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Chemical Compounds

By: Ruth Anne Abalos


There are five (5) classes of chemical compounds; it is shown in the following chart.

Ionic Compound
Binary Ionic Ternary Ionic

Molecular Compound
Binary Molecular

Aqueous Acid
Binary Acid Ternary Oxyacid

Ionic Compounds As you can see, it has 2 types; the binary ionic and the ternary ionic. An ionic compound is a combination of a metal and a nonmetal if it is binary ionic, and a metal and a polyatomic ion if it is ternary ionic. It contains ions and is held together by the attractive forces among the oppositely charged ions. Binary Ionic It is composed of 2 elements, a metal and nonmetal. Common compounds are sodium chloride, ferrous oxide, calcium carbide, and etcetera. Example: metal Na+1 NaCl Sodium chloride Cl-1 chemical formula nonmetal

Identify the metal and nonmetal, then write the symbols and their charges, use the criss-cross method, since their charges are both 2, cancel it. We cancel the same charges. Ternary Ionic It is composed of an element and a polyatomic ion. Common compounds are calcium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydroxide, and others. Example:

metal Na+1

Sodium bicarbonate

polyatomic ion HCO3-1

NaHCO3

chemical formula

Like what we did in the binary ionic example, identify the metal and nonmetal, then write the symbols and their charges, use the criss-cross method, their charges are both 1, cancel it, and it is also 1, it is understood if you dont write that on the formula. Suppose the charge of HCO3 is -2, you will not write NaHCO32, its wrong, if it is taken more than once, you should use parentheses. The correct formula for that, if the charge is -2 is Na(HCO3)2. Molecular Compounds Molecular compounds contain discrete molecules, which are held together by sharing electrons (covalent bonding). It has only one type, the binary molecular, its easy because it is just a combination of a metal and a nonmetal. Binary Molecular It is a combination of a metal and a nonmetal. We use the prefixes di which means 2, tri (3), quad (4), penta (5), and etcetera. We will discuss it later in the example. Common examples are carbon dioxide, nitrogen trihydride, sulfur trioxide, and others. Example: Carbon dioxide C+4 CO2 both nonmetals O-2 chemical formula

You are wondering why the formula is CO2, not C2O4. It is because, we reduced into lowest terms the charges, and it can be reduced by dividing the higher charge into the lower charge. We used the term dioxide because the subscript of Oxygen is 2, which is di. For example, we have 5 on the subscript of Oxygen, we will use pentoxide not pentaoxide, well omit the letter a. Aqueous Acid It is compounds that ALWAYS contain hydrogen in its chemical formula. It is a combination of a Hydrogen atom and a nonmetal (binary) and a Hydrogen atom, Oxygen atom, and a nonmetal (ternary). It is based on reactivity, specifically, the types of chemical reactions that the compounds are likely to undergo.

Binary Acid It is a combination of a Hydrogen atom and a nonmetal. Common examples are hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrobromic acid, and etcetera. Look closely at the examples, because the naming of it will confuse you. Example: H-1 HCl(aq) Hydrochloric acid The naming is like this: Hydro + name of chemical element + ic + acid + (aq) Hydro + chlorine + ic + acid + (aq) Omit the ine of the element then add ic. Hydrochloric acid(aq) Ternary Oxyacid It is composed of a Hydrogen atom and a polyatomic ion that contains oxygen. Common examples are nitric acid, bromic acid, perchloric acid, and etcetera. Example: H-1 HNO3 Nitric acid NO3-1 elements Cl-1 elements chemical formula name of compound

chemical formula name of compound

It is not like the first one, we dont need to put the word hydro in the name of compound. It should be just like this: Name of polyatomic ion the ate or ite in its name + ic + acid + (aq) Nitrate - ate + ic + acid + (aq) Nitric acid(aq)