied through the floor plenum and extracted through the ceiling soffit, while the thermal mass of the exposed concrete ceiling helps reduce heat load. Benchmarking visits were made to various sites to establish the required quality and fit of the coffers. These visits involved the main contractor, the specialist concrete contractor and the design team. The project specification was taken from a previous project and agreed. The concrete mix for both the pre-cast floor panels and columns was Derbyshire Limestone aggregate with Antique White cement to create a light, off-white

Figure 27
Perimeter beam construction sequence The in-situ beam picks up the precast floor panels. Beam reinforcement passes through the web of the encased structural steel column to help guarantee a moment connection.

appearance. Great care was taken in the specification of mould type, tolerance and finish to control imperfections. All the units were cast in fibreglass lined moulds. This produced the specified high quality ex-mould finish required to eliminate the need for decoration, which in turn saved on the need to bring in further finishing trades and aimed to reduce maintenance costs during the life of the building. At the first inspection of the precast unit at the works, the unit was hoisted up to its correct height for a clearer and more accurate inspection. The ten tonne floor units were delivered to site with three units per lorry. Adopting a just in time policy, all units and components were lifted directly into place, to avoid storage and double handling. The shape of the overarching structural steel roof is derived from a large diameter torus. This form maximised repetition of curvature and standardisation within the 150 tonnes of structural steel components in the 80 m x 45 m partially glazed roof. Structural design began in December 1997 and the site started in January 1999 with three months of demolition. Practical completion was achieved in April 2001.

Below left: Figure 25 Structure/services integration


Photo: whitbybird

Below left: Figure 28 PC floor unit being lifted into position. Note: falsework and formwork, ducts in units, columns
Photo: Barry Bulley/Trent

Below right: Figure 26 Steel billets were used to ensure transfer of loads between precast floor units and in-situ beams
Photo: whitbybird

Below right: Figure 29 During construction


Photo: whitbybird

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The Toyota (GB) Corporate Headquarters won the Building category in the 2001/2002 Concrete Society Awards. Among the best aspects which helped win the award were:
Early decision to prefabricate and have a sustainability/low energy concept. Close teamwork with overall buy-in early on and confidence that project could be

West Car Park, West Quay, Southampton

delivered. There was a high degree of co-ordination and ownership. The team bonded, established a proximity and were motivated to work closely together. Arrangements for manufacture were very satisfactory. Warranty for materials/units stored off site was included which established confidence. The quality of the precast units was assured. The frame went well as all details on paper had been resolved beforehand. The structural engineers use of 3D drawings was vital it reduced costs and helped to resolve details. Construction efficiency was enhanced by prefabrication. Use of a prototype factory unit to help secure the clients confidence in precast. The speed of construction of precast and subsequent progress built confidence within the client organisation.
Figure 30
The first floor balcony in the drum overlooks the reception area and gives access to meeting rooms
Photo: C. Goodchild

The West Quay shopping centre in Southampton is home to over 150 shops, restaurants, bars and cafes. It is served by two car parks, the largest of which is the main West Car Park now one of the largest multi-storey car parks in the UK. By cost it was just 7% of the whole West Quay development. However, because of a deferred start, the multi-storey car parks completion became critical to the centres opening in time for Christmas 2000. The structure is 95 m long, 95 m wide and 20 m high eight-storeys with 15 split levels. In plan it is divided into four equal quadrants by movement joints. Each quadrant has varying architectural treatment and layout requirements (Figure 31). There are a total of seven stair cores plus two double lift cores. Headroom is 2.2 m clear. Various structural frame options were considered at scheme design stage: structural steelwork, wholly precast concrete, in-situ concrete and post-tensioned. The selected scheme was based on composite precast double tee floor units spanning 15.8 m onto in-situ concrete beam-and-column frames. The decision to use HCC followed a value engineering exercise. By combining the cost advantages of in-situ and the speed advantages of precast, the design and build contractor concluded that the structure could be completed on time and within budget. Another consideration was the piled foundations: piling had been installed with the main development. Unfortunately, this piling was to a preliminary scheme and design changes increasing the thickness of cladding (from 100 mm thick to 165 mm) and service loads, meant that additional piling was needed. The choice of a relatively lightweight double tee slab structure helped control overall loads and thereby reduced the need for further piling to just 14 continuous flight auger piles.

Two years after moving in the client remains very pleased with the building:
It looks good. Wouldnt change a thing. Compared to the previous offices they now have a building three times larger, with

double the staff, but the energy costs are 40% less than before.
Very comfortable even in the heat wave of 2003. Moving from rented space to being an owner-occupier will pay back in 10-15 years with

far better energy consumption, a more manageable and positive environment. Internal planning works well with minimum turnover of staff and reduced absenteeism. HCC was the obvious and logical solution, combining the quality finish and repetition of precast with the flexibility of in-situ. Project Team:
Client Toyota GB plc Project Manager Insignia Richard Ellis Architect Sheppard Robson Structural Engineer whitbybird M&E Engineers Arup Quantity Surveyor Davis Langdon & Everest Main Contractor Takenaka (UK) Precast Concrete Trent Concrete Ltd Concrete Frame Duffy Construction Ltd

Figure 31
East elevation showing the curved pedestrian entrance
Photo: C. Goodchild

References:
Sheppard Robson Toyota brochure whitbybird PowerPoint presentation 16 September 2003 Concrete Quarterly Summer 2001 199 IStructE www.istructe.org.uk. David Alsop Commendation 2002 Concrete Society www.concrete.org.uk

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The span of the slabs is almost 16 m. This meant that precast slabs could be either 600 mm deep double tees or 400 mm deep hollowcore units. Double tees were used as they were lighter: the dead load is 5.0 kN/m2, including screed, against 6.7 kN/m2 for the hollowcore. To allow greater headroom some hollowcore units were used in lobby areas. The double tee beams are 2.4 m wide with 600 mm deep ribs. The beams width is the same as the width of the car parking bays and fits neatly into the 7.2 m grid in the
Figure 32
General layout

Above left: Figure 35 Section through edge beam Above right: Figure 36 Section through internal beam

Right: Figure 37 Prefabricated edge beam cage


Photo: Sir Robert McAlpine Ltd

Far right:

Figure 38
Edge detail

Below left: Figure 33 Double tee slabs


Photo: C. Goodchild

Below right: Figure 34 Scarf joints onto in-situ beam allow for cables and conduits
Photo: C. Goodchild

east/west direction. The units have scarf ends for seating onto nibs. The scarfs were extended to provide 300 mm wide channels for services such as electrical, CCTV and lighting. This feature also provides the flexibility to the client to increase the service provision at a future date without compromising headroom (see Figures 34 and 36). The ramps presented some challenges. The in-situ framing initially considered for each end of the ramps would have caused significant difficulties with the load paths down to the foundations. However, by using cranked double tees in the normal bay no additional framing was required (Figure 39). This arrangement provided the additional benefit of a more consistent soffit line. Lateral loads were taken by shear walls and cores. Tie bars cast in the in-situ beams were bent down over the precast units and cast into the structural screed to ensure diaphragm action and robustness. The construction method required that two bays were left open for mobile crane access so that units could be lifted directly off lorries and straight into position in the other bays. Once the top level was complete, the infill bays were constructed with the cranes backing out slowly towards Harbour Parade.

