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CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

ANSWERS TO BAR EXAMINATION QUESTIONS


IN

CIVIL LAW
ARRANGED BY TOPIC
(1990

2006)

First Edition Edit!d "nd Arr"n#!d $%&

July 26, 2005

Atty. Janette Laggui-Icao and Atty. Alex Andrew P. Icao


(Silliman University College of Law) Latest Edition Edited and Arranged by:

ROMUA'(O ') SE*ERIS II


Silliman University College of Law

Fro+ t,! ANSWERS TO BAR EXAMINATION QUESTIONS $% t,! U- 'AW .OM-'EX / -,i0i11in! Asso2i"tion o3 '"4 S2,oo0s

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CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

!"WA"#
This work is not intended for sale or commerce. This work is freeware. It may be freely copied and distributed, nevertheless, PERMISSI ! T " P# from the editors is

$%&IS$'(E to protect the interest of the

RI)I!$( S *R"ES+RE,ERE!"ES of this

material-. It is primarily intended for all those who desire to have a deeper understandin. of the issues touched by the Philippine 'ar E/aminations and its trend. It is specially intended for law students from the provinces who, very often, are recipients of deliberately distorted notes from other unscrupulous law schools and students. Share to others this work and you will be richly rewarded by )od in heaven. It is also very .ood karma.

0e would like to seek the indul.ence of the reader for some 'ar 1uestions which are improperly classified under a topic and for some topics which are improperly or

i.norantly phrased, for the authors are 2ust 'ar Reviewees who have prepared this work while reviewin. for the 'ar E/ams under time constraints and within their limited knowled.e of the law. 0e would like to seek the reader3s indul.ence for a lot of

typo.raphical errors in this work.

The Authors

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CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

$able o% Contents
&E'E"AL P"I'CIPLE(......................................................................................................................10 Civil law vs. Common Law (1997).............................................................................................................. 10 Effect of Obiter & Dissenting Opinion; C Decisions (199!)...............................................................................10 Effectivit" of Laws (199#)........................................................................................................................10 E$%it" follows t&e Law ('##()...................................................................................................................10 )gnorance of t&e Law vs. *ista+e of ,act (199-).............................................................................................11 )nferior Co%rts Decisions (199!)................................................................................................................11 .re/%0icial 1%estions (1997)....................................................................................................................11 PE"(!'(...........................................................................................................................................11 C&ange of 2ame; 3n0er 45 9#!6 ('##-)......................................................................................................11 Deat&; Effects; im%ltaneo%s Deat& (1996)...................................................................................................12 Deat&; Effects; im%ltaneo%s Deat& (1999)...................................................................................................12 Deat&; Effects; im%ltaneo%s Deat& ('###)...................................................................................................12 7%ri0ical Capacit" vs. Capacit" to 5ct (199-)................................................................................................ 12 7%ri0ical Capacit"; 2at%ral .ersons (1999)...................................................................................................13 8aiver of 4ig&ts ('##!).......................................................................................................................... 13 C!' LIC$ ! LAW(..........................................................................................................................13 5ppilicable Laws; laws governing contracts (199').........................................................................................13 5pplicable Laws; 5rts 19: 1- & 17 (1996)..................................................................................................... 13 5pplicable Laws; 5rts 19: 1-: 17 ('##')....................................................................................................... 14 5pplicable Laws; Capacit" to 5ct (1996)......................................................................................................14 5pplicable Laws; Capacit" to ;%" Lan0 (1999).............................................................................................. 15 5pplicable Laws; Capacit" to Contract (1999)............................................................................................... 15 5pplicable Laws; capacit" to s%ccee0 (1991)................................................................................................15 5pplicable Laws; contracts contrar" to p%blic polic" (199-).............................................................................. 15 5pplicable Laws; Contracts of Carriage (1999).............................................................................................. 16 5pplicable Laws; Labor Contracts (1991).....................................................................................................16 5pplicable Laws; laws governing marriages (199').........................................................................................17 5pplicable Laws; laws governing marriages ('##().........................................................................................17 5pplicable Laws; ale of 4eal .ropert" (1999)............................................................................................17 5pplicable Laws; %ccession; )ntestate & <estamentar" ('##1)..........................................................................18 5pplicable Laws; %cession of 5liens (1999)................................................................................................18 5pplicable Laws; 8ills e=ec%te0 abroa0 (199()............................................................................................. 18 Definition; Cognovit; ;orrowing tat%te; C&aracteri>ation (199!)........................................................................18 Definition; for%m non?conveniens; long?arm stat%te (199!)............................................................................... 19 Divorce; effect of 0ivorce grante0 to former ,ilipinos; 4envoi Doctrine (1997) ........................................................ 19 Domiciliar" t&eor" vs. 2ationalit" <&eor" ('##!)............................................................................................ 19 ,or%m 2on Conveniens & Le= Loci Contract%s ('##')..................................................................................... 19 2ationalit" <&eor" ('##!)........................................................................................................................20 2at%rali>ation ('##()............................................................................................................................. 20 <&eor"; significant relations&ips t&eor" (199!)..............................................................................................20 <orts; .rescriptive .erio0 ('##!)...............................................................................................................21 A#!P$I!'......................................................................................................................................... 21 50option; 3se of %rname of &er 2at%ral *ot&er ('##-)...................................................................................21 )nter?Co%ntr" 50option; ,ormalities ('##9)...................................................................................................21 .arental 5%t&orit"; 4escission of 50option (199!)...................................................................................... 21 1%alification of 50opter ('##9)................................................................................................................. 22 1%alification of 50opter; 5pplicable Law ('##1).............................................................................................22 1%alifications of 50opter ('###)................................................................................................................22 1%alifications of 50opter ('##()................................................................................................................23 %ccessional 4ig&ts of 50opte0 C&il0 ('##!)................................................................................................23 A)IL* C!#E....................................................................................................................................23 Emancipation (199()............................................................................................................................ 23 ,amil" Co0e; 4etroactive 5pplication; @este0 4ig&ts ('###)..............................................................................24

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CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

*arriage; Bro%n0s; Declaration of 2%llit"C 5nn%lmentC Legal eparationC eparation of .ropert" ('##() ..................28 *arriage; Bro%n0s; 2%llit"; 5nn%lment; Legal eparation (1997)........................................................................ 29 *arriage; Legal eparation; Declaration of 2%llit" ('##')..................................................................................29 *arriage; Legal eparation; Bro%n0s; .rescriptive .erio0 (199!)........................................................................29 *arriage; Legal eparation; *%t%al g%ilt ('##-)............................................................................................. 29 *arriage; 2on?;igamo%s *arriages ('##-)...................................................................................................30 *arriage; .ropert" 4elations; @oi0 *arriages (1991).......................................................................................30 *arriage; .s"c&ological )ncapacit" (199-).................................................................................................30 *arriage; .s"c&ological )ncapacit" ('##-).................................................................................................31 *arriage; .s"c&ological )ncapacit" ('##-).................................................................................................31 *arriage; 4e$%isites (1999)................................................................................................................... 31 *arriage; 4e$%isites (1999)................................................................................................................... 32 *arriage; 4e$%isites; *arriage License (199-).............................................................................................. 32 *arriage; 4e$%isites; *arriage License ('##').............................................................................................. 33 *arriage; 4e$%isites; olemni>ing Officers (199!)..........................................................................................33 *arriage; 4e$%isites; @oi0 *arriage (199().................................................................................................. 33 *arriage; @oi0 *arriages ('##!)................................................................................................................34 *arriage; @oi0 *arriages ('##-)................................................................................................................34 *arriage; @oi0 *arriages; .s"c&ological )ncapacit" ('##')............................................................................... 35 .arental 5%t&orit"; C&il0 %n0er 7 "ears of age ('##-)......................................................................................35 .arental 5%t&orit"; pecial .arental 5%t&orit"; Liabilit" of <eac&ers ('##() ............................................................35 .arental 5%t&orit"; %bstit%te vs. pecial ('##!)............................................................................................35 .aternit" & ,iliation (1999)...................................................................................................................... 36 .aternit" & ,iliation; 5rtificial )nsemination; ,ormalities ('##-).......................................................................... 36 .aternit" & ,iliation; Common?Law 3nion ('##!)........................................................................................ 36 .aternit" & ,iliation; .roofs; Limitations; 50opte0 C&il0 (1999)......................................................................36 .aternit" & ,iliation; 4ecognition of illegitimate C&il0 ('##9) .............................................................................37 .aternit" & ,iliation; 4ig&ts of Legitimate C&il0ren (199#) ................................................................................ 37 .res%mptive Legitime (1999)....................................................................................................................38 .ropert" 4elations; 5bsol%te Comm%nit" (199!) ............................................................................................38 .ropert" 4elations; 5nte 2%ptial 5greement (1999)........................................................................................ 39 .ropert" 4elations; Con/%gal .artners&ip of Bains (1996).................................................................................39 .ropert" 4elations; *arriage ettlement; Con/%gal .artners&ip of Bains ('##9) ...................................................... 39 .ropert" 4elations; *arriage ettlements (1991)............................................................................................40 .ropert" 4elations; *arriage ettlements (1999)............................................................................................40 .ropert" 4elations; Obligations; ;enefit of t&e ,amil" ('###).........................................................................41 .ropert" 4elations; 3nions wit&o%t *arriage (199')........................................................................................41 .ropert" 4elations; 3nions wit&o%t *arriage (1997)........................................................................................41 .ropert" 4elations; 3nions wit&o%t *arriage ('###)........................................................................................42 (+CCE((I!'.....................................................................................................................................42 5mo%nt of %ccessional 4ig&ts ('##!)........................................................................................................42 ;arrier between illegitimate & legitimate relatives (199()..................................................................................42 ;arrier between illegitimate & legitimate relatives (199-)..................................................................................43 Collation (199()....................................................................................................................................43 Disin&eritance vs. .reterition (199()...........................................................................................................43 Disin&eritance; )neffective (1999).............................................................................................................. 43 Disin&eritance; )neffective; .reterition ('###)................................................................................................44

,amil" Aome; Dwelling Ao%se (199!)..........................................................................................................24 ,amil"; Constit%tional *an0ates; Divorce (1991)............................................................................................24 *arriage; 5nn%lment; Effects; 4e$%isites ;efore 4emarriage (199#) ....................................................................24 *arriage; 5nn%lment; Bro%n0s (1991)........................................................................................................ 25 *arriage; 5nn%lment; 7%0icial Declaration (199()...........................................................................................25 *arriage; 5nn%lment; Legal eparation; .rescription of 5ctions (199-) ................................................................25 *arriage; 5nn%lment; .roper .art" (199#)................................................................................................... 26 *arriage; 5nn%lment; .roper .art" (1999)................................................................................................... 26 *arriage; Divorce Decree; @oi0 *arriages (199')........................................................................................... 26 *arriage; Divorce Decrees; ,iliation of C&il0ren ('##9)....................................................................................26 *arriage; Divorce Decrees; ,ilipino po%ses becoming 5lien (199-) ................................................................... 27 *arriage; Divorce Decrees; ,ilipino po%ses becoming 5lien (1999) ................................................................... 27 *arriage; Donations b" 4eason of *arriage; Effect of Declaration of 2%llit" (199-) .................................................. 28

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CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

