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7
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PROBLEM 7.2
For the given state of stress, determine the normal and shearing stresses
exerted on the oblique face of the shaded triangular element shown. Use a
method of analysis based on the equilibrium of that element, as was done in the
derivations of Sec. 7.2.

SOLUTION





Stresses Areas Forces

0: = F
80 cos55 cos55 40 sin 55 sin 55 0 + = A A A

2 2
80 cos 55 40sin 55 = 0.521 MPa =
0: = F
80 cos 55 sin 55 40 sin 55 cos 55 A A A
120 cos 55 sin 55 = 56.4 MPa =

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PROBLEM 7.5
For the given state of stress, determine (a) the principal planes, (b) the principal
stresses.

SOLUTION
60 MPa 40 MPa 35 MPa
x y xy
= = =
(a)
2
(2) (35)
tan 2 3.50
60 40
xy
p
x y


= = =
+

2 74.05
p
= 37.0 , 53.0
p
=
(b)
2
2
max, min
2
2
2 2
60 40 60 40
(35)
2 2
50 36.4 MPa
x y x y
xy


+ | |
= +
|
\ .
+ | |
= +
|
\ .
=


max
13.60 MPa =

min
86.4 MPa =
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PROBLEM 7.12
For the given state of stress, determine (a) the orientation of the planes of maximum
in-plane shearing stress, (b) the maximum in-plane shearing stress, (c) the
corresponding normal stress.

SOLUTION
8 ksi 12 ksi 5 ksi
x y xy
= = =
(a)
8 12
tan 2 2.0
2 2(5)
x y
s
xy


= = =+
2 63.435
s
= 31.7 , 121.7
s
=
(b)
2
2
max
2
x y
xy


| |
= +
|
\ .


2
2
8 12
(5)
2
| |
= +
|
\ .

max
11.18 ksi =
(c)
ave
2


+
= =
x y


8 12
2
+
= 2.00 ksi =

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PROBLEM 7.16
For the given state of stress, determine the normal and shearing stresses after the element
shown has been rotated through (a) 25 clockwise, (b) 10 counterclockwise.

SOLUTION

0 80 MPa 50 MPa
40 MPa 40 MPa
2 2
cos 2 sin 2
2 2
sin 2 + cos 2
2
cos 2 sin 2
2 2
x y xy
x y x y
x y x y
x xy
x y
x y xy
x y x y
y xy







= = =
+
= =
+
= + +

=
+
=

(a) 25 = 2 50 =
40 40 cos ( 50 ) 50 sin ( 50)
x


= + 24.0 MPa
x


=
40 sin ( 50) 50 cos ( 50 )
x y


= 1.5 MPa
x y


=
40 40 cos ( 50 ) 50 sin ( 50 )
y


= + 104.0 MPa
y


=
(b) 10 2 20 = =
40 40 cos (20) 50 sin (20)
x


= + 19.5 MPa
x


=
40 sin (20) 50 cos (20)
x y


= 60.7 MPa
x y


=
40 40 cos (20) + 50 sin (20)
y


= 60.5 MPa
y


=
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PROBLEM 7.20
Two members of uniform cross section 50 80 mm are glued together along
plane a-a that forms an angle of 25 with the horizontal. Knowing that the allowable
stresses for the glued joint are 800 kPa = and 600 kPa, = determine the largest
centric load P that can be applied.

SOLUTION
For plane a-a, 65 . =


2 2 2
3 3 3
3
2 2
2 2
3
0, 0,
cos sin 2 sin cos 0 sin 65 0
(50 10 )(80 10 )(800 10 )
3.90 10 N
sin 65 sin 65
( ) sin cos (cos sin ) sin65 cos65 0
(50 10 )(8
sin 65 cos 65
x xy y
x y xy
x y xy
P
A
P
A
A
P
P
A
A
P

= = =
= + + = + +

= = =

= + = +

= =

3 3
3
0 10 )(600 10 )
6.27 10 N
sin65 cos65


=


Allowable value of P is the smaller one. 3.90 kN P =
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed,
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PROBLEM 7.26
The axle of an automobile is acted upon by the forces and couple
shown. Knowing that the diameter of the solid axle is 32 mm,
determine (a) the principal planes and principal stresses at point H
located on top of the axle, (b) the maximum shearing stress at the
same point.