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Figure 42
Fixing detail 59

Figure 39
Section through ramp showing cranked double tees

Stability during the construction phase was ensured by welding the double tee units together at 2.4 m centres and to the in-situ beams at 1.2 m centres. Each welded connection had a tensile capacity of 105 kN and together in effect formed a diaphragm in the temporary condition. The shear walls between the half levels proved slow to construct as they could only be concreted in shallow lifts. The car park is an integral part of the West Quay development and, therefore, has special perimeter architectural treatment. This includes precast concrete cladding systems using reconstituted stone and knapped flint and curved in-situ concrete features at the entrances and other prominent areas. The interfaces with cladding called

Right: Figure 40 The shear wall between two half-levels


Photo: C. Goodchild

Far right: Figure 41 Spandrel cladding on east elevation


Photo: C. Goodchild

Above : Figure 43 Section through spandrel cladding Above right: Figure 44 Fixing detail 60 Right: Figure 45 Co-ordination works! Fixing detail 59 in place
Photo: C. Goodchild

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for a significant degree of co-ordination, especially for the curved pedestrianised entrance (Figure 31). Best aspects of this project were:
The hybrid concrete frame worked well as a system, in terms of the overall result

and lack of interface problems. The potential advantages of using double tees were fully realised and proved to be a very positive way to create large areas of floor very quickly.
Figure 46
East Elevation with buttress cladding
Photo: C. Goodchild

Left: Figure 49 Buttress cladding section East elevation Below: Figure 50 Buttress cladding detail 62

Below left: Figure 47 Buttress cladding detail 54 Below right: Figure 48 Buttress cladding detail 58

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Delivery and construction went smoothly. Because there were relatively few types of

floor unit there was flexibility to stop deliveries or bring them forward. The quality of the double tees was good. There were good relationships, good exchange of information and regular meetings to resolve issues. Early specialist advice, for example on fixings etc., prevented problems later. Precast cladding panels were produced under pressure of time. Ideally, the cladding contractor should have had a whole package of architectural designs with engineering input at an early stage, without late tweaking of details. Regular meetings meant that issues were resolved around the table, and this proved to be faster than a conventional approach. The client is very happy with the car park. It is user-friendly and feedback is very good. A comparable project, built by another method, has not stood the test of time. The split-level works well for car circulation and number of spaces. Team members comment: Quite proud of it!

Whitefriars, Canterbury

The switch from a purely in-situ to a hybrid concrete structure of precast hollowcore floor slabs and in-situ beams and columns helped win this major retail scheme for the design-and-build contractor. Its adoption helped to shave some 15 weeks from the original construction programme. The site owner, Land Securities, is working in partnership with Canterbury City Council to deliver an exciting new 100m retail scheme that will transform 12 acres in the heart of the city centre. Upon completion in 2006, Whitefriars will be fully pedestrianised and comprise 38 retail units, one department store, two further major stores and a 520 space multi-storey car park. Following an architectural competition, public consultation and detailed discussions carried on through 1996 and 1997, before formal planning permission was granted in January 1999. Detailed design was undertaken while demolition, enabling works and extensive archaeological digs were carried out on site. Tenders went out in January 2002. The contract was awarded in April 2002 and work started on 1 July 2002. The structure was originally designed as a fully in-situ concrete frame with two-way solid slabs and downstand beams. Over the relatively short tender period the contractor concentrated efforts on finding alternative solutions to those indicated on the tender drawings. He was looking for advantages that would deliver a quicker and more buildable project at a price to win the job. Considerable effort was therefore put into rationalising the substructure and the shopping and car parking areas (Zone C). The advantages of a hybrid construction, using precast concrete hollowcore floors units, quickly became apparent. The number of in-situ concrete beams was almost halved due to the greater spans achieved by the hollowcore units. Less formwork and propping was required and the frame construction programme was reduced by one month. Cost, weight and deeper beams mitigated against a fully precast scheme. Using hollowcore slabs in the HCC scheme reduced the overall weight of the floor slabs and the amount of in-situ concrete placement required. This, in turn, reduced the overall numbers of lorry movements to the site, a sensitive issue in this historic city, especially during rush hour.

Figure 51
Artists impression of Whitefriars Street
Photo: Land Securities

Project Team:
Client Hammerson plc Clients Concept Architect BDP Design Consultants Chapman Taylor Architects Engineers Pell Frischmann Clients Q S Cyril Sweett & Partners D&B Contractor Sir Robert McAlpine Ltd Engineers Sir Robert McAlpine Design Group Contractors Foundation Engineers Ove Arup & Partners Precast floors Tarmac Precast Concrete Ltd Precast cladding The Marble Mosaic Company Ltd

References:
Allen, M. Paper to Southern Branch Concrete Society Precast Concrete in Construction BPCF supplement, Construction News, 2000 Faade Winter 2000/01 Parking Review May 2001

Figure 52
Gravel Walk elevation Zone C

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Figure 53
Site plan: the basement access and delivery area extends over the whole site

Right: Figure 56 One bay of hollowcore was temporarily left out of Whitefriars Square, the ground floor slab between zones B and D. This gave access for constructing the basement while working on the critical upper storeys along Gravel Walk beyond
Photo: C. Goodchild

Far right: Figure 57 Completed ground floor soffit


Photo: C. Goodchild

Overall, this method saved weeks on the construction programme and contributed significantly to the success of the tender. In Zone C, the relatively lightweight hollowcore units allowed bays of 8 m x 9.6 m at retail unit level to be converted to bays of 16 m x 9.6 m to suit car park layouts above admittedly this required some fairly substantial in-situ beams to span 16 m, but nonetheless it saved on column construction and time on unnecessary beams. In the car park areas, the hollowcore slabs are designed to act compositely with a 75 mm thick reinforced concrete structural topping. These floors are designed for a very severe exposure condition in accordance with BS 8110, whilst all internal areas, such as those for shopping, are left as the bare plank, ready to receive a cementitious finishing screed. The use of prefabricated stair components reduced the requirements for scaffolding. Their use also enabled the contractor and subcontractors to access all areas of the constructed floors immediately after the stair units had been placed.

