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Ltc/un,. in Uni'lltr.ri/r oj Gla.rgow
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I. I. ( \. I : 'j I'
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NOTUS IN lo'RA1'N.Il:S ANll\fl I

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TilE appearance of the AliraiccpI at the present time,
however inopportune, is necessary, because long overdue.
Recent events have exercised, it is to be feared, an
adverse influence at least temporarily on Celtic' studies, and
. to my deep regret I find myself constrained materially to
curtail this preface. But I beg 6f all friends who have
assisted me in this undertaking, whether by encouragement
or advice, to accept my heartfelt thanks. [ am specially
indebted to Mr E. C. Quiggin for his kindness in giving me
his transcript of the Egerton MS., to Mr W. J. Pluton for
help in deciphering some words in the MSS., to
Prof. Lindsay for friendly criticism, chiefly on the extracts
. from his edition of the Origi1les,. and to Mr Malcolm
MacFa.rlane for the laboltr of' verifying the of
. the Indices to the Text, and for pointing out! some errors.
Every facility has been given by the Librarians of the
Universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh, the Advocates'
the Royal ,Irish Academy, and Trinity College,
The Carnegie Trust has generously borne part of the
expense of publication.
G. C. .
NWlmlJe,. 1916.
FIRST FAMILY (Short Text).
nn., B. Book of DalJymote (308 fJ 44-333) 14th century, Rl.A.
E.. MS. L, Advocates' Library, Edinburgh.
L. Book of Lecan, R. LA.
M., H'M. Book of Hy Maine (Trefhocul, with examples), R.I.A.
B, E, L contain the mnemonic poem but not the
SgCOND FAMILY (Long Text).
VBL. Yellow Book of Lecan (219 (l 23-241 It (3). T.e.D.
Eg. Egerton, 88 (63 1 b 26-76 1 a 41), British Museum.
YBL, Eg. do not contain the mnemonic poem or
the Trefhocul.
T. H.4.22 (PP. i 59-207) T.C.D. This MS. is intermediate
between the first and the second family. It does
not contain either the Trefhocul or the mnemonic
poem, but it has a poem of about 200' verses on early
Bible history.
LL. xii. century, T.C.D. ' The Trefhocul with examples.
. : Ed. MS. vii: i1 b 1-39, Advocates' Library, the beginning of
. a glossary of the Auraicept which closely resembles
'the Lecan glossary.
I 11Il
" "..
A.U. The Annals of Ulster, vol. i., ed. Hennessy, Dublin,
1887 i vol. ii., cd. MacCarthy.
A call. Acallamh na Senorach, edt Stokes, lrische Texte iv.,
Leipzig, 1900.
/1. /,.. DieM. Ober die Alteste Jrische Dichtung, edt K. Mer
SPA., 19
3. "
Len. The Irish IEneid, Irish Texts Society, London, 1907
AisI. Aislinge Meic CongJinne, ed. K. Meyer, London, 1892
Ante. Anecdota {rom Irish Manuscripts, Dublin, 1<)07-12.
Arc". C. P. Archiv fUr Celtische Lexikographie.
Ascoli. Glossarium PaJaeohibernicum, Archivio GlottoJogir.o
italiano, vol. vi.
Arms. Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, edt Armstrong,
182 5.
Btallta Col. Beatha Colmtiin maic Lllachc1in, edt K. Meyer, Dublin,
191 r.
BB. (With Roman numeral) Beitrage zur Kunde der idg.
Sprachen, herausgegben von Bczzenberger u.
C. 1<. Meyer's Contributions to Irish
Calk Ruis R. Cath Ruis na Rrgh, cd. Hogan, Dublin, 1892
CC. In Calh Catharda, edt Stokes, Jrische Texte iv.
C,fi,. An. Coir Anmann, cd. Stokes, Irische Texte iii.
Auecdota from Irish Manuscripts, vol. iv., Dublin, 19 12
Cor. r,.. Cormac's Glossary, translated by O'Donovan, edt
Stokes, Calcutta, .868.
CZ. Zeitsch"ri{t flir Celtische PhiJoJogie.
/Jrallt.. Talu o{ the Ulster Heroes, edt K. Meyer, Dublin, 1<)06.
Din. An .Irish-English edt P. S. Dineen,
Dublin, 1904.
DonI. A Glossary to Donlevy's Catechism, Arch. C. P. ii., J.
Ducnnge. Glossarium Mediae et Intimae Latinitatis.
Rd. Dinds.

G,.. Lat.
H. 3.18.
H. 4. r8.
Hi/;. Mi".
Hat'! Bn'gil.
/1'. Rp.
Jr. Mtlr.
/1'. T.
Hlsl., I,.
Lor. Gild.
The EdilJburgh Dindsenchas, ed. Stokes, r893:
The Joumal of the School of Irish Learning, Dublin.
Fclire Oengusso, ed. Stokes, DUblin, r880.
id, Henry Bradshaw Society, I90S.
Fianaigecht, cd. 1\:. Meyer, Dublin, '91o.
The Annals of the Four Masters, ed. O'Donovan,
Dublin, 1848, 18SI.
Goidelica, Old and Early Middlelrish Glosses, Prose
and Verse, ed. Stokes, London, ,87

Martyrology of Gorman, cd. Stokes, Lonc1on,

Grammatici Latini, i.-viii., ed. KeiJ.
Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, ed. Macdonald,
. Herne Bay, 1902.
A MS. in the Library of Trinity ColJege, Dublin.
A MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin.
Hibernica Minora, cd. K. Meyer, Oxford,
Gaelic Names of-Herbs, Plants, and Trees, ed. Hogan.
The Irish Hymns in TP. ii. or Jr. T. i.
The Highland Society's Dictionary of the Gaelic
Ed. K. Meyer, Dublin, 1912.
Studies in Irish Epigraphy, ed. R. A. S. MacaJister,
London, 1897-1907.
Irish Metrics, cd. K. Meyer, Dublin, 1909.
Irische Texte, edd. Windisch and Stokes, Leipzig.
Irish Texts Society, London.
Irish Texts vols. iv., viii., ix., xv., Loncfon.
Ancient Laws of Irelancf, vol. vL, Glossary to vol. i.-v.,
ed. ,\tkinson, Dublin, 190r.
The Lecan glosses, Archiv fdr Celtische Lexiko-
graphic, i.
Lives of Saints from the Book of Lismore, ed. Stokes,
Oxford, 1890. .
The Lorit;i\ of Cildas, Stokes/ Irish Glosses, p. 13
Dublin, '860.
Facsimile of the Book of Leinster, Dublin, 1880.
Facsimile of the Leabhar na hUidhre, Dublin, 1870.
Notes on Irish Ogham Inscriptions, ed. John MacNeill,
Dublin, 190<).
Virgilius'Maro Grammatieus, cd. Huemer, Lcipsig,
MIB. Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, ed.
Mtd_ CI. Three irish Medical Glossaries, Archiv f(ir Ccltische
Lexikographie, i.
IVIR. Cath Muige Rath, cd. O'Donovan, Dublin, ,842.
MS. Alall. O'Curry's Lectures on the MS. Materials, Dublin, 1871.
Aftlr. Metrical glosses, Ik7.7.enberger, Beitriige, xix.
J-felr. Dinds. The Metrical Dindsenchas, cd. Gwynn, Dublin.
/111. The Milan glosses on the Psalms, TP. i.
O'l3r. O'Brien's Irish-English Dictionary, Dublin, 1832.
O'C. Ltci. O'Curry's Lectures on the Manners and Customs of
the Ancient Irish, 1873.
O'CI. O'Clery's Irish Glossary, Revue Ccltique, iv., v.
0'0. O'Donovan's supplement to O'Reilly's Dictionary.
0'0. Cr. O'Donovan's A Grammar of the Irish Language, 1845.
O'Dav. O'Davoren's glossary, Archiv fiir Celtische Lexiko-
graphie, ii. 3, 4.
O'Molloy Cr. Granmiatica Latino-Hibernica, Romae, 1677.
O'Mulc. O'Mulconry's glossary, Archiv fiir Celt. Lexikographie,
i. 2
On., Onn., Onom. Onomastieon Goedelicum, ed. Hogan, Dublin, 19'0.
O'R.' O'Reilly's Irish-English Dictionary.
Origg.' Isidori Hispalcnsis Episcop.i Etymologiarum sive
Originum Libri, xx., ed. Lindsay, Oxford, 1911.
Ped. Gr. Pedersen's Vergleichende Grammatik der Keltischen
Sprachen, Gottingen, J913. '.
Petrie R. T. Ecclesiastical Architecture of Ireland, cd. Petrie, 1845.
PH. Passions and Homilies from the Leabhar Breac, ed.
Atkinson, Dublin, 1887.
PI. Vii. Sancl. Vitae Sanctorum Hiberniae, eo. Plummer, Oxon., '910.
F. O'e. Peter O'Connel's MS. Dictionary.
RC. Revue Celtique, Paris.
Glosses on Priscian (St Gall), Palaeo- Sg.
hibernicus, vol. ii.
Sil. Cad. Silva Gadelica, cd. Standish O'Grady, London, r892.
SonKs df Summer and Winter, cd. K. Meyer, London, 1903. .
SPA. Sitsungsberichte cler kon. preuss. Acndemle cler
SR. Saltnir nn Rnnfl, ed. Stokes, Oxford, 1883.
St. eru. Stokes' Criticism on Dr Atkinson's glossary to vol. i.-v.
of the ancient Laws of Ireland, London, 19OJ.
ST. Stories (rom the T<1in, edt John Strachan, Dublin, 1908.
Siowt GI. Stowe glosses, Archiv fUr Celtische Lexikographie, iii.
Str. Dep. The Deponent Verb in Irish, John Strachan in the
Transactions of the London Philological Society.
Str. G/. Old Irish Paradigms and Glosses, ed. John Strachan,
London, '909.
Toc. Tain U6 Cuailnge, ed. Windisch, Irische Texte, v.
Tnrtt Mtd. G/. Archiv liir Celtische Lexikographie, i. 3.
TP. Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, edd. Stokes and Strachan
Cambridge, 190r. . '
TP. Suppl. Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, Supplement, ed. Stokes,
Halle, '910.
Thur. des Alt-Irischen, edt Rudolf Thurneysen,
Heidelberg, 1909.
Tn'ads. The Triads of Ireland, ed. K. Meyer, Dublin, 190
Tn'jJ. The Tripartite Life of Patrick, ed. Stokes, London,
Tnp. GI. The glosses from the Tripartite Lile, Arch. C. P. iii.
TSh. Three of Death, by Keating, ed. Atkinson,
DUblin, 1890.
TogailTroi, edt Stokes, Calcutta, 1882.
Togail Troi, edt Stokes, Irische Texte ii.
Wb. The Wiirtzburg glosses, Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus
vol. i. '
Wi. \Vindisch's Worterbuch, Irische Texte, vol. i.
Z.lI Zeuss's Grummatica Celtica, editio altern.
lCP. =Cl.
MS. contractions, about which may be doubt, are
in italics. Interlinear additions to the texts are
:nclosed in round brackets, additions by the Editor in square
)rackets. Errors or peculiarities in the text are in some
ases silently corrected in the translation. Where this is
rnpracticable footnotes are added. Otherwise the reading
If the M55. is unchanged.
. I
. J
TIrE Handbook of the Learned, here edited for the first
time, is a work that opens up many questions.
lias is often equivalent to jili. Filidcc!'1 covered the
whole field of poetry, romance, history, biography, geo{;raphy,
grammar, antiquities, and law. The poet-jurist, who, seated,
gave judgments in verse, is probably referred to at lines 407,8.
The Auraicept treats chiefly of the alphabet and
"rammar but if the Trefhocul be included, it treats also of b ,
poetry in the strict sense.
The poets,jilid, were a guild, making their own special
laws, and exercising discipline upon their own members (2193).
They claimed and used the right to quarter themselves
and their retinue upon society (2221), and they exacted a
fi xed sum for their poetic compositions. In general this
was cheerfully paid; the means for enforcing unwilling
payment was The exercise of this potent weapon
was moderated by rule (1935), certain forms of satire, such as
lama!! ll-at're (1932), being forbidden in the Trefhocul; and
though the poets, have been abolished by law for over a
cCAtury, even at 'this day in certain districts the phrase,
dlteallam/r. aoi1' at'1', to satirise one, is not without its
The poets were a secret society with a language peculiar
and intelligible. to themselves only. According to 'their
literary tradition Fenius, at their request, devised this
language for them (195), and its obscurity was essential (21).
The' Yearly Studies of the Ififi.
Each year included the studies of all preceding years..
Name. I
Codoc 1. oghum, besides regular oghum ; the Auraiapi
with its prolog'ue and with its flexions;
1. ddclt/,' vi. dian. Jr. T. iii. 32.
macfuirmid 1. oghum, besides usual oghllln j vi. detailed
lessons of ftlideclll,,' xxx. dr/dll,,' x. stlli/dil,
uflalllain, and Sflilii/it St'n011lflfl.
11". T. iii. 34, 9.
doss J. oghum, besides tbadadl nl/1/I1I" i vi. olller
detailed lessons of jilidte/II". xl. ddtlll".
xvi. Mid.
Ir. T. iii. 34, 12.
cano 1. drlcltt
1. /lnilia tumid". xx. (mnin.
11". T. iii. 36, 18.
cl( Ix. ddclt/.,. xxx. anair," xxx. ianllberla.
fr. 7: iii. 37, 21.
lxx. dr/chi". Ixxx. nallt mdr". Ixxx. fllllit bac 7
bu/a "aji/ed. 11". T. iii. 38, 25.
brosllacllQ SlIad, i.e. the bard metres which the
poet ought to know, for that is the poet's
lesson of the seventh yenr j e.g. I. divisions of
brO\l1acha, i.e. d((lmad 11/($1', and two species
of dtclmad ",or are there reckoned, viz. S1/td
and Irtbrad.
11'. T. iii. 39, 32.
ji1CO/lla1'ra fi/ed .j. dlii/i bcrla 7 clt/lldlor choem
7 rdwc roscadl1ch 7 Midc j. Icnm/didll 7 imma.r
!orosnai 7 die/lelal do c!ulIlIaib na Illaillit 7
diflShcIIC/ZUS, and all the principal tales of
I reland in order to relate them to kings, lord!';,
and gentlemen. For theji/i is not yet perfect.
Ir. T. jii. 49,91.
xl. somallt .j. j xv. luaJctl 7 vii. ena". locllraid of
he words with metres xiv. srollw and
vi. dliili Itda. /1'. T. iii. 54, 99.
1. anamain mt1r; 1. anamain bcce. .
Ir. T. iii. 59, 113.
cxx. roclulal./ iiii. arda, i.e. ctrd of Ladchend tnic
llairchida (/EII., pp. 17,27),7 cerd hi Chota, 7
cerd hui Dicni, 1 cerd Bcci. fr. T. iii. 60, 121.
; ,',
9, 10
The i
/1f, his Rank, Name, and Compositions, with the
Rewards therefor, and his Retinue (22
The people often rose up against the poets and attempted
to repudiate their claims. One such rising was that
at Drumketta, A.D. 590 (1472). About that time they
numbered 15,000. Owing to the advocacy of St
himself a fili, they were suffered to continue, but under
The filid were a strictly professional class, undergoing a
rigorous training to fit them 'ror their position. The bards,
on the other hand, were unprofessional, and more or less
untrained, but they practised a large number of metres in
which the filid also were required to become proficient.
The following tables (if. the later scheme in
Social if/sl., i. 430), will show what place the Auraicept
occupied in their studies.


HAlik. !'iallle, Melre. Rowartl.

oS U ..

.- ::l
0 p., ...
lie ... 0
I. ollam anamain n chariot 24 8 12 10
(aone bondmaid)
II. nnrad nath five cows 12 6
111. I
etr anair four cows 8
S 4 6
IV. eano emain one horse 6
(=two cows)
V. doss l;iid one milch cow
2 1
VI. macfuinnid setrad one
1 1 :!
VII. Codoc dian one threeyear.old 1 1 1 1 (?)
the whole accidence of the verb is wanting. The similarity
between Latin and Gaelic failed at this point. The paradigm
of the verb is tentative and native (34,653). An endeavour
is madc to show that, while there is a correspondence in
meaning between the two lan{{uages, Gaelic is the m'ore
comprehensive (1081).
The lang-uage is Middle I rish, but the basis, which has
been much worked over, all belongs to the Old Irish
The composition consists of Text and Commentary, the
latter forming the great bulk of thc work. The text is the
oldest portion; thc commentary, in parts as old as tl:e
was in a process of continuous growth. Thc text, wntten In
a large hand in most MSS., is printed in leaded typc. 1313,
here followed, curtails the text. The Book of Lecan and T.
make a much largcr delineation of text. The question as to
what is text and what is commcntary will require further
study for a satisfactory solution, but it may be here remarked
that much of the primary material is cmbodied in the tract
in the ordinary hand of the commentary so as to be indis.
tinguishable from the commentary at sight, and that the
commentary itself occasionally points to the by the .
of such expressions as Cid ara tllc-somn (97), Ctd nra ncbarrt
(378, 484, 512, 385), in/an ,'oraidll (42 I), ala acnt Itm. 3?,
a1llal asbert i curp ill libllir (173, 241) where corp I1l /ibm,.
ahvays means the text" of the book under. .
Another but a rather unccrtain cntcrlon IS thiS. A
passagc which does not occur by way of commentary o.n any
previous quotation, but which i.s itself the subJect of
commentary, is in a sense pnmary matcnal, though not
so old as the principal text on which the com
mentary is written. .
The use of c01zagllr is generally to introduce commentary
even though the passage so introduced is itself subjected to
A brief study of the Auraicept is sufficient to convince
one that the leading extraneous source' is' the Latin
Grammarians. Some of them are cited by name, Priscian
(A.D. 450), Donatlls (A.n. 350), Pompeius,and Consentius.
If it be urged that the quotations from these authors .are
a late addition to the Auraicept by way of 'learncd illustra.
tion, it is answcred that in any case the gcneral setting
of the matter follows closely the didactic style of thc
grammarians, as the following examples, occurring /,assi""
will show:-
Quaestio cst, Gr.. Lat. v. 537, 16,29; 54

cest, AUf. O. 57.

Quaesitum est, v. 228, 18 } A 1010.
. 6 conagar, ur. .
uaentur, v... 5,27} 210, 1375.
De qua quaentur, Orlgg, XVI. 10,2
ut sciam, v. 195,19.
ut scias, v. 121,15,18; 173,18: co fesear, Aur. 1577.
ut sciamus, v. 10, 16.
sciendum est, v. 180, 32: is soigti Aur. 3508, is fisid
scire debemus, v. 277, 30.
scire debes, v. '42, 15.
The mattcr itself of the Auraicept is largely identical
that treated of by the Latin Grammarians in their
chapters-the alphabet, classification of letters, sounds
:lnd syllables, consonant and vowel changes, gender and
:Jeclension of nouns, comparison of adjectives, prepositions
dative and accusative cases, the accent, artificial
1mJ natural, genus and species, and a few other incidclltal
!)oints. The omissions arc almost equally significant.
There is no classification of declcllsions, no of
\djectivcs which arc tacitly included with the sulJstanti\'es,
10 trcattnt:llt of prOllouns except as tokens of gcnder
:tiur]onn, 5
5), or as emphasised by /Iill =IIlt'l (7
), and
!] 1
(Eriu, viii. 17, 72, 73). This last, however, may be, merely
a grammatical recrudescence, or an imitation of Latin.
A few sporadic examples of Old Irish are here added;-
n.p.m. in muite 447, in t<ebomna tuissecha' 9
. in
tri focail 2018, but ainm n, has art n.p.m. md
anmanda 4828.
n.p.f. inna iiii. aipgitri-sea 113
For developed from projected n., v.' condelc,
etargoire n-inchoisc 647, in incoisc 64
A. 0-slt1lls.
n.p.n. araile crand 1149
B. io-slclIlS:
n.8.n. a mberla sain 1044
ds. oc nach ailiu 1044; a.s. fria araill 3
, ar araill
5613 ; :gan araill 3
n.s. 7 araill 3410; 'nas i n-aill 127
quam i n-aill 4593,4579 no da fhir-inaill 33
C. n-slelll:
gach reim n-ole 2177.
3- teora, ccitheora 470
, 3747, cf 87

4. TIlE VERB: ailsius 5319, adrodamas 135; copula verb.

arnid 693, nadat 45
,As to the native clements, we are told that Cenn Faelad
-in English Kinealy-wrote the Prologue (80). As this
preface is not likely to have been omitted by the compilers
of the extant tract, one concludes that this must be the
actual introduction (1-62). This view is confirm'ed by the
displacement in version ii. of the section (63-78) which is the
, work of a commentator of Cenn Faelad; also by the particle
tra in the first sentence quoted from Cen.n Faelad, which
follows the introduction in both versions.
comment. In a word, there is a primary commentary used
to explain the original text, and a secondary commentary
developing the content of the primary commentary (e.g.,
1072 on 1068, 1637 on 1515). The etymological glosswork
belongs to this last stage, and is incorporated without any
regard to the context.
The language even of the commentary is based on
Old Irish usage. It explicitly recognises three genders in
substantives and pronouns. I n it nirdlbdad (1264) means the
silencing of the consonants, rand B. In later usage this
term becomes airdibad, urdllbad (uirdhiughadh, O'l\lo11oy,
Gr. 61), and denotes eclipsis, obllIIbilntio. The tract before
us takes no account of eclipsis. At the time the tract ",as
written the combinations rob, nd, had evidently not yet
become assimilated (but cf Nembroth, Nemruad). For,
if such assimilations had taken place, an account would
have been given of the phenomenon under such questions as
II \Vhat two consonants have the force of one consonant?"
As regards ng initial, the evidence is not so clear.
The nasal infection may have produced (ng+g) and not
ng simply (255). On the other hand the combination is an
Ogham letter (442)-but even vowels of diphthongs
pronounced separately (I430)-and is, considered along with
the example, uil/gi (4926), curiously suggestive of:
N Latinum adiuncto Gamma Graeco significat
semiunciam.-Origg. xvi. 27, 4.
The scheme of declension, also, distinguishes clearly
between dative and accusative after prepositions (165 I,
1770), a distinction not uniformly or often obser\'ed in
r."I iddle I rish, though a much later tract draws a distinction
between acc. after a preposition importing motion, sill/lflal,
and dat. after a preposition importing rest, c011lfl1/oid/ze
and the CIIl Ol/all/all (1204,4385) possibly an early form of the
tract on Metrics. The quotations from the first four books
arc set forth as usual in large hand; but possibly other
passages from them are embodied in the commentary in the
normal hand. For wherever a passage in the commentary
is afterwards explained in detail with the usual artificial
etymologies, this is an indication that the passage probably
belonged originally to the ancient text.
\Vhile the ascription of the Book of Cenn Faelad is
probably genuine, the same cannot be said of the Books of
Ferchertne, Amergen, and Fenius. The quotations may be
from writings approximately of the time of Ccnn Faelad, but
of unknown authorship. A commentator (Ip-Ig-I027) takes
the view that the work of these authors were successive steps
leading up to the grand consummation, the Trefhocul. By
the. statement also of a commentator that It what is first
according to book order was invented last, to wit, the Book
of Cenn Faelad" (66) may be!i.neant that this author
co-ordinated all the ancient and presented it as it
now stands. This view is upl1"1 'l]y another commentator
'".. I'
who says that the Auraicept but Cenn
Faelad rewrote it, or copie'd I".; with the greater part
of Scripture (2638).
There seems no reason to question the ascription of the
II Book of Cenn Faelad" to the author of that name. He is a
well authenticated person. He died A.D. 679. His pedigree
is found in the genealogy of the Cellil II Eogaill. His poems,
dealing to a large extent with the wars of his kinsfolk, the
Northern Vi Neill, are quoted largely in the annals. The
curious tradition about his II brain 'of forgetfulness" (77) had
no doubt a foundation in fact. Possibly he got a good
education in youth, but developed a It brain of forgetfulness"
by turning from learning to soldiering. He certainly fought
in the battle of 'Moira A.D. 637, where he was wounded.
There are four authors of the Auraicept proper, Cenn
Faelad, Ferchertne, Amergen, and Fenius.
The excerpts from the i300k of Cenn Faelad deal with:
The origin of Gaelic (Joo).
Divisions of the Latin alphabet (312), and of the Irish
alphabet (392).
Latin and Irish treatment of semivowels contrasted
Genders in Irish (5 20).
Degrees of comparison in Latin, and qualitative and
quantitative distinctions in Irish (639).
The excerpts from the Dook of Ferchertne deal with:
The seven elements of speech in Irish (739), and
f'he formation and powers of Ogham letters (943).
There is a long excerpt from the Book of Amergen
dealing with: the origin of Goedelg (1034). This passage is
of earlier date and language than the general run of the
tract. In substance it is an alternative prologue.
The excerpts from the Dook of Fenius (1102) deal with:
The alphabets of Hebrew, Greek, and Latin (
hence probably the ascription to Fenius who was
learned in those languages (160), and contemporary
with the Exodus ( 1104).
Verse feet or sylJab;c content of Irish words (
Consonant changes ( 1264).
The five kinds of Irish (1302).
The twenty-five innections (15 15).
\Vhat is flIt? (1577).
The end of the text of the Auraicept is noted (
Besides those four ancient books cited, the Book of Cenn
Faelad, the Book of Ferchertne (735), the Boole of Amergen
(IO:!S), the Book of Fenius, Iair mac Nema, and Gaedel mac
Ethiuir (1102), two others are mentioned, the ]Jr'lile Fcda
), of which Ogharn tract is perhaps an expansion,
ll\.U1.JU\", J.
Returning again to civil life and his early pursuits, H poetry.
words," and reading II (78), he laid the foundation of that
reputation which as U Cenn Faclad, the Leanlcd" he still
enjoys (O'C. Ltct.). His pcriodas an author therefore
extends ovcr the forty-two years betwecn the battle of
Moira and his death. and quotations him must take
rank among the oldest dated specimens of the language.
But he refers to still older Irish writers, allgdtl/r Uti uGai(lt'al
(79), who wrote on the subject of I rish or of Irish
origins. He may refer to such works as the Irish Cllr()lIic()ll
ElIscbii (/.:':1'111, vii. 62) which came down to A.D. 609, and of
which the lost portion at the beginning may well have
contained the story of Fenius. \Vriting- in 603, S. Columbanus
refers to flllli'lui pl'ilosoplli Hiberlliat' as experts in duono-
graphy. Thus that earlier than the seventh centu.ry a state
of learning existed which was held in esteem by the writers of
that century is proved, though the direct products of that
earlier learning are no longer extant. If. we assume Ccnn
F'aelad to bc really the author, and therefore that the
Auraicept was begun about the middle of the seventh
century, how did it happen that while the other \\'estern
nations were sunk in ignorance, the Irish enjoyed the light
of learning? Zimmer (SPA., Dec. 1910, p. 1049) quoting
the passage in Aur. IHS9-187u puts the question with great
II Das sind die I Elemcllte der Kasus- und .Numeruslehre,'
wie man sie als Tei! des fiber viele Iahre sich erstreckenden
Studiums der irischenfili (Grammatiker, Metriker, Antiquare
und professionsmtissiger Dichter) in den nationalen Schulen
Irlands traktierte, als Klemens der Ire an der Hofschule
Karls des Grossen jungen Franken das abc beibrachte, als
Dicuil in St Denis, Dungal in Pavia, Sedulius in Ll'lttich
und l\lctz, l\foengal in St Gallen, Johannes Scottus an der
Hofschule Karls des Kahlen ;itig waren; durch diesen
Unterricht ist Cormac mac Cuilenn<\in gcgangen 90
. der nebcnbci austandige Kcnntnis im Latein, Griech-
isch, Hebr;iisch, Altnordisch, Angels:ichsisch und Kymrisch
The high tide of learning at a very early period in
ancient I reland was beyond a doubt caused by the influx of
learned men from the Continent. In his researches Zimmer
came upon this passage:
Huni, qui ex nephario concubitu progcniti sunt, scilicet
demollum, postquam praeheuntc caterva vi am
invener\lnt per Meotides paludes, invaserunt Cothos
quos nimium terruerunt. ex . improviso
quod in iIIis erato Et ab his depopulatlO totlus
imperii exordium sumpsit, quae ab Unis et
Guandelis, Gotis et Alanis peracta est, sub quorum
vastatione omnes sapientes cismarini fugam
ceperunt, et in transmarinis, videl.icet in Hibernia,
ct quocunque se receperunt maximum profcctum
sapientiae incolis illarum adhibuerunt.
The first part of this statement relating to the Huns is
taken from Jordanis, who wrote about A.I>. 550, and fixes
approximately the date of the depopulation of the empire
and the rush of learned men into Ireland. We may assume
that the migration had already continued for a time beiore
this account was written. The intercourse between Ireland
and the continent was certainly kept up.
. Three centuries later we have this testimony respecting-
Natio Scottorum quibus consuetudo jam
pacne in naturam conversa cst.
Quid Hibcrniam memorem, dis-
criminc, paene totam cum grege phtlosophorum ad
littoi'a nostra. migrantem t-(SPA., 1910, p. 1080).
Zimmer with great learning, breadth of view, and
mastery of detail builds upon these (acts a history at once
picturesque and surprising.
Stated briefly his hypotheses amount to this. The
exodus from Gaul to Ireland (A.n. 419-507) was caused by
the Homoousian persecution. Aquitania and the modern
Baskish territory suffered like other parts, and Jreland was
then the only haven of orthodoxy. Among the' refugees
from that region was the ja/llus hOJllun(u!lIs who was so called
by his fellow-countryman the deacon Ennodius (A.D. 473 52 I)
but who called himself Virg-i!illS 11 faro, Grfll//1I/atiCIIS. He
found an asylum with a native prince as was the fashion
for learncd mcn in those days, settled, and taught grammar,
nay more, gained for himself fame, recognition, and a place
among the native poets, bcing in fact none other than
Ferc/ur/nt! fili.
The Auraicept bears abundant evidence of the influence
of two Latin authors, Isidore and Maro. The latter Zimmer
laboured to identify with Percher/lie fili. It can be shown
that the Auraicept lends no support to this proposed
identi fication. This Ferchertlle jili (CZ. iii. (3) is ,described
in the tract as a contemporary of Conchobar mac Nessa
(736), who, reckoning be adopted, somewhere
about the second century (cf. A.V. 484). According to this
therefore, the identification of Fercher/lIc fili and
J\Iaro would place the Jatter at least a couple of centuries
his j1orl/it. Again the matter treated of by
j't'rc!urllle jilz-th.e seven elements of speech in Irish, and
the formation and powers of Ogham letters-does not
correspond to anything in l\'laro's pages. I f it be proved
also that, while Isidore's influence is felt chiefly. in the
earlier part of the Auraicept, Maro's influence is confined
entirely to the later, Zimmer's main contention that l\laro
was Ferdul't/lt fili cannot succeed. Several centuries lay
between the inception of the Auraicept and its close.
Maro's tract had a profound influence on the Auraicept,
but none on its early According to internal evidence
C<;ntl Faelad wrote the part ascribed to him about thc
middle or second half of the seventh century. That is the
superior limit. The inferior lies in the eleventh
century, or perhaps the tenth, and is determined gcnerally
by two facts-(I) that the Auraicept is found in two
families of MSS., the variations in which postulate many
generations of scribes, and (2) the immense development
which has taken place in the tract itself as it has advanced
{rom statements to a prosody which is exceedingly
complicated and difficult. But the argument does not rest
entirely on general considerations.
The second text (3382) quotes native grammarians by
name, Ua Bruic, (In CO/lld/, Ua Coin'/! and Ua Film (3391),
They are named by their surnames (each being the acknow-
ledged head of his family), a usage that is not found earlier
than the tenth century, one of the earliest instances being
that of Ua Ruai;'c, A,V. 953, Ua Coin''' mentioned above
may have been the professor of law and history, who died
A.V. 1083. Hence the Auraicept was not completed before
the middle of the tenth century, perhaps not till towards
.. the end of the eleventh, when Maro's influence is still
in evidence.
. Let us .now look at some excerpts from the works of
the two Latin authors, Isidore and Maro.
I. ISIDORE OF SEVILLE, who died A.D. 636.
His Et;'lIlologiae or Origincs in twenty books contain a
vast amount of information of such a sort that one finds it
impossible resist the conclusion that the compilers of
the Auraicept had this document before them. At least
that Ceno Faelad and Isidore drew matter from a common
. ;
Time, place, person, and cause of writing (Aur. 63, 735,
1029), define the general plan 'and treatr,nent of a subject,
and are usually found in the introduction to any seriolls
work in Irish.
lam vero III elocutionibus illud uti oportebit, ut res,
locus, tempus, persona audientis emagitat.-
ii. 16, I.
The cradle of letters was in Adlaia, or by projection
of d from art., Dacia, or by early Frcnch Asia.
Ubi fuit Atbenae civitas.-Origg. xiv. 4, 10. I
Apud Eotenam (uel Athena) civitC:1tem.-Aur. 214.
Fuit autem Isis regina Aeg-yptiorum, Inachis regis filia,
quae de Graecia veniens Aegyptios litteras: docuit.
-Grigg. viii. ", 84.
These sentences show that, unless the Biblical Accad was
introduced from some other source, Achaia (25') was pro-
bably the original reading; but the possibility that Achaia
lay in A/acal/dis Pallid/OilS (C2. x. (26) mllst not be over-
Namque omnium ferocissumi ad hoc telnpus Achaei
atque Tauri sunt, quod, quantum conjicio, locorum
egcstate rapto viverc coacti.- Glossae Juvenalis
Authority, written authority, ugdcl1'ac!1I (131), perhaps
includes the following authors of whom, however, only two,
Moses and Hieronymus (q.v.), are mentioncd by name:
Moyscs, Dares Phrygills, Herodotus, Pherecydes.
. Vnde Sallustius ex historia, Livius, Eusebius et
Hieronymus ex annalibus tot- historia constant.-
Origg. i. 42 ; 44, 4.
WhM arc the names of the seventy-two races from which
the many languages were learnt,? ( 21 5, 263):
Gentes autem a quibus divisa cst terra, quindecirn sunt
de Japhet, triginta et una de Cham, viginti et
source is a !certainty, for the facts (or alleged facts) and the
phr!lseology are the same.
If we keep in mind that Isidore died the year before the
battle of Moira, and that after that event Cenn Faelad began
and pursued his studies with such success that he was
popularly supposed to f()rget nothing (so one may interpret the
words), and if we remember further that there was a constant
corning and of learned men, and a steady exchange
of books between the continent and Ireland, there is no
inherent improbability in the supposition that Cenn FaClad
assimilated some of his material from the On:t:illt's published
perhaps some twenty years before. True, the name of Isidore
does not occur in tfle Auraicept, but no more does that of
Eusebius from whom he probably made extracts, nor that
of Luccreth Afoat Chiarll (Ai/teste irischc lJichlll"g, p. 5I),
from whose poem the passage about the races
(Aur. was certainly taken.
There being no difficulty as to date or the omission of
a name, full weight may be allowed to any other con-
siderations tending to connect the two authors. The
following quotations from many books of the Origillt'S show
how much the Auraicept was indebted to source both
in general structure and in detail.
Some references demonstrate that the I rish and Ireland
were not unfamiliar to Isidore, at least as an author:
Horrent et male tecti cum latratoribus Unguis
Origg. xix. 23, 6.
Scotia idem et Hibernia proximae Brittianiae insula,
spatia ter,rarum angustior, sed situ fecundior.
Haec ab Africa in Hoream porrigitur.
partes priorcs Hiberiam et Cantabricum Oceanum
intendunt, unde et Hibernia dicta: Scotia autem,
quod ab Scotorum gcntibus colitur, appeJIata.-
Origg. xiv. 6, 6.
I i
I f. i
I 'I'
, "
I r

septem de Sem, quae finnt septuaginta tres, vel
potius, ut ratio declarat, septuaginta duae; toti-
demque linguae, quae per terras esse coeperunt,
quaeque crescendo provincias et insulas impleverunt.
-Origg. ix. 2, 2.
In definition a bias existed towards the heptad or the.
octave, A ur. u30, 730.
De septem libcralibus disciplinis. Gramm'atica dia-
" Icctica, etc., Aur. 51.-0rigg. i. 2, I.
OccasionaHy individual words are closely defined: "
Materia inde dicitur omne lignum quod ex ea aliquid
efficiatur.-Origg. xix. 19, 4. Fid, Aur. 943, cf.
later the use of at/bar.
The importance of Hebrew is insisted on :
IlIa lingua quae ante diluvium omnium una fuit, quae
Hebraea l1uncupatur.-Origg. xii. I, 2.
The Hebrew language was in the world first and it will
remain after doomsday (190).
Item quaeritur qua lingua futurum homines loquantur.
-Origg. ix. I, 13.
The following passage explains why Gaelic was deemed
a worldly speech (46), not being one of the three sacred
tongues in which was written the superscription on the cross
( 165).
Linguarum diversitas exorta est in aedificationc turris
post diluvium. Nam priusquam superbia tunis
illius in diversos signorum sonos humanam divicleret
societatem, una omnium nationum lingua fuit, quae
Hebraea vocatur. Initio autern quot gentes, tot
linguae fuerunt, deinde plures gentes. Tres sunt
autem linguae sacrae: Hebraea, Graeca,' Latina
quae toto orbc maxime excellunt. His enim tribus
linguis super crucem Domini a Pilato fuit causa eius
scripta.-Origg. ix. I, 1-3.




The early Irish rhythmical alliterative poetry, (.g.-
arnin arding
forsail for fot fedair,
dinin disail for gair gabhaidh (1546),
extendii1g' up to and running into the eighth century, might
almost be defined by the words:
Huic adhaeret rythmus, qui non cst certo fine moderatus,
sed tamen rationabiliter ordinatis pedibus currit j
qui Latine nihil aJiud quam numerus dicitur.-
Origg. i. 39, 3.
A verse of dithyramb or metrical rhythm is to be
measured by a breath of the poct, five words to each breath
(930 ).
Periodos autem longior cssc non debet quam ut uno
spiritu proferatur.-Origg. ii. 18, 2.
Grammatical questions as to gcnder and comparison of
adjectives find a like expression in Latin and Gaelic :
Neutrum dictum quia nec hoe nec illud, id cst nee
masculinum nec femininum.-Origg. i. 7, 28; Aur.
Octo autem modis 'conparatio analogiae colligitur: id
est qualitatc, conparatione, genere, numero, figura,
casu, extremitatibus similium syllabarum, et simili-
tudine temporum.-Origg. i. 28, 1 ; Aur. 639.
" Non est maius nisi ad minus referatur.
Sic et parvum opponitur magno ita ut ipsud parvum ad
magnum, cui opponitur, sit parvum.-Origg. ii. 31,
4, '5 j ,Aur. b76.
Inde Ponticus sinus amplissimus a tergo
palu'dibus; quod mare ex multitudine fluminum
dulcius quam cctera.-Sallust, quoted by Priscian
Macrobius, Servius, and Origg. xiii. 16,4.
in dulci aqua xii. 6, 56 ;" sive salsae sint sive dulces.-xiii.
14, I ; Aur. 730.
IN 1 KVUU\....l
Artificial etymologies carry their influence into the Gaelic
text; vir is derived (rom virts. lIIulier from
{rom ftJllur ..
Vir nuncupatus, quia maior in eo vis est quam in
feminis.-Origg. xi. 2, 17; Aur.605.
Mulier vero a mollitie, tanquam mollier, detracta littera
vel mutata, appellata est mulier.-Origg. xi. 2, 18 ;
cr. femina de flescda no maithchnechas, Aur. G1O.
Femora dicta sunt, quod ea parte a femina sexus viri
discrepet. Sunt autem ab inguinibus usque ad
genua. Femina autem per derivationem femorum
partes sunt, quibus in equitando tergis equorum
adhaeremus.-Origg. xi. I, 106.
Femina vero a partibus femorum dicta ubi sexus species
a viro distinguitur.-Origg. xi. 2, 24; Aur. 608.
Consonants, semi-vowels, and mutes are treated similarly
in the Gaelic and the Latin texts:
Et vocatae consonantes quia per se non sonant sed
iunctis vocalibus consonant. Haec in duabus
partibus divid untur: in semivocalibus et in n1utis.
Semivocales dictas eo, quod quiddarn semis de
vocalibus habeant.
Mutae autem dictae quia nisi subiectis sibi vocalibus
nequaquam erumpunt.-Origg. i. 4, 3, 4; cf. Aur.
358 tI seq.,' 367 el seq.,. 468 el seq.
Vnde et legitimae nominantur iIla ratione, scilicet vel
quod ab E vocali incipiunt et in mutum sonum
desinunt, ut sunt, consonantes, vel quod a suo sono
incipiunt et in vocalem E desinunt ut sunt mutac.-
Origg. i. 4, 10; Aur.
The active and the passive of verbs:
Etargaire persainni i ngnim (651); i cessadh (653).
In persona verbi agent is ct paticntis significatio est.-
Origg. i. 9. I.
'The Origines contain well-known quotations (and the
above may be of this sort) :
Litterae autem dictae quasi legiterae, quod iter
legentibus praestent, vel quod in legendo iterentur.
-Origg. i. 3, 3; Aur. 3GO.
Some quotations are hard to find elsewhere:
Nam unum semen numeri esse, non numerum.-Origg.
iii. 3, 1 ; Aur. GH8.
I t is not time that is divided but our actions (93).
Nam tempus per se non intellegitur, nisi per actus
humanos.-Origg. v. 31, 9.
These references I have not found.-Aur. 464, 517, 728.
The foregoing quotations arc found in the portion of
the Auraicept attributed to Cenn Faelad. They occur
not only in commentary but often in the structure of the
composition. Hence the conclusion that Cenn Faclad had
before him the Origines or a document based thereon, and
closely resembling it, is amply justified.
The use of the Origi1les is continued in the Gaelic text,
after the portion attributed to Cenn Faelad ends. I n the
latter part of the book occur also some few suggestions
of Ogharn.
What is known as lIihi/us, Aur. 970, 8, is thus explained:
V quoque '1ittera proinde interdum nihil est, quia
alicu bi ,nee vocalis nec consonans est, ut quis.
enim non est quia I sequitur; consonans .
non est quia Q praeeedit. Ideoque quando nec
vocalis', nec consonans est, sine dubio nihil est.-
Origg. i. 4, 8.
A quotation common in the grammarians is :
Nisi enim nomen scieris, cognitio rerum perit.-
Origg. i. 7. I; Aur. '1099.
enogam 5692.
dinnogam 5087.
ogam n-eathrach 6132.
ogam tirda G724.
dathogam 5697.
quinque: duodecimam, quod unum.; scxtam,
quod duo; quartam, quod tria; tertlam,. quod
quattuor; dimic1iam. quod sex. cOlm et
duo, et tria, et quattuor, et sex slOwl ducta
xvi faciunt et longe a duodenario exccdunt. ...
Perfcctus numerus est. qui suis partibus adinpletur.
ut sellarius; enirn tres partes, scxtam,
tertiam. dimidiam: sexta eius unum cst, tertia du.o.
dimidia tres. H:lec partes ill summam ductac, lei
est unum et duo et tria simul eundem consummant
perficiuntque'senarium.-Origg. iii. 5, 9-11; Aur.
Occasionally the Gaelic gives merely the gist of the
Primum enim diem a Sole appellaverullt, qui princeps
est omnium siderum, sicut et idem dies caput
cunctorum dierum. Secundum a Luna, quae Soh
et splendore et magnitu<1ine proxima cst, ex co
mutuat lumen. Tertium ab stella Marlls quae
Vesper vocatur. Quartum ab s.tella quam
quidam candidum circulum QUllltum ab
stella lovis,' quam Phaethontem alUnt. a
Veneris stella, quam Luciferum asserunt, quae 1l1tcr
omnia sicJera plus lucis habet ab
Saturni, quae scxto eaelo locata tngtnta anms
rertur explere cursum suum.-Origg. v. 30, 5-7;
Aur. 3531.9.
Titles of chapters or sections in the Origints appear as
na,mes of Ogham :
De Iionlint xi. I.
J)e aviblls xii. 7.
0tpidfl nobilia xv. 1I 6.
J)e atdijiciis sacris xv. 4.
De llflvibus xix. I. I.
De ills/rumell/is ,'uslicis xx. 14.
/)e coloribus xix. 17


i,' .


I .i


A quotation not seen by me elsewhere:
Lapis autem dictus quod laedat pedem.-Odgg. xvi.
3. 1 ; Aur. 3396.
Occasionally the Latin helps to decide the reading of the
Gaelic text:
Incorporalia. quia carent corpus; unde nec videri nec
tangi possunt, ut veritas, iusticia.-Origg. i. 7. 4;
cf. Aur, 3238.
Occasionally the Gaelic is a running commentary on the
Perspicuae voces sunt quae longius protrahuntllr ita lit
omnem inpleant continuo locum. sicut clangor
tubarum (stocaireacht no cornaireacht, Aur. 1477).
Subtiles voces (cronan no certan bec, 1474) sunt,
quibus non est spiritus, qualis est infantium vel
mulierum vel aegrotantium, sicut in nervis (intan
is cruit, 1484). Quae enim subtilissimae cordae
sunt, subtiJes ac tenues sonos emittunt (intan as
bindi is tuiu 7is isJiu ata na a n-aiH, 1484). Pingues
suilt voces, quando spiritus multus simul cgreditur,
sicut virorum (mod .j. mo od i od ceol intan is
mascul 1470). Acuta vox tenuis, alta, sicut in
cordis videmus (traethait naciulu isH na ciuil arda
1477). Dura vox est, quae violenter emittit sonos
sicut tonitruum, sicut incudis sonos. quotiens in
durum malleus percuititur ferum (intan is torand
no is crand 1479, tourand no caint 4575). .
Caeca vox est, quae, max emissa fuerit, conticescit, atque
sufrocata nequaquam long-ius producitur, sicut est
in fictilibus a ed intan is fod 1479. fouta
Origg. iii. 20. 10- I J.
Occasionally the Latin determines the interpretation of
the Gaelic, the latter being an almost literal translation of
the former:
Superflui sunt, quorum partes simul ductae plenitlldinem
exccdunt, ut puta duodenarius. Habet enim partes
Bible names suffer change in passing into the Gaelic text
through the Latin transliteration:
Nebuchadnezzar, Nabuchodonosar, Origg v. 39, 18;
NabgocIon, Aur. !27.
Nimrod, Nembroth, Grigg. vii. 6, 22; Neamruad, Aur.
Noah, Noe, Origg. vii. 6, 15; Noe, Aur. 107.
Secrecy-the avowed purpose of Ogham-is outlined in
a simple code similar to that which finds expression in. Aur.
Caesar quoque Augustus ad filium, II quoniam," inquit.
innumerabilia accidunt assidue quae scribi alterutro
oporteat et esse secreta, habeamus inter nos notas
si vis tales uti cum aliquid notis scribendum erit,
pro unaquaque littera scribamus sequentem hoc
'modo pro a /J, pro IJ c, et deinceps eadem ratione
ceteras; pro z autem redeundum erit ad duplex.
a a. "Quidam etiam versis verbis scribunt.-Origg. i.
This reference I have not found: Aur. 3244.8, but cf.
Maro 24, 10- 24.
The editor, Huemer, in his Prat!jalio, p. xi., after giving a
list of blunders common to all the MSS. of Maro, concludes:
Atque archetypum' iIlud litteris scotticis scriptum
fuerit necesse cst, cum " et 11, c et I, r et s, s et J,
p et j, saepe permutatac vidcntur.
The Gonclusion is irresistible. \Vhethcr the scribe was
himself perpetrating these blunders, or, as his editor thinks,
merely copying them from others, the sources of Maro, as
we know him, are Irish.
Meyer, in two lists (SPA Jul)" December 1912), gives,
from Maro's tract, a selection of forty-two names, which he
considers to be of Celtic origin. They are as follows: '
Acmerills p. (22). Lato-mills (
I\ndrianlls (173). L\lg"eniclIs (162).
Area rex (15). (1)2).
Asp.orills (5). (114).
Assianlls (173). Nmlls (111).
Bi-cntius (137). Oss-ills (
Breg-andus (162). l'crrichills (
Don (I;. 30)' (15')'
Fassica f. ( 12 3). Prass-Ius (61).
Gabr-itius ( 126). Reglllus (?) (133)
Galb.arius (163). Rig-as f. Rigadis (122).
Galb.ungus (10, 122,133). H.ithea Nini uxor (119)
Gal.irius (14
). Sagil1ius Germanus (17)
Gall-ienus (
9). Sammin illS, Virgil's uncle (28).
Ge1b.idius (36). Sarbon (122).
Gcrgcsus (IS). Sarricius (
Glengus (122, 133). Saur-inus (28).
Gurg-ilius (173). SeduJus (138, I,W),
lUll-anus (54). Scncllus (13 8).
Lap.idus (19). Sui pita (24).
Lassi\ls (107). tJrsinus (90)'
Further examination may shorten the list \vithout
seriously disturbing the contention that if Maro had no
connection with Ireland, his circle of Irish friends was
unaccountably large. .
Sua aplt (116, I 1 ; 81, 4) has been recognised as an Irish-
Latin hybrid, su-aptc, which later came into common use
in I rish Latin. I
. There is a of the lori COJlI1//lIl1ts of Latin
Grammar, t.g.- .
. Maro denies that Latinitas is derived from :Lnlillus,
preferring latitt/do, p. 5, 6: Aur. 355.
litera ab ipsis etiam cerae caracteribus usque ad
quassorum compossitionem hosce ordines' directat,
p. 7, 10; Aur. 1756. . !
syl1abae monades senas literas n<?n debent
ut sct'obs, Maro, p. 11 t 7; Aur. 1229.


" .

Grama est litteraturae peruidatio, quae quasi quaedam
totius lectionis semitula est unde et a peritis litera
interpretatur legitera quod est legendi itinerar.ium.-
Maro, p. 19, I I: Aur. 1758.
A certain resemblance is discernible between ;Maro,
24, 10-
3, and Aur. 3244, and
Nec apertc mascuJinum nec absolute dicitur esse
feminum.-Maro, 31. J 3; Aur. 614.
verbum est omne quod lingua prafertur et voce.-1\1aro.
88, G, and AUf. 1924.
The device scilldtorat/o fOlloru1ll, Maro declares (p. 76, 7),
was resorted to in order to sharpen the wits, to adorn
expression, and:
tertia ne mystica quaeque, et quae solis gnaris
pandt debent, passim ab infimis ac stultis facile
The same reason, here called tcrt/a, is alleged for the
invention of Ogham :_
Co mbeth in bescna-sa ic lucht in eolais (0 leth sech
Jucht na tirdachta 7 na buicnechta, Aur. 5472.'
One device consisted in breaking up a sentence into
groups of letters, e.g.-
RRR. 55. PP. MM. NT. EE. 00. A.V.I., i.e., spes
Romanorum perit.-Maro, 77, 12; cf. Aur. 3501.3.
Also, words may be broken up into syllables, and these
again may be strewn about in the jingle of a so-caJ)ed
sentence, e.g.-
sicut Lucanus edidit; get \res. roo trum. quando. tum.
a. fcc. o.m. nit .libet aeuo, which is thus explained,
quancloltbet vestrum gero omni aeuo affectum.-
Maro, 77,6.
Or in single words, e.g. llodo for dono, lusi for sille. gcrll/t,'11



for ngllulJl.-Maro 78, 28. This process appears in Irish as
dclidill sillabflcda, Aur. 5312.
AIJlfl1/S may be transformed into 1IIal/as (l\'1ara, 79.4). Itcri
into III'd. t:r into si (78. 31); fllat' into tala (i9. 10). a process
which is called delitill lit/erda, metathesis of letters. Aur. 5308.
A meaningless syllable or disyllabIc may be introduced
into a word, e.g. llaviga-bc-rc for l1a.'igare, b-II-0IlUIIl for
bonum (Maro, 78, 17); fort/-osi-ter for forlr'ler, (olllj>l-os-e for
comple (Maro, p, 70, 6). A meaningless disyllable so intro-
duced into Gaelic is called contfall, Aur. 5317.
The unstressed syllable following an accented syllabic is
sometimes dropped, e.g. rogassem, rogasu {or 1'(lgauisscJIl,
rt'gmlisse,. roga1'lfllt, rogan', for rogfluerulIl, rogmurr't (Maro.
78, 10). In Gaelic poetry this is called colut, Aur, 5287.
Stili more does the influence of Maro emerge in the
The name Trefhocul bears a resemblance to the heading
of the chapter De tri1llodo dicelldi gellere, Orig. ii. 17 which
may have suggested it. Similarly the twelve items compos-
ing the Trefhocul might have been originally suggested by
the duodccim latillilates of Maro, p. 88,22. e.g.
VI. lumbrosa, hoc est perlonga. cum pro uno usitato
totus uersus scribitur, with perlonga. cf. (can) rofota,
Aur. 5060; and for the matter, cf. Aur. 5943 where
each letter besides being written is spelt.
,vII. sincolla. 'hoc est perbreuis, uersa uice cum totus
uersus usitatus in uno continetur fono. \Vith per-
breuis, cf. (can) rogair, Aur. 5059, and for the maUer,
ef. Aur. 1326.
VIII. hoc est peruersa, cum casus nominum
modusque uerborum transmutat. \Vith peruersa, cf.
(can) chI6en.-Aur. 5057, 5086.
XI. spela, hoc est humillima, quae semper res terrenas
loquitur, with humillima, cf. a irisel, used of an
appended syllable, a.-Aur. 5070, 5346.
botlt. It has also another meaning,/ortitlido, influenced by
Ogham usage, where 13 +H=P, thus supplying the P which
is non-existent in pure Gaelic. Scmigll d, again, means
lenition and apparently on initials, but on this point the
examples are inconclusive (cf. bcith mo hsuidhe CZ. x. 266).
Here the aspirating H precedes the consonant it aspirates,
and thus Maro and thc Auraiccpt are at onc.
The warrantable conclusions to be drawn from the facts
arc few but very important. Bigcrro SO'l/IOllC ckfnbo (Maro
8, 13) II ill thc speech of Bigorre," which Zimmer presses to
show that Maro was a native of that district, though in the
tenth century he is called TO!OSt71IllS, proves merely that
Maro was more or less conversant with Baskish. He was
acquainted with viro atl/cllsi, a man belonging to the town of
Ate south of Limogcs(Maro 141,28). Hc mentions a Sz'/J}'lla
Cargill/cIlSlS, belonging to the town of Carca, in the Depart-
ment of the Iberian nastitani (P.48, 25), and he knew a grcat
number of Irishmen. Except perhaps in the passag'e last
quoted in which h adfortitlldifllm may be compared with b
cllm aspira/iolle pro p ponitlir (432, 2879), no connection is
traceable between him and Fercherlfle jili, whose work
belongs to a much earlier period than the Trefhocul. The
influence of Maro's book on I rish grammar is confined to
the Trefhocul, the last stage of the growth of prosody. The
Auraicept proper, of which Fere/urlne jili was one of the
authors, or one undcr whose name ancient material was
incorporated, no trace of l\iaro's influence.
I nteresting questions arise in the, text' itself, some of
which need only be mentioned, e.g.:-
The so-called mutes I, 1/, r, pronounced tI, ell, er in Latin,
Ie, l1e, re in Gaelic (490, 511, 2981)..
The frequent absence of .aspiration, or aspiration by
omission, of f anc;1 8,
ni aimser rota 1576, re aiges (408,9).
xu. polema, hoc est superna quae de superioribus
tractat. With superna, cf. a irard, an appended
syllable, n/b.-Aur. 5078, 0341.
II. Assena, hoc est nQtaria, quae una tantum Jittera
pro toto sono contenta est, cf. Q for ceirt, Aur.
5816, and R for Ruis 5820.
These coincidences are too to be accidental.
Omitting other lesser similarities, to lay stress on which
might be as fanciful, we come to the solid ground
of quotation. (Hcreon Zimmer, not having the whole tract
before him, could find no footing.)
v. metrofia, hoc est intellectual is, ut dictantabat, ici est
principium ; sade, id est iustitia: gno utiIitas j bora,
hoc est fortitudo; ter hoc est dualitas coniugalis;
rfoph, hoc est lIcneratio; brops, hoc est pictas j
rihpll, hoc est hiJaritas j gal, hoc cst regnum j f1\al,
hoc est religio; clitps, hoc est nobilitas; mymos,
dignitas; fann, hoc est recognitio; ulio, hoc est
honor; gabpal, hoc est obsequium ; blaqth, hoc est
lux solis; merc hoc est pluuia; pal, dies et \lOX;
gatrb, hoc est' pa:x; biun, hoc est aqua et ignis;
spax, longeuitas. .
With the exception of y and z, which may have been
added from another source, the explanation following hoc esl,
id es/. is in each case identical with that given in Aur. 4211-

Perhaps more important than all is the following:
De It autem hoc dicendum est, quod semper inspirat,
nunc ad fortitudinem, nunc ad motationem tantum:
Nam cum semiuocalem praecesseritf; solum sonum
pariter motabullt ut hfascon ct faciunt / pro Itf; si
lIcro mutam c uel t uel p, suum sonum non amittit
ut //corda, Ittr()//lis, /1/'ala1lx, Maro, p. J0, 9- J4.
This passage throws light on Aur. 432,
there means aspiration (and apparently on finals) lit clodl,
. t'
The confusion owing to the distance of the from its
text; e.g., ISIS is glossed at 1637, at 1075, 1577 at
1686, 1579 at 1687, 1591 at 1692, 1609-14 at 1695.
The tendency of words and phrases like alt co fesear
(827, 1686), and foglll (1336, 1871) to become technical terms.
The French pronunciation of Latin, sirqundimus (4125),
sircuim (4132), sircumplex (4784), siicuitas (2531), resulting
in important changes in Gaelic, isinn Asia (2571) for isind
Achaidh (251).
The rhymes, some apparently without sense (806), some
without metr.c (1546), and some in metre but obscured by
glosses (253,4360, 5932 ).
Thc etymological reconstructions :-
distinction of gender indicated in spelling; and mod, lod,
Iratllt, secundulII, quosdal/l is tlurlolld (1496) or leading word
that indicates gender.
The ascription of the same poem to Colum Cille (938),
and to Cormac (1506, 3807, 5351).
The repetition of the same passages 1487, 152; cf. 2616,
2622, shows that the present text is made up from at least
two versions which sometimes contained the same material
in diff,:rent order. .Hence no doubt comes the disjointed
character of many passages.
The following terms, however, arc of importance in order
to understand the text :-
co-fidlor cubaid (1512),
ciallabair lor ceileabar (1594),
fegait lor fichit (4735). for fcgait, sedhait (4;37), segait .
co, hogfcgad/or coic (1637),
rc huammalor rcim (1638),
so-fis lor seis (479),
lC gnithifiJr aicned (501),
suad Ivr uad (495),
conod miait (508)lor conid muiti (495),
dorrac lor tra (573), smitai, smit ai. (=aue) for smita
The constant modernising of the text :---
ceithri gne (872), ceitheora gnee (3747),
moosomlor moam (658),
lugusom for lugam (059),
cinntechsom, cinntichu son (1258) for ci'nntechem (4368).
Syllable, the ultimate element of everything in Gaelic
except gender (1457). Number, case, person, degree, tense,
mood, arc indicated by syllables, whereas there is no
.: '!

, ,j
The word gives the key to the
plan of inAection called /il/tiglhi, prepositional cases (1515).
These eight syllables are held to form one word. According
to our present grammatical methods the basis or unity is the
compound word of five syllables cOl1lroirclligscm1llar. It is
preceded by a relative pronoun all- and by an enclitic or
pre-verb -'-0, and it is followed by an emphasising pro-
nominal suffix -nt'. But the native Irish grammarians
regarded all these syllables as parts of one word, and the
scribes wrote the whole as one word. I n their opinion
proclitics were not separate words, but rather /ililiglhi,
inAections, of the accented word. Accordingly, they wrote
fri,rslllfcr as one word, an inflected form or fcr, and gave it
a distinct technical name. This also explains how is fer
(1529) comes into the scheme. Is was an unstressed pro-
c1itic, and as such was treated as part of the word following.
They did not observe that is fer, a tldwrascbdil, had already
bee,n dealt with under the head of fer, a abl1111lt'ugud,. nor
did they recognise identity of case and inflection in the
words which they wrote
lafer,frissbifer, fojiur, t'arjiur (1525).
xlviii INTKUUU\.,
issl ind ala gm'!is dcg dil,
l:1r1onn insci ria hairim,
(2083-2118) totals 51; the third list (2131-2176) totals
The discrepancies may be purely scribal, and due to a mis-
reading- of the Roman numerals, e.g., iii. read as iv., ii. as V.,
a constant source of error.
\Vhat is the differencc between the two kinds of
corrective? It will be found that al) those called sclilll,
except lugugud, the addition of a diminutive suffix, are
purely artificial distortions of the words; whereas
called gmiisi, except CCll1ljoel,rus Iii is, airt'clu'll, dcelmfd, and
dIe/wed, are in accordance with strict grammatical usage:
e.g., the usc 1Iletri causa of soler instead of jcr (socrugud) i
dt1j;r instead ofjcr (docrllglld) i the addition of two proclitic
syllables (lorga juae/I), or of one syllable (dial' ?I-cladllllf) ;
the use of issl, issl, issed (UrlOIlIl illsce), where the}' might be
omitted, e.g.-
(where iss! completes the number of syllables required but
might be dispensed with, if the number were complete
without it); the use of sing'ular for plural (oell), e.g.-
creid uaim fein, is fior mo. rann,
U my quatrain," meaning (all the quatrains of) /1 my poem";
the use of plural "for singular (ldll). c.g.-
meni fhuilet (2198)= meni fuil.
There must some distinction of ideas in the two terms.
The gill/lsi. are or were originally the natural devices, and
the sct/tll the artincial devices (or avoiding metrical faults,
and perhaps the words were adopted on that principle,
gmiis being-the natural part of the man on the outlook to
. ward off an enemy, sclatk the artificial implement for the
same purpose.
A similar touch of imagination emerges in regarding
! .
. .

: r
; f
: f
i ,

: I
Classification of prepositions, or any explanation of
infixed pronouns (653) was thus rendered unnecessary.
Another flexion is rtim, which later means oblique case
(780). Of this flexion there are three kinds outward, inward,
and both combinea : outwaru lit est,ler. There is no flexion
in the word as it stands in the nom., but there may be
flexion in the context, e.g., in the accus., last'11 (bf)fi:r; fir
is an inward flexion of fi'r,. and in jcr is capable of both,
e.g., d01/d fiur.
T(cbnim prosla ,i fiu/lin (7D5) is the side.nexion, i.c., the
external flexion of ml, Ill, etc.
TrljllOcul rhymes with gll-mxllr (217D), and hence has
and i. I t means II three words" (201M), II and the know-
ledge of its secret," i.e., probably how it came to be so named,
14 is very hard," considering that II already thirty-six words
have been found comprised under its species in Irish 1/ (2021).
'Frl/llOot! came to mean a collection of precepts for the
correction of incorrect versification. For each of the twclvc
technical faults (a1/oclJl), there were two correctives, each
having its technical name, one belonging to the class called
seiad/, the other to that called gmiis. Thus the whole system
of correct versification would have been comprised under a
set of mnemonic3) each mnemonic consisting of three heads,
the name of the fault and the name of its two correctives-
in short, it was a three-word scheme) and accurately named
1'rl/l/Ocl/l. The original scheme of two correctives for each
error is commended (20103), and still adhered to in r"d)"(1(//
(2047), and in uall/(u/jri llilar (2057). But latcr refinemcllts
led to bverlapping in the application of the correctives.
Hence \yc find in the poem that a particula-r fault may be
corrected or avoided by having recourse to more than one
devicc of each class, seladJ or gmi/s.
\Ve read that the 24 helps are increased to 47 (212Q).
The first list (20:35-2071) totals 48, not 47; the second list
H Group.
In the Kilkenny Arc/I. jourllaI. July (874. p. 231, Mr
G. rvr. Atkinson suggcstcd that this group is named aftcr the
first five Gaclic numcrals. !1m"" do. tn'. aalll(1r, (Nig. This
suggestion, without touching on thc origin of H, is open to
'the objection that ocn in 0.1. is used only in composition
with a substantive; but in the mcantime it fu fnishes a useful
mncmonic, and, as it stands. it indieatcs a possible connection
bctwecn this group and 1Il1ll/Crosa. No. I V. of the dllodl'o"lII
/athu'latcs of Maro, p. 89,9.
Thc difficulty is with rcgard to H, thc first lcttcr of the
group. According to Maro H has two powers) ad lIIota-
lio//('/II and adjorti/lldi//c/II) distinctions which to
thc values in thc text: (I) H 11011 esl Ir'ltra sed Ilota asp,'ratiollis
(767) and (2) B e"lIl aspiratiollc pro P pOlli'"r (433).
There is no demonstrated instance of H occurring in any
of th'e Ogham inscriptions) and the sign may have originally
been dcvised to rcpresent a consonant value which became
rare or obsolete before the time of the extant inscriptions;
and the first value of H was attracted to, and became
identified with) the symbol when the lctter bccame familiar
through Latin sourccs.
An endeavour is here made to establish the second or
Ogham value of H from the following considerations.
A stop sibilant existed in Gaelic (if. Ped. Gr. S (), corre-
sponding to Gaulish D, which is sometimes written 5, e.K.
Lat. i-UIU!It:-US, I r. 0-(1(, Cym. leu-aile,' also without c, Ir. oat
Cym. z'eu. The sibilant representing i appears also 'in I r. as
s.o, s-ou, sd-om. That this sound is represented by Ogham
H is rcndered probable by the occurrence of the form
z'lmiwllis, Lat. juvelltS, brill,viii. 5.
But this sibilant sound is also written d, e.g., Tadg =
Tasg-os, and probably r, e.g-. , do-bide =.dibire (if. Brcr
; 'I
. ,
head and heart as being supports of man. the male being
(1808,4994)) and the further refinements of /dnomna and their
geut) mated pairs and their progeny. In the original notion
doubtless the distinction was based on gender, but that fact
was forgotten. and among the examples are IdllOllllla dez'me
(4909), mated couples (mas. and fern. in grammar), belonging
to c1t'lIl (a thing which is neutcr in nature). This usage is
cven pxtended to quantity) which is still more remote (rom
the original idea of gender.
The same tendency to personification appears in the
suggested distinction among joreomlt,jreeomll) and dtgeomlt
(1818); 10rcolIIll) defensive armour. as kneecap on knee;
Il"t'coJ/llI. armament of offence, as knuckles; and dtgcolllcl,
that which protects by supplying life and vigour.
Ogham alphabet was not of Irish origin (388, 2771).
U VicIleicht:' says Zimmcr) II schon dem 2. Jahrhundert n.
Chr. ist der Verkehr des keltisch-romischen 'vVestgalliens mit
seiner alten Kolonie) dem keltischen IrIand) die Einfiihrung
des Ogamalphabets in und die Sitte, dem Dahin-
geschiedenen aufrechtstehende Steinpfeiler zu errichten.
Zl1zuschreibcn (SPA.) 8th Dec, 19 10, p. (096).
According to MacNeill (p. 335) the origin of the Ogharn
alphabet must be placed after the Roman conquest of Gaul,
because prior thereto the Western Celts of the continent used
the Grcek alphabet, and Ogham is based on the Latin alphabet.
In our knowledge of written Gaelic,' Ogham inscription
bounds the horizon, and the identity in value of the Ogham
symbols with later MS. tradition is clcar, with a few
13 Group,
Oghamists are agreed that F, the third letter of the
group, must be read as V in inscriptions.
A Group.
The simple vowels have same order and value as in
In epigraphy no distinction of long and short vowels has
hitherto been observed.
The fourth symbol is said to represent sr or 8tr, and the
examples Stru 247,2562, Streulce 5690, Strannan 5795, seem
sufficient to establish that sound. The other examples point
to a rare or obsolete sound like z, e.g., stmolach 5695,
srcghuindeacht 5801, sust 5727, srorca 5700.
No authenticated instance of this symbol has been found
in inscriptions.
Ea or Diphthong Group.
The first and the last symbols eo. and ne are inter-
T}:1e doubling of each letter in the explanatory script
. (1143) shows that the symbols stand for long vowels as well
as diphthongs. Examples are given of 6 and 0 (2873), of 6
and e (1285).
The symbol for i (1369) is also used for p (Jr. Ep. ii. 83 ;
if. MacNeiJI, p. 335,6) and for medial y.
The symbol for 00 (1365,70) is also used for x, which is
regarded as a double 0 (oc).
Prof. MacAlister (Jr. Ep. ii. J44-8) has called attention to
an excellent example-perhaps two-of Nathair im Ceann
(5R21). Owing to his axiom that the Oghams were not
Cryptograms (Jr. Ep. i. 66), he is unwilling allow that the
Band H groups were consciously interchanged (ii. 26, 140).
But this' interchange is contemplated (Auri p. 306, 42), and
since the study of the Oghams was elementary work pre-
scribed for junior students, the wonder is perhaps that so
many of the epigraphs are in regular Ogham.

M Group.
The fact that the third symbol has the effect of two
letters ng proves nothing as to that combination (492 5).
In Ogham inscriptions the letters, if they belong to
different s}'llables, are written separately, Jr. t:p. i. 49.
Garad for Dreg Garad g.s. of Ed Garad). This value
following B would give the Ogham B+H =P.
Again the thrce Ogham accents are represented in the
text by the . letters d, S, n, (4800). At lines 430, 2817,
howevcr, are found the three slIpplemell/a written h, S, n,
except that at line 2878 fors = forsni/ iswritten the Latin sign
or length (T has a sign that may be meant for 8), and a
particular sign is substituted for n. This leaves a probability
'that here H has the same value as D.
Tt'ora juil/li iud Uraicepto (430, 2877) seem to be the
three SuPpltlllc1I/a (if. Origg. i. 3, 6), not of the Ogham but
of the Auraicept, that is, they are additions made to the
Ogham orthographic system by the grammarians of the MS.
tradition. If this limitation be correct, examples of SliPpIc-
1/I(,1Ila need hardly be looked for in the ancient Oghams.
No opinion on this point is obtainable from modern
Oghamists j for the word jcJrbaid is hardly known, and
Oghamists have hitherto ignored it. The word, however,
occurs with definitions and examples in the Book of
Fcrchertne (810, one of the oldest parts of the text,
and some of its provisions arc c:<cmplifieu, t.g., n (of cenn) is
not doubled in Ogham (439) f.g. QEN\'ENI>ANI, HHIJ/O-outJ'dor
(Ped. Gr. 357). On the other hand a large number of
inscriptions contain double IctterH. While some of these,
dd and 8, may perhaps be accents as indicated in the
Auraicept, others like co (1358, 1825) and 11 (4788) obviously
are not. Rhys Pedersen (Gr. 4), and others incline to think
them signs of lenition.

4726,4816 '
4879. 81
15 15, 1637
15 17
160 9
3989, 2545
4 15-23, 4096-4101
460 1
C) S3
1034, 174
1068-7 1'
I 116
00 j
';' oi
d' .
'), I
t: I
0: j
. i
4, 3306
5, 33
2260-235 I
2710, 2352
273 1
A Harmony between the Two Families o(Texts,

JV1 U ~ lKVUU\" V ~
I. JI. I. II.
I6<}S 4882
177 497
173 4
2 180
5 4991
1714 4904 1808
J721 4911 1816 SOD;
1733 49
4 18Jo 520
1739 45
21 1846
49J2 18
1745 49J5 1940
1748 4937 1944 5
1760 4961
Passages in I. only.
Passages in I I. only.
Passages Misplaced.
-4 135
. 1

BU. 314 CI 16 E. 19 fj 14
Ino1plt Auraloept na nEges .i eraicept, ar er gach
toiseach. Cid dianad toisseach seo? Ni allsa. Don tebi
rotebed isin Gredilg, uair is ed toisseach arricht la Fenius
iar tiachtain din scoil gusna berlaib ammuich: gach son
forrdorcha robre in gach bescno 7 in gach berlu, is ed IL
doradadh isin Gredilg, conad airi as foirleithiu quam gach
berla. Ar gach toisseach didiu, uair is ed ba toisseach lais..
na filedaib gach son fordorcha do riachtain i tossuch .i.
beithi-Iuis ind ogairn arbithin dorchadad. Cest, cia tug-aid
ara n.ebnrar berla tobaide din Gredi/g? Ni {lIIsa. Uair 10
rotebedh as gach berla; 7 gach son fordorcha gach ber/a,
fo[fh]rith ined doib isin Grcdelg ara forleithi seach gach
mbescna. Cest <lit/iu, ina raibi resiu rotobaidhe?
Roble emh, ar ni fagbaiter na da berla sechtmogat
ar cheana. Cest, cia tir i rrugad Greueal? Ni allSlI. 15
I nEgipt. Ocus cia airm sonnrud? Ni ansa. I
mmaigh Ucca i rraind iartharaig descertaig Egipti.
Cia dill scoil dus-cuaid gu suidhe? Ni alisa. G<cdel,
mac Etheoir mic Toe mic Barachaim do Grecaib Scitie
(no Scithie) (col. (3). Cest, cia met donuc di? Ni ansa. 20
A huiledeto genmotha inni rothormachtatar filid tria
fordorchadh iar torrachtain gu Fenius. Cest, cia berla
Araicept als L.[30S]
1 ur E. II robol, beetnu E. a ar (::';fjltfllll) in asin
Goedelg, ar gach mber/a E. 7 laain filid E. 1/ cest writlcn out
10 :\f a n.eiper, teipide E. 13 rotopad Ie E. 10 ana rugad E.
III remradt E. It! dacuaidh E. 11/ Barrcaimh, SgeithegJa E.
:J) L. dUlluch 13. :/1 rotormactar E.: dotormachtadar L.





Inclpit Primer of the Poets, that is, eraia!,l, beginning
of lessons, for every beginning is cr. To what is this a
Not hard. To the selection that was
selected in Gaelic since this is the beginning which was
invented by Fenius after the coming of the school with
the languages from abroad, every obscure sound that
existed in every speech and in every language was
put into Gaelic so that for this reason it is more compre-
hensive tha.n any language. Er then is every beginning,
. for this was the beginning with the poets, that every
obscure sound should come in the beginning, to wit,
the lleithe Luis of the Ogham on account of obscurity.
what is the reason. why scIect language should
said of Gaelic? Not hard. Because it was selected
(roin every language; and for every obscure sound of
every language a place was found in Gaelic owing to
its comprehensiveness beyond every speech. Query,
then, did not Gaelic exist before it was scIecterl? It did
indeed, for the seventy-two languages are not found other-
wise. Query, in what land was Gaedel born? Not hard.
.In Egypt. And what particular place? Not hard. In
the plain of Ucca in the South-Western division of
Egypt. Who of the school went to it thither? Not
hard. Gaedel son of Ether, son of Toe, son of Baracham,
a Scythian Greek. Query, how much did he bring
of it? Not hard. The whole of it except what poets
added by way of obscuration after it had reached Fenius.

: ,
... 8unraig E.
Query, what of the seventy-two was published
by Fenius first? Not hard. The Irish Lan{;uage ... for
it is he whom he preferred of his school, and whom he
had reared from his youth, and it is he that was the
youngest of the school, and on account of its comprehen-
siveness beyond every speech, and it was the first language
that was brought from the Tower. Fenius had Hebrew,
Greek, and Latin before he came from Scythia, and he
had no need to establish them at the Tower, wherefore
on that account it was published first. Query, was there
not among the many languages something nobler to take
precedence of Gaelic? Not hard. No indeed, on account
of its aptness, lightness, smoothness, and comprehensive-
ness. Wherefore is it more comprehensive than any
speech? Not hard. Because it was the first speech
that was brought from the Tower, it was of such extent
that it was more comprehensive than any speech so
that it was the one to be published at first. What
are the place, time, person, and cause of Gaelic? Not
hard. I ts place, the Tower of Nimrod, for there it
was invented at first. Its time the time of building
the Towcr by Adam's children. Its person Sachab son
of Rochemhurcos and Gaedel son of Ether, son of
Toc, son of Baracham, a Scythian Greek. What is its
cause? Not hard. The building of Nimrod's Tower.
Others say the was that Gaedel went into, the
land in which he was born so that he was the first that
wrote it on tablets and stoncs in the particular place
which is named CaJcanensis. There Gacdc1 wrote Gaelic.
\Vherefore is C worldly speech' said of Gaelic, since it is
not referred to by the learned sages? Not hard. On
account of what it re1at,es of worldly questions and cases
both of laity and clergy. Wherefore is it said that he
who reads' Gaelic is rude before God? Not to it is refer-
duna di ber1aibh scchtmogat rotaisealbad do Fenius
tossuch? Ni ansa. Berla Feni ... ar is e ba tochu lais
dia scoil 7 :5 e rodn-alt asa oetid 7 is e ba soom din 3coil 7
ar a forleithi seach gach mbeascna 7 is e berla toisseach
rugad on tur. Et Eabra 7 Greie 7 Laitin Ja Fenius
riasu tissad on Scithia 7 ni rainig a leas a ndeimniughudh
icon tut', conidh aire sin toisseach rotaissealbad. Cest,
nach raibi isna berJaib ilib ni bad uaisli du riachtain 30,
i tossllch quam (.i. inas) in G<edclg? Ni a1/sa em.
Ar a cuibdi, ar a edruma, ar a mine 7 a forleithiu.
Cid ar nad lethiu quam (oi. inas) gach mbcscna ? r\ i
(lllsa. Uair is e cetna bescno rugad on tur, ba mede
co mbad leithiu quam gach mbescna, conid ren dia taiseal-
bad i tossach. Caide loc 7 aimsear 7 perso 7 tugait
clin Gxdelg? Ni allsa. Loc di in tor Neamrua[i]d,
ar is aga arricht i tossuch. Aimsear di aimser chum-
taigh in tuir 1a claind Adaimh. Persu di Sachab mac
Rochemhurcos 7 G<:ede1 mac Etheoir mie Thoe rnie 40
Barachaim do Grecaib Scithia. Caidhe tugaid? Ni
ansa. Tor Nemrna[i]dh di curntuch. Asberait arailc
conid' tugait dU duJ isin tir i rrugacJ, conidh
he toissech roscrib i taiblibh 7 i lIegaibh isin lug sond-
rud dianad ainm Caleanensis. Is and roscrib Gredel in 4:5
Cid ar a n-abar bescna domunda din Gredhilg
7 nach di ata briathar ]aslla hegnadu eoleha? Ni ansa.
Arinni aisnedes du ceastaib 7 du chaingnib domundaibh
eter tuaith 7 eglais. Cid ara n-epcr comad borb liadh
Dia inti legas in Ga-dhclg? Ni di ata briathar and etc,. 50
= Fendi
R. S.omethingomitted, cr. YDL. 2308, which puts Gxdd.
:11 7 Ire ro D. E. 29 rothaiselb E. 30 nanraibc E.
'lliam MS. ar. 3'J (orlethne E. :n don E. :lI\ ankht tosaig E
nAdalm E. mac E. "I 11 thuccait E.
" N ;, be weaned, marginal gloss, probably inlenued for n'l;,
table,. and refernng' to tables of stone, Ex. xxiv. 12' Deut. iv. 13 etc. Lo 'e
margIn glones 314 D.
(I) doseadad ambi logos, d. alogii, Origg. viii. 5,26
(2) buscna 1 urlabra
E. 20 A 6
ence here at all, but to the whole of philo:ophy, both
grammar, dialectic, and metrics; as the poet saId :-
Learning nnd philosophy are vain,
Reading, gr;lmmar and gloss,
, Diligent literature and mctric!l,
Small their avail in heaven above.
Query, is Gaelic not philosophy? Not hard. (No)
indeed save that which minor authors towards the end
of the world make as a mean!i {or them-
selves beyond the former authors: or this is what are
worldly speech and vain philosophy, vb:., the hercsy and
the unbelief which anyone has shown against the truth,
'(iivine and human, and that is the meaning of I rude
before Goel.'
\tVhat are the place, time, person, and cause of wntlllg
the Primer? Not one place have the four books, as the poet
says: \Vhat'is first is last what is last is. first, to wit,. ,,:hat
is first accordiilg to book order was Invented last, to
wit, the book of Cennfaeladh, son of OHil1. As rcgards
place, time, person, and cause of writing' that book. of
Cennfaclaclh: its place Derry Luran, its time the time
Qr Domnall, son of Aed, son of Ainmire. Its perso.n
Ccnnfaeladh son of Oilill; cause of writing it" that
brain of oblivion was dashed out of Cennfaelaclh s hcad In
the battle of Moira. Four glorious events of that battle:
Rout of Conghat in his lie before Domnall in his trut,h ;
and Suibne in -madness, but it is owing to .th('
of poems he had made; the Scotsman the Il'Ish-
man along \vith him over sea without bClng
Diadh was his name; and his brain of oblivion bClOg
dashed out of Cennfaeladh's head, owing to the extent of
poetry words and reading that he amassed.
the' authors of the Gael sny: Why did he
say that the authors who were before him say'? since
acht do uiHdeataid na feallsamnachta gramadaigh 7
diteachtaigh 7 rim, amal atbert in fili:
Fog-Iaim, {ealJsamnacht is {as,
Legennd, gramadach, is gluns,
Litirdheacht leir oms rim
Is beg a mbrig {or nimh thuas.
Cest, {ellsamnacht in Nf ansa em, acht
, na ndenaid min-ughdair fri dereadh in domain ar thucait
a nderscnaighthi seach na n-ughdflrll toisseacha, no is ttl
as bescna domunda and 7 is fheJJsamnacht dimhain: ind 60
eire[tcJacht 7 ind aibres dorigni neach i n-aigidh na
tirindi diadha 7 7 is ttl sin is borh fiad Dia and.
Caidi Jog 7 aimser 7 perso 7 tugait scribind in Crai-
cepta? Ni oenlog tra lasna cethri libro, amal atbert in fili:
an-as tuiseach, is td is deghenach, an-as dedhenach, is 65
cd as toisseach .j. an-as toisseach iar n-urd Jebhurda, is
ed as dedhenacho arricht .j. Iebor Citldfaeladh mic Oi/ella.
Log 7 aimser 7 perso 7 tucait scribincl in Iibhuir sin
log do Daire Luran, aimser do aimser Dom-
najIJ mic /Eda mic Aillmireach. Perso do Cendfa.:ladh 70
mac OiJclla, tugait a scribind a hillchind c1ermait du beim
a dnd ChifJdfaelad i cath Muighi Rath. Ceithri buadila
in catha sin: Maidm (or ConghaJ ina re nDomnall
ina tirindi; et Suibni i ngealtacht, acllt is ar a mhed ciu
Jaidib duroni; in fear d'Albanachaib do in Ercnnaich 75
'na chois dar muir gen airiugudh .j. Dubhdiadh a ainm'
ct a inchind dermaid du bhem a cind Cindf;:eladh ar a omhcc;
do fhilideacht 7 do bhriathraibh 7do Jegeand rothaisigh.
Asberat tra augdalr na nGaideal: Cid ara n-cbairt.
seom, asberat na hughtair robadar remi ? uair is e Cendf;clad 80
no cz . f .. 11 h
J>(I "X... 7
., c.... ,S3 m
laC ta E. gramatagda gIU:IS E. : glll:lis B
gun rig (ual E. Cl'J tOlsechu E. Ill) viii S 28' 6 ( , 1I1 1mj'do IE '''. r. ,. "" ,(grlu'!. III I a()CI E?n. pcrsa , j.IT nurd le:lbur Ai/ella E
omnadl mac Aodha B[renn] A.D. 6.p, mar inal nole h
Charb 0 Connor 68,"0 persu R. w Luran CUlli Dremnigh T g.,1 7T L Il.
MR., 279. note e ":1 ri:m Domnall E. ,. i ngeilt re
", 01.1\ ;urfite caich 0 sin a Idlh. 1 an fer do fcraibh Albun 'slirh
hUba., aile seo T. do Albancaibh E. JIJ rr'n a I hE'" t
/')1: r rae
, I

C. I
.. 1


;. '!

it is Cennfaeladh that invented this book, viz., the
ProloO'ue of the Primer. And the authors of the Gael,
that was Fenins Farsaidh, and Iar of the many languages,
son of Nema. Not hard [2nd Ans.]. Owing to the
nobility of the time he said it, that is, the prcsent time, for
he puts the present time for all times: ul dt:rll: Praesc1/s
It'I/JPUS pro ol/J/libus IClIlporibus POll r'11l 1', Le., the present
time is put for all times.' How is that? since he Jays
or the' one word in which are two syllablcs, that they
are not spokcn at one time, 111 dicilllr, /togo, I read,
qua1/do dieis le-j"I"u,m cst-go [quando dlcr's-eoJ praclcrilll1lt
t'sl le- i.e., when you say the first syllable, the last
syllable is future to you, and [whcn you say the last]
the first syllable is preterite to you. That is natural
as the Latinist said: Temptls ;lOIl dividil/lr std opera'
1I0stra dividll1ltur, i.e., it not time that is divided
there hut our actions. This however, is not a reference
to the authors lived at the same time with himself
which Cennfaeladh gave. when he said (the authors of
the Gael say.' Why has he placed a. first here? Because
it is the eldest among letters and the noblest
vo\vcls. ..
That thIs 1s tho roason for tho Irloh
(that is Fenius' speech); a. dood wondorful, unlawful,
that is, an unusual deed, unusual for its infrequency,
unlawful for its pride, an attempt on heaven in their
fleshl)' bodies permission of God.
. Whloh happoned thero, I.e. the bulld10g of Nimrod's
Tower. Now that Nimrod was champion of all Adam's
seed in his time, Nimrod, son of Cush, son of Ham,
son of Noah. There was not then any king over
. the world till the time of Nin, son of. Bel, but only
counsellors and chiefs were in existence up till that
time. Seventy-two counsellors accordingly were in the

. '.

. 1
< 'J
E. 20429
ttJ robathescin E. II' ef. Gr. Lat, iii. 191,2
IIa cr. Origg. v. 31, 9 IU di/iitlu1tllu' fodlaittr E.
lOt) t . .. 11 '
uc:ut alrlC 1:.. 10'.' NemruaJ E.: Nernruaidh n.
lOll. P comairlig L. : comlirlede E.
8 BB. 315 4 39
III OCU8 an L. E.
lllJ aarnaigthtr E.
1/3 Ni hi B. no is E.
1011 ina airnslr he L.
arainig in 1 brolJach ind 'Ocus na
ugdair na nGredheaJ, roba he sein Fenius Farsaigh 7 Iar
na n-ilberla mac Nema. Ni ansa. Ar uaisli na haimsiri
asrubairt i aimsiri frecnairci uair gebidh in aimsir frecnairc
arna huiIib aimseraib, tit dicitur: Prescells tellljm; pro olJl1li-
bus It'lI/ponous /Jonitur .j. sam(l)aigther in aimsir frecnairc
forna huilib aimseraib. Cinnas on 7 se ig a ddh jnt :cn..
OlOcul i mbit in da shiJJab nach cantar i n-4Cnaimsir III
die//llr "'go i leghaim, quando (Heis. (col. (3) le-,fl///lrlI'" est
-go [ql/a/ldo dieis -go], pre/erillim lsi le- i intan raide
int shillaib toisich todachaiche chug-ut int dedenach
7 seachmadhato seachat int shillab thoisenach. Defir on
amal asbert in Laidneoir: Templls !IOIl tlil/idilllr ud opera
1l0stra diu/tlitur i nochon i in aimsear fhogailter and
acht ar ngnimradh-ne. Ni hi dno is frecra dona 95
haug<1araib robadar i n-renaimsir ris fen tuc Ceannfa:lad
intan roraidh, asberait auctair na nG<cdeal. Cidh ara
tuc-somh a ar tus sunc'l'l? i uair is i irs] sruithiu i fedaibh
7 is uaisli i nguthmgib.
Co mbnd al In berIa 'Fenl (i. berJa Feniusa) 100
n-lngna.d n-lndUgtheach i is gnim n-ingnadh .i.
Ingnath ara ainmenci, indlightheach ara uaibrigi .i. trial1
for neam ina corpaib collaidih gan comairlechudh fri Dia.
Forcoomnacalr and 1 cumtach In tulr Neam-
rualdh. In Neamruadh sin tra trenfhear sil Adaimh 105
uile in[a] aimsir .e, Neamruadh mic Cuis mic Caimh
mic Noe. Ni hai iaramh a:nrigh for :n doman
. haimsir Nin mic Bel acht mad comhairJidhe 7
tOlslg hadar and go sin anaJl. Da comhairlidh
sechtmogat iaramh robadar isin domun isin aimsir
( t
ndernad in tor. Ba he dno in dara comairlib sechtmogat
Trenfear sidhe dno 7 fer an i selg i for
aigibh 7; fiadhuch i for mila muige 7 arrcheasaib i for
mucaib alJtaib 7 fornelaib .i for enaib, co mbidis sochaidi
do dhainibh ica leanmain samlaidh co mba lia i hi sloghaib 11ts
7 co mba nertmairi oldas comhairlt'd samhlaidh. Conid
he dorimtas (.i. rotimairg) na da comairlib sechtmogat sin
i naencomairli do dhenum in tuir Ja hua brathar a athar
i, la hiarmo der[b]brathar a shenathar i la Fallec mac
Ragua mic Arfaxat mic Sem mic Noe; 7 ba he sen in 120
dara comairlib sechtmogat cena go sin. 1 asberatsomh
iarum co mad rencomairlib 7 inann tuismidh doib uiJe
in Faillec. Is imchomarc sund anma'nda na cJa fhear
scchtmogat luis a ndernad in tor, acht chena ni airmed
anmanda na seacht fear ndeg ba haireg[tlJu
'1' J'al1lec, Neamruad, Eber, Latinus, Riabml Scot
Nabgodon, Assur, Ibath, Longbardus, Bodbus, Brittus:
Germanus, Garath, Scithius, Gotius, Bardanius, Sardain.
Acht ehena is e in eetri iar ndilind iar naicniud i Ncam-
rlladh. Is e sill in cetri iar n-eladhain in Fallee remraite.
Is e dOllo iar n-ugdaracht i Nin mac Bel mic Ploise mie
1'Iuliris mic Agomolis mie Fronosis mic Gitlis mic Tiris
mic Assuir mic Semh mie Noe. Atcotaidhi-scom cJno
anni sin. Et asberat Neamruadh co mbad a ainm.seomh
in gnima sill. Adrodamns (i. rodaimed) dno dosom 135
ann I Sin. Tredhe didiu ar a ndernad la claind nAdaim
cltmdach in tuir sin i ar imuamhan na dileand duridhisi
III, 17. comalrlidh E. II'.! i seilg E. 1ItI oldas (aeA E.
\Ill , I'd E
I n-aencomatr I, Ill' St. Luke iii, 3S: hiarmuadh E.
,:. Ragu comairligh, conaigi sin E.
I oentuslllh E. t'.!:! Fallerc sin. nnmand I! ... r E
1:.'11 F'be' ' "
. n.t XliII er '..
I'll .1 r t mac Saba E. Sgarath, Sgithus, GotUB, Sardaniu9 R.
, ugdarns R. Oroaius vii. 2. 13 l:tJ P'I" I I)' I,'
I IriS. t 1 IS .,
ucotaltlSe R.: '1' rotechtaidsium L. od' .' I n
la,' \ I
am'lIm 1
, rodmus R.: AnJrodamas? cr. OJigg. vii. 6. H' xvi. 's 8
corrupt. d. 2.p8,9. which i:> translated. I'
, I
!,' i
,. \
.\. 1
.. i
. !
! 'j
i '\
! \
.; .1
, I
world at the time in which the Tower was made. Now
one of the 7
was Nimrod. A mighty man was he
and a man famous in hunting, to wit, for stags; and
in coursing, to wit. for hares; and in trappings, to wit,
wild pigs; ;\nd in snarings. to wit. for birds. So that thus
multitudes of men were following him so that he was
more numerous, to wit, in armies and so that he was
thus more powerful than a counsellor. So that it was he
who united those 72 counsellors to one counsel to make
the Tower with the grandson of his father's brother,
to wit. with the great grandson of his grandfather's
brother, to wit, with Pe1eg son of Ragau, son of Arphaxad,
son of Shem, son of Noah. And he was one of the
counsellors, too, up to that time. And they say
therefore that Peleg was the one counsellor and the
same parent of them all. A question here is, the names
Qf the 7
counsellors by whom the Tower was made,
only that writings do not enumerate but the names
of the J 7 men who were most illustrious among them,
to wit, Peleg, Nimrod. Eber. Latinus, Rabiath' Scot,
Nabgodon, Assur, Ibath, Longbardus, Bodbus, Brittus,
Germanus, Garath, Scithius, Gotius. Bardatiius, and
Sarclain. But at any rate after the flood the first king
according to nature was Nimrod. That was the first
king according to art, the Peleg aforesaid. According
to authority, however, it was Nin son of Bel, son of
Plosc, son of Pluli ris, son of Agomolis, gon of Fronosis,
son of Gitlis, sort of Tiras, son of Assur, son of Shem,
son of Noah. He obtains, then, that thin(;. Nimrod
said that it was his name that should be on that work
for ever, Adro9amas, i.e., that thing also was granted
him. Three things, then, on account of whic,h the
building of that Tower was accomplished by Adam's
<:hildren, to wit, for dread of the flood again, and that
1;1\.1 conad E. uo Vulgate, Gen. xi. 7 HI licidh E.
no i. inbald E. IU rodbe, conamessosen .j. conromcsc impu E.
U7 do cria suaite 7 do mitmuill na c\ocha 7 na rarcaidh dia suailigh T.
no-imluaidis E. Ull reib E. ree, fili T.
ar doruimnttar (.i. brethnag) H. T. 16:1 airecta D,: airdcchta E.
13:1 romerdais E. . IW, G n-Iuchna, iarLhur-tuaisciurt E.
railldi. a lIin E. scchtmogat n. E. na flli T.
1:t1 tri suidh .i. suidh E. rororJodlad E.
1110. I ba suid sen E. The parcnlhesis (ollows in 13. E. I. notisis E.
7 do dul for neamh doib 'na corpaib don 7 d'
urdairciugud a nanmandh dia n-eis, conid de sin asbert
righ nimhi fd muintir nimi (316): Uell;fe tit tlidtam,i! 7
cOllfulldamus lillgas torUIIl i tait co rofegam 7 gu romel-
achtnaighem berla innani sin. Ba mor tra cumachta sil
Adaimh 7 a nneart isin aimsir sin ic denum in tuir co
festais iaramh [in] robhle cumachta righ nimhi uaso, conru..
ammesc-sen .j. conremcsc jmpu. In tan asberad neach
dib fri aroili tuc damh cloch' ba crand dobcread .j. na
lecca forsa suaitea in clue 7 na forchai elia suaitea, is iat
sin croind 7 docha no-imluaighdis eturru. Dolodar tra
tilid asin Scithia riab cianaib iarsna gnimaib-sea du
cuingidh fogluma na nilberla icon tur, air dorumcl/adar
(i rotoimtnigedar i dodochusaigeder) magen asa
Cordailte 7 i In.]arnechta na hilberla do shil Adhaimh,
romeartis and iarna comlani. Dolodar iaramh gu mag
Seannair dochum in tuir i mag n-Ucna no mag nDoraimh
i niartharthuascert maigi Sennair ainm sondrudach na
rrindi forsata in tor. Coigiur ar sechtmoga[i]t a lin na tiled
oj. fear gach berla 7 na tri saidhi i sai gach primhberla
dona tri primberJaibh .j. Eabra 7Greic 7Laidean. Ceithn'
berJa sechtmogat as gach berla dib-sen, is ed rofadlad and.
Fenius Farrsaid, is cd ba hainm a tuisigh 7 ba sai
sen isna primberJaibh (cid siu na-tisad a tuaid asin
Scithia). Is e fath ara cuirtlur primhdhacht i lIeith na
tri mberla sin ara med do elaelhnaibh dorighnedh estib
1 ld
to heaven in their bodies from the
they S lOU go. . 1
h d t rell
der their names illustnous after t lem,
eart ,an 0
so that on that account said the King. of heaven to
the eople of heaven (316): Vel/ile tit VlaClf1n1lS el (011-
p. It' come that we may see
jrwat711/1Is 111lgllf1S eorrlln, t la IS,.
and confound those men's speech. Now great,
power of Adam's seed and their strength at that time III
making the Tower, that they might know thus whether
the power of heaven's King was over them, .He con-
r d d them that is He confused them. V.... hen one
loun e " , 't
of them would say to another I fetch me a stone. I was
n stick he would bring, to wit, the slabs on. the
. d and the mallets by which It was
mortar was mlxe
. " these are the sticks and stones which the)' were
mlxeu, . I' 1 t'
' bout Now 110ets came from Scythia a Itt e line
ta 'lI1g a .'
after these doings to seek to learn the many
. tl ey thoun'ht Le. they supposed I.e.
at the ower since 1 , b
t d of a
lace from which were dispersed
t ley expec c,
Il'ICll h... d been invented the many languages
ane III w " .'
b Adam's children that they would remalll there In per-
r: t' They went to the plain of Shinar unto
ICC Ion. I' r
the Tower, that i!i, the plain of Vcna or the p alll .0
. 1 . 1 tile North West of the plain of Shinar,a special
oraHll 1 It ,
name of the point on which is the Tower. 1 he poets
.d seventy-five that is, one for each language, and
num ere . , , . . I
the three sages, to wit, a sage for each of the three pnnclpa
G k
d Latin Seventy - four
Hebrew, ree, ,an .
which is everyone of these languages, that was
what was dispersed there.
Fenius Farsaidh was the name of their chief, and he
was a sage in the principal languages even before he
from the North out of Scythia. The reason
is claimed on behalf of these three languages is owmg to
the amount of compositions that were made 'out of them,
I .