Legitime (1997)................................................................................................................................... 47 Legitime; Comp%lsor" Aeirs ('##()............................................................................................................47 Legitime; Comp%lsor" Aeirs vs. econ0ar" Comp%lsor" Aeirs ('##9)...................................................................48 .reterition ('##1)..................................................................................................................................48 .reterition; Comp%lsor" Aeir (1999)........................................................................................................... 48 .rocee0ings; )ntestate .rocee0ings; 7%ris0iction ('##!).................................................................................. 48 %ccession; Deat&; .res%mptive Legitime (1991)...........................................................................................49 8ills; Co0icil; )nstit%tion of Aeirs; %bstit%tion of Aeirs ('##')...........................................................................49 8ills; ,ormalities (199#)......................................................................................................................... 50 8ills; Aolograp&ic 8ills; )nsertions & Cancellations (199-)...............................................................................50 8ills; Aolograp&ic 8ills; 8itnesses (199!)...................................................................................................50 8ills; 7oint 8ills ('###).......................................................................................................................... 50 8ills; .robate; )ntrinsic @ali0it" (199#)........................................................................................................51 8ills; .robate; 2otarial an0 Aolograp&ic 8ills (1997)......................................................................................51 8ills; 4evocation of 8ills; Depen0ent 4elative 4evocation ('##().......................................................................51 8ills; <estamentar" Disposition ('##-)....................................................................................................... 52 8ills; <estamentar" )ntent (199-).............................................................................................................. 52 #!'A$I!'.........................................................................................................................................52 Donation vs. ale ('##().........................................................................................................................52 Donations; Con0ition; Capacit" to %e (199-)............................................................................................... 52 Donations; Con0itions; 4evocation (1991)................................................................................................... 53 Donations; Effect; illegal & immoral con0itions (1997)..................................................................................... 53 Donations; ,ormalities; *ortis Ca%sa (199#).................................................................................................54 Donations; ,ormalities; *ortis Ca%sa (1996).................................................................................................54 Donations; )nter @ivos; 5cceptance (199()...................................................................................................54 Donations; .erfection (1996)....................................................................................................................54 Donations; 4e$%isites; )mmovable .ropert".................................................................................................55 Donations; 3nregistere0; Effects; 2on?Compliance; 4esol%tor" Con0ition ('##-) ....................................................55 Donations; @ali0it"; Effectivit"; for 3nborn C&il0 (1999)............................................................................... 55 Donations; wit& 4esol%tor" Con0ition ('##()................................................................................................56 P"!PE"$*.........................................................................................................................................56 5ccretion; 5ll%vion ('##1).......................................................................................................................56 5ccretion; 5v%lsion ('##()...................................................................................................................... 56 ;%il0er; Boo0 ,ait& (199')...................................................................................................................... 57 ;%il0er; Boo0 ,ait& vs. ;a0 ,ait& (1999)..................................................................................................... 57 ;%il0er; Boo0 ,ait& vs. ;a0 ,ait& ('###)..................................................................................................... 57 ;%il0er; Boo0 ,ait& vs. ;a0 ,ait&; 5ccession ('###)....................................................................................... 58 ;%il0er; Boo0 ,ait& vs. ;a0 ,ait&; .res%mption ('##1).................................................................................... 58 C&attel *ortgage vs. .le0ge (1999)............................................................................................................58 C&attel *ortgage; )mmovables (199!).........................................................................................................59 C&attel *ortgage; )mmovables ('##().........................................................................................................59 C&attel *ortgage; .ossession (199()......................................................................................................... 60 C&attel *ortgage; .reference of Cre0itors (1999)........................................................................................... 60 Easement vs. 3s%fr%ct (1999)...................................................................................................................60 Easement; Effects; Discontin%o%s Easements; .ermissive 3se ('##9) ................................................................. 61 Easement; 2%isance; 5batement ('##')...................................................................................................... 61 Easements; Classification (1996)............................................................................................................ 62 Easements; 4ig&t of 8a" (199()............................................................................................................... 62 Easements; 4ig&t of 8a" ('###)............................................................................................................... 62 Easements; 4ig&t of 8a"; )nseparabilit" ('##1)............................................................................................. 62

Aeirs; )ntestate Aeirs; 4eserva <roncal (1999)...............................................................................................44 Aeirs; )ntestate Aeirs; &ares ('##().......................................................................................................... 45 )ntestate %ccession (199').....................................................................................................................45 )ntestate %ccession (1997).....................................................................................................................45 )ntestate %ccession (1996).....................................................................................................................46 )ntestate %ccession (1996).....................................................................................................................46 )ntestate %ccession (1999).....................................................................................................................46 )ntestate %ccession ('###).....................................................................................................................46 )ntestate %ccession; 4eserva <roncal (1999)...............................................................................................47

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CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

3s%fr%ct (1997)................................................................................................................................... 69 LA'# $"A'( E" , #EE#(...............................................................................................................69 5c$%isition of Lan0s; Citi>ens&ip 4e$%irement ('##()..................................................................................... 69 50verse Claims; 2otice of Lev" (1996)........................................................................................................69 5nnotation of Lis .en0ens; 8&en .roper ('##1)............................................................................................ 70 ,ores&ore Lan0s ('###)..........................................................................................................................70 ,orger"; )nnocent .%rc&aser; Aol0er in ;a0 ,ait& ('##9) ..................................................................................70 ,orger"; )nnocent .%rc&aser; *irror .rinciple (1991)................................................................................... 71 ,ra%0; .roc%rement of .atent; Effect ('###)................................................................................................. 71 Aomestea0 .atents; @oi0 ale (1999)......................................................................................................... 71 )nnocent .%rc&aser for @al%e ('##1)...........................................................................................................72 *irror .rinciple (199#)........................................................................................................................... 72 *irror .rinciple; ,orger"; )nnocent .%rc&aser (1999)...................................................................................... 73 2otice of Lis .en0ens (1999)................................................................................................................... 73 2otice of Lis .en0ens; <ransferee .en0ente Lite ('##')...................................................................................73 .rescription & Lac&es; Elements of Lac&es ('###)......................................................................................... 74 .rescription & Lac&es; )n0efeasibilit" 4%le of <orrens <itle ('##')...................................................................... 74 .rescription (199#)............................................................................................................................... 75 .rescription; 4eal 4ig&ts (199')................................................................................................................75 .rimar" Entr" ;oo+; 5c$%isitive .rescription; Lac&es (1996).........................................................................76 4eclamation of ,ores&ore Lan0s; Limitations ('###).......................................................................................76 4egistration; Dee0 of *ortgage (199!)........................................................................................................77 4eme0ies; 7%0icial Confirmation; )mperfect <itle (199()...................................................................................77 4eme0ies; 7%0icial 4econstit%tion of <itle (199-)...........................................................................................77 4eme0ies; .roce0%re; Cons%lta (199!)....................................................................................................... 77 4eme0ies; 4econve"ance vs. 4eopening of a Decree; .rescriptive .erio0 ('##() ...............................................78 4eme0ies; 4econve"ance; Elements (1999)................................................................................................. 78 4eme0ies; 4econve"ance; .rescriptive .erio0 (1997)..................................................................................... 79 4eme0ies; 4eopening of a Decree; Elements (199')....................................................................................... 79 <orrens "stem vs. 4ecor0ing of Evi0ence of <itle (199!) .................................................................................80 3nregistere0 Lan0 (1991)........................................................................................................................80 C!'$"AC$(......................................................................................................................................80 Consens%al vs. 4eal Contracts; Ein0s of 4eal Contracts (1996)......................................................................... 80 Consi0eration; @ali0it" ('###).................................................................................................................. 80 Contract of Option; Elements ('##9)...........................................................................................................81 )ne=istent Contracts vs. 5nn%llable Contracts ('##!)...................................................................................... 81 2at%re of Contracts; Obligatoriness (1991)...................................................................................................81 2at%re of Contracts; .rivit" of Contract (199-).............................................................................................. 82

Easements; 4ig&t of 8a"; 4e$%isites (199-).................................................................................................63 E/ectment %it vs. Cancellation of <itle ('##9)...............................................................................................63 E/ectment %it; Commo0at%m ('##-)..........................................................................................................63 E=tra?7%0icial .artition; ,ra%0 (199#)..........................................................................................................63 Ai00en <reas%re (1999).......................................................................................................................... 64 Ai00en <reas%res (1997).........................................................................................................................64 *ortgage; .act%m Commissori%m (1999).................................................................................................... 64 *ortgage; .act%m Commissori%m ('##1).................................................................................................... 65 *ortgage; 4ig&t of 4e0emption vs. E$%it" of 4e0emption (1999)........................................................................65 2%isance; ,amil" Ao%se; 2ot 2%isance per se ('##-)...................................................................................... 65 2%isance; .%blic 2%isance vs. .rivate 2%isance ('##9)................................................................................... 65 Owners&ip; Co?Owners&ip (199')..............................................................................................................66 Owners&ip; Co?Owners&ip; .rescription ('###)............................................................................................. 66 Owners&ip; Co?Owners&ip; .rescription ('##')............................................................................................. 67 Owners&ip; Co?Owners&ip; 4e0emption (199()............................................................................................. 67 Owners&ip; Co?Owners&ip; 4e0emption ('###)............................................................................................. 67 Owners&ip; Co?Owners&ip; 4e0emption ('##')............................................................................................. 67 .ossession (1996)................................................................................................................................ 68 .ropert"; 4eal vs. .ersonal .ropert" (1999)................................................................................................. 68 .ropert"; 4eal vs. .ersonal .ropert" (1997)................................................................................................. 68 ower; Boo0 ,ait&D ;a0 ,ait& ('###).......................................................................................................... 69

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CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

!-LI&A$I!'(....................................................................................................................................83 5leator" Contracts; Bambling ('##!)..........................................................................................................83 Con0itional Obligations ('###)................................................................................................................. 83 Con0itional Obligations ('##()................................................................................................................. 83 Con0itional Obligations; .romise (1997)..................................................................................................... 84 Con0itional Obligations; 4esol%tor" Con0ition (1999)..................................................................................... 84 E=ting%is&ment; 5ssignment of 4ig&ts ('##1)...............................................................................................84 E=ting%is&ment; Ca%se of 5ction ('##!)......................................................................................................85 E=ting%is&ment; Compensation ('##')........................................................................................................85 E=ting%is&ment; Compensation vs. .a"ment (1996)........................................................................................85 E=ting%is&ment; CompensationD et?Off; ;an+s (1996)................................................................................. 85 E=ting%is&ment; Con0onation ('###)..........................................................................................................85 E=ting%is&ment; E=traor0inar" )nflation or Deflation ('##1)...............................................................................86 E=ting%is&ment; Loss (199!)..................................................................................................................86 E=ting%is&ment; Loss; )mpossible ervice (199().......................................................................................... 86 E=ting%is&ment; 2ovation (199!).............................................................................................................. 87 E=ting%is&ment; .a"ment (1999).............................................................................................................87 Liabilit"; Lease; 7oint Liabilit" ('##1)..........................................................................................................87 Liabilit"; oli0ar" Liabilit" (1996).............................................................................................................. 87 Liabilit"; oli0ar" Obligation (199')........................................................................................................... 88 Liabilit"; oli0ar" Obligation; *%t%al B%arant" ('##() ..................................................................................... 88 Loss of t&e t&ing 0%e; ,orce *a/e%re ('###) ................................................................................................. 88 2on?.a"ment of 5morti>ations; %b0ivision ;%"er; 8&en /%stifie0 ('##9) .............................................................89 .erio0; %spensive .erio0 (1991)..............................................................................................................89 $"+($................................................................................................................................................89 E=press <r%st; .rescription (1997).............................................................................................................89 )mplie0 <r%st (1996).............................................................................................................................. 90 <r%st; )mplie0 4es%lting <r%st (1999)..........................................................................................................91 (ALE(................................................................................................................................................91 5ssignment of Cre0it vs. %brogation (199()................................................................................................ 91 Con0itional ale vs. 5bsol%te ale (1997).................................................................................................... 91 Contract of ale vs. 5genc" to ell (1999)....................................................................................................91 Contract of ale; *arital Comm%nit" .ropert"; ,ormalities ('##-)....................................................................... 91 Contract to ell ('##1)........................................................................................................................... 92 Contract to ell vs. Contract of ale (1997).................................................................................................. 92 Contract to ell; 5cceptance; 4ig&t of ,irst 4ef%sal (1991)............................................................................... 92 Do%ble ales ('##1).............................................................................................................................. 92 Do%ble ales ('##!).............................................................................................................................. 93 E$%itable *ortgage (1991)......................................................................................................................93 E$%itable *ortgage vs. ale ('##9)............................................................................................................ 93 )mmovable .ropert"; 4escission of Contract ('##()........................................................................................94 *ace0a Law ('###)............................................................................................................................... 94 *ace0a Law; 4ecto Law (1999).................................................................................................................95 Option Contract ('##')...........................................................................................................................95 Option Contract; Earnest *one" (199().................................................................................................... 95 .erfecte0 ale; 5cceptance of Earnest *one" ('##')...................................................................................... 95 4e0emption; Legal; ,ormalities ('##1)........................................................................................................96 4e0emption; Legal; ,ormalities ('##')........................................................................................................96 4ig&t of ,irst 4ef%sal; Lessee; Effect (199-)................................................................................................. 96 4ig&t of ,irst 4ef%sal; Lessee; Effect (1996)................................................................................................. 97 4ig&t of 4ep%rc&ase (199()..................................................................................................................... 97 <ransfer of Owners&ip; 2on?.a"ment of t&e .rice (1991) ..................................................................................97 <ransfer of Owners&ip; 4is+ of Loss (199#)..................................................................................................97 LEA(E................................................................................................................................................97 E=ting%is&ment; <otal Distr%ction; Lease0 .ropert" (199()...............................................................................97 )mplie0 2ew Lease (1999)....................................................................................................................... 98 Lease of 4%ral Lan0s ('###).................................................................................................................... 98