The use of hollow core units had two other major benefits:
Construction of the extensive basement was critical to the programme and a form of

top-down construction was necessary to achieve overall time savings. The solution lay in using the hollowcore floor to prop the secant piled retaining wall at ground floor level while excavation and construction took place over the whole basement area below. Use of hollowcore also minimised the amount of propping required between ground floor and basement 4 to 5 m below. Additionally, it reduced the amount of concrete required as no structural topping was needed to create the necessary diaphragm. Units were delivered, lifted and landed onto partly-cast supporting in-situ beams. The ends of all units were delivered with open ends, 500 - 600 mm long. Reinforcement was introduced through the top of the supporting beam and extended into the open ends of the slab units. When concreted, this detail provided robustness and integrity to the diaphragm.

Car park loading Shop unit loading

Right: Figure 54 The Gravel Walk entrance during construction


Photo: C. Goodchild

Far right: Figure 55 Falsework for in-situ beams remains in place while hollow core units are placed
Photo: C. Goodchild

Figure 58
Zone C, 1st Floor the hybrid solution significantly reduced the number of beams required

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Conclusions 7

7. Conclusions
Hybrid Concrete Construction is about providing best value for clients. It is not necessarily about first cost. But it is about savings from improved buildability on site and these savings soon overtake any material cost differences. It is also about inherent benefits such as thermal mass. Thermal mass leads to energy savings; it also leads to occupier comfort which, in turn, leads to user efficiency. By using the 'whole-life cost approach and recognising the 1 : 5 : 200 relationship between initial cost, maintenance and lifetime business costs, the advantage of HCC can be seen more clearly. Value has to be measured in the clients terms and best value will only be achieved by changing from traditional procurement methods. The processes advocated by this document align very closely with the ideals of Rethinking Construction 2. Best Practice for HCC is set out in Chapter 5 where the whole how it should be process is mapped out and described. Many leading companies already use methods similar to this model and the model is just as applicable to getting best value out of purely in-situ and precast construction as it is for combinations of the two. Chapter 4 highlights the new processes necessary to achieve the desired results. These include:
The early involvement of specialist contractors. The in-situ /precast, hybrid solution helped win the job by saving time and money. It The use of a lead frame contractor. Adopting a programme of project workshops. Adopting the principles of best value.

Above left: Figure 59 16 m spanning beams at upper car park level


Photo: C. Goodchild

The remaining retail units have steel frames, which were designed as fully composite, except at perimeter locations where the plain beams support the loads while allowing for holes through adjacent slabs. At the time of writing, this project was still on site but amongst the best aspects of this project are:

Above right: Figure 60 Typical section through beam

provided a solution that achieved the contractor and clients cost and programme requirements. The decision to go top down with the basement construction was made feasible by using hollowcore units and proved to be a turning point in winning the contract. Again, the HCC solution saved time and money. Together with reducing the number of beams/columns and the decision to go top down, the HCC scheme saved 15 weeks on the initial programme estimates. There were good working relationships amongst all parties. The precaster was involved at a reasonably early stage. Contractors comment: This is a high standard concrete frame it looks good.

Adopting the principle of best value means that there has to be some way of measuring it. Value indicators must weigh up the relative importance of cost, speed, quality, robustness and lettability etc. Issues such as whole-life costs, energy usage and the effects of the structure and design on overall business costs need to be considered and factored in. As the case studies demonstrate, the purpose is to provide best value in the clients terms. For example:
The North Stand at Ipswich Town FC was delivered fast, in only 23 weeks. The Toyota (GB) Headquarters delivered award-winning quality. The West Car Park at Southamptons West Quay is inviting and user-friendly. Adopting the hybrid frame at Whitefriars helped save 15 weeks on the programme.

Project team:
Client Land Securities in partnership with Canterbury City Council Concept Architect Chapman Taylor Clients Engineers Upton McGougan Consulting Engineers Project Managers MACE D&B Contractor HBG Construction Engineers HBG Construction Contractors Architect Lyons + Sleaman + Hoare Frame Contractor Whelan & Grant Precast floors Bison Concrete Products

Positive comments such as quite proud of it and wouldnt change a thing come from satisfied clients and are the result of commitment and team effort. The successful outcomes on these projects were achieved with enlightened attitudes between parties and a willingness to adopt innovation and best practice guidance. This is all within an environment of trust promulgated by clarity of roles and purpose, promoted by an open book approach to contract procurement. The high levels of buildability called for higher than usual levels of pre-planning and team players, but as has been proven, HCC delivers. HCC will be driven further by the need to manufacture off-site and construct safely on site. HCC brings quality, value and speed but more significantly, consideration of overall business costs will become the compelling argument for using HCC.

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8 References and Further Reading