. l
E. 20 fJ 23 AURAICEPT 12 BB.3t SfJ49

163 Origg. ix. I, 3 181 crieha E. (do an fine .i dia fine) T

1811 na ni1berlad E. lUll do biud 7 d' etach T. ic (o;celo,. E.
na eonad brain doroeipe doib in T. m roaitrcb, nJch raibi E.
dia rogenctar E. In rogein E. T. m /II Mao'rU",.) dixit E.
1111 Magoth R. lila Adno1lt, Doidb E. 15-& Abbo, Aoi E. Ill.' hir E.
lel btrlair E. 1& ix. I, I : 13. ccana [a ]coo l ur E.
IIIlI rb 'I dEn
n r:uue Immorro lie.: nl:.bruidh .i. nEba a bruinnip T.
100 Gorthigernd ainrn In bcrla robui ac mnc De Deigerna 7ae sil Adaimb L. T.
7 arin cumasc rocumaiscit tri gach no dno is
arin titul roscribad estib 'na triur i claro oa croiche.
o na fuair Feniu9 comhlainiu9 na mherladh icon tur
forfodhail a scoil 7 a desciplu fo chaithrecha 7 fo cen
nadcha in talman ar gach leath du fhoghlaim na mberla
7 rosn-othrastar Fenius etir biathadh 7 etghudh i cen
hadar oca fhoghlaim .j. secht mberla 7 anais Fenius icon 170
tur 7 adrotreb co torracht a scol ina dochu m di cach
aird 7 bai ic forcedul hi1chenel in domain icon tur
inn ead sin. Conad de sin asbert i curp libair:
is and roan Fenius fadesin icon tur 7 is and
adrothreabh. Asberat aroili auctair ni raibi neach
di cloind ronan mic Iafeth' mic Noe dia roghcnedar
Grdc 7 dia rochin FcnillS ic cumtllch in tuir.
Dcbthir on, ar ni.raibi eland etir ic 10nl111 no ni Taibi
fen in mac sin oc lafdh ut Hierollymus (lI:1'il. Cest,
caite gcnclach Fenillsa? Ni ansa. Farrsaidh didiu mac 180
Baath mic Magogh mic lafeth mic Noe. No Fenius
Farsaidh mac (Eogain mic L) Glunnnd mic Laimfind mic
Ethcoir mic Agno[ma]in mic Toe mic Boinb mic Scrnh .
mic Mair mic Ethccht mic Aur'tccht mic Abodh mic
Aoi mic Ara mic lara mic Sru mic Esru mic Boath mic 18::
Riafath mic Gomer mic lafeth mic Noe 7rt. Et clno i[s]
Sgithegdha Fenius 7 cuga bcrthar Scithi 7 Gothi
. iarna ngenelclUlib. 1 robadar sil N(C ar ceana. Herla
nEbraidi 'na tengtha robai isin domun ri araile cumh.
dach in tuir [.i. Gorthigernd L.] 7 is cd dno bhias ia.r 190
and owing to the mingling wherewith they minglcd with
every language, or again it was owing to the superscription
that was written out of the three of them upon the board
of the Cross. Since Fenius did not get a perfection of the
.languages at the Tower, he dispersed his school and his
disciples abroad throughout the cities and territories of
the earth on every side to learn the languages, and Fenius
supported them with both food and clothing whilst they
were. 50 learning, to wit, seven languages [I. years], and
Fenius stayed at the Tower and dwelt till his school came
unto him from every direction, and he kept instructing the
many races of the world at the Tower during that space
of time. . Hence he said in the body of the book that
Fenius himself remained there at the Tower and there he
dwelt. Other authors say that of the children of 10nan
son of SOil of Noah from whonr tl1e Greeks
originated and from whom Fenius sprung, there were
none at the building of the Tower.
That is natural for J onan had no children at all,
or Japheth had not that son himself, tit llic1'o1lJ'IJIIiS
dixit. Query, What is Fenius' genealogy? Not hard.
Farsaidh, then, son of Baath, son of Magog, son of
J apheth, ,son of Noah. Or Feniu5 Farsaidh, son of
Eogan, son of son of \Vhitehand, son of
Ether, son of Agnoman, son of Toe, son of Bonb, son
of Semh, son of Mar, son of Ethecht, son of Aurtecht,
son of Abodh, son of Aoi, son of Ara, son of lara, son
of Sru, son of Esru, son of Boath, son of Riafath, son of
Gomer, son of Japheth, son of Noah, etc. And besides
Fenius is a Scythian, and up to him are carried Scythians
and Goths according to their genealogies. And they were
all the seed of Noah. The Hebrew language is the
tongue that was in the world berore any building of the
Tower, and it is it too that will he after doomsday, and
r '
;.: ..
, ,
I '1
,..i\ . i
I j
P. 20 fJ 44 AURAICEPT 14 . BO. Sl6 .2S
16 DO. '16 4 049 1\ U 1 Eolleall
mbrath 7 asberat araite co mbad nobeth la muintfr
nimhe. Iar tiachtain tra dona desciplnib co Fenius 0
foglairn 7 iar taispenad a cuarta (.j. a n-imdeachta) 7 a
n- (col. f3) gresa (.,. a foghluma) is andsin conaitchitar
gusin saidh i gu Fenius berla nn beth oc neach eliu do
thebiu doibh asna hilberlaib acht comad acco a
nobeth, conad airi sin conairneacht doib in bcrla tobaidhi
cona fortormaigib .j. berla Feni 7 iarmberla 7 a mberla
n-cdarscartha ctey na fedhaib aircgdhaibh nmal duir\lirmi
isin Duil Feadha Mair 7 berla nn filed asa nncaillit each 200
<lib aroile 7 a ngnathberla fogni do each 0 ilcencla.
Goedeal mac Ethcoir mic Toe mie Baracaimh di Grccaib
in dara sai robai i coemtect Fcniusa, eouad uadh
rohainninigead G.cdea,lg i ealg airdire in sin i Gtcdheal
ros-irdarcaistar. Gtedcal dno glas mac Agnoill no AingiJl 205
mac scnbrathar athar do Fcnius 7 ba sai sen dno cit! he.
Is esside dorothlaigestar a roberla-sa gu mac
nEitheoir conid Gredealg 0 Gredel mac Etheoir. Et Grcdil
o Gredhel mac Agnoil no Aingin. Berla Feni tra arricht
sund 7 ial"mberla 7 berla nedarscartha etir na fcadhaib 7 210
berla na filed a ceathrarnad 7an gnathberla fogni do chach
a coiced. Fenius Farsaidh tra mac Eogein 7 lar mac
Nema 7 Ga:del mac Etheoir na tri saidh doreipsead na
berlu-sa 7 ajJud EotfJlflm (1Ie1 Atl/clla) dvitatcJJl arrictha.
Cest, caidhead a n-anmand/I na da chenel sechtmogat 215
o rofoghlaimet na Ni ansa. Beithin, Scithi,
Scuit, Germain, Meid (no l\loid), Sicil, Hircain, Guit,
lUI alailc E. Arch. C. P. iii. 247 nach beth E.
IIId tebeth, BCU ain E. 11/7 teibldhi con:\ rortormaidibh E.
WJ doruirmig E. : doruirmiaim T. n.;liciHit E. : aidllidh T.
:''111 (01;0111, olcena E. WI Barathaim E. :''UJ dara ri, c:l!ll1thucht E.
rosirdharcaigestnir, mace Angin R. :oJ.I pr-ur T.
'JIJ7 dorolhothlaigestair E. :!11 in cethramad E.. co coitccnd E.
l!14 O'D. Gr. xxix. 1 : Orosius i. 2, S8: Keat. /li,r/. ii. 80: arricla E.
anrnand E.
nn berb E. Deilhin, Goilli, Lugoil, Creilt Recir t\foraiQ
Doitt E. :m Guitt L.


some say that it was it which the people of heaven had
Now after the disciples came to Fenius from learning, and
after showing their journeys, to wit, their wandering-s, and
their works, to wit, their studies, then thc)' a:ikecl the
sage, to wit, Fenius to select for them out of the many
languages, a language that no one else should have but
which might belong to them alone. Wherefore 6n that
account for them was invented the Selcct Language with
its superadditions, the Language of the Irish, and the
Additional Language, and the Language Parted among
the principal letters as he has related in the Great Book of
\Voods, and the Language of the Poets whereby cach
one of them converses with another, and the Common
Language which serves for everyone from man)' races.
Gacdel, son of Ether, son of Toe, son of Baracham,
a Greek, was one of the two sages, in Fenius' com-
pany, so that from him named Gaelic, to wit, mIg
means noblc, to wit, Gaedcl ennobled it. Gaedeal Glas
also, son of Agnon or Aingin, son of Fenius' father's
elder brother:; and he too was a sage, even he. It is he
that claimed this language for Gacdc1, son of Ether;
whercfore Gacdcalg is from Gaede1, son of Ether. And
Gaedil from Gaedel, son of Agnon or Aingin. Now
the Language of the Irish was invented here, and the
Additional Language, and Language Parted among the
trees, and .the Language of the . Poets is the fourth,
and the Common Language that serves everyone,
the fifth. Now Fenius Farsaidh son of Eugenius, and
Iar son of Nema, and Gaedel son of Ether are the
three sages who selected these languages, and they were
invented in the cit)' of Eotenam, or Athena.
Query, 'what are the names of the 7
races from
which many languages were learnt? Not: hard.
Bithyn'ians, Scythians, Scots, Germans, Medes, Si
, D
111:13 Descripllve adjj. are 8upposed by the scribe to .jenote
muald = Moid, oig :: Olgii, lllind = Luid, nair = Nlair, mair = ;\lair, brais
:: Darais, _mui. :: Amuius, gairc = Goirc, aird =Ardair, grinDi = Gruind
/fUi. 11'. Did,IIIllC, p. 30. See, however, il. 2, which cr. with Orig'l-::
xlv. 3' 5: CZ. x. 131 :1111 Sicir E.: Circir, gOirg, Alain L.
:lIU Sardan L. Maigidoln L. :m Nombith L.
z.l3 Ardain E. L. 2'14 Guil. Fresin L. Trinhl E.: Tracda. Troiand3 L.
Daicia E. D.1rdain, Br:lg-main L 'In Nertae E. Origg'. ill 2,2
:.-.:11.44 E. om. comdlinel T. \::I;l do Eahraidhihh T.
B. nil dl'sclpllll ronln cu.lirt 7 tcora bliadn:l, rl/"al,d :I 3X
comcclncl, :lIoal rog;lball lem a ndc:ismirarhl T.
Point, Morain, Lugoil, Circir, Gailli, Luidi, Oigil,
Cielaid, Creit, eorsic, Sardain, SieiJ, !{eit, ReiciJ, Roid,
Romain, Inair, Massail, Mair, Maigidon, Morcain, Nairn, 220
Narmais, Narboin, Norith, Nobith, Bethain,
Bretain, Boid, Maguich, Armoin, Amuis, Goircc, Galaid,
Achid, Athain, Ardair, Alain, Albain, Hircain,
Itail, 'Esbain, Goith, Guith, Gruind, Sarain, Frainc, Freisin,
Lacdemoin, Lodain, Essill, Tracdai, Troiannai, 225
Dordain, Dalmait, Dacia, Ethioip, Bramain,
Innecdai. It e sin tra anmanda na da cenci sechtmogat
lasa mbadar na da berla scchtmogat. Fer gach berla tra
dona berlaibh-sea, ba he lin na scoile 7 tri slIidh 7 rofaidcd
gach {car dib fria bcrIa 7 ni cach comccniuil dochuaidh ancl 230
dochum a comcrichi dun fhoghlaim sill acht is cach
amal rogab Cai Cainbrethach dalta Fcnillsa
in dara dcscipul sechtmogat fla scolf. Ba do Ebraib a
bunadhus 7 ba co hEgcftagda rofaidhedh fobith is and
robatar a tusdidhe 7 ba hand rodn-alt 7 fodesin 235
as [a] conid desin asbt'ir-som i curp libair i Is each
comberlaib dochuaid and 7 ni each comchcllcoil dochulll a
chriche. 'Seacht mbliadna tra robatar na descipuil forsin
cuairt 7 teora bliadna doib ic taispenad a ngresa i fus iar
tiachtain corndar a c1eich samlaidh, conid desin asbt/r-som 210
this i curp Iibhair: A dnd .(3 I 7) dcich mbliadall iar
scailiud doib on tur for gach 1eath durebeadh doib am
berIa-sa. Bai tra cuigiur ar xx ba huaisliu dib. It e a
Hyrcanians, Goths,' Pontians, Morini, Lyonese, Cyp-
rians, Gauls, Pamphylians, Lydians, 6ig, Cyc1adians,
Cretans, Corsicans, Sardinians, Sicilians, Rhctians,
Rheginians, Rhodians, Romans, mi'tir, Massilians,
1\1oors, l\'lacedonians, Morcain, n,Hr, nair mais, Nar-
bonians, Noricans, Nubians, brais, Bithynians" Britons,
Boeotians, l\l agogians, Armenians, amuis, gairg,
Galatians,' Aquitanians, Athenians, Thessalians, aird,
Alanians, Albanians, Hyrcanians, Italians, Spaniards,
Goths, Getae (?), grinn, Saracens, Franks, Frisians,
Langobards, Lacedemonians, Elisaeans (?), Thracians,
Trojans, Dardanians, Dalmatians, Dacians, Ethiopians,
Egyptians, Brahmans, and Indians. Those then arc
the names of the 72 races whose wcre the 7
languages. Now one man for each of these languages,
that was the complement of the school, and three sages,
and each one of them \yas sent to his own
and unto their common district unto that learning went
not everyone of the same race but every on(; of the
same language, as for example, Cai Cainbrethach, Fenius'
foster-son, one of the 72 of the school. He
was a Hebrew by extraction, and it was to Egyptians
he was sent because his parents had lived there, and
there he was brought up and reared from his youth, so
that hence he says in the body ,of the book: Every
one of the same speech went thcre. but not everyone
of the same race, unto his own district. Now seven
years were the pupils on the course, and they were three
years in displaying their studies after coming home, so
that they were tcn [years] accordingly, wherefore it is of
this he says below in the body of the book: At the
end of ten )'ears after their dispersion from the Tower
in every direction this language was selected for them'
Now there were 2 S persons that were the .noblest of
E. 2f CI 33 AURAICEPT 18 Bn.3161125
. .
n.anmanda foratait feadha 7 In ogaim. It e and-
seo a n - anmand i Babel, Loth, Foraind, Saliath, Nab.
gadon, Hiruad, Dabhid, Talamon, ere, Kaliap, Muiriath,
Gotli, Gomers, Stru, Ruhen, Achab, Oise, Urith, Essu,
Iachim, Ethrocius, Uimelicus, ludonius, Affrim, Ordines.
Iss iat sin anmand in choigir ar xx ba hllaisliu bai i
scoil Feniusa, Asberait araili dno is i sin in aipgitir
'arricht isind Achaidh 7 ic Tochur Inbir 1'.1oir arranig
Amairgin mac Miled in mbcithi-Illis in og-hairn.
I Cia Iitir, cia llin, cia son In nach forbaic1cr focol?' (.1.
dinin disoil no fern), Is cia son ger 0 nach fuach
tren tindscanar?' (.i. crnill gclal). Na cok fcadha aircghdai 200
imrnorro inn oghaim, ba hon choicillr ba huai:;liamh <lib
. '}h 4
'C( ,
ro alnnlnrg It ea =rt-lHij-J"Hnl1-<" Asbcrnt arailc
dno it vii feadha aireghdha filet and 7 is on morshesiur
ba huaisleam and rohainmnigthea 7 it e in dana lir.lh
duforrnaighct frisna cuic lIgut )oX 0 (. 200
Cest, caidet [airme L.] cinnteacha tuir Nemnlaidh? Ni
ansa. A viii i cIa comairlibh sechtmogat, da descipul
scchtmogat, cia chenel scchtmogat na, da bcrla
scchtmogat du berlaibh ina scoil, da thuai(h sechtrnogat
lasa m[bJatar na berla sin 7 na cenela, cia srer 265
fria r,nim, da aic[dh]i eter xl 7 bitumain 7 tal-
7. tathluib ina cornhcgur, da chcim for scchtllloga[iJt
lIIna lelthcat amal asbert :-
Airimh iI, tuir togaidhi
ha c1in do dhainih, 270
CCltlln cClIleancl sechtlllog-:tl,
Coic cemcnd nr choic milih.
Dn chomairlib
sailhiu (or sluaighcdh i
J)a for serhtm0lo:a[ilt
______I{lllllltlhnaic Dia (ria Illbuaidhred. :.!75
GJlh, Cte L. Gr. ll'ltlll"'--"--"-'" 'v.d S-I--L-"
Ul GOlh. Gomer, Maisse P_ Icsu T. a amon c.
:: Reh'him, ElroclIs, I.. Afrimp T.
IIIlIU It lit hal al: L'rhl isin Ahil\ T. ''/''\O I&lbJ{ldir E
Po. . ':.lJ /liull B.: In lH'lIilll P.. .
IIlIII narh, rorLllcr, fotlcn E. .
hu;\isliu, ill da tidh dOrorOlaigilar E. ... il F h. D l.._ I d n
',)l4I I 1 I I . J' I' .. .. IJ'Cr a a c
. te .> '.' '.. In aid-sea P.. _ :!ill "ani!> n. ceimenJu T
:n.1 I:OlluHlIl: L. E, d' rri E. Ibudnaic L.
20 Dn. 317 C& 3 AURAICEPT E. :11 C& 36
them. are the names of them after whom are
named the Ogham vowels and consonants. Here are their
names: Babel, Lot, Pharaoh, Saliath,. Nebuchadnczzar,
IIerocl, David. Talamon, Cae, Kaliap, Muiriath, Gotli,
Gomers, Stru, Ruben, Achab, Oise, Urith, Essu, Iachim,
Ethrocius, Uimc1icus, Iudonius, Arrrim, Ordines.
These are the names of the 25 persons, the noblest
that were in Fenius' school. Others again say that that
is the alphabet which was invented in Achaidh, and at
the Causeway of the Great Estuary that Amergen, son
of f\Iil, invented, the Bei!he Luis of the Ogham.
\Vhat letter, what character, what sound is that with
which no word is ended? dillt'" disai!, or f. And what sharp
sound is found with which no strong word is begun? 03'.
The five principal vowels of the Ogham however, it was
from the five persons who were noblest of them that they
were named, a, 0, U, a, 1. Others again say that seven prin-
cipal vowels are there, and that it is from the seven persons
that were noblest there that they are named, and the two
vowels that were added to those five vowels are en, 01.
. Query, what are the definite nllmbers of Nimrod's
Tower? Not hard. Eight of them, to wit, 72 counsellors,
. pupils,7
races of men, 72 languages, the languages
in his school, 72 peoples whose were those languages, and
the races, 72 artificers to work at it, 72 building materials
including lime, bitumen, earth, and cement in equallayers,
72 paces in wielth, as he said :-' .
The number of the chosen Tower
Of Nimrod, it was a sheller to men,
Four and sevenlY paces,
Five paces, and five thousand.
Two and seventy counsellors,
They took companies on an expedition,
Two and seventy languages
God gave to confound them.

aid tIt
aId st
atd sibse
" "
Two and seventy free peoples
He subdivided, men of the earth;
Two and seventy chief artificers
For the skilful working of the materials.
Two and seventy building materials,
In equal quantity. he used,
Including lime and pitch
And earth and cement.
Two and scvcnty free raccs
Of the mcn, it was hard;
Two and scventy pupils.
Fcnius sends them to learn.
3" "
I person plural
3" "
Sum, es, est, its singular.
Sumus, eslis, su,tl, its plural.
to wit, noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, participle, conjunction,
preposition, and interJection are their names: Nomen, pro-
Ilomett, verbum, adverbium,parlicipium, co,tjutlc/io, interjtelio,
to wit:-
1 person singular
Seventeen cubits certified,
Ncar heaven upwards with a roaring wind.
. And two and seventy paces
In breadth to reckon it.
Others say, however, that only nine materials were in
the Tower, to wit, clay and water, wool and blood, wood and
lime, acacias, flax thread, and bitumen, de quibus dicitur:-
Clay, wool, and blood,
\Vood, lime, and flax thread of a full twist,
Acacias, bitumen with virtue.
The nine materials of Nimrod's Tower.

E. 21 fJ 8
Airim in tuir.
Da cenel srer sechtmogat
Dona dainib, bl\ dodhraing j
Da descipul sechtmogat
Frete Fenius {ri {oghlaim.
Da thuaith srera sechtmogat
Forofoglaid, fir tal man ;
. Da ar sechtmogait
Fri heladhain na nadhbar.
Da aicde {or sechtmoga[iJt,
Inna cumhat, roghnathaigh,
Et/,. reI "$ bitumain
Ocus talmhain is tathluibh.
Seacht cumat deg demnighthi
Ag nim suas im greth ngairigh.
Is da cheim ar sechtllloga[i]t
Inna Ieitheat fria airim.
BB. 317 A 34
Asberat araiJi immorro is noi n-adhbair nama badar
isin tur .i cre 7 ulsgi, oland 7 fuil, ros 7 reI 7 sechim 7 lin
7 bitumain, de qllibtls dicilur:-
ere, uisgi, oland is fuil,
Ross is reI is lin lanchuir,
Sechim, bitumain go mbuaidh
Nai nadhbair in tuir Nemruaidh.
i ainm 7pronomCll 7briathar 7doibriathar 7ranngabthach 300
7 comfhocul 7 reimshuidhiughudh 7 interiacht a n-
anmanda-seo: NoIIIen, prOJl oIIIell , tlerbu1JI aduerbill1Jl
. . . . "
parllClpmm, cOlllu1Iclio, preposil/o, illlerieclio i
cetpearsu uathaid. StOll i ataim
pcrsa tanaisti huathaid es i ata tu
trcas pcrsa uathnid est oj. ata se
cetrear iJlda SIlJlltlS i atamait
persa tanalstl eslis .i ata sibsi
trcs persa . stint i atait.
Sun" (s, esI, a uathnd.
SUIJIUS, eslis, sU1II, a illda.
m B :''711 (. d d' E .
d'. ria 0 . : doghralng B. :IS".! (orafodlait E
. a lechtmogat E. :au heladnnib L din fadhnad E'
'trEE.: na hadhur co madgnathni6 T. :lIlI is tathlaimh E'
au . : qubuit T. :.'lIO re ngaith E. 2\111 II RC .. 66
'Ill ,Ell' dll/L :lU'J Gr. Lat. iv. 355. 2 29 illr::IdX1L
, a 1 ra .
:IU a ftilhlndlech T. 114 rulglllesta T. ;JIll h"lbitleach dobeiniumh E.
m Example. of parsing, Gr. tot. iii. 459: in (ho('uif E.
m Gr. LOll. Iv. 355, a :r", rangabt"ch E. :tJr com(occumhuf E.
:tl:J Jon breitllir E. :r.14 i n-illraJh E. :w thanaisi R.
7 in ilair E. frisin in B.
':11 d03idbead L.: doaldhbhet E. :!:tJ ina aicned .i. na guttai 7 nil cons"ine E.
AU eisib E. SSII. T isna. coibigib E. :1:1'7 lIireoctail B.: aircetall E.
Attaat da forain D-albgtt81r Laltindal .1.
gutta1 7 oonsain. Atait f sunt a frithindleadach La-
tinda i a bunadh forleathan: lolus a bunadh ruidleasa
i. dearbadh in sein i freagra du thoit na haibgitrech
dobeir sund. Coich raind indsce in foctll is sunt? ar
it at viii randa insci and i nomen, prOll0mell, uerbulII,
aduerbi'tl/l, p(lrlicipiuIII, cOIlr'ullclio,pnposilio, z'lIla'ieclio. It
e a nanmalld lasin Laitneoir; ainm, 7 briathar, 7
pronomen 7 doibriathar, randghabt//{lcli, 7 remshuidhiugud, 320
comhfhocul 7 interiacht ocon Gcedd. Is dcmin eimh
conidh briathar in focul is sUfll 7 rna scadh cia ball in
brethir? air itait amh a tri i n - uathml i SII III , (S, esl,.
7 a tri i n-illda i SII11I1IS, eslis, SU1It i cctperso in
uathaid slim,. pcrso thanaisti in uathaid, es,. tres perso 326
in huathaid, est. Cetperso in illda, SII/IIIIS,. perso thallaisti,
estr's,. tres perso in illda, SII"t.
Attaat oj. ata re i n-ait oj. ata re dliglah i n-ait
in GlIaman a inne: no attaat .i. atai re uait, ar in
descipul frisin maigistir. 330
A inne beos attaat a tuitead doaitneat doaigbead
dotiagat. A airbert .j. atat i n-aigniudh na guttaighi 7 na
consaini. Dotuitead i litrib .j. tinntuit asinn aiclliltd sin i
lJitrib. Doaitnead .j. taitnit asna litrib sin i focInib.
Doaidhbead i du-aispenait do eolchaib eistib i a cialla 336
7 a caireachtaire i fuatha na liter. Dotiaghat asna foclaib
sin i comighib 7i sreathaibh roscaigh 7 fasaigh 7 airchetail.
" "
Attaat, i.e., there is sc;ience in place, i.e., there is science
of law in the chief poet's place is its meaning: or nllnal,
that is, there is' science out of thee, quoth the disciple
to the master.
Its meaning further, allaa/, who fall, shine, show, come.
Its use, that is, of alnrrl, in the nature of the vowel and the
consonant. They fall into letters, i.e., they are converted
out of that primary nature into letters. They shine,
out of these letters into words. They show to the learned
out of them,' to wit, their meanings and their characters,
i.e., the forms of the letters. They come out 0' those
words into texts, and series of proverb, commentary, and
poetic composition.
There are two divisions In the Latin Alphabot, to
wit vowels and conaOno.ntB. There arc, nlflit, to wit,
S1I1I;, its Latin equivalent, to wit, its very general ori?in:
lollis its particular origin, to wit, a proof there, to Wit, a
to the whole of the alphabet he gives here.
\Vhat part of speech is the word slIlIl? For there arc
eight parts of speech, to wit, 1I01l/ell, prOIlOll/CII:
tlduerbill111, p(lrlicz'pill111, (Ollill11(lio, prepositio, wIer/cellO.
Those are their names with the Latinist; noun and verb,
pronoun and adverb, participle and
tion and interjection with the Gael. It IS certam 10 truth
that the word Sltul is a verb; and if so, what part of the
verb? for there arc in fact three of them in the singular,
to wit, SIIIII, (S, esl,. and three of them in the .plural, to
wit, SII11IIIS, (Stis, sU11I, to wit ;-
I st person singular
2nd" II
II "
1st person plural
2nd II 't

, i
F.. 2I fJ.8
:: da t,hirind,eaJ da ,firanail E. 341 ind Auraicepta E.
347 a til, ce,thr." a CUIC E. 3.u tinfedaigh trindual E.
e 7 L: om.: '1' duaJ na ngutta 7 tri dual na conson E. adtls
, auctalr L. E. . 'f I 'L. E
3J1 , '1 I OC all)
:13.:1 L. ,,-ibis do each E. is aipgl'ir E. I. abcdr (?)
ulllt_ B.: a L:lJten E. .
:w I Ih!1 V' M La-tlma D.: Lllllllt E.
e e c. : lrg. aro Gr... 23
'.10 ,
, el:lIt guth il L.: Gr. tat " 6 12' 0.' ,
:lilt . " 1.3,3
l'I:I1III'IJUI jratlul E. :lltl J ' d fh' E
elgIn I ulrges
Da oman .j. da fhirinnell, no da fhir-inaill no da
fhir-dhual, no da erdhul, no da erdhail, no da
no da orru-dhul, no da orru-dhedhail, no da orru-dhail. 340
Iss .iat sin a tri or, 7 a tri er, 7 a tri fir n Uraiceapta.
Cadtad da dual 7 tri duail 7 cethri duail 7 coic duail
in Auraiceapta? Ni ansa. Lanfogur 7 defogur da
dual na nguta: leathgutta ocus mudi 7 tinfeadhaigh_
the tri dual na conson i intan is a ceathair immorro 34fj
i da dual na nguta 7 ua dual na consoli .i. leathguta
e 7 muiti, air is muit h. Intan is a coic dno .j. da dual
na nguta 7 tri dual na consan.
i forsind epe audair no forsind epe ic
'1: IC focJmb no forsin epi ic tur: no ondi as apigitorium 3l>0
'1' III tlnllscedul: no is ed aibgiges a mbescna do chach:
no .j. abcor: no is etl aipgzges a illcipit
a La1t11l, apix a Greic, a be ce de dybum a Ebra.
Lat1ndal i Juaidit jnni i inna foclle: no a Laidinta .j.
on Latindacht i fl lalitudille i on leithet jn bescna: no
o Latin mac l>uin.
Edun i ed a oen erniud no ed a oen an eolaier
Gutta .j. guth fotha i fotha in ghota in sein no guth
fuidhit gotha treothu: (3 18) no guth.seta
at seta gotha, IItPriscirlllllS dr:rit .. Lilera quassl360
legrl/lJl/a eo quod iter legt1ldiprebfat .i. in litir ama! intech
legend iarsinni fuires set in leg-ind: no guth aite .j. doghniat
Two divis1ona, i.e., two true arrangements, or two true
other things, or two true folds, or two intensive goings, or
two intensive divisions, or two supreme folds, or two
goings on them, or two divisions on them, or h\'o
distributions on them, These are the three or and
the three er and the. three fir of the Primer. \Vhat are
the two, three, four, and five folds of the Not
hard. Full tone and diphthong, the two folds of the
vowels: semivowels, mutes, and aspirates are the three
folds of the consonants, to wit: when there arc four of
them, however, two folds of the vowels and two of the
consonants, i.e., semivowels and mutes, for h is a mute.
\Vhen there are five of them, ho\vever, that is, two folds
of the vowels and three of the consonants.
On the alphabet, i.e., for an CI author's selection," or for
II selecting of words," i.e., of vocables: or on the II selection at
Tower": or from the word abecedarium, i.e., the beginning:
or it is' that which II ripens" their speech for everyone:
or alphabet, that is, placing a b: or it is II that which
rip,ens" in Gaelic, illcipit in Latin, apir in Greek, a be ce
de dybum in Hebrew.
Lat1nda, that is, they speak the thing, i.e" the words:
or Laitinda, i.e., from Laitindacht, i.e., (l It llilll dill e, i.e.,
from the extent of the speech: or from Latinus, son of
Ed6n, that is, U jt" its one explanation: or it is the
one [.i.] of the learned man.
, Gutta (vowel), i.e., voice foundation, i.e" foundation
of the voice is that: or voice sent, in respect that
voices are sent through them: or voice ways, in respect
they are ways of voices, pt Priscimllls dixil:
Did/ttl' au/em li/tra vel quasi Itgiltra quod legclldi
iler pratbtat, that is, the ,letter is as a road for reading
iriasmuch as it prepares a way for the reading: or a
26 BB. 311 P31
. ;

:J4:l no guthetait L. om. doedait E.

a n-Ilenur L. om.: Gr. Lat. Iv. 367. 11 : Sg.4"4
161. e guthaigi L. I gUlhalgthi E. :ldl taitnemacha E.
30lI h' 'b E .
. gut algi. comma salO L.l comulo E.: cuma thonn no caln[ sb Join,
fid .,. (0 ead a amm Ed. I. din a lluin :1;0 ndublirt L
m ilar E. m ni E.
:m f h" (
, com ongt Ig \laIr na com oglir E. :m O'Mule. 578,9
,Jl'J guth seta, Jissi fein E. :180 coitcend D
:JIll " c.
IS guth, ed:udh E. :11<:1 fuit; nosfuiend E
'h d . ,.
m an rotlnsc:linte.1 E, :Il'tI neach ba, trib E. :llt7 luthi E.
guth i naitt: no guthetait i iarsinni doetait guth treothu
a nrenur, utDonatus dixit:. Voca/es sunt quequidem pro-
fertur et per se si//abam faciunt i atat na guthacha is iat- 865
side dourgbad treothu fein 7 dogniat sillaib a n-renur.
Consaln i cainsuin i suin taitnemcha, no consain onni
is COllS01lall/es comhfhograightheacha .j. fograigit malle' fri
guthacha: no consaill i com a sain i tercfograigh-
theacha ar bec a fogair a n-cenar. Cid ara n-eibert-sium 370
guta i consain, uair guta uathaid 7 consain ilt/a? Ni
ansa. Guttai 7 consain is maith and. Cidh ara n-ebairt
guta guth fotha no guta guth fuidhit, ar ni fotha in guth
do fein, 7 ni fuigheand guth trit feint Cid ara nd-ebairt-
sium consain comfograighthid, uair ni. comhfbogur in 375
consain fria fein no fria guth? Cest, caite in condelg in
etechtu in cheternail ind Auraicept[a]? Ni ansa. Fors
is fer[r] a fis is edechta sain, ar ni maith anfh is. Cid ara
n-eabairt guta i guth ar ni set is i fen.
Caide ruidhles 7 d-ileas 7 coitchind 7 indies in' foeai/ is 380
guta? ansa. Ruidhles di guth shet, uair etaidh guth
a hrenur. Diles di guth fuiit, uair nos - foidend feint
Coitchind di .j. guth fotha, uair is' fotha hi isna foclaz'b.
IndIes di immorro guth fotha, uair ni fota hi inti
feint Cid ara n-ebairt aibgitir epe ic tur, ar ni tindscain- 385
tea na h.aibgitri amal asbert Fenius ba sai isna tri
berlaibh cid siu tisad a tuaid 7 ni saithi cen aipgitri.
voice place, i.e., they make a voice in place: or they
vocalise, i.e., in respect that voice comes through them
alone, tit Dona/us dl:ri/: Voca/es su111 quae per se
pro/crulltttr et per se s)I//abam fiuiullt, i.e., the vowels are
those that are prQnounced by themselves and alone form a
Consonants, i.e., beautiful sounds, i.e., bright sounds:
or consonants from the word C011solla1lles, sounding
together, i.e., they sound along with vowels: or con-
sonants, i.e., delicate their sounds, i.e" scantily sound ing
owing to the smallness of its sound by itself. \Vhy
did he say vowel and consonants, since vowel is singular
and consonants plural? Not hard. Vowels and
consonants is proper there. \Vhy did he say a vowel is
a voice foundation, or a vowel is a voice which they litter,
for the voice is no foundation to itself, and it does not
find a voice through itself. Why did he a consonant
is sounding along with, since the consonant docs not
sound with itself or with its vowel? Query, what is
the comparison of the unallowable of the first part of
the Primer? Not hard. Fors, chance, knowledge of
it is better, that is unallowable, for ignorance is not
good. \Vhy did he say, a vowel, i.e., a voice path, for
it. itself is not a path?
\Vhat arc peculiar, proper, common, and improper
of the word vowel? Not hard. Peculiar to it, voice
path, since it finds'voice by itself. Proper to it, they
express a voice, for it expresses itself. Common to
it, i.e., voice foundation, for it is a foundation in the
words. Improper to it, however, is voice foundation,
when it is not a foundation in itself. \Vhy did he, say
alphabet was a seiecting at Tower? for the alphabets were
not begun, as Fenius said, who was a sage in the three
principal tongues even before he came from the .North,
. {
- 7 7, auralcept B.' :191 teibe in (ccailE. inn B. 392 oguim E
_I . 'I' ' .
nae calOgen 1 n calOgen remund 7 i[n] nai inar ndiaid .i. Lind Ul' E
:illS ( b h' .
. :lllll m et I lUll E. ;l!16 doriinlhar E. :JlJd (eclair E.
. cIa dlchned D. 402. e R. oMl8 i ceim D.
WJ (or,n, nga rhaghbJil L.
I ndAchja immorro arrichta aibgitn' in domu[i]n., Cet..
doichnedh 7 cet.dichnedh ind Auraicept[al sund i A cet-
doichnedh for i ar in focuI: A chet.dichneadh dno i epe 390
augdair i tepe in focuI fadesin.
Atat dano di ernaU forBin belthlluis-nin In oghahn 1
feadha. 7 toobomna1. Dano i da n-ui in sein uca caingen i
in caingean forsin beithi-luis-nin in ogaim .i: inll oguamma
110 forsin bithcolus littcrdha inn oghaim. Fedha: fidh 390
immorro, dorimter da gnc for suidiu i fidh sccrdha 7
fidh aicenta. Fid srerda i fid inn oghaim 7 fid aicenta fid
na caille. Fid immorro feghthair da gne do bunad
oca. Fidh didiu ondi as fil1/o [q>WJlfW], fograigim : no ondi
is /lindall/CII/um i fotha 7 is coitchend do fhid sccrda 7 do 400
fidh aiccnta in bunad sin i./ltlldalllclltulIl. Fid dono fo edh
a indc eter s.crda 7 aicenta. Fotha dno a airbert etcr sLCrc1a
7 aiccnta. Ingnad cidh fodera na da bunadh icon fid
. srerda 7 renbunadh icon fid aicenta .i.juno 7 flindall/cilIum?
Ni ansa. FroIO a dualus foghair 7 j1tnda1llflllulIl a dualus 400
fotha 7 caitchend do fidh 7 do fidh aicenta i fotha.
Fidh i fedh re uair itat coic re and 'i <e' ailes 7 chanas
7 re aiges 7 re mides 7 re suides. IE ailes dno i i cein
mbis for mCllmaill, 7 re chanas ica gabail 7 rei aighes ic
30 BB. 318 A 28 AURAICEPT E 22 A 17
and there are no sages without alphabets. In Achaia,
then, were invented the alphabets of the world. The
first doie/med and the first die/med of the Primer herc,
to wit: I ts first doie/mer! is for, that is, ar is the word:
Its first didlllrd, again, i.e. rpc, cutting of author, Le, Icpt:
is thc word itself.
Thore are, thoD, two dlvlBlonB In the Doithe Luis
Nln of the Ogham, l.e., vowola a.nd cODDonnnta. Dano
i da 11-111, two of them, that is, da 1l.lIi, two questions
are there. JV-ac is question, that is. the question on
the Bcithe Luis Nin of thc Ogham, that is, ind ogllamma
of the perfect alliteration, or on the undying literary
knowledge of the Ogham. As to fodha, wood vowels,
moreover, two kinds are reckoned of them to wit , ,
artificial tree and natural trce. Artificial tree, i.e.,
the tree of the Ogham; and natural trec, the tree of
the forest. As rer,ards artificial wood, Moreover, they
are regarded as having two sorts of origin. Fidh, wood,
thcn, is from the word fllllo [WJI{WJ, I sound, or from
the word jU1/dm//(lltlllll, i.e., foundation, and that deriva-
tion, to wit, jll ndaIIIcnIII III , is common to artificial. and
natural woc;>d. Now, as to jid, wood, good law is its
meaning, both artificial' and natural. Foundation, how-
cver, is its usc, both artificial and natural. It is strange
what makes thc artificial wood have thc two derivations,
and the natural wood one, to wit,fi"10, and j1l1Idalllt1l'llIlIl.
Not hard. FUIIO in respcct of sound, and fitl1dalllclll1lm
i'n respect of foundation; and common to artificial and
to natural wood is foundation.
Fid, wood, that is,jcdh ac, extent of them, since fivc'
. forms of ac are in existence, ac that nourishes, at that
sings, at that sues, ae that judges, and at that sits.
Now at that nourishes, i.e., while it is on the mind,
and at that 'sings at it, and -ae that sues while
410 cuinJgidh a loigi E. m n-\li L. 41:1 bid L.
m L. m (ocol, ndubairt L.
m bid L. loba namma E.: numa B. L. aipgidil E.
m (rerrol duaicbnigh E. 4:M c.:ntar E. (oceurta P. 4.1'J P amair R.
cuinchidh a lloige 7 re midheas ima meit no imma 410
laighedh 7re suidheas iar n-icc a loigi..
Toobomnai i tcebuaim nai; no do na n-
omnadh bit i. do na fidh n-ai",eghdha biit; no
treb-(col. (3) omnai .j. toba damna i iarsinni teipiter damna
na focul eistib. Cid diu n-ebairt trebuaim n-ui .j. trebuaim 4H>
n.airchedail, air ni fil int airchetul inna n-ecmais na
Cid ara n-ebarthar do ta:bhaib na n-omnadh .i.
na feadha, ar ni do bit acht rempu no 'na ndhiaidh
isna focJaib bit na ttebomna. Toba ndamna immorro, is e
a ruidhles in focai! sin. Freagra du breithir tug isin 420
aibgitir Latindai intan roraidh i Itat do. ernal1 forain
aibgitir Latinda. Fregra du aicniud immorro tuc intan
roraidh: Atait do. ernal1 forain beithi-Iuis in ogaim.
Cuin is renda in beithi ?
Ni ansa. [A] hui/e. Cuin as deda.i.feda7txbomna. Cuin
as treda .j. fedha 7 forfedha 7 txbomna. Cuin as ceathair
i td ajccmi na trebOIlU/tl 7 11a x fec:tdha Cuin as
choicdi i fedha 7 forfedha 7 tri aicmi na ta:bomna. Cuin
a[s] scdha i na tri foi/cheasta inN ogaim .j. ,igto,'T:;'C.
Cuin a[s] seachta [i.] teora fuilti ind Auraicepta .i huath 430
7 forsan 7 arnill.
Huath cetumus: is ed fhuilleas b co ngeib greilll p amal
asbert in Laitneoir: b jJro p pou/fur .i.
samhaighthir b cu tinfiudh ar p conid fuil/eaJ" h, ar is p
the reward for it, and ne that considers about
its greatness or its smallness, and at that sits after
paid his reward.
Taebomnnl, consonants, that is, !aebunim "oa/, side
scam of them; or to the sides of the oaks they aret
that is, to the sides of the chieftain wood they are;
or I(ubolllllai" i.e., cutting of material, from the fact
that material for the words is cut out of them. Why
did he say !ncb ttaim 11-11;, that is, side harmony of
poetry, for there is 110 poetry without consonants?
\Vhy is it said of the sides of the oaks, I.e., the
for it is not at the sides they are, but before or behmd
them in the words that the consonants are? Cutting of
material, however, that is the peculiar meaning of that
expression. There is a correspondence to a word which
he in the Latin alphabet when he said: There are
two divisions in the Latin alphabet. It was a corres
pondence to nature, however, which he gave 'when he
said: There are two divisions in the Belthe Luis ot the
When is the Beithe Luis one?
Not hard. The whole of it. When is .it two things?
Vowels and consonants. When is it three things?
Vowels, diphthongs, and consonants. When is it four
things? The three groups of the consonants and the ten
principal vowels. When is it five things? Vowels,
diphthongs, 'and, the three groups of the consonants.
\Vhen is it six things? The three composite letters of
the ng, qUo When is it seven things? The
three additions to the Primer, h, lonai!, and (11'11;11.
'R first. It b till it acquires the force of p,
as the Latinist said: b Ctllll aspiralionc pro p pOllilur,
i.e., b with aspiration is put (or p, so that h it,
for p is the aspiration of the Gael. Forsai/ is the, second
E. 21 4 3S
437 arragar E. cenannan, in oguim E. 4-IC1 ngelnt: E.
.u:J nin ria rigort is ngiadl1r E. m ria t E, is straiph L E stan 7F.
4&11 ( 'bE
rlSnn 10lnl. m Laitneoiraid E. (odoceardad diar E
luthguth E.: lulti T. leathgutaid no lethguitedh E. "">6 fodladi; E.
cen col cert leth T. Gr. Lal. ii. 9, 19 400 nocon iarsindi batis E.
nach at L.: na- ic B. Gr. Lal. iv. 368, s: Sg. s. oJ: nida comlana E.
tinfedh in Gredhil. Forsail [is e L.] in fuilled eile. Dobeir 43lS
cumang fedha forin son dia fot amal ata sron, slog 7rt.
Arnill,' is e in tres fuilled. In baile a rreagar a leas da
tha:bomna geibidh greim indala n-ai arnill, ut est ceand
7rl., ar ni bhi earnhnad in n-ogam. Tri foilcheasta inn
oghaim i ceirt 7 gedal 7 straiph. In baile i mbi 0 ria 440
n-u is queirt is scribhtha and, ut est cuilcand 7rl. In
baili i mbi n ria g is gedul i[s] scribtha and, tit cst uingi
7 cuing 7 cingit 7rl. In baile i mbia 8 ria d [is] straiph
as scribtha and ama] ata st an stial, 7r1.
Da earnal1 forsna consainib Iaisin Laitneoir ,I. lethgu- 44ll
tal 7 mutt!. Inno. lethgutal ceatamus, a. tulstidl rempu.
In muite Immorro, a tu1sttdlina ndlald do suidib,
Do. ernall dno i da firdedail didill forsna consaillib
cumaidhi lasin Laitneoir i lasin litertreoraidh no lasin
legtreoraid no lasin leat[h]anthoirnidh .j, lethguttal 7
muittl; lethgutai i leth gotha focertad dia fograigud; no
luithguith; no no lethguth[sh]et no lethguth
fotha: 7 ni hiarsan[n]i co mbad leath gotha co cert nobeith
intibh acht nad roichet .Ianfoghur; /lude Priser'mllls d/;tit:
Qur'(q,u'd ill d/las partes dl'ultlun/ur altera pars didtuy 455 .
selin's ,i secip nj fodhlaidir j ndibh randaib, raiter in
dara rand gu rub leath, lit Priscz'allus dixit: Non q//i
demediam par/em !tabellt deorum ucl uiuoy/t1Jl sed qui
plenl tlii ud u/ii IIOIl sun! .j. cia raidhiter iarum lethfir
7 Icthtii ni arsinni bhatis [dii] leithfir no batis lethfir dii 460
acht nacn at comlana. Is amlaid sin na leathghuta nida[t]
cornfhocail, lit DonalllS dl:n't: Semr'uoeales Sllll/ que fer se
't' It auds a vowel power to the sound to make it,
ac (I lon, (. (
. . \Vhere
.- /-rr etc Arllill is the third adchtlon.
. .
IltS are
required arJulI takes the force 0
two consona (,
. f
one of them, CCall1l, etc.; for there is no doubllOg [0
letters] in Ogharn. Three composite letters of the
. tung and sr. \Vhere 0 stands before u, It IS
ex IS, q, ,
'I I' t
IIcir! that is to be written there, e.g. (III ealll " e c.
n stands before g, it is gedlll that is to
' (7" a )'o\'e (/w,.,t they
there, 1It cst, Ulllgl, all ounce, ClIlII.... I c. " .,,>,
\VI 8 stallc
ls before d It IS strm/,Il that IS
step, etc. lere < ,
to be writtcn there, such is st ill stial, the belt, etc.
Thero nre two divisions In tho consonnnts n.ccOlding
to the Lo.til1ist, to wit, somivowolB and InutoB. The
semivowols firat, their parent vowols boforo them. The
nlutes. howevor,have their parent vowels following
Two diVisions, t hcn, to wit, two true separatIOns
in the common consonants according to the .Latini:t-to
wit, according to the letter guide, or the readlllg gUIde, or
the broad marker - that is,. aemivowela and
. I tl1at l'S half the voice is thrown Ollt 111
SCllllvowe 5, .'
order to sound them; or stammering voice; half-volc.e
place' or half-voice way;. or half-voice foundatlOll: and It
is no; because it would be half a voice exactly that would
stand in them, but that they not reach a full tone; lI1ule
, . . ' .. il1,,'t QIII'Cquid il/ ti//as tar/t'S d/'i'I'd//II1', alto'a
I"SClrr1/l'.l t ,
/'I,rs die/tur sell/is, i.e" whatever thing it be that is divided
into two parts,. one of the parts is said to be a half
lit j)risa'al1l1s tlt:n'!: Sell/ideas (I s(miviros appel/mulls
11011 qui dimidinm par/cm Irabellt dcor//11I vel VirOrll11l
sed q1li plcui dH 'lId viri 11011 slIlIl, i.e., though they arc
thus called and half-gods, it is not because the
gods might be half-men, or half-men gods, but that they
are not complete. Similarly the semivowels are not full
sounds, ut Doltatus db,;"t: Scmivo(ales sun! quae ptr se
34 BB. 318 {J 20
ql/idt'lJl pro!c,.u"tllr sed plr se s)'l/alN711/ 1/011 lao'l/llt, Le.,
the semivowcls are those that are pronounced by
themselves. QlIicqllid asperulIl dicitll,. al/ditlls (x/cllit,
i.e., the hearing rejects whatever thing is spoken roughly.
Mutes, i.e., bad foundations, or feeble ones, or sonorous,
i.e., little spent is its sound; or weighty, or the
the vowels when they are along with them; or from the
WOrc111/1ItUs, i.e" spr.echlcss, and not because they would be
speechless altogether, for their sounds are in them e\'en
when,they are .small, 1It Prisa'allllS dl:rit: II1/ol'lI/is did/"r
IJlllliey 1/0/1 qllat! (aret sed quat malt est /orlJlil(il, Le.,
a woman is called unsh.apely not because she is devoid of
shape, but only because she has an ill shape. Thus,
therefore, the mutes are not but a scanty sound
is in them tantlllll. Whence they are called 1J/II(ae, i.e.,
foundationless, 1/t Donatus db:it: J1fT/tac stint qUilt 1/C( fl.'"
Sf. pro/erm/tur 1/te per se syllabfllll lac/ullt, Le., the mutes
arc these letters which do not mal<e a syllable by them-
selves, and are not pronounced by themselves, etc. Tho
semivowels first, i.e. the' first science for learning i.e.,
according to good knowledge; or the first knowledge; or
the first hit upon the mention, Thoir pnront vowola
before them. The mutes on the other ha.nd have thoir vowels after them, i.e., in the proper vowels.
Their parent vowels, i.e., those whence ig their deliver-
ance or their origin, i.e., their vowcls, Why did he say
tho parent vowels are after thom, if beginning be
l)arents, since it is not usual that thc beginning is last?
That certainly is not intention here, that parent
vowels should be t.he beginning at all, but that science
will be perceived in his mind, i.e" the law of voice
which is at the beginning of the scmivowels should
remain with it to the last, and the consonantal law that
is in them to the last should be uttered forth first.
DB, 318 f3 . . E. U f3 17
quidem proferuntllr tt ptr se si//abam no" taciuflt ,j. atat na
leathghutai nahj dourn'abtar treothu reo Q T ] ''d
14 0 /lilt qUI
aJ/,cnl1Jl diciluy allditus tXl'd!it i innarbaid int eisteacht 465
(3 19) secib ni raiter co hagarb.
Multi ,i, mifothai no maitha no maidthi i bee caithte
a foghur; no mettc, no moite na gotha a mbel't11 m .
f ' .

nu; no onnl as 1JIlltliS ,i amlabar 7 ni airsinnl
b to I b
d" .,
a IS am a ar
I. air a intib cidh diat becca,ut 470
dl.llt. /lI[O/'lI/lS 1JlI/bey dicitllr ?101l quia caret for/JIa S I
/JIillt! formala tst i atberar in bannscal uoclllcl'lb 7 .. c(
, .
. III lar-
SIIlIlI scachmallas 0 dheilbh acht midllealb f' .
, ..
( lllrn nama. Js
amlaldh !arum na muiti nidat nemfog . I h'
, . . ( ratg 1 ac t IS tcrc
fogur IIltlbh lanlllm. UlIde mute i ml'fhot 1 .J'
D I ' .
. , lIa (1lClinl/lY lit 475
olla ".S dl.nt: 1I111te slint que pey se flCC pro/erunlll" ct
per se sllIabam nOll/aczim! ,i, atat na m 't' 7 't d .
'I '
Ul I lena enat In
Sl Ialb treothu fen 7 noco turcbaiter treothu 7rI. Na
leathgutal chetamus ,i in cetna <e for seis ,i iar fofis no in
cetna fis no in cetna r'
. , amus lorsm n-asneis. A tustldl 480
remibh ['1, In lucht ota a tusmiud i, na feada L.J. No. multl
immorro a tust1di ina ndiaidh i suldhibh .. r dh .
,1' Isna lea albh
10 ltheach,ub, A tustighthidi i, ' I h
, "
111 UC t ota a teasar-
gam no a twnscltal i, a nguthaidhe - C'd '
a tuatldh '
. lara n-ebalrt
. .e ndlaldh maso thustidhi tillnscital, uair 485
J1I gnath 111 ttndscedul fo dheoidh N' h dh . h
'] .J
' I e elm as
al uosum sund ar m [dJ t d" .
d . a Ustl J 10 tl1lnscedul etir acht
(C rosclchestar illna menmain ,i. dli Tcd '
I tosuch nIh
g gotha fil
. . a eat guta do leis fo dheoidh
111 dltgfd consonata fil int'b d '
1 0 eOldh do chur uad 49()
E 4M' b .
maithia E ' !nar analt E, asperuntur T. h b E
4til.l morsen B a (E
aear .
_ a,mJabur .j, ainm do mnlli bailb T' C
.,0 cld beacca L. 'd d' ,,' Or. 937
G ., CJ .Lt, ul alCllur E ' LtG ..
r. Lat. Iv. 368 5 471 I' t 't l .... r. 119,25: SgSA7
f d. "1 ..', " a' '" Jar folia I L '
w e ,I U sUl(.llb 'J' dona haibeJhaibh 7 d ',on>:", sup. II". I. sofhis
o&IIlJ ".1 L. 0111. 4lI7 ar B. -&ll8 ona To '
amsm D. 4110 consonacta E . d 'L L.: roseicheitar E.
In tI eo. do churu To ar tus R
The Gael did not think that appropriate that the
nature of them both should be to have their vowel
before them and after them, for this he thought
appropriate tho.tit should be the beginning of them
that should remain firm with him and that their.
closing vowel should be put away, so tllat the
Ogham Beithe Luis Nln were all mutes save vowels
only, to wit, that was not appropriate, to wit, that was
not indeed a cause of finding; or that was not indeed a
sag-e's finding; or that was not an easy choice; or 'that
was not a choice, however, in the opinion of the Gael; or
there was not a course with respect to a vowel, to wit, with
the wise satirist, to wit, with the man who had the wise
course; that it should be nature; or that it might
be a mattcr to be done to them both, i.e., to the semi-
vowels and to thc mutes, thcir vowels before thcm and
after them, i.e., before them and after them, bcfore thcm
in the case of semivowels and after them in the case of
mutes: but there is a doubt with me there still, and this was
in truth asage's finding with him so that it was the course
which he followed in his mind, i.e., the which exists
in the semivowcls should rcmain'firm with him to thc last,
and as their last word should be put the sage's knowledge,
to wit, the consonants should be put first so that it may not
be a misplace of .speech of the undying knowledge of thc
Ogham: save vowels only, per tlIltlstroplu1t is the name for
that, to wit, a ,quickness of the turning, as e.g. I, so that
there it becomes Ie, and n becomes ne. Why should he
prefer them to be all mutes to their being semivowels and
mutes, as they, were with the Latinist? Not hard. In
order to follow the Greeks. for there are no semivowels
with them, and Fenius was a Greek; or again it is on
accou'nt of the nobility of the order of the Greeks, lit
didtllr: OJJllle "lie priusjJollt'/ur. om/It bonum poslpollillir
38 BB. 3
' ; \ ' .22,IU
Nlr bU; lnuna1rcld1 son tasin nGtedel, al' mbad alonead
dolb dibllnalb. a nguth remlb 7 Ina ndlald air Is ed
rob lmalrcldlla suldl co mbadh an toseaoh dC'alresedar
lals 7 an dedhlnach du chur uadh conld multi uUI 495
belthl-1uls-nin in oghalm acht teadha nama .j. nir bo
seon) i: nir bu em [C aireic son; no nir bo eim
alreachtam suad son j no nir bo imuca urasa soon' no nir
bo uca immorro soon lasln nOoodel' no nochor b'0
. '. . ' relm
1m gothaldhl .J. lasin ngteth clul .j. lasin fear iga raibi in ; . ar mad aicneadh; no ar mad [C gnithi doibh
dlbIlI1alb '1' duna lethgulhaibh 7 do 't'bh
. . . . na mUI I a ngotha
, remlbh 7.
a ndlald .j. remib 7 ina ndhiaid .j. remib dona
Icthguthmo 7 ina ndiaidh dona muitib: acht ata acht leam
cJ1Cana 7 is ed em airechtain suad la sen co mbad l)O'5
Hut ;e. rosechastar ilIa menmain .i. in guth fi I isin 1eath.
no-airiSt'd Iais fo dheoidh, 7a ndeidenach fuach do
:c Int shuadh i in trebomnai do chor ar tus conod mi-
alt labartha in bitheoJais Jitterda in ogaim: acht feadha
nama per illistrofen a ainm sin .j. traide den impsoud .i. l)IO
amaJ ata 1 co mbadh Ie nobeith and, 7 n co mbad
ne n.obeth and. Cid ar mad (earr leis-sil/rn a mbith
comtJ' 'f h'"
. mUI I UI I qualll (oi. inas) a mbeith leathg/l/fl
7 mUltI amal robatar icon' I aitneoir ? NT' "
. J .. I ansa. .\r
sec Gn:, .. nl filet lethgulai Ia suidibh 7 roba do 515
do FeJOJUs; no dno is ar uaisli uird na nGrec 111
diClIII,., Om I ' Z 1/'
,(; III t.! r
pomtllr, OJI/llt bOl/u/II !'OSIjJOJIIlllr
4!1'J air nir bud L. m b '
4:11' I. h' ro 0, and tOlseth dO.1irisetar R
'1' n1r ua elmtlei airig eon i ni b h d
i. nirbem re airedi Ion E. .. r a urusa enam na coingne sin Ed.:
ata E. om. llW la saine E.
' uelu. e.nfuaeh R. DfllI conad imatt E. guthaidi J..
h . to'J litt. B. : lit. da L.
penmstrop en E.: fJer tlllaslrophlll Sg 4b8 : Gr. Lat. v. 309, J6.
mpoud E.: ;mpodh T. treded L
31:1 slcisim r.. 81.1
J h h L' B. has ata ttfort robatar
et gUI C. 810 ( b( h ( .
o t so re cenelUJ) innangrec Sg. 40-.

A woman's head that has destroyed my work,
It has gained ground, no dear sound,,'
It is a head 'that which is the most horrible
Of any that is on a neck beneath heaven.
Le., every mean thing is placed first, every distinguished -....
thing to conclude.
Now 8.S to genders, how many are there with
the Irish? (that is, gooseberry (1) way). Not bard.
Tbree of them, l.e., masouline, feminine, and neuter
gender with the Gael, to wit, maeoullne, feminine! and
neuter with the Latlnlst. Query, what Is tho
among them? Not hard. Their three leading .Jordo
of gondor dUTor, to wit, hlo, haeo, hoo; 1.0., hO, shO, it;
he, the man; she, the woman; it, the beaven. I
Query, when Is there harmony between the gender
and the element to describe them? Not hard. When
ita proper gender by nature 1s applioable to it. There
Is no harmony, however, between them when one
gender may be appUed Cor another. l.e., maso. for! fem.,
or Cem. for maso., or neuter for either of them. I Now
maso. may be usod Cor fem. when a temale chnd 1s
co. ed he, ttt tXlt poe/a:
If 1 were Ii female child,
I should love every young student i
A man that is not discovered till he is heard of,
Perfect sense for a while to you, 0 people.
Also fem. may be used for tnaso. when the horse is
called she:
The gabur is she, when it is a horse,
The gabur is he, if it be bleating,
The heron is she, though dearly it reveals itself,
The titmouse is he, though a female bird.
Also neuter gender may be used Cor maso. or fem.
gender. when it is said "it 1s his bead," "'110 matter
whether that one is a. man's head, or a. woman's,
B.D. 319 CI 51, '
Ceand mna romannair mo mod
don, ni deihn nd'iJ
s e ceand IS grannium sain '
______ fit for muin fo n'
, 1
6'U,' E. O:fJ Gaidelc (t add d .
fI' urlatnd L. I urland E (r ll' e. later) B. : lasin nGoid I
ni himalrc1dh T . - I mane E. cter inJoi T d' e , E.
Da ba misi E. cechtair n-:c, cechthuir n-:ii T I.a n-Indis L. E.
6:U No ceachlaind each ( I
cechtar 1.. E.
I' ea macan L E . h
6:111 'bnnRter B. t c1uindter L.: ,Ill E
arlh.l\inn nach (elmacchim T
qa ar ';'d ear. &:111.&2 cf O'M II .
WI '1' (0 B . mel Icch L. E. 0 oy Gr. 116
fi . R ma'"K
nos rei) B
r am H .: nos-racil E. 0-1:.1 mi d:\ I
rno mogh E " !. 135 4 w. n t. n .. E.
us graindiu L. ; : romandair E.
alu Co muin L.
Co. 23 CI I
:::gthir gach ndereoil (collJ) ar til. 7 gach sainemail
Innsol tra cis Ur innsol d h
Nl ansa A trl 1 f I' 00 wain 10. Fenl (.j. ifill che). 520
. .. er nnscl 7 banlnnsol 7 d
lasln nGaldel .1. masoul]
C . emen ] neodar tasiD Lalt
est, calde deoohalr eturru? Nl a
a trl urlulml indsce .i. hi nsa. Nosdeochratar
o heo hoo 1 Is 1 1 1
lse in fear lsi in bh 1
e s sed 1
, ean, sed In neam
Cest, cuJn Immalr1gh eter l'
n.lnnlsln ? Nl ansa I t n Innsol 7 In dull dia
n an feadalr a hins 1 h
tar n.alonludh. Nllmalr Idl1
0 0 olr fuJrrl
c mmorro eturru 1 t f
nsol for a n.al11 .1. I
n an eadair
er nscl for banlnnscl
for ferlnscl no delmlnscl '
no baninscl
.lor neaohtar n wi F
fer1nsce for banlnnsce Int .. eadair em 530
. .
an asberar Ise In b
sa, til poeta :
Dia mbadh missi in ban
No I ' macan,
F cee lramn eaeh fa-Imacan .
, er nad fintar gu gcJuinnter '
Slancheill chein duib am" d
Fedalr dno
' Utn ter.
banlnnscl for fearlnnscl
Is11n gabur:
intan asberar
lsi i!, gabuir uair is each,
gabur cid meighleach
151 I.n cid reil nos-reI '
Ise 10 mtntan cid banen. '
Fedalr dno delmlnnscl for fer!
asberar Is ed a ch nnscl no banlnscl Intan
til d
. " eann sechls ceann fir
leI ur:
on no mna,
BB. 319 fJ 27 AURAICEPT E. 23 CL 23
Feda.1r dno banlnnsoe' for de1mlnnsoe 1ntan asberar :S:SO
Is lin oblooh, tI,1 dicil/lY:
Is he in Ha, lith roJas,
Iar srethaib suadh in senchas ;
Is ed onn iar nnicneadh ail,
Is i in cloch iar srerdataid. t>r>t>
Is e in daigh derg dighrli dath
Frisna geibthi cath na cith ;
Is ed ceand is chremu cruth
Fail gu mhruth forsmbrceniu bith.
Samail a dealba can chleith :S60
Enlbha ingine Idhaidh ;
Fri goir ngreni glaine ar gurt,
Is fris samlaim a cremtucht.
Mad lar n-urd choir na ndula, lmmorro, nl atnm
terinnsol no baninsci acht du neooh dutuisium 7 0 665
tuisimar; ,7 ba deme chena aioneadh na huile.
Duepenar dno deminnsoi a ferinnsci no a: banmnscl,
Doepenar dno ferinnsoi 7 baninnsoi a deiminnsoi, amal
ata isna 'rannaibh, 7 it he sin na deime tebede 7 na
lanamna deme 7a ngeni-se. 670
Insci .j. seiel/tin (.i eena) a bunadh Laitne. Seothegna
a airbert. Innisehe a'inlle .j. innisiu iar erei iar conair:
conar .j. eeangar: tra i dorrre cueunn no duroc uaini .j.
inn asnejs; no tra i a tri i na tri hinnsci .j. ferinsci
7 baninsci 7 deiminsci. Ferinnsci jmmorro forinnsci 075
no firinnsci no fo[f]herinsce no firenninnsci no ferdha
innsci no ferr inda innsci na mmna [bis indsci in fir L.]
no ferinsci nama bis. Banmnsci dno .j. baninnsci .i.
ba fir no buan innsci no bonenllin'nsci no bOl/a seiel/tia
mo Cor. Tr. 12 : Iith3r robs. E. I HM. I3S b 1 RC xx 264
M:I' E 6:JII I I'
I sene3.. derg daigi E. m gaibthi L.: gabthai E.: gaphur Ii T.
lil, brrenu E. forsm B. L. E, in hith T. gan c1ith E.
HM. 135 Cl 42 Ml ingeine Idaig E.: Fbidhuigh T. '
L. I E. Gr. Lat. v, 159,22 i 160,8
DlIII, cI'.4 tuslffither L.: tuisimter E. llO7 Doepenar L
inJscid or",io no somda T.
Indis E. II airbert .j. airbpra no rndh T.
uand, L. : ,dorre uaind E.: trath 1 dorroi .j. d' iarraitl indsci euguinn T.
(0 enndsci L. 11;1/ ban fir D.: .i. bti fir L.

Also tern. gender may be used for neuter when
a stone is called she, ut dicitur: .
The is he, a fcast that has flamed, .
According to the threads of sages is the history; .
A block is it, according to nature, a rock,
A stone is she according to artificiality.
The red flame is II he," a prayer of colours,
Against which will not prevail battle or shower;
A head is II it j, of fairest form,
A place whereon with a glow the/world distills.
The likeness of her form, without concealment,
Of Elba, daughter of Idad,
To a bright sun1s fire on a field
Thereto I liken her benuteous shape.
If it be according to the proper use of the elements,
llowever, there ls no term of maso. or 'feme gender for what generates or for what Is generated
from: and neuter were else the nature of the whole.
On the one hand neuter gender is derived frOlu
maRC. and fem.; on the other, maso. and fem. are
derived from neuter, as it is in the verses, and these
are the derived neuters and the neuter couples and
their pairs.
Speech that is .ro't/ltia, from a Latin root.
\Vard-wisdom, its usc. Speech-way, its meaning, i.e., a
narration along the way, along the path: COllar, that which
is troddell: Ira, that is, let it come unto us, or let it go
from us, that is, the saying; or Ira, i.e., the three of
them, i.e., the three genders, mase., fe,m., and neuter
gender. Masouline gender is, however, added gender, or
gender, or goodman gender, or male or manly
gender, or better than the woman gender, or man gender
only that it is, Feminine gondor, again. i.e.,
gender. i.e.; it were true, or lasting gender. or female gender.
.i. dagfis no (320) (0 innsci in fir bis innsci na mna. :}80
dno i deim insci, no deme insci, no deiminsci
dem is onni as dem[o] i dighbaim ita: no
105CI i insce dimheoaighthi i ni hinnsce sluinnes
du blU. .
Cuin is erlunn? Is erlon11 em intan dosh f .
. .. ere rl a
n-alll, 111 eSl, IS e In fear 7rt Is etargaire dno etcr fhemen
7 masc"l insin: no is etargaire intan deifriche f . h
'1' n neac
I co n-anmailll a athar senrud. [nnsci intan asberar
IS e .nama gen' eraill maille fris, tit Priscialllls dt:n't:
Oratl() cst e01Igrua[lII] dietiollll/ll per/edalll' 590
. (que delllostnl1ls i ata ill innsci ordugud
na n-epert faillsigcs in ceil[l] foirhthi.
etcr da erlonn nach it inund i fd se no
fn sed, air III erlond is sed, is remshuidiugud.
Ferinnsci aicnid, is e in fer' ferinnsci' s'Prda' .
."' ,IS e an
llan1l1nsci aicnid, is i in bean: baninnsci srerda,
lS I 10 chloch. Deminnsci aicllid is ed an I
d . . ,neam.
srerda, is ed in ceand. Aicneadh crem and 7
etlgh. Aicned cremh cetumus: is i a sron no a
sUlI na mna. Aicned n-eitigh immorro, is i a fhiacail 600
no a bhel na mna 7is call gotha fodera sin i ni ni acht
amal atat na focail berlai na athgenllmar
'1' mt bmde.lenn uair nis-gnathaigem. Mascol 7 feme1/ '7
neodllr lasm Laitneoir i 1J/as fear 7 cuI co t '
' I' me . no
com 15CO oJ- moo a fis 7a c I I " . 0 quam co na mna; no is onni 606
IS I/Iasclilmus i masculini Femen dno . i d . t'
'1' em er '1' aeme
. L. doem insgi fUITI' E
.,04;1 dlmbe L d' . .
roK.' ',' :be1b:e E
:: urdtbad fuirri in d(c.le reomuind T.
. c.. DS re :.till
1>41 dosbcre L c.ll>sbi 1J dc'f E IS eterscarad R.
:>ItII cell L. Gr: Lat ii ., .1 trge
6:':1 E I. d c.l. I:' 53. 28 . Sg. 26 1\11() oralus B L
r .\n , .\ er alOd nach t' d . , .
no fn ledh T. :.:Ij earlond a '1' 51. (ri fri si 110 fd sed E.: isi fri Ie
liO'J nat athgenmar L na h . t ts.r
ud R. L. D!I".'. 8 lrer E
liO:l ni gnalh R, 'cal 'I'E: nad athgenam T.
I...., f I L 17 cal
IS co . &. Origg. xi. 2, 17
'1' mru(ulwa, (emer i. fen G . .
Ionium ma,culc.lo T. le net, ('1' og) la/i/ll E.: malCO-
or bonn scicntia, to wit, good or inferior to the
gender of the man that the woman's gender is. Neuter
gender, again, that is, dark 'gender Qr darkne'ss gender or
dark gender on her, or the dem is from the word dC1/lo
i.e., digbfli1/l, I deprive: or unliving gender, i.e. gender
inanimate, Le., it is not a gender that applies to' quick.
When is it (do1111 , leading word? Well, it is (,./01111
when it refers to another thing, tit est, he is the man
etc. There is then a comparison between the fern. and the
masc. there: or it is a comparison when it differentiates
from anyone else, with his father's name especially.
Speech, when it is said it is he only, with no other along
with him, 1It Prisciml1ls dixit: Oratio est ordillalio cOllgl'lU(
dietio1lum pClfectamq1le se1ltelltia1ll dC1/lonstralls, i.e., speech
is an appropriate order of the words that shows the
perfect sense. Er/o1l1l is the same between two er/o1/11
that are not the to wit, fri se or fri sed" for is suI
is not edOIl1l, it is an anteposition.
.Natural masc. speech, cc he" is the man: artificial
masculine speech, IC he" is the heavens. Natural feminine
speech, Ie she" is the woman: artificial feminine speech
Clshe" is the stone. Natural neuter speech, CI it" is the
heaven: artificial neuter speech, If it JJ is the head. There
is beautiful nature and ugly nature. Beautiful nature
first: It is her nose or her eye -the woman's. Ugly
nature on the other hand It is 'his tooth or his mouth
-the woman's; and quality of voice causes that, that
is, nothing but want of usc, as are the words of a
language which we do not know; i.e., we do not think
them sweet because we do not use them. Masculine,
feminine, and neuter with the Latinist, that is, 1/Ias, a
male, and ,ul, keeping: 'or ,om-jis-,ol knowledge, lust,
i.e.,. major e.ius sdelltia, et ma.ior '/"S quam jemillQe-
lu:ruria " or it is from the word 1!Inseu'blllS, i.e.,
44 BB. Sl9 {J 51
007 Grai: (or .Ian, (emder didiu '.i. og- ingen E.: der Grtcia, id lSI,
jilwltl/lllt T. Ongg. XI. 1 106' 2 2I 24 609 (ocrhnu T d' hI' . B
1110 .' .," , '. to la s lasalt
m,uthnec,hal B.. mallcnechae L.: mauhcneae Imdl fimina ,i. c.1eidecallc.
lhach no maethcnesach E.: flescach no mtlothcnesarh T . Origg '1 2 2
dl:J ' E
. , I. I 1
\I se nOllllJlatllY , 61. Origg. i. 7, 28: Gr, tat. viii. 82, illcistcoir E
IS I. Cesc tillS node(rigthar E. "
1117 a Ie remhe10indidh roslointi rompo E.: remeluinc.1te T.
diU nllcac.1arg .i. L. : Il telargnu ,i. E. O'J'J i . n
d ' d E . I
mmncc 1:..
In c:;en . (ogabalr E, 41'.!O,7 erer ,I. reur E. B:ll:l man 't' . T
"!V dr.' d' E 6:10 '
a .UIS Iml,
- elJr III e , Illud, cumra E, Deithblr L " D fi d' E
II 0 . ,
. , e Ir a In I
ngg. 11.2, 24
Graece, tll'rgo Latine: ander gach sIan. Femdeir didiu .i.
ogh.ingen; no femen fjll4si femer i fl ftlllore i femur .i.
sliasat, air Is and is ben-si intan fognaithir dia sliasait;
no {emell i. flesc no maitnechas 1I1Ide felllillfl de flescda no 610
maithchnechas dicitur J' no is onni as femillilla,felllilla .i.
banda no banecoscda no bangnethach no bangnimach.
Neudur .i. ni {etur cia ceneJ, uair nach si no'se; no neutur
onni as f/tll/rUIIl neimhneachtardha i lIec hoc lIec t'//ud .i.
nec 1//(lSclllt'lIum lIec feminillII 111. Cest, onni a[s] SclSC01', 6US
com[a]ircim. Caite deochair eturru? Ni ansa. Nas-
defrigidar a tri urlundinnsci i a iii remslonnudh .i. slointi
rempu i riasna hinscibh i ise isi ised: acht ata urlaind
sin a tindscedul a nd-edargnu rems]uind dona foclaib ina
ndiaidh; 7 insce {emell 7 masc/ll 7 neutur tuicthear trethu. 620
Etardheilighther dno eter na tri cenelaibh. Cest, cuin
imaric (-i cuin as suad) eter in insci 7 in
duB dia n-innisen? Ni ansa. Intan fogabhar a hinnsci
choir fuirri. Acht do neoch dofuisim 7'0 tuisimar atat da
thuismiudh ,and, tuismiudh aicenta 7 tuismiudh 62J
Tusmiudh aicenta geille i mac sceo .. ingcan 0 mnai:
tusmiud sa:rda i fer 0 thaI1/ltlr'ft, ama! asbeir Uraiccpt:
mor easba in talman melli tusmedh cJanda. Cetheora
:odhla scerdhatadh i deifir rainde 7 tugait bindiusa 7
]aba,rtha 7 cuimri raid. Deifir rainni, 1/t est, is e in 630
banmac-sa I
. din raind oigi fil and isin ingin is (col. {3)
Next feminine, to wit, {cm-der, to wit,ffmc in Greek, uirgo
in Latin: ainder every intact one. Fcmdeir, then, is a
pure virgin; or fClllell qliasifc1Jlcr, i.e., a fi'/J/orc, i,e.,/c/J/1/r,
thigh, for it is then she is a woman qll1/111 fflJlori (i"s srrvi
(lfu.r,. or IClIlcn, Le., a root of fighting, or contentiousness,
untie fcmillfl dicitltr dc, a sheltered one, or tender skinned
one j or it is from the words If/J/cllilla,lcmilla, i.e., \vomanly,
or of womanly form, or womanly activities, or womanly
deeds. Neuter, that is, I do not know what gender, since it
is not she or he j or neuter from the word 1/flltrIlJJl, neither
one nor other, i.e., nee llOe lIec "/llId, id est, lltC 1/IaSC/I//1I111II1I('C
jf!'u'IIr'IlIlIll, Cese, query, is from the word sc!scor, I
enquire. \Vhat is the difference among them? Not
. hard. Their three leading \\fords of gender distinguish
them, i.e., their three antedenotations, i.e" denotations
berore them, i.e" before the genders, i.e., he, she, it: but
these leading words stand at the commencement to
indicate the antedenotation of the words following them j
and masculine, feminine, and neuter gender is understood
through them.
There is distinction, then, among three genders.
when is there agreement (i.e., when is there a
philosopher's one invention) between the gender, and the
element for them? Nat hard. vVhen its proper
gender is found upon it. nut of all that generates and
is generated from, there are two generations, a natural
and an artific.ia.l generation. A natural generation of"
birth, to wit, son' and daughter out of woman: an
generation, i.e., grass, out of the earth, as the
Primer says: Great is the uselessness of the earth unless
it bring forth progeny. There are four subdivisions of
. artificiality, to wit, Difference of Part, Cause of Euphony,
Amplifying Speech, and Brevity of Terminology. Differ-
ence of Part, ut est, Ie he " is this female child, that is, the
46 BB. 320 II 26
BB. 320 {J I AUKf\ICt.l'l
lugum-aon L.
name arises from the part of virginity which is there
in the girl: Cause of Euphony, 11/ est, she is the gnbnir,
.steed, and it is a name (or a white horse, that is, goa,.,
that is, SO/liS in the FchucllUS, or in the \Velsh, so that
the poet put b to it for the sake of euphony: Amplifying
of Speech, 1It cst, it is her head, and the two expressions
are the more lengthy: Brevity of Terminology, 11/ cst,
a bark of butter, and a sieve of corn; for it were tedious
to say a bark round about butter, and a sieve round about
corn. For these are two modes of speaking that exist,
. the natural mode and the artificial.
Now there are seven inflectioll;s, to wi t, the compara.
tive degree of the Latlnlst Is named Inflection by tho
poet. Inflection of meaning in a person, Inflection of
meaning of a person, Inflection of person In actiVO.
inflection of person In passive. Infleotion of distinction
In to wit, positive, comparative, and
superlative with the Latinlst: foundation, aggravation,
belaudation with the poet: good, better, and bost with
the Ga.el i Inflection of grea.tness In Increasing,
of diminution in dimlnlE;Jhlng. Inflection of menninf In
a person first: U1I11SC, here is the man; tt1l1lsi, here tho
woman; 01l1lal', here is the thing: infleotion of menning 'of
a person: 1 myself, thou thyself, he himself, we oursolves,
ye yourselves, they themselves. Inflection of pers6n in
active: I did, thou dldst, he did, we did, ye did, they
did.. Infleotion Df person In passive: 1 am loved, thou
art loved, he is loved, we are loved; ye are loved, thoy
are 'loved. Infleotlon ot distinction in. distinguishing.
that Is, good, 'better, best (i.e., with the common in
'contradistin,ctioll to the poet: it is (oundation.
ever, with him). In1leotlon of inorease inorea,+ing:
great, greater, greatest. 'InfieotioD of d1m.1nutloD in
small, less, and least. I
I ,

aillm: ; Tueait bindiusa, u/ esl, i in ghabair 7 d' eoch
ban is ainm i goar i solus Isin Fenic[h]us (no isin Breat-
nais) co tue in file be fris ar tueait mbinniusa: HiJugud
labartha, ttl esI, is ed a cend 7 is Hate in da 'urlabra:
Cuimrr raid, ttl eSI, ruse immi 7 criathar arba; uair ropad
emj]t ruse im imim 7eriathar im arbor do rad. Air it e da
modh labartha fil and .{. modh n-aicenta 7 modh srerd,atadh.
Secht n-eatargalretra dochuisnoat 1 a ngrad condellg
lasln Laltneolr Is eatargolrl a n-alnm lasln 1l11d. Etar- 640
golrlln Incolsc I persalnn, etargalre n-lncholsc persalnnl,
etargolre persalnni 1 ngnlm, etargolre persalnne 1
cessadh. Etargalre derscalgtl 1 nderscugud 1 posslt 7
7 superlalt lasln Laltneolr 1 fothugudh 7
7 formoladh lasIn lllld: malth 7 fearr 7 fearreon
lasln InGoodeal; etargolre melte 1 mmetughudb, etar-
golre; lugbaghthe I lugugud. Etargolre n-Incholsc hi
persalnd cetumus: unnse (.i. in fer) unnsl (.i. in ben)
onnar (i i[n] nem): etargolre In Incholsc persalnnl me
faden, tu faden, he faden, slnnl fadesln. slbsl 650
Blat-sam fadesln. Etargalre persalnni I ngnlm: darlg-
nlus, darlgnls, darlgne, darlgnlsam, darlgnesalb, darlg-
ensad. Etargalre persainni i cessadh: rom-char-sa,
rot-ohar-su, rocharsom, roinohar-ne. rom-charabalr-sl
roscarsad. Etargalre derscalgthii nderscugud i. maith 655
7 ferr 7 ferrsom (i lasin nGa:del eoitchend a necmais in '
filed, fothugad immorro la sidhe). Etargalre mete I
mmetugud: mor 7 moo 7 moosom. Etargalre lug.
halghth11 llugh[ug]udh: bec 7 lugwn 7 lugusomh.
:: .iBolus Isin FheDacus E.: 675
Hlllugud L. lI:Jll cUlmreuh T. 11;/7 emilta Air it e F 64:1 d E
1 'd E lUll ,.. perll:L1n e
ug:u e '. ' ulndae. uindae L uindsl' E 031 d . . E
&:J ( ortgOlua
lI,U c. 3351), etc is translated: darignetar sial E.
robar.carabar-sJ, rocaraom L.: romcaraisiu. romrarnl
rouarcaral,, rodomcnraum E. '
IW i ndtrsgnaigaCh/ E. luguthi E.
Beoht n-et8.rgo1re i irs) soighthi dia mbe inna eolus; 660
no is saighthi dia mbe i n-aineolus. Etargoire i isinn
etechtu ata i isin sechtmad ernail in sechta ita in condelg
uile tit est: Pars pro tota 7 tota P"O parte i in rand dar
cis na toiti 7. in toiti dar eis na rainnf. Etargoire i
etardheiJighthi i treidhib 7 etargairi. i gair guth i 665
etarghnugh[ud] in ghotha andsin; no etargleodh i iar
ngleodh a fheassa etarru. .
In ohondealg tasin Laitneoir Is etargoiri lasin ftlld:
filidh i fialsaighi no fialshuighi: no fi ani rerais, 7Ii ani
molais: no fili on,ni is pld/osoplllls i feJlsamh ar dJiged in 670
.filed guru fellsumh. Cidh ar nach treidhi lasin Laitneoir
in condelg amal as treidhi lasin intI edarghoiri i
mcid 7 inni 7 inchosc? Dedhe immorro lasin Laitneoir i
meid 7 inni namma .j. bOllus et malus is i in indi: 1JIflgnus
et millus is i in meid. Is ed a inni lasin nGredel i maith 7 675
ole immalle. Is i a meid i mor 7 beg: 7 is mor lais-siumh
a mbeg i coneilg in neich is lughu. Inchosc im11l0rro agon
fhilid, ni condelg eside etir lasin Laitneoir, acht pr01101lle1l
et ucroum.
Cidh fodera dosumh a radh a ngradh conde[l]lg lasin .680
Laitneoir Is edargoiri a alnm lalsin llUd 7 ni fuil acht
tri graidh condeilg lasin Laitneoir. 7 atat secht n-etargoire
icon filid? Ni dia chutrumugud eim dosum dno, acht
ita etargoire lasin filid is condelg lasin (321) Laitneoir i
etargoire derscaigthi i nderscugud. Ni cach etargoire is 085
condeilg 7 is cach condealg is etargoire. Cidh ar madh
condelg las-[sJium posit? Ni ansa. Ar is i as fotha, 7 ata
MO soigthidi ambae E. edl eaigithi E. inna cOJUI B. E.
00-.1 isin cctu E. iostechta ita in congaelg- B.
6lJ3 Origg. i. 37, 13. tar es no toidi 7 in toil tar CI na rainde E.
lIdl comprnit dombeir-sium arin coinneilg uile T.
ctardhcilighi B. :. ctardciligthi i treib E. 8d7 etcrgJeod i lar ngles E.
llQlI .j. (elui .j. 7 sal hc:sium iareani bid fogJum aici ie
loglaim L.: i relsui R.: reI fogluim r. 1171 go rob L. 1m L. Deighi Ii
inn inne E. lin in beae L. till! cscn L. 0110 in grad L. 011:1 i eondcilg E'
Ni each etarR'oire B. repeats. ctardersgugud indcrscnaigtech
gach E. ...'17 rotta E. '
. ,
Seven inflections, that is, it is to be sought out!whencc
it is in his knowledge; or .it is to be sought out whence he
is in ignorance. I nflection, i.e., it stands in u1nlawful,
to 'wit, in the seventh part of the heptad IS the whole
arison 1It cst: Pars pro Iota et tola pro pnt'le, the part
<:0 ,
the whole and the whole for the part. Etflrgmrf, I.e., It
or ., ,., .
to be separated into three, and tla1:fJ(lIre, I.e., gmr IS VOice,
lS cl ..
. terpretation of the voice is there; or inter eClSlon,
I,e., 10 ,
fter the deciding of his knowledge between them.
l.e., a
The comparison of the Latiniat is infleotion With the
poet.: fi/idll, poet, that is, gener?us seeking, or
sitting: or fi, that which satirises, and Ii which
praises: or fili from the word pIJi/osoplllls, philosopher,
'Owing to the duty of the poet to. be a
Why is not comparison a triad With the .Latmlst,. as
inflection is a triad with the Gael, to Wit, quantity,
quality, and meaning? Well, with the Latinist it is two
things, quantity and quality only, wit, good and .
that is the quality: great and less, that is the q.uantlt)'.
With the Gael, however. this is its quality, to Wit, good
and bad together. This is its qua'ntHy, to wit, great and
small: and with him the small is great in comparison
that which is less. The poet's illdlose, signification,
however, is with the Latinist not comparison at all, but
prollomell et verbu1J1.
What makes him say that comparative deBTee
with the Latlnist is named 1nficctlon by the poet, seeing
there are but t1)ree degrees of comparison with the
Latinist, and the poet has seven inflections? It is
. indeed to equate them does he do so now, but that
is inflection with the poet is comparison with the Latlnlst,
i.e., inflection of distinction in distinguishing. Not every
inflection is comparison, but every comparison is inflection.
Why. is positive with him a comparison? Not hard
I '.
SO BB. 320 fJ 28
Because it is that which is the foundation, and there is
distinction for it, tit dici/ur, a number is 'opposed to a
't I (st. Um,s 11011 esf 'lUl1lenlS sed jUlIdfl11l(1I1//11/
um, 11.
l11i1Jlfri, i.e., one is not a number, but it is a basis of
number and as the Gael has a/I, joint, and it is not a
metrica{ foot itself, though it is numbered with feet, and
, that through artificiality, to wit, the natural alt stands for
. '
\Vhy is it not the name of comparative that they
to all comparison? Not hard. Positive first: Now It
does not surpass anything. The superlative, again, is
surpassed. The comparative, however, surpasses, IS
surpassed by something, so that it is for that reason
comparison is an inclusive name.
\Vhat is comparison of sense without sound, and
comparison of sound without sense, and comparison of
sound and sense together? Comparison of sense without
sound, til cst.. !JMI1IS, melior, optitJ/us. of,
sound without sense, 1It cst .. bom,s, bouio!", bonimus,. which
it might be according 'to though it does not exist
according to sense. Comparison of sound and. sense
together, 11/ cs/: magll1/s, mniol\ ma.riJJ/1/s, that !s the
proper comparison.. Yet there is good, and nothll1g to
surpass it, 1It (st, j)I'Jls.
\Vhat is the difference between st, it is he, and uillsc,
here he is? Uilldse first: the denotation of a particular
person is there, 111 dicitur. here he is, this man in particular,
w'ith his, name, 1/1 tll:rit potla :
Herc comes to thec the dear liule (ellow,
Son of a little black-bird [Mac Lon:iin].
Have thou every good (or him,
Dear little Cellach.
[Se) is a denotation or gender, however, as he is the man;
and it is not known who in particular, but it is a man
o i ',,1
derscughudh di, ut didlur, airim fri unair, ut est: U1JUS 11011
est 1/1111/er/lS Sftlju11damenlu1Jl mlmer; oj. nochon fbit int ren
co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, 7 amal ita alt G90
icon Gredhel, 7 dech fadesin, cidh la deochu adrirnt/ur, 7 .
tria srerdataid insin i int alt aicenta lmmorro de posit.
Cid arnid ainm comparaiti doberat-somh forin condelg
uili? Ni ansa. Poisit cetlJrnus: Ni do ni =
Superlait dno, ni derscaigther di. Comparait irnmorro G95
derscaighidh di neoch, derscaigthcr di, conid airisin is
ainm foriata in condcJg.
Caite condelg ceilli cen son, 7condelg suin cen cheilJ, 7
condelg suin 7ceilJi molle? CondeJg ceilli cen son, ut est:
bemus, melior, oPtiwlIS. Condelg suin cen ceill, lit ej:t: 700
bonus, bon/or, bO/liwlls,. nobhiadh iar sun sain 7 ni til iar
ceilI. Condclg suin 7 ccilli malle, 1It est: mag-miS, 1//az'or,
1J/flxiJllIIS is i in sin in condelg tcchta. Bid dno maith, 7
ni bi derrscugud dc, tit est Deus.
Caite deochair eler se 7uinse? Uindse cetumus: sluiJld 705-
persainni (sain]raidchi insin, lit diei/Nr .. unse uait in fer-sa
saindriud cona anmai"m, tit tli:rit /'Ot'lll.
Unse in
l\ r[elarrg-ugan; .
llid eacb maith lat ai' cingugan
A ceallgugan. '
Sluind ceniuil immorro amal ata is e in fear, 7 ni
(es cia sainriudh, acht is fer lal/tllm. Cidh fodera ind
ttIlI E. fri huimir L.: numair E. Orlgg. iii 3 I
:: Cull ,E. dOO airmi L.I comad airem E: '
. . cld la deachu alrmither L. : gid la deecu arlmthtr iter lIrerda-.
. t-alt aktlfla 3mal ala prois E. do L.
Prols cetamUI, andencnaldchl do ni E
003 Superlalt diJiu ni derscnaigthtr dl E
lUI h d .. d .
, .
'Ii lIec e,scnuIglt, E. '101 lJonr's,'mus L.: bonillsimul Eo,
'Illd Gr. y. 30: Gr. 91, 20 '103 deoehairUtr B. '
_ pers:lln
.:lICe E. 7U8-11 Cormac, Alit(. iv. 1103
,(III errguguln R.: raragain T.
, biJ can D. If a E. a jlonga brab ilin H.: brelb To,
cellcuean l\ eeanngoucan '1' a emn H. ara cinda ain a cen .
T. (=Cenn CZ. viii. 316, 6
Sluinde eoitcend
Inclplt do lebur Ferchertne Loc don J'b E"
Ml ,Iur-sa imam 735
lacha. I n-aimsir Conchobair mic Neassa!) d
F h fi] . . ersu 0
erc .crtne I. Tucait a denma du breith a:sa faind 7b . b
for sels (col. {1). Olr
Seachta frlsa tolmslter Gaedhelg ,I fld 7deach rei
7 forba[l]dh. alt 7 Indscl 7 etargolrl. m 740
m is ren illbera E jill"
'j"1 I' r r, olr IS remlSlumnc T. 717 uindsi E 7':11 t r
nar , (I,r ':. 7:!'J etardcthbriugud E 7'.!:I, h - a a'.,
h' demnldlu liS deiliglhidi R II " uat ad E.
'j:lU d' , I1I,YIJ1IOI1lIlIt T . cf G L ..
. clmlllgthi, deligthi, a tairglotar I..: ahirfYidlr ii'l at: n. 59, 26
7.111 CO mba poiait T. Oril'l ... 6 I).:' mt r gtlur T.
... 1 .. ,..g. XIII. I ,4' Gr Lat 11 gz .
VIII. C XXXIIi. 8. 7;11 Pointt . E' ',.. ' IS; IV. 374. 21):
f ., an:ut, 7.rJ mde t E
. ors '1. IS ferr a rls dOll fiti,. (/. r, '. ca. .
ilcchta E, 'ja, nl 'Ir B r", '1
) rofitlY Inas dOll fir na fitiY T
1'111' n Intll.. in bo b I '
r.. ..Ill tOlmlster E,
conidh inllsci 7 conidh etargoire i, intan is innsci
ae .innsci bis, acht isa oen; 7 atberat is e 711>
fer ualr IS erJond, i suidhiu. Is ann is etargoire intan
asberar unse, Slumd ceneoil amal ata ,'n t ' ,
, h" , . e argalrt
Inc OISC I persamd i isin persaind fein ita h' h
, h ' a mc osc
co mter trit ic sluind cetpersainde 7 persainde
7 trcs persainde atat na hetargaire uBi.' 720
Cldh ar nar ba leor leis-[sJium a rad me I' n et .
, h" . - argalre
IIlC OISC persalOne? Ni ansa, Etargaire deifrighudh 11
pers 'd t' h' h a am e ria IOC osc di fadein ,i in chetpersu uath 'd
conar bo leor a radh me co n-abair me- fadcl'n ,ai,
d 't' 7' d J' , , ' air is
emm I IS e Igldl fd cach persaind a radh me rd' 7
I." 'I . la em, til 25
( Itt IIr .. t//lpo/lel/do t'gomet [ilJse ellim effofiecz' 7 ' ,.
I.' , 'r b' 1/01l a IllS ell /II
( I(llllr ego//ld L,] uair is me fein 7oi neach eli intan asb .
t.t;O/llc!. Quic:quid ileralllr lit jir/llus fiat ' b' 'd erar
d ' h' ., '1 lal corob
emmte gac 01 athalrrlgthir. Fogabar dno I'n co .
h . mparalt
cen 111 cst.' Dllleills cst ware POllli[c]II/1l quam ccltra 730
1/Iana '1' 1[5] somillsi muir Point andat na mUl' . h
rI ar c eoa
7 condelc 10 ctechta in sill. CondcIc in etechta d . '
cetn '1' A . ( ano III
a ernal 10 uralcepta i jOrs ,i ferr a fhI'S 'I t
, " . . . . s e ecta
105m, ar 01 lOt anfis. Fillit primlls /ibt'r.
Inclplt to Ferchertne's book. The place of this book
Emain MacJla. In the time of Conchobar l\iacNessa.
The person to it, Fercnertne. the poet. Reason for making
it, to bring \veak and rude folk to science,
Seven things according to GaeUo is measured.
and verse-foot, deolension and aooent. sYllable and
gender, and lnfteotioD. ' ..
/tIlllum. What makes the irlol/d. leading word. become
illsd. gender. and etargaire. inflection? \Vhen it is illdsd.
gender, it stands as denoting gender. but of which it is
one; and they say IC he is thc man" when it is erlond,
leading word, there, It is inflection therc when it is said
tIIISC, there he is. A denotation of gender such as is the
inflection of meaning in a person, i.e., it is in the 'person
itself wherein is its meaning, so that it is known thereby
as denoting first, second, and third person. wherein arc
all the inflections.
\Vhy did he not deem it sufficient to say U I" in
inflection denoting person? Not llard. I nflection is a
differentiating of thc person through its own defining of
itself, to wit, in the first person it was not
enough to say ce 1,-' so he says IC 1 myself"; for it is more
definite, and distinct from every person to say U I myself,"
111 did!lIr: impo1lel/do (gomet. since it is I myself and not
another person when it is said cgomct. Qllicqllid itera/tlr
1It jirllltls jial, i.e., it will so be that everything which is
reiterated is confirmed, There is found also the compara-
tive without a positive. tit est: Dulcius esl marc POllliculIl
. quam cetera maria. i.e., sweeter is the sea of Pontus than
all the seas, and that is an improper comparison, An
improper comparison, too, is the first part of the Primer, to
wit, JOYS, chance, i.e., better its knowledge. That is not
proper; for ignorance is not good, Fill;1 pri1/lt4s tiber.
AURAICEPT BB, 321 cr. 26
Seachta, heptad, i.e., sep/em its root accordin.g the
L t . t Seven sciences is the meaning of It, J.e., a
a IOJS .
't .
heptad of sciences are measured there. Its use, WJ Its
number, that is, seven prime metres of the. poetIc art, or
incitements of bard poetry; or seven feet of
poetic art apart from monosyllable, for the heptad JS
not therein: on that account it. was left out. Common,
propcr, and peculiar asked for the word
Common to it is each number of sevcn. Proper to It
are its seven simples. Peculiar to it is the first number oJf
seven to which it might be applied, to wit, the seven days
of the week. Improper, its application to a number
than seven. Measure, i.e., meltSlira is its root accordmg
to the Latinist. Measurc, its meaning. TOllllls,.
its use, Le., to, tongue, and 1IIeas, estimate on Itself, I.e.,
an estimate which is made by tongue. Is measure a
'. species or a genus? It is a genus certainly. Query,
what are its species? Not hard. Measure of poetry, of
bard poetry, and of prose. \Vhat is peculiar, ),
common, and improper in measure? Not hard. 1 .
to poetry, that is, its being referred to seven klllcls.
Proper to bard poetry, Le., its measure to SUJt the ear, and
proper adjustment of breathing. Common,. however, to
prose from a monosyllable onward.
Improper however, for alt, juncture, does
exist there. Septas, seven times (or a heptad from thIs
time forward.
. Fld, letter, that is /UlIda;IIl!II/1I11l its Latin root. Under
law, its meaning: foundation, or wood of science its use.
d' 0 cr to vowels
Peculiar, proper, common, an Impr p.
i.e., peculiar to principal proper to dlphthongs.
Common, however, to consonants except b. Improper. to
it, however; for it is not a consonant at aJJ, tit est: '
ut litera sed fl()/a asjJiratio1HI, h is not a letter but Jt IS a
Seaohta .j. sejJl/m' a bunadh lasin Laitileoir. Seacht
n-re a hinni i seachta da reib doimiter and.' A airbert .. j. a
aidmh i vii primeillge na lilidcachta; no brosnacha bairdne j
no vii n[d]eich na filidheachta i n-ecmais dialta, ar ni fil in
seachta annside: is aire rofacbadh. Coitcheand 7 diles 7 741)
ruidhles conadar don foclIl is seachta: Coitchend do cach
airimh'seachta Diles do a seacht diuidib. Ruidhles do in
cctairimh scchta fris a nd-ebradh .j. fri seacht laithib na
seachtmaine. I nnJeas a tabairt (or airimh n-aiH acht [or a
seacht. Tomus .j. IIUllSllra a bunad Iasin Laitneoir. 7f>O
Toimes a hinni. Toimhes a airbert i to tenga 7 mcas
aid fcn i mcas doghnithcr 0 thcallgaidh. .In gone
no in ccnel tom;""s? Is cenel eimh. Cest, caitet
a gnee? Ni ansa. Tomus filideachta 7 tomus bairdni
7 tomus prosta. Cade ruidhleas 7 dileas 7 coitchend 7f>f>
7 indIes hi tomus? Ni ansa. Ruidhleas do filid-
eacht i a breith ria Diles do bairdni .i. a
tomus fri duais 7 fri coir n-anala. Coitchend immorro
de prois. 0 dhialt immach.
. IndIes do sell immorro, air oi fil alt and. Seachta fo 760
vii (or sechta inso sis.
Fldh i. fil1ldalJ/C1/11111J a bunad Laitlle: Fo edh a hinni :
fotha, no fidh re a airbert. Ruidhles 7 dUes 7 coitellelld
indiles do fcdhaib .j. ruidhles do fhedhaib aireghdhaibh,
diJes do {oifhedhaib. Coitchend immorro do tha:bomnaib 765
acht IndIes do scn immorro, air ni taebomlla etir, lit .
esl: h cst Ii/era sed 1I0la aspiratiollis .i. nocho n[fh]uil
h co mbtid litir acht ata conidh noit tinfidh. Tinfedh .i.
no 11 vii primellge, no vii brosnach:l E. m,7 hinnles T.
:: dona vii ndechaiph n:diJidheachta T. atccht diuid E. 1. ndiuiti
- (ns ndubrad L.: j ndebracl E.
HU alrem E.
,.\1 do t1henga 7me is airi lein E. 7&;1 no in gnim do tomUI) il gnimemh E
coil1t. D. =coitchend '.\7 11m briatha,. 6cachta E. 7:'1/ 'do E. L. .
do e, Secta (0 vii-a nndso l5is E.
taeboimna n
.00 nl toebomnaib E. 7117 Gr. Lat. Ii. 35, 24' 8 :12' 12 20' s/,I is; E
itlll nod tinfid L.
" , "
58 DD. 321 fJ 30
E.24 CI S5
tiniudh feadh f nemnigudh feadha do radh friu sin uili. Is
ed is ruidhJes 7 is diJes 7 is choitenend doib.' 770
DeatJh dno troich(no ar frithindlidhach)a bunadh Laitne.
Degfuach no defuach dallo a hinni: dibh uaighthir immorro
[a] airbert i[s] sreath. Caite ruidhles 7 dUes 7 coit..
chend indJes isna deac[h]aibh? Ruidhles doib a n-anmand
rein do rad friu amal ata dialt. Diles doib dialt do radh fri 775
each n-ai dibh, air is dialt dufonnaidh gach n-<e dib for
araBi. Coitehend doib deich do radh fri each dib. Indleas
do dhialt immorro deach duna seacht ndeachaib cle do radh
fris, air ni til alt and.
Relm daIJo i re huamma ai a hinni intan is filideacht, 780
.re huam intan is bairdni i ni huaim tomais dlig/fllg.
Reim dano i raid uaim intan is phrois. Reim da/lo a
airbert, diaJl no tutseal a bunadh: no reim onni as
rtJoall//ls i comhshuidhiughud a bunadh. Ruidles do reim
do tid for fid f filideacht: diles do ccatharcubaid 785
tiJideachta 7 bairdnc.. Coitcluml immorro do reim suin
cen cheill 7 do reim. suin 7 cheiJli immaille: diles do
prois: indIes immorro do reim suin namma, uair ni tiIlt"".
' Cid dosum nar bo lor lais a radh me namma
co 11l1-carbairt me fadein, 111 slI/,ra ? 790
Ceithri gnci itnmorro for pl'ois 0 (3
) rcim .i.
reim suin, amal ata fer. Is as remnigther. Reim ceilli,
amal ata Pa/rak. Ni airicar a reim suin, air is rendealb
mark of aspiration. Till/edit, aspiration, i.e., a vanishing
of letters, i.e., annihilation of a letter to apply to all
these. That is pr<;>pcr, and common to them.
. Then doneh, metrical foot, or because it is synonymous,
rosody foot, from a Latin root. Good word or double word,
its meaning: from them is linked its use, however,
it is a series. What are peculiar, proper, common,
and improper in the metrical feet? Peculiar to them to
apply their oWIl names to them, such as dialt, monosyllable.
Proper to them, to apply monosyllable to each of thet,TI,
for it is a monosyllable that each one of them adds to
another. Common to them is to apply feet to each of
them. Improper to monosyllable, however, is to apply to
it [the name of] one of the other seven metri,cal feet, for
no juncture is contained in it. . ..
Relm, course, that is, time of composItIon of at, SCIences,
is its m'eaning when it is poetry: time of
when it is bard poetry, that is, it is not composItIon of
a legitimate measure. Refill, then, that is, ral'd-tlflz'lII,
speech-stitching when' it is prose. Reilll, then, use;
di"ll, declension, or case, its root: or rell1l
the word robal///(s, i.e., its root is a compound. Peculiar
to rdlll alliteration, of letter by letter in poetry: proper
to a side [or end] rdlll through the quatrain of poetry
and bard poetry. Common, however, .to declension of
sound without sense and to declension of sound and
sense together: proper to prose: improper, .however, to
aeclension of sound only, for they are not inflected.
What caused him to deem it insufficient to say fC I "
6nly, and to say (( r myself," ttl supra? . .
Four species in prose, however, out of retllJ,
to wit declension of sound such as fer. Thence It JS
. declin:d. Declension of sense such as I'll/rate. Its, dec}en-
siOli of sound is not found, for ther,e is one form for its
fW ninugud (1) E. .
m dibualdthir, irbert E.
ntl each ni dib, f' araiJe E.
illO uarnllla L.: rreim, huama E.
7lU ruidlesla E. 'N' ceithrecubalt E.
TTl ar it iDdledach L.
m. II deechaib R.
m, II deeich, deech R.
'181 re huaim E. tamMS L.
'1119 leor L. 7110 co n-:abair L.