SOLUTION

3
1 1
(32) 16 mm 16 10 m
2 2
c d

= = = =
Torsion:
6
3 3 3
2 2(350 N m)
54.399 10 Pa 54.399 MPa
(16 10 m)
Tc T
J c

= = = = =


Bending:
4 3 4 9 4
3
3
6
9
(16 10 ) 51.472 10 m
4 4
(0.15m)(3 10 N) 450 N m
(450)(16 10 )
139.882 10 Pa 139.882 MPa
51.472 10
I c
M
My
I

= = =
= =

= = = =



Top view: Stresses:





ave
2
2 2 2
139.882 MPa 0 54.399 MPa
1 1
( ) ( 139.882 0) 69.941MPa
2 2
( 69.941) ( 54.399) 88.606 MPa
2
x y xy
x y
x y
xy
R


= = =
= + = + =
| |
= + = + =
|
\ .

(a)
max ave
69.941 88.606 R = + = +
max
18.67 MPa =

min ave
69.941 88.606 R = =
min
158.5 MPa =


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PROBLEM 7.26 (Continued)


2
(2)( 54.399)
tan 2 0.77778 2 37.88
139.882
xy
p p
x y

= = = =




18.9 and 108.9
p
=


(b)
max
88.6 MPa R = =
max
88.6 MPa =
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PROBLEM 7.32
Solve Probs 7.7 and 7.11, using Mohrs circle.
PROBLEM 7.5 through 7.8 For the given state of stress, determine (a) the
principal planes, (b) the principal stresses.
PROBLEM 7.9 through 7.12 For the given state of stress, determine (a) the
orientation of the planes of maximum in-plane shearing stress, (b) the maximum in-
plane shearing stress, (c) the corresponding normal stress.

SOLUTION

ave
4 ksi,
12 ksi,
15 ksi
4 ksi
2
x
y
xy
x y

=
=
=
+
= =

Plotted points for Mohrs circle:

ave
: ( , ) (4 ksi, 15 ksi)
: ( , ) ( 12 ksi, 15 ksi)
: ( , 0) ( 4 ksi, 0)
x xy
y xy
X
Y
C

=
=
=

(a)
15
tan 1.875
8
FX
CF
= = =

61.93
1
30.96
2
a


=
= = 31.0
a
=

180 118.07
1
59.04
2
b


= =
= = 59.0
b
=

2 2 2 2
( ) ( ) (8) (15) 17 ksi R CF FX = + = + =
(b)
max ave
4 17
a
R = = + = +
max
13.00 ksi =

min min ave
4 17 R = = =
min
21.0 ksi =
(a) 45 14.04
d a
= + = 14.0
d
=
45 104.04
e b
= + = 104.0
e
=

max
R =
max
17.00 ksi =
(b)
ave
= 4.00 ksi =
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PROBLEM 7.41
Solve Prob. 7.19, using Mohrs circle.
PROBLEM 7.19 A steel pipe of 12-in. outer diameter is fabricated from
1
4
-in.-thick plate by welding along a helix which forms an angle of 22.5 with
a plane perpendicular to the axis of the pipe. Knowing that a 40-kip axial force
P and an 80-kip in. torque T, each directed as shown, are applied to the pipe,
determine and in directions, respectively, normal and tangential to the
weld.

SOLUTION







( )
( )
2 2 2
1 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 1
4 4 4 4 4
2 1
1
12 in. 6 in., 0.25 in.
2
5.75 in.
(6 5.75 ) 9.2284 in
(6 5.75 ) 318.67 in
2 2
d c d t
c c t
A c c
J c c


= = = =
= =
= = =
= = =

Stresses:

2
40
4.3344 ksi
9.2284
(80)(6)
1.5063 ksi
318.67
0, 4.3344 ksi, 1.5063 ksi
x y xy
P
A
Tc
J


= = =
= = =
= = =

Draw the Mohrs circle.

: (0, 1.5063 ksi)
: ( 4.3344 ksi, 1.5063 ksi)
: ( 2.1672 ksi, 0)
X
Y
C



2 2
1.5063
tan 0.69504 34.8
2.1672
(2)(22.5 ) 10.8
(2.1672) (1.5063) 2.6393 ksi R


= = =
= =
= + =

2.1672 2.6393 cos 10.8
w
= 4.76 ksi
w
=
2.6393sin10.2
w
= 0.467 ksi
w
=
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PROBLEM 7.44
Solve Prob. 7.22, using Mohrs circle.
PROBLEM 7.22 Two steel plates of uniform cross section 10 80 mm
are welded together as shown. Knowing that centric 100-kN forces are
applied to the welded plates and that the in-plane shearing stress parallel
to the weld is 30 MPa, determine (a) the angle , (b) the corresponding
normal stress perpendicular to the weld.