2at%re of Contracts; 4elativit" of Contracts ('##')......................................................................................... 82 4escission of Contracts; .roper .art" (199-)................................................................................................82

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CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

Leasee & Lessor; 4ig&ts an0 Obligations (199#)............................................................................................98 Leasee; Deat& <&ereof; Effects (1997).........................................................................................................98 Option to ;%"; E=pire0 ('##1).................................................................................................................. 98 %blease; Dela" in .a"ment of 4entals (199!)...............................................................................................99 %blease; %blessee; Liabilit" (1999)........................................................................................................100 %blease; %blessee; Liabilit" ('###)........................................................................................................100 %blease; @ali0it"; 5ssignment of %blease (199#)....................................................................................... 100

%blease vs. 5ssignment of Lease; 4escission of Contract ('##9)..................................................................99

C!))!' CA""IE"(....................................................................................................................... 100 E=traor0inar" Diligence ('###)................................................................................................................100 A&E'C*...........................................................................................................................................101 5genc" ('##()....................................................................................................................................101 5genc" vs. ale ('###)......................................................................................................................... 101 5genc"; co%ple0 wit& an interest ('##1).................................................................................................... 101 5genc"; B%arantee Commission ('##!).....................................................................................................101 5genc"; 4eal Estate *ortgage ('##!)........................................................................................................101 5ppointment of %b?5gent (1999)............................................................................................................102 Beneral 5genc" vs. pecial 5genc" (199').................................................................................................102 .owers of t&e 5gent (199!)....................................................................................................................102 <ermination; Effect of Deat& of 5gent (1997)...............................................................................................103 PA"$'E"(.IP................................................................................................................................. 103 Composition of .artners&ips; po%ses; Corporations (199!)...........................................................................103 Conve"ance of a .artnerFs &are Dissol%tion (1996)......................................................................................103 Dissol%tion of .artners&ip (1999)............................................................................................................ 103 Dissol%tion of .artners&ip; <ermination (199()............................................................................................ 104 Effect of Deat& of .artner (1997)..............................................................................................................104 Obligations of a .artner (199')................................................................................................................104 Obligations of a .artner; )n0%strial .artner ('##1)........................................................................................ 104 C!))!#A$+) , )+$++)......................................................................................................................104 Commo0at%m (199()........................................................................................................................... 104 Commo0at%m ('##9)........................................................................................................................... 105 Commo0at%m vs. 3s%fr%ct (1996)............................................................................................................105 *%t%%m vs. Commo0at%m ('##!)............................................................................................................ 106 *%t%%m; )nterests ('##1)...................................................................................................................... 106 *%t%%m; )nterests ('##')...................................................................................................................... 106 *%t%%m; )nterests ('##!)...................................................................................................................... 106 #EP!(I$...........................................................................................................................................107 Compensation; ;an+ Loan (1997)............................................................................................................107 Deposit; E=c&ange (199')......................................................................................................................107 (+"E$*............................................................................................................................................107 4ecover" of Deficienc" (1997)................................................................................................................ 107 A'$IC."E(I(...................................................................................................................................107 5ntic&resis (1999)...............................................................................................................................107 PLE#&E........................................................................................................................................... 108 .le0ge (199!).................................................................................................................................... 108 .le0ge ('##!).................................................................................................................................... 108 .le0ge; *ortgage; 5ntic&resis (199-)....................................................................................................... 108 /+A(I-C!'$"AC$...........................................................................................................................108 1%asi?Contracts; 2egotiori%m Bestio (199')...............................................................................................109 1%asi?Contracts; 2egotiori%m Bestio (199()...............................................................................................109 1%asi?Contracts; 2egotiori%m Bestio (1999)...............................................................................................109 1%asi?Contracts; ol%tio )n0ebiti ('##!).................................................................................................... 110 $!"$( , #A)A&E(.........................................................................................................................110 Collapse of tr%ct%res; Last Clear C&ance (199#)......................................................................................... 110 Damages (199!)................................................................................................................................. 111 Damages arising from Deat& of 3nborn C&il0 (1991)..................................................................................... 111 Damages arising from Deat& of 3nborn C&il0 ('##()..................................................................................... 111 Deat& )n0emnit" (199!).........................................................................................................................111

Page 8 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

I'$ELLEC$+AL P"!PE"$*.............................................................................................................118 )ntellect%al Creation ('##!).................................................................................................................... 118

Defense; D%e Diligence in election ('##().................................................................................................112 ,iling of eparate Civil 5ction; 2ee0 for 4eservation ('##()............................................................................ 112 ,ort%ito%s Event; *ec&anical Defects ('##')...............................................................................................112 Liabilit"; 5irline Compan"; 2on?.erformance of an Obligation ('##!) .................................................................112 Liabilit"; 5irline Compan"; 2on?.erformance of an Obligation ('##9) .................................................................113 Liabilit"; Emplo"er; Damage ca%se0 b" Emplo"ees (1997).............................................................................. 113 Liabilit"; owner w&o was in t&e ve&icle (199-)............................................................................................. 114 Liabilit"; owner w&o was in t&e ve&icle (1996)............................................................................................. 114 Liabilit"; owner w&o was in t&e ve&icle ('##')............................................................................................. 114 *oral Damages & 5tt" ,ees ('##')...........................................................................................................114 *oral Damages; 2on?4ecover" <&ereof ('##-)............................................................................................ 115 1%asi?Delict (199')..............................................................................................................................115 1%asi?Delict ('##9)..............................................................................................................................115 1%asi?Delict; 5cts contrar" to morals (199-)...............................................................................................115 1%asi?Delict; *ismanagement of DepositorFs 5cco%nt ('##-)...........................................................................116 @icario%s Liabilit" (1991).......................................................................................................................116 @icario%s Liabilit" ('##1).......................................................................................................................117 @icario%s Liabilit" ('##').......................................................................................................................117 @icario%s Liabilit" ('##!).......................................................................................................................117 @icario%s Liabilit" ('##-).......................................................................................................................117 @icario%s Liabilit"; .%blic 3tilit" ('###)..................................................................................................... 118

Page 9 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

(Arsenal v IAC, 143

SCRA 40 [1986]).

&E'E"AL P"I'CIPLE(
Civil law vs. Common Law (1997) How would you compare the C ! l "aw #y#tem $ t# go!er$a$ce a$d tre$d w th that of the Commo$ "aw #y#tem%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

27 1o$e. /, ter d ctum a$d op $ o$# are $ot $ece##ary to the determ $at o$ of a ca#e. @hey are $ot , $d $g a$d

&# regard# 'go!er$a$ce'( )o!er$a$ce $ C ! l "aw # codal* #tatutory a$d wr tte$ law. +t # add t o$ally der !ed from ca#e law. Commo$ law # ,a# cally der !ed from ca#e law. &# regard# 'tre$d'( C ! l law # $ow te$d $g to rely more a$d more o$ dec # o$# of the court# e-pla $ $g the law#. Commo$ law # $ow cod fy $g law# more a$d more. .o they are $ow merg $g toward# # m lar #y#tem#.
Additional Answers:

1.

C/00/1 "&2 refer# to the trad t o$al part of the law a# d #t $ct from leg #lat o$3 t refer# to the u$ !er#al part of law a# d #t $ct from part cular local cu#tom# 45$cycloped a &mer ca$a* 6ol. 77. /$ the other ha$d* C+6+" "&2 # u$der#tood to ,e that ,ra$ch of law go!er$ $g the relat o$#h p of per#o$# $ re#pect of the r per#o$al a$d pr !ate $tere#t# a# d #t $gu #hed from ,oth pu,l c a$d $ter$at o$al law#. +$ commo$ law cou$tr e#* the trad t o$al re#po$# , l ty ha# for the mo#t part ,ee$ w th the 8udge#3 $ c ! l law cou$tr e#* the ta#9 # pr mar ly repo#ed o$ the lawma9er#. Co$temporary pract ce#* howe!er* #o $d cate a tre$d toward# ce$tral : $g that fu$ct o$ to profe## o$al group# that may $deed* #ee the gradual a## m lat o$ $ t me of ,oth #y#tem#. ;6 tug* C ! l. "aw a$d <ur #prude$ce* p. ==7

2.

+$ C ! l "aw* the #tatute# theoret cally ta9e precede$ce o!er court dec # o$# $terpret $g them3 wh le $ Commo$ "aw* the court dec # o$# re#ol! $g #pec f c ca#e# are regarded a# law rather tha$ the #tatute# them#el!e# wh ch are* at the #tart* merely em,od me$t# of ca#e law. C ! l "aw # code law or wr tte$ law* wh le Commo$ "aw # ca#e law. C ! l "aw adopt# the deduct !e method > from the ge$eral to the part cular* wh le the Commo$ "aw u#e# the $duct !e approach > from the part cular to the ge$eral. Commo$ "aw rel e# o$ e?u ty. C ! l "aw a$chor# t#elf o$ the letter of the law. @he c ! l #t# are for the 8udge> proof law e!e$ a# the Commo$ "aw +# 8udge>made law. C ! l "aw 8udge# are merely #uppo#ed to apply law# a$d $ot $terpret them.

Effect of Obiter & Dissenting Opinion; C Decisions (199!) 27 2hat are the , $d $g effect# of a$ o, ter d ctum a$d a d ##e$t $g op $ o$% 37 How ca$ a dec # o$ of the .upreme Court ,e #et a# de%
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE"(:

5?u ty # appl ed o$ly $ the a,#e$ce of ca$$ot ha!e the force of off c al precede$t#. +t # a# f the Court were tur$ $g a# de from the ma $ top c of the ca#e to collateral #u,8ect#( a d ##e$t $g op $ o$ aff rm# or o!errule# a cla m* r ght or o,l gat o$. +t $e ther d #po#e# $or award# a$yth $g t merely e-pre##e# the ! ew of the d ##e$ter. 4C ! l Code* Para#A 37 & dec # o$ of a d ! # o$ of the .upreme Court may,e #et a# de ,y the .upreme Court # tt $g e$ ,a$c* a .upreme Court dec # o$ may ,e #et a# de ,y a co$trary rul $g of the .upreme Court t#elf or ,y a correct !e leg #lat !e act of Co$gre##* although #a d law# ca$$ot ad!er#ely affect tho#e fa!ored pr or to the .upreme Court dec # o$. ;C ! l Code* Para#7. Effectivit" of Laws (199#) &fter a de!a#tat $g #torm cau# $g w de#pread de#truct o$ $ four Ce$tral "u:o$ pro! $ce#* the e-ecut !e a$d leg #lat !e ,ra$che# of the go!er$me$t agreed to e$act a #pec al law appropr at $g P1 , ll o$ for purpo#e# of rel ef a$d reha, l tat o$ for the pro! $ce#. +$ ! ew of the urge$t $ature of the leg #lat !e e$actme$t* t # pro! ded $ t# effect ! ty clau#e that t #hall ta9e effect upo$ appro!al a$d after complet o$ of pu,l cat o$ $ the /ff c al )a:ette a$d a $ew#paper of ge$eral c rculat o$ $ the Ph l pp $e#. @he law wa# pa##ed ,y the Co$gre## o$ <uly 1* 1990. # g$ed $to law ,y the Pre# de$t o$ <uly 3* 1990* a$d pu,l #hed $ #uch $ew#paper of ge$eral c rculat o$ o$ <uly 7* 1990 a$d $ the /ff c al )a:ette o$ <uly 10* 1990. 4a7 &# to the pu,l cat o$ of #a d leg #lat !e e$actme$t* # there #uff c e$t o,#er!a$ce or compl a$ce w th the re?u reme$t# for a !al d pu,l cat o$% 5-pla $ your a$#wer. 4,7 2he$ d d the law ta9e effect% 5-pla $ your a$#wer. 4c7 Ca$ the e-ecut !e ,ra$ch #tart relea# $g a$d d #,ur# $g fu$d# appropr ated ,y the #a d law the day follow $g t# appro!al% 5-pla $ your a$#wer.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Page 10 of 119