Appendix

8. References and further reading


References
1
GOODCHILD, C H et al. Hybrid Concrete Construction for the UK market: final report on research into using combinations of in-situ and precast concrete in structural frames to achieve better value for UK customers. Crowthorne, BCA, on behalf of the industry sponsors of the RCC, 2001. 422 pp. Ref. 97.369. ISBN 0 720 1528 X. SIR MICHAEL LATHAM. Constructing the Team: final report of the government/industry review of procurement and contractual arrangements in the UK construction industry. London, DOE, 1994. ix, 130 pp. EGAN. Rethinking Construction, Rethinking the construction client, the national debate. London, DTI, 1998. 40 pp. Movement for Innovation (M4i) now see www.constructingexcellence.org.uk/ CONNAUGHTON, J N & GREEN, S D Value management in construction: A clients guide. London. CIRIA Special Publication 129, 1996. 73 pp. ISBN 0 86017 452 2. Construction Best Practice Programme (CBPP) now see www.constructingexcellence.org.uk/ KAGIOGLOU, M et al. A generic guide to the design and construction Process Protocol. University of Salford, 1998. ISBN 090 289 617 2. THE STRATEGIC FORUM FOR CONSTRUCTION. Accelerating change. 2002 London, Rethinking Construction (c/o The Construction Industry Council). 42 pp. ISBN 1 898671 28 1. See www.strategicforum.org.uk. STEEL CONSTRUCTION INSTITUTE AND BRITISH CEMENT ASSOCIATION, Learning from the best. Ascot, SCI, 2003. Ref. RT952. www.steel-sci.org/Publications. GOODCHILD, C H Cost model study: a report on the comparative costs of concrete and steel framed office buildings. Crowthorne: BCA on behalf of the industry sponsors of the RCC, 1993. 48 pp. Ref. 97.333. ISBN 0 7210 1469 0. GOODCHILD, C H Hybrid Concrete Construction: combining structural materials for speed, quality and economy in buildings. Crowthorne, BCA on behalf of the industry sponsors of the RCC, 1995. Ref. 97.337. 64 pp. ISBN 0 7210 1479 8. PRECAST FLOORING FEDERATION. Code of practice for safe erection of precast concrete flooring and associated components. Leicester, PFF, 2001. 88 pp. Innovation and Research Focus No 51 November 2002, Institution of Civil Engineers, London, ISSN 0960 5185 (see also www.crc-tech.com). EVANS, R, HARYOTT, R, HASTE, N & JONES, A The long-term cost of owning and using buildings, 1998. London, Royal Academy of Engineering. See www.raeng.org.uk/news/publications/reports. RIBA. The RIBA Plan of Work Stages 1999. See www.architecture.com/go/Architecture/Using/Contracts_306.html. GRAY, C In situ concrete frames: a strategy for improving the performance and productivity of the in situ concrete frame industry which will lower the cost of construction for the industry and its clients. (Improving concrete performance series). Reading, Reading Production Engineering Group, University of Reading, 1995. 24 pp. ISBN 0 7049 0505 1. BARRETT, P Current business processes and desirable process improvements (workpackage 3): a report by the University of Salford, in Goodchild et al. (2001), Hybrid Concrete Construction for the UK market (Ref. 1 above). GLASS, J A best practice process model for Hybrid Concrete Construction. Article submitted to Construction Management and Economics Journal. BROWN, N The procurement of structural precast concrete. Paper given at Concrete Society seminar, Cirencester 1997. High Wycombe, ABC Structures, 01494 441144. CONSTRUCT, the Concrete Structures Group. National Structural Concrete Specification for Building Construction. 2nd edition. Crowthorne, BCA, 2000. 72 pp. Ref. 97.378. ISBN 0 7210 1571 9. DAWSON, S. Cast in Concrete. Leicester, Architectural Cladding Association, 2nd Edition, 2003. 96 pp. ISBN 0 9536773 3 8. BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. Structural use of concrete: Part 1. Code of practice for design and construction. (BS 8110 Part 1). London, BSI, 1997. READING PRODUCTION ENGINEERING GROUP. Barriers to Hybrid Concrete Construction: an unpublished report by RPEG, University of Reading, 1997 in Goodchild et al, Hybrid Concrete Construction for the UK market (Ref 1). GLASS, J Best Practice Guidance on Hybrid Concrete Construction: Work stage 2: Practitioner interviews (confidential research report). Oxford Brookes University, 2002. GLASS, J Best practice guidance on Hybrid Concrete Construction: Work stage 3: Knowledge capture workshops (confidential research report). Loughborough University, 2003. ELLIOTT, K S Multi-storey precast concrete framed structures: a design guide, Oxford, Blackwell Science, 1996. 601 pp. ISBN 0 632 03415 7. CEN. pr EN1992-1-1. Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures Part 1.1: general rules and rules for buildings, April 2003 version. Brussels, CEN. GHALI, A, FAVRE R, & ELBADRY, M Concrete structures, stresses and deformations, 3rd edition, London, E & F N Spon Ltd, 2002. 584 pp. ISBN 0 415 24721 7. CEB-FIP Model Code 1990, Thomas Telford Ltd, November 1993, 480 pp. ISBN 0 727 71696 4.

Appendix Background research


A.1 Context
The best practice guidance given in this publication follows on from earlier pieces of research carried out for the concrete industry within the context of many initiatives and drivers for change in the wider construction industry.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Previous concrete industry research

The Reading Production Engineering Group (RPEG) at the University of Reading investigated the Barriers to Hybrid Concrete Construction23 by using force field techniques. These are used to identify and remove impeding forces (or barriers). Impelling forces will then, naturally, take the adoption of a technique or practice forward into more widespread adoption and practice. Hybrid Concrete Construction for the UK market1 aimed to identify the most advantageous systems, quantify potential benefits and discover how these benefits might be achieved more widely in practice. The research by Oxford Brookes University School of Architecture, The University of Salford and Imperial College, London, investigated client and customer requirements, business processes, perceived barriers to use and structural design.

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

Government and other initiatives

Following the completion of the research above, the construction industry witnessed several major advances in the process of construction procurement. Most notably, the Rethinking Construction 2 task force report, led by Sir John Egan and published in 1998, contained the clear message that the industry would not significantly improve unless it embarked upon radical change. This would involve a totally new approach to the delivery of the construction product. From these ideals the Movement for Innovation (M4i) was born. This is now part of Constructing Excellence. M4i continues to lead radical improvement in construction in terms of value for money, profitability, reliability and respect for people, through demonstration and dissemination of best practice and innovation. Other initiatives were being taken forward at the same time:
Value management and principles of value engineering were being applied to

construction projects.
Government had sponsored the Construction Best Practice programme 6 to

Further reading
BRUGGELING, A S G, & HUYGHE, G, F Prefabrication with concrete. Rotterdam, A A Balkema. 1991, 380 pp. ISBN 90 6191 183 4. CIRIA. Snapshot Standardisation and pre-assembly based on research project RPS32, London, CIRA, 1998. 7 pp. FIP COMMISSION ON PREFABRICATION. Composite floor structures. London, SETO Ltd, 1998. 58 pp. ISBN 1 874266 38 7. FIB, COMMISSION 6 ON PREFABRICATION. Planning and design handbook on precast building structures. 2nd Edition BFT Betonwerk + Fertigteil-Technik, Gutersloh, Germany, 2004. 139 pp. GRAY, C Value for money helping the UK afford the building it likes. University of Reading. 1996. 60 pp. HARLAND, C M, Supply chain management: Relationships, chains and networks, British Journal of Management, Vol. 7, Special Issue, S63-S80. 1996. HUNTON, D A T Precast concrete in buildings Past, present and future. Betonwerk + Fertigteil-Technik, 10/90. pp. 7077. MALE, S et al. The value management benchmark: framework document. London, Thomas Telford. 1998. 64 pp. ISBN 0 7277 2729 X.

provide support to individuals, companies, organisations and supply chains in the construction industry seeking to improve the way they do business. Several bodies undertook process research. Under the EPSRC Innovative Manufacturing Initiative (IMI), research into Process Protocol was undertaken during 1995-98 (Figure 61). Researchers used manufacturing principles as a reference point for a framework of common definitions, documents and procedures that were developed to help construction project participants work together seamlessly.

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Appendix

The Accelerating Change8 report published in September 2002 by The Strategic Forum for Construction set out rigorous targets intended to produce a more modern and dynamic industry. The report challenged the construction industry to provide maximum value for clients and end users and to provide a consistently world-class product. It committed the Forum to produce an integration aid to help the industry to achieve this target. Learning from the Best 9 extracted lessons from Rethinking Construction 2 demonstration projects. It found that considerable improvements have been made by companies that have adopted new methods of working. Within this changing business environment, the Reinforced Concrete Council (RCC) set out to produce Best Practice Guidance for Hybrid Concrete Construction. It was researched during 2002 and 2003 by Dr Jacqueline Glass of Oxford Brookes Universitys School of Architecture and more recently of the Department of Civil and Building Engineering at Loughborough University. The research was managed by the RCC (and its successor, The Concrete Centre) and guided by an industry advisory group made up of representatives of leading exponents of new approaches to concrete frame procurement.