SOLUTION

3
6
3 3
100 10
125 10 Pa 125 MPa
(10 10 )(80 10 )
x
P
A

= = = =


0 0
y xy
= =
From Mohrs circle:
(a)
30
sin 2 0.48
62.5
= = 14.3 =
(b) 62.5 62.5cos 2 = +
117.3 MPa =
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PROBLEM 7.45
Solve Prob. 7.23, using Mohrs circle.
PROBLEM 7.23 A 400-lb vertical force is applied at D to a gear
attached to the solid 1-in.-diameter shaft AB. Determine the principal
stresses and the maximum shearing stress at point H located as shown
on top of the shaft.

SOLUTION
Equivalent force-couple system at center of shaft in section at point H:
400 lb (400)(6) 2400 lb in V M = = =
(400)(2) 800 lb in T = =
Shaft cross section
1
1in. 0.5 in.
2
d c d = = =

4 4 4
1
0.098175 in 0.049087 in
2 2
J c I J

= = = =
Torsion:
3
(800)(0.5)
4.074 10 psi 4.074 ksi
0.098175
Tc
J
= = = =
Bending:
3
(2400)(0.5)
24.446 10 psi 24.446 ksi
0.049087
Mc
I
= = = =
Transverse shear: Stress at point H is zero.
Resultant stresses:
ave
2
2
2 2
24.446 ksi, 0, 4.074 ksi
1
( ) 12.223 ksi
2
2
(12.223) (4.074) 12.884 ksi
x y xy
x y
x y
xy
R


= = =
= + =
| |
= +
|
\ .
= + =


ave a
R = + 25.107 ksi
a
=

ave b
R = 0.661ksi
b
=

max
R =
max
12.88 ksi =

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PROBLEM 7.47
Solve Prob. 7.25, using Mohrs circle.
PROBLEM 7.25 The steel pipe AB has a 102-mm outer diameter
and a 6-mm wall thickness. Knowing that arm CD is rigidly
attached to the pipe, determine the principal stresses and the
maximum shearing stress at point K.


SOLUTION

102
51mm 45 mm
2 2
o
o i o
d
r r r t = = = = =

( )
4 4 6 4 6 4
4.1855 10 mm 4.1855 10 m
2
o i
J r r


= = =

6 4
1
2.0927 10 m
2
I J

= =
Force-couple system at center of tube in the plane containing points H and K:

3
3 3
3 3
10 10 N
(10 10 )(200 10 ) 2000 N m
(10 10 )(150 10 ) 1500 N m
x
y
z
F
M
M

=
= =
= =

Torsion:
3
3
6
2000 N m
51 10 m
(2000)(51 10 )
24.37 MPa
4.1855 10
y
o
xy
T M
c r
Tc
J

= =
= =

= = =


Note that the local x-axis is taken along a negative global z-direction.
Transverse shear: Stress due to
x
V F = is zero at point K.
Bending:
3
6
(1500)(51 10 )
36.56 MPa
2.0927 10
z
y
M c
I

= = =


Point K lies on compression side of neutral axis. 36.56 MPa
y
=


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PROBLEM 7.47 (Continued)

Total stresses at point K: 0, 36.56 MPa, 24.37 MPa
x y xy
= = =

ave
1
( ) 18.28 MPa
2
x y
= + =

2
2
30.46 MPa
2
x y
xy
R

| |
= + =
|
\ .


max ave
18.28 30.46 R = + = +

max
12.18 MPa =

min ave
18.28 30.46 R = =

min
48.74 MPa =

max
R =
max
30.46 MPa =

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PROBLEM 7.61
For the element shown, determine the range of values of
xy
for which the
maximum tensile stress is equal to or less than 60 MPa.