4a7 Be#* there # #uff c e$t compl a$ce. @he law t#elf pre#cr ,e# the re?u # te# of pu,l cat o$ for t# effect ! ty* a$d all re?u # te# ha!e ,ee$ compl ed w th. 4&rt cle 2* C ! l Code7 4,7 @he law ta9e# effect upo$ compl a$ce w th all the co$d t o$# for effect ! ty* a$d the la#t co$d t o$ wa# compl ed w th o$ <uly 10* 1990. He$ce* the' law ,ecame effect !e o$ that date. 4c7 1o. +t wa# $ot yet effect !e whe$ t wa# appro!ed ,y Co$gre## o$ <uly 1* 1990 a$d appro!ed ,y the Pre# de$t o$ <uly 3* 1990. @he other re?u # te# for t# effect ! ty were $ot yet complete at the t me. E$%it" follows t&e Law ('##() +t # #a d that Ce?u ty follow# the lawD 2hat do you u$der#ta$d ,y th # phra#e* a$d what are t# ,a# c mpl cat o$#% 5E
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

C5?u ty Follow# the lawD mea$# that court# e-erc # $g e?u ty 8ur #d ct o$ are ,ou$d ,y rule# of law a$d ha!e $o ar, trary d #cret o$ to d #regard them.

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

,ut $e!er aga $#t #tatutory law. (Toyota Motor !"l. # CA


$16 SCRA $36 [199$]).

1. @he c ! l act o$ $!ol!e# a$ ##ue # m lar or $t mately

)gnorance of t&e Law vs. *ista+e of ,act (199-) +# there a$y d ffere$ce $ the r legal effect ,etwee$ g$ora$ce of the law a$d g$ora$ce or m #ta9e of fact%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

related to the ##ue ra #ed $ the cr m $al act o$* a$d 2. the re#olut o$ of #uch ##ue determ $e# whether or $ot the cr m $al act o$ may proceed. 4c7 Co$#e?ue$ce#
@he cr m $al ca#e mu#t ,e #u#pe$ded. @hu#* $ a cr m $al

Be#* there # a d ffere$ce. 2h le g$ora$ce of the law # $ot a$ e-cu#e for $ot comply $g w th t* g$ora$ce of fact el m $ate# cr m $al $te$t a# lo$g a# there # $o $egl ge$ce 4&rt* 1CC7. +$ add t o$* m #ta9e o$ a dou,tful or d ff cult
?ue#t o$ of law may ,e the ,a# # of good fa th 4&rt. 526.

ca#e for damage# to o$eG# property* a c ! l act o$ that $!ol!e# the ow$er#h p of #a d property #hould f r#t ,e re#ol!ed 4He "eo$ !#. 0a,a$ag. 38 Ph l. 2027

1CC7. 0 #ta9e of fact may* furthermore* ! t ate co$#e$t $ a


co$tract a$d ma9e t !o da,le 4&rt. 1390. 1CC7.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

PE"(!'(
C&ange of .ame; /n0er 12 9#!3 ('##-) I r-thou##ou# delo# .a$to# f led a pet t o$ for cha$ge of

Be#. g$ora$ce of the law d ffer# $ legal effect from +g$ora$ce or m #ta9e of fact. @he former doe# $ot e-cu#e a party from the legal co$#e?ue$ce# of h # co$duct wh le the
latter doe# co$#t tute a$ e-cu#e a$d # a legal defe$#e.

$ame w th the /ff ce of the C ! l Jeg #trar of 0a$daluyo$g


C ty u$der the adm $ #trat !e proceed $g pro! ded $

)nferior Co%rts Decisions (199!) &re dec # o$# of the Court of &ppeal# co$# dered law#%
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE"(:

Jepu,l c &ct 1o. 9048. He alleged that h # f r#t $ame #ou$d# r d culou# a$d # e-tremely d ff cult to #pell a$d

pro$ou$ce. &fter comply $g w th the re?u reme$t# of the

law* the C ! l Jeg #trar gra$ted h # pet t o$ a$d cha$ged h#


f r#t $ame I r-thou##ou# to '<e#u#.' H # full $ame $ow

17

a7 1o* ,ut dec # o$# of the Court of &ppeal# may

#er!e a# precede$t# for $fer or court# o$ po $t# of law $ot co!ered ,y a$y .upreme Court dec # o$* a$d a rul $g of the Court of &ppeal# may ,ecome a doctr $e.
I&'er"al (( !"l. 1066).

read# '<e#u# delo# .a$to#.' <e#u# delo# .a$to# mo!ed to )e$eral .a$to# C ty to wor9 $ a mult >$at o$al compa$y. @here* he fell $ lo!e a$d marr ed
0ary )race delo# .a$to#. .he re?ue#ted h m to ha!e h#

(M"ran%a vs..

,7 1o. Hec # o$# of the Court of &ppeal# merely ha!e per#ua# !e* a$d therefore $o ma$datory effect. Howe!er* a co$clu# o$ or pro$ou$ceme$t wh ch co!er# a po $t of law #t ll u$dec ded may #t ll #er!e a# 8ud c al gu de a$d t #
po## ,le that the #ame may,e ra #ed to the #tatu# of

f r#t $ame cha$ged ,ecau#e h # $ew $ame '<e#u# delo# .a$to#' # the #ame $ame a# that of her father who
a,a$do$ed her fam ly a$d ,ecame a $otor ou# drug lord.

.he wa$ted to forget h m. He$ce* <e#u# f led a$other pet t o$ w th the /ff ce of the "ocal C ! l Jeg #trar to
cha$ge h # f r#t $ame to 'Jo,erto.' He cla med that the

doctr $e. +f after t ha# ,ee$ #u,8ected to te#t $ the cruc ,le of a$aly# #* the .upreme Court #hould f $d that t ha# mer t#
a$d ?ual t e# #uff c e$t for t# co$# derat o$ a# a rule of 8ur #prude$ce 4C ! l Code* Para#7. 4re5%0icial 6%estions (1997)

cha$ge # warra$ted ,ecau#e t w ll erad cate all !e#t ge# of the $famy of 0ary )raceG# father.
)"ll t!e 'et"t"on *or +!an,e o* na&e o* -es.s %elos Santos to Ro/erto %elos Santos .n%er Re'./l"+ A+t 0o. 9048 'ros'er1 23'la"n. (104)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE": 1o*

+$ the co$te-t that the term # u#ed $ C ! l "aw* #tate the


4a7 co$cept* 4,7 re?u # te# a$d 4c7 co$#e?ue$ce# of a pre8ud c al ?ue#t o$.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

u$der the law* <e#u# may o$ly cha$ge h # $ame o$ce. +$ add t o$* the pet t o$ for cha$ge
of $ame may ,e de$ ed o$ the follow $g grou$d#( <e#u# # $e ther r d culou#* $or ta $ted w th 417 d #ho$or

4a7

Co$cept

$or e-tremely d ff cult to wr te or pro$ou$ce.


427 @here # $o co$fu# o$ to ,e a!o ded or created w th

& pre8ud c al ?ue#t o$ # o$e wh ch mu#t ,e dec ded f r#t

,efore a cr m $al act o$ may ,e $#t tuted or may proceed


,ecau#e a dec # o$ there $ # ! tal to the 8udgme$t $ the

the u#e of the reg #tered f r#t $ame or $ c9$ame of the pet t o$er.

cr m $al ca#e. +$ the ca#e of

eo'le vs. A%elo Ara,on (56

437 @he pet t o$ $!ol!e# the #ame e$try $ the #ame docu>
me$t* wh ch wa# pre! ou#ly corrected or cha$ged

7930, 8e/. 1(, 1974)* the .upreme Court def $ed t a# o$e

wh ch ar #e# $ a ca#e* the re#olut o$ of wh ch ?ue#t o$ # a log cal a$tecede$t of the ##ue# $!ol!ed $ #a d ca#e a$d the
cog$ :a$ce of wh ch perta $# to a$other tr ,u$al 4Para#* 6ol. 1* C ! l. Code &$$otat o$* 1989 ed. p* 1947.

u$der th # /rder ;Jule# a$d Jegulat o$# +mpleme$t $g


J& 9048A.
)!at entr"es "n t!e C"v"l Re,"stry &ay /e +!an,e% or
+orre+te% 9"t!o.t a :.%"+"al or%er1 ($.74)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4,7 1.

Je?u # te#

@he pre8ud c al ?ue#t o$ mu#t ,e determ $at !e of the


ca#e ,efore the court.

error# a$d f r#t or $ c9 $ame# may ,e cha$ged or corrected w thout a 8ud c al order u$der J& 9048.

/$ly cler cal or typograph cal

2. <ur #d ct o$ to try #a d ?ue#t o$ mu#t


a$other tr ,u$al.
A##I$I!'AL A'(WE":

,e lodged $

Cler cal or typograph cal error# refer to m #ta9e# comm tted $ the performa$ce of cler cal wor9 $ wr t $g* copy $g* tra$#cr , $g or typ $g a$ e$try $ the c ! l reg #ter. @he
m #ta9e # harmle## a$d $$ocuou#* #uch a# error# $

Page 11 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

#pell $g* ! # ,le to the eye# or o,! ou# to the u$der#ta$d $g* a$d ca$ ,e corrected or cha$ged o$ly ,y refere$ce to other e- #t $g record#. Pro! ded* howe!er* that $o correct o$ mu#t $!ol!e the cha$ge of $at o$al ty* age* #tatu# or #e- of
the pet t o$er.

a,#olute commu$ ty amou$t $g to 1 0 ll o$ Pe#o#. pare$t# w ll $her t 0.25 0 ll o$ Pe#o#.

H#

w fe* w ll* therefore* $her t /.25 0 ll o$ Pe#o# a$d h# 2he$ 0r#. Cru: d ed* #he wa# #ucceeded ,y her pare$t# a#
her $te#tate he r#. @hey w ll e#tate $her t all of her

co$# #t $g of her 0.5 0 ll o$ half #hare $ the a,#olute


commu$ ty a$d her 0.25 0 ll o$ her Deat&; Effects; im%ltaneo%s Deat& (1993)
<a me* who # 65* a$d h # #o$* 2 lly* who # 25* d ed $ a

$her ta$ce from

hu#,a$d* or a total of 0.750 0 ll o$ Pe#o#. +$ #um* the pare$t# of 0r. Cru: w ll $her t 250*000 Pe#o# wh le the pare$t# of 0r#. Cru: w ll $her t 750*000 Pe#o#. 4,7 @h # ,e $g a ca#e of #ucce## o$* $ the a,#e$ce of proof a# to the t me of death of each of the #pou#e#* t # pre#umed they d ed at the #ame t me a$d $o tra$#m ## o$ of r ght# from o$e to the other # deemed to ha!e ta9e$ place. @herefore* each of them # deemed to ha!e a$ e#tate !alued at P500*000*00* or o$e>half of the r co$8ugal property of
P1 m ll o$. @he r re#pect !e pare$t# w ll thu# $her t the

pla$e cra#h. @here # $o proof a# to who d ed f r#t. <a meG#


o$ly #ur! ! $g he r # h # w fe* <ul a* who # al#o 2 llyG#

mother. 2 llyG# #ur! ! $g he r# are h # mother* <ul a a$d h #


w fe* 2 lma.