Now as to forbald, i.e., aeccnltls with the Latinist, from
the root of the word 10rm(1rz'l/,s, i.e., many faced : (( it is
upon" (to wit, on the word) either on a long or on a short.
Accent, either II it vivifies," or II it perfects" its meanirlg. It
vivifies when it is lannil, that is, B is upon it; or /orsail,
that is, it is adding to, it establishes the word as a
long. F01'baidh, then, /I perfects JJ when it is d/lIill disail,
that is after n comes not s but d; or dil/in disail, to wit,
{rom that unadding, i.e., not adding. Forbaidh,' then, to
wit, ce thereon it is," when it is enzill, that is, it gives n, or on
it is n. Forbaid then, i.e., U on wood," is its use; peculiar to
forsail:' proper to tnli", its being on a long or on a short.
Common to dillifz dlsail, or to, aq the accents to sar
/orbaid, accent, of them. Inappropriate, however, for any
accent of them to go in place of another, i.e., for the two
to wit, alliteration from letter to letter, lit (Sf:
nominative and its genitive: declension of sound and
sense as Flalld, Flailld. Side declension in prose, .that is,
II 1 myself," {or everything that is not full declension is side
dccleilsion. Three things after which ni/il, declension is
caUed: Declension out of, 111 {'SI,/er, for it is out of it that
, declension is declined. Declension into, /It tsf,jir, for into
it' is it declined.' Declension out of and into together, 111
(St, in/er, i.e., its nominative and its accusative are there
together.. As to rdm, too, its usc is dim, pace:
llellat mother of envcnomcd Ncl
Of the children of fullfetttrcd Latinus
Died on the bright day of the sun,
Spouse of Fcnius Farsaidh.
Re'llat mathair Niu[iJI neimnigh
J)\l chloind Laitin langcimligh
Fuair bas i 110 grene glain,
Ccle Feniusa Farsaidh
fora 'ainmnid 7 fora gtnilil: reim suin 7 cei.JJi amaL ata '
FJand. Flaind. Trebreim prosta :i. me "fadein, ar is'
trebrelm cach ni nach Janreim. Treda ara togarar reim .i.
,rcim as, 111 esl, fer, air is as remnigther. Reim ind, 111
fsl, tir, air is ind reimnigther. Reim as 7 ind
malle, 11/ esl, in :fer i a ainmniugud 7 a inchosc
ann malle. Reim dallo ceim a airbert:
.i. reim do fidh for fidh 111 (sl:
Sian sJeibi sirJata serind
SenshaiJl senim snechta snac
Slisiu slice samad saball
Snaithe snithe sa/and sacco
. Forbald dno i aieftllllls Jasin Laitneoir, a bunad onni 810
IS jir/llarius .j. i1ghnuiseach: forbid (oi. forin focul) no for
fut no for cumair. Forbaid no forbeoidh no forbal'd .
F b" . . a 1I111e.
or eOldh IOtan IS forsail i sail fair' no forsail '1'.'1 r
'J]' dl . ,slor
. Ul 1, fothaighes in focul for fut. Forbaidh dno
rorbaldh II1tan is dinin dishaiJ i sech nin ni sail acht duir . 815
11..0 dishail i. disein djfuiJHud .j.
I-.orbaldh dno i fair bklh intall is ernin i. ernid nin no fair.
I1In. Forbaidh dno i for [(h]idhbait a airbert:
do diles do ernin a beith for fut no for gair.
C?Jtchend do dinin disail, no dona huile forbaidibh 820
radh friu. INdIes immorro do rorbaid
dlb clul 1 lJocc araHi .j. do da forbaid l1a nguthargt
ror an ninmnig L. 1M n taebrem E. HOI Del::id L llUl' E
lOti J.:/ulne T. IlIHI S' J' b' I -. 0",.
IIOU Ir. ri.,"/" iii. 30 1'W ( neld Ins at:. : aeiscend T.
1111 l' T .1 om. '1' alceant E
[' ormanus. 1113 nrht i E 7
811. III erned .i. f(lrbaid F. 11111 "1 L . I nernfuilledh, :arnin E.
inles uadh J,' .. It." Ise. forbaigibh n.
.. -. nn ngulh E.
e taobomaad to ll:U 1.. no ilair B. 0"'.
I'Ja gada fuat B. 833 d'fhiJi lmmorro E. tl:U focul B., rocul na prol.e E.
eJO dono i all Cuit T. lI3S Indilchre L. ll:I7 .coitecda E. urdala L.'
811 celm E. . . 84 E. do indaci L.: indacni E.
.i. roruaisligtech (1) E. .
7 d'renforbaid na trebomna .1 forbaidh uathaid 7 forbaidh
ilair no ilair for uathati, no forbaid fuit for cumair: no
-indIes gan a fuath do sgribeand. 820
Alt onni as allus i uasal a bunad lasin Laitneoir: alt
dano onni alteir ina menmain a inne. Alt co feser immorro
a airbert i co feser cia halt aircetail bera fri sechta i i[n]
nath, inn anair, inn anamain, in Jaidh, in setrad, in sainemain.
Alt in anma prosta in re n-aimsire bis eter in da sllillaib a 830
inni: [alt L.] co feser a airbert. Caite ruidhles 7 diles 7
coitchend, indIes alta? Ni ansa. Ruidhles i do aiste do
alt filideachta: diJes immorro do alt bairdne i do aiste.
Coitchend indIes do fhoclaibh na proise i coitchend do cach
focul i mbiat alta; indIes immorro do dialt, ar ni bi alt and. 835
Indsce dano i s[c]ielllia a bunad Laitne: in deschre a
inne: scothecna a airbert: no insci, co feser in aisti urdalta
.i co feser in si no in aisti bera fri sechta amal roghabh
is e in nath, is i in laid. Indsci in anma prosta i ferindsci
7 bimin!l'sci 7 deminsci. Cate ruidles 7 diles 7 coitchend, 840
indIes, na J1insce ? Ruidles' don insci aicenta cremh: dites
don insci aicenta ecccm: coitchend indIes don insci s<erda
i coitchend ara gnathugud, indIes immorro ara aindilsi.
Etargalre dno onni is etarg,'adimus i foruaslaigeach:
62 BB. 322 a6 AURAICEPT
accents of the vowels, and for the one accent of the
consonants, i.e., the accent of the singular [on the plural]
and the accent of plural on the singular, or the accent of a
long upon a' short: or inappropriate not to write its
Alt from the word altlls, i.e., noble, its root according
to the Latinist: all, then, from that which is nurtured in
his mind is its meaning. Alt co feser, however, is its usc,
i.e., that thou mayest know what all, limb, of poetry applies
. to seven, that is the "alIt, the flnair, the mta//ltlbt, the
Ididlt, the st/rad, the saillelllaill. As to alt (lit all1lla, joint
of the name, in prose, the space of time that is' between
the two syllables is its meaning: illt co Jeser its use.
\Vhat are peculiar, proper, common, and inappropriate of .
nit? Not hard. Peculiar, that is, to metre of all, limb,
of poetry: proper, however, to nit of bard poetry, that is,
to metre. Common, inappropriate to the words of prose,
that is, common to each word in which there are nltn,
intervals; inappropriate, however, to a monosyllabIc, for
no alt, joint, exists there, .
Now Indsce, gender, that is, scie1ttia, from a Latin root:
ilt desclttle, the right way, is its meaning: word-wisdom its
use: or, indsce, that thou maycst know the definite metre,
h h
ill" "h'"
i.e., that thou mayest know w et er s 1e?r e IS
the metre that applies to seven, as for example the 'la/It
is U he" the ldid is ce she." /ndsce, gender, of the prose
, .
name that is masculine, feminine, and neuter. \\That
are ;ecuIrar, proper, common, and inappropriate of
iltllrce, gender? Peculiar to natural kindly gender:
proper to natural unkindly gender: inappr.o. .
priate to artificial i.e., common owmg to Its
being used, inappropriate, however, owing to its inappro-
priateness. . .' ..... ;.
etarg8.lre, inflection, from the word

E. 24 fJ 14
etargnaghudh gotha a inne: etardeliugud a airbert. 'Cate 845
ruidles 7 diles 7 coitchend ]. indIes etargaire? Ruidles
do derscighthigi i nderscughud, air is i frecras
in condelc. Diles immcrro do etargmre inchoisc i.
persaind, uair i[s] sloinniudh persainni saindredaigi, Coit-
chend indies immorro dona etargnirib ar chena i coitchend 850
in uird cornairme: indIes immorro do. neoch dib na frecair
Cest, in gne (col. (3) no in cenel in fidh? Is cenel emh :
7 masa chenel, cadet a gnee? Ni ansa. Fid 7 fid
aicenta ,j. fid tid inn ogaim; fid aicenta immorro 805
fio na caiJIi. Et fid inn ogaim, in gne no in ceneI? Is
cencI ecin, ar techtaid gne .i. fid aireagda, 7 forfidh, 7
trebomna. Is e' insin in cenel cenelach gneach .i. fid.
Cest, in' gne no in cenel in deach? Is cenel emh, ar
techtaidh gne i secht ndeich' na filideachta. Is e sin in 8GO
cencI gneach baghabhat ocht n-ernaili c[e]achtar ngne na
Cest, in gne no in cencI in rem? Is cenel .i. techtaid
da gne i filideacht 7 bairdne i, reim do fidh (or fidh 7
txbrcim do fidh for "fidh, tit est: 865
Coluim caid cumachtach 7rl.
Trebreim immorro tit est:
A [Fh]Iaind at luam in gaiscidh grinn
. Co Maistin maiIJ.
At glan, at greth, is garg do rind,
At laech, a [Fh]laind.
84i dencalgthl L. sal sllndrlldaigi L. 80& an urd L.
&1 feda, forreda L. lIIll bangabat, cacha dara gne L.
techtaig L. n. Dill. II4l4l RC. xx. 146: fr. rtxlt, S6
H6-7:.1 d. Iris" Altlries, p. 19: Ir. rl.t'f, iii. 9, 14; 40, 19
1170 gart n. L.: garg H. T.

i.e., dominating: interpreting o( voice is its meaning: a
distinguishing is its use. What are peculiar, proper,
common, and inappropriate of (tm-gain? Peculiar to
dflrgairc of distinguishing in distinction, for .it
to comparison. Proper, however, to dargnlrc of meanmg
in a person, since it is the denoting of a particular
Common and inappropriate, however, to all the (Inrgazrc,
that is, common to the ordinal numbers: inappropriate,
however, to any of them that do not correspond to
Query, is fidl" wood, a species or a It a
genus certainly; and if it be a genus, what arc Its
Not hard. . Artificial wood and natural wood, .to Wit,
artificial wood is the Ogham letter; natural wood, however, .
wood of the forest. And as to wood, letter, of the
Og-ham, is it a species or a genus? It is a genus neces-
sarily, for it has species, to wit, principal wood, vowels;
cross wood, diphthongs j and side-woods, consonants.
That is the genus generic. and specific, i.e., wood. Query,
is dendI, verse-foot, a species or a genus? It is a genus
certainly, for it has species, to wit, the seven verse
feet of poetry: That is the specific genus which the
eight sorts of each of the two species of poetry have
got. .
Query, is rcim, run, a species or a genus? A genus,
i.e., it has two species, to wit, poetry and bard poetry, i.e,
rli11l, alliteration of letter by letter, and fatbrtim, side
aHiteration of Jetter by Jetter, fit est.'
Columba, pious, powerful, etc.
Taebrdm, side alliteration, however, ul lsI:
. Fland, thou art the pilot of pleasant valour
, Unto gentle Mullaghmast ;
Art pure, art wise, rough is thy point.
. Thou art a hero, Fland.
1173 pat- pal. E. : d. 3751 IIiU .j. me fadein L g E
m f lh'd L I
ogalf Ua al anreim ind 7 aas ina dualus focul E
a dualu8 fogus E.

'fil I . i
MlI3 m I a!l8 ar Iun: re mlas .i fear fir ar ni fil L. indi E.
genebn rocumnd E. llllIt (orsa tarau L
"'.10 fre E.

no mgneech E. ,
Ism gntl'd deochralgea E. doine i ndomun L.: daine In dom ,. E
KJj gnee L
ll'Jd "
am ...

tOlmlster L.: frisi toimiltear E.

I 67
Four species in prose arise out of ,-elm, flexion, rbilll of
sound without sense, and relm of sound and and
prose laeb"eim, side flexion, and rtim of sound only. i Rdm
or sound wit.hout sense first :ftrfir: rdmofsound and,sensc,
Flallfl Fillillll: rtim of sound ta111/1111 , PalratC Palraic.
and prose latbrtim, side flcxion, I myself. Three species
by which "dm is called, "dm in, l'dlll out 0(, rtim in and
out of together: "elm out of, 1/t man: nim in, tit
,-,sl,fir, of a man, in the declining: "dm in and out of, ;11
Itr, the man, i.e., into which goes and out of which comes
its full inflection in respect of singular sounds and of plural
sounds. Rdm in and out of together, that is, in, with
respect to sounds singular and plural together: in, as
regards meaning: or relm in, Pnlrmc, for there is not in,
according to meaning: re;m in and out of together, F/alln,
Fltri1l11, it is in, according to meaning and it is out of.
according to sound.
That is the genus, generic and specific which was
. formed here on the seven, flexions, etc. Query, is ;fld
lorbaid, the accent, a species or a genus? A genus, for it
has three species. That is the genus in which were
found the three species of Gaelic. Query, is ;'It a/t a
species or a genus? It is a genus certainly, for three
species underlie it, to wit, artificial' alt, natural alt, and
aft co fuer. The alt co leser has five species and five
genera. Query, is illdsce, gender, a species or a genus?
It is clear that it is a genus and it has the three genders..
It is a different genus that differentiates the world. Query,
is tltlrgaire, inflection, a genus or a species? A genus
certainly, for its species are innumerable. It is the
genus that differentiates among all things. ,
Query, what is esse, essence, of the seven by which
Gaelic'is measured? Not hard. Esse, essence, feda,
of letter, first: that is the fragment of cut off air
.' .':
. "..,
.... ?
; ,

'. ,I,


Ceithri gn,e for prois 0 reim .f. reim slJin cen cheiJI, 7
reim suin 7ceiJIi, 7 trebreim 7 reim suin namma.
Reim suin cen cheiU cetumus i fer fir: reim suin 7 cheilli
i Flaind: reim suin tail/lUll J>atraic: 7 876
t4Cbrelm prosta i. fadcin. Tri gne ara togarar reim .j. reim '
7. reim ass, 7reim ind 7ass malle: ass tit est fer,.
relln IOd lit est fir isin reimniugud: reim ind 7 ass .i. ill
fear i .[ind teit 7ass teit a lanreim ind i ndualus fogur
huathald 7 lOa dualgus foghar iJair. Reim ind 7 ass 880
maille :i. ind a dualgus foghur uathaid 7 ilair immallc
inna duaJus ceilJi: no reim ind i Patrnk ar ni fil
ind iar ceilJ: reim ind 7 ass malle i. Flaind
ar ita ind ia'r ceiIl 7 ita ass iar suint ' ,
Is e sin in cenCI cenelach gneach cenclach rochumadh 88fi.
sund secht remendaib 7rJ. Cest, in gne no ill
cencI forbaidh? Is cenel, ar techtaidh tri gnee. Is
sin III cenel (or a tarrasa tri gnee na GredeJge. Cest,
111. no in cenel int alt ? Is cenel ecin, ar it at tri gnee
fal 'I :It 7alt aicenta 7alt co Int alt co feser 89()
COIC ngne 7coic cenela. Cest, in gne no in cenci
IIl?SCI? Is derb conid cenci 7 na tri indsce. Is
salllcencI deochraides in doman. Cest in cenel no I'n .
. . .
'. gne
111. etargOlrl? Is cenci eim, uair dianairmidi a gnei. Iss
e III cencI etardefriges na huili 7rI.
Cest, caide esse in sechtu frisa tomsigther in Goe[deJIg?

68 BO. 522 fJ 55 AURAICEPT
E.:lS ca'!
Ni ansa. Esse feda cetamus i if, blog aoir tebide gebhes
in tid i nelluch focail, unde potla dixil:
Esse feda ;s fretede"
Ferr duib a aicne occaib 900
In blog reoir thepide
Techtas i n-elluch focail.
Caite esse deich? Ni ansa. In lin no inn uaite son n-
oeflcongbalach airimther 0 dialt co bricht cona n-athghabail
diblinaib. Caide esse remme? Ni ansa. In bruudh fillti 905
fogurda forbriste foil otha in ainmiudh n-uathaid co foxlaid
n-Hair. Caite esse fuirbhthe? Ni ansa. In tormach no in
digbar'l n-aimsire airighes aiclled i comhshiniudh fd fogur.
Catc esse alta? Ni ansa. In toe tengadh fil don filid
arc] ceimniughud don litir for araili mad alt stcrda, no 910
don sillaib for araili mad alt aicenta. Cate esse insce?
Ni ansa. hi foludh then foirbthe fcgthair isna tri ccne-
Jaibh. Cate esse etargairi? Ni ansa. Jnt athfegadh
mete no laiget no inde no inch<?[i]sc no edardeifrighi no
etardelighthi no edarderscaigthe rodealbh Dia eter 915
Cate tomhus Cri sechta? Ni ansa. In tid tuisseach
bis isin rand (3
3) 7 in tuissecha do thabairt
ar aird, 7co festar na feda bcs isin tlCbchubaidh in raind,
7 gu robe in tidh cetna bes isind imrecru na tarmthort- 920
<:heand, 7 gu rub inund a lin do thc.ebomllaib bes impu,
7co festar cia deach dona ocht ndeachaib daroigh i n-aisti,
7co festar in trebrcim no in reim do tid for fidh, 7 co festar
M bolgoir E. lllll i melluch B.: i n-ealJuch L. MlIll esse, ill treiligi L.: Iretide E.
lIOO .ithne L.: aicbne E. 001 bolg oir teipidhe E.
lIO:I Ion n-ren congba1alach L. .irmitht,., don athgagabail E.
005 reme, filti E. . BOll focurtha E. fit L. E.
1108 comsinead, focus L.: comlulgudh Cri locur E.
llO9 C:llte oenalta E. lIll! cr. Origg. I. 28, [
!lU meidi, laghad L.: laigeat, etardeifriglhe E. lIld dJinibh E.
!lll$ taoboim- D. Isin dara huad E. !lUI ina raiud E.
na eJa tarmorcend E. cia deech E.
which the vowel takes in composing a word, unde potla
Esse jcda esscnce of a vowel, it is to be studied,
, .
Dettcr for you to have the knowlcdge of It,
The fragment cut off or air
Which it possesses in composing a word.
\Vhat is esse of verse-foot? Not hard. The whole or
onc of the individual self-sustaining sounds which arc
reckoned from one to eight s}'llables, both included. What
is esst rtimt, of flection? Not hard. The inflected;
voiced, articulate change which obtains (rom thc nom.
sing. to the abl. pI. \\That is esse of acccnt? Not hard.
The increase or diminution of time which an accent marks
in co-extension with a sound.
\Vhat is esSt' allfl, essence of interval? Not hard.
The tongue silence which rests on the poet in passing
from one letter to another if it be alt sflorda, or from
one syllable to another if it be alt aictltla. What is
of gender? Not hard. The just and perfect
which is secn in the three kinds. What is rsst ttargalrt?
Not hard. The consideration of size, smallness, quality,
denotation, difrerence, variety or distinction which God
hath fashioned among created things.
\Vhat is measure with respect to heptad? !'lot
hard. To pring under notice the leading vowel that is
in the verse, .and the leading consonants, and that thc'
vowels that stand in the caesura rhyme of the verse
may be known, and that the same vowel may stand in
the corresponding part of the endings, and that the
number of consonants about them may be the same, and
that it may be known. which of the eight verse-feet
into 'the metre, and that it may be known whether It IS
side alliteration, or alliteration or letter by. letter, and that
Oalte tomus 1'rl lld J Nl ansa. 00 felseal' a IUD 7 a
n-ualte, a met 7 a lalget, a cwnung 7 a n-eoumung, a
neart 7 a n-almneart. Is ed a lin: colo alom! ogalm: 945
1 oolorear caoha aloml, 7 oen co a colo each 00, condo.-
del1g1tar a n-alrd1. It e a n-alrdl: deasdruim,
cia (orbaidh bes (or son cellcoil ind imfrecrai, 7 co festar
cia halt dona il-altaibh ind aircetail i na filideaehta. 925
'.nsee .j. co (easar in se fo in si intI aisti. Etargaire
'1' co reser cia gne in aircetail do gne do thomus'
fri scchta Et intan ba roscadh na tomaiste and, cindas
nothomhsidhe? ar ni bidh lancubaidh no tt:ebchubhaid and.
Ni ansa. Do focul forba anaile no-taispenta don choiccadh 930
focul, uair is coic foca;l romesadh i n-anaH in filed. Cate
sechta in ochta ind Auraicepta? Ni ansa. Intan is oeht
ndialta i mbricht is and is secht n-alta. Cate in foeul
dechongbalaeh treconllgbalach? Ai[IlJ-
mmgther 0 trlan: 7 ni ruidhilsi do in trian 0 n-ainmnig- 935
ther nadat na da tdan 0 n-ainmnighther iarcomarc.
Caitiat na da trebomna gabhait greim guthmge? i
c 7l' ar essi a, tit est .' Coluim Cillc acillit "
it may be known what accent stands upon a word or the
'Corresponding and which it is of the seven alIa of
trisyllabic poetry, i.e., of poetry. IIISU, gender, ie" that
thou mayest know whether the metre is he or she.
Elm:t[aire, i.e., that thou mayest 1,lloW what is the species
of poetry as regards measure with respect to seven. And
dithyramb or metrical rhythm was present, how was
it measured? for there is not couplet rhyme or caesura
rhyme in it. Not hard. By a word cumpleting a breath
which was indicated by the fifth word, for five words
adjudged to be a breath of the poet. What is a heptad
of the octave of the AIIyaiajJt? Not hard. \Vhcn it is
eight syllables in brient that are present there are seven
n/It'l, intervals. What is the word containing one, two,
and thrce syllables? It is named from and
not more peculiar to it is the one-third from which it is
named than are the two-thirds from which iarCOlllflrC is
\Vhat arc the two consonants that take the force of a
vowel? To wit c and l' after a, 111 lsi, Coluim Cille
,Ctet'"il. .
\Vhether it will be firm, whether it will be yielding,
\Vhcther it will be warlike with numbers of deeds,
o Christ I wilt thou keep with us
\Vhen it will come to fare on a sea or ships?
' ...,-
. "',
1m ba sessach im ba seng,
1m ba tresach, tuirme glonn,
A Chrlsll in congebha lind
o thi co tea,'" ar lind long?
:: forbld E. for focatio imtregraid L.: forio focul in imrecra E.
. aircetaib D. , vn ef. line J687 b (d) E
II.!lJ t' 'd' La.
na 01mS1 1 .: ni bad E 11;\1 0 . .. 8
\1:1;1 hi' ... rlgg. n. J ,2
lee t o-a ta L. ndialta D. lI305 t' E
1131 C. d . d L on nun
me:! .\ e la '. 837-411 E. om. '
1/4d !ransJated in. AII(;tII/ /". I'Otl"" p. 94; cr. Zt;Isdll'. x. p. 46, 9
cOlger L,: 7cUlger E. eona dheligt,, E.
What 19 measure with rogard to fid, Ogha.m lettor?
, Not hard. That thou maycst know their number and
their singlenoss, 'their size and their smallness.
power and their want of powor, their strength and tholr
'weakness. This is their number: five Ogml0 groups,
1.e., five men for each group, and one up to five for'
eaoh of them, tha.t their signs may be dlstlDguishod.
'l'bes9 ' "their signs: right of stem, lett of stem,
: II amla!d imdrengair ogum llmll! imdrengllir crand E.
romut J... "'" as rut 7ass imme E \1,);1 0 . I
\1.'04 fontaib III, domlditer E. . n
JE.r J9...
\l.\8 db E a cu ut 4_
IItJ 'gu lIW a lIfn do tacbomnaib E.
11711 a.lltn L.. \IllII b.ll 7 las I.. E.
1171 Co IIlIJIIUS, nguth: L.: bit (0 nilniul Ina nguth. E.
III thuC'atar, deldenaca h. II'" d 'b I-
. corea,
athwart of stem, through stem, about stem. Thus Is a
tree cUmbed, to wit, treading on the root of the tree
first with thy right han4 first and thy left hand
after. Then with the stem, and against it, and
through It, and about It. These their various vowels
and diphthongs, lit est:,
Query, why are those called woods, vowels? Not
hard. Because they are measured by them and sewed
with them, "t didtli,., la, brl.. How are they, as vowels,
measured with the consonants? Not hard. Every
two consonants for a vowel In rhyme, every two corl'e
sponding letters in rhyme: that is rhyme, thercforo,
that it should be the same vowel that stands in the
corresponding words, and that the number of consonants,
that may stand in them should be the same, tit est, bas
and las: bras-and gras: eland and Ilalld: d01'1l and COl'li :
dlmd and condo
What is measure with respect to jid, Ogham letter?
To wit, that thou ,mayest know their number and their
singleness, i.e., their number in five groups and their
singleness in one group; their size and 'their smallness,
i.e" their size in five. strokes and their smallness in
single strokes. What is the difference between their
power and their strength? Their power first: when
they utter voice alone, that is, a, 0, or u: Their strength,
however, when a prime position brings them into a
, syllable, such as bar's, lilz'S. What is the difference
between their want of and their weakness?
Not hard.' Want of power when the vowels are under
nullifying, as for example fi[o]lId. True indeed, for the
last letters' that, stand in these double sounds arc not
understood, through their being pronounced at once:
weakness, however. when stand in combinations
'drulm, leasdrulm, tredrutm, imdrulm. Is' amlald
IDulreangalr crand .1'. saltrad tora trelmln orolnd ar tUB
7 do lam dess reut 7 du lam cle to deold. Is iarsin Is' 950
leis 7 Is trls 7 as trlt 7 as imm1. It e a ndelUgte teada
7 fortheda tit est: l1i1 11111)(0 Wi;m&-
Oest, cld ara n';'ebertar redo. trl suidlu? NI ansa
. ,
toblth domlter fr1u 7co n-ualglter condalb "t'dicit"r luis
, ,
allme, belthi allme. Olndas domlter frlsna taebomna 955 '
amal tldu? NI ansa. Oach do. thoobomna ar fid hi
cUbald, cach do. coblld I cubald: is ed is cubald
larum co robe an fid cetna beas isna foclalb In Imfre-
ccrai, 7 co rob inund a Un du tmbomna beas Intlb, Ilt
esl, bas 7 las: 7 bras 7 gras: ceand 7 leand: dorn 7 960
corn: dond 7 condo
Caitc. fomus fri fid? i co fesser a lin 7 a n-uaiti .i.
a lin a, coic aicmib 7 a n-uaiti i n-lCnaicmi; a met
7 a i met hi coic fJescaib 7 a llaig-et i
n-renRescalb. Calte deochair eter a cumang 7 a neart?
A cumang cetamus: Intan gabaid guth a n-lCnur .i.
a . no 0 no u. [A L.] nert immorro intan dos-bere
pnmshuidhiugud i silJaib, amal ata bais r lais. C'aite
deochair: eter a n-egumang 7 a n-aimnert? ' Ni ansa
Ecumang intan bithi (<'01. (j) fo nihiJus ina guthmge amai 970 "
find. Fir em, air ni thuicter na feda dedhencha filet '
Jsna deghfoghraibh sin triana cantain fochetoir: aimncrt
equivalent to the diphthongs, and in the Ogham
diphthongs such as Icr and b('1I.
Five letters for each' group: and therc is one up to
five for each of them, that is, one, stroke up to five
strokes, ttt tst, b one only" n five of them: or again
another kind? Not hard. Want of first: when.
they stand under nullity, ttt 'lllolliam 'luidt'lIl with the
Latinist, or when three vowels stand' in one svllablc
with the Gael, as Briaill, of Brian, g!iaid, a
flesh, bcoi1', becr with the Gael. \Veakness, hmve"er,
when they are lit strUIIS, tllI/g'us witli the
Latinist; ut iarl/lIl, therefore, cian, far, .ceir, waxr
(ubull), apple, and abalt, appletree; with the Gael.
Full power; too, is in them, both vowels and consopants, -
with the exception of h. So that they are
through their signs, Le., through their appearance, to
wit, clearly do their conditions differ. Thcse their
signs: Right of stem, that is, b to right of thc ridgc,
that is the b group: Left of stem, to wit, to the left side
of, the stem, which is the h group: Athwart of stem,: to wit,
athwart is from thee, and against is to thee, or half
the stem, which is the m group: Through stem, that is the
a group: About stem, that is on this side and on that,
the diphthongs group. It is thus it is climbed, to wit, .
it is even thus it is graduated in the Ogham as it is
graduated in the tree, to wit, thy right hand first,
that is, group b: and, thy left hand after, that is,
group h: and after that it is athwart and against,
group. m, to wit, is from thec, and against -is
towards thee. Through, however, is a.: over,
however, and about is the diphthong group. Thus are
distinguished the vowels, 'the diphthongs, and the
consonants. Why are those called vowels? ,N,ot 'hard.
Because the consonants are measured them,
74 pa. 523 fJ 3 AURAICEPT E. 2SfJ 4
immorro Intan bit i comsuidigthib cutrumaib na defogai'r
7 forfedaib amal ata fer 7 ben.
C9ic feadha each aicmi: 7. is oen co a coic cach re i 97lS
co coic flcscaib, tit est, beithi a renur, nin a coicur :
no gne elc? Ni ansa.' Ecumang cetamus: intan bite
fo nialus tit 'luolliam 'luidtlll lasin Laitneoir no intan bitc
guthmghe a lasin nGtedh'el ut Briain
. gliaidh, (eoil, beoir, lasin nGredel. Aimnert ;mmorro 980
tan bite (0 consonacht, lit strut/s, 1I111gllS lasin Laitneoir
lit iarum ciall 7 ceir 7 uull 7 aball lasin nGtcdhe1 7rl. '
Lanchumang dano intib etir fedha 7 trebhomna co nd-
urba uath. Conda-delighetar tria ll-airde (.i tria n-
ccosc) .i: is. caindeifriges a n-aradu. It e a n-airde: 985
Deasdnllm '1' bethi do deas in droma, is ed aicmi beithi .
Tuaithdruim i don leith atuaidh din druim bis aicwt' uatha:
Les.druim i leas uait [7 fris] cucut, no leatarsna darir;
druun. bls aicmi muine: Tredruim, is ed aicmi ailmi:
!mdrUlm i andiu 7 anall aicmi na forfidh. Is amlaid 990
Imdrengar .j. is amhlaidh eimh ceimnighthir isinn orram
isin crand i do lamh dess reut i
7 do lamh chle foi diudh i aicmi h: 7 iarsin is
7 IS fris aicmi m i les uait 7 fris cucut: trit imlllorro
alcmi . a: immorro 7 immi aicllli na forfidh. Is 995
amhlald Sill llndheilighter na fedha 7 na forfeda 7 na
.Cid ara n-eparar fedha 'fd saidhiu? Ni ansa.
]'oblth domlter na trebomna friu 7 cainuaighter na focai!
::: na deCboguir isna E.: d. Gr. Lat. \'. 14. 16 j viii. 189 I
7 lana) D. om. 7: fear 7 bun L. I
no t1 h h' ,.
1177.8:1 I: esC:l gac a alcml h. co coic L.: gu coic gacha h., E.
.. om. 1178,81 Gr L t 1 6
lJ.oCI h a. v. 3 7, 18, 19 lIdO Amnert D
con tur uat I 11111 d d I'
'd -.I( _ 4. , con .1- e Igther L.: cona-deiligetar J:
calD CIu ngea nnaraduite a n-airde E 1l/1li. h' d :-
1ItIl',N m B. . E 10 _. .ara mil rUlm E
cd" III 3551U 7 anall L.: aindiu (no aU) 7 anall E'
- run, reout fo d 'd l (d
W7 friuS'lide E .. lr.1P4 a cOld E. IIIU tridruim aiclllt a E.
'" . L.: domidigttr', cainfuaigtt, E.
11." ni- am B. L. : fr. line 394 S 11101 In Inma L 1001-11 Eo 0",.
100H Arc:h. C. P. 1.481 100& atchondarc ane L. 100" edach imbe L
1001I I'd
'1' 0 7 r I n-.. gl a; bal , lal 1 lancubaid insin. Taebcubaid bral 1
101:! tomaiSltr, taebomnai E. 101:1 in comad coir L.: In c:omCat E.
IS I ar comardad L. 1017 i. c:oir a n-airc:etal E
E. 011I. a Casdad L. Aingin T.
dibh, tit est luis aj]me, beithe ailme .i. la, ba. Is e sin in
sealbhadh srerdha cen reim acht reim remraite. Ni ansa. 1000
Amnl iaraither fidh aire[gh]dha nama ica breith fri sechtu
sic: iaraither in trebhomna bhis and, cach da trebomna ar
fidh, lit dicilur:
Deda airegar and: rentugucl co ncleJiugud amal
.ba.s 7 las 7 is iar comardadh n-airchetail rata L.],
air IS mand fidh aireRhdha fil intib, 7 is inand 1010
degheanach. Sain immoyl'o in taebomna treseach .i. el.
Cindas toimsiter na trebomna imna fedaibh? Ni ansa.
Cach da trebomna dib imon fidh. Is e in comfhot coir (.i.
lancubaid insin), ul cst, bas 7 Jas. Is e sin int LCntughud
co n-inannlls, 7 int rentllgud cen itiannus: 7 is iar comh..
ardug'ud n-airchctail. ata, uair is inund fidh aireghdha fil
intibh, 7 is comlin do threbomnaib; 7 is ed a choir n..
Conagar dno isin aip[g]itir bunad 0 ren, 7airic 0 deda,
7 a cor a tredhe, 7 a comhuaim fri ceathardu, 7 a com- 1020
dhluthadh fri cuict[h]i, a moradh a seda, a fogail a sechta, a
riagail fri.ochta, a incosc a a asdadh a ndeichtllc. Is e
int am thuas i Fenius Farrsaidh ; in dedha .i. mac Etheoir
fris; in tres mac Aillgen; in ceathramadh ere' in coiced
. ,
Amalrgen mac Naende mic Nenuail ; in sesedh Ferchertne; 1025
A rider I saw yesterday,
Round him a cloak with hue of blood,
White as a swan his colour is,
Foam of wave his two cars' hue.
Two thing's are found' there: identity combined with
difference, as bns and Ins, and it is according to the corre-
spondence of trisyllabic poetry, for the principal vowel that
stands in them is the same, and it is an identical final
consonant Different, however, is the initial consonant,
to wit, 1 b]. How are the consonants about
the vowels measured? Not hard. Each two consonants
of them are about the vowel. That is the proper
proportion, to wit, that is perfect rhyme, tit esl, /las.
Ins. That is the unity with identity, and the unity
without identity: and it, is according to poetic corre-
spondence, for the principal vowel that stands in them
is the same, and there is an equal number of consonants;
and that is the proper arrangement of trisyllabic
Now in the,alphabet there is required origin from one,
and its invention from two, its placing by three, its confir-
mation with four, and its together with five, its
amplifying from six, its division from seven, its rule with
eight, its demonstration in nine, its estab,Hshment in ten.
The one is above, to wit, Fenius Farsaidh; the two, Mac
Etheoir with him; the third Mac Aingin ; ,the fourth Cae;
the fifth Amirgen son of Naen(Je son of Nenual; the
and the words are fairly woven out of them, tI/ cst 1 a,
b a to wit, la, ba. That is the artificial possessive
, .
without rhyme save rhyme of vowels only. Not hard
[2nd Aris.]. As a principal vowel only is required to
refer it to seven, so the consonants that exist are required,
. every two consonants for a vowel, lit dicilur ..
. '.
<" !
E. 25 fJ 20
Mareaeh atchonnac anne,
Etach uaime co ndath ero,
A dath is gilithear geis,
Uan tuinni dath a da 0
76 BB.323/126
BB. 32 3 fJ 47
in scchtmad a dalta; int ochtmad (:eandfreJad; in nomad
a dhalta; in dechmad a asdadh f nren .j. in
Is e seo a thosach ill Uraiceapta [i]ar nAmairgein
nGlungeaJ. Locc don libur-sa Tochur Inbhir Moir i
erich hUa nEnechglais Cualanu: Et aimser do aimsear 1030
mnc Miled (324). Perso do Amairgein Glungeal mac
Miled. Tucaid a denma role Miled dia tothiugud fair
amal ata 'nar ndiaidh.
Cia arranic a mberJasa 7 cia airm i n-arneacht 7 cissi
aimser i narnecht? Ni ansa. Arranic Farrsaidh 1035
oc tur Nemrua[i]d i dnd dech mbliadall iar scailiudh on
tllr for cach leath, 7 is cach comberlaid dochuaidh and
dochum a crichi 7 ni cach comcheniu[i)l amal rogab Cai
Cainbreathach, dalta Feniusa Farr[s]aidh, in dara desciplll
St'chl1Jlogal na scoili. 13a do Ebraibh a bhunadhus 7 co 10-10
Eigipt rofuidhedh. Ocus is and roan Fenius fodhesin ocon
tur, 7 is and rouitreabh, conid andsin conaitchetar chuice
in scol berla tobaidi do theipu doib asna hiJberluibh tucsat
leo di muich conna beith oc nach [a]i1iu a mberIa sain acht
occaib-seomh a n-renur, no ic neoch no-foglaindfedh leithiu 1045
dorisi. Is andsain dorepedh a mbelra asna hilberlaibh, 7
rotaiselbad do renfir dib, conid a ainmsell fona a mbelra-
sa. Ea he in fer hisin i Goedel mac Angein, conid
Gredil de-side 0 Gredel mac Anginmic Glunfind mic
Laimfhindh mic Agnumain do Gregaibh. Inan[d] tra
mac Aimergin 7 Gredel mac Etheoir .i da ainm
fasdad, int Den L. tar n-Amairgin L.
JIl.'lI JnJbir I.. Origg. ii. 16, I
JO:IO F.M. Q'I1I0 3501: A.D. 91 S, 1154, 1170: Onomalt [641]: O'D.Gr. Iv.
Il.I;tJ tOlhlugad L.: do liach! fair E. lO:IH7 Written as text in I.,
Iltl3 i nd.ernacht E. 1D:1ll comcenet E. JOU hEigepta., bodeain L.
III':: conna decatar E. 10'3 theibi L.
IOU (ona robelh E. oc nech ele am berla lin L.: oc neach aile in E.
Ilo.(oglaimed L. doridiai E.

sixth Fcrchertne; the seventh his pupil; the eighth
Ceandfaelad; the ninth his pupil; the tenth its establish-
ment in one, to wit, the Trifocal. .
This is the beginning of the Primer according to
\Vhiteknee. Place of this book, Tochur
Inbir Moir in the territory of Hy Enechglais Cualann:
And its period the period of the sons of l\1i1esius:
the person of it Am'airgen White-Knee, son of l\1ilesius.
The reason for making it that the sons of Milesius
demanded it of him as is after us.
\Vho invented this speech, and in what place was
it invented, and at what time was it invented? Not hard.
.' Fenius Farsaidh invented it at the Tower of Nimrod
at the end of ten years after the dispersion in every
direction {rom the Tower, and it was everyone speaking
the same language that went there unto its territory and
not everyone of the same stock, as e,g., Cai Cainbrcathach,
pupil of Fenius Farsaidh, one of the 7
scholars of
the school. He was a Hebrew by origin and he was
sent to Egypt. And there Fenius himself rcmained, at
the Tower, and therc he dwelt so that there the school
asked of him to select for thcm a select language
out of the many languages which they had brought
with them from abroad so. that that speech might. not
be in the possession of anyone, else but of themscIves
. alone, or of anyone who 5houid learn it with them again.
Then' was selected their language out of the many
, languages, and it attributed to one man of them
50 that it is his ,name which is upon this language.
That man was Gaedel, son of Angen, 50 that Gaedil
Gaels, is from him, from Gaedel son of A.ngen
son ,of Whiteknee son of Whitehand son of Greek
Agnumon. Now Gaedel son of Aimergen is the same
as Gaede1 son of Ether, to wit, his father bore

Therefore its vowels were placed apart and its consonants
also apart, so that every onc of them stands apart from.
the other. Semivowels do not exist, as they do not exist
\vith the Greeks, but only the mutes. For every
for which there was no name in the other languagcs, names
were found in Gaelic, tit est, grlls, curds; cloeh, stone; and
Ii/w, pool.
two mimes, Aingen and Ethcr. It was there accordingly
that this language was regulated. What was best accord-
ingly of every language and what was widcst and
was selected for Gaelic; and for every sound for wluch
no . characters were found in all the other alphabets,
characters were by them found for thcse in the Deithc
Luis Nin of the Ogham, ut est:
I beheld the It's
Past which would come a stream,
In which its curds were many
Though milk was not abundant
What was best, widest, and. finest of every language
was put by them into Gaclic, to wit, what was easier and
pleasanter to say, to wit, they thought having vowels. and
mutes in it easier and plcasanter than semi-vowels, mutes,
and vowels as the Latinist has.
Bcttcr in reason with them, to wit, five of them for a
long and five of them for a short, and five of them for soft
sounds and five for a hard, and five for a full sound and
five for a diphthong than the one five ullderlying all of
them as it is with the Latinist, and this is what the
Latinist says: His vowels all take effcct, lit est ..
Lalind! vocales 01lt1lCS et product' el corn,,; posslIlIl, that is, aU
the Latin vowels are such that they can be lengthened or
shortened. Broader in letters, to wit, for there is nothing
AURAICEPT 80 BB. 324 A 20
lo.'d fa am/aid L. uw roriJdlad In berlasa doib, an ba R.
:cainiu E. 10M Goldelg E. do na airnecbtair L. : donernacht E.
F. 10110 Jcthguthaige, fuil L. 10111 ainmnigtM E.
1(1ltJ! gruis E. I'-Ill cainiu E. 10t:U soch:arcaimiu L.: locharcantu E.
1(/70 i leosum frl rad gUb amal atast L. 107'01 Jeoaum .1. ailm E.
IOTJ defogur L. IOU (uthaib L. Gr. tat. Iv. 3
7.20: hee E. =: !JOt
1077 :co regthar 1 co timairgtir L.: ragdllr, timaircltr E. 1078 i lIethet E.
Atconnac in lis
Seach a teged glas,
Inarb imda a grus
Gen gurb imda as.
robadar fora athafr 1. Aingin 7 Etheoir. Is and iaramh
doriaghladh ill mberla-sa. I mba fcarr iarum do each
berla 7a nba 7 a mba cremu, is ed darepedh isinn
Goedilc; 7 each do na airnecht cairechtaire isna 10
aipgitribh ailibh 01 chena arrichta carech/aire leosumh
doibh isin bcithi-luis-nin in ogaim, til ul:
Rolatha iarumh a fedha for leith 7 a trebpmna dna
for lcith, co fil cach re dibh fa Icth 0 'rlaile (sic). Ni fail
leathgutai amal na fail la Grcgo acht na muite namma.
each duil do na rabha ainmniugud isna berlaib aiJib
airichta ainmnighthi doibh (isin G<.edi/.g"), 111 esl grus
7 cloch 7 linn.
A nba ferr 7 anba Jcithiu 7 a nba caimiu each berla, is
ed aco isin'n GredeJg i. i nba socair caimiu fri radh .i
j. socarcaine leosum gutta 7 muiti oca and inat leathgutta 1070 .'.,.;.1,:
7 mu,iti 7guttai amal atat icon Laitllt'oir. .
Ferr i ceillleosum i a v fri fat 7a v rri gair. 7a v fri buga
7a v fd cruas, 7a v fd 7a v fd deghfogur, anda a
haen:choicfothibh lIiIi amal a;a icon Laitncoir 7 is ed asbeir ':1.1
in Laitneoir: Gabaidh a.chuie guthatge-sillm an greim sin 1075' .)
uili, tllt'sl Lati1le ht' OIll1lt'S lIocales produci 7corripipos[s]ullt . ;j
.j. itat na huili guthmgt' Laitinda i co cc:emnachtar co
7co timairceter. Leithiu i llitrib i ni fil a fhregra sin ;';l

, i
lOW grus i. tanach galmula lasin Laitneoir (uncal) with dtl. 0
cialhlib B. 10111 gruth T. u1tl lalmu E.
no galgalam T. : golmalh, gruthran E.: gruthrach T. 10/'00 I(/pis, Ua E.
lo..'1'7 Jiropllltl L.: Origg. xvi. 3, 5 lOllll carrace E. ail 1 ond L.
IO'JO ;iJ,i110, iasc E. HI'J& in Gaeudg L. E. ina L. : ana E.
100Jd ge beth a Ian inand E. 10117 sluind L. relaitl E.
1011II Origg. i. 7, I : E. "omm L. om.
)100 lIil pnltlil with (5) over d E. aichniged L. )10] iar nEr E,
J,ersanda E. tancatar L. om. lIl),) asberait 1.: aaberat E.
the Latinist has to correspond with that: broader
in respect of ,meanings, and letters, to
-r . L .. h thO
broader in letters The atlnlst as no 109
to correspond with it: broader in words, to wit,
curds; cloch, stone; lind, pool, the Latinist has nothing
to correspond with those; curd, that is a cheese: galmula
with the Latinist, curds with the Gael: to correspond with
the Latinist's galmarilllll is the Gael's cheese: galmalam
with the Latinist, grutltraclt with the Gael: II stirabout "
with the Gael, there is nothing answering to that with the
Latinist: lapis with the Latinist, stone with the Gael: petra
with the Latinist, rock with the Gael: scoptllus with the
Latinist, sharp pebble with the Gael. Cloch. 01111, and ai1c1l1,
however, these are kinds of stones to which the Latinist has
nothing corresponding: aqua with the Latinist, water with,
the Gael; nmllis with the Latinist, river with the Gael;
piscilla with the Latinist, fish-pool with the Gael; the
Gael's pool, however, the Latinist has nothing correspond.
ing. Hence then, the Gael is wider in words and ljetters
than the Latinist. What the Latinist says is that
Gaelic is wider in words and letters, it is not wider in
meanings; for though the Gael has. many na"1
denoting the things, the relative meanmg emerge,s out
of the paucity of wotds which the Latinist does: have.
That is not true, as the Latinist himself says: Nisi
1l0/IUIl, rent1lt jJert'it, i.e., the knowledge the
. things perishes, unless the name is known.
This is the beginning of this book according to
and according to l'ar mac .Nema, and Gael son of :Ether.
These are its, persons; and this is its period, wit,
when all the children of Israel came out of Egypt. In
Dacia. it was invented, though others say it was 'in the
lain of Shinar. 'The reason for writing it, because it
. !
.t .

82 DB. 324 II 42
lasin Laitneoir: leithiu a ciallaibh 7foc1aib 7 .i lethe
a litriph >lfG)'$.f!m Ni fil a frecralasin Laitneoir: leithi 10
i foclaib i grus 7 cloch 7 lind, ni fil a sin lasin
Laitneoir: grus i tanach : galmula lasin Laitneoir, gruth .
Iasin nGoedel: dia frecra gaimaritl1lZ lasin Laitneoir faiscre
Ias'in nGredel: galmalam Iasin Laitneoir, gruthrach Iasin
nGredel: grus lasin nGredel, ni fil a fregarthach-side lasin 108
Laitneoir: lapls lasin Laitncoir, cloch lasin petra,
lasin Laitneoir, ail lasin nGccdel: sropula lasin Laitneoir,
carrach lasin ilGredeJ. Cloch (no reI) 7 onn 7 ailcne
immorro (col. {3), is iat sin cenela cloch do na fuilet
frcacarthaich icon Laitneoir: aqua lasin Laitneoir, usce J09
la'sin nGredel; amflis lasin Laitneoir, aband lasin nGredel ;
jJ{scli/a lasin Laitneoir, iachlinn lasin nGredel; linn,
immorro, lasin nGredel, ni fbil a (recra lasin Laitneoir.
Leithiu didiu in Gaedel i foclaibh 7 i llitribh desin anda
in Laitneoir. Is eq asbeir in Laitneoir cid leithiu i foclaib 1095
7 i Jlitrib in Gaedelc, ni leithe i ciaIIaibh; ar cia bet
ilanmann icon Gaedel ic sIuinn na r;:ct, tic in chiall
relait asin mithadh focul fi1 icon Laitneoir. Ni fir on,
amal asbert in Laitneoir i'ein: Nis:' sciris 1/omen, cognitlo
rerumperti't .j. atbail int aichnius inna rret meni aichnigther 1100
int ainm.
Is e seo a thossach in libhair-sea iar Fenius 7 iar
nlair mac Nema 7 iar nGredel mac Ethiuir. Is iat sin
a persainn; 7 is i a aimser i. aimser tancatar mic
Israel uili a hEigipht. I nDacia arricht ci asberatar alii 1IOS
co mbad i mmaigh Sennair. Tucait a scribind i a
. ,
was by the great school requested of Fenius" lar, and
Gaedel son of Ether that it should be selected for
them as thdr Primer after it had been given 9Y Moses
and learned with him by Cae Cainbreathach; so that
after that the alphabets were invented on one, table, as
he says: What are the alphabets, etc. Aur is every
beginning: also niece-ncht, lesson, is lcht niece, child nurture,
i.e., a deed, for it is in nurture that the disciple is with his
fosterer:" or niecept that is neuptlls, that is, of acceptance,
to wit unto thee of something that thou hast not: 1/(1
, .
lId-tl[t(ls, of the sages, of the men without doubt, to wIt.
the poets.
Six principal chiefs by whom the Tower was' made, to
wit,. Eber Mac SaHe, Grecus Mac Gomer whence are the
Greeks, and Latinus son of Faunus whence are the Latins,
Riahad Scot son of Gomer, Nimrod son of Cush, and
Fenills Farsaidh. Fifty-two years from the dispersion of
the Tower till the reign of Nin son of Bel with his reign
of fifty-two. Seven hundred and seventy-four from
the' reign of Nin son of Bel to the end of the reIgn of
Tothmes king of the world in whose time Troy was at
length sacked. Seven years old was the daughter of
Latinus son of Faunus: so that there are nine hundred
and (orty-three years from the dispersion of the Tower
.tilllEncas married Lavinia. and Latinus himself made his
covenant with him. From that it is evident that the
people of this Primer do not. advance accurately, that
Latinus was one of the seven chief rulers of the Tower.
Query, what are the alphabets of the three prinoipal
languages, both name and oharaoter ? Not hard Indeed.
The .alphabet ot the Hebrews first, that Is, Aleph
. ;.,
thotlugud do scoil mhoir co Fenius 7 -co' lar 7 go Goedel
mac nEitheoir a thepe doibh inna nUraicept iarna
idnacul do Maissi 7 iar foglaim do Chae Cainbreathach
occa; conad iarsin arriachta n[a] aip[gJitri a .111
amal asbeir: Cat iat aib[gJitri 7r1. Aur cach toisseach:
aicceacht dano icht aicce (.i. gnim), air iss i n-aicci
in descipul icon aidi: no aiccept i acceptus i airitell ;i
i chucut neach nach fil agut: na nd-egeas .i. na nda:i
cen cheass i nafileadh.
Se primthaisigh lasi ndernad in tor i Eper mac SaiJe
7 Gregus mac Gomer otait Greic, 7 Laitin mac Puin
otait Riabad Scot mac Gomer, 7 Nemruadh mac
euis, 7 Fenius Farrsaidh. Da bIiadain coecal 0 scailcd
in tuir co flaithius Nin mic Bel, a do coecal raj righi: ctillti,. H20
bliadhl)a deac ar tri jichtib ar secht cetaib 0 fhlaithius .
Nin mic Bel co deredh tlaithiusa Tutailles righ in domain.
Is re linn rotoghladh in Trre fo dheoidh: secht rnbliadna
ingen Laitin mic Puin: conad tri bliadna utltorchat
ar 110t' cetaibh 0 scaileadh in tuir co tuc ./Eneas Lauina 7 1125
Laitin fen doroitle a caingen {ris. Is follus as sin co nach
certtiaghait lucht in Uraicepta-sa co mbad e Laidin in
sechtmadh primthuiseach in tuir.
Cost, calteat Aipgltre na trt primberla eter
a1nnm1ugud 7 charechtalr? Nt ansa, em. AJpgltlr 1130
Ebrald1 cetamus.
1107 tbothlugud E. Gome B. Jloe j" Uaraicepta L. E.
1100 iAr:lodJ- D.: iarna Coglaim L. Jill aur L.: lur- B.
11111 Jcht (.J. gnim)- E. air 18 aiccl E.: Cor. Tr. 14
lIJ3;.Qct/lla .J. act/plus E. airigthi L. : airite E.
11U na . n J L '.
1' ana .: na n-eICCS '1' n'lnre cen cess (.1. cess in becc 7
lO,mor) E. 111"28 E. om. Jl22 Origg. viii. 11
'23; ix. 2
1 1
1Il!8 d '" . J.'27 conad bad D.: co mad ho .L.
cateatt albgldn na trl prfmberlad alDmnigui 1 E. chairechtaire L.
E. 26 CI 2.
1. Aleph mbreorum.
. Latinorum.
7$. alp1)a
Aleph of the Hebrews. Alpha of the Greeks A of .
Y, the Latins.

1l 'Semel
r -
A dm4
U oe1etll
d tJelb
U llee
G- ee

-S uuaU




-S n
"l1 ltem





t :t

11) I:
Joe It)Ot



.. :) JUmec
"'L c1}11



q r


C 1i m4 1t

S fln
1t d)au

i 0 -p1}1

., t:'


j .. .'i

n c
; /.
1 ennacosse. "
( ....
1C::",""ni\ nnn
. '. 89 THE PRIl\iER
Now Fenius Farsaidh is the same man that discovered
these four alphabets, to wit, the Hebrew, Greek, and Lati.n
alphabets, and the Beithe Luis Nin of the Ogham, and It
is for this reason the last, to wit, the Beithe is more exact
because it was discovered last. There were in the school
twenty-five that were noblest among. them,. these
are their names, which arc upon the Belthc LUIS Nm both
vowels and consonants:
c '77j7;//;;/114 I un,., ...,1/,-
And there were seven that were most noble among these,
{rom whom the seven principal vowels of the Ogham
have been named, so for that reason they have been
placed apart: a 0

Others say that tcn principal stand in it, and
these are their names:
a 0 u e ,

And these are the three that increase those to the
above seven, to wit, so on that account

their vowels and consonants have been set apart,
and these arc their names which are thus upon them.
Others, however, say that it is not from men at all that
the Ogham vowels are named in Gaelic but from trees,
though somc of these trees arc not known to-clay. For
there are four classes of trees, to wit, chieftain trees,
peasant trees. herb trees, and shrub trees; and it.
these four that the Ogham vowels are named. Chleftalll
trees, quidclIl, to wit, oak, hazel, hoUy, ash, yew, fir.
'Peasant trees, to wit, ,alder, willow, bIrch" elm,
thorn, aspen, mountain-ash. The shrub trees here. to Wit,
114G ,
E. 26 II 24
11;1,1 In' alpgidir E., oguim L. E. certidi L. 11:15 bre E.
huaisliu, fotha E. lIU rolaiti hi tor leith L. : roforletha E.
lIU dotormagat sio, fuas E. foratait L. lnt anmand-somh fordorca E.
WH7 E. om. 1148 gengu bad aithnig T. : pat aichinti H.
UJO airidh D. ". 1153 dair t. ibulI,. B.
Is e fer cetna t'ra' Fenius Farsaidh arainig inna eel/lin'
aipgitrl-sea i aipgitir Ebraidi 7 Grecda 7 Laitinda 7 in
beithi-Iuis-nin in ogaim 7 is airi is certiu in dedenach .i.
in beithe air is fo deoidh arricht. Bai coiciur ar fichit
isin scoil ba huaisU'1 dib 7 it e a nanmand (3
5) ta in
beithi-Iuis.nin eter fedha 7 trebomna
- '?II "J:." 1Y ., 11m,11I 11m""J; T" (( ..."!t In '! til 10 mE
TTTTltnilTTlTrri) V"C' C -<l
7 bai morshesser ba huaisliu do suidhibh 0 ran-
ainmnighthea na seacht fedha aireghdha inn ogairn, 1140
4 0 U en ,m.e:;(-\O conadh oiri rolaithi for leith >l-lHlJ-'Il .
Asberat araili it deich feda airegda filet ann 7 it e indso
a n-anmand: "0 u e 7 it. c

a tri doformagat sen frisna secht thuas t n'I'.
conid aire sin rolatha a fedha 7 a trebomna for leith
7 it e a n-anmand soin fordotait iarumh.
Asberat immorro araile co nach 0 dhainibh itir
ainmnighter fedha inn n-ogaim isin G;.,dhelg acht 0
chrandaibh gen gu haichinter anniu araile crand dibh. J
Air atat eeilhn' hernaile for crandaib i. airigh fedha 7 II 00
athaig fedha 7fossa fedha 7fodhla fedha; 7 is uaithibh sin:j
a ceathrur ainmnighter fedha in oghaim. Airigh fedha
'l"t'dem i dur, coli, cuileand, abhull, uindsiu, ibur, gius. ',j
Athaig fedha i fern, sail, lemh, see, crithach, :,}
crerthand. Fodla {edha andso i draighen, trom, fecrus, 1155' ';,1

; ....

erand fir, fedlend, fidhat, finnehan. fedha .j. aitean' .
(raeeh, gilcach, raid,lecIa i. luaehair 7rt Beithe dno on
beithe rohainmnigheadh ar eosmaillius (ri eois in bheithe
tI I dicilllr:
J/':.d ethleand, ldllt JJ80 Feochas L JJ60-87 cC A ...
I II-' '.II/C. III3, 4S
lubgldreach L. 1187 lala T 1111II dath 1.1
1100 Ii .1 a n caer
I . lau. rearn fear 1, I, dl dognithear na sglntbn la,na Flanalb T,: I, dl
na sgelth 8. L. 1170 Li nmbl mnlrb loll T.
lITJ (Ililtr Re. xxvi. 24, 72. coscrnch sida T .
)174 'd h L . .
, coscral t en. Jl8J tnan n rotbenne D.
black-thorn, elder, spindle-tree, test.tree, honeysuckle,
bird-cherry, white-hazel. Herb trees, to wit, lurze,
heather, broom, bog-myrtle, .lec/a, to wit, rushes, etc. '
Now beilhe has been named from the birch owing to its
resemblance to the trunk of the birch, 111 dicilur:
Of withered trunk fairhaired the birch,
and therefore on the birch was written the first Ogham
inscription that was brought into Ireland, to wit, seven
birches were brought to Lugh son of Ethleann, to wit, thy
wife will be taken from thee ?list' eam clIslodien's, to wit,
unless thou watch her. It is on that account b is still
written at the beginning of the Ogham alphabet. Then
as to ll1is, it is named from a tree, to wit, from mountain-
ash, i.e., because lilt's is the name of mountain-ash in old
Gaelic,ttt didtttr. Delight of eye is mountain-ash, i.e., rowan,
owing to the beauty of its berries. Fern, alder, again,
is named from a tree, ut dicitur. The van of the Warrior-
bands, that is, alder, for thereol are the shields. Sail,
wiJ]ow, again, is named from a tree,1I1 dt'cilllr.
The colour of
a lifeless one, i.e., it has no colour, i.e., owing to the resem-
blance of its hue to a dead person. Nill too is named from
a tree, viz., ash, ttt dicilur,' A check on peace is l1ill, viz.,
. ash, for of it are made the spear-shafts by which the peace
is broken: or, A check on peace is uilldis. Nill, that is a
maw of a weaver's beam which is made of ash, that is,
in time of peace weavers' beams are raised. Hllath, again,
. is named from a tree, viz., white-thorn, 111 dicilur: A meet
of hounds is nltalh, viz. or because it is
formidable owing to its thorns. Duir, oak, again, is
named froln a tree, ut didtur. Higher than bushes is an
oak. Thine, again, is named from a tree, i.e., holly, a third
of a wheel is holly, that is, because holly is one of the"
three timbers of the chariot-wheel. Coil, again, is named


' ..1.1'
. '
Feocos foltchain in beithi,
90 BB. 325 f8
7 is aIr! sin is i mbeithi roseribadh in eetainm ogaim
tueadh a nErind i secht mbeithi tugad do Lugh mac
Ethlenll i berthair do bean uait nisi tam ClIslodlle]ris
(i. mine derna tu a eoimct L. om.). Is aire sin beos seribthar
beitbi a tosaeh aipgilre in ogaim. Luis dno, is 0 ehrand
rohainmniged i 0 eairtheand i uair luis ainm e;erthaind .
isint shenGaedelg 111 dicilur: Li suJa luis .i. coertheand
ar aiJJeacht a coer, Fernd dono, 0 chrand rohainmniged
til dicilllr. AirenaehFiann .j. fernd, air is di na sgeith.
Sail dano, is 0 ehrand rohai nmniged tit did/ur. Li ambi 1170
i, nernli Iais i ar cosmaiJlius a datha fd marb. Nin
dno, is 0 chrand rohainmniged i. 0 uindsind ul die/lllr.'
eosdad sida nin ,i uinnius, ar is di doniter eraind gee triasa
eoseairther in sidh: no cosdudh sidha uindis, Nin .i.
ginoI garmna dognither dq uindsind i. isin aimsir 1175
sidha togaibter garmna. Huath dono, is 0 ehrand
rohainmniged i. sec [1It didtllr.' comdaJ cuan huath
i sce L. om.J: no ar is uathmar hi ara deiJghibh, Duir
dono, is a chrand rohainmniged, ut d/CitllY airde doss-
duir. Tinne dono, is a ehrand rohainmniged .j. 1180
cudennn roith tindi L] ,i ar is cuileand in tres
92 BB. 325 A 39
fidh roith in CoIl dono; is: 0 ehrand rohainmnig..
ed tIl didlur eainfidh i colI i each ac ithi, a chno,
Queirt dano, .is 0 chrand i abhull ut
dicilur: clithar boaisdlle i elit gelt quert i aball. 1185
Muin dono i finemhain, tit dicilur, airdi masi muin i.
jarsinni fhasas a n-airde .j. finemhain. Gort dono i
.Glaisiu geltaibh gort
i edind. Ngetal dono i gilcach no raith ttl dicitur.: 1190
luth lega getal i cilcach no raith. Straiph dono i
draighen, 111 dicilllr.. aire srabha sraibh i draighin.
Ruis dono i trom, 111 dicilur, ruam'na ruice ruis i trom.
Ailm dono i cnlnd giuis i ochtach. Onn i aiten. Ur
.i fraech. Edhadh i ed uath i crand fir no crithach. 1195
Idho i ibhar. Ebhadh .i.crithach (col. (3). Oir i feorus
no edind. Uilleand i edlearid. Iphin i spinan no ispin
Anmand fidh tra sin uile amal fogabar isna ,Dullibh
Fedha inn ogaim 7 ni ho dainib til alii dicullt. 1200
. Cest, cis lir a cumang? Ni ansa. Lanchumang intibh
uilibh eter fedha 7 taebomna co nd-aurba huath i conas-
firbade uath .j. amal bes a n-aiclledcidh mor gidh beg e. Is
amhlaidh innister isin Cin Ollaman i cethirs[h]licht fegh-
thair for fedhaibh .j. cumang 7 'egumang, lanchumang 7 1205
lenchumang. Lanchumang i fedaib, cumallg a forfed-
aibh, egumang a mutibll, lethchumang a leathgutaibh.
Atberat araile is treshlicht as choir and i lanchumang a
fedaibh; 7cumang a forfedaibh, 7ecumang a muitibh; ar ni
in L. lItctt Eithieand L. lIUl raid, Straif L.
lltrJ draigean L. sreabhudh T.: sraibh D. llW ruisc T.
UII. dono .j. aitenn, onn .j. ochtach T. 1:m dainib L. Fill;1 T.
1203-10 E.. om. 80 hila/A, cethlr lliehl L.: gaeh aHehl D.
1 taebomnaib L. lencumang L. . Illll1 trc Iicht L.
from a tree, TIl didillr: Fair wood, that is, hazel, i.e.,
every one' is eating of its nuts. Qucirt, again, is named
from' tree, i.e., an apple tree, tIt dicilur: Shelter of a
boisdll, that is, a wild hind is qur.irt, i.e., an apple tree.
J1fuill, again, that is, a vine-tree, ut dici/IIt': Highest of
beauty is lIlut'tz, that is, because it grows aloft, that is, a
. vine-tree. Gort, again, that is, ivy:-
U Greener than pastures is ivy."
lVgetal, again, that is, broom or fern, tit dicilur: A
physician's is broom, to broom or fern.
So'aipll, again, that is, black-thorn, tit dlcltur:
of a stream is sraib/z, that is, blackthorn. Rms, agaIn,
that is, elder, ul dicitur: The redness of ntis, i.e.,
elder. Aillll, again, i.e., a fir tree, to wit, a pine tree.
Oml, that is, furze. Ur, that is, heath. Ed/Nid/I, that is,
cd lIath, horrible grief, to wit, test-tree or aspen. : Ido, that
is, yew. Eblladll, that is, aspen. Oir, that is,
or ivy. Ur'llea?ld, that is, honeysuckle. that IS
gooseberry, or thorn, etc. : .
Now all these are wood names such as are found In the'
Ogham Books of Woods, and are not derived from men,1/t
alii dieu1lt;
. Query, how many are their powers? Not Full
power is in them all both vo\vels and consona.nts, With
exception of h; that is, that h might be truly that
as their nature may be, whether it be great or small. It
so set down in the Book of 01lams, to wit, four' divisions
.that arc seen on vowels, vIz., power and want :of power,
full power and half-power.. Full power in vowels, pow:r
in diphthongs, want of power in mutes, and half-power In
semivowels. Others say that three divisions arc proper
there, viz.,' full power in vowels, power in diphthongs, and
want of power in mlites; for no semivowel exists with the
Gael. Query, what is long in vowels and diphthongs, and
94 DB. 325 fJ 13 AURAICEPT
E. 26 CI 045
" A stag bells bctween two heights,
A piercing wind tosses us,
Proud is thc stalker (?)
Defore thirty long-shankcd deer.
and 0, on a head, to wit, an ear; and (I) Colum Cille's
ISland. Then it reaches a superior limit up to five
letters, ttl esi, brach/: fat; traellt, strand; drucht, dew;
scalp, gap. H is written and is not co'unted among the
letters in the last words, but it is a mark of aspiration. As"
to every syllable, 'therefore; that does not add to another,
each of them is the equivalent of a word. Verse-feet up to
eight of them are in brie/zt. And that is the superior and
"inferior limit of all Gaelic from dialt, one, to bricht, eight,
syllables, b.oth to wit, that there may be power
short in consonants? that is short by position, for the
Jaw of Ogham diphthongs is half-time on consonants
Query, how many verse-feet are there? Not hard.
Eight of them: din/I, one syllable; recolllrnc, two syllables;
itl reo111rac, three; felis, four; docllrc, five: luibcllellOssach,
six; clnidtllWas, seven; and bneht, eight syllables. One
principal vowel in diall, two of them in
three of them in iarcomrac, four of them In je/cs,
five of them in c!oellre, six' of them in luibclIchossacll,
seven of them in, c!aidclIIlIns, eight of them in triehl,
besides consonants. Query, how far does a syllable
extend to in greatest and least? To wit, a syllable with
a meaning, five letters are in it, which is the greatest:
it reaches an inferior limit at one letter, and that a word, ttl
"'sl a 0 I' viz such as a, that is, a mountain" height. Such
I- , , " ,
are A Cuis, at.ld A (Ard) Cartaind, in Sleeve
Luachra, to wit, names of particular mountains, ut dixit
l'ttac Da Cerda :-
liJ Jeathguta la Gredel. Cest, cate fot i fedhaibh 7 i forfedh. 121
aibh 7 gair hi trebomnaib 1 gair suidigud, air is leath.
aimser for taebomnaib do gres a corus foifed.
Cest, cis lir dech docussin? Ni ansa. A ocht: dialt
7 recomrac 7 iarcomrac, felis 7cloenre 7 luibenchosach 7
claideamnas 7 bricht. Oenfidh airegda i ndialt, a da i 121
recomrac, a tri i n-iarcomrac, a ceitlln' i fillS, a cok
hi clrenre, a se i luibenchosach, a secht i claidemnas, a
ocht i mbricht, cenmota taebomna. Cest, cia roig
, dialt i mmeit 7 i llaigt'I i dialt co ceiII cok litri and a
n-as mode: i llaiget co oenlitir 7 is focal son, tit 1220
est a, 0, I, amal ata a (.i. ard) slebhi. Amal ita Ard
(A) Cuis, 7 Ard (A) Cartaind, a Slebh Luachra .i.
anmand sJebhe saindriudh tit dixit Mac Da Cerd[a] :_
Damh conngair eter da a,
Fon.gluaisi Greth gulbanda,
Is uallach int arganda
Re trichait sed lurganda
7 0 (.i. cluas) for cind 7 [1] inis Coluim Cille. Rosaigh
didiu i mmeit co a coic littri, tit est, bracht tract druct
scalp. Scriulhair 7 ni hairimther uath isna foclaib dedenach- 1230 f.
aib arna litrib, acht nod tinfid. each ndialt iarum na
tormaig fri araili comcumung cach &:e focail. Deich co a
ocht a mbricht 7 is e met 7 laigett cacha Greidelgi 0 dealt
11m galr(de) I taobo!'Dnaib E. : Gr. Lat. v. 112, 28 121:1 deich dochusin L.
Alarg;", pp. 3
5,326: As/J;ra/;o H, dassiell ",scilell -t
. cr. !hel.U, 51,68: Gr. Lat. iii. 520, 14 j v. 33, 33: 132, 28 j viii. 230, IS:
Orlgg. I. 19, 9 rec;omarc, Illrcomarc, (elis L.
12:, rOlig E. llt"J.7 E. om. IIW scrin E.
boa Jitrib L. (or nraili L. imtormaig E.
to every syllable, after they are gathered into verse-feet. It
is bridlt in which are eight syllables. Dia!l, syllable, is the
foundation of all Gaelic except mod, totIl, and "'actll.
A/tn, joints, of science are measured with a man's joints
as they are measured with every speech. Query, how arc
they measured with every speech? Not hard. That"
each syllable may correspond to another, ut cst, down, up,
east, west, south, north; that one dissyllable corre-
spond to another, for the like vowels and the. hke verse-
feet of them rhyme.
Five certain numbers of the Tower, to wit, 72 peoples,
and 7
counsellors with them, 72 langu.ages di.vided
among them. and 72 pupils that came With FenlUs to
learn those languages, and 72 paces \vas the height of
the Tower.
Query, what is the difference between i1lddl, yokingt
and tindell, unyoking? Not hard. 11Idell the question,
and dudell the solution.
Sevcn chief leaders by whom thc Tower was made, to
wit, Eber son of Saile; Grecus son of Gomer, (l quo Gracci /
Latinus son of Faunus, a quo Latilli,' Riabath Scot,
tl quo Scotti,' Nimrod son of Cush, son of Ham, son of
Noah; and Peleg son of Ragau, son of Arphaxad, son of
Query, what are the different significations between
definite, morc definite, and definitc? Not hard.
Definite is tile' Greek alphabet, for it is more exact
. the Hebrew alphabet. More definite, however, the Latm
alphabet than the Greek alphabet. More.
the Latin alphabet is this. to wit, the Belthe LUIS Nm
of the Ogham for it was "invented last. .
"What single word comprehends the, four divisions
of the Primer' without regard to difference of measure.
termination letter, word, or form? Not hard. The

96 Dn. 325fJ 33
co" bric[h]t cona n-athgabail diblinaib .j. CO cumangar du
gach dialt iarna tinol deach. is bricht a mbith ocht si1Jnoa. 1.
Is cd bunad cacha Gredelgc diaJt acht mod 7 tollt 7 traeth.
Domiditer aJta uad fd alta duine amal domiditer fd cach
n-indsci. Cest, cindus domiditer fri cach n-indsci? Ni
ansa. Corop cach dialt friscara di araili, ul lsI, tis tuas
tairtiar tes tuaid; gu rub recomarc friscara di araili, ar 12
is cubaid a comfid 7 a comdeich.
Coig airmi cintecha in tuir i da tuaith sechtmogat 7
da comairlig sechtmogat acco 7 da berla sechtmogat for'
fodailt doib 7da deiscipu' sechtmogat. tancadar la Feinius
do fogJmlll na mberla sin 7 da ceimend sechtmogat in 12{
airdi in tuir.
Cest, caidi deifir eter indeall 7 tindell? Ni ansa. Innell
int imcomurc 7 tinnell int eir1eiud.
Seacht primtoisigh lasi ndernad in tor i Eber mac
Saili, Grecus mac Gomer a quo Gred, Laitin mac })uin 12
a quo Laitilli. Riabath Scot a quo Scoili. Nelllruadlz mac
Cuis mic Cairn mic Noi, 7 FaiHech mac Ragau mic
Arafaxat mic Seim.
Cest, cate deochraigter eter cinniud 7 cintech[u] 7
cinntichu son? Ni ansa. Cinniud in aipgitir Grecda, ar is
ceirtiu qunm ind aipgitir (326) Aspin Ebratae. Cinntichu
immorro in aipgitir Laitiallda tla in aipgitir Grecda.
Cinntichu son i beithi-Iuis-nin in ogaim Ila in aipgitir
Laitianta uair is fo deoidh arricht.
Cia gebes forna ceit[hJri ernaili ind Aurai- 1260
cepta cen deifir tomuis 1/0 tarmforlcind 110 feda 110 focai)
E. om. l:nl todh L.: toth 7 troeth E. lzn domiter L.: dodomidiler E.
1:l:19 nlaile E. Il!W tuaid L. om. lU4 fodail L.: forfodailtea E.
1:H5 fodluim E. na nilberla L. : na rnberlad E. imcomarc, int erned E.
l:.!ro Grecaig E. lUI Latini, Riabath Scott, Scot; E. 12-')2 Nre, Reu L. : ix. B.
mie ix. E. add! cindead L. Caite a meit a dechraigtlt' E.
nr . B. E. inas L. Grecda E. Cindtichu L. Aspin is written out.
The marginal gloss (v. p. 94 note) is almost opposite. The glosBator thought
Eabrnide should be aspirated to Hebraide. nas L.I
inas L. 1001 tarmsce learn forcind no fedha E.
word alphabet, for it comprehends the Hebrew, Greek,
and Latin alphabets.
H caUses three things, to wit, bogad, lenition of final (?),
slmigud, lenition of initial (?), and alrdlbdud, extinction.
Bogad first: it falls on consonants and follows them, viz.:
p, 0, and t, til cloch, stone; both, booth. According to
the Latinist, aspiratioll is usual after every consonant in
Gaelic. SllIliglld, lenition of initial, however, (;-dls upon
the consonants in general and precedes them, that is, on
five consonants, b, 0, d, t, g. Bogadh of b first, viz, sop
and lop, such as Pdtraig. It is h that softens the b that
stands in 'it, for p does not exist in Gaelic. Simigudh,
such as a Phdtraig, h is there, which is softer than
the other exampIc. Bogad of 0, viz. clach, stone, and
ach, alas I of d, viz. sodh, turning, and odh, music: of t, viz.
Idth, dissolution, and dtll, ford: of g, viz. magh, plain, and
ITgh, cow. of b, however, a blull, his wife, a blinn,
its blank space, a bhe bz'ml, 0 sweet woman: of 0 also, viz.
o Chit11111, since, do clld1l, from afar, 0 chirmaibh, just now,
o cllctoir, immediately: of d, viz. dha11Isa, to mc, dlmi/sill,
to thee: of t, viz. a his land, a thnaigh, [to] his axe:
of g, viz. a ghrddh, his love, and a ogha, his virgins.
Airdlbdud, extinction, however, comes upon two con-
sonants (i.e., consonants become like vowels), that is, the
letters 8 and f, that is, extinction is on them, that is, their
. being delcted altogether, such as the extinction of 8,tO
wit, a shdl, his heel; a sluUI, his eye. Extinction of f, to
wit, a jlZZlld, his hair j a jhz'Y, 0 mall; illd jhtda, of the
This is different from the rhymes tuad,
and edadh of the beginning of a word (give examples)
that in uiftge, czttgi/J and cuz'1Jg there is need for two
Latin letters to write the consonants n, g. There is no
need but of'Tfl'< only for these two letters in Gaelic,
.' .
E. 26 P19
98 ; BB. 326 5
Nt ansa. In focul is aipgitir, ar gebid
alpgl,tlr Ebraide 7 Grecda 7 Laitianda. .
Treidi doghni uath i. bogad 7 semigudh 7 airdibdad.
Boca,d cetumus: for 7 is 'na ndiaidh doeag- 12
maing doib .j. do P 7 do [7] do t lit cloch, both. Iarsin
Laitneoir bidh tintid iar cach taebo1Jllla isin Gc:edilc. Semi-
gudh immorro forna taebo1Jlllaib chena 7 js rempo doec-
doib i coic taebomllaib i for b, 0, d, t, g. Bogad
belthl cetamus 1 sop 7 lop i amal ata B[h]atraig. Uath 1..
bog-as in beithi til and, ar ni bi p isin Gredzlc. Semigud
amal ata a Batraig, uath and irs] semiu 'nas i n-aiJJ
Bocad cuilJ .j. clach 7 ach; bocad d i sodh 7 odh. Bocad
for. i 7 ath. Bocad for gort .i. magh 7 agh.
b Jmmorro .j. a bhen, a bhan, a bhe' binn. 121
SelmJUgud dono i. 0 chiun do chein 0 ch" 'bh
'. ',lanai , 0
.. Semlgud d i. d[h]amsa, d[h]uitsiu. Semigud t
1 a thlr, a thuaigh. Semiugud g .j. a ghradh 7 a
Airdibdad immorro forta [da] taebomna .j. for saiJig 7 12
for ferna (.i. taebomna amal fedaib) .i. orro dibdudh .i.
a mbricht ass di raith amal ata ardibdad saiJech .i. a
s[h]al, a s[h]uiJ. Airdibdad ferna i. a fhind, a f[h]ir, ind
Is sain so frisna cubat'd 9tH ,., d
'1 eua 7 12
edadh In dorusa tlerbi (.j. tabair esemplair) gur' 7
" " umge
cmglt lS ecen di Iittir Latzanda ica scribind na
consa01 1 n 7 g. Ni hecen acht
"11 " a oenur ar son
:: dEobni E
aeimiugad 1 airdibad L.: bocud 1 semed 1 airdibudugud E
ra 1207 t' t dh J. '
mo' It'Ut1 che(t)na E
roc, lOp, Jot, O'MoJloy Gr. nii. p.
3 1271:.1 E
J:.'7'') PJ t ' T . on,.
a 1:\ nug M3 D be! find I. 7: '
lr,O on chiuin L.: 0 chlnd E. mil h. h L' e:clt, I. 1,3
, ,34: abhand E.
Jm h L at uat a tuath, guut .1' agda owl .. E
DOg 12:lO d oU"
l2lJ1 oir 0 dib'ad E J2ll'J or a, (or sail 7 for (earnd L. llirdib:td E.
1:1& S . a mbrtlt E. ,
ain 80" (rllnad cub- E. J:Jlkl l'n do b' E .
12117' B L rsa uer J , uang L
1Cl'\ .: I 18 I n-oen di Jitl;r, na Bon .in n 7 g E.
, \

nn IA I
lit lst, ".,,'[;7/17\-- I.e., Uttlg', ounce, )-bTl!< I;C., ClItIIg,
,yoke, i.e., cingil, they step. sounds
are not the same with which each one of these does not
rh}'me lit est, secit, they blow the fire, written
by >-tlrH. a road, by writing *. Ndm, poison of a
serpent, is written by mr. Jlfin, that small, is t there.
.17Iill, meal of corn, i.e., N{'mh, heaven round earth:
lIcalllh, with reference to wat'er * is there. For there are
things for which diphthongs were at all
into the Ogham alphabet, viz. to cOl'rcspond a diph-
thong as is said in the 1umcd judgments, that 'is, cxcept
Oghani in which there are two of
the vowels; and also to differentiate 80lmds upon the
Ogham vowels, for it is a softness of sound that exists in
the Ogham diphthongs, tit lSI, Il(a1l/11, heaven, >-X..... a,a.
is there: 1/aemh, saint, n ae is there, lIlJJl, poison, 1 is
These are the five species of the Selected Language,
viz. :-Language of the Irish, of the Pocts,
})arted Language, Obscure Language of the Poets through
which each of addresses his fellow, and ia1'mblrla
such as: euie, a secret. EI hal/orb, to wit, he has a
member for completing poetry; or it is the name for a
({1110. Et mllit'/If, spears, to wit, iII-will, or of ill will.
There is another kind of iaymblr!a, to wit, therefore, now..
there are, indeed, moreover, evcn, after, on, query,
how many, what are, not hard, etc. Another kind also,
on the (men), under, out of; through, past them.
are the staves of words with the poet. Another kind too,
to wit, he that, indeed, unto, through,' over,' to, from,
under, on. That- is an. inte'rloping syllabl!c with the
'.. .
. i
;llm tra B.
1\ UKi\ ICt,;!"T
.eit L.
13Ol1 Aid trega D.
lW7 asberllr L.
t b L t lugill L. rl iarmlJlr/a v. R(' xiii 267
lor u I lorban E.

1301 miridl L.
100 'DD. 326. 2S
Irisna decubaid L.
anusci H. .
R. 0111.
J:103 rortchldc L.
\:lB5 bOll dor b T.
(hanaig L.
'I I " I I
in da Httre sin isin Gredilc, t,1 esl, rJfl JffX ( .j.
'-:"".HI I _
umge, j GiU' .. CUing, 7 dngit. Ni 1290
dat inunna dno suin fris nad cubaz'd each re dib-seo .
111 est, seeit in teinid, tria >-ttD-i' a scribind.
Seit conar .tria scribind. Neim nathrach i -fflJ-
a scnbmd: mJ.n ('1' belc) iphi and; min arba. i ).fflJf<
an.d.. Nemh 1m talmaill, nearoh im usee * andsen.
Air. l[t]. trega ar a tugad forfeda eter isin aib[gJitir in
ogreaaltmhal:bl'h dllOem{erdeghral. dgo r d
adblrar isna
.. enmo a lorle a a fail defoghur
na nguta 7 dono do sainigedh foghur forsna fedhaibh air ,{i:..t
is buga fogair bis isna forfedhaibh, ul lsI, neamh
and: nremh mt and: nem and.
It . e coic gne in berla tobaidi .i. berla Fcne .;,.]
7.'asalge na filed 7 berJa etarsgarta 7 berla (orttide na fil -I' 1
.n-ag:dJlil cach dib a chele 7 iarmberla amal
'1 Et baIJorb i ball do forbau na fiI/aeach/a
alcce; no IS do chanaid is ainm EI mUI'rne' .' .

