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The Development of Periodic Table

By: Jhan Warren Magno

Periodic table has been developed from the year that it was launch,many elements has been added to it. The Periodic Table is an arrangement of the chemical elements arranged in order of atomic number, usually in rows, so that elements with similar atomic structure appear in vertical columns. The history of the periodic table reflects over a century of growth in the understanding of chemical properties. The most important event in its history occurred in 1869, when the table was published by Dmitri Mendeleev, who built upon earlier discoveries by scientists such as Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier and John Newlands, but who is nevertheless generally given sole credit for its development. There are many people who contributed to the periodic table. First from ancient times, the Greek philosopher Aristotle proposed that everything is made up of a mixture of one or more roots, an idea that had originally been suggested by the Sicilian philosopher Empedocles. The four roots, which were later renamed as elements by Plato, were earth, water, air and fire. Next was Antoine-Laurent De Lavoisier, which was written in 1789 and first translated into English by the writer Robert Kerr, is considered to be the first modern textbook about chemistry. It contained a list of "simple substances" that Lavoisier believed could not be broken down further, which included oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, phosphorus, mercury, zinc andsulfur, which formed the basis for the modern list of elements. Lavoisier's list also included 'light' and 'caloric', which at the time were believed to be material substances. Lavoisier's descriptions of his elements lack completeness, as he only classified them as metals and non-metals. The development of the periodic did not stop until the 18TH century when Johann Wolfgang Dbereiner began to formulate one of the earliest attempts to classify the elements. In 1828, he found that he could form some of the elements into groups of three, with the members each of group having related properties. He termed these groups triads. Some of the triads that were classified by Dbereiner are: chlorine, bromine, and iodine, calcium, strontium, and barium, sulfur, selenium, and tellurium, lithium, sodium, and potassium . In all of the triads, the atomic weight of the middle element was almost exactly the average of the atomic weights of the other two elements. In 1865, the English chemist John Newlands classified the fifty-six known elements into eleven groups, based on their physical properties. The Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev was the first scientist to make

a periodic table similar to the one used today. Mendeleev arranged the elements by atomic mass, corresponding to relative molar mass. It is sometimes said that he played 'chemical solitaire' on long train journeys, using cards with various facts about the known elements. Unknown to Mendeleev, the German chemist Lothar Meyer was also working on a periodic table. Although his work was published in 1864, and was done independently of Mendeleev, few historians regard him as an equal co-creator of the periodic table. Meyer's table only included twenty-eight elements, which were not classified by atomic weight, but by valence and he never reached the idea of predicting new elements and correcting atomic weights. There are few development of to the periodic table on the 19 TH century. In 1914, the English physicist Henry Moseley found a relationship between the Xray wavelength of an element and its atomic number. He was then able to resequence the periodic table by nuclear charge, rather than by atomic weight. During his Manhattan Project research in 1943, Glenn T. Seaborg experienced unexpected difficulties in isolating the elements americium and curium. Seaborg wondered if these elements belonged to a different series, which would explain why their chemical properties were different from what was expected. In 1945, against the advice of colleagues, he proposed a significant change to Mendeleev's table: the actinide series. This is the way how the periodic table develops. Because of this great people who made contribution on periodic table. It enables students and chemists around the world to understand the complexity of reactions, identification of the elements they are dealing with and tell the properties of the elements they are using.