SOLUTION

ave
20 MPa 120 MPa
1
( ) 70 MPa
2
x y
x y


= =
= + =

Set
max ave
max ave
60 MPa
130 MPa
R
R


= = +
= =

But

2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
130 50
120 MPa
x x
xy
x x
xy
R
R

| |
= +
|
\ .
| |
=
|
\ .
=
=

Range of :
xy
120 MPa 120 MPa
xy


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PROBLEM 7.66
For the state of plane stress shown, determine the maximum shearing
stress when (a) 6 ksi
x
= and 18 ksi
y
= , (b) 14 ksi
x
= and
2 ksi
y
= . (Hint: Consider both in-plane and out-of-plane shearing
stresses.)

SOLUTION
(a)
ave
6ksi, 18 ksi, 8 ksi
1
( ) 12 ksi
2
x y xy
x y


= = =
= + =


2
2
2 2
2
6 8 10 ksi
x y
xy
R

| |
= +
|
\ .
= + =


ave
ave
12 10 22 ksi (max)
12 10 2 ksi
0 (min)
a
b
c
R
R

= + = + =
= = =
=


max(in-plane)
10 ksi R = =

max max min
1
( )
2
=
max
11ksi =
(b)
2
2
2 2
14 ksi, 2 ksi, 8 ksi
1
( ) 8 ksi
2
2
6 8 10 ksi
x y xy
a x y
x y
xy
R


= = =
= + =
| |
= +
|
\ .
= + =


ave
ave
18 ksi (max)
2 ksi (min)
0
a
b
c
R
R

= + =
= =
=


max
min
max max min
18 ksi
2 ksi
1
( )
2


=
=
=
max
10 ksi =
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PROBLEM 7.72
For the state of stress shown, determine the maximum shearing stress
when (a) 0,
z
= (b) 45
z
= + MPa, (c) 45 MPa.
z
=

SOLUTION
100 MPa, 20 MPa, 75 MPa
x y xy
= = =

ave
2
2
2 2
ave
ave
1
( ) 60 MPa
2
2
40 75 85 MPa
145 MPa
25 MPa
x y
x y
xy
a
b
R
R
R



= + =
| |
= +
|
\ .
= + =
= + =
= =

(a) 0, 145 MPa, 25 MPa
z a b
= = =

max min max max min
1
145 MPa, 25 MPa, ( )
2
= = =
max
85 MPa =
(b) 45 MPa, 145 MPa, 25 MPa
z a b
= + = =

max min
145 MPa, 25 MPa, = =
max max min
1
( )
2
=
max
85 MPa =
(c) 45 MPa, 145 MPa, 25 MPa
z a b
= = =

max
145 MPa, =
min
45 MPa, =
max max min
1
( )
2
=
max
95 MPa =
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed,
reproduced, or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited
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PROBLEM 7.83
The state of plane stress shown occurs in a machine component made of a steel with
45 ksi.
Y
= Using the maximum-distortion-energy criterion, determine whether
yield will occur when (a) 9 ksi,
xy
= (b) 18 ksi,
xy
= (c) 20 ksi.
xy
= If yield
does not occur, determine the corresponding factor of safety.

SOLUTION

36 ksi, 21 ksi, 0
x y z
= = =
For stresses in xy-plane,
ave
1
( ) 28.5 ksi
2
x y
= + =
7.5 ksi
2
x y

=
(a)
2
2 2 2
ave ave
9 ksi (7.5) (9) 11.715 ksi
2
40.215 ksi, 16.875 ksi
x y
xy xy
a b
R
R R



| |
= = + = + =
|
\ .
= + = = =


2 2
34.977 ksi 45 ksi
a b a b
+ = < (No yielding)

45
. .
39.977
F S = . . 1.287 F S =
(b)
2
2 2 2
ave ave
18 ksi (7.5) (18) 19.5 ksi
2
48 ksi, 9 ksi
x y
xy xy
a b
R
R R



| |
= = + = + =
|
\ .
= + = = =


2 2
44.193 ksi 45 ksi
a b a b
+ = < (No yielding)

45
. .
44.193
F S = . . 1.018 F S =
(c)
2
2 2 2
ave ave
20 ksi (7.5) (20) 21.36 ksi
2
49.86 ksi, 7.14 ksi
x y
xy xy
a b
R
R R



| |
= = + = + =
|
\ .
= + = = =


2 2
46.732 ksi 45 ksi
a b a b
+ = > (Yielding occurs)
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed,
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PROBLEM 7.84
Solve Prob. 7.83, using the maximum-shearing-stress criterion.
PROBLEM 7.83 The state of plane stress shown occurs in a machine component
made of a steel with 45 ksi.
Y
= Using the maximum-distortion-energy criterion,
determine whether yield will occur when (a) 9 ksi,
xy
= (b) 18 ksi,
xy
= (c)
20 ksi.
xy
= If yield does not occur, determine the corresponding factor of safety.