A.2 Best Practice Guidance for Hybrid Concrete Construction research project

The Partners in Innovation project Best Practice Guidance on Hybrid Concrete Construction was a 15-month study to identify and disseminate best practice on hybrid concrete structures. This publication forms the main output from that project. Essentially, the research undertaken by Dr Glass consisted of a series of interviews 24 with a range of industry professionals to produce procurement process maps and discuss relevant issues. The process maps were created and examined in each successive interview and iteratively amended so they became increasingly robust. Finally, in a series of Knowledge Capture Project Workshops 25, held on site, they were tested against events that occurred on actual HCC projects. The how it should be process map (Figure 5) is the basis of the best practice given. However, along the way, the many examples and anecdotes given have been collected, analysed and used to provide further pointers to achieving best practice in HCC 18.

Figure 61
Process Protocol map
Courtesy of University of Salford

PRE-PROJECT PHASES

PRE-CONSTRUCTION PHASES

CONSTRUCTION

POST-CONSTRUCTION PHASE

SOFT GATE

SOFT GATE

SOFT GATE

SOFT GATE

HARD GATE

HARD GATE

HARD GATE

SOFT GATE

Liaison with Process Manager

DEMONSTRATING THE NEED

CONCEPTION OF NEED

OUTLINE FEASIBILITY

SUBSTANTIVE FEASIBILITY STUDY & OUTLINE FINANCIAL AUTHORITY


Undertake substantive Feasibility studies on the most feasible options Update Site and Environmental issues Report

OUTLINE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

FULL CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

DETAILED DESIGN, PROCUREMENT & FULL FINANCIAL AUTHORITY


Update Site and Environmental issues Report

PRODUCTION INFORMATION

CONSTRUCTION

HARD GATE

PHASE ZERO

PHASE ONE

PHASE TWO

PHASE THREE

PHASE FOUR

PHASE FIVE

PHASE SIX

PHASE SEVEN

PHASE EIGHT

PHASE NINE
OPERATION & MAINTENANCE

DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT

Establish the need for a project

Prepare outline Business Case

Develop initial Stakeholder List

Establish initial Communication Strategy

Finalise the Statement of Need for a project

Prepare Project Brief

Update outline Business Case

Assess stakeholder impact & requirements

Consider Site and Environmental issues

Update Communication Strategy

Undertake outline Feasibility studies for each option

Update Project Brief

Update outline Business Case

Update Site and Environmental issues Report

Update Communication Strategy

Update Project Brief

Update Business Case

Update Communication Strategy

Revise Project Brief

Revise full Business Case

Update Site and Environmental issues Report

Update Communication Strategy

Update Project Brief

Update Business Case

Update Site and Environmental issues Report

Update Communication Strategy

Revise Process Execution Plan

Finalise Business Case

Update Communication Strategy

Finalise Project Brief

Finalise Site and Environmental issues Report

Finalise Communication Strategy

Prepare Handover Plan

Update and implement Handover Plan

Undertake Post Project Review

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Consider Risk Issues

Compile initial Risk Register

Prepare Project Execution Plan

Consider Risk Issues

Update initial Risk Register

Update Project Execution Plan

Consider Risk Issues

Update initial Risk Register

Update Project Execution Plan

Consider Risk Issues

Update initial Risk Register

Update Project Execution Plan

Consider Risk Issues

Revise Risk Register

Revise Project Execution Plan

Consider Risk Issues

Update Risk Register

Update Project Execution Plan

Consider Risk Issues

Revise Risk Register

Revise Project Execution Plan

Consider Risk Issues

Update Risk Register

Update Project Execution Plan

Finalise Risk Register

Consider Risk Issues

Update Project Execution Plan

Consider Risk Issues

Finalise Project Execution Plan

FEEDBACK FROM CURRENT & PAST PROJECTS

RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
PHASE review PHASE review PHASE review

Prepare initial Procurement Plan

OUTLINE PLANNING APPROVAL

Update Procurement Plan

Prepare initial Cost Plan PHASE review

Update Procurement Plan

Update Cost Plan

DETAILED PLANNING APPROVAL

Update Procurement Plan PHASE review

Finalise Procurement Plan

Finalise Cost Plan PHASE review PHASE review Ongoing update of Operation Policy & Maintenance plan

PHASE review

PHASE review

DESIGN MANAGEMENT

Prepare Feasibility Design Brief

Prepare concept Design Brief

Prepare outline Concept Design

Prepare full Concept Design

Produce Detailed Design

Prepare Production Information

Develop as-built information

PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT

Prepare initial Procurement Plan

Update Procurement Plan

Update Procurement Plan

Update Procurement Plan

Finalise Procurement Plan

Start enabling works

Manage & undertake construction activities

FACILITIES MANAGEMENT

Prepare Feasibility Design Brief

Prepare concept Design Brief

Prepare outline Concept Design

Prepare Operation Policy and Maintenance Plan

Prepare full Concept Design

Update Operation Policy and Maintenance Plan

Produce Detailed Design

Update Operation Policy and Maintenance Plan

Revise & implement Operation Policy & Maintenance plan

Perform ongoing review of Facilities Lifecycle

FEEDBACK TO OTHER PROJECTS VIA LEGACY ARCHIVE

HEALTH & SAFETY, STATUTORY AND LEGAL MANAGEMENT


Finalise the Statement of Need for a project Assess stakeholder impact & requirements Undertake outline Feasibility studies for each option Update Site and Environmental issues Report Undertake substantive Feasibility studies on the most feasible options