1.

+$ the #ettleme$t of <a meG# e#tate* ca$ 2 lma

#ucce##fully cla m that her late hu#,a$d* 2 lly had a

hered tary #hare # $ce he wa# much you$ger tha$ h # father


a$d* therefore* #hould ,e pre#umed to ha!e #ur! !ed lo$ger% ;3EA

2. .uppo#e <a me had a l fe $#ura$ce pol cy w th h # w fe* <ul a* a$d h # #o$* 2 lly* a# the ,e$ef c ar e#. Ca$ 2 lma #ucce##fully cla m that o$e>half of the proceed# #hould
,elo$g to 2 llyG# e#tate% K2E<
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

e$t re P1 0 ll o$ $ e?ual #hare#* of P500*000.00 per #et of pare$t#.


Deat&; Effects; im%ltaneo%s Deat& ('###)

1. 1o* 2 lma ca$$ot #ucce##fully cla m that 2 lly had a hered tary #hare $ h # fatherG# e#tate. L$der &rt. 43* C ! l

Code* two per#o$# 'who are called to #ucceed each other' are pre#umed to ha!e d ed at the #ame t me* $ the a,#e$ce
of proof a# to wh ch of them d ed f r#t. @h # pre#umpt o$ of # multa$eou# death appl e# $ ca#e# $!ol! $g the ?ue#t o$

,7 Cr #ty a$d her late hu#,a$d "u # had two ch ldre$* Jo#e a$d Patr c9* /$e #ummer* her mother> $>law* aged 70* too9 the two ch ldre$* the$ aged 10 a$d 12* w th her o$ a ,oat
tr p to Ce,u. L$fortu$ately* the !e##el #a$9 e$ route* a$d the ,od e# of the three were $e!er fou$d. 1o$e of the

of #ucce## o$ a# ,etwee$ the two who d ed* who $ th # ca#e


are mutual he r#* ,e $g father a$d #o$.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

2. Bet* 2 lma ca$ $!o9e the pre#umpt o$ of #ur! !or#h p


a$d cla m that o$e>half of the proceed# #hould ,elo$g to 2 llyG# e#tate* u$der .ec. 3 4887 par. 5 Jule 131* Jule# of Court* a# the d #pute doe# $ot $!ol!e #ucce## o$. L$der

#ur! !or# e!er #aw them o$ the water. /$ the #ettleme$t of her mother> $>lawG# e#tate* Cr #ty f le# a cla m for a #hare of her e#tate o$ the grou$d that the #ame wa# $her ted ,y her ch ldre$ from the r gra$dmother $ repre#e$tat o$ of the r father* a$d #he $her ted the #ame from them. 2 ll her
act o$ pro#per% 42E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

th # pre#umpt o$* the per#o$ ,etwee$ the age# of 15 a$d 60 year# # deemed to ha!e #ur! !ed o$e who#e age wa# o!er 60 at the t me of the r death#. @he e#tate of 2 lly e$dowed w th 8ur d cal per#o$al ty #ta$d# $ place a$d #tead of 2 lly*
a# ,e$ef c ary. Deat&; Effects; im%ltaneo%s Deat& (1999) 0r. a$d 0r#. Cru:* who are ch ldle##* met w th a #er ou#

1o* her act o$ w ll $ot pro#per. . $ce there wa# $o proof a# to who d ed f r#t* all the three are deemed to ha!e d ed at the #ame t me a$d there wa# $o tra$#m ## o$ of r ght# from o$e to a$other* apply $g &rt cle 43 of the 1ew C ! l Code.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

1o* her act o$ w ll $ot pro#per. L$der &rt cle 43 of the

1ew C ! l Code* $a#much a# there # $o proof a# to who


d ed f r#t* all the three are pre#umed to ha!e d ed at the #ame t me a$d there could ,e $o tra$#m ## o$ of r ght#

motor !eh cle acc de$t w th 0r. Cru: at the wheel a$d 0r#. Cru: #eated ,e# de h m* re#ult $g $ the $#ta$t death of 0r. Cru:. 0r#. Cru: wa# #t ll al !e whe$ help came ,ut #he al#o d ed o$ the way to the ho#p tal. @he couple ac?u red propert e# worth /$e 0 ll o$ 4P1 *000*000.007 Pe#o# dur $g
the r marr age* wh ch are ,e $g cla med ,y the pare$t# of
,oth #pou#e# $ e?ual #hare#. +# the cla m of ,oth #et# of

amo$g them. Her ch ldre$ $ot ha! $g $her ted from the r gra$dmother. Cr #ty ha# $o r ght to #hare $ her mother> $> lawG# e#tate. .he ca$$ot #hare $ her ow$ r ght a# #he # $ot a legal he r of her mother> $>law. @he #ur! !or#h p pro! # o$ of Jule 131 of the Jule# of Court doe# $ot apply
to the pro,lem. +t appl e# o$ly to tho#e ca#e# where the

##ue $!ol!ed # $ot #ucce## o$.


7%ri0ical Capacit" vs. Capacit" to 2ct (199-) H #t $gu #h 8ur d cal capac ty from capac ty act*
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

pare$t# !al d a$d why% 43E7

4,7 .uppo#e $ the preced $g ?ue#t o$* ,oth 0r. a$d 0r#.
Cru: were already dead whe$ help came* #o that $o>,ody

to

could #ay who d ed ahead of the other* would your a$#wer


,e the #ame to the ?ue#t o$ a# to who are e$t tled to the

propert e# of the decea#ed couple% 42E7


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4a7 1o* the cla m of ,oth pare$t# # $ot !al d. 2he$ 0r.

Cru: d ed* he wa# #ucceeded ,y h # w fe a$d h # pare$t# a#


h # $te#tate he r# who w ll #hare h # e#tate e?ually.

<LJ+H+C&" C&P&C+@B # the f t$e## to ,e the #u,8ect of legal relat o$# wh le C&P&C+@B @/ &C@ # the power or to do act# w th legal effect. @he former # $here$t $ e!ery $atural per#o$ a$d # lo#t o$ly through death wh le the latter # merely ac?u red a$d may ,e lo#t e!e$ ,efore death 4&rt. 37* 1CC7.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE"0

H#

e#tate wa# 0.5 0 ll o$ pe#o# wh ch # h # half #hare $ the

Page 12 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

<ur d cal capac ty* a# d #t $gu #hed from capac ty to act( 4a7 the former # pa## !e wh le the latter # act !e* 4,7 the former # $here$t $ a per#o$ wh le the latter # merely ac?u red* 4c7 the former # lo#t o$ly through death wh le the latter may ,e lo#t through death or re#tr cted ,y cau#e# other tha$ death*
a$d +d7 the former ca$ e- #t w thout capac ty to act wh le

co$d t o$# detr me$tal to the moral well>,e $g of the r


ch ldre$ act $g $ the mo! e# # $ ! olat o$ of the Fam ly Code a$d "a,or law#. @hu#* the wa !er # $!al d a$d $ot

, $d $g.
@he Ch ld "a,or "aw # a ma$datory a$d proh , tory law

the latter ca$$ot e- #t w thout 8ur d cal capac ty.


7%ri0ical Capacit"; .at%ral 4ersons (1999)

a$d the r ght# of the ch ld ca$$ot ,e wa !ed a# t # co$trary to law a$d pu,l c pol cy.

5lated that her # #ter who had ,ee$ marr ed for f !e year# wa# preg$a$t for the f r#t t me* &lma do$ated P100*000.00 to the u$,or$ ch ld. L$fortu$ately* the ,a,y d ed o$e hour
after del !ery. 0ay &lma reco!er the P100.000.00 that #he had do$ated to #a d ,a,y ,efore t wa# ,or$ co$# der $g

C!' LIC$ ! LAW(


2ppilicable Laws; laws governing contracts (199') = a$d B e$tered $to a co$tract $ &u#tral a* where,y t wa# agreed that = would ,u ld a commerc al ,u ld $g for B $ the Ph l pp $e#* a$d $ payme$t for the co$#truct o$* B w ll
tra$#fer a$d co$!ey h # cattle ra$ch located $ the L$ ted .tate# $ fa!or of =.

that the ,a,y d ed% .tated otherw #e* # the do$at o$ !al d
a$d , $d $g% 5-pla $. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he do$at o$ # !al d a$d , $d $g* ,e $g a$ act fa!ora,le to the u$,or$ ch ld* ,ut o$ly f the ,a,y had a$ $tra>uter $e l fe of $ot le## tha$ #e!e$ mo$th# a$d pro>! ded there wa# due accepta$ce of the do$at o$ ,y the proper per#o$ repre#e$t $g #a d ch ld. +f the ch ld had le## tha$ #e!e$ mo$th# of $tra>uter $e l fe* t # $ot deemed ,or$ # $ce t d ed le## tha$ 24 hour# follow $g t# del !ery* $ wh ch ea#e the do$at o$ $e!er ,ecame effect !e # $ce the do$ee $e!er
,ecame a per#o$* , rth ,e $g determ $at !e of per#o$al ty.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

2hat law would go!er$( a7 @he !al d ty of the co$tract% ,7 @he performa$ce of the co$tract% c7 @he co$# derat o$ of the co$tract%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4a7 @he !al d ty of the co$tract w ll ,e go!er$ed ,y

&u#tral a$ law* ,ecau#e the !al d ty refer# to the eleme$t of


the ma9 $g of the co$tract $ th # ca#e.
4/pt o$al &dde$dum('... u$le## the part e# agreed to ,e ,ou$d ,y a$other law'.M

5!e$ f the ,a,y had a$ $tra>uter $e l fe of more tha$ #e!e$ mo$th# a$d the do$at o$ wa# properly accepted* t would ,e !o d for $ot ha! $g co$formed w th the proper

form. +$ order to ,e !al d* the do$at o$ a$d accepta$ce of per#o$al property e-ceed $g f !e thou#a$d pe#o# #hould ,e
$ wr t $g. 4&rt cle 748* par. 37

4,7 @he performa$ce w ll ,e go!er$ed ,y the law of the Ph l pp $e# where the co$tract # to ,e performed.
4c7 @he co$# derat o$ w ll ,e go!er$ed ,y the law of the

8aiver of 1ig&ts ('##!)


N. H/1* a$ &mer ca$ ,u# $e##ma$* #ecured pare$tal

L$ ted .tate# where the ra$ch # located.


4/pt o$al &dde$dum( +$ the forego $g ca#e#* whe$ the
fore g$ law would apply* the a,#e$ce of proof of that fore g$ law would re$der Ph l pp $e law appl ca,le

co$#e$t for the employme$t of f !e m $or# to play certa $

role# $ two mo! e# he wa# produc $g at home $ 0a9at .

@hey wor9ed at odd hour# of the day a$d $ ght* ,ut alway# accompa$ ed ,y pare$t# or other adult#. @he producer pa d
the ch ldre$ tale$t fee# at rate# ,etter tha$ adult wage#. Nut a #oc al wor9er* H5N* reported to /.2H that the#e ch ldre$ ofte$ m ##ed go $g to #chool. @hey #omet me# dra$9 w $e* a# de from ,e $g e-po#ed to drug#. +$ #ome

u$der the 'eclect c theory'.7

2pplicable Laws; 2rts 19: 1- & 17 (1993)


<ua$ # a F l p $o c t :e$ re# d $g $ @o9yo* <apa$. .tate

#ce$e#* they were f lmed $a9ed or $ re!eal $g co#tume#. +$ h # defe$#e* H/1 co$te$ded all the#e were part of art #t c freedom a$d cultural creat ! ty. 1o$e of the pare$t# compla $ed* #a d H/1. He al#o #a d they # g$ed a co$tract
co$ta $ $g a wa !er of the r r ght to f le a$y compla $t $

what law# go!er$( 1. H # capac ty to co$tract marr age $ <apa$* ; 1EA 2. H # #ucce## o$al r ght# a# regard# h # decea#ed F l p $o fatherG# property $ @e-a#* L...&. ;1EA 3. @he e-tr $# c la#t w ll a$d of the !al d ty te#tame$t
wh ch <ua$ e-ecuted wh le #o8our$ $g $ .w t:erla$d.