SOLUTION

36 ksi, 21 ksi, 0
x y z
= = =
For stress in xy-plane,
ave
1
( ) 28.5 ksi 7.5 ksi
2 2
x y
x y



= + = =
(a)
2
2
ave ave
max min
34.977 ksi,
9 ksi 11.715 ksi
2
40.215 ksi, 16.875 ksi
0
x y
xy xy
a b
R
R R




| |
= = + =
|
\ .
= + = = =
= =


max max min
2 40.215 ksi 45 ksi = = < (No yielding)

45
. .
40.215
F S = . . 1.119 F S =
(b)
max
2
2
ave ave
min
48 ksi
18 ksi 19.5 ksi
2
48 ksi, 9 ksi
0
x y
xy xy
a b
R
R R

| |
= = + =
|
\ .
= + = = =
= =


max max min
2 48 ksi 45 ksi = = > (Yielding occurs)
(c)
max
2
2
ave ave
min
49.86 ksi
20 ksi 21.36 ksi
2
49.86 ksi 7.14 ksi
0
x y
xy xy
a b
R
R R




| |
= = + =
|
\ .
= + = = =
= =


max max min
2 49.86 ksi 45 ksi = = > (Yielding occurs)

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PROBLEM 7.85
The 36-mm-diameter shaft is made of a grade of steel with a 250-MPa tensile yield
stress. Using the maximum-shearing-stress criterion, determine the magnitude of the
torque T for which yield occurs when 200 kN. P =

SOLUTION

3 3
2 3 2 3 2
3
6
3
ave
1
200 kN 200 10 N 18 mm 18 10 m
2
(18 10 ) 1.01788 10 m
200 10
196.488 10 Pa
1.01788 10
196.488 MPa
1 1
0 ( ) 98.244 MPa
2 2
y
x x y y
P c d
A c
P
A

= = = = =
= = =

= = =

=
= = + = =


2
2 2 2
ave
ave
(98.244)
2
(positive)
(negative)
2
x y
xy xy
a
b
a b a b a a b b
R
R
R
R





| |
= + = +
|
\ .
= +
=
= > >

Maximum shear stress criterion under the above conditions:
2 250 MPa 125 MPa
a b Y
R R = = = =
Equating expressions for R,

2 2
2 2 6
125 (98.244)
(125) (98.244) 77.286 MPa 77.286 10 Pa
xy
xy

= +
= = =

Torsion:
4 3 4 9 4
(18 10 ) 164.896 10 m
2 2
xy
J c
Tc
J


= = =
=


9 6
3
(164.846 10 )(77.286 10 )
18 10
708 N m
xy
J
T
c


= =

= 708 N m T =
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PROBLEM 7.86
Solve Prob. 7.85, using the maximum-distortion-energy criterion.
PROBLEM 7.85 The 36-mm-diameter shaft is made of a grade of steel with a
250-MPa tensile yield stress. Using the maximum-shearing-stress criterion,
determine the magnitude of the torque T for which yield occurs when 200 kN. P =

SOLUTION

3 3
2 3 2 3 2
3
6
3
ave
1
200 kN 200 10 N 18 mm 18 10 m
2
(18 10 ) 1.01788 10 m
200 10
196.488 10 Pa
1.01788 10
196.448 MPa
1 1
0 ( ) 98.244 MPa
2 2
y
x x y y
P c d
A c
P
A

= = = = =
= = =

= = =

=
= = + = =


2
2 2 2
ave ave
(98.244)
2
x y
xy xy
a b
R
R R



| |
= + = +
|
\ .
= + =

Distortion energy criterion:

2 2 2
2 2 2
ave ave ave ave
2 2 2
ave
2 2 2 2
( ) ( ) ( )( )
3
(98.244) (3)[(98.244) ] (250)
89.242 MPa
a b a b Y
Y
Y
xy
xy
R R R R
R


+ =
+ + + =
+ =
+ + =
=

Torsion:
4 3 4 9 4
(18 10 ) 164.846 10 m
2 2
xy
J c
Tc
J


= = =
=


9 6
3
(164.846 10 )(89.242 10 )
18 10
818 N m
xy
J
T
c


= =

= 818 N m T =
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PROBLEM 7.98
A spherical gas container made of steel has a 5-m outer diameter and a wall thickness of 6 mm. Knowing that
the internal pressure is 350 kPa, determine the maximum normal stress and the maximum shearing stress in
the container.