Prepare initial CDM assessment

Revise CDM assessment

Update CDM assessment

Update CDM assessment

Finalise Health & Safety Plan

Manage Health & Safety

PROCESS MANAGEMENT

Establish the need for a project

Prepare outline Business case

Develop initial Stakeholder List

Establish initial Communication strategy

Prepare Process Execution Plan

Prepare Project Brief

Update outline Business Case

Consider Site and Environmental issues

Update Communication Strategy

Update Process Execution Plan

Update Project Brief

Update outline Business Case

Update Communication Strategy

Update Process Execution Plan

Update Project Brief

Update Business Case

Update Site and Environmental issues Report

Update Communication Strategy

Update Process Execution Plan

Revise Project Brief

Revise full Business Case

Update Site and Environmental issues Report

Update Communication Strategy

Revise Process Execution Plan

Update Project Brief

Update Business Case

Update Site and Environmental issues Report

Update Communication Strategy

Revise Process Execution Plan

Finalise Business Case

Update Site and Environmental issues Report

Update Communication Strategy

Revise Process Execution Plan

Finalise Project Brief

Finalise Site and Environmental issues Report

Finalise Communication Strategy

Prepare Handover Plan

Update Process Execution Plan

Update and implement Handover Plan

Update Process Execution Plan

Undertake Post Project Review

Finalise Process Execution Plan

PROCESS MANAGEMENT/ CHANGE MANAGEMENT

USE & CREATION OF LEGACY ARCHIVE

Liaison with other Activity Zones

54

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Appendix

Appendix

Process mapping

Thirteen interviews were conducted with senior practitioners within the field of concrete frame construction. They were used to develop, test and confirm process models for HCC, to agree HCC performance indicators (HPIs) and to discuss any other relevant issues. The process models described and documented the activities, roles and responsibilities of various players in the procurement, design and construction of a hybrid concrete structure. The aim was to ensure that both traditional procurement and partnering type regimes were reflected and analysed in two models; the first how it is and the second how it should be. The framework used was based on Process Protocol 7. (Figure 61). This framework was aligned with RIBA Stages of Work15, but above all it was developed to reflect the specifics of concrete frame construction. The models horizontal axes included stages of work from briefing, feasibility and design through to construction, hand-over and occupancy. The vertical axes listed the full range of occupations/professions that one might expect to be involved (i.e. client, architect, quantity surveyor, main contractor, precaster etc.). Thus, the matrices were populated with tasks, deliverables and gateways (i.e. what should be done, by whom and at what stage) as appropriate. The second model, the how it should be model, is reproduced as Figure 5 and details activities under a partnering style procurement route. It may be thought of as being more akin to the Rethinking Construction model with strategic alliances formed early on in the programme. The models were validated by the project advisory group before circulation to interviewees for detailed feedback. After the interviews, the models were amended to take account of feedback from the various practitioners. There was genuine consensus that the models, subject to those amendments, were a good representation of practice, both current and ideal.

Knowledge capture workshops

The objective of the workshops was to reconvene project teams (including client, architect, project manager, engineer, main and specialist contractors, precast manufacturer and/or others as appropriate) who were involved with completed HCC buildings or structures. The aim was to capture the key events that characterised the use of HCC. What went right and what could have been improved were evaluated such that generic best practice lessons on process and product were extracted. How is the building performing? Do maps of the process look right? Have drivers and barriers been identified? A series of five workshops was held in various locations around the country during early 2003. The workshops were designed and facilitated to maximise the extraction of both explicit and implicit knowledge. The workshops generally followed the following format:
Walk around site. Introductions and briefing. An event line, detailing the critical events that affected the HCC was constructed. The

THE KNOWLEDGE CAPTURE WORKSHOPS


Ipswich Town Football Club Toyota GB Headquarters West Quay Car Park Whitefriars Shopping Centre North Stand Epsom Southampton Canterbury

In addition, a not hybrid workshop was held with members of the Advisory Group in London.

Table 11
The Knowledge capture workshops

aim was to find out how the team came to the decision to use HCC, how they got the go ahead and how it progressed on site. The exercise revealed what was the process, who was involved and when. As the workshop timetable was very tight, participants were asked to bring relevant information by way of drawings (floor plans, sections, and frame details), elemental costs, frame/element specifications, diaries, form of contract information or other documents on procurement etc. relating to the project to help create the event line.
Table 12
Positive comments about the HCC buildings from workshops

POSITIVE COMMENTS ABOUT THE HCC BUILDINGS FROM WORKSHOPS


r Pleased with it. r Looks good. r Environment feels much more positive. r The positives far outweigh the negatives. r There were some very positive aspects to this project. r Quite proud of it. r We couldnt have delivered this project via contractor design portions /packages. r During construction, the site operated without needing a main contractor. r Ambience r Tactile finishes r Needed lead frame contractor and open book tendering r Prefabrication led to a quality exposed finish. r Quality products. r Known and proven materials. r Achieved excellent light grey finish; important for lighting. r Fully integrated approach concept ensures full early integration. r Units made in controlled environment with high quality standards achieved. r Integration between package sub-contractors. r Enabled services to be integrated efficiently and with confidence. r Final account for structural package was within + or 10% of original budget including constraints caused by outside forces unknown at tender stage. r Value for money. r Open book approach. r Maximum planning time for construction sequence. r Early decisions by client/contractor gave materials supply to site a better chance of keeping to programme. r Allowed fast erection of structure.

56

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Appendix

Appendix

The event line was evaluated and its content was examined. The aim was to find out what went right? what went wrong?, and what would the team do differently next time or advise others to do? Each participant highlighted at least one good and one bad aspect of the project and was asked to explain why he or she had chosen that aspect and how, in the case of it being a negative, it could be resolved next time. The exercise revealed where the key learning points were and some best practice lessons. Following a summing up, the project was reviewed as a whole. Members of the group commented from their perspectives on the HCC aspects in particular. The aim was to establish whether HCC satisfied the project objective(s) overall. Each workshop was written up, checked by participants and analysed. Generic lessons were incorporated into the process model and best practice guidance. The content of the workshop reports are confidential to the participants; some anecdotes are featured in Chapter 5.

Performance indicators

The Construction Best Practice Programme (CBPP) 6 oversaw the development of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). This series of simple indicators provides industry with a method of measuring performance against benchmarks. The M4i Demonstration Projects programme brought the indicators to life and many of the 180 projects were measured publicly against the KPIs. M4i thus developed as a springboard organisation for companies involved with the demonstration projects to share their progress with other like-minded organisations throughout the UK. The effect of these developments is that the industry is now more accustomed to indicators and a culture of measurement. On this basis, it was agreed that while the original HCC list17 of aesthetics, function, speed, responsiveness, safety, integration, buildability and confidence, was representative in an academic sense, it needed to be tested against current market conditions. A list of likely performance indicators was compiled. Interviewees were invited to view this list as a stimulus for proposing Hybrid Concrete Construction Performance Indicators (HPIs) from their own viewpoints. Interviewees were asked to state the most important HPIs (Table 14) from their own viewpoints and experience and to rank them. The small sample of interviewees precluded any valid statistical analysis, so the results are presented below simply on the basis of frequency of citations by interviewees. Three levels of relative importance emerged and these are shown in Table 15. The fact that speed and cost issues appear at the head of this list comes as no surprise, but what was interesting was the frequency of use of terms such as value, value for

Emergent themes

During the research and interviews several themes came to light. The following (Table 13) summarises the findings:

Table 13
Emergent themes18

EMERGENT THEMES
Problem solving Trust Communications r There is an emphasis on problem solving at the design stage, rather than tendering and squeezing of budgets.The ultimate goal should be that on-site operations should go smoothly because any anomalies will be worked out on paper. r There is an inherent degree of trust involved, whereby the specialists come forward early on, giving advice in good faith, but this goodwill must be honoured in some way to maintain good working relationships. r Management of communications is key to success and so the role of project manager becomes closely associated with the business process and personnel aspects of the project. On the other hand, the role of a lead frame contractor (LFC) is to undertake and deliver the practical matters. In general, roles are very clear cut, provided sufficient early agreements are reached between all the parties. r Several interviewees suggested that the Best Practice for Hybrid Concrete Construction (HCC) model should apply to any project, not solely HCC because it offers a much better opportunity to get a better value building. Many people had direct experience of this some even called the model how it is for us every day. r It was thought vital that the architect, engineer, quantity surveyor and M&E engineer were on board at the feasibility stage. The interviewees felt this better represented true partnering and it was crucial for these professions not to work in isolation. r Main contractors and specialists could join earlier than conceptual design stage, depending on the client and/or the contract. In some cases a two-stage contract* was thought to be a good option as too early an involvement may not always be ideal.