4.

;2EA @he $tr $# c !al d ty of #a d w ll. 41E7

a$y off ce or tr ,u$al co$cer$ $g the wor9 $g co$d t o$# of


the r ch ldre$ act $g $ the mo! e#.

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1. +# the wa !er !al d a$d , $d $g% 2hy or why $ot% 45E7


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

capac t <ua$G# y

to co$tract marr age

# go!er$ed

5-pla $.

,y Ph l pp $e law >

15* C ! l Code* wh ch pro! de# that our law# relat $g to* amo$g other#* legal capac ty of per#o$# are , $d $g upo$

.e.* the Fam ly Code >pur#ua$t to &rt.

@he wa !er # $ot !al d. &lthough the co$tract $g part e# may e#ta,l #h #uch #t pulat o$#* clau#e#* term# a$d

c t :e$# of the Ph l pp $e# e!e$ though l ! $g a,road.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

co$d t o$# a# they may deem co$!e$ e$t* they may $ot do #o f #uch are co$trary to law* moral#* good cu#tom#* pu,l c order* or pu,l c pol cy 4&rt cle 1306* C ! l Code7. @he pare$t#G wa !er to f le a compla $t co$cer$ $g the wor9 $g

2. Ny way of e-cept o$ to the ge$eral rule of le- re # tae


pre#cr ,ed ,y the f r#t paragraph of &rt. 16. C ! l Code* a per#o$G# #ucce## o$al r ght# are go!er$ed ,y the $at o$al law of the decede$t 42$d par.. &rt. 167. . $ce <ua$G# decea#ed

Page 13 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 19902006) father wa# a F l p $o c t :e$* Ph l pp $e law go!er$# <ua$G#

#ucce## o$al r ght#.


A'!$.E" A'(WE":

2. <ua$G# #ucce## o$al r ght# are go!er$ed ,y Ph l pp $e law* pur#ua$t to &rt cle 1039 a$d the #eco$d paragraph of &rt cle 16* ,oth of the C ! l Code. &rt cle 1039* C ! l Code* pro! de# that capac ty to #ucceed #hall ,e go!er$ed ,y the
'law of the $at o$' of the decede$t* .e.. h # $at o$al law. &rt cle 16 pro! de# $ paragraph two that the amou$t of #ucce## o$al r ght#* order of #ucce## o$* a$d $tr $# c !al d ty of te#tame$tary #ucce## o$ #hall ,e go!er$ed ,y the

427. 2 th re#pect to Fel pe the d !orce # !al d* ,ut w th re#pect to Fel #a t # $ot. @he d !orce w ll $ot capac tate Fel #a to remarry ,ecau#e #he a$d Fel pe were ,oth F l p $o# at the t me of the r marr age. Howe!er* $ H/< /p $ o$

1o. 134 #er e# of 1993* Fel #a # allowed to remarry ,ecau#e the $8u#t ce #ought to ,e corrected ,y &rt cle 26 al#o
o,ta $# $ her ca#e.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

N.

@he fore g$er who e-ecute# h # w ll

$ the

Ph l pp $e# may o,#er!ed the formal t e# de#cr ,ed $(

'$at o$al law' of the decede$t who # de$t f ed a# a F l p $o


$ the pre#e$t pro,lem.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

3. @he e-tr $# c !al d ty of <ua$G# w ll # go!er$ed ,y 4a7 .w ## law* t ,e $g the law where the w ll wa# made 4&rt. 17.
1#t par. C ! l Code7* or 4,7 Ph l pp $e law* ,y mpl cat o$ from the pro! # o$# of &rt. 816* C ! l Code* wh ch allow#
e!e$ a$ al e$ who # a,road to ma9e a w ll $ co$form ty

1. @he "aw of the cou$try of wh ch he # a c t :e$ u$der &rt cle 817 of the 1ew C ! l Code* or 2. the law of the Ph l pp $e# ,e $g the law of the place of e-ecut o$ u$der &rt cle 17 of the 1ew C ! l Code.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

C. Ph l pp $e law w ll $ot go!er$ the $tr $# c !al d ty of the w ll. &rt cle 16 of the 1ew C ! l Code pro! de# that $tr $# c !al d ty of te#tame$tary pro! # o$# #hall ,e
go!er$ed ,y the 1at o$al "aw of the per#o$ who#e

w th our C ! l Code.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

#ucce## o$ # u$der co$# derat o$. Cal for$ a law w ll go!er$ 4. @he $tr $# c !al d ty of h # w ll # go!er$ed ,y Ph l pp $e law* t ,e $g h # $at o$al law. 4&rt. 16* C ! l
Code7 the $tr $# c !al d ty of the w ll. 2pplicable Laws; Capacit" to 2ct (1993)

2pplicable Laws; 2rts 19: 1-: 17 ('##') Fel pe a$d Fel #a* ,oth F l p $o c t :e$#* were marr ed $

0alolo#* Nulaca$ o$ <u$e 1* 1950. +$ 1960 Fel pe we$t to the L$ ted .tate#* ,ecom $g a L... c t :e$ $ 1975. +$ 1980 they o,ta $ed a d !orce from Fel #a* who wa# duly $ot f ed of the proceed $g#. @he d !orce decree ,ecame f $al u$der
Cal for$ a "aw. Com $g ,ac9 to the Ph l pp $e# $ 1982*

Fra$c # &l,ert* a c t :e$ a$d re# de$t of 1ew <er#ey* L...&.* u$der who#e law he wa# #t ll a m $or* ,e $g o$ly 20 year# of age* wa# h red ,y &NC Corporat o$ of 0a$ la to #er!e for two year# a# t# ch ef computer programmer. Nut after #er! $g for o$ly four mo$th#* he re# g$ed to 8o $ =BI
Corporat o$* wh ch e$t ced h m ,y offer $g more

Fel pe marr ed .agu$d $a* a F l p $o C t :e$. +$ 2001* F l pe* the$ dom c led $ "o# &$gele#* Cal for$ a* d ed* lea! $g o$e ch ld ,y Fel #a* a$d a$other o$e ,y .agu$d $a. He left a w ll wh ch he left h # e#tate to .agu$d $a a$d h # two ch ldre$
a$d $oth $g to Fel #a. .agu$d $a f le# a pet t o$ for the pro,ate of Fel peO# w ll.

Fel #a ?ue#t o$# the $tr $# c !al d ty of the w ll* argu $g that her marr age to Fel pe #u,# #ted de#p te the d !orce o,ta $ed ,y Fel pe ,ecau#e #a d d !orce # $ot recog$ :ed $
the Ph l pp $e#. For th # rea#o$* #he cla m# that the propert e# a$d that .agu$d $a ha# $o #ucce## o$al r ght#.

ad!a$tageou# term#. H # f r#t employer #ue# h m $ 0a$ la for damage# ar # $g from the ,reach of h # co$tract of employme$t. He #et# up h # m $or ty a# a defe$#e a$d a#9# for a$$ulme$t of the co$tract o$ that grou$d. @he pla $t ff d #pute# th # ,y alleg $g that # $ce the co$tract wa# e-ecuted $ the Ph l pp $e# u$der who#e law the age of ma8or ty # 18 year#* he wa# $o lo$ger a m $or at the t me of perfect o$ of the co$tract. 1. 2 ll the #u t pro#per% ;3EA
2. .uppo#e =BI Corporat o$ # mpleaded a# a co> defe$da$t* what would ,e the ,a# # of t# l a, l ty* f a$y%

;2EA
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1. @he #u t w ll $ot pro#per u$der &rt cle 15* C ! l

&. +#

the d !orce

#ecured

,y Fel pe

Cal for$ a

Code* 1ew <er#ey law go!er$# Fra$c # &l,ertG# capac ty to act*

recog$ :a,le a$d !al d $ the Ph l pp $e#% How doe# t affect Fel peO# marr age to Fel #a% 5-pla $. 42E7. N. 2hat law go!er$# the formal t e# of the w ll% 5-pla $.

,e $g h # per#o$al law from the #ta$dpo $t of ,oth h# $at o$al ty a$d h # dom c le. He wa#* therefore* a m $or at
the t me he e$tered $to the co$tract.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

41E7
C. 2 ll Ph l pp $e law go!er$ the $tr $# c !al d ty of the w ll% 5-pla $. 42E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1. @he #u t w ll $ot pro#per. Ne $g a L... $at o$al* &l,ertG# capac ty to e$ter $to a co$tract # determ $ed ,y the law of the .tate of wh ch he # a $at o$al* u$der wh ch he to #t ll a
m $or. @h # # $ co$$ect o$ w th &rt cle 15 of the C!l Code wh ch em,od e# the #a d $at o$al ty pr $c ple of lepatr ae. 2h le th # pr $c ple $te$ded to apply to F l p $o

&.

41.7 @he d !orce #ecured ,y Fel pe $ Cal for$ a #

recog$ :a,le a$d !al d $ the Ph l pp $e# ,ecau#e he wa# $o


lo$ger a F l p $o at that t me he #ecured t* &l e$# may o,ta $ d !orce# a,road wh ch may ,e recog$ :ed $ the Ph l pp $e# pro! ded that they are !al d accord $g to the r $at o$al law 46a$ Hor$ 6. Jom llo* <r.* 139 .CJ& 139 ;1985A3 Pu ta !. Court of &ppeal#* 300 .CJ& 406 ;1998A3 "lore$te !. Court of &ppeal#* 345 .CJ& 595 ;2000A 7.

c t :e$# u$der that pro! # o$* the .upreme Court $ Jecto !.


Harde$ # of the ! ew that the #tatu# or capac ty of fore g$er# # to ,e determ $ed o$ the ,a# # of the #ame

pro! # o$ or pr $c ple* .e.* ,y L... law $ the pre#e$t pro,lem.

Page 14 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

per#o$# # go!er$ed ,y the law of h # $at o$al ty* capac ty Pla $t ff# argume$t doe# $ot hold true* ,ecau#e #tatu# or

co$cer$ $g tra$#act o$# $!ol! $g property # a$ e-cept o$.


L$der &rt cle 16 of the 1CC the capac ty of per#o$# $ tra$#act o$# $!ol! $g t tle to property # go!er$ed ,y the

capac ty # $ot determ $ed ,y le- loc co$tractu# ,ut ,y lepatr ae.
A'!$.E" A'(WE":

1.

&rt cle 17 of the C ! l Code pro! de# that the form#

a$d #olem$ t e# of co$tract#* w ll# a$d other pu,l c $#trume$t# #hall ,e go!er$ed ,y the law# of the cou$try $
wh ch they are e-ecuted.

law of the cou$try where the property # # tuated. . $ce the property # $ the Ph l pp $e#* Ph l pp $e law go!er$# the
capac ty of the #eller.