'1' mlrUtn no
. Gne n-aiU do iarmberla i iarum 7 dno 7 atat 7
7 7 edon 7 iar 7 ar 7 cest 7 cair 7 cisne 7
Caldat 7 nl ansa 7rI. Gne n-aill dno i {orsna (-i. (craib) 7
7 :sna 7 tresna, sec[h]na. It e na Iorga fuach in sin 1310
aSIll fihd. Gne n-ailJ dano .j. he es em co tre tair do 0 fo
'I' I I 0
'. I : I _', '/ I '( ,t I I . I

HH. 316 CI H
poet. Unaccented Language, then, down to this point.
It is for this reason that Unaccented Language, iarm-
berta, is said of it, to wit, on account of its hardness like
iron, iant1111, if it is possible to analyse it; or iannber/a,
that is, the speech which lar Mac Nema discovered Jast,
and it is not possible to anal)'se it.
And Language Parted among the principal vowels,
that is, language through which there is distinction of the
principal vowels in the individual word through analysing
their meaning, ttl est, for example ,-os, that is, ,'oi oiss, plain
of deer, quando (when) it is rois caelli, copses of wood, and
nus, duck meat, along a pool when' it is ross of water, duck
weed, rof/lOs, great rest, if it be on stagnant water, or 1'oidk
ass, .. out of it if it be on a stream, and 1'0 as when it is
''os !Ill, flax seed, i.e., on account of the swiftness and
density wherewith it grows. And the Blr/a Fortcltidt,
Obscure Language, for/chide, that is, the great darkness
or obscurity of poetry, as said the poet in the school of
Fellius: Etaill aro ni allftmde, to wit, 1, island; Etall,
that is, noble j and al'O, that is, rowing j to wit, we shall
not cease from rowing till we reach the noble Island,
that is Ireland, or Spain; or it is definitely Spain, as
is found in the Conversation of the Two Sages. Br/moll
sJJ/ctrtlcll. This is the Language of the Poets that is, the
last kind here, to wit, bri, word; 111011, feat; and smit, ear,
and jorrack, that is, stretching; or, bri, word, and 111011,
feat, and, sllltlrach, that is, car-lobe compression, that is,
that they might injure some one. A brotherly trick is
that' which the poets used to do in satirIsing, viz., to take
the lobe of his ear in his hand, that is, as no bone exists
there, the individual whom the poet satirises could have
no honour-price. .
. The fifth kind is the U Language which serves for .
everyone; for others say of the Blrla Fline that it is the
{air. Dialt n-etarlemmi In sin lasin filid Iarmberla tra
eosin annuas.. Is aire raiter iarmberla de .1. ara se[c]dacht
amal iarunn, da fedtar a thaithmeach: no iarmberla .i.
berla ranig lar mac Nema fo dheoidh 7 ni fetar a thaith- 1315
Ocus berla n-edarsgarta eter na fedaibh aireghdaibh
i berJa tresa lui! deJiugud na fid n-aire[gh]da isin renfhocul
'triana n-inde taithmeach, ut est, amal rogabh ros .i. roi
oiss qualldo (.i. intan) as rois crelli 7 rass iar lind intan 1320
as ros usce i rofhos mad for marbusce 'no (col. #) roidh
ass mad for sruth 7 ro as intan as ros lin i ar a luas 7 ar a
thigi asas. Ocus am berla forteidi i fordorcha no
ruamanta inna filideachta, amal asrubairt in file hi scuil
Feniusa: Etaill aro ni anfem de .j. 1 inis j etall ,I, uasal 1326'
7 aro i imramh i, ni allfem de imram co risam in innsi
n-uasail i Eiri no Espain, no is Espain eicin amal rogab
I n-Imagallaim na Da Thuar: llrimon smetrac[h]. Herla
na filed so i in gne deidinach irs] sund ,i. bri i, briathar
mon i cleas, 7 smit i cluas, 7 forrach .i. rigi: no 'bri .i: 1330
briathar, 7 mon i cleas, 7 smetrach i smit foreach ,i.
co forrgidis neach. Cleas bratharda sin donidis na filid
cc ecnuch i smit a cluaisi do gabail ina laimh ,i. amal
nac[h] fil coaim ni raib iconti egnaigeas
in fiJi.
Iss e in coic(ed) gne in gnat[h]berla fogni do cac[h],
laI:lseohacht L. UtI11 E om
1m J n ' .
ar- .: iarm L. (edthar B. : (egthar L 111723 Arch C P i" 8
J:J10 t Id' " II. 24-
. nan an I, rosl '1' rOI ass L.: ross i. roisl E. Ia: ros '1/' I
l:rll 'd . E cal I
I't. ro 018, no rool all .: roldh L. 1:r,n rofh:\s L. : roail 9uam1o al rOIS lin E
(hasaa L, E. (ortchldl L. I:m na fit- IImal E I '/1 .
mJ ( 11' , " nal Ira E.
lin am, '1: nlS Etal" L.: an(am de eorraisem in indli uasal ,j. hEriu E
Re. XXVI, 8; 24, 78: Bri amain R. 13'.lI,U Cor v 149' Cor T "'2
1:J:rJ h' I' . r
7Inut, rae 'I. r "I E. I:J:.II L 0'" 1:1;'" h
I" l') '" ... egn'le L
:J:.I& na fil cn:llmh hisuidhiu E. 1J:JU'8 E, 0"" "
. 13
Commentaries of the Poets, and that it is 'not a separate
language at all.
What is short and long in them, etc.? Not hard.
In such as nU111l, heaven, it is a diphthong that
stands there. In t/tlll, poison, however, it is the principal
vowel that stands there, and the principal vowel that
stands there is harder' and the diphthong is softer, to wit,
or, agaill, it is short by nature and by position
in vowels, and short by position in diphthongs and long
by nature; or, again, the Ogham vowels that stand there
are the same as the vowels. The Ogham diphthongs
are, in fact, the same as the diphthongs. As to the
diphthong that stands in them, therefore, such as btY711,
beitt would be made of it were it not a diphthong. Thus
are the Ogham diphthongs. How is that. since cbad is the
diphthong of the name when ler is spoken? :-hat
instance is not contrary to the diphthong. That is a
short and there is not upon it save a time and a half only.
at th'e most. There are"two times, however, on the long
vowel. That the foregoing diphthong was short therc-
fore must be perceived. Besides, too, the vowel is able to
adjust itself to long and short in them as the Latinist :
A circumflex is on the long syllables such as do, I give;
si, if; and in the same \vay they sayan acute accent is
upon the short syllables, ttl cst. pax, a kiss. Thus the Gael
puts forsat'! ona long, such as 5n$1/, nose, steig, host, etc.;
and entin. which compresses a final such as IUlCC, stonc,
aalld, head,. etc. Therefore, although' e. is short in the
word fcr, it is not according to the Grceks that it is a
diphthong. What causes the contrary of that, and the
five Ogharn vowels, and the seven Ogham vowels, and
,the ten Ogharn vowels, according to version?
hard. The five Ogham vowels first: answering to
the five vowels he gave the seven Ogham vowels,however.
1;l.'Ill inrsani i. (earr L.
J:JtIO (II secht) In margin n.
gah(cJc) E. ata L. 0/11.
1:14:1 .uigigl n
1.1&3 na defogalr L. 1:14lj fillntlb L. om 1341 e dE'
, tn mar n-an as mode E. Gr. Lnt. v 28 27
)'\,)'}' . .' ,
. Inrlllgthe E.
I:U:I d d L
1:Jll' I I .
comar u
c rClimp ex L. E.,: defect In MS. nn.
I:W in n late .crnwl. cumri, beec rex E. ntbera L Or r t
32, J i hi. 521,6; 1".371,9
:\. v.
1:1.)7 arding dedh.cho E.
US deogur E.
(ar) araili comad e in berla FeJni fasaigJ na filed,
7 conacn berla fo leith elly. .
Cest. caide 'fot 7 gair intib 7rl. ? Ni ansa. Amal ata '
neam, forfid fil and. Nem immorro in fid aire[gh]da fil 1340
and 7 is cruaidiu in fid airegh[d]a fil and 7 is buigi
in forfhid i neam; no didiu is gair n-aicm'd 7 fot suidigthi
a fedaib 7 gair suidig[th]i i forfedaib 7 fot n-aicm'd; no
dono na feda fileat sund it inunda 7 na guthmgi. Na for-
feda immorro it inunda 7 na deofhoghair. IN defhoO"hur 1345
fil intib iarum, amal ata bean, bein dogenta de meni beith
deofhoghur. Is amlaid na forfeda. Cindus on 7 ebad
a forfidh ind anma intan asberar fer? Ni codarsna anni
sin arin defoghur. Is cumair sin 7 ni bi fair acht aimscar
co leith tmtlum (.i. nama) an-as modhe. Da aimsir im- 1350
morro forsin nguthmge fota. Cia bad gairit iarum in
defoghur remunn inrathaigte. Ceinmota didiu in fid
conicc comardugud fuit 7 gair indib, amal asbert in Lait-
neoir: [circumplex] forsna sillabaib fotta amal ata dC', sl'}' 7
ama! adberat. acuit forsna sillabaib cuimri 111 est pnx i. 1355
bacc. Is fon mdus [s]in dobeir in Gaedel forshail for fot
amal rogab sron 7 slog 7rl. et ernin arding dead amal
. 7 ceand 7r1. Cid timarta iarum ebad isinni
IS fir III Ia Greco as defoghur in saint Cid fotera in
sin 7 na coic fedha 7 n(a secht) fedha 7 na 1:360
delch fedha iar fuilliuc.[h]t aBi? Ni ansa. Na coic fedha
cdamus: ic frecra duna coic guthaigib tug na secht fedha
:: Ilr n'-emnnidi L,: nr a n-eemendi, contnt E.
. emhanchoH L. ar ax E, l:llJlI inunn E,
IlMO.HOlE, om, I"'" n r .
l:n:s J L e eet In MS. DO, fodllib L.
1:ll!6 n X , 1:/If'.I grelrn do 0,
Gr, Lnt. ". 27, (4 1:&117 c:onsnin L,

lHoreover the ten Ogham vowels, that is, iphill, which stands
for a diphthong: e1llfl11eo/l is doubled then, so that there
are thus ten of them, .Pill, moreovcr, stands for P, and
tlllfl1tCo/l for X, so that there are seven Qf them thus,
This is according to the Aurakep! of Munster.
Some say there is another kind, cbad and oir that
stand for simple long vowels. Vil/eflllfl, moreover, stands
{or y, and for u when it is medial. Itltill stands for 1
medially, or it is the proper symbol there for p. E1Il(l/Ieol"
again, stands for x, that is, to allow of Greek or Latin
words being introduced into Gaelic, and on that account it is
called Emtl1lcol/, twin 0, for 0 is one of the two consonants
that stand in x, arid therefore 0 is said to be doubled
there, and not s; for in x, 0 is earlier than s,
It is dcmanded, too, in the Bdllic Luis Nino' What is the
vowcl that takes the force of a consonant, and the vowel that
takes the effect of two consonants, and the vowel that takes
the effect of a word, and the vowel that does not take the
effect of a consonant, vowel, or word. It. is the vowel that
takes of a consonant, quidclIl, to wit, a vowel after
another, and a vowel that usually stands on the primary
vowel of its word, or along with a diphthong in one
syllabIc, ttl est, bcoir, beer; feo/I, flesh; lJriabl, of Brian, etc.;
or a vowel that becomes consonised, to wit, u. A vowel
that trikes the effect of two consonants, to wit, one vowel
that answers the of two consonants, til dicil"r:
Evcry two <;onsonants (or a vowcl. A vowel that takes
the effect of a word, that is, a vowel that speaks alone. A
vowel that does not take the effect of a consonant, vowel,
or word, viz., u of nullity, tit didlttr: Nee vocalcs fle&
COIIso1la1llcs Ilabelltur, that is, which are not vowels and
which are not consonants, or a vowel which stands after
another, ttl db:billfS, as we have said,
there is asked Cor, too, in . the Beilhe Luis Ni" a
Eo 27 a IS
Immorro, Na deich fedha immorro 'i, Iphin ar defoghur
ata: emonco)) ar a n.emnaidi ata intan sin condat a deich
samlaid, Pin immorro ar p ata 7 amancoll ar x ata conid 136tS
a seacht samlaid, Iar nAuraicccpt Murnan in so
, Gnc, aiJi nsbcrait arniJi ebad 7 oir is ar [fod]a
Jtat. Udlcann itnmorro is ar y ata, 7 is ar u intan bis fo
Iphin is ar h-l fo mcodontacht, no is i hin is
COlr anu ar p Em n Jl d' ..1' , P
U co Ifllll IS ar x ntn ,i for foimdin 1370
:ocul no Laitinda do thabairt isinn GaideJg', 7
alrc ralter eamancoJ) ris, ar is co)) indarna tacbollllla iiJ
lIld x 7' .. , J
, IS aln IS co I ndbcrar d' emnad and 7 nJ' 'I
, , l I, sal ; ar
IS talsechu coil lit x ina !mil.
,Conadar didlu is[in] bcthi-Iuis-nin: eaidi [in fid gabus] 137tS
greJm taebomna 7 in fid gabus greim da trebomna 7 in
fid gabus greim focail (327) 7 in fid na geibh greim
na na focaiI? Is e in fidh gabus greim treb-
omna quidem oJo tid a ndjaid araile 7 fidh b' r 'f
IS lor prim hid
a f?call no ar;cn re dcfhoghur a nrensillaib tit csl 1380
beoJr /] n " J ' ,
co nam 7r 'r no fidh tcit a consanacht ,j. u. Fid .
greim trebomna .j. renfidh fregras in tomus do
tit dieitur: cach da taebomna ar fidh
Fld gabus . I' 'I' '
lOcal 'I' fidh Iabhras a renur. Fjdh na
grelm trebomna na fedha na focail .j, u nihelsa 1/1 1385
dlellur,' nec lIec habclltur (.i. nach gutai
7 nach conSOlO1 lat) no fidh bhis a ndiaid araIJe 1It d/:nll1l1s
(mnr adubramar),
Conadar dono isin beithi-Iuis-nl'n t b
re omna. gabus
108 DD. 327 A 10 AURAICEPT
greim' fedha, 7 trebomna gabus greim trebomna 7 1390
{eda. " Et trebomna gabus greim da fid no da trebomna.
Et da trebomna gabu,s grcim fedha. Et
gabus greim coic fidh 7 Sf trebomna. Et t<ebomna
greim tri fidh 7 ceithri trebomna.. Et ta:bomna
gabus greim 'focail. Et trebomna na gebhend greim 1395
trebomna no feda no focail. In trebomna ghabhus grcim
<la ryd no da ta:bomna ng. Is iill trebomna gabhus
greir:n feda i queirt. Is i gabhus greim t<ebomna
. 7 fe;da i 0 7 u (nrflelsa). Et trebomna gabus greim
fedh;a i gach da trebomna ar fid i tomus.
Trebomna gabus greim coic fed 7 se trebomna i duir
n-inad dine disoil. Ni machtad intan ghabhus greim
, . na coic fidh 7 ria se trebomna ge gabhaidh greim da fidh
7 cia t<ebomna. T<ebomna gabus greim tri fidh 7 ceithri
. trebomna i sail a n-inad forsail. T:cbomna gabus greim 1405 .
focail i trebomna congeb greim forbaidhe. Trebomna
na geb greim trebomna na feda na focail i ta:bomna dia
togaib llath ceand doraith.
Cest, cislir deich dochuisin? Ni ansa: In traigh lasin
Laitneoir, in dech lasin filid, tit DOllatliS dr:n't. pes cst
slllabarUlll et tell/porulII cerlll dliwllleratio i, ata in traicrh
conid annidetu demin illna sillab 7 iuna n-aimser.
dono airmidetu derb sillab 7 traighed 7 aimser ocon
Gaidhiul 0 dhialt co bricht: sillab foirbthe each deach
<.Ii0h di arailiu isin Gredilc conid a hocht samlaidh 1415
1:1Ull gnband L.
1:1117 no da taebomna L 0",
Hill I
. .
tr taebomna L. 1406 congeib forbaidi L
l1J lraidh L 1410 G L . 6 d' .
r. at. IV. 3 9, 17 I 'CII 1...: JmulIlJ'acio E
IU4 aillab for each ndeich E.

consonant that takes the effect of a vowel, and a consonant

that takes the effect of a consonant and a vowel. And a
consonant that takes the effect of two vowels or of two
consonants. And two consonants that take the effect of a
vowel. And a consonant that takes the effect of five
vowels and six consonants. And a consonant that takes
. the effect of three vowels and four consonants. And a
consonant that takes the effect of a word. And a con-
sonant that does not take the effect of a consonant, vowel,
or word. .The consonant that takes the effect of two
vowels or two consonants is ng. This is the consonant
.that takes the effect of a vowel, to wit, q. It takes the
effect of a consonant and a vowel, to wit, 0, and u of nullity.
And a consonant that takes the effect of a vowel, to wit,
every two consonants for a vowel in a measure.
A consonant that takes the effect of five vowels
six consonants, that is d in the place of diJlbz disail. iNo
wonder, when it takes the effect of the five vowels
the six consonants, though it takes the effect of two
vowels and two consonants. A consonant that
the effect of three vowels and. four consonants, to !wit,
s in place of forsail, A consonant that takes:
effect of a word, that is, a consonant that sustains i the
\ .
effect of an accent. A consonant that does not take the
effect of a consonant, vowel or word, that is, a consonant
along with which h constantly appears. '
Query, many verse feet are there? Not hard.
The foot with the Latinist: the, verse-foot with the poet,
tit Donatus dixit: Pes est syl/abanllll et IClIlporulIl ;ccrlll
dillllmeratio, the foot is a definite counting of the syllables
and the times. The Gael also has a sure counting of
syllables, feet, and times from dialt, one, to lJricht,'eight
syllables: each verse-foot of them from one to another
. is a perfect syllable in GaeUc, so that thus itherc
i mbricht conid airmidetu dearb sain 0 oensillaib co
a. ocht Dia]t .i di fo dhiultadh co nach fil alt
and. Recomhrac .j. re i comhraiget na di shilJaib
immon all. Iarcomrac i iarum comraigit i lar each
ndedenach i comrac na tri sillab forsna da silJabaib 1420 .
tuiseacha. Feleas .j. fi les na lama no fo lais cibeadh dib
beras i lesin filid, uajr is cudruma. Clrenre, uair ar a re
(-i. claen a rind) is a dho ar indara leith 7 a tri forin lcth
n-aili. Luibenchossach i in choss cona luibnibh i na
coic meoir 7 in traigh in sessed. CJaidemnas i. claidebh 1420
mal/us i lIIa1l11S lamh 7claidebh Ila laimi in slindean: 7 is .
e in sechtmad dialt. Bricht i bri ocht .1 ocht mbriathra
and, no bricht iarsinni brigtair ocht siJIaba and. Cest,
cate deochair eter dialt 7a c1heach? Ni ansa. In trath is
forfhidh in dialt alt eter defhogur and. Intan immorro is 1430
t'Cbomna 7 primfidh alt eter in trebomna 7 in fid and. In-
tan immorro is renguthmge amal ata a, 0, alt eter cla aimsir
and. JEnfid i ndialt, a do i recomarc 7r1. i primfid no
forfid. Is airi sin ni talJa in trefoghur i n-a:ndialt.
Ocht sillaba isan focul is mo isan Gredik, ul esl, fiannam- 1435
ailcecheterdarai 7anrocomrai[rc]nicsiumairne, 7r1.
Tri sillaba deg immorro isin focul is mo isin Laitin
til est lillen'jicabililudbulaflibus.
W8 I . d L ( .
. comnugen 1 ree '1' comralccd DIl di aillaib 1m enllh E.
1m! larcomrag .10 larcomraicet R.
II d .
ua" I n :Lra roo II a dho air Jndara Icith E J4'l:J nr L om
In' . .
me r eo. c1aldem L. E. un in vii di h B
U:lIl bridhthnlr L J-4:J:l i n-oendiah viii. u. trl L. a
IW fianamailccharndardee {;or.
447: T. 1w-a E. om
U:1lI G L I" 6
r. II. I 4. J lOI','s laIJolir's loSI, Act v. Sc. I: Dr Murray of
TAt Oxford lJlCltolttU"Y fa Bald to have got tblltranlmitted alone word throu b
the Postal Telegraph Orncr. g "
are eight in briellt, so that that is a definite counting
from one syllable to eight of them. Diall, a syllable,
that is, di, to deny that any alt, joint, exists there.
Ruomrac, dissyllable, that is re, the course in which the two
syllables meet about the alt. larcomi'ac, trisyllable,
i.e., afterwards they meet, i.e., after each last, Le.,
a meeting of the three syllables with the two previous
syllables. Fe/eas, tetrasyllable, that is, bad profit of the
hand; or he, the poet, is satisfied whichever of them
he Will, give, for it is even. Clacllre, pentasyllable
(that is, uneven its termination), for with respect to
its course two of them are on one half and three on the
other. Luibc1teltossaelt, hexasyllable, that is, the foot with
its digits, the five toes; the foot being the sixth. Claide-
11l11aS, heptasyllable, that is, sword-manus, to wit, manus,
hand, and the sword of the hand is the shoulder-blade: and
it is the seventh syllable. Briellt, octosyllable, i.e., ort' oel/t,
i.e., eight words are there, or brickt because eight syllables
are shown there. Query, what is" the difference between
dialt, syllable, and a dlteaelt, its verse-foot? Not hard.
When the syllable is an Ogham diphthong, there is all
between (the vowels of the) diphthong in that case. But
when it is a consonant and a primary vowel, there is alt
between the consonant and the vowel. When, however,
it is a single vowel 'such as a, 0, there is alt between two
times. One vowel in dialt, two of them in recomarc, ctc.,
that is, a primary vowel, or a diphthong. It is on that
". the triphthong is not contained in one syllable.
Eight syllables are in the biggest word in Gaelic, til
est,fiallllamailcechetcrdarai, Flann-like-every-second .. one-
of.. them, and flllrOC01itraircnksiumairlle, a.11- the - mistakes-
which-"we-have-committed, etc.
Thirteen syllables, however, are in the biggest word
in Latin, ut est au Itis !tonorijicauililudinilalibus.
UH a n-airrni L. om. 1m airirn B.: airrni L.
lU:J amal ata is e L. H43-D3 Origg. iii. 5, 9-11 lU4 coicthib airem L
lUll uair ed 0 coitib E. W7 a h::cli E. In:! a choit E:
lW randaidh T.- Sg. 26 II: i lIaidet E.
1450 an is lugha de L.: lugu dhe.i. ic aluind E.
amal ala alt E. 1660 Gaidtlgt dialt R.
iss ed momo lem onu che:ma ciaaa bunad Gaidelg is bunad gn- .(.
mod E.
each congaib banda L.
This is a cardinal number, to wit, three or These
. are the ordinal numbers, ho\yever, primus el st'ClIlIdus (t
lerlius, to wit, the names of their number in prose; and
their ordinal names, moreover, according to nature. -
That is their difference, an imperrect number, such
as three or five; for they are not multiplied from factors.
A perfect number, such as six, contains one of it six
two three times, three twice. A perfect number
is that, fo'r it properly consists of factors. A quite
. perfect number, til esl, twelve, to wit, one is its twelfth,
two its sixth, three its fourth, four its third, six exactly
its half, thus, as for example in twelve, to wit, one,
two, and three, these are six; and four after that, these
make ten; and six after that are thus sixteen. So that
that is a number which is greater than its factors through
telling its halves. Every factor is a part, but not every
part is a factor, etc.
Query, how far does diall, syllable, extend in greatest
and least? Not hard. A syllable with a meaning, that
is, five letters are in it, which is its superior limit: one
letter, however, which is its inferior limit, to wit, denoting
perfect sense, such as 0, ear, or i, island. Therefore
dialt, syllable, is the origin of all Gaelic save mod, lod,'
and trod. What is the reason why it is not an origin
for those? Not hard. Because each of them is a
dialt, syllable, and a thing is not an origi!1 for itself,
or again ia/t is the origin of all Gaelic save mod, fod,
and troth. But I much prefer there certainly that they
not an origin of Gaelic but that it is an origin of
meaning.' What is the gender to which it is an origin?
Not hard, to wit, mod is everything viz. :-cvery male -
.member and male condition; and todlt is everything
to wit, every {emale member and every (emale
cOlldition; and trotlt is every thing neuter, to wit, which
II 2 Dn. 527 fJ I
Iss e int alnin alrmi i a tri no [aJ ceithir. It, eat (col. fj)
na hanmanda uird airmi immorro pn'lIIUs el StQlltldliS tl 1440 :
terellis i anmand "a n-airmi iar prois 7 a n-anmand uird .
airmi immorro iar n-aicned.'
Is i sin an cleochair, airim anforbthe amal ata a iii
no a v, ar nocho nfuillter (fogailter) 0 choitibh. Airim
lorbthe, ut est, a se, a aen fo se, a do fo thri, a tri fo do. 1445 '
Airim forbthi in sin, uair airissld 0 choitibh co coiro
Airim ollforbthe tit esl a do dec i a hren a haile dec
a do a sessed, a tri a ceathramthu, a cethri a trian, a
se a ceirtleath samlaidh, amal rogabh a do dec i a aen 7
a do 7 a tri a se sin; 7 a ceithri iarsin conid a deich sin' 14150 '
7 a se iarsin conid a se dec samhlaid. Conid airimh in sain
is fuilliu' anda coit tria taithmet a lethe. Is cach coitidi,
is randaidhi, 7 ni cach randaigi is choitidc, 7r1.
. Cest, cia roaig dialt i mmeit 7 i llaiget? Ni ansa.
Dialt co ceill i coic litri and a n-as mode: aenlitir 1455
immorro an-as lughude i ic sluinn cheilli comlaine
amal ata 110 1. Dialt didill bunad cacha Gedelge acht
mod 7 tod 7 troth.. Cid fodera naell bunadh doibh-sein ?
Ni ansa. Ar is dialt cach ai dhibh, 7 ni bunad in net
do fen, no don'o is bunadh cach Gredelge dialt acht mod 7 1460
tod 7 troth. Acht is momo lem and chena ni dat bunad
acht is bunad ceilli. Caite in cenel dianad
bunadh? Ni ansa i mqd cach ferda i. gach ball ferda
7 cach comna ferda; 7 todh cach mbanda i. cach ball
banda 7 cach comna banda; 7 troth cach neoturda i 1465
are neither one nor other, viz., every impersonal
condition: or again they are not dia/ta, syllables, at all.
and mod, tocl, and tracth are not therefore an origin of
Gaelic but they are origins of gender, tit but there
are for all that other. Gaelic matters to which they are an
origin, such as mod, to wit, 'greater"its distance upwards; or
mod, that is, 1110, greater, is od, i.e., od, music when it is
masculine, Le., greater the music. It is greater than the
music which is less, as, for example, aidbsi, choral in
Drum Ceat, that is, food: or to od, tac a ed, silent its law
when it is feminine; or tod, that is, to od, that is, tod (is) the
music! that is, the small music, that is, humming, or a little
crooning in comparison with the great, i.e., the music which
is greater. Traetlt, that is, weak its extent or its music in
comparison with masculine and feminine: or tratllt from
. the fact that the loud kinds of music, trumpeting or
horn-blowing, overpower the low kinds. Another genus
or mod, that is, greater its distance up when it is thunder,
or when it is a tree. Tod, that is, tat, silent its law when it
is a fcetus, and it is .. another sound which is more silent
than the other. Tracth, i.e., they overwhelm, which over-
whelms when it is a whistle; because it is shriller and
harder than tile other thing it is traet (Ire jet). Others
say 'that they might be names of instruments of music.
\Vhat is their proof? Not hard. Greater its music when
it is a harp. Tod, that is, ta; a od, silent its music: when
it is it is more silent and lower than the other.
Traclh, that is, it overwhelms the other two when it is a
trumpet, because higher is its mournful cry. On that
account it is tratth. to them. Or again mod and /od
anu .traeth, to wit, those are names of masculine, feminine,
and neuter members, as the Latinist says: Nomelllllembrl
viri vel fl(J11len mt11lbri mulitris vtl lIomtn mtmbri neutri /
and those are Greek. words although it is in Latin that
AURAICEPT J 14 BD. 327 fJ 23
, 14dd neachtuda n-al, nemeimhldhuseda L.: nemeguseda B.
diana L. ).170 rno a fheadh L.
lUI mo" nsa In ceol L.: Is mo nr E. 1m tllen redh L.
1-17,) h dh L '
trelt re:t U77 c1uliu E.
UN fouronaile Ie taltlu (or taluu) L.: rod naile ie, tallpenu (h1
modern bad hand) D.
is fet L. (}In. Inas nl aillis traeth aspaldh L. lW indus eli L.
i. airdi a fhreidh L. 1&87 anmand nB mball H. mlmlJr; uili L.
nach neachtardre .i each comna. nemeguscda: no dano
nidat dialta etir 7 nidat bunad Gredt!.g"t iarum mod
7 dod 7 trret acht ad bunada' ceniuil Itt dici/llr. acht
atat arae sin araile dianad bunad amal roghabh
mod i mo a ed i n-airde; no mod .i. mb od i od ceoI 147()
intan is mascal i moo in ceol. Is moo quam in ceol is
lughu amal roghabh ind aidbsi i nDruim Ceata i tood
no to od, tee a ed intan as femen: no tod i to od i.
tod in ceol i. in ceol bee i. cronan no certan bee i n-
aith[fh]egad in moir (.i. in ceol is mo). Trreth i treith 147tS.
a ed no a odh fd fedhadh mascail 7 femill: no traeth
iarsinni tr<ethait na dulu isH na duil arda i stocairecht
no cornairecht. Gne n-aile no mod i mo a ed i n-airdi
. intan is torand no, is cra/ld. Todb .i. tre a ed intan is fod,
.. son aile is taitiu innas in aill. Traeth i traethait, 1480..
a thraethas intan is fet j fo bith is ca:1i 7 is cruaidhi inas
inni eli is traet. Asperaid araili comdis anmand aidmi
duiJ. Caidi a ndemnigud? Ni ansa. Mo a od intan
is cruit. Tod i. tai a od: intan as bindi is tuiu 7
is isliu ata na a n-aill. Trreth .i trxthaid in dis cili 1485-
intan i[s] stocc, fo bith is airdi a [fh]aidh. Is airi is
trreth doib.No dono mod 7 tod 7 traeth i anmunda
baJJ ferda 7 band[a] 7 neudarda sin amal asbert
. j n Laitneoir: nomen mtmbri tlt'ri vel nomtll 1IIl'lIIbr;
1l/1tileir(s vl'l1101llt1l1l/tlllbri IItlilri; -7 it focail Grecda sin 140().
HOS (ria troth, (rl, traeth B.
14N-UOa E. om.
HI" uindsi insi oDdur L.
recomarce L. UlI8 tucalt T. 1000,11 ndiah L.
1001 recomaire L. calndeliugud L
1000 gid I 1Laitin, is &ire oaeh at ni filet L E
1008 7 (ormod D, domiter 1... '
1&08,11 t . E
omalSltr 10)3 (reagral L
1O1. 'b'dh L .
COl I .: cOlmfidh 7 u coibldh lnimfrecra E
1014 intairemCorcend E. '
an example of them occurs, and they are not syllables, for
they are not derived from anything, and nothing is derived
out of them save that there might be formed mod, upon
mot!,' tcul, upon toll,' and traeth, upon Inull" StC1I1IlIUIIl
quosdam, it is a or speech: II He, she, it," accord
iller to the sons of Milesius: Uilldius, uilldsi, Olldal',
accordi ng to the Fir Bo]g: lIfod, /od, Irae/Il, according to
the Tuatha de Danann, This is, then, the short of it:
this is the origin of all Gaelic, to wit, diall, syllable, t],at
is, from reCOlllrac, two, to brich/, eight syllables; and it is
not the origin of an individual syllable as, for example,
mod, totl, anu t,.'aetl,,' alld after every diall, syllable, they
have been set down here, and it is on that account they have
been mentioned beyond every dialt, syllable, for attention
was directed to them that they are dissyl1abic: {or their
cOllt/trill is found, to wit, their fair division tit dixillllts. Or
again mod, tod, and traellt the names of the masculine,
feminine, and neuter members as the Latinist has said:
Nomen lIIcmbri uirilis ct 1101llC1I lIlcmbri mu./icbris (I 1I01llell
mt1llbri tUlttd, and those are Greek words though it is in
Latin that an exampIe of them occurs: and it is on this
account that they are not dialta, syllables, for they are not
derived from anything, and nothing is derived from them
unless there might be formed mod for mod, lod in' lod and
trae/h fri Irae/h, Alia uad, joints of science, are measured,
to wit, the metres of the airchelal, trisyllabic poetry, are
measured with the joints of men as they are measured
with any part of speech.
How are they measured with any part of speech?
To wit that every dialt, syllable, may correspond to
.' ..
another,such as down, up, for that is its rhyme when It IS
the same in vowel, and' the word made to correspond is
the same in vowel, and the ending is the same in verse..

dasu Laltine ata delsmireacht dib 7 nac[h] dad dialta, ar nis.
filet 0 neoch 7 oi fuilter uaitib acht mine derntar mod
for mod 7 tod for tod 7 traeth for traeth. Secundum
qllosdam cumad etarscarad indsci: Isse, issi, issed, iar
Macaib Miled: uindius, uindsi, ondor, iar Feraib Bolg:
mod, tod, traeth, iar Tuathaib De Danand. Iss e so tra
a cumair (328) i is e bunad gach Grede{g"e i dialt i 0
recomrac co bricht; 7 ni bunad he d' rensillaib amal (rogab)
7 tod 7 i. 7 iar each dialt tucad-side sund, 7 is
aae rotathmetald-slde sech gach dialt, ar dochuaidh
menma friu comtis recomraig: air fogabar a condaill i a .
caindeligud, tit dz:-ri1llIls. No dno mod 7 tod 7 traeth a
n-anmand na mball ferda 7banda 7 neoturda amal asbert
in Laitneoir: Nome" mcmbri lIirilis et nomelllllcmbri 1/llllie-
bris 7 nomen membrl1lClltri, 7 it focail Grecda sin cidh i USOlS
Laitin; ata desmireacht dibh: 7is aid nach at dialta ar
ni fiJ[et] 0 neoch 7 ni filter uaidibh acht meni derntar
Cor mod 7 tod Cd tod 7 traeth fri traeth. Domiditer alta
uad .i toimsiter aisti inn aircetail fri haltaibh na ndrelli
amal toims[i]ter fri cach indsce.
Cindas toimsiter fri each insci? i corop cach dialt
di araili amal ata tis tuas, air is ed a chubhaidh
mtan; is cobfhidh, 7 is cobfhid in focal ind imfrecra 7 is
comdeach in tarmfortcend.
Coic filltigthi fichet hi remim amal and. 1G15
. so sis:-
1.\16 hi rem L.: hi rreimim amall E
' h'll L
lire I 1.'l'JO I d h L
1&.'1 I . .
n Olae t
- seae liS T. 1ll'l:1 (rer/ige n d
Ire" d' bh II B a II nad l.
11 109 n ,': a dighbhail T. iarmoracht L
I.... ta!blbu L. "
16:1/ ( 'b n
a e eral Dill. na fir L.
gutta L.
J6:14I-&3 E, om,
,Yafir its descriptive.
Naler its possessive,
sic in u(juenlilms.
Fir its possessive.
Ar roar its defensive.
In tor its nccusative.
HI fir its ingressive.
00 fir its depositive.
For ter its invocati\'e.
In fir its parcntative.
Do Bur its dative.
Iar Bur its progenitive.
1m ror its circumdati\'e.
Dar ror its trcspnssivc.
'rre ror its
Rl flur its adversative.
Fir its nominative.
Ac jeraiIJ its depositive.
DonaleraiIJ its dative.
Fer its nominative.
I tlur its locative.
00 ror its ndvnncive.
A fir its vocative.
Bech rer its neglective.
o thlr its ablative.
Frl ror its desidative.
11'0 llur its fundntive.
"De thlur its privative.
La rer its comitative.
AI' fiur its asccnsive.
Frisln ter its augmentative.
1ft rer its descriptive.
Now as to ftar. tbad. ea is the Ogham of the
noun which is pronounced fer / e its vO\vel; dialt,
syllable, its verse-foot. to wit, one constituent sound
without alt. division, at all. Two constituents' arc in 10
or ipltill. its Ogham vowel, in its declension or in its
possessive, when it is pronounced fir, to wit, the
two are there in its declension, 10; e.g. fir. ipltill, is there,
e.g. do fir, 10; e.g. a fir, ipllin / e,g. 0 flllr, It is on that
account that he does not reckon tbhadll. ea, as a declension,
though it might he present in some cases such as (0 jer, etc.
For there is but declension of meaning only in every posi-
tion where there remains the Ogham vowel which stands
in the nominative. In the inflections it is 10 or: ipltill that
stands in them in every place where' the nominative docs
not remain, so on that account So or ipllill is declared
Also their plural may be:
There are twenty-five prepositional flcctions in declen-
sion, as is exemplified here below:-
. 1020
Plr a sealbad.
Ar tear a airicheaJJ.
In ter a 'nchosc.
W ter a innothacht.
00 fir a {urmiud.
For ter a fortud.
In ftr a tustidhi.
Do tlur a dhanad.
In.r fiur a thiarmoracht.
1m ter a imthimcheall.
Dar ter a thairsce.
Tre ter a thregdhadh.
Rl fiur a remiudh.
Per a ainmniugud.
I flur a aitreib.
00 ter a asenam.
A ftr a togairm.
Beoh ter a sechmaJJ.
o th1r a {oxauJ.
PM ter a {rc3Iige.
Fo tlur a {othud.
De !blur a digbhaiJ.
La tor a threbtu.
Ar tlur a frcsgabhail.
Frlsln ter a thormach.
Is ter a thuarasgbhaiJ.
I J8 DB. 328 " 16
Fedar dno a n-iJJar i llr raj ainmnigud 11 bh .'
na, r a tuar- 1080
ase all. ao teralb a inehose (sic). na ter a shealbad, dona '
teroJ.b a danadh, sic ill sequent/bus.
Fear. didlit ebadh. a fhidh in anma asberar ter e a
a diach .j. son oencongbalach cen alt' etir.
Dlchonghall. and 10 nQ iphin a tidh ina remim no ina
shealhhadh mtan asherar fir 'i, ar bl't I'll d" . 1035
IS rna relm 10
and ata fir iphin and amal ata do fir 10 amal ata a
IphlJ1 amal ata 0 !blr. Is aire nach airimh ebhadh .
relm ce beith i n-araiJeib and amal ata co ter 7rI ' .Infia
l hl' .
., aIr III
. .namma in gach baile i mmairend in fhidh
bls ISIIt amlllllul. lsna filltib as 10 no l' I' hI' " 0 p lin l1S IIltlb
its Ogham vowel in its declension or in its possessive,
Dillin disail, its accent. to wit, aeall/US with the Latinist ;
for tf1ese are the three accents which exist, to wit, arllill, dillill
elisaiI, and jorsniI, to wit, arllill compresses a final: forsnil on
a long is borne: dill;1l disailon a short takes (effect).
E.g. antill. tit est. glollll, deed. d01l1l, dun, crl11l1l, tree,
glt'111l, glen: jorsail. tit est. sriJJI, nose, s!tig, host, mor,
great: dillill disai!. tit cst, jcr; cor, Icr, lor. and an short
words When theOgham inscription is written
there are written these accents them to make clear
long and short or to express tension, for they would not be
understood otherwise: because as the Latinist puts al)
acute on. the short syllables. tit esl. pax. etc.. and a
circumflex on the long syllables, tit lst, res, so the Gael
puts dillill disail on the short, tit cst, jcr j and jorsail on
the long, e.g. lcimll, hand; and as there is a grave in every
single dictum of many words with an acute or a circumflex,
that is to say a1'1l;1I is along with di1lin disailor along with
forsail in one word. ut, etflllll, head, and S1'OII nose. Ail'lIill,
therefore. it purchases Ii: or ab' lIill, that is, upon it is n, for
. it is n that is written to mark that accent. Nill is a name
common to all letters either vowels or consonants. ForsmI.
too. means sail upon it. for it is s that is written to denote
that accent, for it is upon a long thatjorsailrests, and there
is a lengthening of the time by it upon the s: or jorsni/, that
is, it magnifies the word till it becomes long: or jo/'sm'l,
that is, juraz'l, overflow. beyond the short. Dillill disaiI,
that is. di, for negatioll thereill. inasmuch as it is neither
n nor s that is written but d to denote that accent,
because it is a diminution of the time that d denotes, as it
is an addition that s adds: or dillill disail, de sill from that,
i.e., unadding, that is. non-addition. Others say the reason
why d is written for dini" is that d stands at the
E. 27 {J 21 .AURAICEPT J 20 DD. 328 CI 38
in gach baile nach mairend conid aire sin adbtrar 10 no
iphin a fhidh ina reim no 'na shealbhad 7rJ.
Dinin disail a forbaidh i a aicnid lasin Lal'tn' .
> > > eOlr; air :
Jt e teora fUlrbhthe dochuisnet i arnin 7 dinin d' h 'J 7 1 .
for '1' d IS al rH5
.J. ar?m ar ing [d]ed, forsail for fot feclair, dinin
dlsatl for gatr gabhaidh: .
Arnin, ut tJ"t glonn 7 donn 7 cralln 7 glenn: forsail,
til cSI, sron 7 slog 7 mor' dinin d' '1 .' ISOI, tit est, fer
7 7 ]:r 7. tor 7 cach timarta ar chena. Intan 1550
senbthar amm ogaim is and scribtar na (orbaide-
sea uasu fn realadh fuid 7 gair no fd tennad .
tuigfidh . h .' ' ar nt
ea c eana: uatr amal dobeir in Laitneoir 't
forsna sillabaib cuimre tit est 7rl 7 c' J r. acUl
'll b . "r' ., Ircump ex Jorsna
SI cl mo. tit, res, slc dobeir in Gredel dille dishoil 1{S55
arna cUlmrtbh, tit est, fer; 7 for[sh]ail forna fodaib amal
.(col. .Iamh; 7 amal bis graib in gaeh rencbert
Jlfoclmg la aCUlt no la circumplex sech is .
d' d"1 ,arnm re
we Isat no aroen ri forsail i n-renfocul III ce"'nn 7
A' . . n > sron
,:nm ,arum ernid nin: no airnin i fair nino air is 1560
scnbthar ag Cuacra na fo b 'd' . : .
l r al I sm '1' nm amm coitchean<.l
do gach IJt1r eter feadaib 7 F '1 d ',.
'1 (. . . orsal ano'
au I[S] sail scribt[h]ar ig incose na forbaide
S111. ar. I.S. for fut .forsail, 7 i[s] silliud na haimsire do
sal] 1 foruiJ1id in focul cOllad foda: no for- 1565
sadl furad seach m cumair. Dini[n] disail i di fo diuJtad
co nach nin 7 co nach sail acht is duir scribthar ac
Hlchosc na forbaidi sin i ar is digbail na h' . t'
dui . almslre Olrlles
. r tormach tormaiges sail: no dine disail de
SIO. i .nemfuillilld. Asberait araile is aire 1570
scnb/luzr dUlr ar dille disoil. air is duir fil ar d[t]us d'
an Inc
ardmged L. : nrdil/g dead diarmachd E. 0
R. 0111. I:"',:: ' dishail J.. \.'.'11' lear L.
m3 teandad 1... IOU,' Gr J. t ...
.. amat "', dinin L. Jr.-.... sech bi- I 111.\11 d' .' ,.L. 111. 5
1,6. 8
" . .. lnm I
om lS. incholC (S/I;. lill.) L.: imC06C D. ..
CorCullhud tn Cocail conid I.. 100II d' I L
HliU tl..- J In n. l:ltlll didbail B.
a ,-""ralt .. lnl ar duir fil ar tUI L.
IOH almser L. 11\711 D'C hJ 'I
I n I. al nem(uraU L. 0111
IIIMO n IlliV ia (0 derald E.
na- huad L. n,: nanhuad 7 nil rob E.
::.1/0 om. 16111, noidh an nor T.
Jec.ddh 0), llelr L. 11\/1:1 Sedrni<.lh ae" L
1l\lC.1 b ' U
'1':' rtlll no nl non no lldbal nn T. : ndbal in domain L.
recomarcc L. Ih!llI 7 na ro proia L
d' E
alllO laigi ElL
no a n-ingenaib L. cldlabair E. T. 0111.
)6t6hI08 E. 0111.
beginning of 4illill dismt. and the reason why n is written
for 1zin is that n stands at the end in it. and reason
why 8 is written for forsail is that 8 stands in the middle
of it; vel lit alii dicllllt, mt. that is, time excess past the
short. Dille, that is, dillin, that is. not a letter, that is,
it is not an Ogham vowel but it is an accent.
DITs/l]ai/, that is. not a long time or di[sll)ail, that is,
non-addition or non-overflowing.
Alt co /cunr that thou mayest know what all/mad, limb
of science, it is of the seven alta, to wit, allamaill, 11aIII ,
tamain, ldid, setrud, sohltmaill, dIm' with their duans.
From that onward, it is Crom verse-feet that alfa 11a Ill/ad.
the limbs of science, are named, that it might not be
mixed speech. Natll, i,e., it praises from the front.
AlIamain, i.e" d" somain, glorious profit. Laed, i,e., it is sent
or hastened: or leoaid, it wounds when it is satire: or
from the word taus, praise. Stdradh, i.e., path of saying; or
surety on a valuable. Smiumaill, i.e. special its treasures
with respect to foregoing measure. DIan. two satires:
or dian. huge and splendid; or ni din, something of
splendour. From that onward, i.e., from the seven principal
metres forth it is from verse-feet, it is something of the
verse-feet that thou wilt find and it is from them they have
their name at the close of every part of their duan, and
nc01l/arc of their fordua1t, and iarcolllarc of bard poetrr.
that it may not be mixed diction. that it may not be prose
like the measure of the Daerbards.
Lorgafuach. staves of words. i.e., a staff out of a word, .
i.e., as there are staves in the hands of a man on barren
places as he goes from place to place that he might not fall
prostrate, even so are these here the staves that are in the
reasonable speech(?) or in the mouths of the poets halting
from word to word. Lorgafiuldl, staves of words, therefore,
that is the interposition of syllables between the two
122 BB. 328 fJ .1,'
E. 27 fJ 28
,disoil. 7is aire scriblhnr nin air nin ar is nin fil fo deoidh
7 is aire scribthar sail ar forsail ar is sail fil a medon
mte; no 1ft alti' dicunt ail i aimser furail seach in cum .
D' . d . air.
. '1: 1 ni nin i nj fid acht is forbaid. Di[sh]ail' 1576'
'1 nl almSlr fota no di[sh]ail i nemhfhuil/cd no nemfuraiJ. .
Alt co fesear cia halt huad dona secht n-altaib .i.
nath, anair. eamain, laid, setrlld, soinemain
cona ndllanaib. 0 seininund is 0 dheachaib
tlr huad ar .na .rob indsci cumascda. Nath .j. 1580
analr. Anamam '1 an somain. Lred .i. laitir no
Iualtlr: no leoaid intan is air: no is onni as lallS .i.
moJadh. Sedradh ,i sed raid no raith air set S
. . . .. alne
mall1. '1' a maine risin aisti reamaind. Dian .i. eli air:
no dian ,.1, an no. lli ain. 0 sin unund .i. ota na 1586
sea.cht prlmalstl amach IS 0 deacaib is ni de na deachaibh
7 is uaidibh ainmniugud dojb a forba gaeha
ral.nde a nduain, 7 recomrac a forduain, 7 iarcomarc
ar na rop indsce cumaisci ar na ro[b] prois amal
mstJ na ndcerbard. J590
'i, lorg ua foclf/ i amal bite lorga
JJamalb dume for portaibh sesga og immtheacht 0
phurt ar na torchrad inna lighi, imtha is amlaidh
he In so na lorga biti a ciallabair no i ngenaib na filed
JC fosugud 0 foeul co' focul. fuach iarum .i. rem- l09l)
To what side for ever aftcr a course of crosses
Shall 1 beat my narroW fleet?
Shall it be east or shallll be wcst for a short while,
Shall it be north, or shall it be south?
Cia between lond and Ie/It is the dialt 1l-dar/tlllt, the
interloping syllable; and lorga ft/adz, staves of words, and
dialt n-etarleme occur in the middle of the stanza, viz., ill
ba, and hat
Fer tot, its Idgud 1I0e, its flinging of a man, for
nae is man, ttt est, if a man suffer on land, i.e.
the man allows suffedng on him, he goes afterwards to
bathe himself in the water, he lets himself down the
bank into the water, tot saith the wave under him, Le., lot
was the name of that sound which the wave makes: toll,-
tott, then, is its onomatopoetic name, or mixed name
from sound, 1It cst, the btl of cows, the go of geese:. or the
heavy voice the man utters dropping himself on the
From the sounds of birth have been named go go 10
sound, or bu oJ, i.e., tot: or again, the man takes his
ment about him from some one else. What he
gar . . .
then says is ferto
(i.e. give ye to me, I.e.) It serves
me feartot it serves thee, quoth thy companion to thee,
. th;t is a passive 'verb, feartot quoth his companion to
him this is an active verb.
Now ur/Olld, haft, is the name for a spear-bed, to
wit, the black horn that is round the spear, it is that on
which the spear r,ests; even as gender rests on these three,
he, she, it: or on these ten url"iI,d, to wit, sl he, dd two, trl
three, cetltir four men. That is, these are urlalld". prefixes,
alliterations, as Cormac the bard eednit. 1m ba stasadz ;11/
'oa seang, etc., i.e., im oa is the lorga flladl.
A dialt ft-tltrleme, its interloping syllable, is one
, syllable between the two alliterations tit est :-
'. ,

comuaim, 1600
ut Cormac
J24 BB. 328 fJ 36
Cia leth gu brat[h] iar euairt eros'
Cosluidfea mo coblaeh ereas ?
In ba sair ba siar ri suail
In ba tuaid no in bodes?'
Cia eter lond 7 leath in dialt n-etarleme; 7 ata lorga
fuach 7 dialt n-etarJeme isin rand ar medon .i in
ba 7 is bat
Fertot a theJgud noe i a teJgud duine, ar ,is nre
duine, tit est dia ndama nre for tir i. duleice in duine 1610
cessad fair, teit iarum dia fothrugud din uisciu dolece
sis isln usce, tot 01 in tond fa: .j. fa 'tot dno
a.a1Om 10 foghair sin doghni in tond: tott; tott dano a
amm forcmachta (no forcumascda) di SUfi, tit est, bu bo
go ged: no in guth trom dogni in dae oca lecon forsin
usce. 0 fodhar na genemna rohainmnigthea go go i
no bu bo i tot: no dano arfoem in duine a etach
Imml 0 nac[h] ailiu. Is ed asber-sum i suidi fertom (.i.
dam .i.) feartot ar du chele frit, briathar chesta sin
1 feartot ar a chele (329) fris, briathar gnima so. 1620
Aurlond dno ainm d' oreill i ind adarc dub bis
gai, is di arsisidar in gai, imtha is amlaid arsisidar in
Indsce don trediu-sa i isc isi ised: no dona deich n-
i se tri cethrc i urlanda ferinsci sin i
'd' h d d .
. remsul JUC a, a aillrebaib L.: remaulgecad B.
100_ ar cuairt L. 1802-1 T 1 d .
ItiO;J raDS ate ,Al1CIIIII 11'. Po/lr)', p. 94-
11\1\ T. '. 1610 dulceiche in duine gesat E.
,I ,I .n. UIICIU dolelccd on bruch lis bin usee dobert 0 lin tond rothratb
uano a amm E. Hill ( h L ,
IUIII rh orcumac ta .: lormachta di luind E
. lUIS . L. 11117 arroen D.: ar(aen L.: arfocm E.
I sUldlu L. E. ferthoin (ertolh or du celliu E. lillI' I. ",." da .
11UJ E. 0/11. IlUJ ./' m, gave me
I mon g'" ar IS. ,mtha oamlaid L.
suigeadad da sillreibh eter in da comuaim,
bard cecinit .'
. 1m ba seasaeh, im ba seang 7rt.
i in ba in lorga fuach.
A dialt n-etarleme i rensillab eter in da
tit est:-
llUJ alondud L. E. reime L.: reimhe E.
Itt.>J found ainm L. 182718 E. om.
16;17 i rremim E.
16a8 re uama L.
10:J0 0 ilchcnela n,: olchena L.
illar, samlaid L.
a viii. E.
(oxlan E.
1143' E. om.
lU4t1 genidi-, togor;/) L.
1647 loxlaii, a Ihlellb L.
of masculine gender, to wit, is I, it is he, the man, del
two men, tI'l three men, cethri four men: or flr/OIlt!, illdsci
is a sign of declension, masc., {em., and neuter.
and fern. urlmld are, however, the same from that onward.
Therefore they are not mentioned beyond four.
SI she dl two, Itora three, ((tluora four women, are
feminine :erll1IlIlil, leading words, there. 1s I, it is she,
the, woman, dl two women, feora three womell, cl'itluora
four women. It I and it iat, they are, however, are
common flr/mlllil both fern. and masc. Is td, it is, how-
ever, is neuter urli1ll1l, tit did/ur, it is his head. \Vith
masculine flr/mul, again, neuter coincides in plurallirliTJultl,
, to wit, two heavens, tit dicitur, two men, etc. Or lIr1mm
iut/so', that is, masc., fern., and neuter gender. Thus far
the body of the Primer. .
Twenty.five prepositional flcxions in ?Cc1ens.lon, th,at
is, five for full consideration of the poets to. fl e.xIOn
composing the ai, poem; and ar.ttficml
'cl' And the twenty artificial kmds, what IS
eSI es.
0 ter'lst'IC of them? Do they each of them conform
c larac .
to their own proper form? The)' do necessarily, for
they are inflected forms. This is number, three
of them in the singular, threc of them 10 the
tl t
thus there arc six of them. As to the twenty artificial
la . . h
't l'S certal'n that this is their characteristic t at
prose sor s, I .
there are twelve of them in the form of and
ne of them in the form of genthve and
accusa lYC, 0 .
vocative, seven of them in the form of dative and ablative:
en of them in the form of nominative, and accusa-,
or e ev . . d
. , and three or them in the form of gemtlve an
Ive,. d' d
vocative, and three of them in the form of atlve ,an
ablative, i.e., flexions in the singular fer, fir,! 10fiur ;
three of them in the .plural Da fer, na fir, firu.
As to the twelve flexions of them that pass the
BO. 319 CI 5
ise 1 in fear, da .. 1. da fear, trl 1 tri fir, ceithri 1 cethri fir: 1623
nq urlonn indsci slondud reimmi oj. {erinscl 7 baninsci 7
deiminsd. Inunda immorro urlann rerinsce 7 baninsce 0'
sin amach. Is aire nach indister seach a ceathair.
Si di teora cetheora urlanna baninsce andsin. Is i i
in bean, di i di mnai, teora i teora mna, ceitheora i ]630
ceitheora mna. It e 7 at iat immorro urlanna coitcheanda
eter banindsci 7 ferindsci. Is ed immorro urlann demind.
sci tit dicitllr is ed a cheann. Fri hurlainn ferindsd dono
xntaigis demindsci a n-urlandaib Hair i da nem til didlllr
da fear 7rl. No urland indsce .j. ferindsce 7 banindsce 7
demindsce. Conige seo corp ind Auraicepta.
Coic filJt(gthi fichet i reim ,j. a coic gu hogfegad na
filed i ffilJiud re ualllma na hai 7 fiche gne s::erda
oichena. Et in fiche gne srcrda catead a n-araide foraib?
1m berat cach re dibh dochum a ndilis fen? Berait edn, 1640 .
. uair [it] dealba filltecha. Is ed a Jin a tri i n-uathad 7 a
tri i n-ilar conad a se amlaid. In fichi gne srerda prosta is
deimin is e so a n-araide, a do dec dibh i forgnuis ainmneda
7 ainsida, a oen dibh i forgnuis gent'dlt' 7 togartada, a secht
i forgnuis tobartada 7 foxlan : no aon dec dibh a ndelb ain- 1645
mnedha 7 ainsida 7 a tri a ndelbh genid/i 7 togartada 7
a tri a ndelb tobartacha 7 foxlacha.. i tri fil[l]ti a n-uathad
i fer, llr, 10 llr; a tri a n-ilar De. fer, De. 'fir, De. llru. III
Is iat sain da filltech deg,
Anndar learn nocho lanbhrec,
Tiaghait i lorgnuis feda
Ainmneda ocus ainseda.
Na secht filltigh immorro tiaghait i forgnuis tobartadha 1 1660
foxlada, 1 Bur a aitreibh; oc Bur a furmidh; fo llur a
fothudh; do Bur a digbail; tar fiur a thiarmoracht; ar
llur a fresgabhaiJ; ria llur a remid, ut db:it poeta ..
da filliud deg dibh" tiaghait i forgnuis ainmneda 7 ainseda
it e andseo a n-anmand .i
Ar [th]er [a] airceall; 00 fer [a] ascnamh; 1 fer a
inotacht; seach ther a sechmall; for fer a fortudh; tri fer
a freislige; la fer a threbtu; 1m fer a imthimcheall; dar
fer a thairrsci; fr1ain fer a thormach; tre fer a tregdad;
Is fer a thuarascbaiJ, til dixil poela : 16M
00 flur its depositi\'e.
do flur its privative.
ar llur its ascenslve.
00 ter its advancive.
Beach ter its neglective.
trl ter its desidati\'e.
1m ter its circumdative.
tr1sin ter its augmentative.
18 ter its descriptive.
1 flur its locative.
to llur its fundative
1ar flur its progenitive.
ria llur its precessive.
ar fer its defensi\e.
1 tor its ingresshe.
tor ter its invocativt.
la ter its comitative.
dar ter its trespassive.
trl ter its perforative.
ut dixit poela :-
. These are the seven flexions
Which are not kinds to be destroyed,
They pass into pure forms
Of dative and ablative.
The seven flexions, however, that pass into' the form
of dative and ablative are :-
ttt dt'xit poe/a:-
Twelve flexions are these
\Vhich methinks are not quite deceiving,
They pass into the letter (orm
or nominative and accusative.
form of nominative and accusative, these are their
names here:
r" .
In fhir a thustidhi thiar thair
Do sealbhadh do thogartaidh
Ocus doi1>h ar ren ni ric
Acbt mad int ren don tichit.
Is iad so na seacht tillti,
Nit ernaili admillti,
Tiagait i ngnuisibh glana
.Tobarta ocus foxlada.
128 DB. 329 II 27
Oenfil,ltech immorro teit I forgnuis tqgarthada 7 genil/i,
lit di:rit poeta :
Is iad sin in fiche gne saerda cona n-aradnaibh 7rt
ltl1'tJ lndotacht L. 1113:1 In fer B. L. II. timchell E. 1000 sin L. E. decc E.
l1i61 Aodar L. 11111lt seda E. 1069 7 abnsera B.: 1.n'1'ei'a E.
1000 filltigthl E: 1001 foxlan E. fuirmiud L. 1,003 remidh L.: remud T.
11164 lin L. Ni hernaili L. JOOIJ I rorgouis L. 1007 i. E.
llJdd teid L. 0";. togartacha L. IlliG a tuisdui E.
10'71 doselba E. thogartaig L. lll7'J 7 doib archena oj r[i]c Eo
1llU co n-aradoaib E.
One flexion, however, Roes into the form of vocative
and genitive, "ut dixil poeta :-
In /1';,. its parentative to all time
For possessive, for
And to them alone there comes not
Save it be the one (orm from the score.
These are the score of artificial forms with their
I" etc.
Now as to fer, man, ebad/I, ea, is its Ogham vowel;
10 or iphill in its declcnsion, or in its possessive, etc.,
to wit, idad, 1, is in its pos5essive and vocathe. It is
it/lin, 10, however, in its dative and ablative. Ebnd, ea,
however in its nominative and accusative.
i!1 proper of fed/la in fedaibll, of fitlha i fid?,
and offid/l ifedaib? Proper of fcdha i fedhaib/I, a vowel
among vowels, first, to wit, a before the four vowcls;
for it is the first expression of all living and the last
sigh of all deceased. DiNs fed i jidll, propcr vowels
in a vowel, that is, proper is the Ogham diphthong
whatever be the fid, vowel, in which it is written.
Dilts fid/l ill fed/ln/bh, proper is a vowel
vowels to wit such is the Ogham diphthong which has
two to 'wit, what is proper there is. the first vowel,
{or the last is not reckoned.
Alt co fesear, i.e., that it may be known whether it is a
metre of the seven primary combinations of poetry as
rcO'ards measure. From that onward it is by verse-feet
th:t alttl, limbs of science, are expressed that it .might
not be mixed speech, that is, from that onward 10 the
good words, that is, by good words the metres. of ai/'cht/nl
are expressed that it could not be the mixed speech
such as the Daerbaird usc. .
. Lorga junc/l, staves of words, that is, ItHree lJrchnille, full
<:omcly legs, to \vit,disyllabic interpositions that s.tand
the (alliterating) words, saving them from two kinds, to WIt,
. r(lgnir, overshortness, and claellre or perversion of.sensc.
.Ferlot a telglld110e, its man-throwing. And bu btl and go
g/d, names these which through sciencc the po.cts have
invented according to thcir sound. Fertot, that IS, a man
has fallen there; and bo,' cow, from the word or hllo
[ fJ ' ] I sound that is it would be from the gllm, roar;
fJoaw , " h' h
. and gld, goose, would be from the goose. VOIce w IC
E. 28 A 5
Fer ebadh a tid, 10 no iphin ina reimim no 'na .
shealbad 7rJ. .j. js idad inna selbad 7 ina thoghairm. Is
iphin . immorro ina thobartaid 7 ina foxlaid. Euad
immorro ina n-ainmnidh 7 'na ainsid.
Cate diles fedha i fedhaibh, 7 diJis feda i tidh, 7 dilis
fidh i fedhaibh? Diles fedha i fedhaibh cetamus .i. a 1680
riasna ceithri guthatg-ro, ar is i cetlabrad cach bi 7 iachtad
gach mairb. Dilis fed i fidh dno i is dilis in forfidh ogailll
secepe fid i scribthar. Dilis fidh i fcdhaibh i (col. (3)
amal ata in forfidh as defogur i is ed as diles and in
foghur tuisech, ar ni airimhtear in fogur dedhenach. 1686
Alt co fesear i co {estar in n-aisti dona seacht prim-
ellgibh na filideachta do ghne do thomhus. 0 sein inunn is
du deachaibh sluinter alta uad ar na badh insce chumascda
i 0 sin inunn isna degfhuachaib .i. is do dadfoc1alo sluinter
aisti airchetail ar na rabi in indsci cumascda amal dogniat 1690
na dcerbairtl.
Lorga fuach i lairce lorchaine i remshuidigthi de-
sillrebazg biith riasna foclaib ica ar da n.ernail .j.
rogair 7 clcenre (no clam celIe).
Ferthot a thelgud Hoe. Et bu bo 7 go ged .j. anmand 1695
sin tria eladain rancadar na filid do relr a fogair .i. fer tot
i fer rothoit and; 7 bo a turbo boo no buo i fograigim .i.
on geimim nobeth 7 ged go mbadh on geig gotha dober
Jl'7D din euad E. ina reim L.
1ti711 togarmilig L.
JUi'll alnmnig, ainsed L.
J6llO,1 LL. 188& 17
JIlI'J oge- 8ccllephc E.
111& airm airmith,r E.
1\ld1J .j. co reiser L.
Jtl&J ar na bad E.
Jt189 is da, is dOl dagrhoclaib E.
1ll9'J lorghamc, do sil14,sai6 biit E. 1. lAird DO lorcaimc T. JOPS E.
1l1li7 bo i. cumudh on buo T. rathoith, ogrugalm E. Gr. Lat. ii. 6, 5 i .
v. 239,6 Jll!lll ged ge mbad on geirn nobeth, ae .E. z nobeiredh T.
Sg: 30
I : Gr. Lat. v. 308, 10 .1701 couall acip a' E
I,O'J Ortgg. uii. 3, 18 ' CIP
dr' oireill E. :. do ureill T. O'Mollo)' Gr. xvii. p. 170' no E om
ogaba E. 1'106'
d .. L E graindi L. E.
otels 1711 .i. Cerur :onn L 1712 r n
1713 er o.
m, no Int IITern E. : I nem "0 inlif-, with June/. all. under t B
nem no In I _ I.. 17UI ,
1'"'.lO comrorcal T. II:ur ondair E. andsin L
, larnasbuUI1I E. lTo!'J dE'
ass nobeth, amal asbert in Laitneoir: NO[11Ie]1I de S01l0
filctlllll esl i forc;emnacair int ainm don fogur ut esl 170()
connall stip is ed a fogur ica loscudh. .Is de sin ranic
stipula do anmaim do icon Laitneoir.
. Aur/olld no inscc dno d' oreill in gai is ainm. Caidi
lilt erlonn srerda fogabar conad aicniud? Ni ansa. Erlonn
in Cate int aurlonn indsci do nach asand insci ,,"cht 170ft.
bais I graini in g;e. Cate int aurlonn is iarlollll 7
lilt mrIonn IS urlonn 7 int urIonn is remlonn i urIonn i ill
gai ,i urlonn faclesin iarlonn dotess, ar is iar cach ndedenach'
conid he sin int urlonn is iarlonn 7 is urlonn int
is remlonn i intan rosaig Iar ind airiall. Cate urlonn 171().
urlainni i n-urlonn i urlonn ferurlonn banurlonn
nemurlonn: urlainni bell in fir: urlunna a ndis i n-urlaind
i i nem no i n-ifern.
Aurlunna ilair mascul 7 femen in so sis' se d
h . ' . , a,
t rt, cet[h]ri: si, di, teora, cetheora. Inunna insci airme 171r.
o sin imach. Is andsain fogabar comrorco ilair neodair
:i. cena urlanna ilair oca acht i n-uathad tall III III. Cate'
11lsce srerda fogabar co n-aicned? Ni ansa. Is ed itl
air is srerda a radh 7 se for in duine. Is aicenta
unmorro a radh fris iarna buaill de.
. Cia isna remendaib gebes
IIlgrecus '1' grelm na celthre n-ernaili du remendaib i in
focul as treghdad ar geibit arin focul is tregdad 7as aitreib
it utters, as the Latinist said: Nomell de S01l0
. factllm lst, i.e., the name has happened to the sound,
tit lSI, C01l1/(111, stubble, stip, that is its sound as it burns.
Thence stipl//a has come to be the name for it with the
Then as to allr!olld, haft, 01' IlIsCt, speech, it is a name
for the spear-bed, What is the artificial crlO/I1/, haft,
which is found to be nature? Not hard. The spear-
haft. \Vhat is the aurlO/I1l illdsci, haft of speech, from
which groweth no speech, but speech of death? The
spear-point. What is the aurlol/ll, haft, which is iar /01111,
after blade, the after-blade which is haft, and the haft
which is re111/01111, before blade, to wit, urlo;l1I, haft, that
is, the spear, to wit, haft itself that will come after
blade, for 1'(11' is everything final; so that that is the
"1'101111, haft, which is after blade, and the 1Ir101111, haft,
is the haft which is 1'(111101111. bcfore blade, to wit, when
the o;rio/l reaches ground. What are 111'101111, 11 riaill1l,
tlr!aiIl1zi in Ilr/olld? Ur/OIlIl, that is, urlOll1l, haft, leading
word, mas., fcm., and neut.: tlr/aimli, the wifc of thc
man: 11r!rm1I1l, the two in ur!ondl i.e., in heavcn or in
The urbnwll, 'indices of gender, mas. and fem. plural
are as follows: (mas.) sl. dd, 11'1, cellirl' I' (fern.) sl. dl.
teOI'll, cellttora. From that onward' the genders of numbcr
are the same. It is there is found an error of the plural
neuter, .to wit, its not having "r!mllla plural but in the
. singular' tallttllll. What is artificial speech which is found
with nature Not hard. ce It" is the head, for it is artificial
to say cc it" while it is on the man.. It is natural, howcvcr,
to apply cc it" to it after striking (tllll off him.
\Vhat single disyllabic word in the declensions will take
thc place, to wit, the effect of the four parts of dcclcnsions ?
The wordperforative, for it includes the words pcrforativc,
132 DB. 329 fJ 14
locative, ingressive, and advancive; for the perforative
will not exist without the locative, and the locative will
not exist the ingressive, the ingressive will not
exist withouf the advancive, so that it is perforative
which holds from end to end, What brielll is it in !which
stand eight Ogham letters according to the poet wherein
the one letter will contain the force of hal! of it? tit
csl, sliachta, and that is a virtual half, not an half,
to wit, it alone is against the seven letters. what
place of the Primer stands the artificial possessive
rhyme save rhyme of vowels only, tl' cst, In ba?i That
is, the possession which a. has over the 1 and over b:
In what place is found a couple of consonants without
a breath through them? Not hard. Where n: stands
before g, with no vowel between them, til tlb'gt,
ounce. In what place is found the ::Ogham
vowel after the completion of the eight syllables in the
word briellt? Not hard. Where a diphthong will stand
in the eighth syllable, one of the vowel is an augmenting
There are eight syllables in the biggest' word in
Gaelic, ttt cst, jiaml(l1llailechardaai. Thirteen syllables,
'however, form the biggest word in Latin, tit est,
te1tcrijicabiliIUdillilnlilms. !
\Vhat consonant. will take the force of a vowel, word
and consonant? Not hard. Q. What consonant will
not take the force of vowel, word or consonant? Not
hare). H.
\Vhat is the peculiar origin of the word aipe
alphabet? Not hard. A bo 00, dibOll. i.e.,' (olll/aIM
!ittl'arum jJt.r s(, to wit, there exists in the alphabet a
'collection of letters with their relationship.
And as to letter itself, what is the origin {rom which
it is? Not hard. From /elJilera, to wit, a r
, '
, .
______________ ' , i_- J
1i'J,) I .
cen In ntllacht D . b'
l'i'Jll In sin' B L '. hi la an tndotocht L
adaid DID . 7 II,oglet L. Ir. Ttxlt fl', 66 ."nll E. Dm.
nOll! i d ' ' ,23
1741 Gr. Lal. v'" 6 . n ara (oelll L. I
III. I 4, 17 740 xli aill- L.
I rUldlesta L.: ruidlelto E
d. Quinct II .
Jm liUrtch E.' 4, 59, Gr. Ii. 6, IS I ata n L.: Ita in E.
bodeain L. 0 (uil E.
134 "9 JI 37 AURAICEPT
. .! E. 28 CI 4S ' ':
7 19 mnuttacht 7as ascnarn a I .,;
altreib, ni bfa Inn atreib cen n bla In tregdad cen (il/tI) ,.
10 mnotacnl ni bi . t . ,.
cen mn ascnam, conid tregdad 0 h" In mutacht
Cia bricht i mbit ocht fi d t co tumd teachtas.'
" e a ocon flhd co ng b .
grelm a leithi 111 esl sliachta 7 - I' e lOt c:enguta
. h IS og elth in s'n .
'1' a aenar a n-ag 'd I nl certleath
. al na secht C' b'"
uralccepta ata in sealb dh la alh Inn
,a srerda cen .
remraiti, tit est -r:' al relm acht reim 173G,'
,II me T alme i' Ib
+ forin TT 7 for T. .. 10 se had ata do
Cia baili i fogabar comtoth'
Ni ansa. In baili i mb' . consan cen tinfed treothu ?
. I n na g cen gut ' .
umge. Cia baili i fagabar in fidh algi .etu:u, 1It est
na n-oeht sillab isin t'. I' , orthormalgh lar forbu 1731)
10CU IS bncht? N'
I mbia defogur isin ochtm d' I ansa. In baiJi
indara fogur. a dlalt is fidh forthormaigh
Ocht sillaba dno isin t' I'
Ii 10CU IS mo isi G d'
annamaile'(330)-chard . . n ae tlg, lit est,
l' aal. tre sillaba d .
OCU IS rna isin Laif ,ec Immorro in 1740
Cia trebomna . Ibn, 111 eSI: ItllerijicabililudillitalilJlls, .
ge es grelm feda 7 '1
1 ansa. Queirt C' ocal 7
t' '1 la trebomna na g'b .
local 7 trebomna ? N' el grelm feda no
I ansa. Uath.
Cate bunad ruidJcs[t]' .,., .
Abe 0 a In focarl IS alpgitir? N' .
e d 1 bon 'I' copulalio 1.'1 1 ansa. }-745
aipgitir comhthinol na I't' I trarll1lt per se i ata isin
I Ir cona flalus
eus littir fodesein cia b d .
, una 0 fil? Ni ansa. Onni
as Hgitera i. ainm tighi araiJi anr:nand aitrebas i traigh
mara dianadh ainm MoJosus 7 gibeadh neach atchi tegh.. 17l)O
dhais in anma foiJ)sigter do fis cen eledain. Amali[s] set
iarum faillsighthi eolais 7 fessa do neoch aisein in tight
. sin, is amlaidh sin as set failJsighthi eolais do fis 7 faisein
Jittri, conid airesain tugadh int ainm is Jittera 0 ainm
tighi in anma remraiti for Jittir. in gach baili ita. No J766
lit/era a Ii/lira i on foIJIgiud i on chomailt doberdis na
harsata forsna daro ciartha, ar intib nacetscribtha leo:
no litera i inteach legind i, set legind.
Do bhunadhaibh na remend andseo sis,
In tiasca di fedaibh 7 deachaibh 7 remendaibh 7 1760 '
furbhthi 7 aItaibh 7 inscibh 7 etarga'irib amaI rosuidigthi
la fiIedu ina scuiJi cetna robhadar 7 la Fenius Farsaidh iar
tebiu na GaedeIge asna di berlaibh scchtmogat. Co taiselbad
do Goediul mac Angein ar is e sen dorothlaigh tepe fla
.j. jnt renberla ba ailliu 7 ba cajnti. each berla
conid aire fognith 7 conid iarum dotaiselbad conidh aire
dogairther Gredelc 7 GaidhiI. Nel (no Nin) mac Fenius
dothuc Scotai ingen Foraind conidh dia ainm-sie dorrairther
b Scuit.
Fll" its nominative plur.
No. fer its possessive plur.
Do foro.lbh its dative plur.
InDo. flru its accusative pluto
A fhlru its vocative plur.
o toratbh its ablative plur.
00 teralb its depositive plur.
. I lalr that dwells on the seashore [in litore]
a certam anama . h
med Molossus .and whosoever sees the laar of t at
na. I h" is revealed knowledge without study.
amma, to 1m . d
r tls a way fo.r revealmg wisdom an Therelore as I
k ledge for anyone to see that lair, so the knowledge
now I. k '1 dere
and sight of letters is a way for revea 109 . no\\ e b
h th t on that account the name Itt/era from
to 1m, so a .d .
f the lair of the animal aforesal IS
the name 0 s Or
red to letter in every place where It occur ..
app I b. . f the smearing,
lilttl'a is from lilura, rub 109, I.e., rom
. f m the rubbing which the ancients used to apply
I.e., I ro tablets for thereon they (the letters) were
to t 1e waxen, f d'
O l ' . path 0 rea mg, first written by them. r Ilera, I.e.,
j e way of reading.
.., Of the origins of the declensions here below. .
b .. of letters verse-feet, declenSions, The egmmng ,
accents, intervals, genders, and comparisons. as
. d b t f the same school m which thc}
estab1Jshe y poe so. f
d It d by Fenius Farsaidh after the 0
we , an . attributed
Gaelic out of the 72. languages. . Hence desired
to Goedel son of for It was e
the selection of Gaelic, to wit, the one language that
e beautiful and excellent than ,any
was mor d therefore It
so that for this reason it used to serve, an G I
tt 'but'cd so that hence Gaelic and the ae are
was a fl , h .ed
d N 1 or Nin son of Fenius It was w 0 marn
name. e , , . h the)"
Scota, daughter of Pharaoh, so that it is from er name
are called Scots.
Fer its nominative sing.
Fir its possessive sing.
Do fer its dative sing.
In ter its sing.
A fhir its vocative sing.
o fir its ablative sing.
Og fir its depositive sing.
F. 28 CI 62
P'1r a ainmnid iJair.
Na ter a sheaJbad iJair.
Do teralbh a rad n-iJair.
Inna. llru a inchosc iJair.
A thlru a thoghairm iJair.
a teralbh a oxlaid iJair.
00 t'oralb a lhuirmed iJair.
INO .1' '\' E .ul
?nul al Igt : I,.", nolusus T. cibed L. : gibe ncch E.
In, an,manna Sin, ceeh ealadan 1.: ind anmanda E.
- falllslgcs eolus E. fessa 1. E. om. faicsin L. E.
,fh;lj8 l do aicsin E. 1m 0 anmaim L. : on ainmnigthi e.
I,M L. In anm:mda L. E.
a 1. on (oi!'siugud (no on E. : Virgo Gr. p. 7. 10
. ar IS Inllb L. T. 17M Ugt/tra E. Jcang ,j. set leang L
1,111 forbhaibh T,': fuirbtib L. E. 17&.! j nahatar E
na D. : tebi Goed- L.. teipiu naGred- E. tairillfed E.
1;00 dorathalgh E. L. 17M na nGaedel D. ba h:fillemh, caimem L.
doalselbad L.: do E. 17117 Goedelg 7 Goedil L
d,ofuc,. Scota L. (lIa hanmnlm-sein L. E. liliO (rlu E. adtls ,
' &Inmmugud, II. fir L. Jno-Jl107 cr. Stokes, GO/tlt/fea, 7
J77I Do fir a se/bad ilair L.
For a ainmnid uathaid.
Fir a shealbad uathaid.
Do fir a radh n.ualhllid.
In ter a inchosc uathaid.
A thlr a thoghairm uathaid.
o fir a oxail uathaid.
Og fir a thunneadh uathaid.
Ni airicar (a) arichiJl fuit no f'elr a airchill fuit, Fen a 1805
dechnead, Fe a dichneadh. Ise, issi, issed; uinnse, unnse,
onnar a urlunn indsci.
Ceand cridi fulang a dhe demi tebidhi in fhir. 7
fiacail lanamain in chilld. Srebann 7 cru lanamain
l$t cotut E.
1M ceimfocrus tar, deld E.
17llU rorna E. thlhclgad. B.
1ltU(l lanamoin E.
Ferrier its internal division.
Dofer its enslaving..
Fera1b its humiliation.
00 fornll> (or co flru) its advancive
Beoh furalb (or seoh flru) its neg\ec
tive plur.
Tre foratb (or tre 8ru) its pcrfora.
tivc plur.
I firu (or a teralb) its ingressive
plur. .'
I firu (or a teralb) its locative plur.
For fil'U (or for tera.tb) its attesti\'c
11'0 n\tru (or to there.1b) its lunda-
tivc plur.
Tar firu (or tAr feralb) its tres'
passive plur. .
Ar l1ru (or ar teralb) its asCenSl\'C
. .'
Frt tlru (or rrl toralb) its dCSldau\'e
Fer its hardening-.
1tafar its invcrsion.
Fel its change or final.
Flrlne its diminutive.
Feron its hyperbole.
Feer its retarding.
Ser its change of initial.
Ferfer its reduplication, is not
Sorer its ennobling
its exaltation, is not found
And, on, 'neath, through, in,
past the men, its staves of
From, out of, in, to, through,
across,past a man, its
interloping syllable. d
. Fe its theft of a har .
Fertot its manthrowlOg. ' ; .
lts theft of a long is not found, or f'elr 15 Its theft of a long.
. . hI" fi I Fe its losing a final.
Ferr 1ts dou 109 a na.
lSI, etc., he, she, it, its prefix of gender.
Head heart constituting the two neuter
and tooth the couple or the
Membrane and gore the couple' of the heart. c
Frl fer its desidntive sing.
Ar fir its ascensivc sing.
Tar rer its trespassive sing.
11'0 thtr its fundative sing'.
I fir its locative sing.
For fer its nttcstivc sing'.
I for its ingressive sing.
Tre fer its perforative sing.
Sech ter its neglective sing.
Co fer its advancive sing.
. '.\
E. 28 fJ 24
lI'etrier a. chonnaiJ.
lI'e a airchill calaid.
00 f8mb (no CfOftrU) a ascnam ilair.
Stloh ftlralb (no stloh flru) a
seachmall ilair.
'l're feralb (no tre 11ru) a thregdad
I 11ru (no a feralb) a inotacht ilair.
I 1lru (no a feralb) a aitreh ilair.
For 11m no tor teratb a fhortud .
Pothiru no to reraib a fhotud ilair.
Tar 11m no tar reraib a tharrsci
Ar 11m no ar teralb a fhrescbail
Hair. 1790 .
Prl 1lri no trl feralbh a fhreslighi
Per a chodad.
Reter a delidhmi.
P'el a chendfhochrus deidh. 1795 .
P'inn1 a ludhughudh.
Doter a dhrerughudh.
P'eraib a aurisel.
1M ilIraig E.
1'711' dellidnim (?) E.
I'M b,rler, firim- E.
Il'08 a dcimhi E.
J38 BB. 330 u
hi ter a fhreslighi uathaid.
Fo t'hlr a fhotudh uathaid ilair.
Tar ter a thairrsci uathaid.
Ar ft.r a fhrescbail uathaid.
Peron a (ormoJadh.
Peer a mh;\l1rughudh.
Ser a chendlhochrus tuis.
Ni airghenr a dhiabhuli ferter.
Soler a shrerughudh.
Ni airecar n urard .j. tera.
Elforsna firu 7Cona firu tltresna
firu el isna firu tl seach na
tiru (col. fJ) a 10rga tuaoh.
E, es, in, co, tre, tar, sech fer a
d1alt netAllelme.
Fertot a thelgnd noe.
Tre ter a thregdad uathaid.
00 tel' a Rscnam uathaid.
Seoh tlr a shechmall uat,haid.
I ter a inotacht uathaid.
I fir a aitreb uathaid.
P'or ter a fhortud uathaid.
)1110 Origg. xl. I, 76-7 JIll I 0 . .
ragg. XI. I, US 181:.!,17 ..Ie' B A ...
, IIlI:! Origg. xl. I, A 3 11110 J h -u ""',
l1t.!'7 domiditer E .,. IIl.1OM no RBr 7 tond T. 7 lsind fhe6H T.
argm In tiasga do bandialt andso 51' T
f. S k ". . '.
c. to es, vOI'ddUQ, p. 74
through a woman.
through women.
in a woman.
in women.
on a woman.
on women.
over a woman.
over women.
{rom a woman.
{rom women.
with a woman.
with women.
unto a woman.
, unto women.
past a woman.
past womeD.
couplc. of the udder, that is, milk and streamlet: the
couple of ,the gore, that is, .redness and crimson.) Leg
and foot the couple of supporting. A pair, too, of the
correlated neuter, that is, eyelashes and eyebrow, i.e.,
abhrochtur, upper eyebrow (or imcflliuad, treating super..
ciliously) couple or pair of the eyes. Root and breadth,
the couple or pair of the teeth. Skin and sinew thc
couple or pair of thc shins. Activity and surface the
couple, i.e., pair of the feet. In another respect, too,
these arc the pairs of the correlated neuter, its accents,
for there are three kinds that are in existence, one for
warding upon, one for good warding, and one for warding
against. Gdll forcomllr"l, for warding upon, first, tit est,
ai/milt for g/lm, cap on knee, similarly, for on it from
above stands the spear of the true forsai/, and it is there-
with at once it is produced out of thy lips in length and in
loudness. Dil/ill :disai/ are ill usc as, for example, jui/
blood, \,:,hich is along withfcellt' flesh, and blood which is in
the flesh. It is thlls that dbtin disai/ permeates the word
from beginning to end without arresting it, without
stretching it. Arlt;" such as (1/(11111 1Ilu//aiclt top bone,
/cioli jaw-bones, c1Iuicc knuckles, and filld hair, and those
that do not origi.nate with man at first, for under the like..
ness of a man's limbs arc limbs of science made. Now the
arlit'" does not at once appear with the word 011 which it ..
falls so that it is at the end that it compresses the word.
deClension thus far.
/llciplt feminine declension. W9man.
ora woman.
of the women.
to a Woman.
to women.
the woman.
the women.
o woman.
o women.
tri mnai.
tria mna (no mnaib).
i mnai.
i mn:\l (no mnaib).
for mnai. 1880
for mnaa (no mnaib).
tar mnai.
tar mnaa (no mnaib).
.,- nUl'-l"U.... c.rl 'H.2SP31
(Janamain in srebuinn f bainne 7 gJafss, Janamain fn chru 1810
i. ruaidi 7 dt'l'gi) in cridi. Lurgu 7 traigh Janamain
ind fhulaing. Gene dno na lanamnaide deme .i. ebrachtur'
i abhrochtur (no i1Jl.::aillt'd) 7 malu, Janamain (no gene)
na .sula. BUll 7 lethet lanamain (no gene) na fiacal.
Crolccann 7 feich lanamain (no gene) na lurgan. Lith 7
t d} . (. 1810
on '1 gene) na traiged. AlaiJiu dano, it e gene
na lanamalde uemi a forbhthi, air it hi tri gne dochuisnet
forcomeda 7 gein daghchometa [7] gein fricomeltl.
Gellt tit est, ailmne for glull, immta
samlald.h, ar:s annuas ata gai ind [Ol]ir forsaiJ 7 is leis 1820
fochetolr gellldir as do beolaibh i fut 7 i nn-airdi. Dinin
disai} biit amal rogabh fuil arrad feola 7 is isin feoil. Is
amJaidh dinin dishail co ngaib focul 0 thosuch gu
gan urgabail gall airditin. Arnin amal roghabh
cnalm 7 leicni 7 cnuicc 7 find, 7 na hai nad 1820
g-enat lasm dUlne fochetoir, uair fo cosmaiJlius alta duini
doniter alta huadh. Ni taidbet dno int airnin lasin focul
forsa tochradar co mbi fo deoidh arding in focul.
Ferdlalt gu sill.
(11Icipit bandialt.) Bean.
mna. 0 mnai (no 0 bein).
na mban. 0 mnaibh.
do bein. oc mnai.
mnaibh. I oc mnaa (no oc mnaib).
In mbcin (no in mnai). co mnai.
inna mna.' I co mna (no co mnaib).
a bean. , I scch Illnai. ' [aib).
a mnn. scch mnaa (no sech mna.
doben a drerugud, ni alrlCalr a aurard (no i nn-uathad .i.
benna.). Mna i n-ilnr a aurard. Ni airecar a airisel .i.
(bena.lbh). Forsna, 7 fona. triasna, isna, seoh na mna a
Jorga fuach: 0, do, sech, for, in, Is ben a dialt n etarlemi.
Bentot: a theJgud noe. Be a airichil caJaid. Ni bhi a 18:50
airicill fuit no ni airicar airicil (,i. fuit), Bel a cennfochrus.
Benn a deichneadh. Be a dichneadh. Cich 7 glull a
ndemi! lhepide, fair 7 sridit a llanamnai: bJass 7 millsi
a Almnre 7 ecsait lanamnai in gluilli.
Cnai17 feoil a No hit he a ngene a forbthe 18515
amal rom-ebhartmar.
Bahdialt conigi sin.
II/dpit do deim-dialt andseo sis.
Nem. Nemon a- formolad. Nlme a cotut. Neem a
maIJrugud. 1860
na nime. oc nim. tre nem. for nem.
do nim. oc nimibh. tria nime. for nime (no
do nimib. co nem. i n-nem. nimib).
a nnem. co nime. i n-nime. tar nem.
inn nime. sech nem. i n-nim. tar nime. (331) 1865
o nim, 0 nimib. sech nimc. i nnimib. fo nim, fo nimib.
Nefrlem a chonnail. Nem a oen. Nem a Ian. Ni airecar
a lugugud (no a diabul). Ni fail a srerugud, nach a
on heavcn.
on hcavens.
over heaven.
over heavens.
under hea\'en.
under heavens.
through heaven.
through heavens.
into heaven.
into heavens.
in heaven.
in heavens.
at hcaven.
at heavens.
unto heaven.
unto heavens.
past heaven.
past heavens.
benon its
ben its hardening.
been its retarding.
neb its inversion.
bofrlen its internal division.
ben its unity.
ben its full.
Netiiem its internal division. Nem its unity. its
full. Its diminutive is not found, nor its reduplicati?r' Its
of the heaven.
to heaven.
to heavens.
the heaven.
the heavens:
{rom heaven.
(rom heavens.
or rona. its full.
its reduplication, to wit, ben-
ben is not found.
Though some say that there
is not any ltill in its re-
bonine its diminutive.
soben its ennobling.
doben its enslaving; its exaltation is not found (or in the
singular. that is, bonna). Mna in the plural its exaltation.
Its humiliation. to wit, is not found. On. under,
through, in, past the women, its torga fuach: from, to.
past, on, in, 'tis woman, its interloping syllable. Bentot
its man-throwing.. Be its theft of a hard. Its airichi" fuil
does not' exist, or airici/ O.e. fuit) is not found. Bel
its change of final. Benn- Its doubling a final. Be its
losing a final. Pap and knee their selected neuter, lair
bearing, and sridit the passage of milk from the breast,.
their couple; taste and sweetness, their pair. Cap and.
hollow of knee, the couple of the knee. Bone and flesh
their pair. Or these are their pair, their as
we have said.
Feminine declension thus far.
Itzcipit neuter declension here below.
Nem heaven. Nemon its hyperbole. Nime its harden-
ing. Neem its retarding.
DO DlDa a Jan.
ni airecair a dhiabul .i.
ciasberat araiJi ni bhi
nach Jan inn dhiabuJ.
benlne a lugudud.
soben a saerugud.
llU8 Ilurard (.1. mna) E. 18" mna (.i. bene) E.
t{irridit; bJalss E. IIW canaim B.
1&9-711 cr. Stokes, GoidtlicQ, p. 14
a dfabuJuglla'. fit E.
benoD a (onnoJadh.
ben a codut.
been a maJJrugud.
neb a delidind.
bet'l-len a chondail.
ben a oen.
ben a Ian.
t42 BB.: '30 fJ 30
1l4:! cia liberal E.
llU8 triana E.
remhebatmar E.
1M chomail B.: condaii E.
ennobling does not exist, nor its enslaving, nor its
exaltation. Nim.1b is its humiliation. On, under.. through,
in, past the heavens, its staves' of words: from, to, in,
unto, of, under, on, of, past the heavens,' its inter-
loping syllable. Its man-throwing may not serve. Ne its
theft of a hard, tit est, nem of the water, or poison of
a serpent, lit cst, llem im tha/mari, heaven about earth.
.There is no airiclzill (i.e., Nel its of
final, nemm its doubling of final, ne its losing a final.
Iscd, etc., he, she, it, its prefix of gender. Its selected
neuter is not found, for it is itself neuter gender:
.Cloud and bow of heaven its neuter coupl,e: colour
and height their pair, or it is their accents. that are
their pair.
Neuter declension thus far.
Its nominative fer. Its possessive fir. Its dative
do fhiur. Its accusative in fer. Its vocative a fhir.
Its ablative 0 fhiur. Its depositive 00 fiur. Its
advancive co fear. Its negleetive saoh fear. Its
perforative tre fer. Its ingressive hi fir. Its locative
hi fhlr. Its attestive for fer. Its fundative: fo fhiur.
Its trespassive tar fear. Its ascensive o.r Dur. Its
defensive ar fer. Its interrogative cia fer. Its circum-
dative im fear. Its privative ell fiur.
Now others add three to these, its privative den fir;
,its descriptive in fer; and its parentative in fir: but
its privative is the. same as its ablative; its dcscriptive
is the same as its accusative; and its parentative is the
same as its possessive.
11leipit to the divisions of analysis is this below.
There are two views of analYSiis, that is, analysis accord-
ing to the meaning it denotcs and analysis according to the
method which it uses. There are four divisions of it, to wit,
, size, quality, and accent.. Analysis according
daerugud, nach aurard. N1m1b a airisel. Forsna, {ona >
tresna, isna, sechna nime, a lorga tuaoh: 0, do, in, co, es: 1870.
{o, {or, [d]e, sech na nime a dhialt n-etarleme. Ni
a theJgudh .noe. Ne a airichill (i. calaidh) tit est, nem ind
usee, no nem nathrach, tet est, nem im thaI main. Ni bi
airichill.(.i. fuit). Nel a chennfochrus. a deichnead.
Ne a d.. Ised, isi, ise; ondar, uinnsi, unnse a 1875
erlonn.lOdscl. [Ni] airecar a deimi tepidhi, ar is deiminsci '
7 tuaghnimi a demi: dath 7
a1rdl a ngem-sen: no it he a fuirbhthi a ngeni.
Nemdialt co sin.
A ainmniugud fer. A shelbad fir. A rath 18BO
do A inchosc In fer. A thogairm a fir.
A foxlald 0 fhiur. A fuirmid 00 [fh]lur A
. ascnam
co fear.. A sechmaH eech thear A threghdad tre
fer. A 100tacht h11lr. A aitreibh hi thlr. A fhorthudh
for fer. A OlOthudh fo fh1ur. A tharrsce tar fear 1885'
A fresghabail ar flur. A airchelJadh ar fer. A frecnarc
cia fer. A imthimcheall 1m fear. A dighbhaiJ dl thlur
. Doformaighet alaile dano a tri frisna hii sin a dighbhaiJ
'1 den fir; 7 a thuarascbaj] i In fer; 7 a tustidi in fir.
acht is inunn a dhighbhail 7 a fhoxJaidh; is inund 1890
thuarascbhail 7 a inchosc; is inund a thuistiudh
7 a
/lIeipit do ernailibh in imchomairc in so sis.
Atat da aithfcghad for imchomare' i imchomarc iar
n:inni thoirni. 7 imchomarc iar n-airbhirt nan-airbirenn '"
blth. Atat ernaili fair .j. meit 7 inni r inchosc 7
1"71 e E 1m r
lt1"ll d' . . an tu - E.: tus B. 11m tuad E
. , alh 7 atrdldl, a ngeni-si, a ngeine E a ngel'ne 51l e T
r 5t k G '..1 /' u.
. C 0 es, Dlut tea, p. 74, S IIllt4 fuirmtigb E 1111I8 I B
It'117 1m E.: In D. IlIl:IlI frisna halain E IIlll'l d
Based on Gr. Lat. iii. 459-515 L
' tan F,n"/ E.
After filt"/ (1892
) E. J?'ivea Thomas I' om. T.
printed in O'Molloy Gr. x!ii..pp: 137-9, partly illegible here, but
Delthl Ienar dom bim deia
Is luis dis, co conndeices '
Fern triur. fail cethrur inn col
Ocua nin cona cuiger ' ,
to the quality which it signifies: There are eight sub-
ordinate parts in it, and four primary pnrts of the eight
subordinate parts. These are included under the four
primary parts, so that thus there are eight primary parts,
besides conjunction, derivatives, and compounds, to
wit, conjunction or sense and species, perceptions of bod}',
soul, substance, number, and accent. That is the accent
in which they have all been reckoned. That is the sii:e,
that the size or smallness which is in the word might be
That is the quality, that it might be known whether
it is a quality of evil or good that underlies the word.
That is the denotation, that it might be known of what
i!l1lsa it is, whether gender or part of speech. If it be a
part of speech, what is the difference between part and
speech. If it be gender, what is the gender?
feminine, or neuter gender? If it be feminine gender,
to wit, female :gender, ul esl, lIulrix, nurse, with
the Latinist, the whole female species that passes over
human lips, that genus belongs to ItUtrix, for 1/Ull'IJ:
is nurse to them all. If it be masculine gender.
that is, male gender, ut est, paler, father, with the:
Latinist, the whole species of masculine, feminitle, and.
neuter that passes over human lips, it is pater that is
father to them 'all, that is, Almighty God, Father of
all the If it be neuter gender, -that is,
lifeless gender, ul eSI, caelum, heaven, with the
Latinist, the whole neuter species that passes over
lips is named from lum, heaven. Qualitr
is the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth declensions,
and ra1l11, verse, and res, tale (?), and rece. Res is
the first division. Rece is the subdivision. In that
subdivision there are four parts, to' wit,' seven
numbers, seven accents', and seven - aspects, its
'according to. species, voice, verb
afcnead. Imcomarc iar n-irini thoirllt: Atat ocht fothoirllde
{air 7cethri primthoirndt na n-ocht rothoirluf. It he gabair
rona iv primthoir1tdib conid ocht primthoirllde samlaid,
cenmota comacomul 7 comfhilltighe 7 comshuidhigthe i 1900
comtlcolIIlIl ceilli 7 ((IICOi! 7 cetfaidhi cuirp 7 anma 7'
folaidh 7 airmhi 7 aiccnta. Is e int aicned hisin
adasramed uiJi. Is e in met co fester in met no in
laighet bis isin focut. Is i in inni co fester in inni uilc 110
maithiusa bis fond fOClll. Is e int inchosc co fester coich
indsci, in indsci no in rann indsci. Masa rann indsci cate
defir cter raind 7 indsci. Maso indsci coich in indsci, in
ferindsci no in baninndsci no in deimindsd. Maso ban-
illdsci i indsci banda, 111 esl, 1/1llrb: i muimech Jasil)
Laitneoir, int uili gne femillda dachuisin dar beolo duine
is IIl1lrids in cencI sin, ar is 1/111rix is bhuimeach doaib uBi.
ferindsci i indsci ferdha, til esl, palt'" i athair
lasin Laitncoir, int uile gnc masclli! 7 femin 7 ncodair
dochllisin dar beolu nduinc is pnler is athair doib lIiIi .j.
Dia Uilichumhachtach, Athair na n-uili dhula. 1\laso 19U
dhcmindsci i indsci dimbeoaighthi, III eSI, cadllm i neam
lasin Laitncoir, int uile gne neoturda dochuisin dar beolo
nduine is 0 nim ainmnigtcr. Is inni in cetna diall 7diall
tana/sle 7tres diall 7ceithreamad diall 7 cuiced diall 7ranll
7 res 7 rece. [I]ssi in [res in] primthorm/tl. Is i in rece in 1920
fothoral/{{. Jn fhothorfllld i sell, atat cethri ranlla fu irri . i
seacht naii'm 7seacht n-acenta 7secht ndescena a dheiscill
iar ceill 7 iar {3) ceniul 7 iar nguth 7 iar .mbreithir 7 jar
lIOn alene, toirne, Cothoirnc T. IH\ld Na hocht T. Cothoir- D. 1l1V\' umna T.
1000 comCbocuJ (no comaccomul) E. cobhOlillte T.
1001 commocl, gil- D.: dlltIT.: gent E. lOO'.! foJu, aigenta. Is elnt aicne T.
IW3 adasramed E.; Gr. Lat. iii. 465, 32: ataraimhet T. 1007 EI masat T.
masa ban T.
11,1)\1 Origg. viii. 11,61. muimmech B.
mo. la. 17 int uile gCt/ul E.: chinel T. lUll Gr. LaL. iii. 49.h 26
11114 Patruig T. : Gr. Lat. iii. 506,7 11110 dimbeodaigthe E. JII17 gnt illt uile n.
I!J'JO rand 7 rcia 7 recto Is I in rcis an primthorund. Is i in rece in Cothorulld.
1n Cothoruind hi sin T.: primtoraind iain inrecce ind fhothor E. : primthoir. n.
The whole passage is corrupt 11'tl n-airmhe, ddcsina T.
cineol T.: lar ngo- E.: gn- 13.
labradh. Is do comachomol in gotha 7 na breithri 7
Jabartha asait ernaili imchomairc.
and language. It is for conjunction of the voice, and that
word, and language that the divisions of analysis grow.
This is /refocul as tIle bards and the !a/I'od (?) have
devised it, to wit, tl'c/o(;II, without a heap of bones,
without cramping of diction, without plagiarism, without
sameness, without banishing ornament, without one of the
da/lbacll, without one of the e/lac/I, save a single e//adl,
without disgrace, without pause, without rhyming accident,
without unrhyming accident, without their word which
poets caJl/rislli/lli, without regular repetition of diction,
without narrative on another subject, without blasphemy,
without detraction, without a word that exceeds derision,
without metre (ae) on non-metre (all-at), without wrongly
placing single syllables to ans\ver as a tris)r1labic word in
the use of bard measure, so that there be not the four-
rhyming quatrain which bards compose, so that there be
no violation of law upon the words if it be a measure "that
is kept up, as he said: Trifoclll poets plead.
Or TI'C[oclll is without wrongness, without too man)'
rhymes, without an over':long, without an over-short, with
out want of emphasis, without over-emphasis, without an
. absenttoa present, withoutasingulartoaplural,without false
gender, without false alliteration, without false rhyme, with-
out error, to wit, those are the twelve faults of composition.
To guard against these are 24 kinds, to wit, corraib
there.: its hyperbole, its hardening, its retarding, its
reduplication, its inversion, its singleness, its full, its
diminutive, its ennobling, its enslaving, its exaltation,
its humiliation, its losing. a final, its doubling a final,.
.its internal division, its change of initial or final, its
theft of long, its theft of hard, its man-throwing, its
prefix of gender, its mod speech, its neuter couples, its
selected neuters, their pairs, with colour and properties,
E. 29 fJ 2 J\U J."
DO; 331 fJ I
Trefocul in so amal rocumsat na baird 7 na patreni .i.
trefoc:ul cen cuail cnam. Cen craip cainti. Cen cornman.
Cen comsiudh. Cen dichur n-ecoir. Cen daJlbhach dona 1930"
dallbaigib. Cen .ellach duna eJJgib. Cenrnota oene1Jach.
Cen tar. Cen tamaJl. Cen faicit co cuibdius. Cen faic'"
cen chuibdius. Cen a focul frisin n-aprait flIit! frisuithL
Cen imsechfaidh indsci. Cen asneis for araile. Cen eCl/ach.
Cen ecnuadh. Cen scath dofarce cuitbiud. Cen re for 193(,
an-reo Cen srebsuidhiugud dialt ic frecra d' iarcomruc i n-
urd bairdni. Conach in ceatharcubhaidh cummait baird.
Cona friortud tecta forna focla masa oe congabhthar. ama]
asbert: Trefocul tachraid filid.
No (mar so) ita trefocul: cen chlren, cen rudraigh, cen 1940.;
rofot, cen rogair, cen dimbrigh, cen forbrigh, cen ecnairc fri
uathad fri ilar, cen ecenel, cen ec[om]uaim,
cen eCUlbdluS, cen anocht i da locht deg na hirlabra in sin. '
Dia nditen-sidhe cethri ceneJa fichet i co[rJraib ann: a .
(ormoladh, a codut, a maJlrugud, a diabul, a deilidell, a oen, 1945 :
a lan, a Jugugud, a sLerughudh, a drerugud, a aurard, a
airisel, a dhichneadh, a dhoichnead, a chonnail, a chend-
fochrus, a airchilI fuit, a airchill calaid, a theJgudh noe, a
urIonn insce, a hinsce mod, a Janamna deimi, a demi thep-
idhe, a ngen.side, co ndath 7 tothucht, co tomus fri fidh 19:i0'
7 in da. bhreithre 7 in da urbbrac.1 T.
u/,.:) r 0 . .. 8' ..
c.. . ragg. II. 1 : ,1meomrale E. T. ends with a poem or which the
6econd Ime IS: ae Cladn t1l himurscel.
1l'.:.'I Trefocul taeraid filid andso sis rocumsat' E.
C. P. iii. 293: cr. Grigg. ii. 17 1&.l9 cllal, cillti E.
I\l:l'.l B:: hellgib L.: heillgib E.
. co, E. 1931 Iffiscchb:ud, eenach E.
IlW doralrec: h. saebuidigud I!.
10:17 Cona aiehni cel[h]:lr euala i cU01:Jit E. IIl:lIt forthudh E
11110 I. .1 1 E I '

e acn, ruurilc I, rO:lt ". 012 ceomu"d E. 1013 andao il1dsin R

eorab a111.1 E. 11H3 dcibidc F.. lun t1ochncJ, cond:Jil E.
. mod E.
I!J,W 11 ngen-sh.le eontath .i. tothocht E.
.7 dech, reim 7forbad, alt 7 insd 7 etargoire ar each cenel
'abartha dotuisim ar beolu duine [dohuisimar L.], ar is a
dealt domiter recomhrac, a recomrac domiter iarcomrac. a
hiarcomrac dno feles,a feles domiter a clrenre dorriiter
luibenchosach, a luibenchosach domiter claidemllflS, a 1905
claidemlltls clomiter bricht: ar comititer alta uad fri haltaib
in duine, ar ita coic alta sescat ar tri cet in duine, a coic
scscat ar tri cet aisti archetail, 7coic laithi sesca.. ar tri cet
isin bliadain 7a coic sescat ar tri cet du luibib tre thalmain
conastacmaillg tlacht in trefocuil de quiblls didlllY: 1960
Trefocul tacrait filid.
11161 ta I '.
e rga rl cen 7 cell a Ius labartha E.
Jt:tJ d h .. ' d L

UJSID ar .: douiaiumar air E. 11103 recomarc E.
or tho 613 Jewish prcceptl 365 are negative, which Rabbinical
declucs to be the number of the sincws-veins or smaJl vcssels-in
60 humat body. , They equal the days in the solar year and are governed by
3 5 ange s. ZolJar. v. the Jewish EncycJ. i. 565
Ir, TlX(', Iii. 66, 8
15 1
IIln Origg. ii. 17 JIII!:1 d'imdiLen E. 1..
Ni rno na E. cuibrim B.: cuibri"d L. (crnind) E.
no tucand L.: nos-tuigind Eo IIlIll lochtu L.
IIIII' nmair rOlcum Agna og R. 11m Eadain L. E. .
1m ROI-ruaigh H. IlI8l Sacduidbir dacrCuidlr deal E,
with measure as regards letter, verse-foot, run, and
interval, gender, and comparison for every sort
of speech that is produced on human lips; for it is from
syllable that dissyllahle is estimated, from diss)'llable that
trisyllable is estimated, from trisyllable in turn quadri-
syllable, from quadrisyllable pentasyllable is estimated, from
pentasyl1able hexasyllable is estimated, from hexas)'llable
heptasyllable is estimated, from heptasyllable octosyllabIc
is estimated: for the limbs of science are equal to the
limbs of man, for there are 365 limbs of man, 3
5 measures
of poetry, 365 in the year, and 365 herbs through the
earth, so that the protection of the Trt/oclIl
,them, dt quilJUs dicitll,..o
Tnfocul poets plead,
Trerocul which poets plead
To defend their lawlessness,
Is no more than a burden of a children's part
rrom something, 1 reckon, which they understand,
Shields and pure countenances
\Vard off many blcmishes
As perfect Adna has devised them,
1t is no profit not to turn them.
Twelre Cl errors," it is cleal' to you,
The poets must know them;
Etain has found no profit of thcm,
She has worenthe beauty of poetry.
Twelve shields and twelve countenances
She has appointed to guard oneself against them,
The blemishes without a weak bare rhyme,
They succour them with double their number.
The countenances of defence which I shall mention,
ce Hardening II and Cl singular" that are not unsharp,.
Right Cl ennobling," Cl enslaving,"
The Cl staves of words II for true measurement.
I t-.
E. 29 fJ 24 '
Tr9tooul tacrait filid
Do didin a n-indligid,
Ni !nO na lucht cuibrind clana'
Di neoch tuirmim notuigeand.
Sceith Deus gnuisi glana
Aincit lochta linmara,
Immar roscum Adna ogh,
Ni tarba gen a tintodh.
Da anocht deg is derb libh
Dlegait a fis na filid;
A main nocho nuair Etain,
Rofuaigh aib inn aircetail.
Da sciath dec is da ghnuis deg
Roordaigh dia n-imchoimet
Na lochta cen 10mrim lac,
Dn da comlin noscobrat.
Na gnuisi diten atblr
Cotut is rcn nach aimger,
Srerugud drerugud des,
Na lorga lunch fria firmhes.
, .. :
r SO BD. 331 {J 26
Dialt netar/t'lIIt n og,
Airiehill (uit, is lir on
Airichill ealaid, ni ea:n,
Cendfochrus tuis ria thodaU.
Diehnead tuis, deehnead tuis tair
Ins[c]e [mod t.1 eona modhaib '
. d'
' S I arn gnUis deg dil,
Urlonn insci ria hairimh.
Na seeith ditin fon domun
. Formolad is maUrugud,
. Fuaradar sentilid sain
DOl deilidin is condail.
AIan ni Ian cen bunnd
Adiabul, a lugugud
. '
emur (n each sobard sen
Af1lOrard, a fllOrisea1. '
Airmim telgud nrc co nneim
OCIIS cendfoehnlS derid
Dichned derid (332), is doeair
Dechnt"tI deiri"d degfoeall. '
Is ia! si.n na ?a sdath deg,
Eolalg lea n"ncoimet
Is oa da gnuis deg ro(iet
Na ceithri fodln liehet.
Na fitid na lith so
I muin redan eicsi (orro
fhaiJgit a n-uJcu?'
Cmdas aincit anuchtu ?
In nrcngnuis no[in] ensciath ard
I cas ar cach locht langarg
N? in d,ias im each 10cht
NI de bras ole dia imrad.
1118:1 I'
II nebiIJ E. lUll' calaill. D IlIM .J fluI, c.lmm l:.. 1\JlI3 thad II L d
mQa, nt R.: Is lin L 1lI'.JU L b dB' a ,: to all E. :.tJa F
" 80r a WJ' d L n . 'oJ/ow J9
9 E. \lfJ(!4' D' In a... gnufs'E.
l.'lIO I'
11 ocngnUl8 no I.. E.: dcnscialh B.
CC Interloping syllable" entirc,
CI Theft of a long" it is truc,
CI Theft of a hard," it is not wrong,
CI Change of initi,al i, (or its visitation.
CI Apocope of initial," CI doubling of initial" in (ront,
CI /ffod speech" with its modes,
It is R twelfth dcar countcnance,
II Prcfix of gender" for reckoning' it
The shields of defence throughout the world
Are U hyperbole" and II retarding,"
Ancicnt pocts havc found out those
Two " and II internal division."
Its II full" is not fun withollt foundation, ,
Its II reduplication," its II diminutivc,"
A memory to each noble old bard .,
Its II exaltation," Its U humiliation."
I reckon II man-throwing," with venom,
And U change of final," '
U Apocope of final," it is troublesomc,
II Doubting of a hnal" of a good word.
Those are the twelve shields,
The learned are in the habit of them, i
And the twelve countenances which have been granted,
The four and twenty divisions.
The poets that do not know this,
No back to cssay poctry is on them.
How can they conceal thcir wrongs?
How ean they ward off II errors" ?
Is it one countenance or one lofty shield
Which sa\'es frolll cnch blemish fuJI rough,
Or the twain that are thrown around every blemish
Not thence, (rom considering it, wil11mrm arise.
Re n-aichni rc D-jmcomet,
In tree rand re rem cen choll
A ted tall e?) in Trerocul. Trerocul E.
"m a1 each L. E.
9)13 Ni de L.: Ni deaf. re Imradh E.
1)a schUh, dn gnuis in geJli
Is ed ninees c1.en ceilli '
Cobigi celli, gan coJ '
. '
serna" di nnaco!.
Chen creiti rochuala each,
1m rannaibh ni ba rognath,
He t:-eb each duilghiusn de
' '
:-en CUJIJdius:l, chen ceille.
Of It wrong o{ body JI everyone has heard.,
I n my verses it will not be very usual,
Besides every difficulty therefrom,
A U wrong of rhyme," a "wrong of sense."
A wrong of them I tell at the outset.
i am skilled respecting it :
I t is not one wrong but it is three wrongs,
From which every noble lay is not nobly fair.
Two shields, two countenances of the check,
It is that which protects" a wrong in meaning" ;
. text of sense," without sin,
Is a species or protection.
It \Vrong of body" is'not a wrong without doubt.
It is tcn injurics that it injures [works),
They levy a debt of praise outside,
Two purple shields over against it.
The ce wrong of rhyme," fitting are
Two countenances against the clear defect,
And two shields behind them,
Not mean is their full protection.
Twelve ce errors" of them,
It is no rhyme without their common metrics,
No friends to me, 0 men, are they
Who separate rewards from praise.
Tretocul the three words
A knowJedge of its secret is very hard,
Thirty-six up to this point
Are found through its species of Gaelic.
'Vhoever he be that sings with his understanding,
Through his intellect rough and dangerous,
It is difficult and it is troublesome
To take account o( the Tr/{ocul. Tn!ocul.
ID.!lI 0 nach 8aercam each 8aerJah.1 E. ro.n nirbo E.
lIro:! Retaeb gan R.: rotaeh B.: rothreb L. iaa x. E.
'6r.t1 fiachu H. gle L. I glllnpudllir E.
arul na degaid L. m1 geilli E. as E. dia L. E.
Cip he chanas cona cheill,
Tria intliucht n-amnas
Is duiligh is is docnir
A tuirim in TrerocaiJ.
'1'I'etocul in tri {ocaH,
Fis a ruine is rodocair,
Trichn ar a sc cose
Fritha tria gne nGredilge.
1)a anocht ar a deich dib,
Ni cubaidh cen n comrim,
Nit carit a daini dam
Scarait maini for molad.
Chen utlJerim dib ar tus,
1m eoluch ina imthus :
Ni hrenchloen acht it tri chein,
o nach (each srerchrem D. at/ds) each'

Jn chen cuibdiusa is cubaidh
J)a gnuis riasan gliaphudair '
Ocus clot sciath 'na ndegahl '
Nocho linch a Ihmdegnil. '
Clren crete ni etren cen cheass
I s at deich millti milles '
Taibgit fiach in molta t:maig
Va sciarh corera 'na chomai:.
,"'. rnt InlJecht L. ll'C I'ne F. " I)'JJ d
LH.!1 Id L .' , I)" l& octad!. cara, carall E. "'-'7 Am LIm" la h I W.ltl L N' 1
.. 0 c me na n- mtu. E
I ;en acht 11 trl dolo n. : Nl hlencJllen acht Il[t) lri cluj'n E.
154 BB. 332a 7
Anocht mas ainm do each locht
dia naidera d
oen[.IJocht? '
nocho naenlocht cen on,
Is taebhnocht i TrefocuJ.
Anocht ainm coitchend cubaid
Dolean do gach lanphudair ;
Int anocht, ni hainm cen cheas!
. ,
Cia ralocht dian ruidles.
The three countenances, check by check,
Well do they defend II false alliteration 'I ;
And two shields, ye do not think it deceitful,
Defend hideous U fahe alliteration."
One countcnance {or defence, lest it cost us a heifer (?),
\Vhich defends CI an absent to a present II ;
A shield also and a pure countenance
Dcfend II a singular" for" n plura!."
H Error" if it be a name for every blemish,
\Vhy shall it cleave to a single blemish?
Since it is not one blemish, without fault,
That is naked sided in Trt/ocul.
Five shields, three countenan.ces, wilhout anguish,
It is that which defends against" overshort " ;
One countenance that wards ofT from you II want ofemphasis,"
And one countenance that wards off II over emphasis."
Nine shields of defence, with difficulty,
Defend all CI false rhyme" i
Though he does not speak with his good taste,
Seeing that one countenance defends it.
CI False gender," it is not a reckless l se,
\Vhich one guarding countenance defends;
Two shields defend "error"
Lest it should be too bare and too grey.
U Error" a common harmonious name
Has clung to every complete blunder i
The II error "is not a name without ambiguity,
Though it is great blemish to which it is peculiar.
Two kinds which defend II too many rhymes,:'
So that the work be not clearly blundering,
Three shields, three countenances, without noise
Defend the excessive II overlong."
2066 7 ix. L. E. ,-.00 non-l1incet L.: non-aindt E.
f/070 roUach L. E. sm radilea L.: dia bo dUel. E.
sm. n-aidrera aenlocht 1..: Cid rna ndubrad rc hacnlocht n.
Sl1S In l're(oc:ul E.
:lI',"J() ainres L. rofhad L,: rarat P.
naron-dairt L. : narond daht E.
aincid L.
ecuibdes E.
1lI11:! non-anaig L.: non-nnuie E.
Ecenel, nocho nord Olear,
Non-anaig tengnuis diten ;
Anocht no-aincet da sciath,
A beith mnocht is roliath.
Nai sceith diten, co nduilgius
Aincit uili ecuibdhius ; ,
Cia nach labair con a luis,
Ocus no-ainic rengnuis.
Da ernail ainces rudrach,
Co n:J,ch be in gres glephudrnch,
Tri tri gnuisi, gan glor,
Aincit in ro['h]at romor.
Oengnuis diten, na rolt-dairt
', ,
mces egnalrc fri frecnairc :
Sciath manen ()CUs gnuis gInn
Aincit uathad fri hilar.
Cuic sceith, tri gnuisi, gan goimh
Is ed ainces ar rogair ; ,
Oengnuis ainces dimbrig dib,
Is rengnuis ainces forbrig.
Na tri gnuisi, gruaid rri gruaid,
Is maith aincit ecomlnuaim :
Ocus da sciallt, ni sl\::b lib,
Aincit ecommuaim n-eitig.
IS6 BB. 332 (122
:l!UlJ noeon he E.
fairbrig E.
diten L.: ditill B.
gen duilges E.
;)11\ L. gon 0 luis D.: clln n E.
Known to my mind, without reproach,
Six helps in their II internal division",
Against one blemish which its ".singleness U defends
And its cr full" full gracefully.
" Staves of \vords" protect here below
Against two blemishes full plainly:
A great 'c interloping syllable"
With us remedies two "erron."
Shields nnd countenances it finds for them
As they heal every unbeautiful thing;
From us, it is not a sudden silence,
U Hyperbole "-..vardsoff two faults truly.
Against two blemishes defend, without decay,
fC Ennobling" and U enslaving" :
Against two veritable blemishes defend indeed
Its "exaltation" and uhumiliation."
One remedy has cr hardening," without sin,
And one remedy has II retarding" i
It is not a kind o( mad act it meditates,
Six good protections has" metathesis."
" Reduplication" wards off {rom us, with colour,
The three blemishes full well ;
Defends, not ill is the work,
Against two blemishes its U diminutive."
Its II man-throwing," beauteous its taste,
I t is against two" errors" that it heals;
"Theft of long" it is the better of it,
It does not ward ?ff from us save two thinKS,
Its "theft of hard," without doubt,
. Has saved us from two difficulties,
It wards it off, without winding up o( yarn.
As it sees it, ce change of and final."
a uror<.l D. 1mI I (us L. VIll'J a CODn L.
2103 L. sealgad B.luoe dinn L. deighe, D. 1I1OT AiricbiU cbalafd L.
:noe ronn.anaig D.l roc..anaid E. ante. L. I aiDce. E.
moe 0,,,, dingbaid E.
2090 .