Table 14
Potential HPIs list

Get better value

KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (KPIs) 1


r Client satisfaction product r Client satisfaction service defects r Predictability cost of design r Predictability cost of construction r Predictability time for design

DESIGN QUALITY INDICATORS (DQIs) 2


r Build quality: performance, engineering systems, construction r Functionality: use, access, space r Impact: form and materials, internal environment, urban and social integration, character and innovation

ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (EPIs) 3


r Operational energy (CO2) r Embodied energy (CO2) r Operational water consumption r Waste (in construction) r Construction transport r Biodiversity

HCC PERFORMANCE CRITERIA 4


r Aesthetics r Function r Speed r Responsiveness r Safety r Integration r Buildability r Confidence r Cost

Early involvement

Notes 1 . First espoused by Rethinking Construction 2, now firmly established within the Construction Best Practice Programme6 as a measurement method for companies, sector and the industry as a whole. 2 . Proposed in summer 2002 as a means of adding more qualitative issues to the original KPIs. 3 . Movement for Innovation (M4i) 4 Sustainability Working Group Report, these are environmental performance indicators for sustainable construction. M4i, Watford, Herts. 4 . Established during a previous research project on HCC, principally by Peter Barrett, University of Salford17.

Note * The term two-stage contract was used here in the context that a job is let in two stages, with the initial input from contractors/specialists paid for in its own right during the first stage (usually extending only into conceptual design). The second stage may extend up to construction (which is then let out separately) or may extend through design, production drawings and construction.

Lead Frame Contractor (LFC) Workshops

r Providing this would not lead to too many layers of management, the concept of a LFC was favoured. The LFC must be well versed in all materials. When working with construction managers, the LFC must expect to work within an integral delivery team or cluster to deliver a frame & envelope package. r Perhaps the most insightful theme to arise during the interview process was the steady feedback on the importance of workshops throughout the course of a project, leading towards a clear feedback loop for continuous improvement and project-to-project learning. The suggested programme of workshops is shown in Table 4 and is clearly designed to facilitate better communication, promote best value and prevent unforeseen problems arising as far as possible. r Regular design development and progress meetings would continue as a matter of course.

r Predictability time for construction r Profitability r Productivity r Safety r Construction cost r Construction time r Overall cost r Overall time

How it should be

r The How it should be model, was seen as a good basis for a less adversarial way of working. This way of working is more favourable to all types of construction, not only HCC.

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Appendix

Appendix

money and best value in describing the commercial criteria for success. The main caveat to the exercise is that most interviewees stated that: the final choice will vary from project to project. The predominance of speed/cost is clear, but the second order of HPIs is perhaps the more critical for this study. Spans, flexibility in use, fire protection and services integration are proving to be the real battleground for structural frames. This would indeed be the case on the basis of feedback from the client/developer sector. This group of interviewees was keenly aware that, with M&E constituting on average one-third of their capital expenditure on a project, their choice of structural frame will often be determined by the frames facility to optimise the installation and operation costs for the M&E. HCC may be at an advantage here by being able to offer, for example, thinner floor slabs, clear span spaces and thermal mass. Some sectors such as client/developer groups are driven to choose framing materials on the basis of criteria such as flexibility and M&E provision. This indicates that the offering from specialist concrete contractors and others should perhaps be targeted more appropriately to meet these needs.

A.3 Structural Design

As part of its work on Hybrid Concrete Construction for the UK market 1. Imperial College was asked to give guidance on the structural design of HCCs. In the main, the principles of in-situ and precast concrete hold true. In the case of proprietary items, design is often covered by manufacturers literature. Designers may be less familiar with the design of bespoke composite concrete and so the notes below were prepared.

General

In general, composite concrete elements may be considered as being monolithic and homogeneous. Usually, the precast concrete will be stronger than the in-situ concrete; it will definitely be older and drier. It will be generally conservative to design the elements on the basis of the lower strength but the different concrete properties of the concretes should be acknowledged and reference should be made to BS 8110: Part 1, Clause 5.422. It may be appreciated that not all the information required for design will be available to designers at the beginning of the design process. Methods of construction, timescales, materials etc. should be discussed and agreed with the contractors and other members of the design team as appropriate as the design develops.

The design process

Composite reinforced concrete elements and structure should be checked for the following stages:

Stage 1: Construction stage (dead load + construction loading)


Table 15
Prioritised Hybrid Concrete Construction Performance Indicators (HPIs)

INDICATORS
Higher importance Speed Cost Medium importance Spans / lettable area Flexibility in use Fire Services integration Lesser importance Buildability Environmental Finish Quality Site conditions Structure Market conditions

NOTES
r Productivity/efficiency on site; time; programme; lead-in time. r Cost of package; value for money (NB: eight of the 13 interviewees had speed/cost in their top three choices).

The precast units are checked using traditional calculation methods. The loading includes self weight, weight of wet concrete and construction loading. For proprietary items, tables for span and load limits are usually provided in manufacturers literature and these construction load checks or temporary propping requirements are generally implicit. Otherwise, full design checks will be required at both ULS and SLS. Handling requirements are also often given in manufacturers literature. Intermediate propping of precast units has the advantage of reducing construction stage span moments, deflections and shears, but has the disadvantage of introducing possible time and cost penalties on site and of inducing hogging moments over props which have to be catered for.

r Floor depths/building height; preferred grid; vertical access routes; third-party aspects (NB: clients prioritised maximising lettable area spans of up to 15 metres). r Low maintenance; good performance. r Fire protection; robust fire protection. r Air conditioning options; control; sound/thermal insulation; fabric energy storage.

Stage 2: Depropping (dead load + construction loading)


r Being tolerant; tolerances. r Embodied energy/operational energy; waste; M4i sustainability indicators. r Certainty of finish; architectural merit; visual surfaces. r Certainty of quality of product. r Access; site constraints; logistics. r Dynamic requirements; load carrying ability; overall stability; temporary stability. r Risk; capacity; resources; capacity available; certainty.