SOLUTION

3
6
5 m 6 mm 0.006 m, 2.494 m
2
(350 10 Pa)(2.494 m)
72.742 10 Pa
2 2(0.006 m)
d
d t r t
pr
t

= = = = =

= = =

72.7 MPa =

max
min
72.742 MPa
0 (Neglectingsmall radial stress)



max max min
1
( )
2
=
max
36.4 MPa =
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed,
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PROBLEM 7.104
A steel penstock has a 750-mm outer diameter, a 12-mm wall
thickness, and connects a reservoir at A with a generating station
at B. Knowing that the density of water is
3
1000 kg/m , determine
the maximum normal stress and the maximum shearing stress in
the penstock under static conditions.

SOLUTION

3
3
3 2
6
6 3
6
1
3
1 1
(750) 12 363 mm 363 10 m
2 2
12 mm 12 10 m
(1000 kg/m )(9.81 m/s )(300 m)
2.943 10 Pa
(2.943 10 )(363 10 )
89.0 10 Pa
12 10
r d t
t
p gh
pr
t

= = = =
= =
= =
=

= = =



max 1
=
max
89.0 MPa =

min
0 p =

max max min
1
( )
2
=
max
44.5 MPa =
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed,
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PROBLEM 7.114
For the tank of Prob. 7.112, determine the range of values of that can be
used if the shearing stress parallel to the weld is not to exceed 12 MPa
when the gage pressure is 600 kPa.
PROBLEM 7.112 The pressure tank shown has a 8-mm wall thickness
and butt-welded seams forming an angle 20 = with a transverse plane.
For a gage pressure of 600 kPa, determine (a) the normal stress
perpendicular to the weld, (b) the shearing stress parallel to the weld.

SOLUTION

3
1
1.6 m 8 10 mm 0.792 m
2
d t r d t

= = = =

3
1
3
6
2
1 2
(600 10 )(0.792)
8 10
59.4 10 Pa = 59.4 MPa
29.7 MPa
2
14.85 MPa
2
| sin 2 |
w
pr
t
pr
t
R
R

= =

=
= =

= =
=


12
| sin 2 | 0.80808
14.85
N
a
R

= = =
2 53.91
a
= 27.0
a
= +
2 53.91
b
= + 27.0
b
=
2 180 53.91 126.09
c
= = + 63.0 =
c

2 180 53.91 233.91
d
= + = + 117.0
d
=
Let the total range of values for be 180 < 180
Safe ranges for : 22.0 27.0
and 63.0 117.0
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PROBLEM 7.116
The pressurized tank shown was fabricated by welding strips of plate along a
helix forming an angle with a transverse plane. Determine the largest
value of that can be used if the normal stress perpendicular to the weld is
not to be larger than 85 percent of the maximum stress in the tank.

SOLUTION

1 2
2
pr pr
t t
= =

ave 1 2
1 2
ave
1 3
( )
2 4
1
2 4
cos 2
w
pr
t
pr
R
t
R



= + =

= =
=


3 1
0.85 cos 2
4 4
pr pr
t t

| |
=
|
\ .


3
cos 2 4 0.85 0.4
4
2 113.6

| |
= =
|
\ .
= 56.8 =
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed,
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PROBLEM 7.124
A pressure vessel of 10-in. inner diameter and 0.25-in. wall thickness is
fabricated from a 4-ft section of spirally-welded pipe AB and is equipped
with two rigid end plates. The gage pressure inside the vessel is 300 psi
and 10-kip centric axial forces P and P are applied to the end plates.
Determine (a) the normal stress perpendicular to the weld, (b) the
shearing stress parallel to the weld.