E. 30 Q 23
Aichnid dom' anmain cen ail
S " e cabartha 'na condaiJ, \
Ar renlocht ainceas a ham
Ocus a Jan co lanch:cm.
Sceith is gnuisi (ogeib dnib
Amnl iccait each n-nnrebh ;
Dingbaid din, nr socht solam,
Da locht co fir (ormol,,(/,
Oenicc ic catllt, cen col,
Is.oenrcc ic maJlrugud ;
NI gne mergnima midid,
Sei deigdina ie delidnid.
ding bad din, gu da('1th
. Na tn Jochta co lanmaith ;
Aincid, ni hole in monor,
Ar da locht a lugugod.
Aincit ar dn locht, geo log
Srerugud is da:rugud : '
Aia.cit cia fii'locht mascad
A uranfa uirilleat.
Aincit lorga fuach a bos
da locht gu JanfhoUus :
Dmlt n-ctarleil1li n-oll
Icaid da anocht aconn:
IS8 BD. U2 CI 37
:lOllO italt,,lb L.: n-anaib E :lItI1
i. oen ica E. dind E. lolum L.
:: Sc deignillll\ ic JeJiJhnig L.: , I drgsnima i. deili in E
- dOIl/ millmul" L. . :l!1(l1 d' " g
Iml monnr L E 109 ):u<.l dln<.l gu daith L. E.
lllll. JuJugad E. ")II,' lod'E.
A thelgud nai, niamda a bhlas
Is ar da anocht icas ; ,
Airichill fuit is ferr de
Ni dingaib din acht
A airchill calaid, can cheass
R' ,
onn-analg ar da ainges
No dos-drngaib gan tochrus
Amal atchi cendfocnrus.
___________________ 2110
Dingbaid dichnead tri pbudm (col. fJ)
}J'ar nanochtaib anumla
o dechnead gan tromsnimh tra .
Foirther in comlin cetna.
Aincit ar in clren ceilli
Lorga (uach, dialt deglemi,
Ocus cobfighe, cen col
Is ernail dia n.anaeol.'
A airchiIJ (uit, is feidil,
Naroi cendfochrus deiridh,
Codut malJrugud measa
Aincit in elren cuibdhiusa.

To pay the two score, without reproach,
\Vhich are found of damages on blunders,
\Vorshippings to the King Who gave them,
Sp.ven and forty helps.
II Losing a final II wards off three blunders,
Of our disobedient cc errors,"
By ce doubling a final," without heavy sorrow, too,
The same equal number is assisted.
ce fllod speech," it is not an evil mode,
Does not protect but one blemish;
cc Prenx of gender," harmonious name,
Does not protect save one blunder.
Two shields which defend II wrong of body,"
From me in this verse it is greatly to be believed, .
IC Metathesis" of sharp-edged words
And cc metathesis" of syllables.
The poets that came over
Along wilh the Tuath De Danann,
There was many an with them
Making holes in the rrt/ocul.
These are countenances and shield',
To sages they are not unsharp ;
Not well goes to stretch verses
Any poct that does not carry them out.
Its ce tlicft of a long," it is constant,
That there may not be its U change of a final" ;
U Hnrdcning-," ce retarding," of measure
Defend the" wrong of rhyme."
Against the" wrong of sense" defend
II Staves of words," CI a well-leaping syllabic,"
And cc perfected sense," without sin,
Is a species of defending them.
21:U '61\ ruinnla L.: la randla E. 2131.4 dcilide L.: deiledu E.
11ISt sillccbach L. E. 11M i. (edit L.: feidil E.: fcldhin Do
2J:llJ Na ra L. O'UI B. VIST measa L. I mean. E. : maieR D.
1I1:te 'cJa:na .cuibdetOl L. Ill. Alngit arin. Df cloen. celli E. eCDail E.
r .
E. 30 a 38
l!IU Foirthcr L. : forth", E.: tolrid D
lll\lll anfeich L.: Doeho gataJtd Ceich E'
21:12 na 11. {orba1ld E. .
lUl!3 AdOl trian E.
marren Ja L.
Innse modnocho mod n-olc,
Nocho n-.'linig acht renlocht ;
Aurlond insci, ainm cubaid,
Ni ail1ic acht renphudhair.
Is iat sin gnllisi "S sceith.
lYcicsib nochon at anfhci'fh .
. 0 ,
J Ina teit du rigi rand
Cach fiji nachilsforbaod.
D' kc nil da tichet, gan ail,
Frith d'fhoghlail> (or anochtnib,
A,dharta don righ dos-rat,
:-iccht i:[c]ahartha ccthmehnt.
Na Iilid tancadar tall
Marren re Tuaith De Danann
Rob imda oHam ocaib '
Ag toJladh in TrefoclIil.
Va sciath ainces elren creiti
Uaim 'sin rand-sa is rochre:i
Deilidi focJach (rebrach '
15 deilidi siIIll'otlch.
160 BB. 332 A 51
:I.1l L. pura B.. 1e1l:1 .romgnim L.
:me n"ie Ie lrer F.. l!lId anaig L.
do righl L. Cat rna E.
:!I:!. d'fodlaib L.: 0 (oglaib E.
cabartha cealhrachllt E.
Na da condait mar itclos
Na da airichill i fos,
Na dichneda, Din dos-rat.
Tarso noco ria rofat.
Formolad, diabul, cen on,
Telgudh noe, oeus lugugud
Uaitighit cach rogair rib
Lorga dialta. deiehnid.
n ainces ar ilar ndan,
Ar uathad ainces a Ian,
Ecnairc fri frecnairc co fir
Indsce modh ica mordhin.
" Unity" defends against U plural" in the poems.
Against "singlcness II its" futI" defends,
"An absent to a present" verily,
" Mod speech" for its grcat defence.
U False gender" is taken account of there,
Quickly aur/and U prefix" defends it.
Against" error" to some extent protect
U Reduplication," II exaltation," "humiliation."
" II of the world's men
Against U want of emphasis," it is a good help,
II Enslaving" cvery man of them
Helps them all against II over emphasis."
Evcry verse has been dcstroycd uttcrly
\Vith rcspcct to "cxccss of rhymcs" in verses,
II Excess of rh}'mc 1/ would not abide
Despite II exaltation," II humiliation."
u I Iyperbole," U reduplication," without blemish,
II and II diminutivc,"
They make rare each II ovcr short" before yoc
.. Stavcs of syllablcs," IIdoubJing of finats."
The two II internal divisions," as was heard.
The two II thefts" here below,
Thc " losings of tinah; II God gave thcm,
J3eyond these U over long" will not reach.
,\gainst "false rhyme" dcfend, oh man I
II Hypcrbolc," " two metatheses,"
"Man.throwing," ornamental the work,
" Intcrnal division" of letters, "diminutivc."
"Theft of hard," 0 happy one I
lts U losing of final
" and ce doubling of final"
Two II right I' reduplication"
Help unlawful" false alliteration,"
And these help it hcrc below 0
.0 CI Doubling," "-losing," It change of final."
L. In Ie mod ica moroim D. : A ;nn,i mod tea mordin E.
:nmr diabail dei, E. 11170 Cocrait E. 1lI71 Corrcd E. i bUI L. E.
am lllrmithir L. E. 0
ar n-anaig E. ' 1111 Ainc1t L. ri L. E. '
02176' :,
E. 30 ca 52
11M Cult I (Os L.: Cualr 01 B
'31114 L. decobalr B. .'
21Dl1 ilar nlln L.
Srerugud doine in domain
Ar dimbrig is degcobair,
Drerugud gach duini dib
Nos-aincenn uiJi ar forbrig.
each rand romilJeoadh immaig
A lIul rudraighe i rrandaib.
Rudhrach noco n-airisead
Dar urard. dar uirisel.
Aineit ecuibdius a fir,
Formolad. da delidin,
Telgud 110e, niamhda in monOl
Condaillitri, tughugud.
Airiehill calaid, mo chean
A dichned, is a dheichnedh.
Da deJidin, diabul des
. I
omt ecommuaim n-indles
Ocus na-foiret hi fus
Dcicncd, dicned, cendfochrus.
Ecenel airmidir anti,
Is luath non-anaigh aurland.
Aingit ar anocht ria head
DiabuJ. aurard, auriseal.
BB. S3J (lIS
1141 L. al,il hed B.: nos-rihed E.
1148 dOl-rot B.
110., derughugud B. :!16lI L. 0 uili a n.
VIlli Do nach (rith ainm" F..
ll/I) Call E. lllltJ.2:1G' (/111.
lin i t.
2100 in airchedllil L 2'"' duain ndreambaln L.
/". Taft, Iii. 29, 26 i 39, 33 in a1ch L.
Flndum L. lll!IO n-Imlan L
Destruction of flexion is every bad flexion,
For it there is no name but CI error" j
1 have no dear desire that it should be pilfered
Out of the Tn/IXIII which they plead.
Each man of the pocts,
Unless his vigor(\us poem be closed,
\Vhat fine for it is due from him,
From the man \'Iho makes the full pleasant lay?
Unless e\'cry compact poem is closed,
\Vhat fault is in the Tre/ucul'
For it is that which has put them Rway of old,
Many faults of poctry.
\Vhat is the name of each close of these
\Vhich the bards name to their brethrcn?
Let each one listen, let him hear the knowledge,
he would remain in his ignorance.
The comt'lIdJlJ/tI to lJolldclJadh (Duncnn) i!l II Do,"
The flJOIfl11l, II Dond" on each fair cloy,
The saigid (is) this, it is the famous version,
Dondoho.db the Ollave name.
\Vhether the same close is duc
Let it be found out by the poets,
For the body of the duan in their poem,
And {or the complete conclusion.
Asmam (approach) after full approach is n pleasant mode,
II D(J11dcnad/e through whom the world boils,".
Uai1ll do rilld (alliteration at rod) II DU1lcan of the many hosts,
Through whom boils the ficry world."
Of the Laws lor closing Poems here below.
Consider the closings of your poems,
Y.e people of the lawful art.
Query, it is not a question of concealing
. \Vhether firmly ye have closed them.
21110 ros-tenc.,i1 I..
21tl8 Ina ninlis L.
. ndrec B.



t. t. f.
Ascnam iar saigid suairc [modh L.).
II Dondcnd dia I1ch (in domon L.J,"
Unim do rind II Donchud nn ndrech
Dia Iich in domun daightheach."
Comindsma do Dontlchad Do
Ascnam Dond, im each deglo,'
Saighid so, is e in sticht amra,
Dondchadh int ainm ollamda.
Cia ainm each dunta dibh sein
Sluinnet na baird dia mbraithrib?
Cnisted each, c1uined iil fis,
Mcni"lhuilct 'na allfis.
Milliud [remi L.) g:ich reim n-ole,
Do ni ninrn ni acht anocht ;
Lemm ni glcaccllr a gait
Asin trelhocul tacrait.
Menip dunta each duan dron
Cia locht isin TrefllOcuI ?
Air is e tall rostecair
l.ochta imdil airchctail.
1\1 ini dunta a duan ndrtmain
Cach fer dona fiJedaibh,
Cia hcmie dlegair unid ind,
On fir doni in laid Innbinn?
In inund dunad dlegair
Finntar ona filtrlalb, .
Ar curp na duaine 'na ndan
". 'S nr in iarcomarc n.imslan.
Do" dhJigegaibh dunta na nduan inso sis.
lJunta for ndunn decid lib,
A in dana dlighthig,
Cut, nocho caingen fnlaigh
In daillgen ros-dunsabair.
'I77 Millid roime E. : rernmi D.
Lem gnlm:lib legair 11 ngait E. accur L
dcchaid lib L. dliglhig L.
da L. 11'I18 in domain t. OJII.
chllir L. :cJJ c.c, chen L.
:."J':I. II Seiser, L.
Ten for prepared feasts
Are due to him, the choice of learned people,
For glorious contests are these,
The OUave's (our companies.
220 fethid L.
L. Trlur cadraia B.
Seiler L.
CC Fun approach," cc approach." cc alliteration at end "
Close bodies of poems, it is plair. to us ;
Every concluding word, it is a pure glory,
Repetition of first s)'l1able is due to their close. Closed.
Twenty(our verily
(For] a journey of entertainment of a royal Oltave,
Eight {or a circuit, without anguish, ,
men for customary needs. '
Ye poets of the world, \Vest and East,
Doth in Ireland and in Scotland,
They deserve no lucky treasures
For every poem that will not be [properly] closed. Closed.
If anyone ask the law .
What is the number of a company of the true poets
On a journey of entertainment, upon the road of a circuit,
For customary needs, for fcasts :
Twelve men will {all (1) to a poet o( the second order,
Five men for their customary needs,
Six {or a circuit, scholars o( renown,
Eight verily for feasts.
Give to a poet o( the third order for his song
Eight, noble his great company,
Six (or feasts of knowledge,
Five {or a circuit, four fot customary needs.
Six to a poet of the fourth hide not,
For every journey of entertamment provide ye,
Four for feasts of knowledge,
Three Cor a circuit, tWQ for customary needs.
Tabair L.
2,)41 Seachtnar (vii) B.
Da cuincead neach a ndliged
Cia lin dam nn #1rfhiled
For fcacht feili, for cai cuir,
For gnathlcssaib, for Ocdaibh: (333).
Deichcnbhur lri fleadhn luair
Dlcgair do in ghleiri caemshluaigh,
It e sin (ri bag-ha bladh,
Ceithri d:llnhn in ollaman.
A res dana in domain tiar tair
Etcr Erinn is AIbain,
Ni dlcghait seoto sona
Cach duainc na ba dunta. d. d. d.
Ceathrur ar fichit iar fir
Fecht feili oUaman right
Ochtur (or crei, cen chessa,
Da fer dec fria gnathlcassa.
Saighit[hl nscnam, uaim do rind,.
Dunait curpu duan, derb lind;
Cach iarcomarc is gloir glan,
Comilldsma is coir dia ndunael.
Da (er dec d' anruth don(a,
Coidhiur fer (ria gnathlessa,
Seissiur (or coe, crcmthuit c1uidh,
Ochtar iar tir fri fleadnibh.
Tobair do chli ar a dhnn
Ochtar, uasal a fordamh,
Seser (or tleadaibh na fess,
Coker cre, cethrar gnathlcss.
Seissiur du canait, na ceil,
For cach fencht feili feithith.
Cethrar for flendaib fessa,
Triur cre, elis (ri gnathlcssa.
1t!1:I II derb n.: il L. 011I.
:1"./11 lcotu 1..
Coicer L.
Finit Atlun jinit SoIamh ODroma nom;,ze scrlpsit.
L. Murchertach riabach 0 CuindIis do scrib so da
aide diIes i do Mac Fhirbisig 7 ar mbennacht leis da
Ni theis dar diis iar sin,
In da daim do (ochJocain,
~ n (or coe, oen (or tleid (ead,
Oen (ria leassa: dia cuinged.
Dia cuincead near.h a ndligedh cia.
Thou shalt not exceed two after that,
The two companies to poets of the seventh degree,
One for a circuit, one (or a feast provide thou,
One (or his needs: i( anyone ask.
If anyone ask the law what. I
/. .
Filii', AlIItll,jill;l, Solomon O'Droma lIomille SCY(PSII.
Three for a journey of hospitality on which he goes,
A chosen company (or a poet of the sixth degree,
Two (or feasts, with cleverness,
. One (or a circuit, one (or quite customary needs.
Four to a poet of the fifth degree, a band which is best,
And three {or (easts o( poets,
Two for a circuit, to be adjudged to the poet,
And (or his needs one alone.
L Muircheartach Riab'hach O'Cuindlis wrote ~ h i s for
his faithful fosterer MacFirbis, and for his blessing besides.
", ' . I
' ,
:l't48 tboga L.
~ c;e, fed L.
2UO ca:, don mal L.
~ rna, fochlu cain L.
Triar (or (echt (eHi dofhidh,
Dam thoga do mac fuinnidh,
Dias (or tleadhaibb, co (athach,
Oen coe, oen leas roghnathach.
B ~ 333 II
Ceathrur do dus, <lamb as deach,
Js triur (ri tleada filet/,
Pias (or coe, ria meass du,; mha!,
Js (ria leass a renuran.
2U3 is L.
2l.51 tar, iar lain 1-
'1&.1 lonnaiJr L.
I. Can eloen cuibdiusa.
Gabiam la seise soirchc
SeoUl sochraidc soirthc,
Ria ndul issin farggc
Glel\m ar tessu rc n-aidchc.
Mo thipran i Collamair
:t'i each atarodamair,
Intf atarodomair
Atib cona comrnadair.
Gaham ta scsi soirchc
Seotll sochraidi sorthi
Rc ndul dun as is fairthi
Gleam ar les ria naidhchi.
Tir da. Locha forsil111g fotha,
Fond fochl"ot11I\, cricha cuan,
Caillc cailfota, cuibrcnd buadach,
13arcc rcil rohctrocht ruamach ruad.
rml lcirthe L.
2. Oan rudraoh. l\fac Da Chcrda adllr'I.-
LL. n b 1 H. 143 I b 6
ENTIUM ~ 8 5
i soirthe 7aidche d:emp/um. i
[A laJlamtla demi a gcni-sidc cen claen cetus, tlliesl in
hoc i ata anc1sco i
Soirthi ocus aidchj is c in clocn and mana dcrntar oidchc
de. i n-aigidh soirthi. Atat dana tri for clocnadh
.j. crct clocn 7 clocn ceilli 7 clocn cuibdiusa. Clacn (}100
cuibdiusa fil hie i andsco. H. 143 I b 6.]
Oloen orettt. Fland mac Lonain d'Va Delbna
5060 ;
01.1\ Cain dimrlg L.
W;l/ mad L.
Can eonairo fr1 treonalro.
Can ua.thad fr1 llar,
Oan eouibdius.
Oan eoenelas.
Oan eoomfhuaim.
Oan anoe[h]t.
LL. 37 q 1
r. Oan ohlOen. 7.
2. Can rudraoh. 8.
'3 Oan rogair. 9.
4 Oan rolota. 10.
S Oan dim(bJrig. I I.
6. Oan forblig. J 2.
[At he sin na XlI annuas.
Corraib in:lInorro co ndath 7 co tothucht. .H.]
Co ndath 7 tothocht cona thomus fri fid 7deach 7 reim 5065
7 forbaid 7 alt 7 insci 7 etargaire. Cor[r]aib and:
A lormolUd. A thelgud Doe:
A chotut. noc, duine .j. in tan tuttes
A mnllrugud. in duinc (orsin tuind, is e
A doUdin. son imme (occul eturru 0070
A ehonnnll insin, tot.
A oon Ci. a uathad). A airiehill tult.
A Inn (- j. can dichned, can A chendfhochru8.
A dtnbul. [dochned). A dtchned.
A Iugugud. A doohned.
A uhn.ol'ugud. A Indsee mod.
A doorugud. A erlond indBel.
A hard. A damt theptd1.
A triBol. A lanamna. dem1.
A lorgga fuaoh. A genia de .j. gcin DOBI)
A dtalt n-etarleme. on lanamain for each
cenel labartha doeussin
o dialt co bricht.
I/'I.3Il /" marg. j. can 7 rcoir uch L.
~ /" margo iii in airtlA find Itar ecc lfaar
~ 8
[Cen root, tI/ dixit Mac Lonain i nduain Delmna. Cert .
doen 7 root rnso :-
ndualn OHHj
5. Ca.n cllmbrig. Fer 1\Iuman ctcillil:-
I nd hue issind assgandfhir (?)
Fo tarrib trcbleirg tuig-neeh,
Dcoraid arna/ cceh Laignceh,
Maignceh ama/ cech l\1umnech.
7. Can ecnalro frl troonalro.
A Fhlaind ,Loeha Jrnib same,
At fond flatha fine,
Gnath la Fland, lathar n-:(ne,
Ba i'e seeha dIne.
6. Ca.n fhorbrig. Rechtgal hua Siadail.
Ocngusa mic Domnaill cccillit.-
Dadbrf Chuicid hEu"" uile
Ard bam, brass bile,
Dobadi srs, ni sfd ehena,
Caeh rfg acht rig' nime.
[Cen forbrigh dano, ttt dixit Rechtgal hua Siadail :-
Gcmtrs ganna fir hctha
Otha Liphi gu Letha,
Nasfurfead 0\ niptais gn(i]nn
Digi do dtrnaind Domnaill.
Desmirecht aile :-
Dadbd Cuicidh hErcnd huili
Art baril, brcs bile,
Dobbndi sis, ni sid ehena,
Cach rfg acht rrg nime. H. 143 I b 26.]
[Fer Murnan acinil. Cen dimbrig, til lSl:-
Ind uea innd ra sgaindair (?)
Fo tbarraib trchlcrg tuignech,
Deoradh amal each Laigncch,
1\1aigncch amal each Mumncaeh. H. 143 I b 231
~ 5
H. J43 1 b 12.] .
1111 Delnma L. I. cret
[Mo tipran i Collammair
Nf each atarornrnadair,
I ntf rodas.rornrnadair
Attib conna commadair.
Roseathatar mo longa
Ocus rno glonna uile,
11lnid aeum eontuili
I n fer robf Moeltuilc.
3. Can rogalr.
Is caingen
Dith frisin less n.irndangen
Ocus gairrn neich 'na doru!
4. Can rothota.
Atl! sund os ehind int shluaig
Eo find fota fo neim,
Focheird faid Ilgluair ngrind cloc bind
I cill Cholu"", hut' Neill.
Tfr da Laeha fairsiung fotha, 5 3 ~
Fond fochrotha, cricha cuan,
Cai11i crelfhota, cuibrend buada!l,
Dare rer nocn clrocht ruamach ruadh.
260 LL. 37 b 19
Mac Da Cerda dirt'! in rand-sa annuas. . Desmirecht
aile dano for rudrach, lit dixit Cellach Corrach :-
Cen rogair dano, tit dixit Liadain.
Root rogair inso :- n140
Ata sund os ehind int Jaidh
Heo find foda fath fo neirn,
Foeert find grind cloc blaith bind
Hi cill Colu[i]m hi Neill. H. 14J I b 11.J
H. 143 J b 36.] 5200
10. Oan eoenelus.
Tanic sund de ll1untir De
Clcirchen gelb:{n, din a Il,
Ni fhctar dsi run
Dud mcssu dim oldas dfu.
(Cen ecenelus .1. na dertar [I. derntar] rerinscl do banjnsei
no baninsei dferinsci, til esl.'-
Tainie sund do muintir De
Clereaeh gelban, glan a Ii,
Nucu n[fh]etar dasa run
_____......:..._D_a_dmeassu dun oldas die H. 143 1 b 38.J
01&1 L. dngdai tur/ll i croSstd out &Illll ecuach H.
118',ro Ft!lire, Pro!' 329"32
J. di
H. 143 I b 41.)
1 I. Can ecomfuo.1m.
Is he rr Scnch<e same,
Gel doc gailc iar crud chuile,
Do[ratJ feolairecht fig-ona .
For Eoganacht fer Maigc.
Imcomarc f1atha Fcmi",
Fotait mail Macha im Mumain,
Tore atehiu argair gahciir
Fiu Core no Lore no Lugaidh.
Ie Argair" and cen ni fris cia rodligh co fil noeht and
foesin. H. 143 I b 44]
00 ndath 7 tothucht, 111 dicilllY: ,Tlaehtga na n.uath
dub a n.;.aerthar, brec i foehanar, find i mmoltar, til cos. . o23tS
01.. ....1 I,. Tt:clt, IiL 13. 24 : 42, 49 D'D) dernai,,1 L.
O'.ul /" mflrl. dul ut hlei
Ciaptis gallna fir bctha
Otha Liphc co ILctha,
Nosfirfcd 01 niptis [gainn]
.01 digc di dernainn Domnail1.
Mrelruanaid ruad iml1la rind
Arching dorair ildualaig
Is eaiJJ ton bo enn buaraig
For aill sron eherr Mrelruanaid mlc Flaind.
J 2. (Can anocht i cia locht .i a nda nocht iarna diriueh
don dligiud LL. margin.)
Fogonar airehetul i n-anocht n-ellag, ar is eoitehend-
sium uile son.
[Ceri anoeht .j. e,en nocht and siclll (1) asberat na
hugdair, Fogonar airchetul i n-anoeht, tit (SI:-
[Cen eeomuaim ficlraid do beith and, 111:-
Is c rig Scncua Sani,
Gel ehlue gaili cruth ell ri,
Dorat fcolaireeht ngona .
For Eoganacht fer i\'luigi.
Lt. n c I
H. 143 I b 34
[A [FhJlaind Acha Ifnib same,
At (ond flatha firf ;
Is gnath rf Fland, lathar n-ani
Ba r( secha dini. '
"262 LL. 37 b
8. Oan uathad tr11lar.
hua Tolaig .j. mac Lairi Laidig.
Cormac Slli amra dess,
In dagda imma.radim,
Mac Culennain can cenaeh
Co eetlaib mora aJaind. '
[Cormac sin, amra legind
D'eis in daghda norraidhtin
Mac Cuilenn.iin, can cenaeh,
Co eetlaibh moraib alaind. H. 143 J b 3r.]
9. Can eoulbdlu8.
Oengus mac Giblen cect'nz'I.-
Oc eungid na {tHle
Asa {ortren
Tllir la fcige {rithgnam
Co Icir ord na eaibdeJ.
[Cen euibdius, tit dLn'l JEngus .j.
a cuingid na fele
Is a forthren taitnem,
Tuer la fegi (rithgnam
Co 11er ord na eaibdeJ.
Dosronusaa doib droing mbind bairdni .briathar glesi,
Gnim cen tlaisi ni tartatsom duais da hesi. H.]
[Corraib co ndath 7co tothueht.. Att e tri datha' na hee[se]
sin i find 7dub 7brecc. Find ua moltar : dub ua n.aerthar:
brecc ua focarar mad comsan, ut dixil Fingen mac Flaind :-
Breec i fochanar, tit dt:ril Flngin mac
Daronusa doib drOJ\g bind bairdnc brethir glei[si] 5250
Gniim can tlasi nistartsatsum duas dar esi.
Nislen ecnach ond res chetlach cruth roncuaJa
Ar ar "dala aeht nn tucsatsum duas (or duana.
A ohotut, til Fer Muman dixit .'-
Goth gruce golfad breice
Cl"fche erich co ndorthor
lar mhcithsiu srcb a thigthol
Taistcl Milcoll mic Onchon.
, Seehta fris tomsitcr Gocdelg, fidh 7 insci 7 etargairc.
Is ed a fid as gu i cona thomus fri fidh i in cctna fidh 52;0
ind focail as guthas. Is td as deach a traig. Is cd a rcim
a thuisel. Is cd a forbaid a aicent (verso). Is ed a alt iot
. alt airchetail 7 ni he int alt bis. ctir each da dealt isna
deachaibh. Is ed a insci na tcora insci docoisnct .j. ferinsci
7 baninsci 7 deminsci. Is ed a ctargaire a deligud 5280
n-indsci. Corraib and, a formoladh, 111 dixit Mac Lonain.
Feron a formolod.
Cenn lochaih do lindol
Co clothaib, clu nadh gandon,
Teeht {or eocho i dnd erichi,
Maith bethu bithi annon.
H. 143 1 b 48
TREFHOCUL 264 . LL. 37'C'I'2'
Tothocht dano i amal beit a besa, corop amlaid moltair
.j. molad laich do lrech 7. molad c1erich do chlerccll. 621')1) ,
[Tothucht dano. i beit a mbesa, corob amlaid mol tar
eaeh i moladh laich for l.ech, molad c1eirigh for c1erech,
molad mna for mnai. Moladh laich do lrech, 111 di.rz'1 Urard
mac Coisi:-
[A cotot (.i. timorcain fri aicncad no i cind) dana, 111
Fer Murnan dh-il so sis:-
Goth gruice gullad mbrcice
13<eth criche erich iar torthor
Iar mbeith sund s<wb a thiugthol
Taistcl Milcon mic Oneon. H. '43 2 a 7.]
. A mallrugud,' ttt Cormac ad",'t do Inis Cain:-
Nceh nobiad bliadain Ij(in
I taig aiged I ndsi Cain,
Rabad glcban a nrao
Oc clul dar sliab SiQn s:{ir.
mu Re.u,ISo
Crithir crithes crothas cuan
Rkhes roehas core buan
Ua rig Lemna leotha cend.
Bres B/rba huille .dilcnd.
Molad c1edgh for cIerech :-
Tuthal dluim do deirc De dil
, Hua ChonlliB mic Amirgin
Huasal escop Insi Fail
Comarba cathrach Ciarain.
Molad mna for mna.i :-
Ciall cruth cenll cen chairi
Gacs gart genus co ndruin eland,
Compert cen grain gaili'
Atut ic dt'ngbail uiIi.
4'J4T." I"JOH Arch. C. P. iii. 296, 44, S /llI.)O It,. r,.f/" iii. 30.. 19 till, 31
[A mal[l]rugud dano i fd haicnead
Ncch nob,iad hliadain lain
For cuit aigcd Inse Cain,
Robnd ainglaidi a main
Ie dul tar sHab Sioin sair.
Ilnl/ docoillct&
[til quidam.'-
.i a rad co mall,
H. 143 2 a 10.]
266 LL. 37 C 23 TREFHOCUL H. 14S 2 n 13
1157.:10 Ir. Tull. iii. 63
LL. 37 c 40
A ura.rd:-
ccin ba beo
.... I.,...ach, cr. iO
recht as gJeo
A Idsol, in ben side cecillit.-
Seeht mbliadna tana 0 noc[h]t
Fotgluasfither on ocnphort,
Fcraib mnaaib mairg rosbi
1m Cn Dond cathach Cuahlgi. 0350
A lorgga fuach. Cormac cednit issin tririg:-
In locch IllO churchan dar
For in n-ociari n-ucht-lethan ndn ?
I n rag, n Rf riehid rei),
As mo thoil f6in nr in sal? 0300
In1 ba sessach, im ba selig,
1m ba fressaeh, torgib drong,
A De in cungcne (rimm,
o the oc techt for lind lond ?
Lorgga fuach ctcr d.a foculi sal 7 sessach; i11l ba, is { 5360
ill lorga fundI.
A dealt n-eto,rlOime i remshuidigud oenshilJaibe eter
da chomfhuaim fhidraid, tI' idcm i1l codc11l.-
Ccd leth co brdth iar euaird chross
Coslafe rno bachlach cress,'0365
1m b:i sair, im ba siar, n{
Jm bn (0 thuaid, irn ba fo dess;
Is c in desmerecht andsin i ced etcr dered Iraind
tOesig i lond 7 tossach ind raind tan[aisi].
A thelgud 5370
Frim gruad corcra ma chora,
Dom-ruacht boehta fom-bera ;
Ni chclim, uair it cara,
Feib atberim atbera. 0340
Orddan na rrig
Srerthot slantot cech sa tathot rota rodatr. tisat. I
rJ330 .
533:5 .
a:u cf. Re. XI. IH. 27.8: Gold.
6:U1 I. Caras (:Ilh
A dlabu1:-
A'gur ,[gur iar ecHn beitJl
I pein pein, nr sid sid,
Amal each each co brnth brdth
In each thrath thrath cid scCth scCth.
A de11& 11tterda., ut dixit . . .
Glainidir gol co amson
Sui dian sosad silochta
Srne' rnse Cathat:( eoir.
A delld1n slllabacda, tit Mac Lenin dixit:-
o bi mac c1eib caindlech
Srer sert each n-ninrn ninn . gossa fer (.i.) Fergossa.
[A delidin, lit dlxlt Mac Lenin:
o hi mac cJeib caindlee sersit cacho
A ohondan. Cormac dona Cnoib Segsa:-
lEd Ailig
Ailsius deir ndianim dubacn
As goarn gilidir gesi Loehn Lern.
A lugugud, lit Flalld mac Lonain :--
! Mo chara-sa Cn:bninc
Car aslach n-Eile nachtach,
I Did C:Uid {rim Dnrnine,
I Cia dom-Chacced cet mareach.
A tlf CJothna mac Oengusa dlxit:-
i"Imehomare roruad rogda
D'Olir imdich soshluag sadha,
A iath na trenCher tigba,
U'aim do thrcnfhcr glcgel gabla (margin triadi).
A doorugud, Mac lcgind fri gilla rig Resad:-
Ar corrucan cumraide,
Ollurgbail nr JlgJnnbaiJe,
Nis{uar ere-Ill a ehomdile,
Ciaso drer is dngduine.
268 LL. 37 e $6
A uraohU oataldi:-
Cen cob.delb alaind rno drech
Nirnthtt a chleith ceil na guth
Deithbir dam cid diuir rno dath
Uair nach i roehiur ma chruth i rochiguir.
A lo.nn.mna. dcmL
indsci 'no banindsc.i do thabairt isin t\dcmi
til, (juir/tWI
A a1rlchil tu1t.
Colum Cille ecin nombo
Bid 010 dll can da co fei[rc].
Fri each nguas ge radat
No rnolllr mcit rno dc[i]rc.
Fegsat filid Fail i fus
Fenehas eo feig 101 Fergus,
Mad tar mal eaeh maige immaeh
Doroscib d6inib Dubthaeh. A Din 1\ rio
rA dlohned.]
Dal rodalus, ba 1110r in
Issinn arus os Druim Lias.
Ammo Chomdiu, [a rf] ru ra (.i. dichned littri)
Caeh robi bui (i di sillalb) ba bas ni thias.
A deehned.
La mac fir neit fadb corcra,
Teit daig demin ni tercdu,
[Forruirn] tenn co eruind ochtga,
Gnath cend i crub Con Eehtga.
Cellaeh eemind inmain fer
fcbra else.
mac rfg rigi tuir In as dilid dam'" . I
Adem! thepldL
15 he daig dcrg digc dath
f . gc:,idthcr eel
ehaincm cruth fifotr '.,


5400 .
Is he bna is n ri fuair
lass .. gruad gland arnal gordn
scin sith fd silbad rig co.
A ganls do. Quidam dixit :_
Js he mae milis ne tar each triath
issl fmcain imchess eaieh
{ri lath a fincllruib ar {uach.

N&W Re. XI. I 5:1
/" marc. a cleml
t3OO., Amra C.C. (Stokes' GOld." I S8: RC. u. 144)
am-e RC. ss. 150
6.'M denn L. d. 556--9 of Aura;";1
, .
BB. 305 fJ 10 LL. 58 fJ 7
lncipit do, L. De, duilib feda 'na forfid, 1.. fored, lasi"
filid, L. la filidaib. Is aen, L. oen, dialt fri righe, 1.... rigi,
is a do fri timargain, L. d6 ri timmargain. .
Corus forfld fedat filid, L. Ca ri fored fegait fuid, 1:)420
firthar do, L. da, eo *, aire ..e-, ar aen, L. oen, T.
uair T, iar J:2..
.tEd uird na foifed, L hetir, (.i. etis B.) bail 7 baile,
ata L. 0111. L. da emancoll, J:L, bairc, L. bairg .n..,
L. baire f'F_, is bair (.i suid D.) 7 brai 7 brais 7 brailld l>425
(.i. mna), L. blan, 7 bairt (.i. ingen), L. ba,iri, bairend, 7ball
B., 7 bai 7 baill, L. bair, 7 baBe it emuncholla nosp!lland,
L. id emanchuill nodabenadar, uile 7r1. Beoil [7 beoit >*-,
eo 7 ee'o it >*-' L. om.] 7 beoir, 7gleoir L. om., 7treoir. i[t]
tria ebaid, Beid 7 teid 7 reid 7, sgleit L. om., 5430
L. geid, 7 seid, L. 7 gleid, dead 7 scead, L. stead. 7 treat,
L. tread, it >*- nodusbelladar, L. nodaberiadar, uile.
Liag, 1.. Han, 7 Brian 7 grian, L. 7 trian, 7 triall 7 srian
7 cHar, L. 7 riar 7 mian 7 tiar 7 miad, fln, L. ifin, a
feda uile.
Feoit .1..*. fian, L. fial, .i feo, L.' feoil, i
* j flan. L. fia, .i --r;:-; feagh. L. feaigh, *"";
fiad,' L. flag, .1 .".. nodusbe1/adar, L. nodabenadar.
DB. 305 fJ 21 PE DUILIB FEDA LL. 38 fJ 21 27 1
Buidle (i. dall B.) 7 buidlen 'arem, L. 7airemh ard, da 0440
Buaid 7 druaid it, L. da, ;;r-; duar (.i.
focul, 1.. feoil), (.i. trefocul) mucl1 (.i. mulenn,
L muilend) fuar (.i. muir, 1.. dilend i muir) nuall (.i. err.
L. om.) fuam (.i. muis, L. muir) 7 duan -.;'"7"9" a fid
1,. fida, uile. Cual is T ceol, L. coel, is -e-. boaid 0445
(.i B.) boar 7 boa, boilglan. 0,'1". 1,. 7 boilban. (.i
banefes B.), guit, 1,. cuitti, V; coich is )-6-, buar
is T, boir, is oir, L. -9-, boairech, L boairig,
is Jr, L. -&-. nodusbelldai, L. nodambentar uilc.
Ocus rai 7 cai 7 mai 7 lai 7 gnrei, L. D6i 7 r6i 7 cui 5400 .
7 m6i 7 16i 7 gn6i, .is -:-&-,' L. adds dabcnadar
Nrer, L. noer is, -e-::-, nuar (oi. gabad), L. suad (.i.
gabud), is T, muad (.i. med), L. muag is, -,;r
[L. om. is )-6-, suad is ;;r druad 7 suad ;;r
Lanchumang a firfcdaib. L. i forfllcdaib, cumang i
forfedaib, L. fuorllledaibJl, fegthair do thacbomnaib. Tcit
. dede i n-ren, L. n-oen, ata-boing, L.-bong, tui teachtaid fiji
L. file, fad, L. fath, nad fubai. Is'e in lanchumang, teid:
eter, in .da fld aircghda i eoimfrecrll. Is, L. cin, c.umang u460
Immorro 10 bail[e 1-] i mbit in da guttai, L. gutta isin
rensillaib i. in bail[e' L.] i tochradar, L. tochdar, i
L. in da [.i. :urn L. om.].
eti, bail B.
Uo!l8 L. corr.
BB. 308 fJ 44
CAIDE loc 7 aimser 7 persu 7 fath atrlC In ogaim? Ni
ansa. Loc do Hibernia insola quam 'lOS Scot; Ilabitamus.
I n-aimsir Brese mre Elathan rig Erenn dofrith. Persu
do Ogma mac Elathan mic Delbceith derbrathair do Bres,
ar Bres 7 Ogma 7 Delba'tlt tri mic Elathan mic Delbaillt .
andsen. Ogma didiu, fer roeolach a mberla 7 a filidecht, 5470
is e rainic illt ogam. euis airic (309) derbad a intlechta 7
co mbetlt in bescna-sa ic lucht in eolais [0 leth, sech lucht
na tirdachta 7 na buicnechta. Can as fuair ainm iar sUlld
7 ret int ognm, 7 caide mathair 7 athair ill ogaim, 7 cia
cetainm roscribad tri oga11l, 7 cia fid in roscribad, 7 cuis ar 15475
roscribad, 7cia dia roscribad, 7 cid ara remtet bethi ria cach,
(/dc tloilltmtur 011l1t1a). . .
Ogam 0 Ogma suo imuntore przmo ria sunil quz'dem,'
iar ret, immorro, ogum og-uaim i og-uaim, doberait na
filid forsin filideacht trid, ar is fri fedaib toi11lsit/ur 5480.
Ga:delg icna filedaib. athair ogaim Ogma, mat/tair ogaim
lam no scian Ogma.
Is e so im11l0rro in cetna ni roscribad tri ogam,
.i. in beithi roscribad, 7 do breith robaid do Lug mac
roscribad im dala a mna na ru[,=]tha uada hi 1')4815
i sidaib .i. secht mbethi i n-renfhlesc do bethi: Berthar
fo secht do be1l uait i sid no a ferand ali mallis-c,omcta
0'0. Gr. xxviii. Dote e
am aund written out (= sun).
a&110 arria B.
\VUAT are the place, time, pers.:>n, and cause of the inven-
tion of the Ogham? Not hard. Its place Hibernia il1sula
. qU(lm 1I0S. Scot; flabita11lus. In the time of Bres son of
Elatha king of Ireland it was invented. Its person
Ogma son of EJatha son of Delbreth brother to Dres,
for Dres,. Ogma and Delbtcth are the three SOPJ of
Elatha son of Delb;cth there. Now Ogma, a man well
skilled in speech and in' poetry, invented the Ogham.
The cause of its invention, as a proof of his ingenuity, and
that this speech should belong to the learned apart, to
the exclusion of rustics and herdsmen. Whence the
Ogham got its name according to sound and matter, who
are the father and the mother of the Ogham, what is the
first name that was written by Ogham, in what letter it
was written, the reason why it was written, by whom'
it was written, and why b precedes every letter, hie
1I0luulltur ol//1lla.
Ogham from Ogma suo i1/vel/lore primo in respect to
its sound, qllidem,. according to matter, however, 0c"m is
()g-uaim, perfect alliteration, which the poets applied to
poetry by means of it, for by letters Gaelic is measured
by the poets; the father of Ogham is Ogma, the mother
of Ogham is the hand or of Ogma.
This moreover is the fifst thing that was written by
Ogham, >mnrr, i.e. (the "birch) b .was written, and to
convey a warning to Lug son of Ethliu it was written
respecting his wife lest she should be carried away from
him into faeryland, to wit, seven b's in one switch of birch:
Thy wife will be seven times carried away from thee
into faeryland or into another country, unless birch guard
iTS '5
274 nB. 309 C& IS
her. On that account, moreover, b, birch, takes pre-
cedence, for it is in birch that Ogham was first writtcn.
How many divisions of Ogham are therc, and what
are they? Not hard. Four': b five, h five, m five, a.
five, besides diphthongs.
How many groups of Ogham? Not hard. Thrce,
viz., eight chicftain trees, eig"ht peasant trees, and eight
shrub trees. Eight chieftain trecs first :-alder, oak, hazel,
vine, ivy, sloe, furze, heath. Eight peasant trees, viz" birch,
quickcn tree, willow, ash, whitethorn, whin, apple tree.
As to their letters all other shrubs are peasant trees.
QI/o! Sllll/ gClIertz of the Ogham? Not hard.
eL, cI figuras eorl/1II ct POlts/lllcs secl/ndum ordinclIl
111111lia/nlJlUs. I shall speak pr/1II111<1 of the woods of
thc trees whence names have been put for the Ogham
letters, secundum alios et (l/ios 1i0III ill alltur. Query, well
then, whence are the Ogham, vowels and consonants
named? Not hard. Seculldu11/. alios fjuidc1II, it is from
the school of Fenius Farsaidh, to wit, the school
of poetry which Fenius sent throughout the world to
learn the languages. There were five and twenty that
were noblest of them so that it is their names that were"
put for the Bethe Luis Nin of the Ogham, both
vowels and consonants; and there were four who were
the noblest of these again, so that it is their names that
were given to the seven principal vowels:-
\1' 1\
,. ; iii 0\\7
and they added other three to ,them so from
these are named the other three diphthongs, wherefore

6X:t-,g,\ are classified apart. Secundum alios it is

from the trees of the forest that names were given to the
Ogham letters metaphorica11y. Moreover bdthc, b, is from
the birch of the forest for the first letter on the path of the
Ogham alphabet. ,Luis. 1. that is. elm in the forests.
bethi. Is aire immorro remitet bethi, ar.'is a mbethi
ro-cetscribad ogam.
A .... b th lS490
Cis lir fogla ogaim 7 caiteat? NI ansa. 1111: e e
a v uath a v muin a v, ailme [a] v, forfeda o1cena.
'Cis Hr aicme ogaim? Ni ansa. A iii' i viii n'-airigh
fedha, 7 viii n-athaigh, 7 viii fidlosa. Ocht n-airigh
. 'f Q ht
cetus :-fernll, dur, co11, muin, gort, stral , onll, or. c
n-athajg .i bethi, luis, sail, nill, huath, tinne, quert. Ar lS495
chuit a feda is athmg feda fidlosa olchcna.
Quot SUllt genera ill ogaim? Ni ansa. eL, et
jiguras eorum et pOlestates secundum on/hum ml1ltiabiml/s,
asnedim primus do fedaibh na crann 0 tucth,a
for fedhaibh in ogailll secundum alios et alIOS 1Ifl11ll1t- lSlSOO
antl/r. Cese, mased, can asin - ainmni[g]ter feda 7
trebol/llla in ogaim? Ni ansa. Secundum alios qujdem
is 0 scoil Feniusa i seo1 na; filideaehta rofaid
Fenius fon domun d' fhoglaim na mberla. Bai xxv ba
huaisliu di[b] conid iat a n-anman11-saide tuctha for bethi. lSfiOfS
luis-nin ill ogaim eter feda 7 trebomna; 7 bai cethrur ba
dibh-side iterum, conid iat a n-an1llanll-side tuctha
" forna vii fedaib aire[g]daib .. 11'itfXO
7 rotui11set triur eli friu, eonid uaidib-side dinmnigter na
tri forfeda aile, conad aire deglaiter ar leth "xrE.- 5510
Seat/utI/ill aI/os is 0 fedaib na caille tuctha anlllanll for
fedaibh ill ofJaim trin-troip. Beithi immorro 0 hethi na
cailH forsin cetna fid for set na aipgitri in ogaill{. Luis i
ul1lba v n. mui" 7 n.
6o)(l'J J'art;". Molgalraig .i. ach no ar gnbar emuDcoll
ar arb no ucb "d{hOOI'lm B.
6:IQlI FIJI' cethrur /. morshesser, vii cOllfimd wi/II iill
276 BD.- 309.
\Vord Ogham of Morann Main here. Feocus
lol/chaill, faded trunk and fair hair, that is for birch. b,
in the \Vord Ogham, because names which Morann
gave of himself to the Ogham letters, these are they
which take the effect of letters in the Word Ogham.
Flotus lol/chaitt for b, for these are two aspects i of the
birch, and it was hence put for the Ogham letter which
has taken a name from it.
LI sli/a, delight of eye, that is luis, quicken tree, 1, .to
wit, the flame. i
AirbtacltFiall; i.e., shield of warrior-bands, i.e., shield
. for lertl, t, with him owing to their redness in same
respect: or becaUSe the alder, the material of the shield
. :
Ft.!'", t, that is, in the forest. Sail, 0, or the Ogham,
that is, willow, again, in the forest Nitt; D, of the
Ogham, to wit, maw of spear, or nettles in the woods.
Ualll, h, of the Ogham, that is, test-tree or whitethorn, on
account of its thon\iness. Du,., d, of the Oghnm is oak,
again, in the forest. Tilmc, t, of the O{jham, to wit,
holly or elderberry in the Coil, 0, of the Ogham,
to wit, hazel in the forest. Querl, q, of the Ogham is
holly in the forest, or quicken tree, or aspen. 111,,;11, vine,
m, to wit, mead [from it]. Gort, cornfield, IT, to wit, fir.
Gclal, ng, to wit, broom. Straif, Btr, willowbrake in the
forest. 01111, 0,. to wit, furze or ash. Ur, u, to wit,
thorn. Edad, 0, to wit, ycw. Ida, I, to wit, servicc tree.
Ebad, ea, to wit, elecampane. Oir, 01, to wit, spindle tree.
Vil/callll, ul,to wit, ivy. Pin, 10, of the Ogham, pine,
again, in the Hence are named caera pbl1lt, goose-
berries; z'ji1l, again SeC/l1ldtt11l alios is the name of that
letter. Emancoll, witch hazel, ae, again, to wit, 0 doubled
according to fact or according to form, to wit, 0 across
o in its form.
lemh sin isna cailltib. Fern i fearn sin isin cailL Sail
in ogaim .i. sail dono sin isin caill. Nin in oga;m i :):)15
ginol garmna no nenaid ,isna Uath bl ogaim
crand fir no sce ar a delgaighe insin. Dur ill ogaz'm clair
dono isin caill. Tinne in ogaim i ql:ulend no trom isin
caill. ColI in ogai11l i coll isin caill. Quert in ogaim
quulend isin caill no cairthend no crithach. Muin i :)t;20 .
midiu. Gort i giu!!. Getal i gilcach. Straif saildrong
isin caill. Onn i aiten no uinius. Ur i draighen. Edad
.i. eu. Ida i ibhar. Ebad i elentt. Oir i fearus.
Uillealw .i edlend. Pin in oga;m, pin dano isin caill,
De atbertar c<:cra pintlt'; ifin dano seculIdum alios ainm in
feda sin. Emancoll dono i coU emnaide iar ret no iar
fuath i coll dar coll ina fuath.
nriatharogam Moraitld mic Mhaitt andso. Feocus
. foltchain ar beithi sen isin uair an
mand tuc (col. (3) Morand uaidh fen for fedaib ift
ogaim is iat gabus greim feda isin briatharogam.
Feocus foltchain ar. son bethi, ar at e sin da egosc
in bethi. 7 tucad uadsan for fidh itl ogaim rogab ainm
Li sula i luis sin i in luisiu. 5:>35
Airinach Fian .i sciath ar fern alglseom sin ar a
ndergi ar renrian: no air is i in fern adbur in sceith tucad
.." Orlgg. xvii. 9, 93
was from ftnul! given to the .Ogham letter which has
taken a name from it. A irellflcll Firm, Le., shield, that is
fer", f, with him.
LI 1l-ni1llbl, hue of the lifeless, i.c., hue of one dead, to
wit, am (or denial, so that he is not living but is dcad. LI
l1-n/I1I/lI, again, to wit, that is sail, willow, 8 with him, and
hcnce it was put for the Ogham letter.
Cosdnd sida, checking of peace, that is 11ill, ash, n: it
is the maw of a weaver's beam as applied to wood: a sign
of peace is that. A checking of peace with him is that
from the ash of the weaver's beam.
COllal ClW1I, pack of wolves. to wit. that is l/n/I/. thorn
h, for a terror to anyone is a pack of wolves. COllal C/{(W
said of the Ogham h. owing to the affinity of the name.
for they are a thorn. in the same way.
A n!tl1/l dossnibll, highest of bushes. that is dill', oak.
d, with respect to its wood in the forest.
Triall. t. another thing the meaning of that to-day.
Cabtiu fednib, fairest of trees, that is hazel. 0. owing
to its beauty in woods.
Cli/haY mbniscaill, shelter of a hind, i.e., a fold: to wit,
boscell,lunatic, that is bas-ccnll,dcath sense, it is then his sense
comes to him when he goes to his death. Cli/I,ay boiscd/
. again, that is an apple tree: or bos((II, that is, hinds, to
wit. they are light G7i/lltl1' boiscell, again, i.e. lunatics or
hinds: quel'!. an apple tree, q. with reference to its letter.
TI'('slmfcdmfl, strongest of effort. that is 1II11ill, vine, m,
with him. i.e., owing to identity of name with 11111;'/. back of
man or ox, for it is they that are the strongest in existence
as rc'gards effort..
Millsiu ftyaib, sweeter than grasses, that is gort, ivy, If,
with him owing to the identity of the name with the corn-
field. When it is in the blade, sweeter than any grass is that
grass, to wit, the cornfield. Hence for that letter in Ogham
'0 fernre forsin 'fid ogaim rogab ainm uaidhi. Airenach
Fian i. sciath fern sin aigisium.
Li n-aimbi i Ii mairb i am fo diultad eonach beo OlS40
acht is marb. Li n-ambi dono i sail' aigiseom . sin,
7 tugad uaidisiurn forsin tid n-ogaim.
Cosdad sida i n1n !ien: ginol garrnna fd fid e: airde
sida sin. Cosdad sida aigi sin 0 nin na garmna.
Conal euan i uath sin, ar is uath la nech conal chon o ~
alladh. Conal cuan do rad re huath ill ogaim ar coibllius
in anma, ar uath iat ar renrian.
Ardam dossaibh .j. dur sin a dualus a feda isin cail1.
Tdan i aill inde sin aniu.
Cainiu fedaib i coJl sin ar a chailli a fedaibh. 5550
C!ithar mbaiscaill i buaili .j. boscell .j. gelt i basceall
.i Is and tic a dall do in tan degas a bas. Clithar boiscell
dono i quert sin ': no boscell i elti i edruma iat. Clithar
boiscell dono i gelti no elti : quert a dualus a feda.
Tresim fedma i muin leis-siwll sin i ar rentaidh anma l:>555
Cd muin duine no claim, ar is ~ a t is tresi feidm ann.
Millsiu fcraib i gort leis-silull sin ar rentaidh [in]
anma frisin gort arba. In tan (qUI/ill) bis ina fuachonll, is
eo: algal", B. . ~ on tlagaa we ann wr;II,,, 011/ 160'1 In 6)' lall !Ja"d
millsi na gach fer in fer sin i in goi't arba. Uad-side ,
forsin fid ut i n-ogat1l ar in anma atura. lSl5GO
Luth legha getal sen i. ar is luth tasna leigib, 7
coibnius etir cath 7getr 1.
Tresim ruamna i straif leis-sium sin i ll-ogam. Straif
iar rret; ar isin straif is tresiu ruamna ic dathadh 'na
ar is i dogni in airget ngeal conad gorm ic denum 5565
airgit decht de. Is i berbthar tresin fual isin or mban co
ndene derg de. Tresim ruamna in straif ia[r] net.
Tugad uaid-side isin fid c!anad ainm straif ar rentaid
anma aturu i straif ainm cechtar de.
Tinnem rucca: ruis sin i on ruidiudh no on rllis iar 5570
ret, ar is tre ruts scribthair, 7 is ruidhiud fasas a n-aigid
in duine tri sug in lossa do cuimilt frethi. Tindi ruc<c.
dono do rad frisin ruis 0 rus no on ruided, ar is tri ruis
scribtair-side fen.
Ardam iactadh i mactad i aitm aigisium sin i ar is 5575
aiIm (no a) adber in duine ac iachtad i ngalar, no ic
machtad i ag ingantugud secip rreta.
Congnamaigh echraide i. onnaid in i na roith
i onn leis-silllll sin, ar is, tri onn scribthar onnaid in
carbait. A/iter comguinidech i aiten. Tucad uad-side 5580
forsin fid ut dianad ailllll onn ar rentaid ataru ar is ainm
onn do cechtar de; 7 is on aiten11 tucad int ainm is onn
frisin fidh n .ogaim SaUl/dlll/l alios.
owing to the complete identity of the name between
Luth /tgha, a physician's strength, that is broom, ng,
to wit, because it is strength with the and there
is an affinity between catll, panacea (?), and gelal, broom.
Tresilll rualllna, strongest of red, to wit, that
is str with him in Ogham. Straif, sloe, according
to fact; for in the sloe red for dyeing the things
is stronger, for it is it that makes the pale silver
azure, it genuine (?) silver. It is it which
is boiled through the urine into the white gold so as to
make it red. Trcsim ruall/lltl is the sloe according to fact.
Hence it was put in the letter named str, owing to
identity of name between them, i.e., straif is the name
of each of them.
1"t'llIICIIl rIlCC(C, intensest of blushes, that is 1'I1is, elder-
berry, r, to wit, from the reddening or shame according to
fact, for by r it is written, and it is a reddening that grows
in a man's face through the juice of the herb being rubbed
under it. Ttildi ruccaJ, ingot of a blush, again, said of
the nilS, elder-berry, from shame or "from reddening, for. it
is by r that it is itself written.
Ardam iachladh, loudest of groanings, that is wonder-
ing, to wit, that is ai/w, fir, a; with him; for it is aillll or a
a man says while groaning in disease, or wondering, that
is, marvelling at whatever circumstance. .
C(Jllgmzmaid tchraidt, helper of horses, to wit, the
ollllt1id of the chariot, i.e. the wheels, to wit, that is 01111,
furze, with him, for it is by aIm, 0, that the wheels of the
chariot are written. Aliter, comgllillt'decll, equally wound.
ing, i.e. Hence it was put for that letter which is
named tJll1l, 0, owing to identity between them, for 01U, is
a name for each of them; and it is from whin that the
name, 0"1' was put for the ,Ogham letter seculldutll alios.
280 nn. 309 fJ 24
N71 n-3ldld n.
aD13 rulr 0 ruR- n. 1137. i ngalalr n.
282 BB. 309 fJ 47 OGAM
Etiud midach .i cath. Tucad ua-side for getal.
U8yraib adbaib i ur aigisium sin ar is do uir in talman' 5585
is ainm uaraib adbaib. Tucad uada-side forsin tidh
ainm ur in ogaim, ar anma aturu i ur
cechtar de, 7 tre ur scribthair.
ErgnairJ tid i edad (310) aigisium sin, ar is don crUl11l
crit[h]aig is ainm ergnaid tid. Tucad uada-side forsin lHi90
fidh' ogaiJll dianad ainm edhadh, ar is und tucad ednd
Siniu fedhaib i idad aigiseom sin; ar is do ibar as
ainm siniu fedaib. Tucad uad-side forsin tid ut i n-ognm
dianad ainm idad, ar is uad tucad int ainm is idad fair; rlt>95
ar is do ibar is ainm idad.
Snamchain fheda .j. ebad les-sill11l sin, ar snamchaill
tid i don bran mor is ainm sen. Tucad uad-side forsin
tid dianid ainm ebad in ogaim, ar is ait"\m do bratan e
7 is tri ebad scribt[h]ar side amal aipgitir in betha i '5600
tre seg os). eo(.i.)tre eonasc (.i Ion).
Sruitem aicdi i or iar ret. Tucad uad-side forsill tid
ar in anma til aturu i or ainm cechtar de,
Tutmur Sd uillea1l1l .j. uilleall/l leis-[s]ium sin, ar is do
edlenll is ainm. Tucadh uad-sidhe forsin oga1Jl dianad
ainm uilleallll, ar is uadh tucad uilleanll fair, ar is do edlinll
is ainm.
Millsim feda i pin sin ligisium, ar is dOll chrunll
dinnid ainm pin is ainm millsium feda. De atbertar cocra
pinneo Tucad uad.side forsin fid dianad ainm pin, ar is nOlO
uaclh tucad pin no ifin air.
tri B.
M>tI aerc[h]ald rer no lid .\. idhadh 1. (ere 0. tutb no Ie a f1elc-Alltc. iii, 43
aerchaid fitl edath .j. ind nor rolil in tlesc ell; IlomtH 151 (e-Cor.
sed B.
Etiud midadl, robe of physicians, to wit, (alii, panacca (?).
Hence it was put for gelat, broom, ng.
Uaraib adbaib, in cold dwellings, to wit, that is til',
frcsh, with him, for from tiir, the mould of the earth is the'
name uaraib (ldbaib. Hence it was put for the lettcr namcd
ur, hcath, in Ogham, owing to identity of name b;ctween
them to wit each of them is fir, and it is written by u.
, , . I
Ergllaid fid, distinguished wood, to wit, that iJ aspen
with him, for ergllaid fid is a name for the tree.
Hence it was put for the Ogham lctter named aspen,
for hence was cdad, e, put for it. i
Silliu jcdaib, oldest of woods; to wit, that is idtld,
yew with him' for silliu jedaib is a name for
it was to that letter in Ogham named idad,
yew, 1, for hence the name idad was put for it; (or idad,
yew, is a name for ibur, service-tree. ;'
Sllamc!labl jeda, most buoyant of wood.: to Wit.
that is cbad,aspen. with him, for fair swimming wood:
to wit that is a name for the great raven. Hence it was
put fo'r the letter named the Ogham ebad, for e is a name
for salmon, and it is written by ea like the alphabet of
the fauna: i.e., by stag (deer), eo by eOllasc (ousel).
..";ruilclll (liedi, most venerable of structures, i.e., oi,., 01,
spindle tree, according to fact. Hence it was for. the
letter owing to the identity of the name that IS between
them to wit oir is the name of cach (If them.
Tu'mllr fit! uil/ctllln, juicy wood is woodbine, that
woodbine with him, for it is a namc for honeysuckle. Hence
it was put for the Ogham named woodb\ne, u1; for hence
was woodbine put for it, for it is a name for
lUillse1lljeda, sweetest of wood, that is gooreberry
him, for a name for the tree called pill is milscl1i fcda.
Gooscberries are hence named. Hence it was put for the
letter named pi", for hence pin, or ifill, ",vas put for it.
284 BB. 310 19 OGAM
Luad srethaig i ach no uch, emancoJl leis-[s]ium sin,
ar gabair emuncoll ar ach gia gabar ar araiIJ. Finil
Briatharogam Morailld.
Afarg;" " Abgittr briathairogam Mic 'tid O[i]c annso 6616
Glaisium cnis i beithi sin in oga;lIl 0 bethi na caiJJi,
ar is uad tucad bethl fair; sic ill rtliqllis Stqutlllibus.
Cara ceathra (.i. lem). Cara i dil lasna ceathra in lem
ar a bJath 7ar canach. Tucad uad-side for luis ill ogaim,
ar is uad tuccad luis fair.
Comet lachta ,i ferrll in ogaim sin 0 fern na caill, ar
is i coimetas in lacht, ar is di doniter lestair imon lacht.
Lut[h] bech i sail sin ar a blath 7ar a canach. Tucad
uad-side ara fid coibhnesa ill ognim. 5625
Bag ban i nill garmna i ginol garmna. Uad-side
fora fid coibncsa. '
Banadh gnuisi i uath, ar is ban gnuis in duine in tan
doberar uat[h] no uamun uimi. Uad-side for fid in ogaim
nr rentaid anma aturu (en i uath cechtar de. 6630
Gres sair i dair. Tucad uad-side fora fidh coibnesa
ill ogn;1I1.
Smir guaiH i, cuillcnll sen. Uad-sidc fora fidh coib-
nesa in ogaim .1 tinne seculldum alios; ar is ainm tind!
do cuiIJt'1l1l, til alii diet/III. 15635
Lturd stellu"'C', expression of a weary one, i.e., ad" ah I
tlCll, alas i that is tmalleoll, ae, with him, for fmallcoll is
. taken for ac/l, though it may be taken for something else.
Fb,il Word-Ogham of Morann.
Alphabet of word-oghams of Mac ind Oic here below.
Giaisiul/l cnis, most silvery of skin, to wit, that is the
birch of the Ogham from birch of the forest, for hence
birch, b, was put for it; sic ill rdiquis scquCI,libllS.
Cara cenlllra, friend of cattle, to wit, elm. eara, to wit,
dea"r to the cattle is the elm for its bloom and for down.
Hence it was put for the Ogham IlIis, quicken tree, I, for
hence was quicken 1, put for it.
Comet lac/tIn, guarding of milk, to wit, that is the
Ogham alder, f, from alder of the forests, for it is it that
guards the milk, for of it are made the vessels containing
the milk.
.Lutlz beck, activity of bees, to wit, that is willow,s, for
its bloom and for its catkin. Hence it is put for the
cognate Ogham letter.
Bng bnll, fight of women, to wit, ash, D, of weaver's
beam, i.e., maw of weaver's beam. Hence for its cognate
Balladk glluisi, blanching of face, to wit, fear, Imalh, h,
for blanched is a man's face when he is encompassed with
fear or terror. Hence for the Ogham letter owing to
identity of name between the same two, to wit, ualll
stands for each of them.
Grts sair, work, to wit, oak, d Hence it
was put for its cognate Ogham letter. ".
Smi,. guaili, fires of coal, to wit, that is holly. Hence
for its Ogham letter, i.e., tbllle, t, stcu1Idu11l alios,'
for lind; is a name rot holly, ut alii
0= guallll B.
DlII1..6lI ct. A'''f. Ill. 044, 7-25
Lower margin col. I A Dhla IlOOlr bal
eara bloisc 1 [col1]. Uad-slde rora fidh coibnesa I"
Brigh anllum 1 quert. Uad-slde fora fidh coibnesa.
Aruusc n-arrllgh 1 muin duine. Uad.slde fora fidh
Mednercc, i gort. Uad - side fora fidh comainm-
Moridrun 1 straif. Tucad uad-slde rora ficlh comainm.
Ruamna dreach .i sug in rois doni ruamna na ndrech .
co mbi ruidead Intib. Ruamna drech dano do rad fri
ruis ill oga/m on ruidead no on rus, ar Is tri ruis scribthar
side fen.
Tosach fregra 1 nltm ar Is I cetlabra gach duine
iarna genemain a.
Fethim saire no fcdcm 1. onn 1 O.
Siladh clann, ur les-[sJium sin, ar Is i uir in taJman
dogni silad na clann cuirtir inti. Silad clann dono do
rad 0 uir in tal man do radh fri'3in fid n-ogaim rogab
comainm fria i ur cechtar de.

Comainm carat i edadh isin caill. Uad-side fora fidh
comaill/lllligtluch i ;1-ogalJl.
Crinem fcada no claidem .i. ibar. Uad-side forin ficlh
n.ogallll, rogab ainm aile uaclh i Idaclh.
Cosc lobair (col. i elenn for in fid ill ogaim, rogab l')660
ainm uad i cbad.
286 nne 3'0" 36
.... t. U cr. Alilt. lil. 44
11640 conrai"",lngcch B.
Canz b/oisc, friend of cracking, to wit, coli, hazel, o.
I-Ience for its cognate 'Ogham letter.
Erigll. ({II dublc, force of the man, to wit, qlldr', q,
apple tree. Hence for its cognate letter.
A rusc 1t-airlig, of slaughter, to wit, a man's
back, m. Hence for its synonymous letter.
lIfcd "free, to wit, ivy, g. Hence for its synonymous
JfOrtld nm, increasing of secrets, to wit, sloe, str.
Hence it was put for its synonymous letter.
RunllllUI dread,,; redness of faces, to wit, sap of the rose
which causes the redness of the faces, so that blushing is
in them. Rua1Jl1la drcaclt, again, said of the Ogham rills,
elder, r, from the blush or from the reddening, for it is by
elder, r, it is itself written.
Tosadt frcgra, beginning of an answer, to wit, that is
ar'lm, a; for the first expression of every humar being
after his birth is !'o.
Fe/film sairl', smoothest of work, or fedtm, to wit, 01111,
stone, 0,
S/Iad c!m11l, growing of plants, that is lIr, heath, u with
him, for it is ttl,., the soil of the earth, that cal
ses the
growing of the plants that are put into it. Growing of
plants, again, said of the soil of the earth, is said of the
Ogham letter which has taken the same name with it, to
wit, each of them is 111'.
Comar'lIm carat, synonym for a friend, to wit, aspen, a,
in the forest. Hence for its Ogham letter.
most withered of wood, or sword, to wit,
. service tree, 1. Hence for .the .Ogham letter, which has
taken a name other than to wit, idad, yew.
Cose /obair, corrective of a sick man, to wit, woodbine
for the Ogham letter, which has taken a name other than
.it, to wit, toad,. aspen, ea.
Ll crotha .f or. Uad-side fora fid eomafnmrltg-Intcfl i
or in ogaim.
Cubat n-oll .j. uillenn" .j. edlenn.. Uad-side forsin fid.
in ogaim rogab uaide f uilleann. ('5666
Amram blais f pin no ifin. Uad-side forsin fidh
rogab ainm uaid i no iphin.
288 nu. 310 fJ I OGAM
I..i erolha, beauty of form, to wit, heath. Hence for its
synonymous to wit, the Ogham 01,
Cubat ll-oll, great equal-length, to wit, woodbine, i.e.,
honeysuckle. Hence (or the Ogharn Jetter which it has
taken (rom it, to wit, woodbine, w.
A 1111'am blais, 'most wonderful of taste, to wit, plll or
ifill, gooseberry. Hence (or the letter that has taken its
. name (rom it, to wit, pill or iphill, 10.
. Mucogam in so. Aicme bcthi so prills. ..
Finn (b), Bath (1), loch (t), cron (8), forglas (n)
Aicme huat[ha] i cetoth find (h), cetoth lei the (d), cctdoth l>670
loichi (t), ectoth cron (0), eetoth forglaisi (q).
Aicme muine: indoth finni (m), indoth leillit (g), in
doth loiclti (ng), jndoth crall (str), indoth forglaisi (r).
Aicmc ailmi: ore a eru flnui (0.), ore a eru lrilld (0),
ore a eru loichi (u), ore n ern eron (0), ore n eru l567lS
forglaisi (1). Foraicmi annso :
Forore a cru tlndi (en), forore a eru leitltt' (01), forore
a cru loichi (ul), forore a eru cron (iphill), for[or]c a cru
[forglaisi] (00).
Linnognm. i\icmi bcthl In so prills i /")080
Btrba (b), Luimnech (1), Fcbal (t), Sinand (8), Nid (n).
Aicmi huath[a]: hon (h), Derg (d), Teare (t), Teith (t),
Clltt (0), Cusrat (q).
A.icme muine i Muintcn (m), Gabal (g), nGrin'n (ng),
Strur (str), Rigi (r). 5685
Aicme nilmc i Aru (n.), Eobul, Uisiu, Erbos,
Dinnogam .,.
Aieme be'thi i Bruiden, Lifi, Femin, Seolo:e, Ncmthend.
Aicme huatha: h-Oehic, Dlnurig-h, Temnir. Ceric, Quorann.
Aicmc muine: Midc, Gahar, nGarmon, Streula:, Roigni. n090
Aicme ailme i IE, Ogba, Uisriech, Emain, lliu.
This is Sow Ogham. This is group nprius.
White b, grey 1, black t, amber 8, blue n.
Group H. Accompanying litter o( a white (i.e.. milch-)
sow h, grey d, black t, amber 0, blue q.
Group M. Litter of a white sow m, grey g, black ng,
amber str, blue r.
Group A. of a white sow a, grey 0, black u,
amber e, blue 1. Diphthong group here: of a white sow ea, grey 01, black w, amber
10, blue ae.
River-pool Ogham. This is Group Bprius, to wit,
Barrow b, Lower Shannon.l, Foyle I, Shannon 8, Nith De
Group H. h Othain (Fahan) h, Dergderg d, Tcith t,
Catt 0, Cusrat q.
Group M. Muinten m, Gaval g, Graney ng, Sruthair str,
Rye r. .
Group A, to wit, Aru a, Eobul, Uissen, Erbus, Jndiurnn.
Fortress Ogham, to wit,
Group ,B. Bruden, Liffey, Femen, Seolre, Nephin.
Group H. h-Ocha, ninn R{g, Tara, Cera, Corann.
Group M. Meath, Gabur, nGarman, Roigne.
Group A. M(Gualand), Odba, Usney,'Navan, Islay.
I' Enogam i
Aicme bethi: Jachu, ricHnn, segh, nrescu.
Aicme .uatha: hadaig, droen, truiteoc, querc.
Aicme i mintan, geis. ngeigh,stmolach, rocnat. 5695
Aicme ;ailllle i aidhircleog. odoroscrach, uiseoc, ela, illait.
290 DD. 310 fJ 23
Bird Ogham, to wit,
Group B. besall pheasant (?), laehll duck, /a!lbm gull, seg
hawk, mcsell snipe.
Group H. Iladalg night raven (?), droelz wren, Inu'lh
starling, quere hen.
Group 1\J, i.e., milliml titmouse, g/:'s swan, '11gligh goose,
slmolaeh thrush, nJola.t small rook (?).
Group A. aid/lire/eog lapwing', odoroseraeh scrat (?), uiseog
lark, eta swan, il/a/I eaglet (?).
Colour Ogham.
Group B, Le., hdn white, liatll grey, Jlallll red, sodalll
fine-coloured, fUe/lt clear.
Group H, i.e., Imath terribie, dub black, lemell dark grey,
croll brown, quiar mouse-coloured.
Group M, i.e., mbrae/lt variegated, gorm blue,. 1tglas green,
sorel/a bright, ruadlt red.
Group A. alad piebald, od/lar dun, tlsgdha resinous, ere
red, it:filld very white.
Da.nogam .i
Fer no ar aicmi bethi: i ii fer, iii fir, iiii fir, v fir.
Minna (no mna) no clerig ar aicme uathll: i bean, ii
mnre, iii mna, iiii mna, v mnn.
Oglach ar aicme muine: i oglach, ii oglach, iii oglaich,
iiii oglaich, v oglaich.
Church Ogham.
Group B, i.e., Bangor, Liath, Ferns,
Group H, h-Irard (Cluain), Durrow, Terryglass, Clonmac-
. nois, Kildare. , . ,
Group 1\1, i.e., Mugna, Shl'ule, Rahen, etc. I
Group A, i.e., Armagh, etc.
Man (Human Being) Ogham, to wit, I
Man or hero for group B, one man, two, three, four, five
men. I
Mitl1za nobles (or women) or clerics for group H, ii.e., a
woman, .two, three, four, five' ' !
Youth for group M, one two, three, four, five
xii.;'. r
0IN7 Origg. xix. 17'
IllIN nyctlcorax (1) Orlgg. xU. 6. 41
&701 cr. Maro Gr. pp. 7, 14 II ",/.
Mac no gille ar aicme ailme: i mac, ii mac, III mic, US
. iiii mic, v mic i rellmac ar ailme, a ii ar onn, a iii
ar ur, sic hI reliquis.
Damogam: Laechesa ar aicme bethi iarsin imrret (no imirt)
cetna i a i ar bethi, 7 a ii ar luis, mar sin sis uili.
Caillrge ar aicme huatha similiter.
Macdachta ar aicme muine similiter.
Ingena bega ar aicme ailme simi/iter i oen ar ailm, a
do ar ur.
Ogam tirda.
Aicme bethi annso i mail, loman, fidba, strathar, nasc.
Aicme huatha i huartan, dabach, tal, carr, qual.
Aicme muine': machad, gat, ngend, sust, ruse.
Aicme ailme .j. arathar, ord, usca, cpit, indeoin.
Rigogam i
Bran, Labraidh,. 7rl. 7 mar siri uile, i ainm in dgh [;730
tinnscanas on lid do gabail ar in ainm.
Ogam usceach i
Glais ar aicme bethi: i renghla[i]s ar bethi, v n..
Soud ar aicme huatha: i saud, ii soud, iii su/d, iiii suid, v
511 itl. C>735
Abann ar aicme muine; i abann, ii abainn, iii aiblle, iiii
aibue, v aiblle.
Tipra ar aicme ailme: i tipra, ii ti/l/nit, iii tiprait, iiii
tiprait, v tiprait.
Conogam .j.
Archu ar aicme bethi: i archu [ii archu], iii archot'1t, iiii
arc/will, v a,choill.
iJchu ar aicme huatha: i milchu, ii mitchu, a tri
milchoin, iiii milchoin, v milchoin.
Roy or lad for group A, one boy, 'two, three, four, five
bo),s, to wit, one boy for a, two for 0, three for u, sic
ill rdiquis.
\Voman Ogham: heroines for group B after the pro-
cedure (or method), to wit, one for b, two ,for I, thus
all down. '
Nuns for group H similiter.
Maidens for group M similiter. . ,
Girls for group A simililer, to wit, one for a, two for u.
Agricultural Ogham.
Group B here, i.e., biail axe, loma/l rope,fidba hedge-bill,
sralll(11' pack-saddle, Ilasc ring. .
Group H, i.e., Imartall , dabach cask, lal! adze, Cllr,
waggon, eual faggot.
Group M mac/lad , gat withe, lIgelld wedge, sust
rllsc basket.
Group A, i.e., flraillar plough, ord hammer, USC" heather..
brush, epit billhook, iltdeoin anvil.
King Ogham, to wit,
13ran, Labraidh, etc., and so all, to wit, to take for the
name, the name.of the king tlrat hegins with the
Water Ogham, to wit,
Rivulet for group B, to. wit, one rivulet for b, five for n.
\Veir for group H, one weir, two, three, four, five weirs.
River for group'M, one river, two, three, four, five rivers.
Well for group A, one well, three, five weUs.
Dog Ogham, to wit,
\Vatch-dog for group B, one, two, three, four,
five watch.dogs.
Greyhound for group H, one greyhound, two, three, four,
five greyhounds.
Origg. xx. 14, I ; 12-13
OGHAl\t 295
Conbuachaill ar aicme muine: i conbuachailJ, Ii conbuach. l:)745
aill, a tri conhuachaille, iiii conbuacEaille, v conbuach.
- Oird ar aicme ailme: i oirci, a dho oirci, a tri oirci, iiii .
oirci, v oirci.
Damogam i lS7lS0
Tarb ar aicme bethi: i tarb, a do tarb, a tri tairb, iiii tairb,
v tairb.
Dam ar aicme huatha: i damh, ii dam, iii daim, Wi daim,
v claim.
Colpthach firenn ar aicme muine: i colpthach, ii colpthach, 5755
a tri colpthacha, iiii colpthacha, v colpthacha.
Dartaid ar aicme ailme: i dartaid, ii dartaid, a tri dar/ada,
iiii darlada, v darlada.
Boogam i .
Lilgach ar ai" '1e bethi: i liIgach, ii lilgmg, a tri lilgacha, lS760
iiii lilgacha, v li!gacha.
Gamnach ar aicme huatha.: i gamnach, ii gamnalg, iii
ga1l11lacha, iiii ga1ll1lacha, v ga11l1lacha.
Samaisc ar aicme muine: i samaisc, ii samaisc, iii samaisce,
iiii samaisce, v samaisce. 576lS
Dairt ar aicrne ail:-Ile, 7rt.
Crechallogam .j.
fodailter ainm in duine i aicme bethi don ieth des:
aicrne huatha don leth cli: aicrne muine don leth.
des: aicme ailme don leth cli. lS770
Loscogam .i
inann iat i fogail in anma.
Macogam i
ogam ban torrach i ainm na rnna fodhailter ann mani
bera lenum roime. Dia mbera, immorro, lenum, is e lS77lS
Herd's dog for group M, one herd's dog, two, three, four,
five herds' dogs.
Lapdog for group A, one lapdog, two, three, four, five
Ox Ogham, to wit,
Rull for group B, one bull, two, three, four, five bulls.
Ox for group H, one ox, two, three, four, five oxen.
nullock for group M, one bullock, two, three, four, five
Steer for group A, one steer, two, three, four, five
Cow Ogham. to wit,
1\IiIch cow for group B, one milch cow, two, three, four,
five milch cows.
StripPGr for group H, one stripper, two, three, four, five
Three-year-old heifer for group M, one three-year-old,
two, three, four, five three-year-old heifers.
Yearling heifer for group A, etc.
Blind man Ogharn, to wit,
the man's name is divided, to wit,
Group B. to the right side.
Group H. to the left side.
Group l\f. to the right side.
Group A. to the left side.
Lame Ogharn, to wit,
they are the s ~ m viz., a division of the name.
Boy Ogham, to wit,
pregnant women Ogham, that is, the name of the woman
is divided there unless she bear a child previously.
If, however, she bear a child, it is the child's name
OGHAl\1 297
Bethumnacht, luamnacht, filideacht, sairsi, notaireacht.
H-airchetul. druidheacht, tornoracht, cruitireacht, quis-
Milaideacht, gaibneacht, ngibre, sreghuindeacht, ron-
Airigeacht, ogmoracht, umaideacht, enaireacht, iascair-
eacht no ibroracht.
that is divided there; and if there be a letter over, it
is a boy. If it be an even number, it would be a
daughter that will be born of that pregnancy.
Nose Ogharn, to wit,
the fingers of the hands about the nose, similiter to
right and left, athwart, across.
Palm of hand Ogham, to wit,
mmtus a/iam jJereult'! liguorI/III.
Art Ogham.
Livelihood, pilotage, poetry, handicraft, notary work.
Trisyllabic poetry, wizardry, turning, harping, fluting.
Soldiering, smithwork, modelling, deer-stalking, dispensing..
Soyereignty, harvesting, brasswork, fowling, fishing. or yew'
wood work.
Saint Ogham, to wit,
the name of the Saint with which it will commence is
taken for the viz.,
Drenainn, Laisrcn, Finnen, SinchealJ, Neasan.
H-Adarnnan, Donnan, Tighearnach,Cronan, Ciaran.
Manchan, George, nGeminus, Strannan, Ruadhan.
Aed, Dena, Ultan, Ernen, Ita.
Foot Ogham, to wit,
the fingers of the hand about the shinbone for the letters
and to put them on the right of the shinbone for
group B. To the left for group H. Athwart the
shinbone for group M. Straight across for group
A, viz., one for the first letter of the groups,
two for the second letter, till it would reach five for
the fifth letter of whichever group it be.
Food Ogham, to wit,
.Bread, sweet milk, sic usque in filum.