. $ce the co$tract of employme$t wa# e-ecuted $ 0a$ la* Ph l pp $e law #hould go!er$. Ne $g o!er 18 year# old a$d
$o lo$ger a m $or accord $g to Ph l pp $e "aw* Fra$c # &l,ert ca$ ,e #ued. @hu#* the #u t of &NC Corporat o$ aga $#t h m for damage# w ll pro#per.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

2pplicable Laws; capacit" to s%ccee0 (1991) <aco,* a .w ## $at o$al* marr ed "ourde#* a F l p $a* $ Ner$e* .w t:erla$d. @hree year# later* the couple dec ded to
re# de $ the Ph l pp $e#. <aco, #u,#e?ue$tly ac?u red

2. =BI Corporat o$* ha! $g e$t ced Fra$c # &l,ert to ,rea9 h # co$tract w th the pla $t ff* may ,e held l a,le for
damage# u$der &rt. 1314* C ! l Code.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

2. @he ,a# # of l a, l ty of =BI Corporat o$ would ,e


&rt cle 28 of the C ! l Code wh ch #tate# that(

#e!eral propert e# $ the Ph l pp $e# w th the mo$ey he $her ted from h # pare$t#. Forty year# later. <aco, d ed $te#tate* a$d # #ur! !ed ,y #e!eral leg t mate ch ldre$ a$d duly recog$ :ed lleg t mate daughter <a$e* all re# d $g $ the Ph l pp $e#. 4a7 .uppo#e that .w ## law doe# $ot allow lleg t mate ch ldre$ to $her t* ca$ <a$e* who # a recog$ :ed lleg t mate ch ld* $her t part of the propert e# of <aco, u$der Ph l pp $e law%
4,7 &##um $g that <aco, e-ecuted a w ll lea! $g certa $

'L$fa r compet t o$

$ agr cultural* commerc al* or

$du#tr al e$terpr #e# or $ la,or through the u#e of force* $t m dat o$* dece t* mach $at o$ or a$y other u$8u#t* oppre## !e or h ghha$ded method #hall g !e r #e
to a r ght of act o$ ,y the per#o$ who there,y #uffer#

propert e# to <a$e a# her leg t me $ accorda$ce w th the law of #ucce## o$ $ the Ph l pp $e#* w ll #uch te#tame$tary d #po# t o$ ,e !al d%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

damage.'
A'!$.E" A'(WE":

&. Be#. &# #tated $ the pro,lem. .w ## law doe# $ot allow the property of <aco, u$der Ph l pp $e law.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

lleg t mate ch ldre$ to $her t He$ce* <a$e ca$$ot $her t

2. 1o l a, l ty ar #e#. @he #tateme$t of the pro,lem doe# $ot $ a$y way #ugge#t $te$t* mal ce* or e!e$ 9$owledge* o$ the
part of =BI Corporat o$ a# to the co$tractual relat o$# ,etwee$ &l,ert a$d &NC Corporat o$.

N. @he te#tame$tary d #po# t o$ w ll $ot ,e !al d f t would


co$tra!e$e .w ll law3 otherw #e* the d #po# t o$ would ,e

2pplicable Laws; Capacit" to ;%" Lan0 (1999)

3. 2hat law go!er$# the capac ty of the F l p $o to ,uy the


la$d% 5-pla $ your a$#wer a$d g !e t# legal ,a# #.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

!al d. L$le## the .w ## law # pro!ed* t would ,e pre#umed to ,e the #ame a# that of Ph l pp $e law u$der the Doctrine of
Processual Presumption.

Ph l pp $e law go!er$# the capac ty of the F l p $o to ,uy


the la$d. +$ add t o$ to the pr $c ple of le- re # tae g !e$

a,o!e. &rt cle 15 of the 1CC #pec f cally pro! de# that Ph l pp $e law# relat $g to legal capac ty of per#o$# are

2pplicable Laws; contracts contrar" to p%blic polic" (199-) &lma wa# h red a# a dome#t c helper $ Ho$g9o$g ,y the Hrago$ .er! ce#* "td.* through t# local age$t. .he e-ecuted a #ta$dard employme$t co$tract de# g$ed ,y the Ph l pp $e

, $d $g upo$ c t :e$# of the Ph l pp $e# $o matter where they are.

/!er#ea# 2or9er# &dm $ #trat o$ 4P/5&7 for o!er#ea#


F l p $o wor9er#. +t pro! ded for her employme$t for o$e

2pplicable Laws; Capacit" to Contract (1999)

2. 2hat law go!er$# the capac ty of the <apa$e#e to #ell the


la$d% 5-pla $ your a$#wer a$d g !e t# legal ,a# #.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

<apa$e#e law go!er$# the capac ty of the <apa$e#e to #ell the la$d ,e $g h # per#o$al law o$ the ,a# # of a$ $terpretat o$
of &rt. 15* 1CC.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE"(0

a7 . $ce capac ty to co$tract # go!er$ed ,y the per#o$al

law of a$ $d ! dual* the <apa$e#e #ellerG# capac ty #hould ,e go!er$ed e ther ,y h # $at o$al law 4<apa$e#e law7 or ,y the law of h # dom c le* depe$d $g upo$ whether <apa$ follow# the $at o$al ty or dom c l ary theory of per#o$al law for t#
c t :e$#.

year at a #alary of L.Q1*000.00 a mo$th. +t wa# #u,m tted to a$d appro!ed ,y the P/5&. Howe!er* whe$ #he arr !ed $ Ho$g9o$g* #he wa# a#9ed to # g$ a$other co$tract ,y Hrago$ .er! ce#* "td. wh ch reduced her #alary to o$ly L.Q600.00 a mo$th. Ha! $g $o other cho ce* &lma # g$ed the co$tract ,ut whe$ #he retur$ed to the Ph l pp $e#* #he dema$ded payme$t of the #alary d ffere$t al of L.Q400.00 a mo$th. Noth Hrago$ .er! ce#* "td. a$d t# local age$t cla med that the #eco$d co$tract # !al d u$der the law# of Ho$g9o$g* a$d therefore , $d $g o$ &lma. +# the r cla m correct% 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he r cla m # $ot correct. & co$tract # the law ,etwee$ the part e# ,ut the law ca$ d #regard the co$tract f t # co$trary to pu,l c pol cy. @he pro! # o$# of the 1987 Co$#t tut o$ o$ the protect o$ of la,or a$d o$ #oc al 8u#t ce 4.ec. 10. &rt ++7
em,ody a pu,l c pol cy of the Ph l pp $e#. . $ce the

,7

Ph l pp $e law go!er$# the capac ty of the <apa$e#e

ow$er $ #ell $g the la$d. 2h le a# a ge$eral rule capac ty of

appl cat o$ of Ho$g9o$g law $ th # ca#e # $ ! olat o$ of

Page 15 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006) Co.rt o* A''eals (;.R 0o. 104$37, 0ov. 10, 1993) the that pu,l c pol cy* the appl cat o$ #hall ,e d #regarded ,y

our Court#. 4Cadal $ !. P/5&. 238 .CJ& 7627


AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE"(0

a7 @he r cla m # $ot correct. &##um $g that the #eco$d

.upreme Court appl ed Ph l pp $e law $ reco!ery of damage# for ,reach of co$tract of carr age for the rea#o$

co$tract # , $d $g u$der Ho$g9o$g law* #uch #eco$d co$tract # $!al d u$der Ph l pp $e law wh ch recog$ :e# a# !al d o$ly the f r#t co$tract. . $ce the ca#e # ,e $g l t gated
$ the Ph l pp $e#* the Ph l pp $e Court a# the forum w ll $ot e$force a$y fore g$ cla m o,$o- ou# to the forumG#

that t # the law of the place where the co$tract wa# e-ecuted.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

+f the ! olat o$ of the co$tract wa# atte$ded w th ,ad fa th* there # a grou$d to reco!er moral damage#. Nut # $ce there wa# a federal regulat o$ wh ch wa# the ,a# # of the act
compla $ed of* the a rl $e ca$$ot ,e $ ,ad fa th. He$ce*

pu,l c pol cy.

@here # a #tro$g pu,l c pol cy e$#hr $ed $

@herefore* the #eco$d co$tract #hall ,e d #regarded a$d the f r#t


our Co$#t tut o$ o$ the protect o$ of la,or. co$tract w ll ,e e$forced. (Ca%al"n v. <2A, $38 SCRA (6$). ,7 1o* the r cla m # $ot correct. @he #eco$d co$tract e-ecuted $ Ho$g9o$g* parta9e# of the $ature of a wa !er

o$ly actual damage# ca$ ,e reco!ered. @he #ame # true w th regard# to e-emplary damage#. 2pplicable Laws; Labor Contracts (1991)
&. @he <apa$ & r " $e# 4<&"7* a fore g$er corporat o$

that # co$trary to Ph l pp $e law a$d the pu,l c pol cy go!er$ $g F l p $o o!er#ea# wor9er#. &rt. 17* pro! de# that our proh , t !e law# co$cer$ $g per#o$#* the r act#* or the r property or wh ch ha!e for the r o,8ect pu,l c order* pu,l c pol cy a$d good cu#tom# #hall $ot ,e re$dered $effect !e ,y law# or co$!e$t o$# agreed upo$ $ a fore g$ cou$try. Ne# de#* &lmaG# co$#e$t to the #eco$d co$tract wa# ! t ated ,y u$due $flue$ce* ,e $g ! rtually helple## a$d u$der f $a$c al d #tre## $ a fore g$ cou$try* a# $d cated ,y
the g !e$ fact that #he # g$ed ,ecau#e #he had $o cho ce. @herefore* the defe$da$t# cla m that the co$tract # !al d u$der Ho$g9o$g law #hould ,e re8ected # $ce u$der the DOCT !"# O$ P OC#%%&'( P #%&)PT!O" a

l ce$#ed to do ,u# $e## $ the Ph l pp $e#* e-ecuted $ 0a$ la a co$tract of employme$t w th 0ar te## )uapa
u$der wh ch the latter wa# h red a# a #tewarde## o$ the a rcraft fly $g the 0a$ la><apa$>0a$ la route. @he co$tra#t #pec f cally pro! de# that 417 the durat o$ of the co$tract #hall ,e two 427 year#* 427 $otw th#ta$d $g the a,o!e

durat o$* <&" may term $ate the agreeme$t at a$y t me ,y g ! $g her $ot ce $ wr t $g te$ 4107 day# $ ad!a$ce* a$d 437
the co$tract #hall ,e co$#trued a# go!er$ed u$der a$d ,y

the law# of <apa$ a$d o$ly the court $ @o9yo* <apa$ #hall ha!e the 8ur #d ct o$ to co$# der a$y matter ar # $g from or relat $g to the co$tract.
<&" d #m ##ed 0ar te## o$ the fourth mo$th of her employme$t w thout g ! $g her due $ot ce. 0ar te## the$

fore g$ law # deemed # m lar or de$t cal to Ph l pp $e law


$ the a,#e$ce of proof to the co$trary* a$d #uch # $ot me$t o$ed $ the pro,lem a# ha! $g ,ee$ adduced. 2pplicable Laws; Contracts of Carriage (1999)

/$ 8 Hecem,er 1991 6a$e##a purcha#ed from the 0a$ la


off ce of 5uro>& re a$ a rl $e t c9et for t# Fl ght 1o. 710

f led a compla $t w th the "a,or &r, ter for re $#tateme$t* ,ac9wage# a$d damage#. @he lawyer of <&" co$te$d# that $e ther the "a,or &r, ter $or a$y other age$cy or court $ the Ph l pp $e# ha# 8ur #d ct o$ o!er the ca#e $ ! ew of the a,o!e pro! # o$ 437 of the co$tract wh ch 0ar te## !olu$tar ly # g$ed. @he co$tract # the law ,etwee$ her a$d
<&".

from Halla# to Ch cago o$ 16 <a$uary 1992. Her fl ght re#er!at o$ wa# co$f rmed. /$ her #cheduled departure 6a$e##a chec9ed $ o$ t me at the Halla# a rport. Howe!er*
at the chec9> $ cou$ter #he d #co!ered that #he wa#

Hec de the ##ue. N. 2here u$der a .tateG# ow$ co$fl ct# rule that dome#t c
law of a$other .tate #hould apply* may the court# of the

wa tl #ted w th #ome other pa##e$ger# ,ecau#e of $te$t o$al


o!er,oo9 $g* a 5uro>& re pol cy a$d pract ce. 5uro>&lre

adm tted that 6a$e##a wa# $ot ad! #ed of #uch pol cy whe$

former $e!erthele## refu#e to apply the latter% +f #o* u$der what c rcum#ta$ce%

#he purcha#ed her pla$e t c9et. 6a$e##a wa# o$ly a,le to fly two day# later ,y ta9 $g a$other a rl $e.
6a$e##a #ued 5uro>& re $ 0a$ la for ,reach of co$tract a$d damage#. 5uro>& re cla med that t ca$$ot ,e held l a,le

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&* "a,or "eg #lat o$# are ge$erally $te$ded a# e-pre## o$#
of pu,l c pol cy o$ employer>employee relat o$#. @he

for damage# ,ecau#e t# pract ce of o!er,oo9 $g pa##e$ger# wa# allowed ,y the L... Code of Federal Jegulat o$#.
6a$e##a o$ the other ha$d co$te$ded that a##um $g that the L... Code of Federal Jegulat o$# allowed +$te$t o$al o!er,oo9 $g* the a rl $e compa$y ca$$ot $!o9e the L... Code o$ the grou$d that the t c9et wa# purcha#ed $ 0a$ la* he$ce* Ph l pp $e law #hould apply* u$der wh ch 6a$e##a ca$ reco!er damage# for ,reach of co$tract of carr age. Hec de. H #cu## fully.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

co$tract therefore* ,etwee$ <apa$ & r " $e# 4<&"7 a$d 0ar te## may apply o$ly to the e-te$t that t# pro! # o$# are $ot $co$# #te$t w th Ph l pp $e la,or law# $te$ded
part cularly to protect employee#.