SOLUTION

( )
1
2
0
2 2 2 2 2
0
3
1 1
(10) 5 in. 0.25 in.
2 2
(300) (5)
6000 psi 6 ksi
0.25
(300)(5)
3000 psi 3 ksi
2 (2)(0.25)
5 0.25 5.25 in.
(5.25 5.00 ) 8.0503 in
10 10
1242 psi 1.242 ksi
8.0803

= = = =
= = = =
= = = =
= + = + =
= = =

= = = =
r d t
pr
t
pr
t
r r t
A r r
P
A

Total stresses. Longitudinal: 3 1.242 1.758 ksi
x
= =
Circumferential: 6 ksi
y
=
Shear: 0
xy
=
Plotted points for Mohrs circle:

: (1.758, 0)
: (6, 0)
: (3.879)
X
Y
C


ave
2
2
2
1
( ) 3.879 ksi
2
2
(1.758 6)
0 2.121 ksi
2
x y
x y
xy
R

= + =
| |
= +
|
\ .
(
= + =
(


(a)
ave
cos 70 3.879 2.121 cos 70
x
R

= + = 3.15 ksi
x


=
(b) | | sin 70 2.121 sin 70
xy
R = = | | 1.993 ksi
x y


=
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PROBLEM 7.128
For the given state of plane strain, use the method of Sec. 7.10 to
determine the state of plane strain associated with axes x and y
rotated through the given angle .
500 , 250 , 0, 15
x y xy
= = + = =

SOLUTION
15 = +

125 375 0
2 2 2
cos 2 sin 2
2 2 2
125 ( 375 ) cos30 0
x y x y xy
x y x y xy
x




+
= = =
+
= + +
= + + 450
x

=

cos 2 sin 2
2 2 2
125 ( 375 ) cos 30 0
x y x y xy
y


+
=
= 200
y

=

( ) sin 2 cos 2
( 500 250 ) sin30 0
x y x y xy



= +
= + 375
x y


=
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PROBLEM 7.136
The following state of strain has been measured on the surface of a thin plate. Knowing that the surface of the
plate is unstressed, determine (a) the direction and magnitude of the principal strains, (b) the maximum in-
plane shearing strain, (c) the maximum shearing strain. (Use
1
3
. v = )
260 , 60 , 480
x y xy
= = = +

SOLUTION
For Mohrs circle of strain, plot points:

: ( 260 , 240 )
: ( 60 , 240 )
: ( 160 , 0)
X
Y
C



480
tan 2 2.4
260 60
xy
p
x y


= = =
+

2 67.38
p
= 33.67
b
=
56.31
a
=

2 2
(100 ) (240 )
260
R
R

= +
=


(a)
ave
160 260
a
R = + = + 100
a
=

ave
160 260
b
R = = 420
b
=
(b)
max(in-plane) max(in-plane)
1
2
2
R R = =
max (in-plane)
520 =

1/3
( ) ( ) ( 260 60)
1 1 2/3
160
c a b x y
v v
v v

= + = + =

=


max min
160 420 = =
(c)
max max min
160 420 = = +
max
580 =
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PROBLEM 7.140
For the given state of plane strain, use Mohrs circle to determine (a) the orientation and magnitude of the
principal strains, (b) the maximum in-plane shearing strain, (c) the maximum shearing strain.
60 , 240 , 50
x y xy
= + = + =

SOLUTION
Plotted points:

: (60 , 25 )
: (240 , 25 )
: (150 , 0)
X
Y
C



50
tan 2 0.277778
60 240
xy
p
x y

= = =


2 15.52
p
= 97.76
a
=
7.76
b
=

2 2
(90 ) (25 ) 93.4 R = + =
(a)
ave
150 93.4
a
R = + = + 243.4
a
=

ave
150 93.4
b
R = = 56.6
b
=
(b)
max (in-plane)
2R =
max (in-plane)
186.8 =

(c)
max min
0, 243.4 , 0
c
= = =

max max min
=
max
243.4 =
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PROBLEM 7.147
The strains determined by the use of the rosette attached as shown during the test of a
machine element are
6
1
6
2
6
3
93.1 10 in./in.
385 10 in./in.
210 10 in./in.

=
= +
= +

Determine (a) the orientation and magnitude of the principal strains in the plane of the
rosette, (b) the maximum in-plane shearing strain.

SOLUTION
Use
1 1
( ) ( ) cos 2 sin 2
2 2 2
xy
x x y x y

= + + +
where 75 = for gage 1,
0 = for gage 2,
and 75 = + for gage 3.