Basogam i
manus a/ialll jJereutilliglloniIII (col. (:3).
NLCmogam i
ainm ill naim i tinnscanfagabar ar in fid .i.,
Brenaind, Laisreanll, Finden, Sinchell, Nesan.
hAdamnan, Donnan, Tigernach, Cronan, Quiaran.
Manchan, Giurgu, nGeman, Strannan, Rundan. 1)796
Aed, Dena, Vltan, Ernen, I tee
Biadogam i
bairgen, leamnacht.sic uSlJue ;/1 finelll.
ainm in lenim fodailter ann; 7dla mbe HUr forcraidh
ann, is mac. Mad coimlin, bud ing<:n berthair don
Cossogam .j.
mera da laime ar son feadh imon lurgain 7 a tabairt 0780
don leth deis imon lurgain ar aicme beithi. Don leith
cli ar aicme huatha. Fiartharsna na lurgan ar aicme
muilli. Cearttharsna ar aicme aHme i ammer ar in
na tz-aicme, a dho ar in tid tanaise, co soised a
cole ar in coigcd fid secip aicme.
Sronogam i
mera na lam imon sroin i similiter do deis 7do chli, co
fiar, cear[t]tarsna.
OGH/\l\1 299
.Nathair jm ccann i
in fid toisech in anma do scriben1Z i medon na craibi, 7 int
ainm do SCrIbCII11 co direach uada co dered oa craibi ; .
7 a SCribl'llfl frithrusc co tosach na craibi conid inann
ni bis i tosach 7a ndcredh na craibi i dered in anma 5825
isscd bis a cechtar de, 1It tst bl IUlc figura, Ceallach,
coimdes a airlegind sis 7 suas, 7 is asa medon
airlegthar int ainm, ar is ann ita in fid tosaeh in
nnma, lit est,
Lusogam i
ainm secip nacll losa do .ga[ba]il ar jn fidh a tindscanfa,
tit est, braisech ar bethi, 7rl.
Cend a muine .j. :'>810
fo fid i tosach in anma i in fad as a hainm frisa
cosmailligeacht tosach secip anma, in fidh sain do
scribhinll i tosach in anma ar son a anma fen; 7
deredh in anma do scribellll iarsna fedaib dilsib.
Ocus ogum n-airismech ainm ele in ogaim-sea, ut est, 581l'>
) III II " mr- .j. certle.
Cend fo muine dono:
_Cotarsoa iot ogaim remut i tairsem fo fid i nderid in
anma, a t"o3ach do scribcI/ll iarna fedaib dilsib, tit est
.j. R .j. ruis. 5820
298 DB. 311 fJ II OGAM
Herb Ogham, to wit,
to take the name or whatevcr hcrb it be for the lettcr
with which it will com mcnee, tit cst, braisedl, for
b, etc.
Head in Bush, to wit,
cons1stl11g of a letter at the beginning of thc word, i.e., as
far as the name of it (the letter) rescmbles the begin-
ning or whatever word it be, to write that at
the beginning of the name for own nar71C; and
to write the end of the name according to the proper
letters. And persisting Ogham is another name for
this Ogham, 111 Nt, rillll-rr-::::- i.e. art-Ie, ball of
Head under Bush, again:
The opposite of the foregoing Ogham, to wit, consisting
of a letter at the end of the name, to write the begin-
ning of it according to its proper letters, tit tst,
i.e., Macl R, to wit, Ruis.
Serpent about Head, to wit,
to write the first letter of the name in the middle
of the stem, and to write the name straight thence
to,the end of the stem; and to write it backwards
to the beginning of the stem, so that it is the
same thing that stands at the beginning and at the
end of the stem, Le., it is the end of the word
which stands on each of them, lit esl ill llac figura,
Cea/lacll, indifferent to read it up or down; and it is
from the middle of it that the name is read, ior there
stands the first letter of the name, ttl tst (p. 300 f3. 29)
Itt, fr. it. 1-45-8, 159
1 Aradach Finn andso 'sis.-Ladder (Ogham) of Fionn 5830
here below.
2 et rcliql/tl sic foraicme i n-ar ndeigh.-etc. sic diphthong
group behind us.
3 Luthogam andso.-Hinge Ogham here.
4 Tredruimnech 50.-This is three-ridged (Ogham). 5835
5 Trelurgach Find.-Three-stemmed (Ogham) of Fionn.
6 Ladoga-m.-Canal Ogham.
7 (Unnamed.)
8 Ceathardruimnech Cruteni.-Four-ridged (Ogham) of
Crutine. 5840
9 Aliter bethi, mar so uili.-Aliter b, so all.
10 Osogam .j. dam ar aicme beithi, eHt ar aicme h, iarnu ar
aicme m, laeg ar aicme ail1Jle i aen dib ar in cetfid.
na aicme, a do ar in fid tanaise, 7 mar sin uile co
roised ar in fid dedenach i a V.- ,5845
StClg Ogham, i.e., hart for group 'B., hind for grou'p .
H., fa\\'n for group 1\1., calf for group A., i.e., one of
them for the first letter of the group, t\\'o for the
second letter, and so on till it \\'ould come to the last
letter, i.e., five. 5850
11 Runogam na Fian.-Secret Ogham of the \\'arrior-bands.
12 (Unnamed.) [of lIann.
13 Ebadach Ilaind.-Ebad-fashioned, X -<, (Ogham)
14 Ogam Driccrcnll i in doimni i mbi in fid isin aipgitiris
e lin flesc scribthar intI uath 111 in figl/I'll i aen do 5855
beithi, xx do
Ogham of Bricriu, i.e., the depth in which the
letter stands ill the alphabet, that is the number of
strokes \\'hich are \\'ritten in its formation lit ill figura,
viz., one for b, t\\'enty for 1.
(Then follows a composition in this Ogham.)




j ' ~
15 Ouam uird: int urd bis for na fedhaib i n-aipgitir i in
fidh is toseachu quam aile i n.aipgitir is e is tosec[h]u
scribthar ac denam anma; drdL'IIr11t1, dedencha he
isin ainm til cst ill liar figura, b n r a i Bran; 5865
bId r a a I, Labraid.-
Order Ogham: the order which the letters have
in an alphabet, i.c., the letter which is earlier than
another in an alphabet is written earlier in forming
a namc; and the last, last in the name tit (sl ill IUTC 5870
figura, b n r a, i.e., Bran; bId r a a I, Labrajd
16 Ogam ar a mbi <en . i <enAcsc forcraid do scribC11d la gach
fid: f! "diqtll1 go v gacha.-
Ogham on which is onc, i.e., one strokc too many
to be written with e\'cry Icttcr, etc., up to five of each. 5875
17 O ~ a m adlcnfid.-Letter rack Ogham.
18 Gleselgi [glcse selgc] i da ainm. do scribCl/d .j. cach
trina cele dib i tosach in cdanma do scribmd connigi
a leth, 7 tosach in anma ele ina dhiaidh, 7 dered in
chctanma ina dhiaidh, 7 dered in anma ele jJOSIM,o 5880
7 ita anmanda a ndentar, sin anma tosaigh, sin 7
derid, inund, amal atait isin da craib and.-
Hunt-track, i.e., two namcs to be written, i.e., each of
them through the other, i.e., the beginning of the first
namc to be written lip to half of it, and the beginning 5885
of the other name after it, and the end of the first
name after it, and the end of the other name postea;
and wherein are names which are formed identical1y,
those of a first name and those of a last, as they stand
in the two stcms there. 5890
bec-an, gleselgi .j. da ail/m.-A little, a small sea:
gleselgi, to wit, t\\'o names. feth-nat, scg.nat, aliler
gleselge. - A little calm, a small deer, aliter hunt-
19 Crad cride ecis.-Anguish of a poet's heart. 5895
20 Armogam .j. gai ar aicme bcthi. Sciath ar aicme h.
. Claidim ar aicme m. Calgadeg (sic) ar aicme a .j.
<cn dib ar in cetfid gibc aicmc, a da ar in tanaise.-
Arms Ogham, i.e., spear for group B. Shield
for group H. Sword for group:'\1. Tusk-hilted sword 5900
for group A., i.e., one of them for the first lettcr of
whatever group, two for thc second.
21 Ogam ac(c]omaltach i in fidh is nesa don fidh do
scribmd imaille fris gan toirmisc.-
Conjunct Ogham, i.c., thc Icttcr "'hich is next the 5905
lettcr to be written along with it without interruption.
:....1 d-gidellcha B,
~ d. {on/fsfo. Origg. i. 32,9: Gr. Lat. \', 387, 26
30 3
I ... ' ~ ,
22 Ogam eaml
ar b sic.-
letter, i.e.,
23 Do foraicmi
Of ex
arc syl1al
them, etc.
huath, dr'
ng;cl, strr
24 Sigla.-Abr
01 on, no
bran, tru,
25 goach, tuch!
26 Beithi, lear.
quiliCI/it :
uinus, dn
27 llcthi, luis,
muill, gor
idad; ea,
28 (Unnamed.)
29 Saithe.
Brec (
30 l\1ucogam:
cedot[h] .
31 Ogam romI
dul sech
ucht ic t
iarum in
Jish of a poet's heart. 5895
icme bethi. Sciath ar aicme h.
:1. Calgadeg (SIC) ar aicme a i
ibe aicme, a da ar in tanaise.-
.e., spear for group B. Shield
I for group Tusk-hilted sword 5!)OO
oe of them for the first Ictter of
for the second.
i in fidh is nesa don fidh do
, i.e., the letter which is next the 5905
:dong with it without interruption.
Is i so III .j. scribthar in lid iarsin
lin lit/y bis isin ainffi ill duine.-
Thc Ogham which confuscd Breas son of Elatha
who was undcr a prohibition not to pass on without 5!)50.
rcading it. This Ogham was aftcrwards thrown into
his bosom as hc wcnt to the battle of l\1o)'tura.
Aftcr\\'ards he lost the battlc while he was reading thc
Ogham. This is the alphabet of this Ogham, to wit, .
the letter is writtcn with all the letters that stand 5950
in the pcrson's name. (Each lettcr, besides being
writtcn, is spell.)
32 Ogam dedOll1ch i in Iitir deghinach don ainm scribthar
ar son in feda .j. edad ar bethi, sail ar luis, nin ar fem,
a. (.. k 1.), nin ar nin: ;-e, no da cc, no ch.- 5960
Final Ogham, i.e., thc last letter of the namc (of the
Ictter) is written for the letter, viz., e for b, 8 for I,
n for f, 1 for 8, n for n, irl.: a;, or cc, or ch,
33 Cend ar nuail1 i in fidh dedinach do gach aicme scribthar
ar in fidh toisech, i in fid toisc:ch do gach aicme ar in 5965
fid ndedinach i nin ar bcthi, 7 bethi ar nin, 7 gach
lid ara cele isin aicme uili, 7 gach ni d'impodh inti
fein uile frithrosc: ta no p: m, no cc, no ch.-
Head on Proscription, i.e., the last letter of e\'ery
group is written for the first letter, and the first letter 5970
of every group for the last letter, i.e., n for b, and b for
n, and cvcr)' lcttcr for' its fellow in the whole group,
and cver),thing to be turncd all backwards into itself:
1a or p: 63, or cc, or ch.
34 Ogam ar abairtar ccthrur i ceathar feada nama 5975
labairtllr and i duir, 7 tinlli, luis, fern .j. duir ar
bcthi, a v; tinlli ar uath, a v i luis ar lllis [I. muin],
a v; fcru ar ail[m], a vi duir ar bethi, da duir ar
luis, 7 mar sin uili. duir, ii duir, tri duir, iiii duir,
v duir : tinne, da tinni, iii tinni, iiii tinni, v tinni, ir!.- 5980
Ogham which is called a foursome, i.e., four letters
only are spoken in it, i.e., d and t,l, f, i.e., d for B., five;
t for H., five i 1 for M., five; f for A., five; i.e., d for b;
dd for I, and so all d, dd, ddd, ddc1d, ddddd:
t, tt, ttt, tttt, ttttt, etc. 5985
35 Ogam buaidir foranlla .j. in cetna lid do gach aicme ar
bethi, a v i in fid tanaise do cach aicme ar uath, a
v; in tres fid do gach aicme ar muin, a v, 7rl.:
;e, no cc, no ch.-
Ogham of uproar of anger, i.e., the first letter of 5990
22 Ogam eamllach i da lidh inunda ar in Ibid i da bethi
ar b sic.-
Twin Ogham, i.e., two identical letters for the
letter, i.e., bb (or b sic. .
23 Do foraicmib i deachaib inogaim andsC? air na
brogmoir lasna biat a dcich 7 a foralcme 7 a forbcthl,
Of extra groups and syllables of the 'Ogham here
according to the cxcessi\e. powers whcreby there 5915
arc syllables, extra groups, and extra alphabets of
them, etc.
Sigla.-Abbre\'iations, (I) bacht, lact! feet. nect:
huath, tect, caect, quiar: mael.(MS. n<I), greth,
strmrect, rect: ai, ong, ur, eng, mg.
24 Sigla.-Abreviations, (2) cai no <ei, c no onn, p no ui,
01 on, no no no, ach ui oi ai au, air cair, bran, tn,
bran, tru, cru, cru, Columcille, Ceallach, CUlhbadh.
25 goach, tucht, ict, miliu, uili, etb, ean. .
26 Bcithi, learn, fernu, sail, nendait: sJ;e, dair, tr?m, coil,
quillcll11: midiu, gius, gilcach, ralt: aball
uinus, draigin, ibur, elend, ferus, edJend.
27 Bethi, luis, fermi, soil, nin.: huath, dur, tindi, co.ll, quert:
muin, gort, ngedar, straiph, ruis: ailm, onl1, ur, edadh,
idad; ea, oi, ui, ia, re.
28 (Unnamed.) .
')9 Saitheach fochrom, elu co mboil,
- DodaillO" foluaich lucht aSlllbir.
Brec forglais, derg (gl. midoth findi 7rl.), oc
find .
Mxlsem egl. ardoth findi 7rl.), fuirid (gl. derg
m;rselll), leitheal, brann (gl.
Cruithean fororcan so sis: dodaillg brec.
30 find, Hath, loch, cron, forghlas : cedoth lin(nJi,
cedot(hJ leithi, 7rl.-
Sow Ogham white, grey, black, amber, blue:
accompanying litter of a white, grey sow, etc.
31 OO"am romesc Brcas i Brcs mac Elathan .j. ba ges do
clul sech Ran a Icgad. Rola? int !na
ucht ic tcc[h]t a ca.t[h] l\lu1b'C h.?mebal.<..\h
iarum in cath fair-SlUm gen robal ac Icgad 111 ogaWl.
lis for na fcdhaib i n.aipgitir .j. in
1/1 ailc i is c is toscc[h]u
1 anma; do/mdl/T, dedcncha he
II 1'11(" figura, b n r a i Bran i
the ordcr which the Ictters have
the lctter which is earlicr than
Ibct is written earlicr in forming
it, last in thc name "t ill hac
!ran; bid r a ai, Labrald
cnAesc forcraid do scribmd la gach
I is one, i.e., one stroke too man)'
\'er)' letter, etc., up to five of each.
rack Ogham.
i da ainm do scribmd i cach
ch in cdanllla do scribt'lId connigi
mma ele ina dhiaidh, 7 dered in
dh, 7 dered in anma ele postca;
Identar, sin anma tosaigh, sin 7
Hait isin da craib and.-
wo names to be written, i.e., each of
her, i.e., the beginning of the first
..ip to half of it, and the beginning
after it, and the end of the first
le end of the other name postea ,.
:les which are formcd identically,
and those of a last, as the)' stand
i da ai1lm.-A little, a small sea:
I names. feth-nat, seg.nat, aliter
calm, a small decr, aliter hunt-
('I'. i. 0: lor. 1 nl \ .,R.. ..I. hcithi. with .j. the i
'ochrom, elu co lIlboil,
luaich lucht asmbir.
11-gl a is, dcrg (gl. midoth findi 7r1.), oc 5935
'g!. ardoth findi 7r1.), fuirid (gt. derg
;cm), leitheal, brantt (gl. sa.:tcch).
orean so sis: dodaillg brec.
every <Troup for B., five; the second tetter of every
group for H., fi\'e; the third letter of every group for
l\t, five, etc.: <e, or cc, or ch.
3G (Cf. 70.) rind fri clerc i fraech frit[h)rosc :i. 5995
ailme frit[h)rosc ar aicme bethi i idad ar 7 bethl
ar idad: aicme muiilt' ar aicme uath[a) i rUls ar uath
7 uath ar ruis irl. Aicme bethi ar aicme ailme
frithrasc 7 aicme uath[a) ar aiclllc m frithrosc.- .
Point-to-e),e Ogham, i.e., mane (?) backwards, I.e.,
group A backwards for group 13., i.e.,l for b, and b 6000
for 1; group M.. for group H., i.e., r for h, and h for
r, etc. Group B. for group A backwards, and group
H. for group M. backwards.
37 (Cf. 71.) Ogam maigncch i maigin iter gach da fid i
cocrich na1Jla don fidh fen.-
Enclosed Ogham. i.e., an enclosure between every
two lctters, i.e. a limit only to the letter itself.
38 Frxch frithrosc.-1\Iane (?) backwards, SUlIlIdll1Jl alios.
39 (Unnamed.)
40 Brec mor.-Great dotting. . 13010
41 OfTam cumus<Tda i gach dara fid d' aicme bethi 7 hllailia
scribmd cumasgda; gach dara fid d' aicmc llluillt'
7 aiI1Jlt', in cedna.-
Mixed Ogham,Le., every second letter of groups
B. and H. to be written mixed; every second letter of 6015
groups 1'1. and A., the same.
42 Ogam imarbach i aicm-e h re a:icme b. 7 aicme .ail lilt' re
aicme muillt'.-
Combath'e Ogham, i.e., group H. before gro'tlp B.,
and group A before group M. 6020
Is i so apgitir in ogaim-sca i scribthar in fid iarsin
Jin Iit/r bis isin ainm in duine.-
The Ogham which confused Brcas son of Elatha
who was under a prohibition not to pass on without 5950,
reading it. This was afterwards thrown into
his bosom as he went to the battle of Moytura.
Afterwards he lost the battle while he was reading the
Ogham. This is the alphabet of this Ogham, to wit, .
the Ictter is written with all the letters that stand 5950
in the person's name. (Each letter, besides being
written, is spelt.)
32 Ogam dedt'Jll1ch .i: in Iitir deghit!ach. don a.inm. scribthar
ar son in feda 1 edad ar bethl, sail ar lUIS, nm ar fem,
ar (.. ie 1.), nin ar nin: no da cc, no ch.- 5960
Final Ogham, i.e., the last letter of the name (of the
letter) is written for the letter, viz., e for b, 8 for 1,
n for f, 1 for B. n for n, 7rl.: cc, or ch.
33 Ccnd ar nuaill i in fidh dedinach do gach aicme seribthar
ar in fidh toisech, 7 in fid toiseeh do gaeh aicme ar in 5965
fid ndedinach i nin ar bethi, 7 bethi ar nin, 7 gach
fid ara cele isin aicme uili, 7 gach ni d'impodh inti
fein uile frithrose: la no p: (9, no ee, no eh-'
Head on i)roscription, i.e., the last letter of every
group is written for the first letter, and the first letter 59iO
of e\'er)' group for the last letter, i.e., n for b, and b for
n. and cver)' letter for' its fellow in the wh?le
and e\'er)'thing to be turned all backwards mto Itself:
la or p: lB, or ee, or ch.
34 Ogam ar .. j.. fca.da I!ama 59i5
labairtor and 1 dUlr, 7 t III 111, lUIS, fern .!. dUlr ar
bethi a v; tinlli :lr uath, a v; luis ar luis [I. muin),
a v' 'fern ar ail[m], a vi cluir ar bcthi, da duir ar
luis,' 7 mar sin uili. duir, ii duir, tri duir, iiij duir,
v duir: tinne, da tinni, iii tinni, jjii tinni, vtinni, 7r!.- 5980
Onham which is called a foursome, i.e., four letters
only :re spoken in it, i.e., d and t,l, r, i.e., d B., five j
t for H., five; 1 for M., five; f for A, five; I.e., d for b;
dd for 1 and so all d, dd, ddd, dddd, ddddd:
t, ttt: tttt, ttttt, etc. MJ85
35 Ogam buaidir foranlla i .in cctna tid gaeh aicme ar
bcthi, a v; in fid tanalse do each. alcme ar uath, a
v j in tres fid do gaeh aieme ar mUIll, a v, 7rt. :
re, no ee, no ch.-
Ogham of uproar of anger, i.e., the first lettcr of 5990
'" , .- . :.t.. ... \ ...... '.__ .,.. ".. r. ..... :
, Iiath, loch, cron, forghlas : cecloth fin[n]i,
lam white, gre}', black, amber, blue:
T litter of a white, grey sow, etc.
Jrcas i Dres mac Elathan i ba ges do
a Jcnad. Rolad iarum int ogam-sa ina
]t a cat[h] TlIiteg. R?mebai.clh
h fair-sium gcn robai ac legad In ogawl.
I i da ficlh inunda ar in fhid i da bethi
ham, i.e., two identical lcttcrs for the
wrbsk .
dcachaib in .ogaim air na cumai[n]?
la biat a dcich 7 a foralcmc 7 a forbethl,
groups and syllables of the Ogham here
the excessiVe. powers where b)' there 5910
extra groups, and extra alphabets of
ia t ions, . (I) bacht, lact! fect, nect:
tect, cacct, quiar: n<CI), g<eth,
t, rect : ai, ong, ur, eng, mg.
.tions, (2) cai no <ci, c !10 p no ui, .i:
no ach ui oi ai au, aIr calr, s, bran, tn,
I c:u, Columcille, Ceallach, Cuilibadh.
, miliu, uili, eth, ean.
:rIlll, sail, nendait: dair, tr?m, coli,
liu, gius, gileadl, ralt: aball
ibur e1end, ferus, edlend.
:1, soil, nin,: hllOIII, dur, ti".di, coli, quert:
:edar, straiph, ruis: ailm, onll, ur, edadh,
aB. 313
43 Sluagogam i in fid fcn do scribcnd ttl' (-i. ina thri) aire fcn
i bcthi to' (ina thri), luis ter (ina thri), 7rl.-
Host Ogham, i.e., the Icttcr. itself to be written
thrice for itself, i.e., b thrice, 1 thrice, etc.
44 Ogam ind co ind i do ind na craibhi do ac[c]omal i 6025
aicme ailmc do mesc frithrosc ar aicme bcthi i idhad
eter b 7 1, 7rl.; aicme m do mesc ar aicme h. N:i
foraicme mar sin.-
End to end Ogham, i.e., the two ends of the stem
to be joined, i.e., group A. to 'be mixed backwards with 6030
group B., i.e., 1 betwecn b and I, etc.; group M. to
be mixed with group H. The extra groups similarly.
45 Dgam leni da reib i riab eter gach da lid i certogam. .,..
Two stroke smock Ogham, i.e., a stroke between
cvery two letters in regular Ogham. 6035
46 Ogam sesmach, ar is a medon inonn, ar is and forbaitllCr,
7 as a leth c1eginaigh leghthar prius, ar is and bis
aicme b 7 h, ar is ina 'medon ata forba na ceithri
Steadfast Ogham, for its middle is the same, for 6040
there it is completed, and from its latter half it is
read prius, for there are the B. and H. groups, for in
its middle is the completion of the four groups.
47 Gort fo lid, ar na bet da fid for a:nlit[ir] i tri feda eter
gach da fid d' aicme bethi.- 6045
Corn-ficld under colour, that there might not be '
twa Ogham letters for one letter, i.e., three letters
bctween ever)' two letters of group B.
48 Coli ar guta i aicme b 7 aicme m gan cumscugud,7 coli
ar aicme ailme, a vi aoncholJ (sic I.) 7 da choll 7 tri 6050
cuill 7 ceithri cuill 7 coig cuill.-
Coli, c, for a vowcl, i.e., group B. and group :\1. with
no change, and 0 for group A" five, i.e., 0, ec, ccc,
ecce, cecco.
49 13recor beo.-Lively dotting. 6055
50 Ceand imreasan.-Strife head.
51 Ogam Dedad.-Ogham of Dedu.
52 Ccand debtha.-Head of dispute.
53 (Unnamed.)
:;.-1 T" .... :th""l'h _T,,/:;llptp,1
55 Didruim.-Ridgeles.s.
56 Ogam focosach.-Wclt-footed Ogham.
57 Ogam negladae (1. ndedlaide) i in cuiged tid fod-
Separated Ogham, i.e., the fifth Ictter is scvered. 6065
58 Ebadach i ebad etar gach' da fid.-
Ebad-fashioncd, > )( 0( (Ogham), i.e., an Ebad
between every two letters.
59 Ogam Ft1liusa .i.. in fid btllai [I. benas] in lid ara
gualaind do buain imaille fris gan fognum fair.- 6070
Ogham of Fenius, i.e., the lettcr which touches the
letter on its shoulder to be taken off along with it
without making use of it.
60 Indiupartach ands[o] i diupairt gach aicme ar aile imon
cetfidh. Is e cetfidh na haicme tanaise, tit (st.- 6076'
. Fraudulent (Ogham) hcre, i.e., each group's.
defraUding another of the initial letter. It is the
initial letter of the second group (which ends the
first group), tit est,
61 Taebogam Tlachtga i d' tcnt<l:b uile na fega-sa sis.- 6080
Side Ogham of Tlachtga, i.e., on onc side all these
letters below.
62 (Unnamed.)
63 Dgam Erimoin.-Ogham of Edmon.
64 Snait[h]i snimach.-Interwoven thread. 6085
65 Ogam forclunta.-Foreenclosed Ogham.
60 Nathair {ria fmech.-Snake through heath.
67 Bac<'gam.-Bcnd (or angle) Ogham.
G8 (el 36.) (Unnamed.)
au Ogam trcgdae.-Pierced Ogham. 6090
70 (Unnamed.)
71 (Cf, 38.) Locogam.-Placc Ogharri.
72 Fiaclach Find, 7 is ar ~ m r nach scribthar acht da fid
do gach aicme.-
Toothlike [Ogham] of Fiolln, and it is for .brevity 6095
that there arc but t\\'o lettcrs of every group written.
id fen do scribmd la (.i ina thri) aire fen
la thri), luis IeI' (ina thri), 7rl.-
1m, Le., the Icttcr itself to be written
f, i.e., b thrice, 1 thrice, etc.
I i do ind na craibhi do ac[c]omal i 6025
:> mesc frithrosc ar aicme bethi i idhad
.; aicme m do mesc ar aicme h. Na
:l Ogham, i.e., the two ends of the stem
e" group A. to 'be mixed backwards with 6030
1 b(;tween band 1, etc.; group M. to
group H. Thc extra groups similarly.
) i riab eter gach da fid i certogam.-
e smock Ogham, i.e., a stroke between
:rs in regular Ogham. 6035
. is a medon inonn, ar is and forbaitlla,
lcghthar prius, ar is and bis
ar is ina 'medon ata forba na ceithri
)gham, for its middle is the same, for 6040
mpleted, and from its latter half it is
there are the B. and H. groups, for in
Ie completion of the four groups.
bet da lid for xnlit[ir] i tri feda cter
licme bethi.- 6045
under colour, that there might not be '
:ttcrs for one letter, i,e., three letters
t\\'o letters of group B.
:me b 7 aicme m gan cumscugud,7 coli
" a vi aoncholl (sic I.) 7 da choll 7 tri 6050
uill 7 coig cuill.-
1 vowel, i.e., group 13. and group :'\1. with
d e for group A" five, i.e., e, ee, eee,
Iy dotting. 6055
Strife head.
5ham of Dedu.
ead of dispute.
leted. i)(lf\f1
55 Didruim.-Ridgeless.
56 Ogam focosach.-Wel1-footed Ogham.
57 Ogam negladae (1. ndedlaide) i in cuiged lid fod-
Separated Ogham, i.e., the fifth letter is severed. 6065
58 Ebadach i ebad etar gach' da fid.-
Ebad-fashioned, )( 0( (Ogham), i.e., an Ebad
between every two letters.
59 Ogam Fmiusa i in fid bmai [I. bcnas] in tid ara
gualaind do buain imaille fris gan fognum fair.--- 6070
Ogham of Fenius, i.e., the lettcr which touches the
letter on its, shoulder to be taken off along with it
'without making use of it.
60 Indiupartach ands[o] i t1iupairt gach aicme ar aile imon
cetfidh. Is e cetfidh na haicme tanaise, ul ($1.- 6075'
. Fraudulent (Ogham) here, i.e., each group's.
defrauding another of the initial letter. It is the
initial letter of the second group (which ends the
first group), ul est,
61 Taebogam Tlachtga i d' uile na fega-sa sis.- 6080
Side Ogham of Tlachtga, Le., on one side all these
letters below.
62 (Unnamed.)
63 Ogam Erimoin.-Ogham of Edmon.
G4 Snait[h]i snimach.-Interwoven thread. 6085
65 Ogam fordunta.-Foreenc1osed Ogham.
66 Nathair fria fraech.-Snake through heath.
67 I3aC0gam.-Bend (or angle) Ogham.
68 (Cf. 36.) (Unnamed.)
uti Ogam tregdae.-Pierced Ogham. 6090
70 (Unnamed.)
71 (Cf. 38.) Locogam.-Place Ogham.
72 Fiac1ach Find, 7 is ar c:;uimri nach scribthar acht da fid
do gach aicme.-
Toothlike [Ogham] of Fiolll1, and it is for ,brevity 6095
that there arc but two letters of every group written.
74 Rothogam Roigni Roscadhaig
bethi a v, huath a v, muin a v, aitm a v.-
\Vheel Ogham of Roigne Roscadach 6100
B. five, H. five, M. five, A. five.
75 Fege Find.-Fionn's Window.
76 Traig (sic I.) sruth Ferc[h]ertne i coig feda in gach
snaithi.-Stream strand of Ferchertne, i.e., five letters
in each thread. 6105
77 Sigla.-Abbreviations.
iul, og, ech, ind, Iii, rii, Iii, fii, ict, arb, insei, ruidriug
di ailm, tict, dacht, garl
Bfl. 314 . ~
78 tii: diailt: ban bachlachillscii: maidm cridi eors: gai:
eet: ara: sesd: lat: nact: dec indsci so anuas.- 6110
These are tcn exprcssions above.
79 Forfeda: - sigan fainailm: remar ailm: srub-aigi:
troigi: trenoct: enoct: duiriu: coetiu: aupai: ui:
bang: uc: gort guinche: ailm
Additional letters. 6115
80 Forfeda:-
mane: esci : goth: te: Ollgall: ail: dea: eth: oeth :
neal: taeb: icht: fisidect: liasairect: emridoth:
Additional letters. 6120
81 Forfeda:-
- " "uaitea: caetrae: samuil: huic: oe :dind: h<e:
uilen: tre: ebaid: dirdill": "dur: didad': fir
Additional letters. 6125
Fiarogam.-Oblique Ogham.
83 Traigsruth Ferc[h]ertni.
monere Ilcmnig nllanl brethaigh dian Ogam ni dan
n.imraigca. rosluinni di rig dian indscib gall irrlund.
OgflJJ/ anaichnid i ccastaib coirib comairci ar is crand 6130
fo loch ler ceartach. III nogam n-ilarda dorada fri
huair irrscrudain.
Ogam n-cathrach i barc fd beithi, a v.
Long fri huath i. a v. No fri muin, a v.
Curach fri ail IT' , a v. .rEn dib ar in cctfid, a do ar 6135
in fid tanaisc co roised a v, in fid deginach secip na
Strand stream of Ferchertne.
Buat Ogham, i.c., barque for B., five:
Full-rigged ship for H., five: 6140
Ship for :\1., five:
Coracle for A., five. One of them for. the first
letter, t\\'o for the second till it reach five, the last
letter of whatever group it be.
84 Forcas-. Aipgitir Egipta andso. - Egyptian (read,
Hcbrew) Alphabet here.
85 (Unnamed.)
86 Apgitir Afraicda.-African Alphabet.
87 Suag Ogam.-Rope Ogham..
88 Ogam cuidcc[h]tach :-bachlaid, laichesa, Fianna, senada,
noeim, mar sin uili.-
Company Ogham: - Priesls, heroines, fian,
Synods, Saints, thus alt.
89,.90 (Unnamed.)
91 Ogam Lochlannach
Scandinavian Ogham here.
92, 93 Gallogam.-Anmand na feda i fea, ar, turs, or,
raid, caun, hagal, naun, isar, 'sul, diur, bcmgann,
mann, langor, eir.-Viking Ogham.-Namcs of the
letters, i.e.
Finit dona hogmaib. Incipit dona huraiccptaib.-
End of the Oghams. Beginniug of the Primers.
In dei I/omi1/t A 11/C1I.
Cillnus Sill, a pein1/? 7 dar lim is maith.-
How is that, pen? and methinks it is good.
6155 --
A a Ittl/:ht, 1 ard 1221,2,4, 4530,1,4.
aboU r. ajl/l/,-Iru 982,1153,1185,4248,
4283. C.
n.bnnd r. n"l1/is 1091,492,5736
abrochtur tytIIIS}US, t),throw 1813,
3257, abr:ltchor 4999. abrnto<hur,
Wi.: C. Add. alld Corr.
acnrb II1"!ltr, I'ollgh, co hagarb 466,
(0 h:lcarp 2931
accur hIlIlK'I', tln;rt, ni glcaccllr 2179.
accor. C.
aoht dOllbl, " 'lC'I'laill I)' 504, 2973. C.
achta"h IImf't, dOIlI:h1y, tIItrglli, 5328.
neht .j. gnim, Cor. Tr. 114: SR.
2881, 7093
aoult an ao,lt a((tII/ 1355, 1553,8,
ada dut, law/III, rig},I, dona haib adhaip
adn.lg '"i:hI "(lfJt1I 0) 5694
adbae f. a dwtlli"I:, a IItIllJt, unrnib
ndbaib 5585,6. FeI.
adbarrda callsal 3800
ad-c1 Stu, 1 s. prci. ntC'hiu 5230 i with
affixcd pronoun 3037 .j.
nucilllsi, EI.'., 3 s, fut. 'pass. ros-
cichcstar 488. Slr. GI. ,0 Thur.
ad(ln)-oomo ta {lbtaillS, 3 s. prel. with
pronoun nffixed ndcolaidi-seom 133 ;
3 S. pres. pass. adco<lar 3546, atcoutar
ad-dalmlm I (leAllowltdgl, t'"o/:1liu,
I:rall/, 3 8. pret. atarodamair 5110,1 i
3 s. perf. paIs. lIdrodamas 135.
ndroghmul i. rodamad, Ed. II b I,
32: adromul, S/01VI GI., II,,,,,
pt'o6a6/f raromus 5126
. adorn f. ;mlrulllml, g.s. anman,I aif.hni
adtolrlthlm lIals I .rt/('(O"I' , I'III"v.
nOHlolhrllstar i alHoirilhed uais
2.tj6. cr. aJ(oirichin, L:l\\5
art-glndur I .1."faJ: 10, addns.l, 3 pl.
pres. t riasa n:aga illit 1304
adlenn f. rac;' fiJI" l/,f"I'S, hotlJslttl/.
ndlcllfiJ 5876. C.
ad-mldlur IllY, al/IIf,!", 3 I. prel.
ntarommadair 5114, ,oJas-romm:tJair
adornlm I ador', II11'f .Iolllm', dill!! 1(1,
3 s. Cut. cid din n-aiJcrn d' oen[l]oehl
2076. C.
adrad m. a fL'orshippillg, n.p. adhana
adrim-lm .' IIItlllhlr, (011111, ",don, I 15.
pres. airmim 1998 i 3 s. pres. pass.
airmidir 2173; 3 8, prel, pass.
adasrame<l uili 1903. atnraimhct, T.
Q.dtlblm I l/llll:h, 3. 110. prete atib
ael 1:'IIIt, cloch (no reI) 1088
alen, don (I) alit: (2) aJiu/:lIllll'ja
unlllati 5072, 18.,.,67,' 1945, 20P9
2159.5331, t.g. do thrcllfhcr, mar.t:I1'
triadi[bJ 5335
aento. m, renda 424, 2866, nr
rentniJh 5555,7, nr ncntnld 5568. Wi.
4.ento.lg1m I wl'"cidf, at,.", 3 Il.
s-pret. nbs. 1634, 47'3 i
inr. ncntugud m. (Oillddillg, itltll""
Aer IAI a;,., g. blog aeoir 901
aer c. a salit'l, lampo01l, nir '582, t1i
air 1584
ILera1J:i1 I satiriSt, 3 II. rei. ani .crail
669,' pass. dub a n-aerthar 5335
'8'\11' l/tar 5312
,t POSS/SSiDII, re awdheas 408, 4II,
2848,S I
aU tl swall, ro chanas 407,9, 2847,90 .j.
aU f. sdtl/ct, ar148S, 742,
2958, oc 1938 i n.s. re mides 408,
410, 2847,50 i g.l. taoph uaim na
hnoi 2852, cia halt hllad 1577. alta
hllndh 1827 i n.s. cen iXl (or nn-.c
1935 i d.p. dOl .db 742. reli ubda,
. EJ. vii. 11,21: O'CI.
't IIIItU, .c niles 407,8, 2847,S, .c
nircic 497
't C. 9lttSllulI, sltil 2782,3,:.c aiges 408,9,
2847,9, \Ii, uen caingen 393 i go.s.
eolus na hni 2785. rei .i caingen,
Ell. 11,21
'tb I'Null', rofuaigh nib 1973. Wi.
f. Lat. obfcdari""" alphabtl,
apigitorium 350, nipcltorium 2710 i
n.l. lIipr.:it:r 2717,9, 27 20,1, 277 1 ;
g'.'. aipcitrc 2715, du thoit na haib-
gitrech 315 i d.s. forsin aibgitir 349,
aipdtir 2710 i 3.p. cen aipgitri 387,
aipcilri 2770
ateee ,Ind. IIlJllu}upill!! .i glliin 1112.
g-Ililll .i. tigCllus. SltJlt't GI.
aleee filSlall!:f 1112, 2261. O'Dav.
137: Cor. 7;'. q
ateeeacht, atoloht illSlrudilJII, Ittlclt.
ill,t:,It'HUII 1112, 2261. Law..
aleeent 111. tl(ctlll 4130,3, 47 67: g.
akeota 1902 i n.p. leacht n-accnta
19J2. Sg. 220
6, 7
ateeept tI Imull 1113. acepl bliadna,
Ir. "/: iii. 31. 10: I. ism.
atedo r. 1II1111rial, aicce 2443, 266,
da ilig-di 2580,2600
atcenta IItllural 397,.911, aiccenta
atehnes m. }lItlflJlldl!l, illt Ilichnius
1100. C.
atcmo m. tl Inf,,., Kn'"p S668 i g 946,
lJ75 i n.p. cis !ir alcme 5492 ;
5erip na Iloaicme 6137. Wi.
atentd m. aaml, a forbaldh 1 a
;licniJ 1544, int aimed 1902 i a.'. rri
aicnead 5292. cr. v'r.lal. iii. 466, I
atdbl8 r. n tltoral SOHg lod .idbsi 1472.
RC. XI. 181,49 nole
atdtrole6g f. 1 11l),,,illg 5696
aU C. L:,t. pflr" 5S-4, 1087,
a.U n lilllf, a 10111 I/lllt, .\. almser (ur,lit
sec:h in qUlOair 1574, ail ruit
368o, dl.ail i. Ili h;dmsir Cota 1575,
485. ail i. aimsir, Ed. vii. II "43 :
allene a small ruc!.', splil/la, slulil
1088, 4083. C.
aUd (1), ni for 1\ llailJ 440S. cr. dut-
:lild, Thur. IN.V: /lmILill. 38, 8
aUo deo lJllf-/u'fljih I.H8. L"ws
atlllwbl'52H. O'D;lv.65
a1Ulot\oht f. I'ltiull' 4263
aUm " p"IIII.lru, '.j. qu:ui pailm 4295
o.tlm (I) a /ir.ll'lI, lUI. 119.. .i.
ochtach .P93: (2) Ilu 1IIIIr a, is ailm
5575, S649, 2795, 2797 i g.,. aicmi
ailmi 989, luis ailme 999, 5491, 56H
atm-ger /lmharp 1979
alm-nert fL'fllkntu 969, 972, 980
almserad m. tI lill/il/I[, '//I,."litJlI 4133,
4117, a. Ila cuimre 4120. Sg5- IO
'tn r. a ,/,.if,iIlK 27 31
atneess pa;lI, slrall, ar d:a
ainges 2108
atn-dUse illa/,)r{J/lr illlmiss 843
atnm m. (I) a 1/1111/1, domicil int ainm
3S86: (2) t' 110/111, al/ IIllflClive 2659,
319, 1533, 2667: (3) tl cUlllliillalitJlI
ofllllfrS, inscripliuJI, in cctninm ognim
1161, illt ainm ogaim 1551,478'
(4) II II/lflura/, car,/ill:11 1I/1II11Jtr, illt
ainm airme 4490, 1439
atn-menee 102,2381
m. tl "amillg, IIUIII/"lIlif't
((IS( 4667,4972
atnmntd Iht IIU/Ilillalit" ((IU, n.!'.
1770, oth:a in ainmiml 906 i R.S. I
ainmneda 1643, 16H 9,
1659: u.s, ina n-ainmniJh 1678
alnmnlugud m. (I) II 4752 :
(2) IIlJlllillllll"1 {OU 799, 1517,
a108td IIt, ll(cUJtlli'('1 (tIU, g.a, ainsiJa
16H, ainleda 1649, 16;9 i d.s. 'Ila.
ainsid 1678
. alpglglm I ri/,III, 3 . rei. preL aib.
goigu 351,%, aipcidhiul 2712
atrbert 'IU, /,radiet 332, 742, 818,
atrblur btth IlIu, /,racliu, 3 s. pre
iar n-airbhirt nnn-airbirenn bitb 1895.
Cf. C. 113
aircolllld m, (I) a /lllll/do-;llt.. (2)
,,1"'ft/fl'l faU nirchelhdh 1886. Lawl:
nirccallaJ i. goid, 11. 4. 18: fol'
airichell q.\'.
atreholl en.ln.ld/hf/I of" hartl,
n.f a'/;I/ol hlll'd comO/lllll1 19,.R, airichill
c. 19M.. , 2167, u macllil calaidi 5374:
fer, ft a nirchill cabid 1804,
2107, 499( i ben, lit a airichill IS50,
a aircenlJa cnlaith 5030 i nem, IIf a
airlchill 1872 jail na guth 5376
atroholl futt Ihifl (1/ " IOI'l:t illSt'rlill,t:
1, airchill (\lit 2135, 1948, airicil
IRSI, airichill (uit 1874, 1983,215,
572, 5379, aircenlla f. 531. na da
airichill 2148, 1\ nirichil f. 5379:
c.!:. Cdr a airchill Cuit 11105, deirc
alrehetal potll')', p(ltll')', n
hairl"hctul 5799 i g.s. 337, 2685;
1973, 159, 211)0. C.
all'de a hll:{hl 1246, a n-Ilirdo altlft
II H7,1470. 8
alrde II $iJ:l l. 101,011, n.p. 985 i a.p.
. C.: .i. Ed.
atrdtbc1ud m. (I) till 1",1;/IJ:/I/S"""I,
,/lIf",.lIilll[: (2) ItI/;lio/l n.f f al/d of 8
1264, 1280,'''.3,4322,4338,4342
alrdtttu r. (air.di-fet!) a slrllchillJ:,
n.'. nirdilin 18z4,
urditcun 5013. 979, note
atre m. tl ch/tj',priIlCf, n.p. airigh (cdha
1150,2, 549Z,3, aire 4246,7
aire a '/am,lmCf, ItttlKI 1192, 4290.
i fal, III airc grapha araibh,
()'Dav. 18o: II "u. iif. 43: aire 1
imc no ral, O'Dav. 60
alreo a ;"vtnlill!!, n... airee,
3974irie 1019
atreohtu a fi"diNk, ;11vtII I;ON, n.', air-
echta 29741 aireachlain 498, 50S,
622. Rib. Alin.
alrlall f. II ",tI, n.s. intan rOfaig
Inr ind airiall 1710, airel! 4716.7 i
d." d' 1703, d' nirel1 4()99,
4892 i co hairedl 4900. C.
atMeholl a ,110
/l1Ia I' diftll.lil'l cnu, e.R. ar rear n aid-
rheall1518,ilirceall165r, nirchclladh
1886 q.v., nirciol1 4829, nirci114740
atrlgoaoht (. sOftrf(f;/II)' 583. O'Or.:
atrlnoeh (I) Ihf "1111, "t,{i"lIi"J: (0' R.) :
(2) a shit/d, nireoarh F1ann .j. fcrnd
I I(){}. nirinach f'ian i. !iciath 553(,,8,
aircllach 6097. C.: /.".
alriool, n.urfool (I) 1'''':'' Iu", .. (2)
hllmihlllio/l, Ilu addilloll n.f alb 10 lilt
11'onl 19H, n iriscl 579, 5346, a
fholisenl19lJ7, a uirise:al 2098, 2146,
auri:icnl 2176 i e.g. (er-nib 17?S.
4990 i ben-nibh 18+7 i nimoib 1869;
Fer-nih mnn-aib 5H9
atrlameeh /,trsiJlillJ:, COllliIlIlOUS, og'um
n-airismech 5815
alrltlu C. OUtpllll/ff, /'fu/,Ii(lll, g.,.
nirilen 1113. niriti 2263
atrler.h a slauJ:hltrillKt nrulC n-airlig
5fi 31J. Lnw,
alrmldotu a C{JllllliltJ:, fllumlraliOll
14 12,3,6, 45 2o
atrndol II lI'ap ji". birds, fornelaib
114, nirnnclaib 2394. Ald. (. 1'.
alAO rlprlwrlt, ria haisg 3101
atAte f. (I) a III""', inti aisli 3711 i
83 2,3,7,8,926, 1686 i n.p. 1509,
IlJ5R i risin aisti 1584:
(2) ptillfrll, (0 niSli nn Gregaid
3379. C.
attenn m. II/ru, aitean 1156, int
ailcnd 2834, 4251 i 119" 5522,
5580,2. Laws
o.tthoantn.l"olL''', (lttlradtl'/slh- 282R .
att}mlgte lIlOWII, {amillar 4955.
nithnigim; CC.
alttrob m. f. (I) a II"hilttlio,,: (2)
locali,t tau, inn atreib 1725 i 1518.
16<:1, 1723, 1783, 1884, int aitrloph
5 .
aladpitH'ld, 16tt11td, alath 5701. C.
alim I ",al', lJI'i",Il}, 3 L pre ailld andalde IAlrl,.andaldl 2351. Wi.
3680; reL ailes 407,8; \\ lah affixed ander C. a woman. f)i,.,in, ander g-ach
pronoun, 3 s.C. pret. aihilul 5319 j &lan 607, 3349
3 a. pres. pass. ailter 3671,5 Ilne r. splmdoMr 517.,8. WI.
almne a illu-cap, 11lmnre 1854, nilmne lI1uharp 2120. CC. Wi.
(or glun 1819, Caircle for glun 5e08. an-Ds m. ig"ora"", ni maith int anlls
<llmne g'lunae, Sg'. 47& 3: Caiman, 734, 2773, ind anblio. 3492, anChis
HSD.: ralaman a' J{hHlin, M'Alpine: 378, ainLfios 2776
this word is Itlll spoken in the High- an-torbthe illlptrficl, airem a. 0 primt
lands, talman, tallmean m. 1II11"IJtr 1443, 4493
alt m. (I) it joi"l, Ii",!>, " ",tnsure 740, angUde allgtlic, aillgJaidl 5306. C.
925, 1577, 481 4 i g.B. alta 832,3, a anocht m. (I) a llitlriml
n-inad :Jilt .3684.5 i a.l. 1951 j n.p. fll II II, rror 1943, 5062, 1970, 2022,
aha 835,1957 i d.p. altaib 925,1577, 2069,11,3.5, 2102,,., 2178. nr allodlt
Cri aha 1237, Cri haltaib 1956: (2) 2175 i d.p. d'ar n-anochtaib 2112,'
I' jl/lulllrt, illltrool (between letters ror a. 212,. i a.p. anuehlu 2009: (2)
or syllables, in spelling or pronounc- a SpteifiC ",tlriml Illull, abu"a 01
ing) 830, 76o, 779, 835. 909, 910,1, nocht, q.v. 2069, int anocht 2073 i
1417,30, 3%2: (3) illt alt co CClser, e.g. 5222, argair and cell ni Cris 5232,
tal. 'tl SC;III.' 826,7,8,31, 890, 1577 Jr. 7: iii. 126
am-bed liftlns, Ii ambi II70. e. anrooomralrcntcstumatrne Ilu
am-tres C. Ulllltl,tf, L. ;lIfid,lillll, n.l. 'word ,,, Glldie 1436, 45 23 i
:tn aimiris 2349, ind aibres 61 fl. comroircnigiur till",", Lat. 1III1II1S 469, 2934. ansruth, anruth, anrad m. II pod of
Wi. Ilu SIC/mel ortltr, ann'th 2231. Ir. r.
amne IItIlS, imne 4315. Wi. iii. 112, and !tllia
amra wOlldallll, luper!. i1mram blai. 'rad m. a latltltr i adj.
5666. Wi. 5830. zer. 8, 70
amus m. 0 soldier, n.p. amui. gairg 2538 aradu C. a }r'}llri"g, clUlrad,,.,'slic,
an (I) splmtlid, glorioltl 1581,S, 5353: cOlUlilioll, n.s. is caindeiCrlges a n-
(2) splmdollr, n.s. 4660 i g.s. ni olin aradu 985 i catead a n.araide
1585 1639, 16-43. a naradnai 4819 i
an-tUb n. each n-anseb cona n.aradnaib 1674. 48)j. C.
2080. co nonnaeb, SR. 18 aro.thar m. a p/l'IlKh 5728
anatr C. a Il1u,(lIlor, Ittxasyl/alJic melrl arbor n. corll, g.s. eriath:lr arba 636,
proptr 10 a cll, ind anair 3672, 1578, gort nrba 5558 i d.s. c. im arbor 637
4654, 4815. C. ar-chlng1m I go 10, approllclt, ,,,I,r, 3
an-air (I) from ille Ellsl. (2) from s. pret. arching 5241
Ihe or11'011/1581 ar-ch<l m. fl'akh-do.f " or, 'rchu m.
amll a brtalh, a pods b",alll offive slllllgltltr-Itoulld 514 1,2
f/lOrdI, g'.s. 930, 3528 j d.s. i n-anaH lord Aiglt, compar. airdi masi mllin
931, 3860 II 86, airden 428-4 j suped. ardam
anamo.ln C. a ""Ireproptr 10 a" ollam, dossnib 5548, a. iarhtadh 5575
inti a. 829, 1578, 1581,4654. Ir. To ardtnglm I crush, compr,ss, i1lltmiji',
iii. 116 3 s. pres. anHng dead 1357. 1546,
ano.stropbe a melallusis, e.g. el, Ie; <lrJing in rocul 1828, ardiol: delidh
en, lie i Lat. ptr ;1I;slrcjm 510, per' 3661 ardingidh in roueal 5018
t"islrafin 2979 ard-rlnd n. a plll1ld, na vii,n-airdrenda
and Ihtrt,lh"" " formolad, ann-on 5286 3537
, arganda m. sltf/l;tr (?) 1226. 4536.
cr. argg, argan, e.
ar-garlm IltJr!>id, prt1tnl, clucl, 3. S.
argair 5230,2
I ttml aloud, airleglhar
5828 i info airlegind 5827
arnln m. all tlccml, fi'hich lom-
prosts a filial Itlltr, allel Ille sig" of
fdud, i,l' n 156o, int arnin 1827,
arnin is e in tres Cuilled 437,8,
J545,6, 1558, 1824. airnin 2888,9,
363... 4355, 4768, nirnion 3637
ar6 a rMJJi"g, i imrnmh 1326,
4"4 Z. CI.
l\ros m. dfl,tl/inc, d.s. issinn arus

araata oM, a"dO/1 1757, ars3nta
ar-s18s1ur, atrlsslm I rO/mill, rlSl,
3 !'i. pres. airissid 1446, 3056 i is di
arU8C n. a slipulalio" 5639. Laws
arusc Lal. f.',rbum f'olu"lfflts, lor
,'.rI1",tl, 4672. TP. SuNI. p. 25,
asa.. 18a fiItOSt is 5
ascnam m. (ad.col\1o!'in{) (I) all at/fm,,-
allad: (2) Iltt ,.,p'lilioll al
lit, rlilst '?I a "'I'dial sla,,:a ill a po""
of Itllli lit" ocuIII,tI O/If1,ill!! ,,.ord of
lit" POl'tH 2200,3,1 I, I,.. 7: iii. 30,1 :
11'..111'1", 28: (3) Iltl mlf'alld", eau
int :lsgnamh 4916,7, 4977
ass ""a, a:l aUSit 4023
astad Ill. II ItliUt,,! jl1sl, sttllin.f, ulab-
It/ltiflR, :lsdadh 1022,7, Caslad 3977,
a Coslad 39R3. Wi.
a-ta-bolnd prodn,'ms, ata.boing, ata-
hong' llli 5458. Ped. Gr. 668
ath Ill. ,,/ord 1274, 4328
atho.rratglm I r,pt'tll, r"l,ral' , garh
ni athairrigthir 729, nthraiglhcr 3485
athdenam tI!!llill, reptalilll, a
n-ai(t)denamh 2312
atbech m. a 1",,,,,I.,,I-f(';I/. fl,ho pays
i"ltrlSl (aithe) for IAt la"d It", !lim
"y It IS chief, apMsnlll, churl, n.p. luhalg
fedha 115 r,4, 5493,6, ahhig 4246,9
atbt6go.ct m. a rtl!arc/t'I'K, r01lJ/'dtrill,f,
913, 1475, 1894. C.148
atb-forgn.b m. a fl'taPO", slrift, s.l'n-
t'oJ/J" madh ro atbargab 3387. CC. e.:
Fian.: Wi.
atbgabl\ll r. a rtlalinc, inc,'ua",c,
eona n.athghabail diblinaib 90-4,12304,
ath-nuo.lg1m I 'en,,,,, ma/;, acO/'y 01
(MSS.), 3 S. pret. dep. doathnu-
aighillsler 2639- Cf. ros-atnuidh,
Ir. T.' iii. t6,3
atb-talrclm I r,proau(t, ,.iftr 10, Cedair
i alhtairgither 3153. attaircidhter,
auralcept m. II pr;""r, firsl I,sso", Ii
gramm"lical I"",/I.r" r..S, int Vraicipt
3381, erairept 2260 i g.s. eoie <tllai! in
aurairepta 343, 733, 2699, .uraiceplo
2773 i uraieenpla iar n-Amairgcin
1028 i a.s. iar n-uiraicccht Mllimn':f
4507; d.p. dona huraiceptaib 6161.
a. na n-ecsine, I,.. 7: iii. 32,3
aurba a !>rMliIlC, "rutlion, co nd-
amba 1202, co ndurba 983, co
nd-ollrba 4314
baco a hSJ, Lnt. pa,\, 1356. pi% 1I5D.
bacc crosi,r, crook, sll,1f, bac Ogam
IUIld or all!!l, Ogham 6088. IIillg, or
,tlffple Ogham, /(ill. Arch. fr., p. 225
bl\chlo.oh m. cI,r;c. p,.;tsl, mo"l, n.p.
blcllaid 61 S0 'm. 0 crOft'd, C""(I 5365.
Dill. .
bo.db, bodb a war !!oddess, badbri a
uoar linc 5I 57,67
bl\dlm I drolI'", ",a,ft. did" rei.
baidhius 4342 i conasfir-bade 120',
co ndofir-baidhe 3920. O'Molloy
(;,-. 149
bno8 MIIII)', I"sl 5390
bl\oth a1001, ba(th criche 5289,95
bd,g C. a S626. Wi.
ball tXCil/mel, prosperil)', SllC"SS, du co
mboil 5932
bane pia", I(!fl",slli), mONasllr', g.. ar
llglanb.,ile 5338
balrdne f. 6art! }ollr" g.lI. 743, 754 ;
d.!!. 757
brlcbt ass '/ollill/: (1/11, dddioII , a
mbricht ass di uith 1282,4339- v.
bracht (2) .
brlgalm I dtdart, a,l.;i"'lt, bricht
iarsinni brigtair oeht !'illab."\ and
1428, 4484
brlmon smetrach 'a "ttld/,' optmli(lll
ptrjomud potlS I'll IltOft t;'ho !r,jltu,(
IIt,.i,. ",.11I 4mb , 1328,464$. l.jriamon
5" Re. xxvi. 14: Cor. 7,.. 22/
brlse/rial,lt, /ratl 4539
br6en{a)lm I drop, dislil, rorsmbroeniu
bith 559 I
brogmar t.\'(nsl"t, inir na
cumaing brog-moir 5912 I
brolach a prololltt 23S8, brollach 81
brosnacha balrdne illciltllltllIs of
bard /J0t/r,1 743, b. na b. 3S,II.
<I.p. /r'. 7: iii. 66, 22 I
bruud m. a 'I'ushilli, ,nrlimItt-
lion 90S, 3788
buachaUl m. a (flu,lttrd, hfnl, con-
bU3chaill 5745, n.p. con-
huachaille 5746 : Laws :
bualdlr a i//S/III'/"1'IO, Ufrllill', b.
rOr.lIllll 5986. Wi. Cf. buadir-mese,
buarach n. Q (pal/rt! frlr (tIlllt, .rj'tlllol-
Im,t:, can buaraig
bue origilllll, tlJtl/.d".f(flldtd, .fltad/ml,
,irlllilus. g.5. bui 5393. C.: cf. Boii
bugs. a .roji sO/illd 1072, ar il buig-i
bis isna forfeudhaibh 4400. 1300.
Sg. 3"13
buge n. a blttlb'i', kl'tuilllh, bugha 3500.
bulcnecht r. a A,nli"K, lurht na
huicncchta 5473
buldle? 6/illl/ .j. dall 5440
buldlen? n It II III"tr, a lIiKII ""lI/hO:
bunad o,.i,t:i", basis, one of the 7 heads
of definition, viz.', buriad, Inde, air bert.
ruidlcs, diles,' indIes, coitchclld 741,
810, 3548, 3678
ca\echan m n Milltl ma", caechanog:lm
5767. Cf. C. .
ca\em (I) jair, "ttlltliflll, indlge aicrenl3
eDom 3708, raimiti 2752, locnlr rnlmiu
346S. Mod. Jr. bra-bach m. ;11-
,nau, ta b. !lir nn oidhche cheana
Iht "iglti is alnad)' l"'rllu"iIlK (after
braeht (I) /al, ,mal-.Iuia 1229,454 i
pl. braehh 4541, LawI: Cor.:! 42
braeht (2) mrilgaltd, mbracht (0.1.
mrccht) 5700
brs.lseeh f. 589. O'Mulc. 685 :
pr.liscch Iwollt, M'B.: A;s/,
bran a raf'tli 5598. Wi.
brann n womall, braiod i mna 542S.
brann gl. s:ctilcch mary 5936. Cf.
braon .i bocht, .l/tlr.
brass, bress grtal, !Jig,. brisl, tagtr
5158 j n.p. brais 2537 .
bratan a silimOIl 5599
brl1.tharda hroM,r"', cleal b. /(11/ oj
s.1'1II!1tIIlttli,: IIlt1gif (1) 1332 Cr. br/,
Cor. 7;'. 22
f. a lit, dlU;I, breice 5288,94
brecc m. a doll;lIg 6010
bracc tJarit'/:alttl, clutjlttrtd
brechtrad m. farid, 4736. Wi.
breeor a rlollill.e 605S. fr. T. iii. 84,
8: fur mreeecor .
bress btaltlifltl 5168, 5263 .
brath f. a judl"""I, durtt, Isna
bre;lthaib Ilcmedh 1298, 438o, 4398
Bretnas r. Ilu Brilish, Wtlsh,
isin Dreatnais 633, Dretnus 3208
bri a word .i brialhar 1330, brigh
4482, 4645 i n.p. bri ocht i. ocht
mbriathra 1
brian a fl'un15433, 39,12. O'CI.: H.
3.t8, p. 624-
briathar m. f. (I) a u'ord, SO,
PII. 3(48: (2) a ,,'rillm 11'ord 1924:'
(3) a IItrb, n.s. 2657, 2670, 319 j
g.,. breithri 2664, hall in 322 ;
d.s. do hreithir 2670, 'oa prethair
brloht a ,harm i, epaid 4540, Wi.
brlobt a or t'trst of tiKhI syl/aMtS,
o(/os)'l/ahit 1218, 4482,3, 1727.
1736; 1233,4, 4550,3; 1414. 14
i mbrleht 933
Wsona a la"guart, beusgna
2268, besgna 2270, 2317,in besena-sa
5472 i. sith no berla, Ed.' ',1. gaeh
tir na gaeh talamh a mbid berlada, H.
bethe m.(r)/ht6;rcA-lrtl, g.s. fri eoisin
" bheithe 1158, 1154. 116o, 4249: (2)
/ht Itlltr b, n.l. in beithe 2802, 5486
(3) alpnabtl, (orbethi 5912
bethelulsnln lIlt ogltam alphllbtl,
bcthi-Iuis.nion 2806, 5s05
bethumnacht li(tlinoo'/ 5798. Cf.
beth:lOlIlaS, C.
blall f. a/I aXl, hllh-ntf 572S. C.
bUe ril/l, 60rdtr, lip 5158,68. C.
blth m. world,jaulla, aipgitir in betha
5600. C.
blth-eolUB /ht ttlrli,ill/!
395. 2790, 2978 i g.s. 509
bltumaln /.illll/ltli 287, 298, 2.J38,
blath 6/00//1. ar a blath 5620.4. Wi.
blog f, a pitct, jrtlgl/ltlll 901, is blod
2838, in bJad 3783, 4386. FtI.'J
bloso tI /lO;St, rtporl, "radillg, carn
bloise 5636. .i. guth, If. 3. 18, p.
: C.
boald i cblud a rlarilll, trill.flllg up
5445. Cf. buanann lIuru, .lldr.
bo-alre cow-chit/. bOlirel'h 5448.

b(cad m. (I)a SO/lo"'"g,ltllf'Oli"il.t:: (2)
""ilioll (of a filial consollalll) 1264,5,9,
73,4, 4322,3,7,8, 433S, confused
with (3) lIlt Ogham I{ foll(iu,ill.1: ils
fOnsOIUI/11 e.g. D+ H=P 1270, 4335
bochta f. p()fJ(rly 5343. Wi.
bogalm I soJim, rei. bogal 4335 i int:
bogad, boccad 1/.,', Cf. C.
bolscell a mad. nind g.s. boaiscille .i.
elit geh 1185, 5554, blisgell i eilit
4282, Ed. ,ii. II "39, blsceaH 5S5f.
boscell 5553, boiscell 5S52. probah(V
II/oM tI)'//IOIo,l!'y, bo-asa-ceill. .fltlr.
brab sllprmlacy. SIt,tr!tllit" .i b;irr
Ilc:ithe IAt lOp or poilll 0/ a tlllllf'
P. O'C., molad .i brabh 3361.2, bee
brab-beirius comparil, mor lrab-
beirius superlait 3329,30, brab iffin
balrend t. PHCI D/ rDcl, slO1lt 5426.
T6c.: O.
balrt .i ingen tlauKltur,cirl 5426
ball a mMI6tr 1305
ballorb (I) a Inlln6tr or jacully jor
ptr/trlillKpotlry I30S : (2) a lIam, for
a cano 1306,4628. i. in bud ica fui!
ball don baJrdne agas bairdne ar
f.lidecht sin, i.e. a !Jard tUnO hal Ih,
IIItlllbtr lor bardsnip, alld 6ardsnip is
Iht lIalllt for /hal pOtlry, 0'0.
ban a 6/allA spact 1275. O'Dr.
ban- /tmalt,. banda tuOlllall(V: 1464,S,
1S03 i ban-eeoscda 0/ tlJomaIlly form,
b:m.gnethach 0/ womall(v aClivilitS,
ban-gnimach of wOllllmly duds 612 i
ban-en n /tlllait In'rd 542 i banmac
m. a /tmalt child 531, banmac 631,
3162, banmaean m. id. 533, ban-
macam 3163
banad a MilllCnillg, IIIa1illg palt 5628
bar a sag" bair i suid 5425. C.
bara all.f,r, wralh 5168. C.
barco f. a boal, 6arfjltt, barc 6133
barco f. a slroll.t:Ao/tl S107
bargen f. " caAt, 6nacl, bairgen 5806
b6 II U'OllUI1I 1275. C.
beo small, IiIllt, compar. lughu 677,
1472, luga 3270 i sup. lugum,
lugusomh 6S9, Jugam 3489, lugasoun
3271, lughuJe 1456, 3369
benalm I 3 s. pres. nos-benand
5P7, benai (1. benas) 6069 i 3 I. perf.
robi 5122, ros-bi 5349
bed li"lill:, ali,", g.l. cellabrad each bi
1681. each olbi bui 5393 i d.s. du
hiu 584
be6lr t. !Ita 98o, 138 I, 5429
berbalm f blJil, 3 s. pass. rei. berbtbar
5S66. Wi.
b6rla n. f. m. a spfteA, lallgllagt, berJa
nEpraide is Ii 248890,8, 10H,
in mberlasa 153, illt aonberla 2434,
1765,4966 i berlada 2579
berrad m. 10llsurt, A,l/'r of l/tild, g.s.
d \th a t:'crrda !.J97
bert f. rlolntS, robt of a J.illK 5371. C.
besan a o/bird, il pnttlsalll (?)
1068,9: (2) tlSC"(J!a", /ifill, g caem oal'& m afi ,'.J 53
6 56-
r l' tlllI, n.s. ,Ul9 i g.s.
Ibluaigh .228 j ".p. caomthuit cluidh comainm cnat 5
2234 earalm 1 lotIt, 3 s. prete,
04er r. a 6$"")" g.p. 1168, 'a etc. (paradigm) 653, 33S
; 1 pret.
chaor 4264 .WI. , of fut. noceehrainn 534
caerthand m. lIlt 1II011llIaill-tlIIt, rowa" earechtar cltarncltr, Itlltr, pl. loair.
I ISS; 1166,7, caonhand 4249,62, eachlai'e 336, 2687,4011,2
eairthend 5520. Wi. oarpat m. II cltar;OI, fidh roith in carbait
oal. col r. a wa)', lalit, for cai cuir 1182
2221, for c;.ci H25, for coe 2233, oarr m. a u'a/WJII, carl 5726
2245, coicer ellC 2238, lriur c:c 2242, oa.rra.o f. Lat. I ropllia, I. uO/'IIIUt
oen coe 2250, for coe 2253, In carr:llh 4083
Jesl'hae 836, iflO che 520 casna.d a ,,.1/11, p"I' licit, pI. l'alllaide
oall f. '1ualilv. COl/tI;lioll, dt."acltr, cnipI"Iltat';II/:I 3499
rt/JuI'llioll, cail gotha 601, cailrota cass iJu;cl, aclit,,,, null, IIUstollalt,
, tria chail 3774 ..oclla! 5261
oalll r. a 'Wootl, jiJrtSI, n.s. coill 2828 i cass curly, ('quat. cailithir 3499
g.s. fiJ lIa caille 398, 856, na coill('<.1 oath pttllaaa (?) 5562,84. O'Mulc.
2817,43. rois 1320 210
olUlle" tlillis;1J1I olllllltl 51c6 oathach It,w;lIg IJilIIII'S, warliit 5318,
call1ech f. a "ulI,.np. caillige 5720 5350
ctUn jilli' cainiu fedaib 5550, cathlr f. 1II0llasltr.y 5268
cainJeifriges 985. caindellgud 1502, c61m (I) II pau, n.d. da ceimend U45 :
c:linliJh 1183, fainuaighter 998, folt. (2) grade, ranJ,"ordtr,. graduI .j. ceim
chain 116o, locarcainc 1070 3284 i secht ngrad immorro .i. graduI
calndlech luslr(JIII, shlll;lIgwllilt 5313 grad no grad us ceim i secht ceimenna
oalngen f. Il/tsiJltSJ, iJlltfliol/, Irou"'t na filidechta, Ed. vii. 6: (3) /111
512' airbert (f rc:im, php!. />trltci al/j"'ra.
or.lre f. /JIlllllt,/tl/lll 5270 ./io" i" ttld, 1I'1/( v/ II '1u"lraill,
oalsa.cht f. uaimm do rind 8eo, 3590, 3617- Cf.
IItI.f 3265. caisiu SUilll:, C. O'O,1\'. 392
o3.1thlm I (IJIISU""', sjJmt!, pas.. 061mnlglm / pact, gratlulllt, ceim-
5119 i p.p.p. caithtc lIighthir 991,2
JjJml 467 061r f. 11'/U' 982
oa.nach clJl/lJJ/'Krnu, !JIOO/ll 01 oelrt (I) all II/,/,It.lrtf, quc;rt 1185 : (2)
tllll 5
20, olwillllfiJ, (Illlii" 5624 /h" og/wlII Itlltr q HC, queirt I ; m. II I'IJ'/ olillt IOI/I'M 11t/rtf, d... 4281,7.3
do chanaid 130';, 4629, till callait celtheoram i l'eitheora mna 4709
2Z3? eendtochruo r. a IJI (a) all
cantaln f. II sa.ri".f, prollollllcli,.f illili"l; c. tui:; 1985, <4988, 532: e.g.
fer, Ier 1795, 4987i ben, len 5033;
oapall (gl. i>unad) II IouIfdaI;IJJI , /."SiI ICllchap,/c:nchas 5386 i ,/licht .i. ,licht
3813. capaH, ODav. 572 i. cendfochras, A lite. \'. 22 i (b) a
-oar of, c:\in-ear tid /r;/'lIlt- filial Itlltl' IJ/ a u'lJrd 19.7, 2110,
g/f'i",t: u'lJlJd 4
, cno-car fer (Jilt 2172, 5073, f. deriJ I 99'J,
fOlld 0/ lilt/I 4
79, fer (JIlt jiJlIIl 2136,4988, S032, c. deidh 1795: e.g.
01 <4
80, Alite. iii. 43, 15, (er, fel 1795, 4988 i hen, bel
In;llnchar fer Ollt of JtI'illlllli"l: 5031 j nem, ne/18H, 5050 i don',sci/'
431 5388, doroisc(', RC. II. 152

cen61 m. (I) gmtu 856,7,8,9, 861,3,
885.7,JI,9, is e in cenel 895, 3777 i
a.p. eencla 891: (2) tt"dtr,
I ceniuil 712
Eftttr;C 858, 3736
cero f. a Itm, qucrc Cf.
cerl' ulr1;mtd, fI'I'J' 5743. C.
cert r iglt I, tXl/eI, i cc(\ogam
6033 i compar. certiu 1131, 1256,
ccrt 2916 ra#trl6131. C.
certdn II h"rI olmus;c, ItUIII-
1474,4577. O'Mulc. 830 e.
certle f. a hall ailltrtad, ditu 5816.
ce9S m. u.'tariIlUI, gritl. gan
cheas 2264, CCIl chcau 1115, 2035,
2073, can c. 2107, cen chesla 2225.
cessad m. (I) II!/fuil/g 1611: (2)
/,ll1si"t t'O;U 643, 653. g.s. briathar
cllrsta 1619
cest, ceRo f. 'l"tl)', Lal. '1,uus/ilJ, 9, as
fiwlI Lat. ,((iUIII' 615
c6t /irsl, ectaium ,/irJI im(ripliall
1161; cet-Iabra .finl Ipud, 2378,
2797, 5649, cet.labrad 1681, RC.
xxvi. 3%, 145 i nacetscribtha 1757,
c6tfald umt, pflwtlilJll, d.l. ianin
dietfaidsi 2642 i n.p. cetfai<.lhi cllirp
7 anl1\a 1<)01
cetha.r-ehubald /ou/,.rhpntd,
/<",r rliymilll.' f'trU.t1ldillgJ ;11 a '1ufll-
t",11I ceatharcubaid 785. 1937, taibrcm
ccth.)r-cubaidh Iilidechta 7 bairdnc
3593 II'. T. iii. 15, 6 i 22, 26
cetha.rde lOll,. Ihil/tI, '1""rltlll 2868,
cClhair 426, fri ceathardu 1020,
cC.\Il1ardha 3975. Wi.
cethralme a /lJ/lrlli pari 359, centh-
ramthll IH8
cethra.r m. jour />trsoll1, a Itlrlltl
cethre coli. cal/lt, cara cuthrll
cethrulmthe lour l"illP, qllarll/lt,
'1"1111,.";0" 3979
oet1aoh Ion/lui 525a. C.
cia m., cesi f., ced n. tvAo' n'Aill f
dsi rilll 524, da8a run 521o
ela.cht miI/iutU, 3265. em,
II/isl, C.: ciachda 1'SII. rtnsollahlt s/,ur:h (1). :l
cia lIabair no i ngcnaib 1594. cr. f. Lnt. ttlthral t
ola.l1a.ide u/Hi/'/t, a Co
no neame. 3032. C
. clan Itlllg, riab ciallaib aj II"IK limt
",(ort 149, Cf. ST. '
olnr II/(luu.(olollrtrl, rlllrl.."rou'I/ 5352,
quiar 5699. Wi.
cln.rthn flIll.\'tJI, 'mw,I, forsna claro r.
1757, forna c1araib ciart:\ 49.. 6.
II/hul" urlllrl, PI. Ad. S""cl.
cfn r, /'oIJ1, a Sfl I!lji"t c,tllunt Jhuls,
Lat. tjUillio, isin Cin Ollaman 1204,
Cor. 7;'. 31
clnglm I Iltp, cingit J2 87, 1290
clnnlud m. fI rltfinililJlf
1254, 4365,6. Fd.'J
clnntechji.\"td, rltJiIl/lif" 1254, comp:!r.
cinntichu 1255,6 i sup. cinntechem
4367, cinntechsom 4)68, d. cinntichu
son 1258
clrcumplex IItt drCllmjlt,\' fI((tIIl
1354, 1554,8
clth m. II Iltof(tr 557
claldemnao a '('0,.,1 IJr t'frSt 01 Ut'tl/
Iyllahln, 1tt/,laJ.yllllMt U 17, 1425,
1955,6, 4480
ela.nd f. (I) a pllwl, meni tusmed
c1anda 6.28, siladh clann 5652,3: (2)
/,rogfll)', cllildrm 5271
m. a duil', n.s. i n.p.
clcrig 5711 ; dim. cleirchcn 5203
ol1l1,;"otl 0/ Iht IIt;rd ralli, do chli 2235.
/1'. 7: iii. J 12: Cor. '
011 fll/ II/,plt.lrtf, gl. quicrt 428l
olla.b m. /Jruld, dtU/, "ruul, mac c1eib
5313. C.
ollthar n. Ilit/lir 1185, 4282, clilhar
mbaiacaill 5551,2,3. C.: clithchar,
.111". iii. 43
010ch (. (I) Lat. III/J;I 1086, 4081 i
555 : (2) cloch (no iCl) I;mnlollf 1088
016e f. Ilorm, wltirlwi"rI 5214, chluo
5219. mora in cbloc, T6(. 4997
el6en (I) slo};"K, i"di",J,}'nJlrs,: (2)
m. a ""01lK, cen chlllm 1940, can
chloen 5057, chen 2026,8, 2031,.,5,9 j
Co ceilli a wr01lK 01 U"SI 2139, 5100;
n.p. tri c1; '028. O'Oav.49
el6en orettl m. a turOllg oj body or
lm"", a chanlt ill lIu form oja word
metri caus:i 5102, elren creiti 2031,S,
31: e.g. foniulig 5I fairsiung 5135
el6en culbdlusa m. a T(lronl: oj rhy11l',
Iltf cltan,t:t oj T")/ltI, e.g. e to 1, or 1
to e metri causa, chen cuibdiusa
34.9. 2I 38 i 5086, 5098, 5100: e.g.
5088-90, 5095-7
cl6enad m. 5099
cl6enre (I) a word or T'trst 01 ji,t
1954, 4477: (2) /,tn,usi01l of UIIU,
c!icnrc (no cl:cn celie) 1694. II',
iii. 21, 16
oloth (I) n.j4J11It, AOllollr, g.s. caemtbult
cluiJh 2233: (2) fillIlOUS, co c10thaib
5284. cr. C. n.
olusal r. a It,.,ninll/;QII, jillal, mdillg, fit
ac clwlail na muiti 2950, 3392
onoo Ill. a Itil/, 11I1II/" T(lfII, llillcldt 5014
onu f. II lilli, cadi uc ithi II elmo 1183,
J.p. clloib 5317
cobalr f. Itdp, n.s. is dcgcobair 2I 56 ;
a.p. seacht gcabutha 2126
cobftge f. tI Wfllt"i,g Iogtllltl', /t.\'I, COli.
It,r/, COIIt'IIltllal,,! SllIJt, n 2141 i
i comighib 337, isin l'oipdi 3388,
coibhiti 4114 j cobigi celli lite s(IInt
SfllSt ;11 llu 1Iarrtlll'ft /iWII t'g;mn'1IK
10 mtl oj'lllt Ijlllllra;1I 2045. II'. 7:
iii. jO, 6
coblach m. a jlttl, a !Joat 1603. /HII.
c61cer m. fiflt /'trso"s, 9U;IIltllt, I'tIIlad
2238, coidur If 35, coienliur 2232
e61cthe Jit, Ini"gs, '1uillldlt, coicdi
.p8, coiLli 2870,2, fri CUiCli 102 I,
l'uicthi 3976
. colmdlu m. /Ilt lorl!, v." ammo
Chomdiu 5392. .Ildr.
colp .i buidhcan b(m,!, IrQo/" COII'!',"!J',
Lnt. copitlt, P. OC., for aighiph .J.
coip [Eg.] 2392
061r no a }r4J" IIrralll""'''/, 'n, Y"gltt
'(lay colr nanala 3528, 3S89, coulr'
fiodraid 3874, a cboir n.alrchetaillOl7
common ust 38.3,
oo1tlde a /Jarl, lac/or 1452,3,
cole lIIim dillidtrt, O'Muleo 258
ooltldecht f. par/il;O", difJlsio1l, triafl:\
c. nairme 3063
001 n. il/(ul, IIIS/, S;" 605
colg d6t lurl-hilltd sU'ortl, calga deg
5897. C.
coli m. (I) naul II 53, 4 248, 5494,
55 19: (2) Iltt ogltam Itlla 0 1182,3,
,9, 4280 i 2895, 1372,3 i g.s.
1273, 4327 I'rocud. Br;l...tcad.,
'p. 26
oolpthach flrenn m. l1t'o.)ftlr-oltl
IJlil/od 5755. Laws
oom-a.ccomal (I) a conj;,i",IIC, COlllltC.
li/JII , co-or,/imllillg 1900,1, 1924: (2)
an adjullcl 3391: (3) a cOIIjullc/iCIJI
2668. 991
oom-aentu In. compltl, itlm/fl)', ar
comacntaiJh 5560
oom-a1muero.d m. a s)'IlchrOil isill.t:
4038. 1'rip. xx\'lii.
oom-alnm n. a eo carat 5656
com-o.lnmnlgthech sYll01lymoliS
5640,1,3, 5657
oom-alrem r. (J CQIllPliltl/io1l, coitchend
ill uird comairmt: ordi"als 851,
oomR,lrl1d m. a ('ounullor 109, da
comairlig 1243, comairlib I II, com.
airlcch 4025 i n.p. comhairlidhe 108.
oomarba.e m. Ittir, SUCffssor 5268.
comardad m. II corrtslondtllCl, 'A"nu,
tldjllsllllmi 3S22,6, c. imcubaidh
iar c. n-airchetail 1009,3967 i 1353,
4416. D'Don. (I'r.
oomardugud m. a corrrslolltli"K, ad.
JUSlillg 1015, 1353
oomb6rlald m. Ollt uS;IIg Ilu S(""t
sluc;', ca(h comberhidh 23', com.
herlaib 217, combcrlaid 1037, comm.
berlJig ('omberla 2551
eombert, compert f. cOllet/,lion 5272
Oombreo Iltt Wtlslt Cymric
321-4. isin Combric, OMulc. 266
<:omcengo.l Q jOillillg 10ltlntr, eo litriocb
eomchenlull m.ollt oj Iltt Samt raa.
caeh comchClliuil 230,7, 1038, 2545,
d dc.cht'leuil C.
eomchumung an t'luivaln,/, c. each Be
(oc;,il 1232, cocumnong cech aon 4550
cOlndl11 f. a 1Iutling, '"ffl, c. cuan 1177,
comdeach m. Iht ramt ftru-jOol, n.9.
1514,4609 i n.p. 1241
comdes ttJllal(I' rigltl, t'llllll(y rtaJy,
illtlijftrml, coimdes 5827. C.
eomdlle f. a Jloolhng loctlhtr, grta/
(OIiCOliru 5339
comdluthad m. a /,nni,,!:,
1010. C.
eomecar m. all flllIllllllytr, illa comh.
cJ;ur 267, ina coimhccar 2582
oom6t a l.'1lt1rJill!, lu/,i"g, cui comet
60h comet lachta 5622 i g.s. for
comeda, daghchomcla, fricomcta 1818
cOln6tAlm I gilaI'd" lu/" 3 s. subj.
manis-cometa 5487, muna coimela hi
2805 i reI. is i coimctls 5623
oomfhtlltech a tltn"Ill;f't,
n.p. com-Ihilltighc 1900
com-fhot, con-fot m. ''1l1al Im/:/n,
/,r(l!'orli(l11, is e ill c. coir 10I 3, cubat
n-ol1 5664. Cf. 11'. 7: iii. 30, W.
com-fhrecra. all allS1lJtr;lIg, corrlS/,olld.
;"1, j coimrrccru 5460. C.
com-fia.lu8 m. rtlaliomltip 4937, 2721
oomftd m. Iltt smllt or (orrnl'0"dilll:
f'(IWtl ol'ltllfl', cnch dQ coblid I cuhald
9$7, 3\)50, I!I cllhall! R ,'olulid 1241,
. 1513,4608
comfogrl\lghthld m. a consolltllli 375
oomfogro.lglm I so,ma alonl TVI'IIt, ni
comfog-raig-cIH.l 2760
comfogra.lgtheoh a cOllsona"t 2 749,
2760; comhfhograighthcacha
368. Sg. UIAI, IS4
oomforlethan tlJually broad, of tit,
samt ,,-r/mt
tflllally woundillK SS80
comh-fhocul m. (I) a (Ollj,tllc/illll
321: (2) a lull l(lUlld, nidat com.
(hocail 462
com1malrclde aNro/,rialt 592
a ";"t//i/ll: Iltt ,.tl'tli.
1'011 al /hf md (ljllu filial Jlai,:a iff a
/'Of/II oj a syl/"Mt (01' a farl Ilurt,'!)
o/Int finl a(CfIIltd u,'ord a/
Iltt OPOII"'g (If /Itt /,oon 2199, 2214.
Ir. T. iii. 30, 4
coml111nttuB Ill. /'0ltdioll, (olll/,Itlioll,
ier gcomloinnlius 2455
cornll1n ("olll/,Itlt, nach at combnn 461,
1456, ni dod comtann 29U
cOtultn all 1017, 1977,
oommo,llt f. (con-mel) II ruN,ill,1! 1o.
gtllur, on i on chomallt
1756, on coimilt 4945, do cuimilt
commo,nn a C(lIII/'Il")',
/,Iagiarism (?) 1929. C.
comna ((llldilioll, fi",cII',1II 1464,5,6,
cllmn 4$66,8,9, 4750, do coma dilis
hlldheill 4729. Cro Ii bais 0 tri
mooaiIJ i 0 . 7 0 bas 70 atharach
gnee no 0 tri lonuaib i. tond (hob 7
tond comna 7 tond sccathraigi, Ed. :
d. Fd.'J 228
oomOCUB ,um', compar. comarsi 2841
oOtnparalt f. IAt coml'aralit,t
6H1 695, 729 i g.!. ainm comp:\fniti
oomralclm I IIIffl, .fo'''' ""ilt, rc i
comhraigctl4I8, C'omraigit 1419
oomr1m (i) all t'llial n/llllhtr: (2) Iltt
Slllllf IIItlrid 2023
oOmrolrcnlglur (dcllo\ll. from "om
I'un'ull tl'I""', Inr. or com-nir.orlo:illl).
I tl'r
lIIah II lIIisltllt, perf. I p. noon 1436, in 4523. i.e.
Lat. dthila lIoslra
oomrorou f. a" trrol', ",iJ/llh, cOlil
rorco I7I6,comrnq,ai4907. Sir. (;1
com shined m. an t'llial sll'tlch"'K,
Iqllal dura/iolt, (o.txlfllsion, sa""
Ijllanl;/j, i comhshiniudfri fogur 908,
3791. CZ. iii. 18, 22
00mehuic11ugud m... tDm.
7S4, comsbuidhigthe 1900,
i comsuidigthib 973
oomslud tfl"alily, sammlss 1930.
coimsid. Laws
OOJD-eon "th, saint Or a similar SOllltd,
comsan 5246
comtoth a couplt, IInioll, Co consan
1733, comtalh condsained 4925,
iar gcomtach 3428. Ct. Hail Brigil,
oomualm n. m. (I) a slilch",g 10Ktilur,
c()mposilioll, fri comuaim n uad 3538,
cell comuaim lomuis 3588, 1020: (2)
alliltrali()11 1596. 1600. c. fidhraidh
3872,4880, S363 : (3) ,or,.,s)olldmct,
rltymt 3946175
oonberbo.1m 160il, conberbtar 4541
oondaU, <lonnaU t. all ;"I(rllal
divisioll, lIlt illStrliOIl of Iwo mtanillg-
Ins syllalJlts ;"I() a word, connail
5071,1947, a ChOU03i1 4810, condail
1993, 2147, 2166, $317, condaill
'1501, se carbarlha "na condail 2088:
e.g. fer, 1801 i ben, b-efri.en
43 i nem, n-efri-em 1867 i asgoam-
gilidir 5320
oondaU f, a mltliug, (of hounds),
cOllal euan SSH,6. condal COli,
..llItc. iii. 43
<londelg n. f, a comparis()lI, Iltt com-
paralit,t tlfKru, II,S. ill chondealg
668 i 662, 687, 698,9, 700,2, 732, in
condclg neteichtll 2772, is i III sin in
techta 703, i conndelg n-
2775. condeilg 686, coin-
dealc 2645 i g.s. a ngrad condeilg
639. conndcilge 3304 i d.!!. i concilg
677, forin condelg 693
oongalrlu, con-garlm I cry, 3
s, pres. conngair cler da a 1224,4534.
,tldr. sub :{
<longbalach slIp!'()rliIlK, ltuf/illKcomltlll-
IlIls ()r s..'lIu"'fS (con-gb.t1, a lileral
translation of (f"X.Xa.!Jr'I), son n-
oencongbalach 904, focul ocne. 9H,
1534,3786,3862,4756, dechongbabch
934, 3863, trcconngb:dach 934, 3863.
0'001\'. 381
Ill. a Allji1', congnam.
aigh ecbraide 5578. ' C.
oon-gn!u I help, 2 .. fut. In cungtne
frimm 5358
oonmldlur I adjudlt, mtasllr" 'f/utll,
am a611 lor, 3 s. perf. commadair
5112,6 i 3 pl. pres. pasi. comidter
oonnal a slall, SI1I6611, Lat. slipuia
1701, 4888
oonscaralm I scalltr, dtSlro):, tl iasa
coscairlher <4 270 i iDf. coscrad
oon-slaldlm 16tal, mdt lor 0), I I.
Cut. cosluidfea 1603, cos!afe 5365,
cusalua 3876, cossalua, /HII. Ir.
Dichl., p. 9. Cf. eom-sla lOts, Ped.
Gr. ii. 816
oonson f. tI co"so"anl, n.s. cons:dn 367,
2753, consoin 27So; n.p. consaine, .j
2757, comoini 1387 i g.p. tri duail
on conSilll 348, na cOllsaine 2702,
<lonsonacht f. comon;stll;olt 2706, con-
sanacht 2696 i g.. an dliged conson-
achlll 2961 i d.s. fo consonacht 98 I,
3916 ; a.s. leit a consanacht 1381,
Oonsonata cOllso"anla/, dliged c. 490
con tuUm I sllfp, cOlltuili 5UI
<lor t, a haud, n.'. a ur3rd, rna chor.a
<loro " claJl 5261. J/dr.
cornalrecht f. ltorn.MowinK 1478
corr m. f. (l lteroN, in chorr HI, in
corralb Ih' 24 potltcal It'CtliCtS, Iltt'
sreilh ami 1111 gllt'lise of Iltt Trdocul
1944. 5064,6, 5244,81
corrucAn .;mtlll IiIllt conttr 5337.
corre'le a (/Jrlur, Acall.: C.
<l6rus m. ttlt "rnlflltmtltl, law 1212,
4385, 54 20
COSO tI ,'orr"lif'l (mttli,,,u), cose lobair
5660, Cf. C.: Laws.
oosmaUUgeacht (. a rtum6lflltCt 5SU
costud m, (con.suidinl) \a rnlrai",'I/K,
chtrl.'t'nl,costad sida 1173,4.
5H3.4, CC. RC. xxvi. 24
ootarsna Iltt o/poSt'lf 5818, eot:lrlla nai
ootut a ltardminK, loss 0/ s)'lla611
10llOtt'inK aam/, alltl constf/uml tit-
Imilion, .j. limorc:lin fn nicnead no I
dnd a slto,-Ifuint al all aaml al
all flit! 5292 i 19H,79, 2137, 4,986,
5068 : e.g. fcr a chodad 1193, ben
n COdll1 1840, nime a cotut 1859; fer
a co<lud 4986. bcin a roulud 5025,
neimh a COUld SOH; 5287; to'lhor
( = loralhor) 5289. 5295: C:tdad,
i'rill viii, p. iv,
crAd lorlllrt, anpt's" 5895.
crand Irtt, ""uical Irtt 1479. ltcl.
in. 323
crand fir Ifsl-I,.u II56, 42SO; 1195,
<4298,5517. Laws iv. 102, I: SI.Cril.,
p. 38
. crap If sltn'vtl/illC, cen craip
rainti 1929. Cf. C.
crass "arrow, slfltd,,', coblach Creal
1603, h:lchlach cress 5365
cratoulbdluB (I) flit iltltrnal rl'Ymt:
(2) (111 flltl rhymt
crett r. a for""
eret cloen 5100, i cnea8 lUlu",
fJHatf, cOllllltuau", c(J1Itplt:rion. also
a Shll, slt"/, or rilld, P. O'C.
criatho.r a sitf1t 636,7
erin willttnd, super!. crinem reada 5658
crlthaeh (111 aJj!tn II 54,4250 i 1195.6.
4298, 5520 i don'crunn crithaig 5590,
crltMm I IrimMt, SltIflt.r, rei. c:rilhes
crlthlr f. a 5260
or6 (I) Iltt mtlal !l0()1 01 a lanet, SDcAd,
is ainm cro in gai 4717. C,: (2) a
a cru 5674,5,7. Wi.
crob a "and, d,s. i crub 5398
cr6n s1/frolt-colourtd, a",lItr, "u/Mbroum
5669,71,3,5, 5699 .
<lr6ntln a crooniltg, Itllmmi"K 1474
crODS f. a cross, g.p. 5364. 1601
orothalm I IltaAe, ,allll 10 1,,",mM,
crolhas 5260
on m. lor, 1809, g... lanamain in
chru 1810
crUan ,j. trcfocul 5442
oruas Irardntss, II "ard "oired)
sOllnd, fri c. 1073
orUd a dtslroyi"K, iar crud clluilc 5214.
crultttrecht f. a Itarpfllg, rruitireadlt
cruth m. Sh"!'f, ma""fr. as lId\'.
It/JW, as, crulh roncualn 525J, 521 9,
orutho.lglm , lorm, crfilif. 3 5,
pres. 2662, no go gcrulhoig'lher he 0
'hog'1 tim 3806 i info rfulhaiged i
a'J adj. ese erulhoigli erfal;f'f 3799,
3R02,4. Laws
cual a jatt:o/, lIundlt, ItMp 5H5, cen
cuail cnarn 1929, qual 5726. C.
cuan fiSl, Lat. Pl/KIIIIS 5260.
ltoJI L:1WS: Sg. So" 12, note
cuan a ltarJtll 5105
cuan f. or lillt'r oj Itillillds or
of f(olttS J 177, conal chon allaclh
5545.6. C.
<luba1d (I) Itarmo",olls, ninm c. 2117:
(2) rnYl/I(. Iltt sal/It ('(1'1(0(1 lIy
IItt ramt "lImlltr 01 C<J1l10llaNIs of
wlti(1t Iht dosinK OlltS art IItt sam,
957, 3950 i 1241, 1285, 129(, 15 I2,
2039 .
<luba.t m. a ,ubi/, an til, sc'tht cutmit dec
secht cumat deg 289. C.
<ludnud a Itasltni"t, cudnoudh eich
4296. C.
oUlbde suil/IMtllfS!, nr n cuilxJl 32,
23 15
oulbrend a shar" porlio" 5106,
oulc i. n'lO a Sfcr,l 1305, no coic 4628.
SIOt()t GI. : Cor.' 300, 388,698
cutdoehtach ltafJi"l Or formi"g a com-
, pa"y 6150
outlann m. Itol(y, cuilcand 1153, 118 r,
cuillenn 5633.5, quulenn 55 18
<lulmbr. f. (I) 6rffli/y, raid
630,6, 6093: (2) a sltDrl
ama cuimribh IS56
oulng f. IlYOli 1287, 1290
ouislennaoht r. /I /llIli"I,JlIlIt-pla"""g,
quillenacbt 5799 '
GLOSSARIAL INDEX oult I, (I) a slrart, 10rlilJ".' (2) a"
oritl""tlka/ /aelQr, n.p. coit 1452 i
d.p. ochoitibh 1444,6, 4494,0 quoitibh
35:, a gcoitibh 3053, 'na coitibh
056 cult grat" diuisilJ, O'Mulc.
oultblud m. a dtn'dinK, cOlIl,mpl 1935
oul " grlllrd""r, /,rol"IiIlK, cut coimet
60... .lItlr.
oumalde comlllO" 449, 2909. Laws
oumalr (I) shorl, rorin penuilt eomair
sen 4130: (2) a shorl, a sltorl syl/able
812, 13.J9. 4413, !cach III cumair
1566 : (3) a Ju",,,,or)', s"", 1497
oumang /Jlllt'tT, jlJru oj illdividual
f'lJwds 965,6 i 1201, 43'3, dobeir
cumang fcdha forin son dia fot 435,
2887. Cf. Sg. 18&1
oummalmi 1 sltapt, (ompost, 3 p. pres.
cummait i937 i pret. immar ros,cum
196H, rocumsat 1928
oummasoda ,,"'xed, indsgl qumusua,
cenci ,/,ictne rmder 3223
oumra,lde lswuI,f,:aeralll 5337. C.
cumscugud m. a m,'v,'ng, challKe f049
oumung ,iarrlJw, compar. is cumga a
fuirmcJ 3397
ourach Ill. a coracle 6135 i dim.
ctlrrldn 5352. e.
outruma haf'illK equal Wtl:t:ltl or prQ.
flor/illll, illdllfr'rmI, etlurtlma 14 22.
outrummugud m. an equalillK,
btl/IIII' ill/:, co",parillg 683, 3299. C.
dne, d6e m. " humtln beillg, "''''1, n.s. In
dOle 1615 i g.p. na ce!' cheas9
II 1 na Ilai 2263. .lIelr.
dnon, d60n a mall, humall "fiItK,
d;cnogam 5709,18. do gach dilcn,
AII,t". v, 23, 2: O'Dav. 342
dag gcJod, liag duine a gcJod mall 5340,
dag.fis gcJlJd lllcJw/tdge 580, dagh.fllach
a .(wd u'ord 3570
dagda m. a Itero 5183,7. Daguae. a
"'ylhlJ/lJgi(al hero, C. In dagua OtttOf
Ihe xliiii. staraide Greuel rochumsat
i" lcbur n-airise, a sd:Haib, 7 a
Il.annalaib, nn. 308 {3 32: viii.62
dalg f. "jla"",fire 556, 5396,5403
datgtheoh fitry, In domun daigh-
theach 2206
dalmim I gralll, (lI/IlfU, pro pas,. rooet
2004, rodaimed 135
datrt r. (I luifir 5766, 2055
daU r. 1IIetlillC, Irysl 5390
daUlm I mul, Irysl, I s. pret. rodalul
5390. Tbc.
dal1baoh a rAymed rtproaelt or. salirt
1101 cOIt/ormillt 10 ordillary n"Iries
1930,1. H .3. 18, 69
, .i,
dallfual'h, Cor. 1,. 61
dam r. a compall)" /,al'Iy, relillue, cia
lin dam 2220, cehhri uamha 2230,
Jamh as 2243,'dam thoga 2248,
in da daim 2252
dam m. a harl, O.\" 5750, 5842
dAn m. a /,oem, /,oelry, arl, craft, g.s.
a XI in dana 218.J, ae! dana 2215 i
ar Bar nuan 2159, af a dh:," 2235 j
danoJ.:am 5797
danaluo 259. Laws i. 230: dana, SI.
Cril., p. 9 .
dAnad m. dalif1e (ast 1524, 1532,
d:mnau474l, d:IOOdh 4973
darlgnlus, darlgnls, etc. (paradigm)
dartald m. a' )'tar-old bull 5757.
ee.: Laws
dasia et psne Ille rough alld Ihe
smolJlli brealhillK, dussien, sci len p.
94, note. Gr. lal. \'. 132, 28: Sg.
5" 10, I 7a 3
dath (I) a colcJ"r, g.s. datha 1171: (2)
pod;c colourillK, co ndath 5064,5,
5234,44. ..llIte. \'. 23, I, n.: dath .i.
uaire III dicilur dath air non-molurr.,
II. 3. 18, p. 635
f. sllloh,jitllit 4291
m. a ftru-joIJ/, "11 poelry /ht
IIIlmb(r oj I.I'I/"bln illihe fierSt, inprost
Iht IIumber of syllables ill Iltt 1I0UII
4,5 i 771,859, 9U, 1"14.29, 5276,
dech 691, 121 3, 1410, 1951, diach
1534 i n.p. vii ndeich 744, 777, 86o,
, 1409,4550, vii ndeichit (1)
1 i g.p. 1235, 4553 i d.p. 778,
2, 1579,86, 1688, 1760; a.p. la
deochu 691
deod nJ. an flld, a filial, the flul
,!la'('ort!I357, ded 1546, fo deoldh
debrlcht Ill. a f'tru-!ool, a f'tne CO".
JIJI/IIK dolt"" odos)'lIablt, g.B. in
unth dehichta 3712
dechenbor m. a ul oj ItII lersom,
dcichcnbhur 2227
dechned, dochned m. a bi.ltfrllillg, a
t!eJublilll: oj (a) Ilrt "',ilia/, dc.:hncaJ
19R6: or (b) llu fi'mllell,"- oj (I
fi',wd, dechncd deiriu 2001, e.f.. tenn
tirr 4992, Ilcmm 550: doieh.
ne.l 389.. IQ47, 2168, 2777,8,
dcchncad 1806, 2113, dcicned 2172,
deichneadh 185274, dochned 574,5;
n.p. 21 H. g.s. dcchn:l<ln, Ir. T. iii. 39
decht pitre, gm.ill', airgid techt 5566.
decslu f. a loolillg ai, I',gal'dill!., vim',
n.s. i Il.p. dcsrena 1922
m. Iwo Ihil'/:J, a flair 54SR, in
Jcdi sin 2798, 425, 1019, 2867,
dcclh'c 673, dciue 2106
dedlalm '1 .fijlal'"lf, Slt'el', 3 pl. pass.
dcglaiter ar Icth 5510 i p. pass. ogam
ncgladae 6063
defld m. Iwo /el/fl'.f, arding dctid 3661I
defogur m. a 343, 121)8,
1684, 2'696, 2706. 1073,
dcofhogur 1347, do ucfoghur 1297 i
lI.p. 1345 i d.p. isna ueghroghraibh
l'in 972 i g.p. 973
defuach tl ,huyl/aMf, d. intan is reeom.
mr. 3570
deg- K"O'/, dialt deg-Ieml a
Hl/tI"'f 2qo i mac De
.(,,011 f<'i.H/cJ'" 2495 .
delchthe I'" Iltil/gJ, dfCad" a ndc:lchlltt
1022, a ndeicthi 3978
deUlr a dijJ,rflla, d. rainni 630, een
deifir 1361, ucllr 1907 .
deltrlglm I Stf.'fr, dijfn'mlial,', dis-
I;"KU;JII, 3 s. rei. c1indeHrigcl' 985 i
3 I. pres. intan deifricht 587 j"
3 I. pres. dept nas.defrigidar 616
.dell (I separalion, dell degail 268(
deUm a no;st, dill, ,tHrI547. C.
delme teplde n u/te/ttl IIml,r 569,
1808, 1853. 1876,5078. !40Z; e.g. is
cd Icann
delb f. jcJrill , dldfll Jillll 164 1,4 750: Z2983
delg a litOI'll, afa deilghthh 1178, ara
dcilgniph 4274
delgalge r. 11t"I'"il/f.ff 5517
delldlnd (I) " mtl"lltoiJ (a) of Idltl'S,
c.g. silochta, sliochta 5310 i gtlli,
gcill 20H i (h) gosfa(l'r,
53 q i I1.S. dl'ilidi 2133,
dclidin 5308,I2,5,dcilitlcn 19H i d.!\.
da dl'ilidin 1993, k uclidnid 2086 i
n.d. da dclidin 9, 507o: (2)
f.. a fl'ol'd 'Iflcl.f(a,.ds al/(I./;,,..
u'arrls, fcr, refer i ben, neb IR,p.
Cor. 7i. 126
deochalr f. a diJliliClioll, tlijftr,,,,, 523,
616, 1429.325, is i &in an d. 1443
deochratghn 1 d(!Ttrmlitlt" deoch.
raidcs 893, 3775, dcochraiglcr 1254
deochr(a)lm 1 "'./[fl', 3 s. pres. nus.
dcochrcnd 3026 i 3 9. pl. pass. indo
Ilos.deochra tar sz3
de6rad Ill. ,11I ,x,lf, cJul/tlu', .f/,.,,,,!:fI.
n.s. deoradh 5153 i II p. deoraid 5148
der f. a t!aughlfl', n.s. der Greco i
a.s. ailsius dcir 5319. C. I
dero n. (I) a g,.af'f, g.s. 5383: (2) ,11/
dernu f. "If palm ojllif hmnl, <.lo
dcrnaind 5165 !
der611 fl'fal, JUMf, dcrcoil 518,!
derscugud m. " rlirli"KUi.flring,: txa/.
lill.e 6H, 655, 685,8, 70.J, 8.J7, i g.s.
ucrsraigti 643, 685, 8.J7
dethblr Jifffrl"(f, dislillrlicJn 4371, in
dcthbcr 4493 i 1. dcffir
dfabul (I) a dOli"", d'IIi/''''''K, redufl/1Ct1a
I;(lII, ferfer 1796, bcnben 1841: (2)
IItt rf/"Iilioll 0/ a(aill,d fe'orels ,'" "
'l"alra;/I 1945, 5074 i 1995, 209 r,
2151,2169,2176,5321, e J{. 5322-5
dfall m. a dff','alill[, dec/msioll 783, in
eetna d. 1918,9. Wi. !.
df-alt n. (I) a ",0Itosyl/a6/" s)'lIa6l, 759.
1231, 4549; 1497,9 i 835, !14 14,7,
14 29, 1454, 4528 i 904, 1'534, a
dealt 1953 i n.p. dialtn 93J, 1491.
1506: (2) a dlcllllSiolf, 1829, .
hanc.liah 1857, deimc.lialt 1858, nem-
dialt 1879
dlalt n-etarlemme n. a 1)'/laMt Itap.
iJlglJtlftWn, .. all ullacuJlltd
lyllaM/ occurr;"l: 6tl'tl'UII "VO alliltra-
liolls 1312, 1600,6,7. r803, 1849,
r87J, J982, 2101,4680, 5o!h, 5362 i
lI.p. /HI diallt lI.cter'eime 4626 i
lond. C/d Ic:th 5364. ltc. 363,177 M.
dian f. a mtlrt proptr 10 a fochloc(nn)
J579,4655. C.: Ir. T. iii. 112, 162
dianalrmlde il/JlumtraMt 894; a con-
fusion of ,Ii- amI lIn-
dff\nlm spoilISS, u"bltmislud 5319. C.
di-be6 1It11ltr 583
dlchned n. (1) a luhtlldill(. (2) Iht
dro/,!,illg oj (a) all ;lIili'll, dichnead
tuis 1986. e.g. lepe 390, leibi 2779,
or (b) afillallill/r oj" Tvord 389, 390,
2777,9, 1947, 2111,68,72, 5074 i n.p.
JHl Jichncda 2149 j dkhned derid
2000, e.g. fcr,jt 1806 j bcn,6t 1852;
nem, lit 1875irllnL5392. RC.U.150
dfchongbaU f. Iwo s)'/laMtS, 1"'0 COII-
slllll/lIls 1535
dfcbronUB a fvord havillg ITVO fjuall-
lilits, IIIIC/riailll)' i ncmcinnti, or
1I01l-POlussi,t i nemtsealp:u.l 4069.
(;r. lal. 1.42,41 1, 14, 25
df-drulm ridtt!tSs, Tvilllolil orris 6061
di-fuUUud m. nOIl-addilll,lIolladdilioll
8J6, 3654
df-gablm. dtgbalm Lat.
dm(() 5H2
cUgbd.ll f. (J) a !tiling dimillish-
Ille 90S, 1568: (2) fri"'lllflt cast
1525, lu62, 1887,8, 1890' digb;U,
digdef. I'raytr, bllSSillg, diglu!i dath
556. ODav. 590
dU d/I,r. h/ovtd. fOlld 547,5619 i g.s.m,
dUe f. ddugt. g.s. Jilend 526J. diliu,
dlloaohtalg f. dialtelics 52, 2339. C.
dUes Iltt I'r0l'/Y list H5, 819, dilea5
380,2, diliu5 2763
dlmbe6atgthe ;Hallimall, diad 583,
dlm-brfg f. powlrllSmlss, TVlalll/U,
Tl'flNI IlIIpI1lu;!, ren d. 5061,
5145 i 253, 2156j e.g.l1rrial rel'h(?)
5148,9. C.
dfne a grOllp, a If/uralioll, slo,l, ",h
ding walll, arding delidh i.
ding fll and Is tein'e feuda fodcra a
,IIlJiclIll)' fl,hic!l is Ilurl il ((Ius"d a
utllllilltlS ojltllty 3661
dlngbalm I TvaI'd off, rlpt! 2081, dot-
dinK:lib 2109 j info ic dingbail
dfnln dfs8,U 14t 0K/'am accml 0" II
s/'ort syl/ablt, Ilu I;/:,I for w;';"h IS d
254. 81 5,6" 8zo, 1544,5,6,9, 156(j,
1821,3,2574,4767, dine disoil 1402,
1555,9, 1569, 1571,S, dinion disail
3635,6, duir in-ail Jillin disnil 4456,
duir a ndinill d. 4800
dfr tlut, I'relptr, Jil. 1II1t1, robad uir
deiside 3398. C.
dfrecl1 all IlIIeat'tr;lIK, 5222.
dftiu f. prOlteliOll, shtllty, n.s. 3'514 i
g.s. na gnuisi <.Iiten J978 i <.1.5. db
nditen-siJhe 1944, do didin 1963
dl-udrethlm I ,-nllaill otltr, 3 s. pret.
dorllaraid 2501
dlulr sm"lI, IIItaII , Irijling 5377. Hy.
V.3 1
dhUt simple 2895,8, 2900, do a seacht
JilliJib 747 I
dhUte f. ! dlgnilas 4217,
midiuiti TMIII of digllil)' 4307
dlupart f. a rI/l'n',lillg, d"jralldi".f,
dt/,ri"'llioll 6074
. dtxnlgur I am, txisl, uocuisnet .i.
disgllaigter 3261,
dUgtech ,.,/:111. 111ft!!."I, Iroptr. hila
fC:lllhaihh dli1{htheachaib 483, 2184,
do-ar-rethlm I overllllt, uiu, .find, 3
s. prcl. don 547 j 3 p.
pret. pass. for a tarrasa lri gnee 888 i
prcs. sullj. foura dlaurrustar 37ul}.
dO-8,r-slsslur f sla"d fasl, nmaill, 3
s. pres. subj. doairesedar 494; impf.
uoairised 2995
doath-comlcclm 1 rlac/' round,
OI(OIllP"SS, conas - tacmaing 1960.
tachm:lic snechta ferna fer, Cor.
SIlh l". fcrend: TP. i. 493, 21 : O'D.
do-bat dim I dratt'" , t.-rlill,fulslt, 3 s. prcs.
doj);idi 5159.69 i info dib<.llld ro. 1281
do-bena,lm 1 cuI, dnlr"y, pass.
nodusbcnadar 5432,8, nodalenadar
,jabcnadar 5451, no<lusben-
t:lr 5455, nodambcntar 5H9,
bcndai 5449 i 3 S. pret. 0 Jodipad
4338, ar roc.lipad fuirrc 3136
dobrlathar all ad"t,." 2668, 320
docnlr h,mi, dlfliclIll, IrOIlMtSom.f 2000.
2016, rodocair 2019. Aml/.
dochta f. II/:htlltJl, clost/ltss,
ntH, gall douchta 4059. Acad.
dochul81n t.-r;sls (with ncc.) 520,
dorhuisneat 639, 1545, 1817
d6chu8n.lglur I dum 1 t.-rptel,
dodn.lng difficull, val' itgaltd, dodning
hec 5938, 5933. ee. 2308
dodeUb uII.fhal'tl)', dodheilb
dodralng (I) liard, dllJicull, dOfhraing
278: (2) a difJicully, frie d(lgraind
2SQ3. CC.
d6erbard m. a "ard ofllre UCOIIJ clIISS,
n.p. dxrbaird 1691 i g.p. d:crbard
1590. fr. r. iii. 107,14
d6erugud m. an mslat/ing, a prtfixill!
do If) /ht Tvol'd 1869, 1946, 1980,
20C)6 i e.g. do-fcr 1;97, do-ben 1846,
dxr 5340
do-e3sbenalm I (ul, stltel, d"rit't, 3
s. pass. ducpcnar 567, docpcnll.r 568 i
is cd darcpedh 154, dOll tebi
!'otcbcd 3, 2274; 3 pl. perf. na trl
nidh doreipsead na bertu-s:\ 213,
24 : iarsinni tcipiter damna na focul
cistib 414
dotaroe OVl.rlooJs, tx(ud, 1935. Thur.
IId6. H. 66 (do-for-ad.d): TP. ii.
290,7: FI/.'11.
do-lo-etbalm '10, 3 .. pres. dofhidh
2247. red. G.r. 716
dotormalglm .1 add, ;"C;/tlst, 3 5.
prcs. is Jialt duformaidh 776, 3578;
na tormaig i rei. tormaiges
1569 i 3 pl. act. doform:lighet 188S,
doformagat 1144, dorhourmaghat
j pass. duformaighet 260 i info
tormach, q.v.
dotor-odga1blm f miu. 3 5. impf.
pass. dourgbad 366 i 3 5. impf. subj.
pass. na turgbadis 3389
c1o-fullUm I add, 3 S. rotuill
do.gniu 1 do, mdt, natagendais (naJ-
dogcnt.'\io;) 3389
dolmm-df-nanlm 1 s/'orltll, IIIlilt,
Lnt. coarlo, 3 s. pret. dodmtas 117.
Str. SR. dosrimth05 6331,' <1orimthas
5973: 3 p. pres. pass. doimmthaSI:lf,
Sg. 3- 3: p.p.p. timmthnsta, Wi.:
timtasta, PH.
do-Im-orglm I compress, lI11ilt, sltorlt",
3 s. prcs. dorimtns i rotimairg 117 i
3 5. fut. in timarr 2950, da-n-imorr
3392 i 3 pret. dorimart 2397 i pass.
co timaircctcr 1078 j inf. fri timar-
gain, timmargain 5419
do{ln-com.lcclm) f ,hallet, hap!"", 3
S. prcs. do-eagmaing 1265,8, do-
ecaiph 4323,6,9. doccam, Eg.
. dolblm I form, jasMoII, c/'arm,
forail doilphdi sorodolpset filid 4524.
dalbhdha i. dolbha i. drnoidhcacht,
II. 4. 18
domldlur 1 judgt, mlaJllrt,cons;dn.
domiJitcr 1237,8, 1508, doimiter
742, domiter 954, 998, 1953
do-molnlur 1 /hillA, 3 pl. perf. doru.
mcr.a(Jar 150, ar doruimnetar 2454.
dorumunadar .i doshailec.lar, Ed.
domunda. ,,'or/dly 60, lx:sgna dou-
manda 2334,6. ","ndanus, Origg.
viii. 5, 28
don a gifl, don tidllocul 2733. ltc.
don f. plact, grou"d, dos-farr aidh don
547, duin 3182. Cf.nau tairlic don,
gl. 110" ctdmlun, MI. 131 b cia
dudfailci don, gl. ctlltr;l, MI. JII i
co dufailced don, gl. ;"eidtrt/. ML
35 -2: don ttrra, O'Mulc. 320-
donta (1) 1231
do-od-salg1m I ,.11"', !lDard, 'lIslai",
3 I. prete rothaillgb 78
dorar C. !Jalllt, &lnflicl, .rching
dorair ndualaig 5241. WI.
do-ro-salg1m I sirtiell 10, rtaeh, go,
3 Cut. dome cucunn no dune uaini
573, dorroi, T.: 3039
dor6scalm (ui.'ro-od.sculch) I surjXzss,
Ixul, 3 s. prete a cendfochrus, dor6scl!J
5388. doroisce, RC. xx. 152
doru8, i ndorusa htlort 1286. lis",.
d0811, dos m. a 6uJ", ardam dossaib
5548, 4276
doss m. a pOd ollht filill rallk, do dus
2243. Ir. T. iii. I U: Cor.
doth a liller, cpds. indoth finni 5672,3,
celoLh (=cet.doth) 5670,1, 5939,40,
midoth, !J1lt'lilltr 5934, ardoth 5936
Cf. doithid in cu, Cor. s. Mug-erne:
info dothau, i:riu, Ii. 15]: doth a
halehi"l, Laws: Triads.. Inddoth,
indoLh offsprillg, RC. xii. 122
dotult1m I lall, 3 p. sec. (ut. ama
dlaoLhsatis 4674 '
dralgen a blae/;Ihorll 11 55, droJgen
4250; 1192,4290; 5522. Laws
dreoh C. Illet, D. na ndrech D. qllhl
",allYlaus qr hosls 2205
dremun suddtll, vlhtmtlll, "'I:orous,
a duan ndremain 2191. WI.
dl'lngtaoh rtlillillg 10 adfIQllci"l, com.
passillg, dtjillillg, RC. xiii.
120 I anmounda dringtacha 3930
dr06n a turin 5694. dreoAn, SI Alolig.
drong abundallCl 5247,5. ltr.
drucbt (I) dnu. (2) II risillK, litva/ion
1229. A1t1r.
druldeaoht f. wizardry 5799. WI.
drulm n. a ridlt, slun, arris of Ogltam,
dcasdruim right of slim 9J7, 986,
tuathuruim Ifft of slu" 987,
leasuruim alhwarl ,slun 988,
tredruim IhrDug}, sltm 948, 989,
Imdruim aboul sltm 948, 990 i do
deas in droma 986, darin druim
dru1D cllfJlr, co ndrulncland 5271.
.1 gllcc, Ltc.
d\\. a piau 5381
dda.l m. a ItJld 339, 344, 2697, 2701,3 ;
n.p. duail 342, 2700,2. WI.
ddal m. a eault, orig;", Iitrival;o,;, in
, duol coir 2718. T6e.
dualuB rig"', JUI I' a dualus "PI righl
of, ill rfSp,,1 0145, a dualKus 2825,6.
duan m. f. a POtnt, n.s. 2187 i g,s. an
dualn 1588 i a,.. a duan ndremain
2191, nn uuaine 2209, each dUlline
2318 i g.p. uunLa na n<Juan 2182,3,
cona nduanaib 1579; n.p. for dU:\Ila
dual' a word i (ocul 2352,5441,2355,
ddll f. tltmmls, ",t(lItS, In duil dia
n-innlsin 526, 623, eter duilib 916,
duil 1 diaH 3152
dun a boDl, Isin Duil FeadhJ. Mair
200, Isna Duilib Fedha 1198, isin
Duill Feudha 431f, De duilib fed:L
5416,7. O'Dav. 601, 369, 1286
duUgluB m. a d!dieully 2059
dull' (I) oaJ 118o, dur II 53, 5494,
dair 4248, 4275,6: (2) Iht 0l:"am
I'"tr d 815, 4274, 141, '567,9,
dul m. a splirt'sl 500, 2970. P. O'C. :
dunad m. a cloring, clost of n.s.
2207 i g.s. ainm gach dunta 21 95 i
g.p. do dhligegaibh dunta na nduan
2182; a.p. dunta 2183
duthalg fil, dut, compar. ni. duthcha
3542. Laws
6 salmo" 5599. Altlr.
ebad f. (I) all aspm 1196, eba 4300, 1.
elend 5523, 5597,9, 5600, 5661: (2)
Iht Oghtlm e,
ebad 1358, 1367, 1533,8, 1675,
euad 1677, eua 4379, eubhal 4760,
triaebaid 5430 i adj. ehadach 5853,
.blud m. a rtar;"l, !Jrillg;"lllp 5446.
'Ebra. f. lIlt 1011.1:"', IItIJrffU,
n.s. 2281, 2]11, Eaphra 2459 j g.!!.,
Ebra 3765 i d... a Ehra 353, 1\
hEpra 2716
iroll H42. Cor. Tr. 67:
O'Da,'. 1026: eahroll pall, ,."ltIron,
a 1"IJf ,ffll1fr 1942, 2c67, 2173,
can eccnelag 5060, 5201 i e,g. dill
S205, ui 52 I I
m. n /,,'ft, sn.l!f, cicci,,!! 2795;
a.s. la heigh!!! 2794; g-.s. cride ecis
58l)5; g.p. na 1114, na
2263 i d.p. d' e:rsib 2120.
ekes i rei can rcas, nircclnl i fili-
llcdlt no uasal canLain, Ed.
ech-Olleso f. Itoruw/"p, 1,0rsdash,
echlaisg 4297. Wi.
echta pur" d'eochLaiph 2686. ee.
n. n "fI','liI/C,
MasplttmYi n.!!. 5252, oc ecnuch 1333,
ren ecnnch 1934, 5184,8. Wi.
m. a Itflr,,((/ mall, pitilosnplur,
lasnn hecnauaibh 2335, hecnadu 47.
I stll,'riu, cgnaigeas 1334.
(I) (2) a
pasl Imu, all a/utili lor a prlStIIl
'9,P, 2056, 2161, can eCllairc.fri
frecnairc 5057, 5171 i e.g. AI-Da
5173,5, 2215-8
.ecnuad dt/r"ctioll 1935. ccndag,
OMule. 357
,(,comualm a falu alliltrnliiJII 1942,
5061, ccom(llaim 5212, ecommuaim
2170, ecomuaim fidrnid 5217 ;
e.g. 5215,6
oecor all ()fltrlfl)'illg, adorllillg, Orlta.
g,S. 1930. Toe.
hollow 01 Itough 1854, esgnt
5035 Lor. Gild. 180, 4-
,(,ose f: ltan,illl, !'oflry 2007, 5244. Wi.
m. a false r".J'mi"g 1943,
5059, 5190, 206o, 2163; e.g. 5192-5
, walll 01pMUtr, fIIed",1I 969,
970,7, 125,7,4-317,8
l64 fi", fo edh .j. teine 284+ !Sed,
ed ',"c, i cd clligec..l 2730, 1479, 4577.
fo fedh .j. maith a edh 282'. I.f,'. '
ed a s/,at'f, f:r1mI, mo a 1470,R,
trcith a ec..l 1476, :Ie 407, mo a
fcllh n Ilairdi ria head 2175.
ed ,fritf, ed uath 1195. 4298. O'na,".
pro/ull',.", ,{lttl/fr, fo a ellh i a
ro.;ga<!h 2845. OCI.
edll.d (I) (/11 (J,l't'II: (2) tiff n.t:h"lll
/,.",.,. e 1195,4298, S591. 5656, edad
.i ell 5522. 0'0. r;r. xuii.
edonn ":1', edeanc..l I 188.90, eidhcaml
.pSG, edind 1197. O'Muk..
edlend gl. uilleanl1 1197,
4301,3, 55 24, eithlend 4302
elplt f. a /11"1,00/.', epit 5728. St. (:,';1.,
p. 33 : 0' j\f u1c. 407
elreteMbt f. htru)' 61,2349
ela J1MII 5696. II'. GI. 509
eladnach arlislic, Irf1illftl"prl!/t.fS,'oll"I,
filideacht e. 2462,3
ela.du f. arl, .fl.:i/l, cral', <10 fl9
('ccha 4940 i a.s. ('en
cledaill 1751
elend fluaJn/,allf, 1("IOI/Mllf 5523, 5660.
Bog., p. 31
elet f. a hilld, d"f, clit 1185, eilit 4282,3
elg 1I0Mt i. oirrderc 2517, 2294, 354 1
ellach n. (I) a 1(I,ion, (om/'illalioll, COIlt-
/,ositioll, i n-elluch focail 92, 378o,
Sg. 25"13: (2) II /IIdr" n.p. ,'Ii
primeillge 743, 35 1o i g.p. i n-llnocht
nellag 5224 i d.p. <lonavii primelJ-
gil>h 1686. Ir. 7: 211, 28:
emain f. mtlrt proptr IlJ a cano, eamnin
1578, ind emain 3673. fr. To iii.
emancoll (I) tuil,h haul.' (2) Ogha",
dmlblt 0, X 4421,6, 5526, 5612,
emoncoll 1364, nmancoll 1365, emun.
c01l1370, 5613, eamancoll1372
emllt prolix, Itdious 637
emnach doub/t, Iwill 5907
emna.d a tlou6liPlg 439, 2890, 1373.
L.te tI"alilas 4213. Sg. 3-11,
emnalde (r) dOI/!JIul, coli e. 5526 : (2)
a dou!JIillg, a so dec emnaiti 45 18,
emoncoll ar a n-emnaide 1364
emnalm I dOM!JI'1 3 pres. pass.
'nalrecht r. a Iqwlillg 5803. enaire,
enech h01l01l', 1I0000u, priel r 3H
/,laff, I/ltcl, ingrecus .1.
grcim 1722, ellngradus .j. greim
4912. Sg. 12-4, 30b 16, 6sa5
enlstraten v. an:lstroJlhe
ennacosse SillllPI' 900, Gk. i""a.1C6a-,o"
p.86. TP. ii. 285, note h
e6 a yttV-lru, a Irtt, iobhar i eo barr
sanltr 4300,5'30, CII 5523. .1Itl,.
e6lach Itarlltd, slil/ttl, im eolarh :&027,
eolaig 2003, rcr rocolach a mberla
H70. Laws
e6naso OIlStIj Ion 5601
epald r. Lat. fmlfjiciuln, a ;hill",
charm, bricht .j. epaid 45,0. TP. Ii.
epe a cllilillg, apot"opt, st/feli"K, ultclior.
349, 350, 385, 2711. a dichned, epe
i tCl'e 390. La..... s
epert r. I' luor", d.s. 1557 i g.p. 592
epscop m. Lat. f/'ISCOPUS, 6ishop, escop
5267. Ed.'J
'r IItJblt i eur uasal 2689,2694. .fltlr.
er II er gach I, 2370.
ur, .lItl,.
ero rtd, SpteJlfd 5701. O'Mulc. 414:
'rchoUlud m. dtJi"ilion 3443,5
erchra II tt'iIIIlrt'IIK dUlly 4299,
errro erlapra 472.... Wi.
er{ar)-dl-bIUdlm I slIbmtrgt, dts"oy,
3 s. pre'. co nlrdiph1nd 3920 i
inf. airJibdlld 4338, urdipdad 4322
ergnald dislillGuishtd 5589.1}O. Gor.:
'rl0 r. a )1", cia heraie 2193.
erlabra r. (1) sjJttc", IXjJrtssion urlabra
635: (2) a composilioll, da locht deg
na hirlabra 19.U:
erlonn r. m. (I) fI IIaft, shall 01sptar,
spMr-bld, aurlond 1621, erlonn 174,
Burland 4699: (2) a jJrtctdillg u.lortl
i"dicaling Ihl glnd" 0.1 Ihl "011"
" il tomprislS III, pronouns
i, cd 618, 1623,4, and Iltt ,i,murals
d:t 'dr, td teor:l, ceitlui
1625,9 i aurlond no insce 1703, int
aurlolln indsci 1705, i!ed, isi, ise 1876.
585, 593.4, J626,7, 1632,S, irlond
714, urlonn 19oJ9, caid int eurland
4893 i a.s. fri hurlainn J633 i 'n p.
urlanda 162oJ,9, 1631, 1717, aurluhna
17 q; dope \Ir1:anuaib 1624, 16H i
erlolld indscj 5077, urlolln iIlSl:C
1949. 2174, aurlolld insd 2117
ernaU f. killd, spu;u, ditllsioll 2046"
d.p. erllailib 1893 i n p. 3368, emaili
imchomairc 1935 parli/iol/ts, Gr. Lal.
iii. 459: earnal .i. gne, 130. 302,
erned m. a" alllllysis, t.rpllllla..
lioll, a oen erniud 357, 1248, ed aon 11
eirncdh .j. fuasgladh 2]29.30. it".
ernln Iht O,ham accml 0" filial dOllbl,
COI/SOIIQllls marJ.lilg all a/'!>lIrml f,'owd
Im.r:IIItJllilj',111t sig" fiJI' tillli,'h is n 255,
817,9, 13S7, 1547, airllin 2576, nion ar'
aimnin 4802, q.v.
esba. urelnSlltSs 628. Wi.
eson. moo", eusga mar Luan 3533
esse r. (I) a ZOllt, IracJ (vix subst. tHt
status, locus, Z.:! 657 b), d. for set na
aibgitri 5513.1751,3,8 i the meaning
is strongly influenced by (2), 896,7,9.
903.5,7,9, 911,3, 3778,9, 3781.5,7.
essc ab esoce i piscis, Cor. rr. 70 i
esoce rrom zodiace (sc. zona). Pisas,
the 12th sign of the zodiac, repre-
sented by two lishes ticd together by
the tails, repr"duccd in the Ogh:lm
arris >-< (?). cr. Origg. iii. 45 :
RC. XXI. ,p6: (2) Lat. nu, tswill'a
3798, eisi adbarrda callsal tSU'
3800,4, eisi cruthoighti crlalivt tlU
3799, 383,5. SR. 25
etall IIoMt i uas.\l 1325, etaill 4642
etardefrlg1m I dijftrtltlialt, etarde...
friges 895 i inr. etar<1erriugud 914
etardellugud m. II disli"guishillg, dis.. '
lillclitJ" 915