Checks are generally not required unless removal of intermediate props is proposed prior to the in-situ concrete reaching its full design strength. Nevertheless, removal of props causes redistribution of loads and the capacity of members to carry the revised loads should be considered. In the unlikely event of this being a worse case than the final design load case, design checks should be made for the revised loads using a concrete design strength appropriate to the time of removal of props. Where depropping is needed before the concrete has achieved full design strength, checks will be required at both ULS and SLS.

Safety: An absolute necessity and must always be addressed

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Appendix

Appendix

Stage 3: Full composite action (dead + live loads)


F l e x u re Reinforcement is calculated for the total ultimate moment using the full composite section. For prestressed precast units, an alternative method is to calculate the area of steel required for Stage1 (with precast section only) and add the area required for Stage 3 (using increased lever arm for composite action). The difference in using either method is not great if the superimposed moment for Stage 3 is more than twice the self weight moment for Stage 1. The flexural capacity of composite beams can be enhanced because the breadth of the compression flange can be increased up to the maximum permitted value for monolithic construction (BS 8110: Part 1, Clause 3.4.1.2). Detailed guidance on this is given by Elliot26. Shear Shear checks on beams and slabs are made using traditional methods assuming full composite action. It is conservative to use the lower concrete compression strength for the shear calculation. For precast hollowcore floor slabs, shear strength can be calculated or taken from trade literature. The ultimate limit state of shear is not usually critical and hence any in-situ topping is usually ignored in the calculations. If required, additional shear strength provided by the topping may be calculated using background research information. I n t e r fa c es h e a rt ra n s fe r Full composite action assumes that the shear transfer across the interface between in-situ and precast is adequate. Interface shear transfer depends on the surface type of the precast unit and can be calculated using the principles given in BS 8110: Part 1, Clause 5.4.7.2.1. It may be necessary to provide links to connect the in-situ concrete to the precast element and to ensure interface shear transfer. Anch o ra ge and beari n g See BS 8110. Tolerances will need to be considered. D i ff e re n t i a ls h ri n k a ge BS 8110: Part 1, Clause 5.4.6.4.1 recommends that differential shrinkage should be considered where there is an appreciable difference between the age and quality (strength) of concrete in the precast and in-situ components. Tensile stresses due to differential shrinkage may require consideration in design and the engineer should refer to specialist literature in deciding where these stresses may be significant. Further guidance on this is given by Elliott26.

D e f l e c t i o n s The main serviceability issue to be considered for composite construction is the control of deflections. Deflection checks should be carried out on the composite structure as for a monolithic structure. This will normally be based on a simple span: depth limit given in current codes. This assumes that the precast and in-situ units act fully compositely for longer term loading. Deflections can be carried out using the methods given in BS 8110: Pts 1 or 2. Where rigorous calculations are required for deflections, the method given in the CEB-FIP Model Code 199029 can be used. This method is similar in principle to the current Eurocode 2; Design of concrete structures 27. The method can be suitably adapted to take account of varying concrete strengths within the section or the lower concrete strength can be assumed throughout the section as illustrated by Ghali and Favre28. Tests have shown that the floor units effectively contribute to the stiffness of composite beams. However, design models are not yet available to take this advantage into account. Striking the formwork is assumed to be carried out in such a way that composite action is maintained. It will normally be conservative to assess the age for striking as for normal in-situ construction by specifying a minimum concrete strength for the in-situ concrete. Deflection calculations should take into account the different compressive strengths of the precast and in-situ parts: however, it will generally be conservative to use the in-situ concrete strength for the whole section. The designer should also consider the practical implications of deflection at each stage. For example, if a false ceiling is to be provided, then Stage 1 and 2 deflections may not be considered as being significant and only Stage 3 deflections might be subject to limitations. In other cases, deflections developed in the structure before composite action has been established must be added to the longer term deflections of the composite action. Deflections can be calculated on the basis of a simple analysis taking into account loading due to the placing of concrete or other construction loading acting on the precast elements. C ra ck i n g It will be conservative to check cracking limits for SLS assuming a concrete strength for the in-situ concrete. Deemed-to-satisfy detailing rules are generally sufficient to check for cracking at the SLS. If detailed analysis is required, this should be based on the actual strain distribution due to Stage 1 and Stage 3 loading. Detailed design guidance is given in Clause 3.4.7 of BS 8110.

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Appendix

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE
Reinforced concrete or steel girders Brick masonry

HOLLOWCORE UNITS
120 mm - 400 mm thick 100 150 mm 70130 mm

RIBBED SOFFIT UNITS


Low heavy loading 75 150 mm

FLOOR PLATES
70 mm 100 mm

BEAM-BLOCK FLOORS
125 mm 125 mm

Table 16
Nominal values for support length to be used at the initial stage of projects

Toppings Structural toppings are not normally necessary to achieve adequate interaction between the floor units. However, where used, they do increase ultimate moment capacity. Toppings should be at least 40 mm thick and lightly reinforced. They should be laid on clean, damp (not wet) surfaces and to avoid shrinkage, the mix should not be too rich or too wet. Support s Some of the practical points to be considered are:
minimum support length allowing for tolerances and spalling. Table 16 gives initial

values, which might be decreased (e.g. if temporary supports are provided) evenness of the contact zone along the support rotation capacity prevention of spalling tie arrangements degree of restraint of the floor units (e.g. unintentional continuity). Openings Hollowcore units can be manufactured with openings up to approximately 400 mm wide internally and up to about 300 mm on an edge. Holes up to about 150 mm diameter can be core-drilled on site. Larger holes usually involve trimmer angles or in-situ trimmer beams. In composite floor-planks, voids and cut-outs can easily be added, even after placing the floor planks, due to the small thickness of the plates. If required, additional reinforcement may be placed in the in-situ part of the slab.

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CI/Sfb

UDC 624.05.016-033.3 (083.132)

Best Practice Guidance for Hybrid Concrete Construction

This publication emanates from the DTi PII Research Project Best Practice Guidance for Hybrid Concrete Construction. The research was intended to provide introductory experience-based guidance on the use of Hybrid Concrete Construction for key players as identified in previous research. This publication aims to provide such guidance and demonstrates how to achieve best practice. It is a guide to choosing and using combinations of precast and in-situ concrete for better value frames.

Charles Goodchild, main author of this publication, is the Principal Structural Engineer within The Concrete Centre. Dr Jacqueline Glass, principal researcher on this project, is Lecturer in Architectural Engineering at Loughborough University.

TCC/03/09 Published September 2004 ISBN 1-904818-09-9 Price Group L The Concrete Centre Riverside House, 4 Meadows Business Park, Station Approach, Blackwater, Camberley, Surrey GU17 9AB Tel: +44 (0)1276 606800 Fax: +44 (0)1276 606801 www.concretecentre.com