1
1 1
( ) ( ) cos( 150 ) sin ( 150 )
2 2 2
xy
x y x y

= + + + (1)

2
1 1
( ) ( ) cos 0 sin 0
2 2 2
xy
x y x y

= + + + (2)

3
1 1
( ) ( ) cos (150 ) sin (150 )
2 2 2
xy
x y x y

= + + + (3)
From Eq. (2),
6
385 10 in/in
x z


= =
Adding Eqs. (1) and (3),

1 3
1 3
6 6 6
6
( ) ( ) cos 150
(1 cos 150 ) (1 cos 150 )
(1 cos 150 )
(1 cos 150 )
93.1 10 210 10 385 10 (1 cos 150 )
1 cos 150
35.0 10 in/in
x y x y
x y
x
y


+ = + +
= + +
+ +
=

+ +
=

=




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PROBLEM 7.147 (Continued)

Subtracting Eq. (1) from Eq. (3),

3 1
6 6
3 1
6
sin 150
210 10 ( 93.1 10 )
sin 150 sin 150
606.2 10 in/in
xy
xy

=

= =

=


6
6 6
606.2 10
tan 2 1.732
385 10 35.0 10
xy
p
x y

= = =

(a) 30.0 , 120.0
a b
= =

6 6
ave
6
2 2
2
2
6 6
6
6 6
ave
1 1
( ) (385 10 35.0 10 )
2 2
210 10 in/in
2 2
385 10 35.0 10 606.2
350.0 10
2 2
210 10 350.0 10
x y
x y xy
a
R
R




= + = +
=
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
| |
| |
= + =
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
= + = +
6
560 10 in/in
a


=

6 6
ave
210 10 350.0 10
b
R

= =
6
140.0 10 in/in
b


=
(b)
max (in-plane)
6
350.0 10 in/in
2
R

= =
6
max (in-plane)
700 10 in/in

=
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PROBLEM 7.150
A single strain gage is cemented to a solid 4-in.-diameter steel shaft at an
angle 25 = with a line parallel to the axis of the shaft. Knowing that
6
11.5 10 psi, G = determine the torque T indicated by a gage reading of
6
300 10 in./in.



SOLUTION
For torsion,
0
0 0
0,
1
( ) 0
1
( ) 0
1
2 2
x y
x x y
y y x
xy xy
v
E
v
E
G G





= = =
= =
= =
= =

Draw the Mohrs circle for strain.

0
0
2
sin 2 sin 2
2
x
R
G
R
G

=
= =

But
0
3
2 2
sin 2
x
G Tc T
J c

= = =

3
3 6 6
sin 2
(2) (11.5 10 )(300 10 )
sin 50
x
c G
T

=

=



3
113.2 10 lb in = 113.2 kip in T =
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PROBLEM 7.157
Solve Prob. 7.156, assuming that the rosette at point A indicates the
following strains:
6
1
6
2
6
3
30 10 in./in.
250 10 in./in.
100 10 in./in.

=
= +
= +

PROBLEM 7.156 A centric axial force P and a horizontal force Q
x
are both
applied at point C of the rectangular bar shown. A 45 strain rosette on the
surface of the bar at point A indicates the following strains:
6
1
6
2
6
3
60 10 in./in.
240 10 in./in.
200 10 in./in.

=
= +
= +

Knowing that
6
29 10 psi E = and 0.30, v = determine the magnitudes of
P and Q
x
.

SOLUTION

6
1
6
3
6
2 1 3
2 2
2 2
3
3
30 10
100 10
2 430 10
29
( ) [ 30 (0.3)(100)]
1 1 (0.3)
0
29
( ) [100 (0.3)( 30)]
1 1 (0.3)
2.9 10 psi
(2)(6)(2.9 10 )
x
y
xy
x x y
y y x
y y
E
v
v
E
v
v
P
P A
A





= =
= = +
= =
= + = +

=
= + = +

=
= = =


3
34.8 10 lb = 34.8 kips P =





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PROBLEM 7.157 (Continued)


6
6
3
3 3 4
3
29 10
11.1538 10 psi
2(1 ) (2)(1.30)
(11.1538)(430) 4.7962 10 psi
1 1
(2)(6) 36 in
12 12

(2)(3)(1.5) 9 in
2 in.
xy xy
E
G
v
G
I bh
Q Ay
t

= = =
+
= = =
= = =
= = =
=

3
3

(36)(2)(4.7962 10 )
38.37 10 lb

9
xy
xy
VQ
It
It
V
Q
Q V

= = =
= 38.4 kips Q =