. '
etardeochralg1m / dislil/pisll 6,
IfL"fII, elardcorhraigill5 3777
etarderrscalglud m. ,a
etargaire r. (I) Lat. (omparalio, etar
J{aire ar i5 i frecras jn condelc
2774. 5R6, 587, 643,6, 3276 i
d.p. (2) illflNlilm, n.5. ctarf.:o\ri
6-t0, HO i 8oJR, 3280 i deisllleracht
na hctcrgaire 3H7
etargnugud m. a" ;1111'1'.
845, etarg.
1I01lglld 3282, 33H
etargradlD1us (phps. Lat. inter.
greJimur 1ut illlfrf'ffU) uparalioll
.i foruaslaigcach 8H, etargreim, E. ;
foruasJaif.:thcrh 37 J6. Ltc.
etarsgn.rta. !'flrlfd, u/'llraltd, bcrla
IlC. 210, 1317,2526,4635
tao I''''/,ro!',1', Imal/Ott'aMf 277 2,5,
cJerhla 378; as 5ubst. isinn etechtu
662. in eterhta 732
ethalm I !:o,}illd, 3 p. prcs. guth.
elait 363, 2740 i 3 s. ? doctait 363.,
Ped. Cr. 716
ethar f. a /1MI, ogam n-eathrach 6133.
lism. 222], 4795, 4825, p. 31o: Wi.
halt/III, ItliltOU.f, hau, ugly 2066,
nigncd n-citig- 3130 .
etir (in-ta) is eidir 3008, L. hetir i.
clis B. fL'hi,II art 1011lid, i.e. fL.llich
I//lj:hlh'lf't 5423. cr. Pede (;r. 838
t'tSIIIN, rollt 5584. Wi.
eathradh 4213 L. dualilas co,,-
ju.t:alis, Maro 89. 18
tll/1l(illg, bl'ighl, lus/rous, ro-
hetrocht 5107
'trulme Iigh"ttSJ, dt/icac.,v 2315, 2943
faebrach Jtm-fdg,d, shari 2133
ft1ed r. a cry, (aidh.1486,4S9-t, raid 5131
t(BUnn a uagull 5693. roilenn li",-
fis/ur, Wi.
t-alclt all acr.idt,,1 0), r. co cuibdius
1932. aicid, C.
falr a 6tarill.f, li/ltrillg, li/l" 18S3,
5034. roir, Q'Dav. 36o, 1010
talrole a Jlltt-tap, r. ror glun 5008,
5035. TlJco. Atall. 7803,
talscre Lat. gallllll,iul/I J083. i c;iise
no (hUSf, UCI.: lism.
farchn. a lIIa/ld, n.p. na forchai 147,
na forrhuda 2440
fasach n, m. a (Ommml,/':I', g.!:.
2685; n p. 1303, J337,
4620, 4fJS I, 4624
fl\.th II !:",.,,,ml, fllt/lfr 51.12.
fBthncb c1rf'fnIfH f,lIh i.
I:ithnrh .j. OCI. : d. O'lhv.
f{) r6 IIIIH! fc fe flc:,c 4299, .... fcth
fecht a j"urllf)', on a joUrl/fY,
ror fcaeht feili 222J.4, 2240,7. Wi.:
cr. Laws
fedem a SIOllf i onn 565 J
tedH (1llISIIIII', Slff/'ry 2J 35
fedim I 11'0'/, Jou/. /,u/, 3 s. prc!:. rcdoid
2595, 2737,40, Wilh aOixcd
pronoun r.ete 280 i ipv. 2 :t. Icad
2253, 2 p. fcithith 2240; 3 s. prc:!.
pass. nnlan fed hair a hindsge coir
'lIirrp. 3/48, 31 H, rell<lhair 4771.
rcg-hair 4777
fedlend hOllf)'J/lcllt I 156, reithlcnd
4250. Tltru ,'ltd. CI .. C. 82
fedm a" '.1/01'1, lu"cliM 2007, 5556.
foga.lm / loc'/: Oil. N!:ard, reglhair do
thaebomnaib art rf/:I,nltd al (onlo".
allis 5457
toge f. J.Wl1IfJ( 5194. Ft/.
tege, fOlce a rid/:,polt, fLilldow 6/02.
Ijuia pratrlal lUff", dom"i, Cor. rr.
81 : Ire T. iii. 76, 1 : RC. xiii. 120
foU f. a ftaJ/, feacht feili
2221,4, i d.s. jm feil Eoin 3837 i
g.p, feile 5192
fels f. a S"'IC', reisi 4543.
.flflr. '
foith a Silltfll, reich 181 s. cr. Laws
tel potlry 3306, 33Jo.l. i tiigsi, O'CI.
fele po;lr)', rele ai 3308. Cor. rr. 74
"Ie r. !tONollr, "/,rtj:h"uss, mOllnly, fci/e
dano indracus 3309. Wi.
felee a word Or 1'''JI cOlllal'"ine four
syllalJlts, Itlr{lsylla61t 1214,
14 21 ,1954
fel1samD&oht; I. Iltiloso)lIy 53,7,
2341,5,8, 33"7; g.l. do uiJedetaidh
na feallsamnachta 2339
fellsumh m. Lat. IltilosojJMs, a pltllo-
sOjJlttr 671, feUsamh 670, 3307. Wi.
m. a slut/till, pll)il 33 I I ;
dim. (;,c1macan 534. Cor. T,.. 74:
fewder a "irgill 606 .i. ogh.ingclI
607, 3088
feme Lat. f'i,.!:/) 606, 3087
femen i tlesc, q.v. 610. cr. (emen .i.
bean: seach ba ba (eindidh
IJtsit/ts hillK (, fJ.'Olllnll sIlt ft'al a
d'tlllljJioll, O'C).
feweD fill/illillt rtllt/tr 522, 603,6,8,
610, 620, 17 14, (cimin 3085 ;
fencha.s v, scnchas
Jl'ene, FelDe 1111 allclmllrish, berla F.
25 25, 1302. Felle i do rad dib 0
Fenius Farsaid, 1/)'. ii. 40 n.
Jl'eDlchUs m.lht old Irish laws, CUSIOIllS,
1(IItI n.,. in Feincchus 4622 j
d.s. ISIIl F. 633
feochos hilt'illg willurtll foul, 0,. 1/"II"t.
I 16o, (eochuos 4255, (eocus 5528,32.
{eorhta, (eochad, Din,: (eodaiglm I
willttl, lis", ' A"te. iii, 43
fe61a,lrecht (. j!tshi1ttJr, I"'khay
521 5,20
feorUB a spilltllt'-Iru I I 55,425; 1196,
4301. Laws
fera,lm Igi"I, stlll', sU/lict, fil (?), 3 s.
prcs. {er.liJ +prone lit and 2nd sing. 0
(ertom il W.,'IS lilt 1618,4691, feartot
i' stn'lS Inu 1619, 4692. Cr. Thur.
428: Mirim, Din.
ferda. 1111111(1', ",(HOIlillt 1503,
-Il)12, nc.
fernn f. (I) (111 tilda, air is 1in Cern
5537, (ern: II 54, 4249, (emil 5494,
5622, in (ern 5536: (2) ,Itt 0Knalll'
!dltr t, (crud 1168,9,4264, airdilxlaJ
(erna 1Zb;1 (or (crlm 128I, tllcad o
(crn:c 5538, (crn .i. (cam sin isll1
caill 55q I
ferrdrlB ,,1 tlo!:hritr, (u,.-6ritr 4295.
nne .II,,'! GI.
ferthaln Lat.IIN,'i", raill 04220
feth i. fe l'I, alas I 04294,9. Cor.
606: Tr.75
feth SIIIIJOIIt, 6UP. fethim laire 565 I.
ftjJlJisOll, fltIIOIII, fl a ournna 3311. Cor.
tt 6ntl, fi oulc 3312, 142I. .iItlr.
tt a"Ktr, imlt/:llalioll, fi ani .-crais 669.
3308. aimriar, .lId,.. 4
fiaola,ch IlJolltlil, 6093
ttad (. It/)Iwur, g. litir fiadha 4S45
fladnch gllmt, nUlllillg, (or fiadllch 113,
fialuB m. hllt/ud, rdtlliollShijJ, cOila (.
1147. Lnws
llanna.mallcecheterdarallht 6irgtsl
fL'tJrd ill 1435, 174,452 3
fiar "rool:ttl, (m'':I', co fiar allnvarl 5788
fichlm I boil, 3 s. pres. dia fich In
domun 2204,6. Wi.
fid m. (I) ftJlJotl853,4,5,6,7,8, 1182: (2)
a fVU..tI 917, 1340,1; n.p. (eda 919;
d.p. 764-, 134-3; a.p. frisna cuic (eda
26o: (3) (I ItllU', (III Ognam Itlltr,
Ollt ttl 7 lib/tis oj nail/met or
slrlldurl, i.e. fid, deach, rt:im, (orbaid,
alt, innsce, etargoire 739, 762,3; go.s.
(eadha 769; g.p. (eadh 769
lldat "",.d-(ntrr)' (?), fldhat I I 56,
fidhollt 4251. fidarh (ojJu, snru!,s,
hl'llslt1.'00d, Lism.: Hog.
ftdba It,dK,,-h''l 5725. I,.. :1. 797
fidbn.d (. 1.'ood, ror fhidhbait 818, 36H.
fidrn.d coli. fVI4..d Itllas, Idlt'''s, n.s.
3879; g.s. couir fiodraid 3874, ccn
ccomllaim liJraiJ 5217, 5363. cr. co
n-illJllaim fidraig, I,.. 7: iii. 29, 12
ftdra.d frecoomaU 1111 IIllillrtlltiJll 6t-
171'1111 lite Itlsl f1'ortl 0./ a slall:tl allll
Int' jir.rl (slruwl) word 0/ IItt /olllJw-
ill.( SIIlIl::II, lidhrad (rcllnlomail, e.g.
101lnd. Cic IClith 3879, comfhllaim
Olidraid 5363. cr. Fd.'J, p. J4. x:
I,.. T. iii. 29, :q; 30 y
1Uldecht C. Iltt nrl oj lilt pOll, 10tl
5798 i g.s. vii ndeich na filideachta
filUm IjoM, "",d, injlfcl, 3 s. reI. fillis
4474; impf. aubj. filled 40474; pas,.
ni fil1tir 788, 3596 i info filled m.
4475 i d.s. i ffilliud 1638 i n.p. filltl
1664. 4732, isna filltib 1541 i part.
pass, il'.flulltl905, 3788
(I) injlul,d, dcalba filltecha
1641: (2) m. iltj/uliOll 1656 i n.p.
lilltigh 166o; Ol.:nfilltcch 1668
filltlugud Ill. all '4/ulioll, a /,"poli-
liollal (au, n.p. filltigthi IS I 5, 1637
fin L. ilin q.v. 5434
find, .finn 7(1;';1" mlle finn lIIilclt-sow
5669.70; g.s.(. finni 5672,4,7 ; irfind
5701. Mdt'. IJimfJ. ii. 042, 20
findcholl wltflt-Ita:ul 1156,4251
flne f. (1 Iri"t. 2286
flnemn.ln (. (l '';lIt-lrle 1186,7,4284,5
ffr.dlnaglm I lruly pnss, fOIllPUSS,
arin bfoucal fir-dinggcas 3664
fisld Lat. uimdlllll 3523. Wi.
flSii m. g.p. Cess 2237
ftu TIJOrllt)', fl.'orllt, lilit (with aeclis.)
5231, (co air coindelc (?) 3728.
Cr. a rorbthib fio from pufteliollS 0/
J:cIO(llItH, RC. xxvi. 16: i cosmail,
11. 3. 18, p. 625.
fln.ltbluB m. a rtl/:II, co dcredh
Ilaithiusil 1122 ids. 0 fhlaithiu!l 1121
nann uti, M'ad-,.,tI 561)8. Wi.
fiesc (. a "01/, lill', a or uOrt lor
,111 Og;'11111 I,II,r or pnrl Ihtrto/964,
llesc bun fich n 1'001 ofJi.r:ltlilll, "'tlr.
E. 13 i femen i 610, Lat. fJimtll
lleBcda. slttll,rtd, d,!iral, 610, 3089
flcsc (I/met, IttdKt, 0'0. 870
td KtJt1tl.j. maith 2822 i 580,1421 ,4476,
2844,S, f6 Die 334'1; in compos.
'wtll-/ool,d 6062, fond
(ochrotha 5105, iar (0118 479. (0-
fhcrillScc 576. Ascoli, cccXltxiv.
o fo.berlm I stil" calclt, 3 a. fut.
(ombcra 5343
to-chanalm I sing 10, brec i focbanar
5235,46. TP. it 290,7,8,9
fochelrd 3 a. pres. 5131,
foccn 5143; p. pan. focertad 045 1,
fochloc, m. dim. focblocaD a 10fl 0/
Iltl stvOIl1t ralll, do fochlocain 2352.
Ir. T. iii. I U : Laws: Cor.
fo-chrr)m slightly !>till 593:1
foclach ltaviI'l: tt'ortls 2133: d.s.f.
i1foclaig 1558
fod 1479. O'Mulc. 561,587
fodnll (. a di"isioll, n.s. fog-ail in anma
5772; n.p. Codla 2005. (ogla 5490,(0<11a
Ccda sltru!ls 1151,S. Laws, sub fid
fodl\(l)l1m I diflid" 3 s. pass.
6064, seeip ni (odhlaidir 456
fodnllt a tliflidi"g, di,'ilioll, for (odailt
doib 1:144
fodb 11. arll/f, spoils, radb 53()5
fognl (. illjur)', dllllln!:f, d'rhoghloib
2124. O'Oav. 929
fogln.lm f. I'ilr"illl:, vii bliadhna na
(oghlama 2477
foglnlmlm 11m,.", 0 ro(oghlaimet na
hilberl:'C 216. Law8
fogl1uDn .1 ItIl r", 3 s. impf. subj.
3999; 3 s. (ut. prct.
nofoglaindfedh 1045 ; 3 s. prct. pass.
rofog-hlointi 2454. Wi.
foglualslm I IItm'f, dioflur", dis'l"itl,
o 3 s. prcs. 12:15, 04535;
3 s. (ut. pass. fotgluaslither 5H8.
1',.,'lItlf. Wi.
fo-gonnlm /1('(lulld, tlfflroy, 3 s. P:J.S5.
(og-ollar 5224,7
togralglm I $1)/("", I s. (ograig-im
31)9, 2820; 3 !I. (ograigit 368.
2750 i info dia fograig-ud
451,2823,2914, C(, Laws
togurda f'lIiad 906, 3788
f61dlm I smd, 3 S. pres.
382, 2759; 3 p. prc5. (uidhit 359,
2736 ; prct. pass. ro(uidhedh 1041.
2544; p.p.p. guth (uiti 359, 382,
(aiti 2736, fouiti 2758
foUcheotn Iltt rom/wilt 0;:11.,111 Itll,n
qu, ng, sr 429, 439, 2874,8, 2893,
foUlglud (o-sligim) a smtn,.illr 1756.
Fil.?: .trill vii. 194-
tolmtlU C. a co"ullli,,!, alllJWillKI 1111-
mil/illr, (or (oimdin na focul 01370,
4426. Lawl
tolrbthe /l1'ftc/, compltll 592, 1414,
airim (orbthi 14-45,6
tolrlm I l/tlp, 3 So pres. (oirid 3637,
pass. (oirther 2114, rei. Couitius 3402;
3 p. pres. foirit 2170, foiret 2111 i lee.
(ut. 3 naarurfead S164, nosfir(ed
tolrlthneoh lulpju12647'H04. Laws
toUnlm I mait lull, supply,
nocho nfuillter 1444, nach fuillter
tolUucht (fo.slicht) Iracl, vtrsio", rt.
clIIsioll, iar fuilliucht aiH 1361, 4503.
toltcho.ln whilt Itair 5529,32
toluaoh m. a slllall wltalt (?), n.p.
foluaich (fobluaich) 5933. bloach,
tolud m. subsiallC/ 912
to-Iulglm I !tidt, canetal, cindas
(hailgit a n-ulcu 2008 j info folach,
caingen falaigh 2185
tond m.fitld, lalld 5105. CC.
tonlo.1us slight nullity, for Conialus
toro.lcme tr1, addiliollal or dipll/Ao"gal
I.',oui 5676
tort1.U (til txass, addilioll 2778. Wi.-
torba. 111I tl/(!, compltlio", n.s. a forpa i
nguthagaiph 3006, 3003 j g.s. do
focul forba anaile 930; d.s. a forba
1587, iar forbu 1735, co forbu 519, do
forbau 1305. Ftl.'J
torbald f. all aUtIII, n.s. is forbaid
1575,74,810,2,5,7,8,821,2,3,4, 924,
1544, 3633, 4767; g.s. 1406, ag
fuacra Ila forbaiJi sin 1561, ig incose
na forbaide sin 1563, 15611, eSlie
fuirbhthe 907, 3789 i a.s. fri forbad
1951 i Il.p. scribtar na forbaide-sea
1551, forbaidi 4768, a (orbhthi 1817,
fuirbthe 1545, 1878, forbthe 185), a
flloirpdai 5005, i fuirmthe 5036 i d.p.
forbJidib 820
torbo.lm, torblm I c01llpltlt, ptrftcl,
IId,i",t, 3 6. pres. rorhaid 812,5,
nachasforband 2122; reI. forbes
4519 i pass. forbaiJer 253, forbaither
6036. Gor.
torbedlm I vivify, Corbeoidh 812,3,
torbrig C. Mltrslrtl'tllt, ovtrtmplwsis,
ovtrslrus, cen f. 1941, 506" 515S,
2054, 21S8 j e.g. In 5157-9 the last
syllables o( lIi/t, clllna, are stre:ised tl)
begin the next line, with no elision
before vowels (1): so 5162
torbrlste ui, 906,
torcmo.ohta. pulicious, ollolllala/loll'c,
ainm f. 1614,4697. Sg. 30"1
torcro.ld t:retss, .:cnflesc forcraiJ 5872.
for-dt\.m f. a grlal compallY (lY /lar'Y
tordlnglm I comprtss, 3 s. pres. fri
fourbaiJ fordingi 3647, v.
tordunta/ortc!oud,lort-mdoud 6086
torlld m. (I) II diphthollK, n.s. 1340, in
forfhid 13P j n.p. na forfeJa 1344,
5491, S5 10 j g.p. na forfid 5417 j d.p.
do forfhedhaib 765: (2) forfeda
addilional It/lty's 6112,6, 612 r,5
tortullUm I add 10, fill up, 3 s. pres.
foruillid 1565, 4796; info forfuilled
torglo.s Mut, dari tlllt 5669; g.s.r.
forglaisi 5671,3,6 j d.s.f. oc forglais
59H. Cf. Thc.
torladad m. a sh"I/i"l lip, g.s. foriata
illd"sit,t, 697, 3327, Tbc. PH.
torlnosoe addtd gmdtr 574
torlelthe ;'rtadth, compnltmsil'OttSs I',
2276, 2316
tormo.rlus mally-jaw!, tJl/:ilalli 3642,
81 I. Dignitas in Monasteriis. Qui
in bonis sit forma, qui caeteris
monachis vitae sune ralione pr:le.
luceat, siu potius qui mOIl:lchorum
spiritualitati invigilet. Senior qui
apills sit ad lucrandas animas, qui
super mOllachos onlllino cllriose in-
tcndat et sollicitlls sit.-DuCtlll.t:t'
tormc8sta. f. cUlllposile O/:h.lIl1 I..II,,'s
2902, tcora foirmccstu 110 imccsta
o tOI'molad m. (I) (I ItYimSult,
sU/ltrl"livf dtgru 6..s. 3268: (2) IAt
addilion 01 a syl/aMt, on, 10 a word
19H, 567,1991, 2082, 215r, 2164 j
e.g. fer-on 1793, ben-pn t839, nem
on 1859, lir-oll 1983. gand-on, annon
nn i tormach si11acibe (.j.
lormolad), Cdir A II.: RC. xx. I So
toro-todlalm and torfodlalm I su"-
dif'idt, 3 s. pres. forofogl"iJ 282, foro-
foglait 2597, 38. pret. forfod:\il 2473 i
p.p.p. for foga ilLi 4024. fofodail s"b-
tlit'isioll, Law'3: Str. CI. 06, 20
fororo m. II Itog 5677,8; dim. forordn
5937 a slrtlchillg i. rigi 1330, 4646
torrt1.n (I) aK.frllt'alioll, all.ftl', ai/lrts.
sio", f'iolmCf, g.s. bllaidir foranna 5986:
(2) cOllliaraliflt tlfgr" 6H, 3,67.
forran .j. flrbrised, T,,;uls, 186, gJ.
torrglm I in;urt, ""1'1, co forrgidis
1332,4647. Wi.: CC. 568r: Ais/.
tors challet 377, 733, 2773,t,),8. i.
toceth, TP. ii. 362: i casus i
totaim, O'Mule. 579, 578: cr. Origg.
xviii. IS, I f.
torsaU/At accllllOIl a IIJI/g Iltt
Ogllam S(:II oj fultic/, ;.f S 1405, 1573,
gai jnd fhir forsail 1820, sail :i ninad
forsnil4459, for5nil for fout fcudhair
4771, scribthar sni I ar
813,19, 1356, 1546,8, 155(,,9,62,4,5,
tortli. ;s U/JOII I 131}, fordota 4003,
4237,9, (orsata 15b, forbid 811 ; 3 p.
foratait 244, fordotait 1146, 2559;
imp'. subj. 3 s. forheith 2419 '
tortclud m. a C01'trillg, o;'scuralioll,
trc f. 2774 i g.s. bcrlaforteiJi .i for-
dorcha no ruamanta 1323, forteidi
464,4621. fortuigim, Thc.: fortchcd,
Re. u. 148, x: fortchidc, MI. 29
fortgailli, 90
tortgello.lm I dtdlll't, f",prus, pres.
3 I. forlgellaid 2795 i pass. ni fort-
279t. Aisl.
tort6rmo.oh n. (III addil;o", a sII/Jlr.
adtlilioll, g.!. in (jdh fol1hormaigh
1735,7,4928, sillab (ortormalgh 2968 i
fortormacht f.. id., cona fortormacht-
niph 2510,1
tortud in1'oenlit,t cast (1) 1522, 1652,
1784, 1884,4981 all illltlTlllillC,
dOll/illillillt, .i. f.
foruao;hig-thcch 3716. Cf. fuasglaJ,
fuaslaicteilch a loost/lillg, b.., lub
edargraidimus .
tos8ugud m. a h"llillg, ic
fosugud 0 focul co focul 1595, 4675.
tot n. m. (1) in rad as a.r }Ir as
581 I : (2) a 10llg syllllhlt 1339, fot n
aicl'entn 4374 i go.s. fuit 824. 1353.
fuid 1552; d.s. for fut 812,4, 1564,
for fot 1546, (rj fat 107l ; d.p. forna
fodaib 1556. Sg. 5-9, I2
fotach 101lg. n.p. fOlaig 4378
foto.lglm I mtlh If/llg, Itllgllull, iarsinni
foutaigcs 3652; info dia fattugud
fotha m. II 10l/lldalioll, hllsis 687, 690,
2735,58,9. Wi.
fothalglm I joulld, fothoigim 2819 j
3 s. reI. fothaiges 814
tothoro.nd f. a tllr/, SU/..
di1'Isioll 1897,8, 1920,1 I
tothudfillldl,li1" cau 1524, 1662, 1786,
188$,4982. Cf. feinne fothud, Wi.
fothugud m. a fOUIlt/illt, t(Jsilit,t
dlgrlt 6-44, 657, 3267 :
toxul n/./lIlif't CtlU, n.s. fo,;al 4741,
fo:<aul 1)22, foxla 4754, foxlaid 1882,
1890 i g.s. foxlan 1645, foxlacha
1647. foxlada 1661,7 j d.g. inn foxlaid
1677 ; a.s. co fox laid 906
trnech, tr6ech m, (I) liMlh, htallur,
n.s. ill fmoch 2834,1157,4251; Jl95:
(2) h(/ir, ",tIIlt, fracch frithrosc 5994,
6008 .',ftlr... Fiall. I illltrr(lgnlif't CIIU 1886. Gr.
lal. iii. 133 ,I u'!.
trecndo.lro, frocnalro a /,nsml t,rs""
or ImSt 194%, 2056, 2161. Sg. 167"
tregarthach m. all aIlJtt'trill.C 1o, co,.
rtsi0llt!illg la, tfJlti1'alm/! ioSS i n.p.
freacarthaich lOgo, 4084 i
. tresgablU f. (I) all asctndint, nrad
fresgaphala 2426: (2) taU,
frtJgabhail I 527,1663,(rescbail I 789,
freaghaball J886, 4984.
fresllge (I) a lyillK tltJWn, slI/lsitlillg,
freisligi foghair 4724: (2) d,sit/alif"
(tlSt 1523, 16531 1791, 4985. Wi.
frlohnamaoh dilil:l1,l, c:artJitl, al/tlilivl,
11m 4050. Din.
trls-olrglm I violall, /lnd, cona
fri[th]ortud tectll (?) 1938. Ped. Gr.
trlth hilS /ifll'/OUlld i 3 pl. frilha
frlthgnam m. tliligmct 5194. Fd.'/.
frlthlndleadaoh a coullllrpllrl, Il/ui"I'-
ItIIl 313, 771, fjithindlidech 2649, i f.
Lahne 3569
frlthruBo baa,..'anls 5824, 5968,
5994,5,8, 6008. frithrosc, liS/II...
frithroisc, "'cal/. 2327: rrithroi:lc .i.
I n.agaid tsrotha, Alii". V. 25, 7 n.
frlthsalglm I 01111"1 rt)taltdly, In..
,/uml, Silftly, part. necc:;s. i:J freleJe
899, is Creitighe 3781
trlthsulde rtlillialio1l, rtpriSllI, frJ.
suithi J933. focul i frithsuide, 11 rch.
e I'. i. 16o: Laws: 0'0.: O'Oav.1 547
tuaoh II !t'cml 254, di fuadl 3569,
daghfuach 3570
tuachonn, fochann tl Matlt 01 '"11m,
Pd.:!: fochannm.,HSD.:
fochon, liml.: cf. roichnc, Triads
tuam J(/I .i. muir 5.H4
fuar $((1 i muir, B. i i dilcnd i. muir.
L. 5443
tubal (fOo ben) Irror ,fllu/l, fad nad fubal
5459. cen Cubac, Sg. 268: cf. Wi.
tulrld (1) gl . derg maescm 5936
tulrmed (I) a pltrfill!!" (2) dl)osilil,t
fllU 1776, 4976,7
tulrmlm (fo-rimim) I plact, ul, 3 ..
prct. forruim 5397
tulang slINorlillg 1808. fuolach 4994
turliU ,."C(fSS, 100 lIIuch, Of'lrjltJw 1566,
gabul C. aftJrJ, /lrlll/"h g.s.
gabla 5335. Wi.
gabur m. II lotll 540, gabar 3170 j gabair 5230. Cor. 7'1'. 83
g'e. p m. n g.. craind gte
1173, nlrell gal 4892
gaes r. acul,,,,SS of mintl, wisdom 5271
gd.eth ,t'ist, g'Cth 5OO,J, 2970
gall' n. a s!torl sy/laMI, 819, 1072, J339,
n-aigenta 4375,6; g.lI.1552
gall' f. a s;'olll, wiu, gair guth 665,
3281, i guth 3717. FII.'J
galrdlglm I ,,!torltll, 3 5. rei. co nach
sail gairdigius in foueal 3665
galt f. (inf. of gataim) a lah,,!! mM)',
Slll/lillg, a gait 2179
galmalam Iasin Laitneoir pruudfllrtls
1084, gOllrnmrillm 4078. galmilla,
galuanulll, pigmcllti vel succus
\'ellac ferule, Ducange, .SiINI .. gal-
mulum, Pl. Vii. S",/(I. ii. 382: gal.
mirum (galmarium), Bll. xviii. 68
gamnaoh f. I' f01u wilh I' .r'llr.
oM L"tllf, a slrijJ/Jtr 5762. Wi.:
gann, gand spar,", a formolad,
gand-on 5284, ann-oil 5286
garmaln f. a 'NIII'lr's /"IIm, g.s. ginol
garmna 1175, .1271, 5H3, 5626, 0
nin na garmna 5544 i n.p. togaibter
garmna I 176, togbailher garmna
4272. Wi.
Bart IIOSpillllil)',K1I1trosily, hOIlOllrablt
cOllducl 5271. Dfl,lh TailS
Barta wllI-jil"d, 4060.
eincach, O'CI.
gat a "'ilh,, Iii 5727
g6d II gOOSt 1698, 4885, ngeigh 5695,
d,s. on geig gotha 1698. Wi.
gellt (0.1. gleith) n grazillg, paslllrI,
d.p. gcltaib 1189 i info or gelim
g6lm n. a rOllI', ShOIlI, d.s, 011 geimim
1698, on geim 4885. nt".
geln 11. (I) birth 626, 2487: (2}
pI. gene /:tIIlralioll.r, yo/mglill!!s, off..
sprli/,t:, glosscd as ftJupll, pair 570,
1812,3,4,5,6, 1854,S, 1878 i a ngen..
sidc 1950, a genis de 1. gein 5080,
5412. Cf. O'Dav. 1034
gelnd r. a tC'tdKt, ngend 5727. Wi.
" $1Uall, gilithir geiss 396o,
gilidir gesi 5320
gelt mad, tUI'/d 1185,4283, 5551 i n.p.
geld 5554. CC.
genas m. 5271
genemaln a /1/'1'1;', iarna g. 5650' Wi.
genltll f. I:n"'lil't (IlU, n ndcluh gcnh.1ll
1644,6, 1668, gcinitli 4847, for a
ginitil 3611. Laws
ges, gels a /'1111, prohi/Jilioll, Ill/'U, ba
59B. Wi.
" geta.! (I) a rUtI, 1111 Iwoo.'11 /'111111 .i.
gikarh 1190,1,2576, ,P87, 5521: (2)
tiit 01:111I11I 1,1111' ng 255, H2, 2896,
5929. 0'0. Gr. lXxii.
g1all 01. Im/'n)I"", lIur"dih/l, chul, g.:l.
:1 dcliJin litlcnla, doL gnui:l in gclli
( =-; geill) 20H
Bibe II (in gypsum), ngilxc
5801. O'Mulc. 651 : .III. 59"7: cf.
x. II 9
gllcach lit! II/Will pllllli 1157, 4252 i
J J9O,1.4287,8 i 2576,5521. TP. Ii.
4(1, 18
g1ll8 m. n 111,1 5715 i triple Jim. In
J,!illg'lIg':m 708, in H63
gln Ill. II/lIulh, lugcnailJ 1594. Wi.
glnol 11I1111', g. garmna 1175, 5516,
5543, 5626, giniol garmno 4271.
stus II fir.l,.,t 1153, 4248 i 5521 ; g.8.
nilnd giuis 111)4
glalss f. a SlrMIII , rimll!! 1810, glais
glas' II .f/Nalll 1065, teit an gins 4J021
g11\9 /.:r((lI, 1:"'''', si/f'n')' 5700 j
fGlllpar. glaisiu 1189, glaisium enis
561 7 ; cquat. glaisithir 3500
g16lm III/tllt cI'III', Sli ill ordlr, I pl.
illlper. gleam 5090. Wi.
gleo afi!!ltI, n.s. 5371 i a.s. gliaidh 980
gI8011' sllmdcIIII" 5429
g16re f. choi((, dill, .j/IJ'I(II", n.s. in
J,!hleiri 2228
g16:clU Inul, p/lrsuil 5877, etcrglcithi
. i glens etarro 3282. glelhc i. slicht,
rbt'. 712 ; v. geilt
gl688 f. brighiluss, g.s. 5247,50. Fd.'l
gl6lr Lat. gloril' is gloir glan 2213.
glonn m. a tlm/1548 i g.p. 940. WI.
glonn m. champiOIl, hlro 5120. RC.
n. 144, 23: l. galscech, H. 3. 18,
p.626 .
gl6r a II0/st, sO/lIItI, gan glor 2049.
glul\r pllrt, dial', /Jrigltl 5131. Wi.
gluas f. a Klo.u, n.s. gluas 54, 2342,
2417. V
gnlithach flsl/al, lcas roghnathach
gnl\tbugud m. II /lSill!:, I/sagl 843
.rfWiJif 858, 861, gnclhach
gntm m. (I) 1/ dud .. (2) "arlit, f'oia, i
Ilgllim 642,651 i uriathar ,::nima
1620. toranu gllima 7 ccstil, Sg.
26 bl5
Bobur f. II horSt, II ,,'hilt ;'oru, Is i in
gnbuir 539, i in ghabair 632, g'opar
316'), g-obar 3207,15. .1/111'.
golbnocht f. JllIIIh1i'0"/', gail1llcal'ht
5801. Laws
g6ldelo f. lIlt (;llIlil" Itlllgl/l'I:', gaiJclc
354, 3541, gacdck 2517, gacdc1g
gaohlclg 2282 i lilid 1I:l
gaidhikd 4525, g-aiJild 4964, gaoi-
deice 2836 j d.!!. Isin gaiJilc 4011
golm f. P'lill, allgllis;', gan goimh 251.
golalm I ,,'ail, uwp, 3 s. pret. fut-
golfad 5288, gulfad 5294. hi.'J
goour, goor solus isin III Brelnus
3208, each solus 3215. O'CI.: ef
gabar /in/:hI, lu .' .I/dr.
gorm ""If 5ioO i sup.? guircmh dal
gort (I) i':I' i. cdcand 1187, ddhcand
4286, 549h i ghls 5521: (2) Ihl
Idlu g 2896,8; g.s. bagad guirt
43 z8 i d.s. do gourt 4324
gort m. a ctJrll-.fidd, n.s. in gort 55 S9 ;
d.s.. ar gurt 562, frisin gort arba
5558, do gherr a nguirt .lIile.
gortlgernd Iii I lallgun!!1 of htllrJtIl
.go, goirtigcril goirtigtheru
Keat. lIi51. ii. :i. eym.
,ortegcrnos, Ir. Fortchcrn of'lrlord
grad rile ral/I. of Iht pOII.f, in
onni is gradlls .i ccim 3284. H. 4.
22, 4-6 I ncmiJ rri gradilib filed, LL,
gratt paw IICCI1II, ama) bll grair
4786, gralb ISS7, in gralph fil and is
ondi is grail iI, 708: graif,
Sg, 220-4, uob8, 213-2
grdlnne a poinl, pin, gralnlln gro 1706,
4896 A"clt. l.: P. i. 479: Wi.
gramadn.oh gram",ar, n.s. 54, 2342,
eter gramadaigh 5I, 2339
grande Itilliful, hidtous, luper.
grannlum' 548
Oreo f. /Itt Grul 11l11lltl, Crul, n.ll.
Greig 22Hl, 23JI, 2459 j g.l. Grege
3765 i d.. a Greie 353, 2116
a f/.101'J. halltli"rnji 239, 2554, gres
sair 5631. Wi.: lJftllh. Col.
grlnne a bundlf, balld, grlnne
sair 2539. Gor.
gruo a Ittro, g.s. goth gruce 5288,
gruiee 529t. .j. laoch no garb, ul
didlur, guth gruice cruth mbrege
7r1, Cor. Tr. 90: grulg 1
II. 3. 18, p. 6250
gruB CII r,/s, chust, grus 1 tanach
- 1082,1066,4019,22,79,1081,5,4100.
Laws: i tanach, Ed.
gruth (unls, Lat. galllluia loH2, gour-
1II111t10 4077. Wi.: lJlallt. Col.
gruthraoh Lat. ,t:tI/llla/lI111 108.J,
1/1/1l' ill 111 4079. gruthlach curd/td
mill, P. O'C.
gUal cOlli, g.s. smir guaill 5633.
gUas dlllll,r,ptril 5382
BUlbn.nda !Jttlltd, pi,reillg 1225, 4535.
Cf. gaeth guibelta, Acal/. 383
BUS slrmtlh, p0til/r, !lith spiril,
gossa 5314. CC.
BUthl\B flIO,.,Ii'lg, "ocalisllliOll 5276
.Butta f. m. (I) a fI01l'" 358, nl scdh dil,i
hi pudJein 2762,7, e n guta 1534,
gutn 2735 i n.p. guttai 1071, gutai
13S6: (2) a III/tr, int acnguta Ihe
Ollt Itlltr, i.e. s, == sail 17 J7
1 f. (I) all islolU127'P, 46.P : (2) the old
orse name of 10110, the latter being
a mhreading of AJamnan's lou"
(iUSIt!./) , t iuis Coluim Cille 1228.
faohltnn afislt-;ool, Lnt. pisdna 1092,
4093. iaeh (g... of e6) 1 bradan,
ta<,hta.d m. a sc,.,amill!:, Yillillg, sll(lul.
""K 1681, 2378, 2797,4868, 557S,6
larcomaro a cone/tldillg wortl oj a
/'Ot"" a fwolh/rtls oj lit, firsl
aC(tllltJ 'word of Iltt lotm 936, 3865,
Dr in n-imsl;m 2210,3,
iarcomarc bairJne 1588
larcomrao a wortlor f'trlt
Ih"u s.VI/aMIs, i tret-
silb:had\ 3865,1214, 4465 i Q19.
1953,4, d' iarcomrue 1936, a haon a
n.iargcolllarc 3539
larculbdlus all tl/llrllplll 38,p
larmberla (I) IlIInUtlllttl 1('0,-tl1 i.e.
dialt n.etarlemme anti lorga fuach
1307,13, .J620,30,2 : (2) lIlt spud of
I"r .tI'IC N,mtl, crypti,' spudl 1314,
130.J, 4627,33 i 2511,25. cr. Re.
xiii. 267
larnu II jl1lJll 5S.J2. iurnJeo, O'R. :
iarlll]oe, ]j-ip. CI. 31
larunn iroll, amal i. 1314, iaran,/4633
lascalrencht f. njishing $803
fath ItllltI, cOllnlry 532834
tbor a .1'/1(', urviff-II'U, ihur 1153, ibor
428 ; 1196, 4299, do ibnr 5523,
lbro..... cht f. J't11J l.I!ood '/.lor/: 5804.
Pdri R. T. 347
fo a d' icc na da firhet 2123
fc " ItttllillK' "tIIltdy, oenice 2083,4,
tohtpl'l),ftll)', chi/,/,.m, rllet 1112,
i chum n6 CJir AII.: Cor.
tdad (I) tltl yl1l1, nsp", 559J.5: (2)
Ihl Oglttllll '11111' t, n.s. idaJ 1676,
5659 i tar iJhll 2795, iJho 1196, ida
.i ibhar 5523, idhedh 2796, 429lJ
tnn m. (I) a ,fllostlurry, II !:11(Ju/.trry
!Jush 5666,520, brab iffin : (2) 1111
Otlltllll di/JhlllllllK or IrijJltlhllllg "'.fill-
lIillg ftlillt Iltt IllItr t, int ipin 4863
5525,5611,5667. iphin,O'fir.
tlar n. (I) mullilutl" (2)
11/41'(11 lIum!J,,, n.s. a n-illar 1530 i

ccudpcrsa ilair 2675,6, 2757 i
d.<;. tri a n liar 2671,4, 1642,8, Cri
hilar 2058, ar itar ndan 2159 .
11- "';111.1', II-foclaig mnll)'.,('ordttl 1558,
il-ghnuiscach many-Iliad 811 .
lUalt ,m tngltl (1) 5696. ii-nat
llugud m. an amlli/yillg, IIII1/lil(.'illg,
illugud labartha 630, hilugud 634.
1m bllll,r. ruse immi 636 j d.s. im
imim 637
tm-ad-ciu I cOllsitl,r, part. nee. imcesta
"3$Q j inf. do imcisin 2901, imchisin
4359. Cr. Pede Cr. 683
lmagnlln.lm (J (oll1J/rsalillll, i nn
DOl Thuar 1328, 4644
lmalrechtu a IIIl1lual ill-
f'mlillll, nir bo himaireachtain 2968
tmbert r. a pr,ldi.." pr,para-
litlll, IJltlhllrl, iarsin imrret no imirt
a 1II11111al lunrdill!:, ollstrv-
illl: 1975, 2003
tmchomaro m. (I) a 9Itf.flioll , int 1m.
COlllllre 12.. 8, is i. 123, : (2) nil
aftrr, !:ralill!:, snlllllliioll
5228, 5332: (3) /,arsillg, do
crllailihh ill imrhomaire 1893, for im-
fholllarc 189.. i v. ernail .
lmcomatrsnech 1IIl1ll1nl(v IIti!:"hour/y,
(IJynJtllllt/ill!:, se himcomairsnig airme
Imcubn.ld rhp"ill!:, imfhrcrra
i. 3822, comnrdad i. 3824-
lmdalngen '.'try slroll!!, imd:II'lgen 5125
tmdell1g1m I dif'it/" dISllilf:1I1'sh,
imdhcilightcr 996
tmdichlm (imb-di-fich) I/,roltc/i 3 s
prcs. imdich 5333 i info (im)dcgal,
a lIandegaii 2042
tm drengalm I gil roulltl a!Joltl,
(/ICOIII/'!ISS, di",h, il11<.1rkhaur 3931,
imdreangair Cfand 949, imdrengar
991, 3932
lmtreccra a mullittl cor"tspOlldinc, a
torr/spo/ldin!:, eenel ind imfreerai 924,
: 151 3i isna foclaib in imfreeerai 958,
; 3564,6 .
tmmatroldefi"i"K 492.
lmm-alr-lcclm I ",ul, SUil, fil, 3 s.
pres. immairigh 526, imarie 622
lmmn.r fl) 1968. nc.
lmpsoud (imb-soim) a IIIrninK n&ottl.
allnslropltt 510. tre impilth csl, Sg.
4b 8 . .
1m-root a 6111ill('(l, ",,11I1l1/5718
lmrlnd IIIl1lu"l/,oi"/, cOllllllan rhl'lII' or
l,nnillntiOIl, no in imrind bera rl}
scachta 3713. T6c.
lmgechrald II n/:III"r n/"lill'OIl 1934
tmthlmchell Ci,-cUllltltllif't cnu 1526,
1653, 1887
tmthormnlglm I 1llcr',lu, 3 !I. pres.
rei. imatormaig 4549, 1232 E.
Imucn 1II11111nl cltoiet, choiet 498
lnannus a lnl1""nS, itlmlily JOI5,
396.. ,5. Law!I
tnchoso m. (I) a 1/:t:II!!iCtllitlll,
tlfII(llalioll !:mtl,,. alld /,nl(1II, ctar.
goiri in illcoise 641,7,9. 673, ig Incose
1563,8, is c int inchose 1905, a hinrose
3977: (2) accil.falif't caU 799, 1519,
ae fer.tih(1) 1531, 1773, 1881, 1891
tndl\lthmech 1111 tIIlttlysis,
do reir an indaithmigc sin 3542,
triana n-indaithmcrh 4637
tndo f, (I) II nlftllli",C tri:,"ll 1l.lndc
tailhmcafh 1319, Inne 331, innI 831,
2680, 2729: (2) 673, is i in
indi 674. ltc. 169
tndell a )'(I/.ill!:, 'lufSl/(l/I 4363.
lnde61n all 1IIIT'ii 5728. Wi.
lndld, lnnld '-'1 w/u"ch is, 1lIhm, silla
5121. li'rill I, 12 i 120, 12: Thur.
Ht/II/:. 776
IndHEe i""/,/,roprialfll,ss, indlius ar
indilsi 3710
tndlsche S/'UCh.'('IIY 572
tn-dlupn.rtach jl'llutlulml, pr;mli"t
6")74. diubartach ji'llIItiulml, Laws
Indies 1111 illlprop,r USf, Lat. 6arlll1l'-
;smlls, Origg. i. 32, 4; 760,6, 811,
indilcs 764, innlcas 749
lndotacht m. (I) an tnlron", 6t,fill-
ning .. (2) ;lIgrlJ!ivt tast, nl Lia int
inutacht 1725, 1520, 1652, 1724,82,
1884. Laws
lndaoe m. (I) I'Nd,r, Indliul ind Indsgo
3694, innlc! 520,6, 714,5, 740, 3023,
ferinnsci 521 ,9.31, 543, 565,7, 595,
83<), 3023.: 3066, 1908, baninnsci
521 ,9,31, 543, 550, 565, 596, 840,
324. 3070, 1908, demhinsce 521,
530. 543, 550, 597,840, 3024, 3074,
1876, 1<}O8: (2) spuclr, i. cumascda
158o. 1690, clImaisci 1589
lndsce a1rme ordillal spttcn 17 I 5,
4906 .
indsce mod Iltlrralioll motif, nplll'lioll
(I/a 1(10,.,/ ill tilt tjualraill 1949, 5076.
Ric in sithbl sithlas
Ric in dnm tri coecat l'lglonn,
Ric in gusmar galln,
Forfacaih C'I dinisc donn.
RC. xx. 144
in-gra 1. Ingar ullplial, impious 4036.
, :Ungar .j. mac longhnr nach bhfoghnnn
da senoir do rcir a dhualgais all
ulljilial SOil tAal is of 110 urf.liet 10 Air
fill/ltr nccordillK 10 Itis dUI, rriads,
159, gl., 235, gl.: cr. O'Dav. 1102:
ingor, Asculi cccclx.
lnnlslu f. a IItlrralivn 572
lnnunn 10 Iltal Sit/I, Inil/ur, fnund
. 1579, anund 1585
1nratha1gte 10 61 ptretif.lld 1352, 4415
lnrocomro.1ronlgslomalrne I/It 101lg-
iSl 1I)0rd ill Gadie 4523, cr. 1436; v.
insnlt-heaoh iJljillillti 6060. snit he.
lnteoh a teal, amal intech legend 361,
inntech in leigind 2739 i inteaeh
1758, Wi.
lntorlaoht all illllrjteliolt 32I, lnterecht
lntshl1uoht. lntl1uoht m. SINSt,
im",liOlt, rlullrclt, g.s. derbad a
intlechta 5471; n.s. tria Intliucht
lph1n m. (I) a goostblrr, 1197, 4304,
int ipin 4863: (2) lIlt OKllam long 1,
Inl Oglta", diphlnollK 10, iphi 1294,
1363, 1535,7,8, 1541,3, 1675,7; 1
meJial and p 1369, 4425
Iso. wlloSt is, ofwlticA ;1 is, Isa oen 715,
all lal;IIK, ne ithl n chno 1183, 4280
labrad m. a sptali1l1, spuclt, g.s.
labarthn 1952 '
laoht mill, g.s. comet lachta 5622.
imon lacht j a.s. Is I coimetas in la('ht
5623 i n.p. gall Ja('hta 4543. Wi.
lft.chu a ducl 5693. Wi.
lad a mil/ ItIld, ctlllal 5837. O'R.
lalches f. II lay-u
Ol1lilll, Iltroim, laechesa
5718, laichesa 6150. j:riu vii. 194
la1d f. a mtln propt,. 10 a dOS8 829,
1578, 3672, 4654, Lcd 1581, saerlaid
2030, is i in laid 839 i a.s. doni in
laid 2194. /r. T. iii. 116
latget smalhltss, ft'ttll.lIlSS 1455, 45 28 i
4551, a rolagat 4135
la1gtech uw7ldy, ft,tIIl 4135, luigtedl
lalrce l6rchatnE'. gl.lorga fuach, q.v.,
1692, Jairge no Jourgaidhe 4879.
ll1arg f. Lat:/urca, Cor. d. nc.
Lattin f. lIlt Lilli" IllI/l:"t1gt, lalill, do
muitibh na Lailne
Lattne61r m. tl Lalillisl, n.s. 2910.2,
lasin L. 449, 2909
Ian (I)/ull. (2) a/ull, a plurlll fi" a
sillgular .i. can diehned can dochned
5073, mnn a Ian 1839, ben a 1:111
1845, nem a Ian 1867, 1946, 1994,
:10<)0,2160, e.g. meni fhuilet 2198
lAnama1n f. II rouplt, p(1ir, IIml,,.
couplt, n.s. 1809, 1810,1,3.4,5,6,
lanamnai 1853,4 i n.p. lanamna dcme
570, 1. deimi :949, 3257, 5079, 5406 a coupll, cor,-t/nltd po;"
1812. 1817. lauamanda, Laws (I) a couplt! rh)'mt 929 :
(2) ptritci rlty"'t, ul tsl bas, las 101
It1.n-chulbdlu8 a rltymt al lIlt trra 0/
Iltt .:oupltts ill a qualrai" 3840 ,58
/r. T. iii. 9, 8 i 130, 20: Ire /If'lr.
lt1.nchumang m./ull P()1V" (or lo,u)
in simpll f/()wlls 1201,5,6,8, 4313.7,9,
is e in 1. 5459
lanfogur a /ull 1(1//' 343, 454, 1073.
2696, 2706, 2917
lAngetmlech full-ftlltrttl 802. gcim.
Jc('h, him.
lanr1l1m (I) a/1I1/ dtcl",sion 796: (2)
/,,11 Ilr fopcl al/iltralioll o/Iltt lasl
111'0 fl'llr-tiS Il/Iltt Ii"t 3743. e.g. 3746.
O'D. Gr. 416
lAr I/u C'(Iunrl, rosaig lar ind airiall
1710, rosauoigh lar ('0 haireill 4900.
Cf. bail ro do choss lar, nc. 1298
Latindacht f. lali"ily 3S5
leburdo. p,rlai"illg 10 boob, iar n.urd
Jebhurda 66
leo f. a SIOIU, leacc 1358. Wi.
lecla ",u/us i luachair 1157, lec10
4252. ICclaidhe i luachair. H. 3.
J 8, p. 626
legtachad m. a li'luirlising 2835. Cf.
do Ic('hdagnib, Sg. 510
legulU8 m. Lat. a /:allt,rtr' 2285
Mlr dill/:f1It SSt 2343, 5195
lem a" tim 1154, 5619, 592 5.
Laws .
lemno.cht swut mill.', learnnacht 5806
lenalm I follow, nrllttrt -10, 3 s. prete
/lislen 5252
lllne a smocl, g.s. leni 6033
lenum m. a cltiM, g.s. ainm in lenim
5776 i n.s. 5775
le6alm I ft'OIWrI, 3 s. pres. leonid 1582 i
info le6ad i g.a. le<itha cend 5262.
O'Dav. 1146: Jcod ST.: cf. ce.
lllss m. a Ii!:"', a.p. leasu 50<)0. 1
solas no soillsi, o'eJ. :, Din.
less atlrml/lagt, tUtd, fi les 1421, cethrar
gnathless 2238, oen lea3 2250, (or
2222, frio. gnl\thles!l3
2226, 2232, 22.p. fria leass 2246,
fria lea5sa 2254. Wi. .
less m.forlrus, {risin less 5125. ce.
lesso.lglm / allmJ 10, prof/ittI for,
3 8. prete dO,lel\salg 2634,
roleasoig 2288 .
lestar m. a CJlsst/, n.p. le!;tair 5623
1eth a IIalf, ni certleath "ot all Izaet Aalf
1728, a ceirtleath 14.9, ni cerileth
letbal' ItalAtr, lethor 5004- ,WI.
lethchumang II h,l/f-pc1Wtr ;11 Sfllli.
"ort'tls 1207, 4318,9
lethcutbdtus. all ,111'1'",,1 h"/;:rnp"t
lethgutta II umir'o'wt!, n.p. Icthguttai
445, 45,1, na Icathghutn 461. na
Icathgutai 479, 513,5, 1060,;0, 1210.
2<)O.J,6,2 c,g2,4 i d.p. J 207
lethro.nd m. t1 cOliP,/, ""If 0/ (1
'/"(11,./11", fidh airedha in lethraiml
toiskh 1 in I. deirig 3946.7 i a.s.
cosin I. ndcighenach 4662
11 n. collJur, httlllly, Ii n-aimbi 5540,1.
Jj ambi I I 70, Ii crotha 5662, Ii a
danu fair 331 I
11 dt/(r:!It, plftlSltrt, Ii aula 4263. 5535,
Ii suad 4659, Ii anni moills 3308. 669-
O'Dav. I J 57, II 97
l1/:oorl, Ii mailh 3312
110. 11101", compar. of il m",,)', is Hate
I/It 1II0rt 635 .,
llalg m. a ph)'Sirial1, g.s, luth lcg-a
1191, 4287, 5561 i d.p. laisna legaib
5561. Wi.
l1o.tb I!rfY 5698, roliath 2070 j g.s.f.
I1g ""'U./, colour, (0 lJd 6044. .1. dath,
O'Dav. 1197: i maise, Ltc.
llge a l)'i"K d()1l1n, inna lighi 1593
U1m I aceltSt, ,hartt, Slit, 3 I. pres. reI.
liess 3385 f. a mikh C07(l 5760. lulgach,
Wi.: Laws: loilighench, Din.
UnJlax 297
Un m. a 1111ml1tr 943,5, 959. 962, 5I7J
lith adivily 1815. i luth, O'CI.
llt1r r. a Itlltl, g.p. comccngal Ittriorh
l1tlrdeacht f. liltralun 55, 2343
lItterdo. consisll'lIt of Itllus. I,'1lraI'Y
395, 2790, 5308
1000 a pl(1u, locality 1029, dul i 1I0cc:
822. Wi.
loch IItto, cenn 0 lochaibh 5283. do
loch .j. do loech, RC. xx. J 51
loch 5669; g.I.f. Joichi 5671,3,5.
lo&, ateay (1) 2095. 10gb 100';"" iii.
S'''';II" ""Iy;;,g, ,O'R.
10maD f. a ropl, ,ora 5725. Wi.
londfilr", 60lJ 5359
long f. aSIll}, n.p. longa 5II9 ; g.p. 9-42
10nD f. II 6111dl, a sword, aur, ur-. lar-
rem-Ionn 1703,'4,4699,4719. dorllt
beim don luinn i eloideb Conchobair,
T6e. p. 159
lore, lorg f. (I) a slaff. !landlt, n.s.
1591; n.p. 159.. : (2) lorga fuach
slm'ts of tllords, Itllo ""aeanltel sllorl
syl/llb/u litlfl'ttll alliltralillr ulords
1981,2099, 2140, 4672,Iurga f. 4625,
lorRa dialta 2154, 5080. 535I, e.g.
sat. 1m 6a sessach, im 611 seng 5355
10BC IllInt, loscogam 5771. i bacach.
Ed. II, 22: Ltr.
lualdlm I s/,taA, mflllioll, luaidit 354;
info 11I:uJ t:rprnst'OIl 5612
luam m. a pilol 868.- Ed."
luamnaeht f. piloMAt 5798
luan (I) moo11 .. (2) AIollday, doomsday
(the Celtic world ends on a Sunday)
lugugud m. (I) a 11$$111-
illg 647, 659: (2) a ,fimilllllivI 1868,
1995, 215 2, 2166, 5075,
5326, e.g. firinl 1796, tirin 49.89,
bcnine 18H, beinjn 5028; Cnamine
5327, Damine 5329 [1959. Wf.
lulb f. a pllllll, Iltrb, d.p. du luibib
lulbenehosaeh ro. a mtlrieal fOOl or
J'tl'St Itavillg StVtII syl/ab/fl, IItxas)ll/llb/t
1217, 1424, 1955, in Juipencoussach
lulbne II digil.fillgtl', lot, cona luibnibh
luis a hlllld .j. 4474. /IItll'.
1u18 (I) Iltt moulllain-aslt, tIm, .i. 0
cailtheand 1165, 5495, 5513, i
lemh: (2) 1'" 0l:!wm Itlltr 1 5535,
5620,1. Ltc.
lulslu a }TIlIJlt, in 1.5535. O'Dav. 1185
lulth slam",,,iIlC, clllm6, luithguith
452 lultguth 2914. Ft/.
, Prol.
287 note, cen loti (i, cen hailhe);
299 note, gen Illithi f gen bailbe:
1\lit h, SOllgs ofSiJIIlJl1tI'
lurganda 10/11 1227, 4537
lul'BU I", IhQnJ, ,1ti,,1,onl, n. f8n ;
a.s. imon lurgain 5780,1 ; g.p. Jana-
main na lurgan 1815, 5003. Wi.
1\1s r. laslt, KOoJ laslt. cona luis 206f.
1. blais, O'Da,. 1195
lUBS m. a p/tml, IltrlJ, n.s, JUlogam"
5807 i g.s. lug In lossa 5572, aillm
secip nach Josa SH08; n.p. lossa
fcdha 1151,6,4251, \'iii fidloll:l 5493,6,
for losaiph 2833. Wi.
luth slrtll/:IIt, pl)'/lItr, acli,'ily, 1. Jegha
5561, J. bech 562.J
macdaeht f. a maiJm, n.p. macdachta
5721. Wi.
mao tulrmld m. a potl 0/ IItt sixlh
2248. 11'. To iii. 112
maceu, mooou a genitive, of'At Aindrtrl
or rate which follows, Cluain maCt u
Nois 5706 i cr. 6enu (maccu Laigsi)
maehad somt 0/ agrit-lIlll1ral i,,-
slrumml 5727
maohdad mactad 5575,
machtatl 5577. WI.
mad- 'IlItll, ni rna telt 2121. ST.:
Thur. IIdIJ. 383
mael 6ald, hairltss supl. maelsem,
maeth dtlicall,/tlMt, maitha 467
maldthe 10 IJt pra;ml, gloriJild in,
praistfllorlh)', mag"ijiCIIII, sOl/oroliS 467.
a Rhlaodh ghuithbhinn mhaoidhte,
Rtli'l' Cdl. ii. 428, 30: cr. Din.
malg1n f. all tllcloud pillet, salleluary
6004; adj. maignech 5Q9, 51S4.
6004. Laws: Wi.
malth good, compar. fearr, fearrson
645, 3268
malthchneehas a dt/iclllt (ompltxiOIl
611, d. maothrncsach 3090
maltnechas COII ItI/liouSlltSS 610,
taidiuir i. maidncch, Ltc. 327: cr.
maitnechtaige, PH.
mal m. a prill", II0bit, lord, d.s, dun
mhal 10 Iltt potl 2245; a.l. tar mal
5387 i n.p. mail S229. Wi.
mala all tJ't/WOft', malu 1813,4999
mallrugud m. a rtll/rd/IIK, 6y (a)
dilw'uis 1943, 1991, 2137, 569,
5303; e.g. nohWd 5299,' 534, niab m1totha a blll/foulldlliioll, n.p. ,ifothai
5301: (b) illirodllcillr a Itlltr illio 467 l
I/u u'ord, e.g. fcr, recr '794; ben, ml1 all alll'mal, IJt/lsl, n milch grt)".
hccn .84' ; nem, neem 1859 h,lulld 5743; n.p. 5744 i a.p. tor mila
malot 1-''7XdT'7' a slttplttrd (?) 2284, muigc harts 113 !
mandralm', mannralm I dlSlroy, 3 mllaldeacht r. a solditri"t S801
I. prct. romannair 546. Wi. mills su'ttl, compo mi\l!'iu (craih 5557,
marbhdn II 3187. Din. millsi 5559; !\\lp. milsim rcda 5608,9
marb-usce 11/(1111', for marl>- mllise SU'ftllltH, millsi 1853 t
usee 1321, 4639 min "ual, m. arha corll mtltll 294, 4396
mascul m(ljculillt gtlldtr 522, 620, min sll/oDin.fillt 1294. 4395
masg-al 3024. 3082, mascol 603 ; g.s. mind n. a diadon 4395. Wi.
1913. Sg. 66bl4, 18,20 mlnn m. a IIIlIJlt, sagt, n.p. minna 5711.
mascul1nl masculillt 606. TP. ii. mind i uasal no SI'Ii, O'Dav; 1220
122, 24, Supp. mlntan m. f. a lilmol/u 3226, 542,
mass Slllitly, Itfll/llsomt, n.p. Romain 5695, mcnntan 317J. O'Br.: mint'J,
lJlaill 2536, mais 2537. Wi. Tot. TI'.21356
modnero ir:v i f:{ort 5(,,,1, Atlte. fiI. mirr myrrlt 2450, 2614. PII.: Re.
18 xii. 466
modontach II mttlial po,f/liOll, fo mctlh- mirun r. ill.rllill, iII-il/lml, g.s. mlruine
ontaig 4424.5, ro meodontaoht f. 1306, 4629. Amil.
r369. medonda, Jr. To iii. 124 mo chean fL,tll is ht bortl, harry IlIIf !
melghleach a bltlll'"tlff 540, 3170. 2167, originally 3 s. pret. cinim. cr.
mcitlhleach m, O'R.: mcigiollilch, mo chen gach fcr, II'. T. iii, 128 z,
O'fir.: mcgill, A t'sI. rno ghean-ar an bfhear, Ivi. ; V. mad
m';lachtnalglm I (HfgraCf, I p. pres. mod f('or/" 546 i 8nirn O'Mulc.
subj. co ro-mebchtnaigem 141, 2430. mod tt'flylltitl/{ malt 1463, 1236, 1458,
melacht, Wi. 1467, 1493,6,9, 1502,8, moth 455
mell f. rl/ill, dtslrllelion 2793. RC. Mol08sus ,llolo.rsis i,/ Epirus 1750,
u\'i. 14, 8: Ed.'/. p. 10: Hail 4939 i the place or tribal name scem!!
Brigil, 3 n. confuscd with the Molossian hounds;
m6r m. a fil/Ktl', a lot, n.s. renmer O'Molloy, Gr. 118, equates tearehu
5783 i n.p. mera 5780,7 tl'trtt('olj with Molossus. Cf. II'. T.
m6t, m61t C. , I'",lnm, mcid iii. 421, 215: O'Mulc. 269: Origg.
673.4,5,6 i as. mcit 5383 i ar ata do xiv. 4 9
is luigtech in dobriathar fOr so mon a Iricl:,!",I.j. clCllS 1331,4645
'I('fIll is Iltt adfltrlJ 413 r monar a t{'od, dutl, in monor 2093,
m6tugud m. a magllifyillg .illert/lSillg 2165. Wi.
6.J6,658 marad m. 1111 amplifyillg Ion, morudh
miaU a 6ad pIau, had posilioN, co na 3976, morad run 5643
Ina mi-ait lapartha 2978 marmar Vtr.v grtal, T.T.' 1666;
mldach Lat. medicus, a phpiciflll, compar. momo 1461, moam 4571,-a
iniodach ice 4289, etiud midach.5584' n-us moam de 4497 i ef. an-as modhe
Cor. Tr. 113: OD. 1350, mole 1456. m6mn,Cdir A".
. mldlu a Villt, gJ. muin .j. midiu 5521, mbrshessel' m. sn't" ptrsons, bai
midiu 5926 _ morshesser 1139, il on morshesiur
mi-dlUlte no,,-simplicil) 4307: v. di6ite 258, 2568 i
mldlul' I jl/dgt, ulimall, mides 408. muad wtigAi"gIJtam i med, S4S3
410; romes.adh 931 mual a millj mulenn 5442'

muhneoh r. a "lIru i Hulr;x 1909, is
- bhuimeach 1911
muln (I) a flilll 1186, 4283,4, 555S:
(2) 1111 Otllmn IllItr m 5491; g.s.
muine 5672
muln mel, 6atl, ror rnuln 549, frl muin
5556. Wi.
mulne a 6"sn, (end a muine 5810,7.
mulrenn a sitar, n.p. muirne 1306,
muirni 4629. O'Dav. 1235: Cor.ll
mut m. C. II mult (Ol/solllml, n.p. in
muite 447, m\lttl 446, m\linl 451,
mlliti 467,513,2904, na muhl 2907.
293 r,2, 2982. ccnith mut, Sg. 5b4,
is mUt si, 173
nd.e, nde, nd.l a 1IIall i duine, noe
9, 1695, 1948, n.o 1609, 1610,
nae 4686, nai 4687. lit..' Cor.:I 93,
nd.ede 1I;lIt lhilltt 1022, noie 3977
naso a rill/! 5725, Wi.
nath m. (I) III( mIll" 11'1,/,/1' 10 all
ansrlllh 829.1578,1580,4653, Is e in
nath R39, 3690: (2) allY 111111'1 .j.
nlnm da each uill "btl, Ed., 11
I, 33 i
i ninm coitrhcann don \life lllsdc
11.4. 18, O'Mule.
nathalr r. a Wpflll 5821, FtI.
nau. nd C. a slu'p 6134. Wi.: n6i,
n:\oi .j. II. 4. 18
neo.m 1 hall feamiha fir i neamh 1m
I2Q5, nim ill ullgi H03.
II. 4. 18: O'CI.
necht dtar,/Iln .1 glan 5698. O'Dav.
nelm ;(l;Stlll nem 1301,40, nelmnech til-
.'fllomtJ 801. 'Vi.
n6lt. nedlt Jig},I, 6alllt, 100"ml,' Neit
god 01 61l1tlt 5395. WI.; RC. IX.
n611 m. (le/oud, salJidh nell 429f. ce.
nem UII_ (Jenoting negation), nem-
eco!lC"lla imptrsollal, "",llr 1466,
ncmfhulJ1cJ "oll-arldillg 1570,6, nem-
fhuil'iud 816 i nemfurnll IIo"-Or'trjl010-
'ltg IS76, nem.fograighsolfl/llltSS 474,
nemgnathacb umllllni 2381, neam-
gnathugudh u'nnt of till 602, nemll
lals ;lltnl 110 tololu' 1171
nemed m. a tlig,,;lnr'>',/ri.,iltlld/,rsoll ..
isna breathaibh nemedh 1298, 4380
nemnlgud m. all anllilli/tllilll, alll"'-
/rilal;on 769, neimtniugud 3561 ,4548

nenald lilli/IS 5516, nendait 5926. Wi.
nert Lnt. jorlillitlo 4213, /o-lL'tr,
slr",glh.. of n ','{)'Iotl ;11 a syl/tl61t-
3893, 965,7
nertmo.lreoht Lnt. 1I0billlllS 4217
neutur lItultr KtllrI,,' 613,620, neodur
604, nemutllr 3035 i g.s. neodair
1913; auj.neoturda 1465, 1503, 1917..
neudarda 1488. Sg. 6620, I, 2, 8
ntab fI;gour, 5301. W. nwyr:
niaba, TlJc. 5790: adj. nillbtharh,
imniahthaig, Ire To iii. 106, 19: SPA.
nlhllUB tl III1IWi-illg, 11
nialsa 4442, uo hcith ni:dslI 2837. U
ninllsa 1385, 1399 j d.s. ro nihilus
970, Co nlalus 978, 3897, 3901,10.
nrthaidbsin nihc1sa, Sg. 6b5, uligcd'
nihclsa, 14 2, 3
nln (I) lIlt aslt II 73,4, 4269, 5495,
nenniu 5515. 5626: (2) lit, 0/..'/'11111
Itlltr n 815,7, 976, Ir71, 426"
1560,7, 1572: (3) tilly Itlllr'I561,
2791,479; a.p. liar rno niona 2793,.
dar rno HUre, RC. xxvi. 15, 8
nln a WII1'/, tond 2791. Alllr.
non.lm / rlllIW, IIIIIA'I (OI"r;;(u(lI{S,.
/raist, Itt;, 3 8, pre. noald 158r.
O'D,\\'. 1287, 1336: .j.
coimht!u, H. 4. 18
nooht (I) lilliI'd, !ItI1'1, n bclth ranocht
20'l0: (2) all ;IIltnUlI tlUOllan" 0'
1'11)'1111, a nda nocht 5222, cen nocht
5226, cia rod1ig co fil nocht and
5232, e.g. argair 5230 .
ndescu a SII;/I, n!:esc\l 5693. n;Uacu.
Cor.l! 986 : na05ra f., Din.
ndle ",ilt III,'IIgs, a !loic 3977
not f. (I 11011, marA', n.s. not linfiJh
, 4548, nod 1231, nolt 768.
not incholsc, Sg. 3b17. na nota Atam..
notalreo.cht r. "01111')' tI,'or}, marl,,,,
n IIXllo nm:rl rtnd,'"K 5798. Origg.
i. 22, 2: d. notire, Wb. 27
nuall flJtlrr;ol' (fighting in a chariot) .i.
err 5443
nuall a sholl I, flWpilll:, ;roc/allltllioll 0/
!roscr;/I;on. cend nr nuaill
5964. Law8: FtI.:J: .1 gul, O'Cl.
6 m. all ial' i duas 1228, 1457; g.s.
!;mit ni(?) 4649: Lt. 187 Cl 2
oohtn. all OCltWi, g.,. !echta
in orhta 932, rri ocht:, 1022. re hochta
oohtl\oh r. a ;;1".11'11 .j. nitm II 94,
9.; g.s. co cr\lind ochtga 5397.
Lat. !;I/UI, IIa!JifS, TP. ii. 362
ochtar m. tigltl ptrSOltJ, an oclad 2234.
octa.n oual! 5353. Wi.
od m. music 1470,3, 1483,4, odh u73'
1476, 4573,83, oudh 4S77, oud
saothnid 4307, I, od srethaig, A."tc.
iii. 45. OCI. tl ural (?) 5696
SflA.: f., O'R.
degl m. a glllSl, g.p. aigcd S300,5.
08 an n. duo f. mam",te (1), oig
7 glun 5033, cr. cich 7 Klun 1852.
Wi.: .j. ceite, Ltc. 96 M.: na
Lor. Gi1cJ. 209
dgleth Iht pOllry fohien /hI nnrad
shat'lt/fll;lh Ihl oll.lm ; a fJirlual Iralf,
11(11 all uacl nat! 1728, 4920, v. leth,
I,.. Iii. 6tl, w.
ogmolrm. (711 (l.fltlllllisl v. Morann
dgmoro.cht, f'dgmaraoht f. a "artlesl.
583. Cf. O'R.
ogum n. m. o,fllam, n.s. ogum n-'
nirhmcch 5815, rolad int ogamsa
5944,5471,4; g.s. fid inn oghllim 397
accomaltach 5q03
ad enfid 5876
, uiPlZitif Arraicda 6148, Egipta 6145
ar a mbi aen 5872
IIETS :-(ollt;nutd.
arndach Finn 5830
arm 5896
bac 6088
bas 5789
biad 5805
bo 5759
brcc mor 6010
brecor heo 6055
nres 59H
brialharog-am Mic ind Oig 561S
hriatharogam Moraind mic Mhain
nriccrcnn S8S4
bllaidir (oranna 5986
cacchan 5767
ccall 5702
ccand a mlline 5810
ccand ar n\lail! 5964
ccanu dcbtha 6058
teancl fo muinc 5817
ccand imrca5an 6056
cethar.lruimnech Crutenl 5839
rClhrur 5975
coil ar Kuta 6049
con 5740
COS9 5779
crad cride eds 589S
cuidcchtach 6150
cUlnu!;g'da 601 I
daen 5709
dam 5750
dan 5797
dath 5(197
Dcdild 60S7
dedcllach 5958
diuruim 6061
dinn 5687
do for:licmib 7 deachaib 5911
eamnach 5907
cbauach lIaind 5853, 6066
en 5692
Erimoin 6084
CCf.{C Find 6102
Feniulla 6069
fiaclacb Find 6093
fiar 6126
Cocosnch 6062
BITS :-tonli"lIla.
(ordunta 6086
{raech (r1throse6008
Gall 6157
gleselgi 5877
gort fo lid 6044
imarbach 6017
ind co ind 602S
indiupartach 6074
insnithcarh 6060
lad 5837
leni da reib 6033
linn 5680
Joe 6093
LochlaJlnach 61SS
lose 5771
Ius 5807
)uth 5834
mac S773
rnaiS:llcdl 6004
mue 5939
nLem 5791
nat hair fri (raeeh 6087
nathnir 1m cennn 5821
nCl{ladae 6063
os 58.P
rind fri dere 5994
roth 6099
run 5851
scsmal'.h 6036
Iiluntr 6021
snaithl snimach 6085
eron 5786
taehogam Tlachtga 6080
tralJo: sruth Ferchertne 6103, 6127
tredrmmnech 5835
trelur,::':lch Find 5836
t1sccadl 5732
olr (I) a spi"dlt-Irlt. (2) tAl OgAam
Jip"'''OIlK 01, i. (eorus 1196, 4301,
S523: (3) II lont (ItJWll, 6, 1361
010 (I) btl'/ .. (2) m. 11/1 IClil, wrong,
flJrlJII,fduillC. a nulcu 2008
011 trtal, cubat n-oll S664: compar.
ulJliu, (-ullliu 14S2, uille 3063 ; cpds,
ouJJ-alt (or 3 p. of verb ol/aim) 3680 j
ollchllthach 5318, ollforbthe Lat.
SUptrjllius, Origg. iii. S, 9, '4047,
ollurgbail 5338
oUam m. a plltl 01lilt firs! ra1l1, a ddt!
/JOt I, an Ol/llfIt, n.8. imda ollamh 2129 j
g,8. a n-ait ind oUaman 2678, feill
ollaman ril{h 222.h 2230 i ndj.
ollamda 2202
omna a salin, Ii a oumna 331 I.
omna all 001, g.p. do tha'ehhaib na
n-omnndh 412, oumna 2853. .i. d:lir
.1 erann, II. 4, 18
onn n. a slOllt 554, 1088. Wi.
onn (I) an asA,IMrzt i. alten no uiniul
5522: (2) lIIe Ogham 111111' 0 1194,
5494 i n.p. onnaid tllh,,'s in l'arpnit
.1 1m rollh 1 olin 5578,9
lSI' hllllA S494, 5662,3, v. ur
oro m. a pig 5674,5. Laws
orce m. a la/,.!oK. n.s. oirci 5748. h.
marb In t-ord, Cor.
, JII1I Mug--C'me
ord /0. ""llro,l, IISf , (Urlo"" lar lI.urti
choir 564, Ilocho n-ord mear 2067,
i n-urd hairdni 1937. 1 dlig-ed,
O'Dnv. 1309
ord In. II hl"'''"(f 5728. WI.
ord alrme Ill. 1111 IJr'/illl,1 IIu1I1611', g.B.
ulrd uirml 1441, 4492 i d.8. 1 n-ord
cOlllairme 3720, a n-uord c. 3729
ordn.n 1'11111, onldan
5371. Ft/,'l
osoarda nltl,. ulllra,.,,,J, ullpl'ojnsiolla/,
lilidcachl 2463,4
089, Olt II '/""', rol 0158 1320,
osog'am 5842. Wi.
. dtht\ from whicA is,"from 10 (co),
ota 483, otha in ainmniud n-uathaid
906. olha I.iphe co tLelha 5237, otait
othrur 1/tl/tI, (art lur, support, rosn-
olhrastnr 169, nosn-othrustar 2475,
rohothratnr, roothratar, 1: T.IJ 1258:
othrulm, TOi. Tol
oxaU. oxlnld IIMrllir" (list 1775, v.
pn.nn.lctU Lat. pr(l/,rium IIomln liliri,
Ilu P/III/I,ds (of Jerome) 2416.
Panechte, CZ. iii. 17
parabulnmb Lat. Ilu Baal 01
Citro/tid" entitled Tc\ 'JI"apa'1l.tur6j.(oQ,
in lu. 4032
pn.trone (I) a liard so IImlle,(: (2) "is
fil l/01l'trs or i",ilalors (1), na haird 1
n:l patreni 1928. ArcA. c.P. iii. 300
patronolmio a pa/rollymi' 3394, risin
palronomic 3395
penuUt Lat. patllull;ma, pmullimall

perBU r. II t,rsOll, n.s. 736, 5467, In
chetpcr;u . 723, pcrso 1(/31; g.5.
persninni 641,2,9, 651.3, 704), 719,
849 i d.!, i persainn 64 I ,8, 718 i n.p.
pcrsainn I
pin (I) a rowall, /,illt, 5524,
5608,9.10,11, raera pinnc gooubtrl'iu
5525,5608; pin no illn 5666,7, pin i
raor 4305: (2) lIlt Ogltam 'IIIIr p.
ala pin ar p 1365, 4506. plon.chrann
/1/''-111 Iru, O'R.
posslt positirlf. dt/ru 643, posit 687,
692, cen phosit 730, poisit ()94
prim- Lat. prill",s, prim'-aiste II /Jrt'n.
(lptll intire 1586, prim-ellach /Jr;mary
(o",/,illal;oll 1686, 3510; prim-
rId prllll/Iry 1!OW" 1431. 1379, 2797,
pri met hoirnde/,r;IIIar)'por/iollS 1898,9,
1920, prim-thuisech cAiif rul,r 1128
primdn. tn'",ary, /Jrtiteipa/, ""-,,nintHl
pronomen II pr01101111 320, 2667
pros (. Lnt. prom, trost, n.5. prois
1589; g.s. 834. reim na proisi 3633;
d.s. de prois 759. do p. 788, (or p.
791 ; u.s. intan is phrois 782 i a,s.
iar prois 1441. Min.' BB.
xviii. 79
prdBta cOllsislill: of prose 755, 795,
830, 16<42
pudar a m;slale, /J""ultr, harm, d.s.
nasin gliaphudair 2040, do gacb
lanphudair 2072 j a.l. senphudhair
2118; n.p. tri phudra 21I1. WI.
pudrach harmful, 61""d";",, In gres
glephudrach 2048
Q.uert (I) all .a/,/,II-Irtt 1185,
5553, 5638 : (3) 1Ir, 0tltam 1,IIIr Q.
1184, 55 19, 5554 r:lid II 57, rait 4253,
5926. Laws
rn.lth a fin, 1190,1, 4388,<)0. O'C\' I
ralth a Sur(I)', 1583. Laws
randn.lge a /,nr/, randaigi 1453
randgnbthach a parllc'pll 300,20
randgn.pl11 (. a /,al'lici/,lt 2668.
Z.2 989. n. Iltl dal;w C/lSf, a rault n-\Iatha:d,
a rad n-ilair 1772, a rath 1880
r6 f. '/,lJa, Wltit/, d.p. riab cianaib 149,
relb 2452. arnaib rcib ilib, Wb. 2P8
reargn.gan m. a lilllt lJIaclliirJ, O'R.,
rearrgugan 709, rarilgain, T.: Din.,
rergoccan 31 II, rerccuccain i L6nain
3464, a triple dim. of rear, P. OC.
rece 1920
recomrao m. a di1l)'I/I1/I/( 1214, q18.
1588, 1953, recomarc 1240,
1433. n tri a rellcomarc 3538 i n.p.
recomraig 151 i adj. recomhracach
reldhe r. t'ailll"1I, Ixpla,,,,/ion, sclrmlt,
i reid he 3588, 4735
relm remrn.ithe (I) remraiti 0,/0,.,-
said 1755, cia hairm remrade 1 16,
E.: (3) rhyml (I!r()'1J.'fls (1) 39H,
1000, e.g. la, ha 3944, 999,4923, 1730
relmm n. (I) a """, courSt 780,2,3:
(2) ""j1It/ioll, d,clms;(lII. is rcim gach
tuisscl on ainmnid sis 4862, 739,
786.7.8, 79',2,3,4, 195 r. gach reim
n-ole 2178; g.s. Illondud rcimmi.
1626, C!SC remme 905 i d.s. ina reim
1536,9, ina remim 1535, 1675, reim
ceilli 1540, 4761; g.p. na remend
1759 i d.p. rcmendaib 1721,2,60: (3)
al/il,ralioll 800,63 (a) of ""'" 6,
111I1f, do fid for tid 784, 85, 3592,
3142 ; (Il) of11('D ar.u"ltJ tI,'ords ,,,ding
a tltrst, or will, dialt etar]eimc or lorga
ruach (1). tacbreim 867, 3593, 374S
rtUmma1m I. rllymt, i"./ftcl. I, as
reimmthar 3609
r61(a)lm I ",nI, ,liar" 3 I. pres. IIi in
cborr cld reil nos. rei 5"1; Inf. (rl realad
fuid 1552, rellugud fuil 4781. Wi.
rolalt ulalifll, tOgl",li, Lat. rtlalif/us,
in chlall relait 1098, an dall reullait
rom1ud Ildc
rsalifll cast I 529, a remld
r6mnlg1m I ;1I}fUI, Julilll, 3 I. pres.
remnigther 792,7,8, 3614.5 J
info isin reimniugud 878, 4734
romshu1d1ugud m. (1) /I Prtposil;o/,
320, 2668: (2) 1111 11II11!osil;OIl 594:
(3) 111I ;/lllrposl'Iio1l 1595, 4676; n.p.
remshuidigthl 1692. Sg. %20 b8
rom-tln,gn,1m I prtett/I, cid an remtet
5476, il uire remitct 5488
rcuma;'1 4415,
remaind 2732. ltl.'J: according' to
Meyer. a locative use of the verbal
noun um-Ilt'JI, "1ft the front drive,lI
II in tho roremost r:mk." Re.
xxxiii. 96
1'08 f. (I) a lale (1) 1920, is i in reil',
ITI: reisi i racas, Ed. vii. II, 29:
Jr. r. iii. 21, w, y; 48 W, Yi ressach
23, 4: nc. 6124: or (2) res .i wlff
4176. res hebrea litera est quae
interpretatur caput. reB crl{o hoc
ell quod et prlll\arium nomen, Maro
Gr. v. 27, 12 I
reBiu (conj. followed by lubj.) btJorl,
riesiu tisad 2770, cid siu 387
ret m. a l/rill!, malltr, j'le/, g.s. secip
racta 5577; d.s. jar ret 5474,9, 5564,
5602; g.p. ie dathadh na net. Wi.
rlab f. II slrtal, slroh, riab, da rdb
6033. Din.: ct. 1'06 f. (reb:), g. duo
reib, W.: i Idab, Ir. T. Iii. 443
r1n,glo.lm J rlglI/"", dorlagladh 1053
r1o.gul II rule, n.8. riagail 1022, riaghul
3977. Wi.
r1chod n. Ittllvill, g. 5354
r1ches f. a liCit coal 5261. Wi.: .11I.
40 5,6
r1ge I' slrtlclti"g, ItllgtltmillK, Itllgllt, du
rand 2121, oen dialt rri righe,
rigi 5418, rach riKi 4649, Ed. vii.
11 \'42. 7i'irlds 116
I"1ge a r,il", righl 1120
rim (I) a ",un/II,." (2) ""Iria 5S,
rind a poi,,', ttrmi"atioll,jrolf/, eben a
rind 1423. imma rind 5240, V. uaimm
do rind
robo.d II f(I/,,1Ii1lK, g.l. do breith rohlld
2802, S484. 1'6c.
r6cnat (f.) a small rool (1) S695
ro-or1n1m I tlulrol, 3 S. fut. rochlur 1.
rochigllir 5378
rofot. m. I"l lJ1Julmglll, all Of/IT/IJII!, In
rorhat 250, rorat :I I So, cen rofot
194 1, can rofota 5060, 5128, root
5133,4, e.g. 5138
rogalr uViYSlturl1lUs, all QVtysllorl 1694,
194 1, 252, 2153, can rogair 559,
5123, e.g. 5144, 5124,7
rogda. ,/'ofm 533%. Wi.
1'61 r. Iljit/J, pllli", rOI 1 roi oi,. 1319,
Pd. 'J; phps. rol oill rltly ""til III"
Jur, roe roaitha, /il.
, LB. Ap. 26.
Aug. 27 .
r01dh f. rtd 0)'1 pllllli (1) 1321, uidh
4638. O'Dav. 937
ronnn,1ren,oht r. a dis/tllsing, dis.
trilmlioll 5801. O'R.
rOB grlal J:"owlltlit eolul 2685. .1.
ro(hi05, rosa .j. rorheasa, o'el. : rUI
.j. roiflO', I'rilltls 143, (;/.
r6s a /Wt, Bug in roil 5645. rO:l r.,
Re. :lii. 467
roso.1g1m I rtad,. txlmd, 3 pres.
cia roich 4528, cia roaig QS4, rosaig
4499, rosouich 4529 i 3 p. nad
roichit :1917 i 3 p. sub. pais. co
regdar 1077, co roectu 4073
rosead a dilhyramb 928, 3857
rosco.d II maxim, prot'ub, prtCfdt1ll,
g.s. i Ireathaibh roscaigh 337, asretha
ro&ga 2684. L'1wS
rOS8 m. a uooel, copst, rois ('<em 1320,
ro, coille 4637, ross 297.2613
ross, raSB IllIclnwtl, dllcJ:mial, rau
1320, ros usce 1331, 4638. Cor. 7i'.
141 : Jltd. CI.
roosJla"'-sutl, ros 1322,4639, Laws
roth m. 11 ",,,"u/, g.s. trian roith 1181,2,
4277 j g.p. in hes lic.Jh roth 4278







,J i

rUo.mna ,tdnns, 1J1t1J1I 1193, 4292,
5563,4.7, 5645,6
rudrach (I) 11 slayinK 100 10111 0/1 11
Ilfigll60ur's IIllld, prucriplioll" (2)
1nl7l1y ,.h)'IIU.f i roimda cubaidh ann
()WI' Pnu,,11 rlt.l'm. /lttrt, ODav. 1345 ;
n.9. 2047, 2I.J5; g.s. rudraighe 2144 j
:t.!. cen rudmigh 1940, rudracti 5058,
5108. rudrad, Cor.: O'D.: Flt.
ruc.Jhradl, O'CI.
rulce f. SIt/lll1t, !JIusll, g.s. ruamna ruice
1193, 4292; g.p. tinnem ruecLU
55io, tinJi rllC(C 5572. Wi.
ruldlud m. II billsIt, rtdllns 5570,1,
rllided 5647. Wi.
ruldlos m. .!Jmdiar '/s1 747, 818, 2074,
380,1, ruidlius 2763,4, is e a ruidhles
420, 286% ; compar. ni ruidhilsi 935
ruldllsta. s!tc;aIiSfd, pnrlicu/aTiStlJ
2650, ruidlesta 1745, ruidliusta 4935
ruls (. (I) 1111 tlJu trtf 5570,1.3, 5647 :
(2) Ilu 0sllam I,/IU I' i trom 1193,
run ran (ro-nn) II t'try s/,/ma;d stertl,
a dichned IiUri, ril rn 53q2: Wi.
ruso m. a bad, firAill, hamptr 637,
russ, rUB jtlCt, sltanlt, 0 rus 5573, on
rus 5647. WI.
sn,ball 808
Baco 809
sd.dud Il tllrlll/illg "", llIt",Ii"g, g.s.
sadha 5333. Lawl
snob jillSf, eI.'Uitjul, ni s.1eb lib 2065.
6ncb.suld1ugud a pilleiul
.saorse I7/w,t!iertlji, sairsi 5798 wtar)', tXllllllSlttl, luad
, saethaig 5612, oud saothaid 4307,
80.1g1d (I) a saic.Jidh nell 4291 :
(2)jllll apprOtlcll',llu compltll rtptlili01l
1,1 lilt mel of a slaNza ;11 lilt 60dy of a
/,otm oj lilt finl IIccmltJ ,wlr.
,.i"l IJI Iltt oj lilt potm
. nOI,3, 83ighitb 22 II. Jr. r. iii.
29, X; 131 ,
salglm I malt for, sul.-,,SIIt, 3 I. pres.
reI, (C aiges 408,9, ai shaighius 284i,
ai saigius 2849 j 3 p. sedhait, segait
sal1 f. (I) !til/mo.' 1154, 4249 i 5495,
5624. 1373,4, 140S, 1563",9: (2)
/ltf Ogltl,m /dltr 8 813 $, 1170, 2899,
3668; g.s. 1282. Wi.
saHdrong 11 tI'llI",,'bl'llh (?) 5521,
51)26. cr. Drong- in place-n3mel
good, diJ/ill,/:uishtd
salnema.ln m. II I1Itlrt !'TOptr 10 a
mac fuirmic.J, in sainemain 3673,
829,4654,1578.83. Ir. 7: iii. 116
salnlgod m. a difftrtil/illil'/I!:, u!trra/.
salnrodaeh pfelilinr, pllTlimlar, g.8.f.
849. 3460,1
Ba.lthe m. II sn'llrl1l, COlll!'IIIIY, l1Iultillldt,
ll.p. saithiu 274. .Ildr.
sa/,d 5932
sal f. aiit'd 1283, 4338. Wi. MIIT/'orl, saland 809.
so.l-ehulbdluB m. a III Ihi fII,/
of 1111 jirsI1l1/l1Ilti,t/ wrItS of III, ,/1I1,t.
1"/1;/1, (llfJura rlt)'llll, salcuibdil 3840'
Ir. T. iii. 9; 25 j' 130, 20: Ir. Jlttr.
saltrn,d m. a Il"Ia,li/l1: 949, 3nS so,.rtl808. P. OC.
samn1g1m I /,"/, pll'CI, 3 8. pres.
snmhaighthir 43<4, 518 f. /I Inru-pl1r.old luij;r 5764.
Wi.: La .... B
snmo f. Nsl, 'Iuitll/ns, pl/I,m
$172,6, 5213. Wi.
Satho.rn Salam mar Satharn
3535. dia s:llhairnd iuic.J casc,
, p. 88
scalp f. a gap 1230, 4540. Wi.
sce " whilt-/horll 1154. Iceu 4249
1178, sge Wi.: Laws m. a sllitltl, n.p. 2120
Booth II !I/ord lndsgi 2685, Icath
1935, Icothegna u'ord.wiJrlo11l 571,
837, 3138 .j. innlee, II. 4. 18:
SI. Cril., p. 42
snao 207
BnlUthe a l/trmd, snnithe 89, 614,
snaithi 6085
Bnl1mchaln lair nuimmillg, s. 'heua
5namehar (er, AnIC. iii. 43: I.
snnmch:lm, d. snamach, Ir. CI. 391 Jpt"nn;II/:, 6085. Din.
sntthe IfLlisl''/, 1",,;Ild 809. li'all.
Bo- lalld"Iory prtJix, Io-bard a II"MI
b"rtl 1996, so-dath to/OUl''''
5698, sO-lhluag a IIoJI 5333
B6n.m YOIIIII:IJI 2309, soom 25. so
)'011111:1', 0'0. PH.: d. s()sar na.
mar, MR. 48, 20: a tabnirt do'n
tsosar, 1\1 R. 51l , 15
Bochralde t. I',;//;;".allllllls, Itdf' 1"-
JOUNIS, go.p. 5088,95. d:". 691,
2083, 2793: ce.
socht si/ma 2081. Wi.
s6d a 1273, 43
Bod a f('(ir, 50UU 5734. laws: 0'0.
s6erdn. "rli/iri,tl, s.\:rda 396.7,8,
595,6,8, 910, saorda 2816,7,1 2821
s6erugud m. all mlloblill/:. a prtJixill,f
so 1o Iltt ,('ord 180S, 2096,
2155, 5076, e.g. so-rt r 1797,
4989, so ben 1845, so beun 5028, so-
b.,rd 1996 I
solrche "rig'" 587,94, .i. solasda,
O'CI.: .i. soillsi, I I. 4. 18 ;
sol am 'l"id .fIIddm 2081.
solma. 'l"id:II'SS 2839
Bolus goar i. solus isin Fcnkhus
no isio Drcatnais 633, goour, lolus
isin mnrclnus 3208,1 S. goor garh
Cor. Tr. 83: 70(.
so.lu8tur 6r;glllll(J,f, griansoluslur lux
solis 4219. Laws
somlUn ,c'(1I111t, /,rofil 1581; g.,'
Bomaine 4661. Wi. i
8o-ro1Us mw/, IrISh, compar. 50mil1si
731, 3345. aquae sive salsae lint
sivc dulccr, Origg. xiii. 14, 1
Bon r. ,clortl, for 100 (cneoil ind iot"
rrecrai 924, Corin son 436, 2888.
. ltC.
Ion a 10lmtl, cia son ger 253,4; g.s, suin
786,7, 792,3,4; d.lI. do loun 4697,
iar lund S473; ria lunn 5478
Blan .l16lbljOxll0f,t 806
Bid jiliT)'lantl, a 5ith 285, i sid 5487
Bide Iltt lairilS, d.p. a sidhaip 284,
Bigla siJ:1ls, aMrtf,;alions 5918, 6106.
Lat. s,/:illa, Origg. xix, 32, 1
BHad m. a silad c1ann 5652,
na ciano 5653
Billab m. f. a syllah/t (I) m. n.5. in
sillab ucighinach 2369. in tillab
toiseaeh 2370; a.s. in sm"h toistQch
2366; n.du. in da shillab 88, 1420 :
(2) f. n.s. int shillab dedennch 91,
int shillab thoisenaeh 92; a.s. int
shillaih toisich 9f, sillaib 366.2929.
29.J6 i n.du. nn di shillaib 14 18 i
a.p. sillaoba 2745,-3571. Z.2
Blllabn.cda. of syllablls, .ryl-
l'IMt' 53I2
. .f)'lIa""c,
deilidi s. 2134, aontsillaopaeh 3827,
dClsilb'baeh 4H80, 1692,4517, 4677,
s1nlm I slrtlelt, IxIlI/d, Im/:lltlll, 3 s.
pres. pass, silltcr 4707; Inf., siniud
na haimsirc 1564, 4795
Blrcumtlex a cirawtjltx, sircumplex
4417, 4787. Z.I! 980"
Bithchn.ln Lnt. /,a.t 4221
sln.t f. II rod, Iw,/:, Sl"", sirslala IIamt tIf
II plllttl (1) 806
sUn.sat a n.5. 609; d.s. dla
609. sHunt, CC.
sllce 808
BUcht n. a Irtu/.', di,'i.r;Oll, ",rsiOll,
'/(tfmtltlllls, g.B. Bliachta (s == sail =slia
is Alltflifslia-chln) 1728, 4919; n.p.
is trelhlicht 1208, Ire tslicht 4320,
ccithir tsliocht 4316; a delidin lit-
terJa, silochtll 5310
sl1s1u 808
Blondud m. a surlla"", palro-
tH'm;c, (ric sloindedh 2832
Bm'6r m. a firt, r..p. smir guaiH 5633.
8metraoh a (om;rlSsillt, (Olll;rISs;oll
(1) 1 Imlt torrach 1328,31,4645
Bmlt 106t of lar 1333, 4646,8,9- Wi.
g.s. Imitai (1) 4649: v. 6.

ItUtts r. (I) wift: (2) com/anion,
jOllqwlr, lilt, cona tseitchib 3382.
Cor tosach a sttd, Ir. To Iii. 26, 25:
mlllleite'he dligiuh, CC. 414: nf.
lelbad m. (I)a posstSsi".t 1731,4924:
(2) POSSlSS;f't (fist 1000, 1517,31,43,
177', 181'0, d.s. inna lellJad
1536, 1676, do scalbhatlh 1671
16mlgud m. a SllteJollti"K,aspirtllioll,lllli.
lioll ofall illililll 'OIlSOlllllll, II" Vgham
1/ pnuJillC ils (DIISOllalll H +n= Ph
12 72, 1264,7, 127I,5,6,7,1l, 4322,6,8,
4330 ,1,2,3
Ben viti, eompar, sinill (t:Jhaih i
super. l;joneim 43co, ICllill\ (?) 1107.
ICllirn (cua, .., "'f. Iii. 44
lenchae m. all,,",.,,1 It"slon', sIvrv 553,
11 5386. Wi.
Benod a synod, n.p. 8cnada 61So
Benshn.IU 807
eerblu hjllll'tttSS 3HS, &e,bc E.f.,
lerlndprilllrvu806. 8clmhlriu,liclthir,
lJog. .
BerUm (?) I slrlllglltlll. prer. 3 s. sacr
!lert 5314 i 3 pl. Iier[l]tiit 5316.
le80 ,'':'', h"r"III, Cor portuih sellgll 1592,
lecs:l (?) 53 (7
sesmn.oh SIltIdjilSI, sltlbl, 6036. ce.
Bessach silat/llIsl, 939, 1598,
S3S6, 5360
Bessod oltl.sixilt 1448. Lawli
Besser m. si:( /"rS(/IIS, " 1t,.'II", Selluiur
2233,9, scscr U37. Wi.
16t m. (I rDlltI, ftlllY, &eit .i conar 1293.
sed raid I S83, for ICl na
16t III. f'll 11111/'/' , " In,Hurl,
cltlll/d, raith air set 1583; a.p. seoto
sona 2217, seol U 5088
16t a lutl, seut i lepaid 439f. set
"'ddi,,!:, ," isl.
86tlm I b!tJflJ, 3 p. prts. seeit 1292, set
B6trad m. a mtln prop" 10 " m1C
fuirmid 829, 4654, in ethrad 3673,
selrud 1578, sedf3dh 1583. II'. r.
iii. 116
354 .
I .
loreptra t. Se,ijlllr" g.l. burmor na
sgreaphtra 2640, do reir na Igrephtra
naihe 3422
Iduldll' Lat. slutllrl, a ug
Iduidir 4054. Ituldc:ar m., Din.
Becdacht . f. AardlltSs 13'3, leeueht
4632. Laws
Becho.d m. nrtSlrai"illr, dltrlill.':, g.a.
Iccha 5175,9. lechlae, 76,.: Cerh:ld,
Lawa: d. O'Dav. 1338, Wltlrl l.
esbaitl ;
Beohem isltillim.u,ooJ 298, seuchim
2610. ,SR. 4224: CC.:
(shiltim) /lcadt/s, Geseoius, D,;I. "
lIlt I,.",tlr of wltich NtItIlt's aI'/.' f(ltIJ
mtld" O'R.: scidalm m.
'lWJ. Aims.
Bechldll' ! /". jo/lfntlS, 3 a. perro dcp.
roseehastar 506. roseichiustar 2959,
2974. WI.
leohmn.ll (I) 111I DmissiDII,' (2) lugltc_
I;", (t/u ISU, 1652 1778,9, 18H3,
4978. Wi.
leohmal1o.1m I IIf/:ltd, "'" tiN/viti of
(0), ni lar:iinlli scachmallas 0 dhc.'i1bh
473. ul tsechrn:dlus 0 dcllph 2939
leobmo.tu /'11.11 2369
lechnl\lm I s,p,lrl,I" I Ihrl illl.fJIis'" Ji'vIII
(du), 3 p. prcl. lIccllllult 4014 i 3 p.
Impf. no-sechantais 4407
lechtn. SIr"" IMIIKs, ItIPIlld 430, 2877,
;P.2,5,6,7,8, 760, 828, 838, 917,
1)3 2, Cri lechtu 1001, lIcchda 3977
leohtlnl\ln f. II f(l1I1,:vli 101 na leacht-
maine 749,3518,3532"
16da si.' ,ltilles 429, 2874, 1021, frl
sedhal 31)76
B6g II '/lfr segh 1. os 4537. 5601 i g,p.
rc tridmit sed 1227; dim. seg.nat
5892. Cor.
161g f. " fllllluTt, 11,111
1, legh 5693. .i.
se:lbhac, 11.4. 18: Wi.
B61s " 1"",,1, a Iroop, a.p. h 5087,
liarses 4303. CC.
B61s Itlll'IIill.,?, sJiIl, for seis
.i. iar folis I. 479, 738, 2638,
29.J8, gen. sese, RC. lxvi. 20,
43: .I/dr.' I.awl
.o-dld ,aJy, rtatly, halldy, g.p. t.
loirtho 5091,5,8,90 loirthe 1. 101.
rc:idhc, O'Cl.
.ossad a dwtllillK, allodt 5310. Wi.
80ud-culp<:tlul all ;Illullal rhy"'t
sp1n r. (I) a Ihorn, spinan no Ispm
1197: () KOostbtrry, aplnao no spin
4305 PH.: RC. xii. 467
Sp1Dan a 1:00u6trry "usn 1197, 4304.
Thru Aftd. GI... O'Er.
srabh m. a slrla"" g.s. aire srahha
1192, aire araba ssdraibh 42<)0.
SR. 678o: O'Da". 18o, 1491: II'.
7: iii. 336, 115: aliltr d. Btlha
Coh" .. /b'/I. 23, 17
8rathar C. strathar 57
srebann a IJItmIJrllllt, IIdtltr
1810, 3255, .rephand 4997; g.L
Kene in tsrepaind 5001, 3258. IAn 11
srebuinn, SIl. lJad. 90
srt\gulndeacht r. tlursl"Miltg (?)
5801. cr. sc!guindeacht, .d-;II.
sreth (I) a suitS, intan is sreth 3577,
i sreathaibh 337, a sretha (2)
II Innlltl 0/ amltralioll, iar srethaib
&lIadh 553, 3194. cr. /r. To iii.
30, 14
srlthld r. Int jJaJJII.t:t or sll'ffl1" of mill.,
/1'01/1 Iht linlls/, sridit 1853 j n.p,
srithill 5034. l'oll sridlidc, Triads
75: arithide rola, CC.
Broil I(flll 1788. Cor. Tr. q8
sr6n C. 1I0U, imon sroin 5787
8roroa, 80roha IJn/:nl 5700
8rulth f',,/urIlMt, compar. is I ns
'iruithi 2377, 2798 i llUp. sruitem uiedl
5602, sruitltem 4303. Wi.
8tm61ach II Ihrush 5695. AgaU.,
stocatreaobt f. a Il'lIm/'tlillK
Lat. clllIIJor luli"rll1ll, Origg. iii. 20,
stooo m. II IrulII/NI 1486. PH.
stralph, strait (I) II s/cJt6usn, n.s. in
. Hraif 5567, 1191,2, 4290,1, 549,.,
SS63,8,9, 5643, sailJrong 5521: (2)
IItt 0KItIlIJl 1,,//11' str, sr H3, 2899
8Uad (?) dllllK,r .1. gabud 5H2,4
suag a ro)t, calli, 6149. Din.
8ua111/tw, small, lillll, mtall, ri luail
1604, nf sClaii 5366
8uath(a)lm I I:Jltatl, 3 impr. pais.
24040,1; p. part. pass, suaiti 2.U8.
sug Sil/" jilia, tri sug Jossa 5572, sug
in rois 5645. Wi.
sui m. a Sll!:', n.s. 5310, sai 386, 2769 ;
g.luad 498, 508, 2967,8 i n.p. saithi
387, saithe 2770 i g.p. 553, 3194 j
g.du. 46H
suldlm / sil, Ie suides 408, 411, 2848
superlalt lIlt SII/'trlillil't tltgrtl 644,
sust f. aJlllil 5727. PH.
taball II IIIM/, d.s. a 1110,
4230 i d.p. i talblibh 44, a dtaiplibh
tacmalng (to-:I.dcom-icc) tII(OIll/'IIJUJ,
1It1'rOlllllh, conaa tacmaing 1960.
a'el; v.
taccralm / /,Itllll, nr,t:'tf, 3 p. pres.
tacrait 1961,2, 2180, tachraid 1939
taebchubald siclt or tlltl rhy"".,' (t)
ClltSU1'll offirsllllltlihird f'''/,S(
mdill,<'s 11/ I' tjllllirtlill 919, 9Jy, a
dtaobcuitdiph an raind 3566: (2)
tI r")'lIIt ('lJlISiJlill,l[ 11/ iclmli(tll
IIl1d 0/ iclmliclIl'(I)lIs0lltlllls fi1Ilu: .,'II.e
Iltt f",,t!S, brass 7 bss 3963
taebchulbdlus m. ,h, md r;'.I'lIIfS
O/"l/lll1lrtliJl 38.8, 3858 .
taeblerg II slo/,ill,1[ /,llIi1l, Slll/,ill,t: 1111/.1,
g.p. 5147,5'52. ACtlll.
tsebomna f. II (0",.01111111, n s. in t.
1396, 766, 1389, is i in taebomna
g:lbhus greim 1397; g.l. 1376,8 i
n.p. taebomnai 412 i n.du. ila da
taebomna 937 i g.p. 1401 i d.p. dl)
th:cbomnaib 765, 921
tsebr6lm siclt or tlltl 1'1(/1 or tltcltluiJIl "
(I) in poetry, jJtrfid "lIilmllicJlI 785,
923, 3143,S: (2) in proje, ntI)'lltill.e
,,'ni(n il 1101 /1111 dtdtllSiOll, I:r/"nlal
jlt.\'ioll 795,6, 876, 3750 v. (,i)
taebtu (.) a sitlillK 1i'illt,lrllslillg: (2)
(,lImiltlli," (flU 1526, 1653
tAl, taol, t6, tua siltlll, slil/, tre a cd
1473, tai a oJ 1484. 4576,7, to od
1473 i compar. tuiu 1484, taftiu
1479 n. tai no taoi i Jostach, OCI.
t'lrclm / t.fftrl, (auu, riftr 10, (eudhair
,i tairgither Cair 4771, Ceghair i.
gither 4777. ni taircither, "'I. 17
talrlsemalt aIJitlillg, cOllsislill.r:, tairisem
fo tid 5811,8
'talrsce (I) a IrtJ/,,,ssillg .. (2)
,fi"t (t1S1 1527, thairrsci 1654, 1787,
tharrsce 1885, tairrsgi 4983. 0'0.:
talsselbalm / aurihe,al/rilmlt,plllJlisn,
rotaisclbad 1047, dot. 1766, co taisel.
bad 1763
talstel a Irflftrsillg, 1'OU,.,II)', f'())'agt
5291,7. SI.llol.
ta1thDlech II loos",ill/:, txplllllalioll,
d,rimlioll 1315,9, 2718, 2949, 3438,
taimcth 3439
talthmet a IIItllliollill{:, Itl/ill/:, ('oulllillK
1452 i denom. 3 8. prel. rotal.hmctaid.
side 1500. PH.
tal all atlzt 5726. Wi.
tamall a whilt, pauSf (1) 1932. cr:
tamaH n.;{ire ,,.clt. cr. i. 160:
liD. 299 8 r. d,uu 1082, 4077. Aisl.
tanacht r. IMllllt.fl, J/mtltI'IItsJ, ar,
th:\Il3cht 2943
tanalgeoht r. rtjilltlllwl,jillmfSs sooo,
tanoigechl 3';8
t'r CMltlllpl, tliJ,fraU, cen tar r932.
i. ole, Cor.: cr. tair n-aire, Anh.
cr. i. 16o: BD. 299 C1 4S -
'ta.rmtoroenn m. nltl ".! fI f'trU, 11.1. in
tarmrortccnd IS r4 j tarm(ortcind
1261, 4609 i n.p. 4609 i g.p. imrecru
na tarinthortcheand 920, 3567. elllh
Rllis R. 168: II'. To iii. 130
tarr r. "ac!;, fo tarrib.SI47, fo
tharraib 5I 52
taren&. t1lhfCJIJrl, filiI" gtll. liartharana
na Jurgan. 5782, cearUhanna across
S783,8. dar .ff.rthanna InwarlntSl,
RC,liv. 441: O'Molloy Gr. 137
t'th dissolulioll; soldn', t:lut,allltlli
1274. ,., isl... Th('. '
t'tblulbh emuill 267 288, 2446,
2581, 2603. t;\th luib 1t".IJ, "'"I".illl"
tebede rul tlJ/. ulalttl, dcime tel>ede
569, teihilli 04994, teipidl 5052
tech n-olged n. !t1)/tU 1'.!l:utS/J, Itll.fpia
(1/ all Irish /IIl1l1aslny" i taig aiged
5300. PI. f'il. Sallel.
tecralm (to-aith-cuiriur) / /'ltl (If""Y,
3. pret. 3 s. ros-teeair 2189. Cf. .1/1.
imme-thccrathar 65111: Str. /h/,.
p. 91;, n. 3
telgud noe m. 1II111/ihrowing, Ilu
Iltltlili(lll (I/In, ,f."'llIl.It tot III a '/'(11',1,
q.v. 16o), 1695, 1804, 1850, 1872,
1948, 1998,2103. 2152, 2165, 4686,
488z. 4991, 5067, 5370,3
ten::.en tlad:, tlark-gr't,!' 5699. Wi.
tenjirt, a dechned, tenn 5397. Wi.:
RC. n. 152, I
tenn rlran.r:, ;lIlmIt , super. tinnem
ruccae 55io
tennad m. all ;1II/,rtSJill,f, nll/,Iltllilill!:,
tx/,nssillg ItIIsio" 1552,478'. Wi.
tepe a fllllill.r:, st/ulioll 391, 1764,
1108 i d.s. don tebi 2, jar tebiu 1;63
tero J{'11It.'f, a rormolad, teredu
5396. Cf. HC. xx. 150, where it ia
cited wrongly us a rlUhlltrl, the ex.
being 1(/11I
teroe Spill UII',f.f, s(allIr'/ItH, ar terri
29,12, teirce leuda 3662
tesso,rgon a JtIf'i/l{:, tldif'n'lIl1a, teasar
gain 483, 2955
tlaga.lm bas / di" 3 !t. pres. reI. in
tan a bas, on tiagas Eg. i
1 I. pres. subj. ba bas ni thias 5393
Who 15 b28
tlarm6raoht r. (I) a jolltJfl'illg .. .(2)
jJ,.ot:milif,t cas.' IS2S, 1M2
tlasca a htgi","'ng, in tiasca 1760,
04961; 5020. cr. ODav. 1S64
tloa10d Tig/lllh, the r. Tigril 0) 2283
tlgbae MSI, 'U'i1/' "0 111"/;1'0", tigba
5334. Wl.
tlBe I/'iellllsl, 1323, 04 640.
tlmarta a Ilorl IIOwII or sylla611, Lat.
(orrtplum 1358, ISSO
tlndell ale unyoRinK, anSWlr,
lil)II 1247,8,4363.4
tinted, tlnteth (r) a 6realh 1733,
4925: (2) as)iralio", n.s. 435, 768,
3. tinfid 1267, 4325 i g.l. Doit
tinfid 768, 1231, 4548; d.,. eu
tinfiudh 434, eo dtinfed 28h. Cf.
Mdr... tinfedaigud all aspirall 344
tlnlud m. all al/mualing, flanishillg
769. Trip.
tlnne (I) holly .j. quuJend no trom
8, 1180,1, 4276,7, 5495, 5634:
(2) Iht Ogham III/Ir t 2899 i 1274,
4328; 3019
tlnne IlIl illgol, tindi rucm 5572 Fd.
tlnnlocud m. a gUI,'"g up, tI,livlrillg
4753. tidlacad, Law.
tln61tach m. a cOlltcllJr, fiJulUlu, chiif
tinscetal a n.s. tindacital
48S, in tindacedul 486, in tiDIgetal
2957. Wi.
tlnugud m. a buomillg al/tllualcd, a
,'allishillg 3561, 4548
tlpra a ,uIIIS738 i dim. tiprnn Slog,13.
tlrda agrkullural, ruslil:, ogam t. 572.
Urdacht f. llgrkullllrl, lucht na tir-
dachta 5473
tltul (I sltptrmipliIJJI. "rin titu} 165 :
fI Illsl wish, a thigthol 5290,
a thluglhol 5296
tlacht prlJlld,o" 1960. D,alh Talts SlljilllSS, limidity, Wtnklltls,!tt6I,.
II'SS, cen tlaili 5248, cen tJ:\ai 5251.
lias, O' R.: Laws
tnuJirt .j. teine 4544. A1t1r.
f. s!'IIIIl't, n.l. in toe tengadh 909,
In 3791 i a.s. IltabJing tui 5458.
d.a. IS e dliged nn mban beth i tai,
..., v. 23 : v. tai
t6 IIJJlGut 751. Ltc.
tobarthld dllli,, (flst, D.a.753 j g
tobartada 1645, 1660, 4838, tobar-
tacha 1647, tobarta 1667, 4846 ;
d.s. ina thobartaid 1677, 4856
toohrull a wind;,,1' lip of yar", gan
tochru. 2109. Law.
togalrm (I) a summonilll''' (2)
fll)cali"1 cau, n.I. 1520, 1774, 1881,
4741, togarmann 4754. d.s. inn:l
thogairm 1676, 4856
togarthld vocalivi cau, g.l. togar-
tada 16H,6, 4826, togarthada 1668,
toghorta 4847 i d. do thogartaidh
1671,4850. Wi.
toglalm I flItl, tlnlroy, 3 s. p. P:lss.
rotoghladh in Tne 1123. Wi.
tolmslglm IlJIlllsurl. 3 s. pres. pass.
toimsigther 4808,9; i p. toimligtir
4602 i 3 So impf. pasl. nothomb-
sidhe 929, nOlomhusti 3857. cr.
CC. 4062
tolmslm / ",tasu"t, toim!oiter 739,
IOU, 1509,10,11
tolmtnlglm / /ltt'III, / am of O/Jillioll,
rotoimtnigedar 151. denom. toimtiu,
t61rndlm (dofo rind) / mark 0111,
S'/{1'ify, 3 a. pres. iar ninni thoirni
1895,7, toirnes 1568. Wi.
tolrne a Shflrf, porlioll 3889. Laws:
tdlrnld m, a &road marktr, mtaSIl,.,",
lethan-thoirnid 450, 2913
tolrrchlus m. p"tl:"II11')', don t. 5778.
tou r. Iht whlJlt, Lat. lolliS, n,s. in toili
664, in toit 3279 i g." dar eil na
toiti 664, 3279; d.l. do toit 26S',
toit .j. uiliataidh no uilidhe, o'el.
tomalste ""I"i,'al r;'ylhm 9a8, tomusti
3857. airceJal .j. tomsidhe, Allte. \'.
24, I, 10 n.
tomu8 m fI IIIlasll1't, Lat. 11IfllSllra
750,3,4,5,6,8, 917. 943, 962, toimes
751 i d.s. I tomua 1400, do thomus
7, 1687, 3856, co tomua 1950;
a.s. [cnfidh rregraa in tomua 1382.
cinteacht shiollaJh II tlt/illilt IIl1ml>tr
t)/s)'II'I/'/fS, O',I/IJIIlJy Gr. 149
t6n f. lail, g.p. 5242. Wi.
tond r. Slill, mrji,a. mtll816, 0 thuind
co tuind 1726,4917. Wi,
t6rand dtllolrtlt'o", 601l1ld-
I,ry, g". is moaum tOfllind 2796.
O'Mulc. 823
torathor a mOllsl,r, motlslrosily, a
chotut, co ndorthor 5289, iar torthor
toro a 6oar, a pr;lIet 5230
torg 5357 dfSlroyillg, O'R.:
toq'{han Hn.
tormach m. (I) n" illcl'fns"ng, In
tormaeh 3790: (2) aU!:,lUlllalit,t (flU
1528, 1654
torn6racht f. II" IlIrlltr'S craft 5799.
torrach prtf:llalll 5774
to-sd.rlgur I violalf, illjllrt, Lat. laltlo,
3 s. prel. lapis do rada fri gaeh ni
tarraiglher coil 3399, (ristart:ligther
Eg., lapis rliCl'ur 10 quod I,,'dil ptidi",
3396. OD.
tot Iht Ollo11lnlopotlt'c sou"d oj a mn,,'s
jll/lillg 011 'U'altr 4890 i e.g.
fertot 1609, 1612.3,7,9, 1620, 184,
ferthot 1695,6. fertout 4882, (eurtot
4991, hentot 1850, saerthot slantot
5373 i n,p. caemthuit 2233. tot 1
torman i lonn, H. 4. 18
toth if/trylhillg ft",inillf, tod h each
mhand:l 1465, 4560, 1236, 4558, to<1
1459, 1462,1493.6,9.1502,8,dod 1468
tothlugud m. nn dllnnlldi"g
1032, 3988, 1107
tothocht (I) POSStSSiOll, /Jroptr ty, ad-
.Il1l1d " (2) proprilly ill po,lic prn"s""g,
e.g, a hero by a hero 5256, co
tothueht 1950, 5234, 5244,
5254. Cf. Wi.: Triad", O'Dav.
1568: /".1: 1:;.121
totluohur I atmalld, 3 s. prete
is mo darothlaig no toroth\aig 4002
trd. ,i do me chugninn no roo uainn no
treii. trf neithe, H. 4. 18: 573, 3039
tracht a slra1ld, short 1229, 4540; g.9.
for mibib trachta mulgi 2393. Laws
traeth ,,"r,vlhillg iUllltr 1465. 01(561,
12,36, 1475.6, 1480,5,7, 1493,6,9,
'1502,8, troth 1458, 1461, trret 1468.
tmoth 1 nimh neachtarda,H. 18:
trd.g, trd.lg f. slrnlld 6103
tralde f. '1ui"J",ss 510. ST.: Cor.
Tr. 162
tralg f. ajiJol, n.s. 181f. 1409,11, 5276,
troieh 77 1 i 1413, 1816
tre- in comp. Ih,.u, trcbrichta Ir'tlf
ociosylllllJic 3712, tred ruimnech 11,,'((_
rUt,d 5S35. ]"br., trdurg-ach I),ru-
slm",,,d 5836, trctsill,rbacfl IIt,.u.
s.1'1I"blttl 3865
trllde Ihr" I)'ill,es 426, 2868, 290r;
1264,43 22 ; 671,2, 796, 1020, 1296 i
cl.p. i treidhib 665, 3281
tr6-fbocul m. Ihf Imi's of pll''':I'
",glllif"1y sllllfd,' (I) xii. I,ttls Itj
filidccht, chitJIy as 10 jvrm 1940-3,
5057-62 i (2) xxii. lafl'S of bairdne,
chilJl.v as 10 mnlltr 1928. 39; n.s.
1928.9, 1939, 1940, 2018. in trefocal
1027 i g.s. tlaeht in trefocuil 1960 i
2017, 2130 i d.s. i treroeul 2078, hin
t. 2188, asin t. :1180
tregdoo pifrrtrl6090
tregta.d m. (I) a " (2)
pfr/oral"ft caSf, in tregdad 1724,6,
1780, tregdhadh 1528,1654, treghdaJ
1723, 1883, Wi.
trelth 4583. Wi.
trlln slrollf:, compar. tresi 5556,
4; sup. tresim fedma 555S,
ruamna 5563,7. Wi.
tre61r n. slrtnglh, guidllllCf, IIIfllll.f,
n.s. 5429 i g.s. treorach 3403.
tredrQ,ld a guid" litirtrcoraid 449,
2913, legtreoraid 450. trcliraiJhc,
treHoaoh 'Mr"}, 940, (lie I.) 5357
trlan m. 01lf-lhird,n.s. in trian 935,
1181, 1448 i d 8. 0 trian 935 i n,du.
na da trian 936
trlan (I) holly " (2) Iht Of:hamlfiltr t,
trian 5549. trian i cuilenn, ,lllfr.
iii. 43
tnath m. lillI', lord, a oen, do thren-
fher, IIlarginal gl. trindil b] 5335.
trlosg grains, I'tfust of mall 4539.
trtrech f. a la" '''';e, /Olm, Issin
iririg,5351. WI.
tr6ca,lre C. mlre.v, Lat. ;it/as 4214
tr6etha1m I D1IlrpOWlr, IU/'Pns" 3 ..
prell. trrethaid 1485 i rei. a thraethas
1481, 4581 i 3 p. prel. tr:cthait 1477,
1480. Wi.
trom all tldtr Iru 1155, 4'50, 4292,
5518. tromm m. Triads
trop Lat. Iroplll, mtlapnor, figun 0/
s!,urh, a.s. tri in trop 2567, trin-troip
5512. trop, MI. 152 ; g.a. in truip
truld m. f. a slarlinl 3224; dim.
truilelic 5694. Cor. Tr. 161:
tua.g f. 111I axt, d.l. a thunigh 1278.
tuag f. a bow 18n. Wi.
tuar II pall, sagt, g.uu. in-I magallaim
. na Dil Thunr 1328, In D" Sundh
no in Da Tuarad 4644. Re. XXyl 8
tuara,soba,l1 C. (I) a dtscribil/g, dtscnp.
lio/l .. (2) dtscri!,li"t caSI 1529, J 530,
1655, J889, 1891
tucoa,lt f. a eallst, t. a denma 737,
1032, 3987, tugait bindillsQ 629,
Lat. plrtphrasis Gr. lal. v. 308, 15,
tucait 632,4, tucait a acribinu 1106,
2320,6,2347. (. Nib. /IIi".
tulgneoh robt, dual, wI", III aJj.
slulltri"K 5Q7,52 Awll.
tulrem f. a l'''Olil/lil/.f' a IIIlmbtr, n.s.
ni certtuirem na gcinedh 3378 i n.p.
tuirme g-lonn 940
tUlrlm (do-sfrlm) I sc,.lIli",u, starclt,
- 2 I. imper. tuir 5194.
tulsel m. a cast (in grammar) 783,
5'77, tuisil 3591, tuissel 4862
tulsmlud m. a btgtllil/l' origin 48'X,
62 5,6
tu1st1d m. a parmI, n.p. tuistidl446.7,
2905,7 i 2951,4,6,f.'. Wi.
tulst1de (I) a !'tlrml .. (2) parmlalivl
(tHI 1523,167,1889, tuistiudh 1891.
lur.ligc. PII.
tus (. Lal. IllS, jralilil/umt, il/cmu,
tub 2450, 2614. PH.: RC. xii.
tdthma,1' (I) jllle)', O'Mulc. 870: (2).
filia, ce. I O'DaY.
1265: /Jtll!h Talts, tutmur 5604,
tuathmar 4302,4
ua m. a grandson, atscmdmll, n.l.
5262,6 i n.p. Ind hue 5146, ind uea
ua,glm I uw, sl;lcn, compoSt, 3 I. pres.
pass. co n-uaigiter dib Cuiglher
ua,1mm n. (I) a slilehi"" Stant, '",ioll
: (2) a composilion, ni huaim 781,
raid-uaim 782 i g.s. re huamma 780.
1638,3587: (3) alliltralioll 5479,781
ua,lmm do rind alliltralioll al Int md
of a fltrst, tht word in IItI secolld t'trll
t.uudinl /hI alliltralilll! word ill Iflt
firsl by Ol/t sylltlbll 2205, 2211, e g.
2205,6. Ir. To iii. 30, c i 121, C
ua,ls m. powrly, slight pOl'trly, ad.
foirlthed u"is 2476. is e in t-unb,
O'DaY. 112
UI1.lS 1I0bl" ier bliordliged Cothu Iln
gotha uals toghaidhe 2648. udil i
dlline ualal, H. 4. 18: O'CI. : Gor.:
O'DaY. 788: Laws
'dalte f. singlilarity, singltHlss, OlltlllSS,
inn uaite 9OJ, 944,962,3
uartan somt t1.fricllllllrtll illSlrllm",1 (1),
huarlnn 5726. Cf. uairlnech .i in 1>0
blegar risin unrtan i risin salann no
risin rnbalgum, Laws Y. 26o: 0'0.:
(uarlanach alloc/}-I/t, H B.
'da,s. ds en'tr, 3 pI. uaso J44, uais tis
2433, I. l,as tis IIIJlJvt find bilow, cr.
tiar tair 2215
' (1) wflilt Iflurn, n huath 4P,
766, 1176,7, 4272: (2) thl IllItr h
1230, 1270, i 14011 , 5491 i g.a.
huatha 5699. Wi.
'da,th (I) horror 5628,9, 5234: (2)
norrih!1 1195. 5547, T6c.
uatha.d (I) jttt'1uJS 1098: (2)
llI,mll", a sil/elllar, ,:r.s.
325,6,2756 ids. 333,1641,7,2671,2,
1846 i a.s. 2058, cen u:lIh ,t! r i ilar
((lithOIlI a siliKulm' wilh a !,Iural 1942,
50 58, e.g. mora, a:tind 51' 5,1)
uatlgim I malt Jil/tlt, I mtlh rar"
3 p. pres. 2153
uatuaslalctoch ,.f!'lmlalory,
,!t1/lollSlrnti"t 3460. cr. Lawl
ug<lnraoht f. tl (1/'rllllll) authorily,
131. E.g. EllulJi CAron.
ugda.rdas. a.ugtortas m. aulfloril)',
hlslory 3379. PII.
uil1docht f. 10ltllil)' 3798
uUldetu n.5. a huilelaighic
2304 i d. do uilidcataid 51, 2339.
ul11oa.nd (1) ItOllf)'Jlldlt .i cdlcnu
5524, 5664,5: (2) Iflt O;:fl"",
dl!,h/flOIl!! ul 1197, 4303:. (3) Ifle
Othnm y ami u mditll 1368, 4423
. ulnge r. all 01111" 1286, 1290, X735.
ASfoli clXxviii.
utnnlus C. tm (ISh. n.s. uinnius 1173,
lIinius !522, uindsiu 1153, uindis
4248 i 1174 i d.l. ulndlind
J 172,5, 4268. uinsenn, Gor. -: ind
huinniu! ardd, Sg. 67 II
ulse60 f. fI larl. 5696
umaldea,cht I. 5803. Cf.
umalde, WI.
Umda,=immda 4306; n.p.lumda, PH.
Urnla, Lat. Ohst'l',illlll
una,ll' Q "",'I 688, 3317: Orlgg, iii.
3, I
unnse m., unnsl (., onna,1' n. litre ;s
648,9, uindse 70S, unle 706,8, 7X7,
uinnlo x806, 1875, uilldiol, ulnd.J,
ondor 1495, lIindse no sonn5C 3348.
ur. ulr r. Mrth, 1II0UItI, do uir 5585, is
i uir 5652, 0 uir 5654. Wi.
ur (I) hfffth .i. rracch (2) Ihf
. Ifllfr U 1194,4297,5587, .i. draighcn
5521. (Ir. LL. 38 b 37
ura.rd (I) f"':I' I,,/:/t .. (2) f\'llltr/Ii"ll,
lit, tuM;I,,,,, oj a. 10 Ihf fI'I)/.,f 1946,
2098, 21 46, 2176, 5341, a fhorard
19Q7, n irnrd 5078, e.g. (er-Il 1798,
lin,:r. benn-n pl. mna 1847, ma chor-a
ur-bernad a IlI'taCfl, shar" /,tlrl,
ni da hurbcrn:uJh 3385
("fi"ilt, in aiSli u.837. Wi.
.urga.bltl C. (I) a rt1!'turill!!, uizillg,
ar/'fslillg, ,:ran llTR"abait 1824: (2)
a /'frf!'h,rI" ollurgMil 5338. WI.
urlutme natlillns, !'rfparalloll, Itatlill!!
'I'ortis, a tri urluiml d. a Hi
herlanna 3026. <erlaime prtpal'lJlIlSs,
urmdr a grtttl !,arl 2640. (ur-mhor
m. DonI.
usoa, (I) flftllfltr brllsh (1) 5728.
(-usgan, HB. (2) gnast Eg. GI.
uscdha, greas)" rtsill-<olollrtd 0) 5701.
usgadb OR.: uscaide
lard)', Aisl.
usee Lat. aqlla logo, 4092
uBoea,oh ;trlaininl 10 "'aliI', "'flltry,
ogam u. 5732
Jm AI SJiabh Chualand In
Lelnlter,' Dr (Cruachan) AI 5691
Aohald A(CaJ in the plain of Shinar,
Gen. x.' 10: bind Achaidh 251,
conrufed' with A(na;a, Dada, and
later with Asia, q.v.
Achla A clmia, i ndAl'hia 388
Achtd Aquilalli Aquitania, Origg.
xiv. <4, 27: 223. Actain 2538.
Achuid. jAiII. 30, 46, Acit 55, 28
Atralcc1a:Ajri"all 6148
Allech Griman Ely on hthrrius
between,lnnishowen and mainland,
Co. Donegal, lEd Aitig 5318
AlaUn Altllli, Origg. ix. 2. 94: 233.
<47. Allain 2539
Alba r. (Brilllill) Seollam/. In fer
d'reraip Alpan 2630
Albaln A.lballi, Grigg. Ix. 2, 65: 223,
./HII. 30:.47, "'pJin 2539
Albanaoh ScoUmall, d.p. rer d'Alban-
achaib 75
Ard Oarto,lnc1 Carrl/uUlJ in West.
meath Ja22, A Cbairtend I SHab
Luachra 4532
Arc! Outs 1222, A Chulsi 4531
Ard macha Arllla,fA5708
Armoln Armmi,., Grigg. II. 2, 61:
222. Armaint 253', Armein. /Ell.
30. 46
Aru :f rat a river flowing through the
town or Tipperary (n'pr'!.J A 1'011I')
AsiA. Asia, isinn Ailia 2571, a nAisia
277 1 P39
Athaln AIAtllitnsts, Grigg. Ix. 2, 76 I
223, 11. 30,46, Acain 2538
Benc1ohor Bangor on the 80uth or
BeJralt Lough, Co. Down, Beanchar
Berba the river Barrow 5263, 568 I
Betho,ln lJithp" Dithynia, Grigg. Ilv.
3,39: ul,A!."II. 30, 45, Beithin 216,
Bold Botol; Boeotia, Origg. xlv. 4,
II: 222, Boit 2537, Boet, /Ell.
55, 27 8rtl(/'lI/allat, Bram::ai .. '26,
Braghmalot 2542, Bragmain. /Ell.
31, 50
Bretaln lJri//ollu, ix. 2. 102:
222, /b"II. 30,45, Britain 2537
Brltanla Brila"IIia, Britainia 2812 '
Brulden r. Bruit/m Da Dtrga in cdch
Cualann 5688
Oaloanensls Cailltll in the Jand or
Shinar, Chalanne, Origg. xv. J, 13,
the place where Gaedel wrote Gaelic
45. Calcaneinsi! 2330
Oatt a river-pool
Oell dara Xildart, Quell dara 5706
Oera in barony or Carrll, Co. Mayo.
eeroo 5689
Olclalc1 ('xc/adn 219. ./EII. 30, 43.
Ciclait 2534
Olrclr Cil";, id nl, Cyprii, Grigg. ill
2, 36: 218, Siccir 2534, Cicir, PlI.
5388 : ./1:"11. 30, <43, Cypri 55, '5
f '

Oluo,tn mo,ccu nols ('1""",aOlois on

the west border of barony of
Garryc<'\Stle and of King's Co., eight
miles south-west or Athlone 5705
, Oolln.malr in I\lunster (i), i Collamair
5109. Collammair 5113
Oorann a barony or Co. Sligo. but
which or old included also Gnilenga
in Co. Mayo and Luighne in Co.
:-:Iigo. or (!3ruiden Ched) Corann,
()\Iorann 56119
00;810 COl'S; Corsica. Origg. xiv. 6,
.p : 219, /HII. 30.43, Coirsic 2535
Crelt ('rtln Origg. :xiv. 6,
15-16: 219.2535. /1::11. 30,43
eMI,." in Louth 5350
OUf:lrat a river-pool 5683
Dacia Dilcitl. i nDacia 1105
Dalo D'ler'. Origg. ix. 2, 90: 2541,
,'hll. 31.49. Dl\cia 226 .
Dalmalt Dillmnillt Dalmatia, Origg.
xiv. 4,8: 226.254 1, /HII. 31, 49
Dn.rdo,ln lJard"IIi Dardanus. Origg.
ix. 2, 67: DorJ:ain 226, Dardain
254 1 /lUI. 31,49
Delbna. Ddfllll D. tire da Lochro in
Connacht 5102. i nduain Delmna
Derg the river Co. Tyrone, I.
Dergdere l. nfl'/! between ,Killaloe
and Portumna 5682
Dlnd rig H""/!(l!:t lIIillll in townland
or Ballyknockan south or Leighlin-
bridge on the west bank or the
Barrow, an ancient palace or the
kings of Leinster 5689
Dolre Luran Dtrr)'lorOlI, a pariah
near Crookstown, Co. Tiron(, where
ld,llr Cimljatlad was written, Daire
Luran 69. 2643, Doire Luruain 2623,
i nDoire Lurain 2639
Doramh Q. plain in the north-welt or
the plain of Shinar, mag nDoraimh
Drulm Oetta. in Roe 'Park near
Limavaddy, Co. Derry,
Mordail held there A.D. 590 (or Sa7.
or 574), d. Ce:l\a 1472, <4574
Drulm Llo,s Drum/MIf, a rarhh in
Dromahaire. I.eitrim 5391
Durma.g Durrt11t1 in a parish
lind town in the barony of Clarallagh,
Queen's Co. of the parish is in
the barony of Galmoy, Co. Kilkenny,
Durmach 575
Ebra a IItIJr(T(', d.p. do Ebraib 233,
Ebro,lde HtllI"(1l', Ebralde
1263. berla nEbraidi 189. 2498. pa
. do Eaphradaiph 2548. 3993
Egept Af,fl,/,Iii. Origg. ix. 2. 39: 226,
Egiptda 2542 i a.s. hEcipta 2549.
hEceptncta 3993. hEgeftagda 23":
a.p. n3 hEigipti 455. Egeipt.
Eglpt f. /:."1/. g.s. Egipti 17, na
hEigipti 2301 j d.s. i nEgipt Ib,
2299. a h Eigipht 1105 i co
Eigipt 1041 i adj. Aipgitir Egipta
Elg f. 1,.,1"lId 3376. Elg, Enlg .
Ene Ely in North
the of Clonhsk and Bally-
hrit in King's Co., and or Ikerrin
and Eliogarty in Co. Tipperary. K.:
EJmaln Macha Nllvnll firl in the
pari!\h or Eglish. barony and Co. or
Armagh. two miles west of Armag'h
town 735, Emin l\Iach:\ 2636. Emhain
Machuo 3493, Macha im Mumain
5229. Emain 5691
Eobul a rit,tT or lait
EJoganacht a col1ective n:lme or Ihe
septs descended (rom EO/!llll Mor.
eon or Oilill Olom, Cl. "iii. 25,
for E. 5216. 5221 I
Eotenam a chy on the plain 0; Shinar
where Feniu! Fnnaid establif'lIed hi,
.cho)1 or languages, npud E. 214,
Euateno 2531 I
EJrbos Ilu rifltr 011 !t,lli,," !t'ns
6alilt of Cuil Fabhalr, K. rli. 120:
5686 '
Brennaoh Iris", IriSAman'r'.,. 75.
guth 3540, 3377
Eriu r. Irllalld, n Elrl 1327. Eire
3376, 3540 i g... Erenn 5157, 5167 i
d.l. i nEiririn 3377; a.8. cetnarogaph
Eire 4150
His;",';, Origg. Ix. 2, 109:
Espain 2539,. 1327, hJ!apain,
/EII. 30, 47
Esstll EliSllti, Origg. Ix. 2, 34: 225,
Eisil 2541
EtaUl Iialill 1325
Ethtotp A tlniopts, Origg. IL 2, 10:
226, Eithiop 25..P, Elheoip, A-:lI.
31, 50
Fal Irdaml, frlid Fail 5385, Insi Fail
Ftrns, a lown, see, and parish
in Co. Wedord, K.: 5703
Feballocll Fu)'lt 5681
Femen a plain which extended rrom
Cashel lo Clonmel, Flath Femin
5228, dinn Femin 5688
Fir Bolg FirlJolgs, iar f'eraib BoIg
1495, iar bFeraib Bolg 4556
Fraino Frtlllci, Origg. ix. 2, 101:
224, .-EII. 31,48, Afrrainc '540
Freisln Frisi" 224, '540, Fresin, /Ell.
Oabal the river or Fid Gaible, Fttguilt,
in King's Co.
r. G()Wra, Gabhair Aichle, hill
or Skreen, near Tara, K.: or tho
island or Loch Gabor,
II Lilgore," 5690
Calli, ix. 2,. lot, 106:
218, Gaill 2533, /lUi .)v, 41
Oalaid GtllllltU, Origg. ix. 2, 68: 222,
Galus 2538, Galait, AUI. 30, 46
Gall" Gallogam 6157
Oarman /),-lIi", " .'1 i,-Iltir ncar the
ford of Ath Luain, or eclipsed form
or Carman, cat or Oenach Carmain,
nGarmon 5690
Oermaln (;O/lllllli, Origg. ix. 2, 97:
217, "533
Oolth CUlh, a Origg. Ix. 2,
27,89: 224,2539. /EII. 30,47, Gothi
Greio m. Gruis, n.p. Gregaig 2484.
4028, Greicc4036; d.p. do Grecaib
19, 41, 516, 29
4, di -Grecaib 202.
g.p. 515,6j a.p. la Grego 1060, la
Greco 1359. Ia Grecca 498
Orian the river Grmlfv which falls
into L. Graney, Co.' Clare, Ollom.
nGrian 5684
Gulth G,lat (?), Origg. ix. 2, 89:
224, Guit 217, 2539, Guich, /lW.
30, 47
Hibernia f. Irtlll"d 5466
Hlrcain ""rca"i, Origg. ix. 2, 42,
43: 217, 223, /EII. 30, 47, Ircair
hOn, Othaln f. rivers, /)tee 7 mJr,
. Fahan, 0110111.: 5682
Ile f. Isla}', the southernmost island
or the inner Hebrides, ArgyJlshire,
Scotland, I1iu 5691
Indlurnn a 5686
Inis Oaln I"islthm in Louth and
Monaghan, A.V.: do Inis C:Hn
5298, aiged Indsi Cain 5300,5
Inls Oathalg Scallll:V Islaml in the
Shannon, A.V.: Inse Cathaig 5311
Inls Fatl/nllllld Insi Fail 5267
Innecdal "uh, Origg. Ix. 2, 5 : 227,
A:'II. 31, So, I ndecda 2542
Iralrd CMai" E,.,u',-d, CIUllaI'd, :l
parish and bishopric on Ihe Boyne
in Co. Meath and near Co. Kildare,
hIrarJ 5705
Israel Iltt clt,ldrm of Isnul, mic Israel
1I05, Issrael .p 39
Itall Iiali, Origg. ix. 2, 85: 224, Etail
2539, /b:ll. 30,47
Lacdemoln llludatll'IJ"u, Origg. ix.
2, 81: 225, Laicucmoin
31,49, Lacdemonnai S5, 31
Lalgnech IIltillSltrlllall 5148,5153
Latlnda l"lill, llliins 421,2" Laitianta..
1259, Laitianda 1263,4028
Lemaln in Leth Cuinn, near Clogher,
Co. Tyrone, T,.ip., g.s. Ua rig
Lemna 5262
Letha, Latium i.t. Italy, Rom" gu
Letha 5163, co Ilctha 5237
Liath Lialh Mhanch:\in, pariah or
. King's Co. 5703
Llfe, Llphe lilt liffty, olha Liphi gu
Letha 5163, 5237, a IIi/l OWl" III,
LillfY. K. ii. 284: 5688
Loch g.!. A Fhlaind Locha Hnib same
517 2 Acha 5176
Loch IHn lala(s) 01 Killamty 5320
Lochlannach Scm,di"f1"ian 6155
Lodaln laodiun;, laudicn,i. Laudicia,
xv. I, '4: 225, Laidich 2540,
Ladakh, /Ell. 31,48
Longbalrd 'ltlltf:IJ"ardi, Origg. ix. 2,
95: 225. 2540, /Ell. 31, 48
Lulgdln 2534, Lugdoin,
...1:'lt. 30.42, Lugoil 218
LUidl1.ydii, Origg. ix. 2, 3: 218, Lid,
/f."lt. 31. 48 ,
Luimnech ESluary of Iltt Snan"on al
5681 .
Mag Rath ,110)'l'a, a parish and town-
hnd in the barony of Lower Iveagh,
Co. Down, g.!'. i c3th Muighi Rath
72, 2626
Mag Tulred A1oy:i"m Easl Qlld Aloy-
Ii,.,." Irts/, barony of Tirerril, Co.
Sligo, K.: a eath Muige Tuireg
Magulch .llagogii (1), Magog a quo
arbitrantur Seythas et Gothos traxisse
originem, Origg. ix. 2, 27: 222,
r\lagoig 2537, Magoich, /Ell. 30,
Malg the plain, fer Maige 5216, fer
MalgtdoD .flawltJllts, Origg. ix. 2,
78: 220, Maicidoin 2536, Macldoin,
/Fh30,44 .
Nair "'Ilur;, Origg. ix. 2, 118,9,
120,2: 220,2536, mair, /Ell. 30, 44-
Malstlu r 869, 3605
Massall Massyli, O,igg. ix. 2, 123:
2:!0, Masgusl1 2536, Malail, Ell.
30,440 .
Meld, Mold Alidi, Origg. ix. 2, 46,7 :
217, Moiet 2534
Nldo .fIMIIt 5690
Molossus Moiosul 1750, 4939, v.
Moraln .Ilorill; 218, Morann 2534,
Moraind, /Ell. 30, 42
Morcaln .Varc01n(",1/; (1), Grigg. ix.
2, 97: 2:10,2536, /RII. 30,44, Mosin,
Mussin 55, 26, =.tI)'unat (1), Origg.
xv. 1,47
Mugna m.
a parish and lownland three and a
half miles west of Castledermot, Co.
Kildare, 0"... 5707
Mulnten a ri"lro/,ool.. Poll-
rivcr, which enlers thc Darrow north
of New Ross 0): Ollom.suh. muntech
Muir- Ponteca Iht SM 3343
Mumnech a Mumllrman 5149, 5154
Noondruim Notntl....uim ialand and
church 5703
Narboln NarIJo1/a, Origg. xv. I, 64:
221. /Ell. 30. 45. Narmaint 2537
Nemthend Moulll /\'tphill, parish of
AJdcrgoole, barony of Tirawley,
Mayo, K. iii. 32: 5688
NUh rivcr Niln of the. Boyne, Nid
5681, 01/0111.
Nobith A'umidat, Origg. ix. " 120-2:
221, Nombith 2537, Nombithi, /EII.
30, "5, Numin 55, 27
Norlth Noric" Noricus ager, Origg.
xiv. 4,5: 221, Nordi, /Ell. 30, 45,
Node 55, 27 .
. Ocha 6chter Oeltat in Leinsler: or
Faughan, in the parish or Martry,
south of the Blackwater, three mile.
from Tellown, .trill viii. 75: Oehae
9 :
Odba a (enoc amI) moal nMr Nar'a"
still called An Odba, O"om... Ogba
Paimpll Pampltylii Pamphylia, Origg.
xiv. 3, 440: 218,2533, Pampil, /1::11.
30, 42
Point P01ft(ic)i Pontul, Origg. Ix. 2,
83: 218,2533, /Ell. 30,42
Pontloum mare I/', BlacA Stn 3487,
mairie Pounticum 3342, Ponteca
3344, Pountiogda 3488
Quorann 5689 v. Corann
Ralthen R,,/'all near Tullamore, in
barony of 13allycc,wan, King's Co.
ReloU RlltKilli, Ix; 2, 32:
219, Reidr 2535, Redn, //W. 30,
Relt R"tl; Raetia, xlv. 4, 26:
219,2535, /EII. 30,43
Rasad In Leinster, Onom gilla rig
Resad 5336
Rlga the river RJ,t which joins the
Lilley at Leixlip 5685
Raid Rhot/ii, Origg. ix. 3, 37: 219,
/EII. 30,44, Roait 2535
Roigne a plain in the barony of Kells,
betwecm the Siur and the Barrow
Romaln Romalli, Origg. Ix. 3, 84:
220, 2536, /EII. 30,44
Salgear Saighir Chiara In, Sai"Ati"all,
(our and a haH mites south-nst or
Birr, Co. Tipperary: burying place
o( the kings of Ossory, K.: 5703
Saraln Saracm; quasi a Sarra, Origg.
ix. 2, 6 i 57: 224, grinne sair 2539,
grinne (airne, /IW. 31,48
Sardaln Sartli Sardinia, Origg. xiv. 6,
39, 40: 219, 2535, 128, 2408,
S_olthl SeyllurI, Origg. Ix. 2, 27:
187, 216, Sgeithin 3533, /hll. 30,
Sclthla Scyl!tia 28, 41, asin Scithia
149, 162, Sgeithia 2452, 451, do'
Gregaiph Sgeithia 233, 2516, Seide
no Scithie 19, on Sgeithia 2312
Sootl m. Ilu Ir;s/'
Scult m. Sul/;, Origg. ix. 2, 13:
217, 1769, 4049, Sgouit 2533,
Sguit 4056, 4061, a quo Scoitl 1251,
Scoti 5466
Senohua townland and parilh of
Slumeollllt, barony of Tirerril, Co.
Sligo, Sencua 5218, Senchre 5213
Sennar the plain of Shill"1', g.s. gu
mag Seann.. ir 154,5, Sennair 1106,
Seunair 4051, tSeunair 4140
Seen a plain given by Ugaine to his
son Rocha, g.s. Seolre 5688: Seol.
mag, l\lag- Se()lai, in barony of Clare,
Co. Galway, 011011/.
Siell S,mli, Origg. ix. 2, 85: 217, 219,
Sg'ill' 2534, Sigil 2535, Scill,
30,41, Sicil 30, 43
Sinand f. the river Slralllloll 5681
Slon MOIIIII ZiOll, sHab Sioin 5307,
Sion 5302
SUabLuachra Slitflt loghtrmountains
in Kerry and Cork, 0110111.: 1222,
4532 Shrult in the baronies or
Kilmain and Clare, Co. Mayo 5707
Streulae Slirlillg ;" Iht 101lu'ans 5690
Strur, Sruthalr the river Blac/moaltr
between Mayo and Galway 5685
Telth river 5682
Temalr r. Tara, Co. Meath 5689
TessaU TlltSsali, Origg. Ix. 2, 69:
Tesail 2538, Treasail 223, Tels.LiI,
.-HII. 31, 49: 55. 31
T1rdl\.-glas Ttn:vxlass vi IIafl'e, town
land, and pari&h in the barony of
Lower Ormond, Co. Tipperary

Tir-dl\.-Locha in Connacht between
Lough Co, rib and Lough Lurgan,
0110111.: 5104, Tlr da Lach:\ 5135
Tochar Inblr M61r at Arklow, in Ui
Enechglais Cuahnd :lSI, 1039, 2572,
Tracdal ThraCts, Origg. Ix. 2, 82:
125, Traig 2541, Traic, 31,
Troe r. Troy, n.l. rotoglad in
1123, 442; g.l. dtogail Troe
'l'r.olannal Troiall;, Origg. ix. 2, 67 :
225, Tragianda 2541, Troian, .-hII.
3.1, 49, Troia 55. 31
Tuath D6 Danand Ilu Irilu(s) 01
D,"III's I:ods, an invasion of Ireland
after the Firbolgl, iar Tuathaib d.d.
1496, marren re Tuaith d.d. 2138, la
Tuaith d.a. 4557
Ucca lL plain in the south-west of
Egypt, I mmnigh Ucca 17, Uga
2301, mag n-Ucna 154
VI Eneobglal8 Oualn.nd . in the
barony o( Arklo\V, Co. Wicklow
.030, 3986 .
t71s1u f. g.s. V;m", a' river iri Mag
. Uatha 5686
tl1snecb Usnag", Usna, a hill in
the p:uiah of Conr)', barony of
Rnthconrath, Co. WCt'tmcllth, K. I
Abotb lOll of A0,., ./HII. 30: 38: g.
Abodh 1804, Abostb 2468
Abram A6,.am, Abraim .i slol Apra.
haim 2504
Achab A ha6, Origg.' vii. 6, 78: tho
eponym' of the letter a 247, Acap
Adam Adam. g.a. 39, 15. 136 143,
152, 2323, 2385, 2432
Adamnan SI., son of Rondn ami
RJlIlIal: nilllh 06601 of III 5794
Adna mao Uthldlr, LL. 18611,
RC. xxvi. 8, a chiifpOtl to Conchubar
mac Nessa. Adna 1968
Aed SI. oj FUlls 5796
JEd Aedan mac Gabhrain. Ki"K of
Scolltllld, A.V. 589: g.s. IEda fri
hinedn Aodha mit Gaphrain 3186
JEd A1l1g ""illKoj Inlalltl t879, A.V.
JEneas if TI'()Y 1125, Ioias 04043
JEngus Oengus son of
Ocngoba, aUlhor 0/ Iht 1'''Ilirt, g.s.
Oengusa epscoip hui Oibleain, FtI.'J,
5196, Oengus mac Oiblen 5191
Atrrim the epon}'m of Ihe diphthong
ae 248, Afrim 2563
Agnomo.n SOli' of 7'01, 3", 37 :
Etheoir mic Agno[ma]in 183, 2519,
209, mic Agnumain '1050, Agn:unain
2466, Aghnomain 4005, Aghnoumain
415 1
AgomoUs SOli of Frollosis 132,
Agarnolis 241 J
Alngenjalhtr ojGotdtl, Gaedhel mac
Agnon no Aingin 209, mac Aingen
8G8 ,
10204, Alngln 3979, 04002,04, 1052,
4965, Goedel mac Angelo 1048,
1764, 252 3, Angin 1049
Alnmerl King of ITtlal/(l, at Oruim-
Ceta, A.V. 574: g.s. mic Ainmirech
Alscneous Ashehmax
Amalrgen Conal! mac Amirgin (i.e.
Conal Cernach) 5266, Goedel mac
Aimergin (i.e. mac Aingi1l) 151
Amo.lrgen mao Naende ml0
Nenuo.U 1025, Aimergin mac Noine
meic Nionllail 3980
Amalrgeln Glungeal SOli (1/ Alii
1028, Amairgein Glungeal mac
Miled 1031, Aimergin Gluingeal
2572, 3984, Amairgin mac 1\1iled
252. CZ. iii. 16
Aor SOli oj ..Ira, Aur, 30, 38:
g.s. Aoir 2468, Aoi 184
Ara SOli of lara, 30, 38: I R5
Arfaxat ,Irphtl.\'(ll, Origg. ix. 2, 5:
120, 1253. Arafaut 2399,
Gen. x. 22
Assur a builJer of Babel, SOli ojSIUIII,
Origg. ix. 2, 45: Assur 127, mic
Assuir 133, Oleic Asuir 2412, Asur
2406. Asshur builded Nineveh,
Rehoboth, and Calah, Gen. x. II
Aurthecht SOI/ of Eilltchl, .1,:11. 30,
38: t"'. Aurlecht 184, VrleC'hta 20467 SOli of Alagog, Fenius mac Baath
Ba.bel the eponym of the: letter b 245,
. Baracham a Scythian Greek, great
grandrather of Goedel, mic Darachaim
19, 202, Daraehain 23"3, 2325, 25 16
Bardanlus a builder of J28,
Bel son oj P/(I$( 13 (
Bellat wife of Fenius Farsaid, mother
of Nel801 , 3618 SO" oj Riajallr, 30,
39: g.s. Doath 185. Baith a469
Bodbus a builder of Babel 127,
Bonb, Danb son of Shtm, Bodb, /11.
30, 37: g.a. Doinb 183: v. Pclm
Bran 5730, 5865
Br(lnalnd St. 5793
Bros mao Elo.tho.n rig Brenn King
or the Tuath De Danann, n.s. 5469,
5<J-l3; d.s. 5468 j g.s. I n-aimair
Brese 5467
Brlan 979,1381, hui Driain 3834
Brl\1crlu Drieri mac Carbri In
hilteanga, CZ. iii. 16: g... Driccrenn
Brlttus a builder of Babel 127, Britus
240 7
Buodaoh 3222
Oal da.lta. Fenlusa-
232, 2547, Cre 1109, do Cnd C.
.PH, 1024, 398o: the eponym of
the letter 0 246, Cninnen 2561
Oam Ham, Gen. x. I.: Cham, Origg.
ix. 2,13: g.s. Caimh 106, 12 52,
Cairn 2386, 4029 . 3222, Ceallach 3698, 5826,
.. 5923, dim. 711
Oellach Oorraoh If /,otl 5118
Oendfaelad lire aUlhor o/tht Aura;,tp'
80, Ccndfaolad Z358,75, 3982, eeann.
faclad 96, CeandCrelad 1026 i g.s. i
dnd Chindfaelad 72,7, Cindraclndh
67,9 i d.8. do Cendraeladh 70, i
Cinn(nolidh rode Oilella 2620.
t679. Ir. Altlr.
Oenn G60tUn hrad, a byname of
KillC of .1Iul1flt,., deposed
by Cor.mac mac CuilcnQAio, "'.U.
901, vol. iv. p.c. (5): /,.. T. iii.
10lU I V.I. at Cingugnn 710
01artin SI., at601 oj Clo;'u1<lo,ois,
Quiaran 5794, comarba cathrach
Ciarain 5z68
01naotha. (?) Cinlied ua lJartacain
t975. 3983
Oloth[g]na mao Oengusa primfhili
]::renn, /,otl oj Il'tlaml t 1009,
, Ir. /lid,.. 5331
Ond.mlne 5327
Oolum SI. Colum Cille 3185,
5380, 592 3, Coluim eaid 866, 3601, .
i CoJun. 5144, i Cholaim Cille 4531
Coluim Cille 938, 1228, cill Choluim
hui Neill 5132
Oona1l, Tuthal hua Chonaill
Oonchobo.r mao Nessa };i"K oj
Vlsltl' 7J6, i n-aimsir Conchubair
mcic Nessa 2637, Concarair meic
Neusa 3494
Oongal Olaon, of the royal Iille of
the Cruithni of 0:11 Araidi, cr. Skene,
Cdl. Srol. i. 198, 248, for Conghal
73, 2628
Oonslnslus,Oonsentlus Gramml11i.
eus lali"us 3240
Ooro SOI/ ofl/ll:/u'dh, "': (lj.llll1lsltr 5231
Oormao dona Cnoib Segsa 5317
Oormac mao Oulennaln /,od, Msli(l/"
""illg of Cash" t908. SI82,6, 159
Orist Chrisl 3870
Oronan SI. 5794
Orutene Crilillifi'i. ez. iii. 16: g.s.
Cruteni 5839
Od Echtge i crub Con Erhtga 5398
OulUbn.<1h 5923 cr. Colabot, Coilla
hot-as, Celibatt-ignl, I,.. E/'. ii. 75,
78, 81
Ouls (iiSh, Gen. x. 6: Chua, Otigg.
ix. 2, 10, I]: mic Cuis 106, 1119,
u52, 2386, 4019
Do.bbld David, the eponym of the
lelter d 246, 2S61
Damlne ,Ii",. oj Damianua, Dilimine,
53 29, Ftl.
P. 7o: but also an Irish
name, e.g. A.lJ. 785; 869
Dana f. g.a. Danonn, Oolnand, v. TU:lth
Dd Danand
, - r
Dedu eponym of Ogham, g.,. Ogam
Dedad 6057.
. Delbaeth SO" 01 ElalAa, brother of
Brei and Ogma, mic Delb:eith
Deus 704. 3350
Domnall grrmdso" 01 A illmire. the
hero or the b:\ttle o( Magh Rath,
A.V. 641.: g.,. Domnaill 69, 2624,
2643, Jo dcrnaind Domn till 5165,
5239 i d.s. re nDomnal1 73. 262l:S .
Domnall ua Aoda a scri/Jt who 1(Orolt
E!!. 4206
Donatus Grallll1lal;CUS 1111;IIU1 364,
462.476,1410. 2H2, 2943,4513
DonnAn SI., O/l!:tK 5794
Donnchad SOli 0./ D01ll11II II, 1\ ing of
Ireland, A.V. 797. 3199, 220Z.4
DUbdlo.d Duh Diad, SOli of Dalllllll.
MR. 282 n., Dubhdhdh 76. Duip
DUbthaoh 5388 \'. Ferglls
Ealba dtlU.t:hltr o./Idad IJr Fir/ad 561,
Elpa ingine Fidaidh 3156
Eber 1.1: Illbtr fltOrtlti, Origg. iKe 2,
38: a builder of nJb('l, Eber 126,
2... 5, 2499, Eper mac S:dle 11'6,
1249. 4027, Eiber 2406, Eimer
JDgbreo hul Brlaln 3834
Elatha. lil/lur of Bru, g.s. Elathan
5467.9, 594-3
Eogan SOIl oj g.s. Rogain
182,2465,2529. Eogein 212
l!l61n lIlt a/oslle john im feil Eoin
Erem6n SOli 0/ Jlil, Ogam Erimoin
Eremon, 29, 32
SI., llishO;. Gor. 5796
Esru SOli of BOlllh, noad, .-RII. 30, 39:
g.a. Earu 185,2469, Eusru "IS0
Elisu r.s'lII, the eponym of lhe letter e
247, Est. 2563. PH. 8400
Etlln inRen Dencecht in banlili, Eftlll,
d '/ /JitlllachI,/lu lotllsr, ez. iii. 16:
Etain g. Elnae, RC. xii. 126: Etain
Ethecht:soll 01 A llrllllchl, .--EII. 30, 38 :
g.s. 184, Riteachta 24j7
JDther Jon of AJ:7l01ll{l1l, Fether .//:'11.
30. 37: Etheoir 19. 40, 183,
20J, 213, 1023, 151,2, 1103. 3979,
Eitl'eoir 1108, 2515, 4137, Eilhiuir
2303,232), 2529. 296:1, 2998, 4008.
Ethiuir 2522
B1thlu v. Lug'
lIJthroolus the eponym o( the diph-
thong eo. 24S, Etroichiua 2562
l"0.111eo Pdtg, a llui/dtr oj Baht/,
Fallec 119. 130, Faillec 123.6, 2399,
2403.5,9,2414.5. Faillcch
g.s. ruin I 117 v. Lalin
Penlus Parsaldh SOli 01 Bat/lit.
o/:all, or Giulljilll/, Fcnius 166,9.
174.7, 187, 1102, Jo F. 516, 1:1
Fenius 2266, 2312i g.8. Feniusa
100, 180, 203, 84, t069. 5503 j a.a.
22 : Farsaidh Z12. 1162. 2350, 2465,
2547, 3978. 42 .. , Farsaigh 82,
Farrsaid 16o, 18o, 1023. 1035.9,
4963,9. FaTllaiJ [rhariscc], PlI. p,
J'er Muman Lail{tIlch Jili .l/III1/U tidl.
CZ. iii. 16: Muille ecip, II'. 7: iii,
66.20): Jr. JIIt/r. 5145. 5150. 5287,'
5293: iar nAuraiccept MUIllQII 1366,
Ferchertne pOll, alllhlJr of AIIraicep/,
contemporary of Conc" mac
735,7, 1025, 2! )3,5,
3981,61(' ,. 6127
Fergus Dubthaoh (tlr Cenn(ada)
Stili 01COilaII Guillall, A. U. 586. 5386,
1\ llelidin sillabacda. gossa fer i Fer-
gossa 5314. Duuthach may rder to
another person
:P'ldad 3156 v. ldad
:P'lnd6n SI. 5793
1l'lngen mao Plalnd /,od, l10ruit
circa 850. Ir .Iltlr. 5246,9
Flnn CJmmil/ UII IJdircm (1). 3rd
cent., Jr. ,I/tIr. 5830,6, 6093, Fege
Find 6102
lI'land Flallll. Fland Floind 3750,
Fl:md Flaind 7950 871.5, 883, 3612,
376', a Fhlaind 868, 3604.'.
Flann 3222, 3698 .
! .
P'land mac LonAln d'Va (?) Delbna
qf lIlt ro)'ol upl Vi Fiachr:lch Aidni
5102, mac l.onain i nduain Dclnina
5133. 5281, 5326, a Fhtaind
Acha 5176. (Mac
t918. Ir. ,lItlr.
P'orn.lnd rhartloh, the eponym of
the letter t 245, 1768, 2560, V.
Fronosls SOlI 01 Gillis 132.2412
Ondmer 2562 V. Gotli a Imilt/tr oj Balld 128, Garad
Gemmlin SI., nGeman 5795
Germanus a IIl1ilrltr of Bab" 128,
GltUs SOli (II nrisl32. 24 12
Glurgu8 SI. Giurgu 5795
Glo.s Goedel Glas. so', oj NIl 25 18,
2523, 2998
Glunftnd .(on 0/ lamji"d.1':/1. 30, 37 :
182, 2466, 25 1Q. 4005
Goedel t!J/I1Iym of Goulic, Goedeal 202,
Gaoidel2288, Gi'Cdea115, mac Aingin
205. Gaedel 43. Gaedheal 204, lasin
nGaidc1 S22, 646, 672 675 979, 9
1083, 4078. Gredel mac Aimergin
1051, Gredel mac Etheoir 18,213.
Gomer WI of Inplltllt, Origg. ix. 2,
26: Gen. x. 2: 4034 i Gomer
186, Goimeir 2469, Goimer 4148
GomerB the eponym of the Ogham
Jetter ng 247, nGomer 2562
Gothlus a I",iltltr of Baliel, Golius 128
GotH the eponym or the letter g 247,
Gadmer 2562
GrecuB, Gregus S01l of Gomtr 1117,
427, Grecua 1250, 4037, Greccu9
"031, 4(4
BlerOnymus.StJ,rome 179, Clrine, E.
Blruad He,'od, the eponym of the
ietter h 246, 2561
Iaohlm the eponym of the letter 1 24
l;llchim 2563
lafeth I(//,Ilfllt, Gen. x. I : Origg. ix.
2, 26: 2484, 176, mic lafeth 181,6,
meic laffcilh 2470, 2,.88, oc lafeth
179. ag lcffeth 2486
10.1' mao Noma 8J. 212, 1103, 2360,
2529. co Iar 1107.4141
lara .wn (II Sru, ..1:11. 30. 38,9: 185
Ibllth a IIl/ild,,' (1/ Btllltl 127, Ybath
Ido.dfillhtr of Enilla, g.B. Idaidh 561 ,
Fidaidh 31 S6
nand ORham ebadach lIaind 5853
Indlurnn a rit',r-/,0015686
101b /01'(' 3534
JIlfJtlIl, SOli 01Jap";'A, Gen. x. 2 i
ix. 2, 28: 176, 2483
Ir SOli oj tIIil 3987
ite f. SI. 5796
ludonlus eponym of the diphthong 10
RaHap Calt", the eponym of the letter
q 246, Calebh 2561. Caleph,Origg.
vii. 6, 52
Labrald 5730, 5866
Lamfiach lamtch, rather of NO:lh.
Lamiach, 31, 52: g.s. Laim-
fiach 2470
Lamftnd son of IIur, "mi. 30, 37:
g.s. Laimrmd 182. 25'9. 4005. Lam-
find 2466
SI 5793
Lo.Un SO" of Fml1/us, mae ruin 3S6
II 17, 1124,6.7. 1250. 2723, 4
40H, do chloind Laitin 8o:!, 361 9
LIJ.tlnus a builder of Dabel, Origg. ix.
2. 84: 126, 2406
Laulna lilflinia, daughter of Lntinus
1 us. 40 45
Leser son 0./ Stilt, g.s. Le5er 2468
Liadaln /I pOflns, ban-ceca di Chorco
Duibne. 7th cent.. lr: Mtlr. 5139
x.,ont.t.n (ather of Fland q.v.
Longbo.rdu8 a builder of Babel 127,
Lond),'! rd 2407
Loro LOeguire Lore, son of CKa{1I'
.vdr, of Ireland 5231
Loro Luooha hlJgbl10 hut Jh1aln
josl,r,r 0/ Mid, 3834
Loth lOl, the eponym or the letter I,
Grigg. I,. 6, 9: 245, 2560
Lug mao Elthlend Ki"K cJj /hI
Tuath De Dan:md 2803, 4258, mac
Etlenn 5484. Ethlenn 1162
Lugald SOli of ltJ,cain (1); FM. 478,9 :
Lugaidh 5231
Mli,o Dd. Oerda mao Malleoohtralg
D1nertalg a potl, 7th cent.,
II' ... 4533, 5117: Mac Da
Cerd 1223, Da Cherda 5108
Tam:"l n-aire amal dorignl Mac
D:( Ccrt:l, DB. 299 {J. 8. Possibly
a late development or moccu Cherda,
or the Cerdraige (u!ed 8S nom.);
Maccu-Iasrius, Lasr(an, God.
6l n. ;
Dil mac Da Crecc= Dil moccu
of the Creccraige, LL. 290 33 i d.
Enll iii. 42
Mao Fhlrblseaeh Mac Fir Disig, SO"
0/ mllll oj I,ap ylllr, probably born
29th Feb, lupplied MSS. to FM.
Mao lnd 010 (Ind 00, Recording to
Stokes, SO" of lIlt two younC Ollts)
SO" of /h, Valda, eponym
or Ogham, briathairogOlm mic Ind Oie
561 5. Alltc. iii. 44,7: RC. xii. 127;
xxvi. 31 : PI.
Mno Len1n tI )011, Colman Lenlne
t604, IrtI,I,.. 5315, Mac Lenin
Mnelcalnnlg hua Tolalg 1 mao
Ll\1rl Ld.ldlg a potl 5181
Mnelrunnald 5240, M;clruanllid mic
Flaind 5243: three princes so named,
all or 'Olh ccnt.
Mneiruis (?) 5820
SO" of fapn,ln, Gen. x. 2:
(higg. ix. 2. 27: Magogh 181,
Maghach 2488
Mnlsse .lIous, do l\faissi 119, Maiai
4143 i g.a. Moysi, Origg. "ii. 6.
Manehan SI., of lia/n 5795
Md.r SO" 0/ ElnulJl 184, 2467
Mal'S 'Mars 3533
Meuroulr i1ltrtMn'MI 3534 .
Mlde SOIl of tit, Sun 3836. Ole.lle/.Il.
19', 226
MtJed Mil or Jlil,siMs, Mil, d-,'II. 29,
32: mac Milcd 252, 1031, mle Miled
1032, 398S, iar Macalb Miled 1495,
4554, Ir mac Miled 3987
MIUuo g. taistel Milcon mlc Ollcon
ld6eltulle a /Jotl, ua DurcMin, 8th
ccnt., Ir. AI,lr. 5122
Mornnn mao Main ;111 oc4moir, /hI
0KI"'11IisI, CZ. iii. 15:
judge of Coirp,e Cinn CZ.
iii. 16: n... Morand 5530 j g.8.
briatharogam Moraind 5528, 561 4 '
Mulrlath Alarllta (?), the epon}'m or
the letter m 246, Morcth 2561.
Origg. vii. 10, 3
Murchertaeh rlnbnoh 0 OulndUs
lIlt s(r;6, ojll" Dook of Lecan versioll,
who wrote for Mac Firbis: :1257
Nabgadon a huilder
or Dabel, eponym of the letter n
24S, 256o, Nabgaton 2406, Nahgodon
Naende SOli of Nelllllli 1025, Noine
Nilde SOli of /ht /,od, AdJla, g Neidhi
3793. mac Ado.t: mac Guth:lir,
300, 698: LL. 38"40, ,P,6
Nill son O/I'tllius, no Nin 1767. 4050,
4969, Gaoidel Gills mac Niuil 25 33,
mathair Niuil 801,3618
Nemruad Nimrod, a builder or Dabel,
Nembroth filius Chu!l, Origg. xv.
5. 6,112, 126,9, 134,239'.
2406, 4029; g:s. Neamruaid 104,
261, 1036, 2321, 2451
Nenunl laM,r of A'oi"" g.s. Nen1l3i1
1025, Nionuail 3980, cr. 30,
Neas 1JI0llter 0/ Co"cno6(1r q.\'.
Neaad.n SI., Nesan 5793
Nln son 01 Btl 108, 131, 1120,2, Nin
mac Peil 2387, 241 I, Nion meic Peil
N6e Noah, Gen. x. I: Origg. vii. 6,
15: mic Noc 107, 120, 133, 186,
1252, sil Nee 188, Nai 2386, 2400,
meic Naei 2413. meic Naoi 2416,
Nolne SOli of A','o"Nal 3980
Oengus mno Domnn1ll 5156: A.U.
650: his (ather, Domnall mac Aeda,
and his son, Loingsech, were kings,
or Ireland
Oenu (maccu Ln.lgsl) SI., Abbot
or Clonmacnois, Oena 5796. lis11I.
Ogma mnc Enlathan mele Deal-
phalth tlrt ;111"""",. 0/ Ogham 2810,
54689. 5478,81, Athair ogaim Ogoma
2813, onni is Ogmu 2790. Cz.
iii. If): RC. xii. 128
Ogrlcus (?) 2840
OUUlJillhfr 0/ Cmnjiul(1d, Cindfaeladh
mie Oilella 67, 71, 2621, 264-1,
,\ilella 2625, 2639
Olse f!oua, eponym or the Jctter
247, O!e 2562. Ozee, Origg. vii. 8,
10: Osse, PH. 3660
Onchu filthtr 0/ .Ilillllc, mac Oncon
5291,7. h'tlllhfl Colm. *65
Ordlnes the eponym or the diphthong
01 248, Ordinos 2563 '
Pa.m JOII 01 Smra, mcic Aghnoumain
meic Paim meic Scura meic Sru 7r1.
4151. Probably the E:lme as Danb,
Partolon mac Sdnlrn melo Seura
melo Sru Partalon 4149, Bartholo-
meus . Syrum est, non Hebraeum,
Orig-g. vii. 9. 16
Patralo Plilricills 88?, Bhatra:g
4335, Batraig 1270.2, Phntal.
4330,7, Patraie 3610, Patroig 3;",
Pice Pims, SOil 0/ Salllrn 2723
Plato 3807
Plosc ,if/II of PllIliris, CC.: g.s. Ploisc
31, 2411
PluUr18 SOIt D/ Agomolis 132, Piliris
, 2411
PompelU8 G,ammnliclIs lalinMS'.323S
Prlaclanus vmmmllliClIS lalillus 360.
454,7, 470, 589, 2917, 2936, 2937,
3141, Prcsccns 85, Prisianus 2738,
2745. Presens 4350
Puln Fauni 1117 \'. latin
Qu1nran 5794 v. Ciar&n
QUiD 2386 v. Cuis
Ragnu SOil oj .., rfil,rtll 1252, 120,
Reg-ua 2399, 2414. lk. iii.
35, ror Reu, 600 or Pelcg, Gen. xi. 18
Rechtgnl hua Rln.daU a pOtl, 7th
cent., {r. ,J1f1r. 515S, 5161
Rlabad Scot S(", 0/ G011llr, a builder
of Babel, Gen. x. 3 : Origg. ix. 2, 33 :
Rirad,_-;':11.30, 39: 126,1118, Ria-
bath Scot 125 I, Riarath 186, Ribat
2406. SCOtlt 429, 2469,
{{Hath 04034 ,
RochemhurcoB /alhu If Sa,nlllJ 40,
Ruicimorctls 2324, 2331
Rolgne Roscndl\ch a potl, mac
Ugaille I\fl>ir, Cl. iii. 16: 6098
RUadli.n, R6dan SI. abbot o( Lothra
Ruben Rm!Jm, .the eponym or the
letter r 247, 2562
Snchab SO" 0/ RlIclumhurros 39, SaC<lp
mac Ruicimorcus 2324, 2331
Salle SOil 0/ A rfha,ral, Salah, Gen. xi. -
12: Sale, Origg. IX. 2, 5: g.s. Saile
II 16. 1250,241S '
Saltath the epvn)'m o( the letter 8
2560 '
Sardnln a builder of Babel 128, 2408
Satarn Salurnus 3535
Sclthlu8 a builder or Babel 128,
Sgoithus 2407, SgitheJ::dha 187'
Scota r. (1/ Phll1'/lllh, King of
Egoypt, n.s. Sgouta jng-en Fouraind ri
. Eigipti 4048, 40)6,4970 i a.s. Scotai
1768, Sg-ota 4061 '
80m Slum, Gen. x. I: 130, mic Scmh
133, J 83, Seimh 2414; mie Scim 1252,
S"mar SO" 0/ .IUr, Scm Mair, ./1:://.
30, 37 : g.s. Semair 2467 '
, i
I \,' I t', \
I I I \ I \' I I
86th ION 01 A'/"11, .:IW. 3t, H:
8eura 10" of SJ"ir", Seura 4150
81nohell SI, 5793
80lamh 0 Droma a "rib, 22 56, v.
/rM, ,.,,:". xviii.
8trl\nnn.n SI. 5795
8trd the eponym of the Ictter
stl' to MacNeill, origin-
ally IB, became It by metathclil.
or tB) 247. 256J, Sru, 1011 of HIYII,
.1'.'11, 30, 39: lara mlc Sru 185,2469,
8ulbne Gent mild SlIi6/1" I.T.S. xii.
p. xxx.: Suibni I ngenltacht 74,
Suil'hno Gcilt 2628
Talamon the eponym of tho letter t
246, Taillmon 2S61
'1'lgernaoh 05'1., In'slllJ; of C/UIl;11 EII;s
'1'lras Sll. til AsmT, g... Tirll mle
Auulr 132. Tiral, Ion or Gomer,
Gell. x. 2
Tlaohtga na nUath dllllgltltr of Iltt
Ard"Tuiti Mogh Ruith, MS 1/(/11.
42: Eel. Di""s. 73: S2H, taebogam
lhchtga 6080
Toe Jilli eV h'1I11b, of Bllrlle'llellll, Till
(lilac) Bodh, .R/I. 30, 37 I 20l; g.lI.
183. Toe 19. Thoe 40, Tol 2466, Tnl .
2303,2325, Tao1 2 51S
Togarma SUit IJj'(;lJm,,., Gen. x. 3: 4035
TrOH Jem e!/ ,-I.uIII, 1:'.11. Trol. 24 U
'.l'utu.(l}n68 1vllllluJ, g. rlgh In do-
main J 122, 4042, conru.ed with the
Titunf'l 0), Tanl. metropoll. 1F.R'yptl
ubi Phnrllo fult. et MOYltl cunl'ta
ligna fecit quae In Bxado sC'ribun-
tur. lJanc construxlese perhibentur
Titnnu.ld Cit, J.{igantel, et ex nomine
1110 nUIlt:llp:",c:runt, Oril{g. xv. I,
Tllthlll .j. Titan 1 grilln, II . 18 :
lind Tcutamul, Rex AlIlIyriorum xxvi.,
Euuln' C;'I'I.I1I, .. Tllutaucl, rex mundi,
Cl. x. 87
TuUml hun. Ohonn.l11 lil"lltalrll/ll,II'"
Cilll'llll, I.t. abuot of Clollmaclloilc,
A.U. 970: 5265
Ua Brul0 338J. 3391, hish C;r,,,u-
Un. Oolndi 3383. Irish Crl"'",'III'ill"
bUa Oolrl11 3383, A.U. 1084, /ris;'
Ua Find ou Find :;391, Irisll Gram-
Ua MaoUohonalre mmlliJ,,,d Ay Ih,
w ilit t!/ Eg. (FM. 1487), di ollomaill
o Mnokhonaire 4208
Uenir I'mlls 3535
UlmellouB eponymof tho diphthong
ul )umclcus 2563
UlrgUuB, Ulrgllor, Ulrglls1umu"
Ultn.n SI. 5796
Urard ma.o Oolsl "'''if;/Jel
Airard mac Coissi prhnccell
'1990 A.U.:
Ul'lth Uri"h, thc l'ponym of tho lettcl'
U 247, Uri.L1h 25b:z
Urtecht 2.. 67 v. AUilhecht