L$der the c rcum#ta$ce#* the d #m ##al of 0ar te## w thout comply $g w th Ph l pp $e "a,or law would ,e $!al d a$d a$y #t pulat o$ $ the co$tract to the co$trary # co$# dered !o d. . $ce the law of the forum $ th # ca#e # the Ph l pp $e law the ##ue# #hould>,e re#ol!ed $ accorda$ce w th Ph l pp $e law.
N. @he th rd paragraph of &rt. 17 of the C ! l Code pro! de#

6a$e##a ca$ reco!er damage# u$der Ph l pp $e law for ,reach of co$tract of carr age* Ph l pp $e law #hould go!er$ a# the law of the place where the pla$e t c9et# were ,ought
a$d the co$tract of carr age wa# e-ecuted. +$ =ala&ea v.

that(

Page 16 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

'Proh , t !e law# co$cer$ $g per#o$#* the r act# or property* a$d tho#e wh ch ha!e for the r o,8ect pu,l c

0ar # the$ retur$ed to the Ph l pp $e# a$d c!l

$ a

ceremo$y cele,rated the

$ Ce,u C ty accord $g to

order* pu,l c pol cy a$d good cu#tom# #hall $ot ,e re$dered $effect !e ,y law# or 8udgme$t# promulgated*
or ,y determ $at o$# or co$!e$t o$# agreed upo$ $ a fore g$ cou$try.' &ccord $gly* a #tateG# ow$ co$fl ct of law# rule may* e-cept o$ally ,e $appl ca,le* g !e$ pu,l c pol cy

formal t e# of Ph l pp $e law* #he marr ed her former

cla##mate 6 $ce$t l 9ew #e a F l p $o c t :e$.


a7 2a# the marr age of 0ar # a$d <oh$#o$ !al d whe$ cele,rated% +# the r marr age #t ll !al dly e- #t $g $ow%

Jea#o$#.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

co$# derat o$# ,y the law of the forum.

4a7 @he marr age of 0a$# a$d <oh$#o$ wa# !al d whe$ cele,rated ,ecau#e all marr age# #olem$ :ed out# de the Ph l pp $e# 4@o9yo7 $ accorda$ce w th the law# $ force $
the cou$try where they are #olem$ :ed 4<apa$7* a$d !al d

)o $g

$to the #pec f c pro! # o$# of the co$tract

?ue#t o$* + would rule a# follow#( 1. @he durat o$ of the co$tract Ph l pp $e law a$d #t pulated3

# $ot oppo#ed to

t ca$ therefore ,e !al d a#

there a# #uch* are al#o !al d $ the Ph l pp $e#. @he r marr age $o lo$ger !al dly #u,# #t#* ,ecau#e t ha# ,ee$ d ##ol!ed ,y the a,#olute d !orce !al dly o,ta $ed ,y
<oh$#o$ wh ch capac tated 0ar # to remarry 4&rt. 26.

2.

@he

#eco$d

pro! # o$

to

the

effect

that

$otw th#ta$d $g durat o$* <apa$ & r " $e# 4<&"7 may

Fam ly Code7. 2pplicable Laws; laws governing marriages ('##()


)e$e a$d <a$e* F l p $o* met a$d got marr ed $ 5$gla$d

term $ate her employme$t # $!al d* ,e $g $co$# #te$t


w th our "a,or law#3

3.

@hat the co$tract #hall ,e co$#trued a# go!er$ed u$der a$d ,y the law# of <apa$ a$d o$ly the court# of @o9yo*
<apa$ #hall ha!e 8ur #d ct o$* # $!al d a# clearly oppo#ed to the aforec ted th rd paragraph of &rt#. 17 a$d 1700 of the C ! l Code* wh ch pro! de#(

wh le ,oth were ta9 $g up po#t>graduate cour#e# there. & few year# after the r graduat o$* they dec ded to a$$ul the r
marr age. <a$e f led a$ act o$ to a$$ul her marr age to

'&rt. 1700. @he relat o$# ,etwee$ cap tal a$d la,or are $ot merely co$tractual. @hey are #o mpre##ed w th pu,l c $tere#t that la,or co$tract# mu#t y eld
to the commo$ good. @herefore* #uch co$tract# are #u,8ect to the #pec al law# o$ la,or u$ o$#* collect !e ,arga $ $g* #tr 9e# a$d loc9out#* clo#ed #hop* wage#* wor9 $g co$d t o$#* hour# of la,or a$d # m lar #u,8ect#.'

)e$e $ 5$gla$d o$ the grou$d of latterO# #ter l ty* a grou$d for a$$ulme$t of marr age $ 5$gla$d. @he 5$gl #h court decreed the marr age a$$ulled. Jetur$ $g to the
Ph l pp $e#* )e$e a#9ed you whether or $ot he would ,e

free to marry h # former g rlfr e$d. 2hat would your legal ad! ce ,e% 5E
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1o* )e$e # $ot free to marry h # former g rlfr e$d. H # marr age to <a$e # !al d accord $g to the form# a$d

#olem$ t e# of Nr t #h law* # !al d here 4&rt cle 17* 1#t par.*


1CC7. Howe!er* # $ce )e$e a$d <a$e are #t ll F l p $o#

AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE"0

&. 2he$ a co$tract ha# a fore g$ eleme$t #uch a# $ the

factual #ett $g #tated $ the pro,lem where o$e of the


part e# # a fore g$ corporat o$* the co$tract ca$ ,e

although l ! $g $ 5$gla$d* the d ##olut o$ of the r marr age # #t ll go!er$ed ,y Ph l pp $e law 4&rt cle 15* 1CC7. . $ce*
#ter l ty # $ot o$e of the grou$d# for the a$$ulme$t of a

#u#ta $ed a# !al d part cularly the #t pulat o$ e-pre## $g that the co$tract # go!er$ed ,y the law# of the fore g$ cou$try. ) !e$ th # ge$erally accepted pr $c ple of $ter$at o$al law*

marr age u$der &rt cle 45 of the Fam ly Code* the a$$ulme$t of )e$eO# marr age to <a$e o$ that grou$d # $ot !al d $ the Ph l pp $e# 4&rt cle 17* 1CC7
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

the co$tract ,etwee$ 0ar te## a$d <&" # !al d a$d t #hould
therefore ,e e$forced.

Be#* )e$e h#

# free to marry h # g rlfr e$d ,ecau#e

2pplicable Laws; laws governing marriages (199')

+$ 1989* 0ar #* a F l p $o c t :e$* marr ed her ,o## <oh$#o$* a$ &mer ca$ c t :e$* $ @o9yo $ a wedd $g ceremo$y
cele,rated accord $g to <apa$e#e law#. /$e year later*

therefore* # go!er$ed ,y the law of the place where the marr age wa# #olem$ :ed 4le- loc cele,rat o$ #7. He$ce*

marr age wa# !al dly a$$ulled $ 5$gla$d. @he ##ue of whether or $ot a marr age # !o da,le* $clud $g the grou$d#

<oh$#o$ retur$ed to h # $at !e 1e!ada* a$d he !al dly


o,ta $ed $ that #tate a$ a,#olute d !orce from h # w fe

e!e$ f #ter l ty # $ot a grou$d to a$$ul the marr age u$der the Ph l pp $e law* the marr age # $e!erthele## !o da,le ,ecau#e #ter l ty ma9e# the marr age !o da,le u$der 5$gl #h
law. @herefore* a$$ulme$t of the marr age $ 5$gla$d #

0ar #. &fter 0ar # rece !ed the f $al 8udgme$t of d !orce* #he marr ed her ch ldhood #weetheart Pedro* al#o a F l p $o
c t :e$* $ a rel g ou# ceremo$y $ Ce,u C ty* cele,rated accord $g to the formal t e# of Ph l pp $e law. Pedro later

!al d $ the Ph l pp $e#. 2pplicable Laws; ale of 1eal 4ropert" (1999) 2h le $ &fgha$ #ta$* a <apa$e#e ,y the $ame of .ato #old

to Jamo$c to* a F l p $o* a parcel of la$d # tuated $ the

left for the L$ ted .tate# a$d ,ecame $atural :ed a# a$ &mer ca$ c t :e$. 0ar # followed Pedro to the L$ ted
.tate#* a$d after a #er ou# ?uarrel* 0ar # f led a #u t a$d

Ph l pp $e# wh ch .ato $her ted from h # F l p $o mother.


1. 2hat law go!er$# the formal ty $ the e-ecut o$ of the

o,ta $ed a d !orce decree ##ued ,y the court $ the #tate of


0aryla$d.

co$tract of #ale% 5-pla $ your a$#wer a$d g !e t# legal ,a# #.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Page 17 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

L$der &rt. 16 par. 1* 1CC* real property # #u,8ect to the law of the cou$try where t # # tuated. . $ce the property # # tuated $ the Ph l pp $e#* Ph l pp $e law appl e#. @he rule of le- re # tae $ &rt cle 16 pre!a l# o!er le- loc co$tractu
$ &rt cle 17 of the 1CC.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

3. @he d #tr ,ut o$ of the per#o$al propert e# $ )erma$y #hall ,e go!er$ed ,y Fre$ch law. @he legal ,a# # # &rt. 16* 1CC7.
2pplicable Laws; 8ills e<ec%te0 abroa0 (199() &* a F l p $o* e-ecuted a w ll $ Ruwa t wh le there a# a

&fgha$ #ta$ law go!er$# the formal re?u reme$t# of the

co$tract # $ce the e-ecut o$ # $ &fgha$ #ta$. &rt. 17 of the C ! l Code pro! de# that the form# a$d #olem$ t e# of
co$tract#* w ll#* a$d other pu,l c $#trume$t# #hall ,e

co$tract wor9er. &##ume that u$der the law# of Ruwa t* t # e$ough that the te#tator aff - h # # g$ature to the pre#e$ce of two w t$e##e# a$d that the w ll $eed $ot ,e
ac9$owledged ,efore a $otary pu,l c.

go!er$ed ,y the law# of the cou$try $ wh ch they are e-ecuted. Howe!er* f the co$tract wa# e-ecuted ,efore the d plomat c or co$#ular off c al# of the Jepu,l c of the
Ph l pp $e# $ &fgha$ #ta$* Ph l pp $e law #hall apply.

0ay the w ll ,e pro,ated $ the Ph l pp $e#%


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Be#. L$der &rt cle# 815 a$d 17 of the C ! l Code* the formal ty of the e-ecut o$ of a w ll # go!er$ed ,y the law of
the place of e-ecut o$. +f the w ll wa# e-ecuted w th the

2pplicable Laws; %ccession; )ntestate & =estamentar" ('##1)


&le- wa# ,or$ a F l p $o ,ut wa# a $atural :ed Ca$ad a$

c t :e$ at the t me of h # death o$ Hecem,er 25* 1998. He left ,eh $d a la#t w ll a$d te#tame$t $ wh ch he ,e?ueathed all h # propert e#* real a$d per#o$al* $ the Ph l pp $e# to h # ac9$owledged lleg t mate F llp $a daughter a$d $oth $g to h # two leg t mate F l p $o #o$#. @he #o$# #ought the a$$ulme$t of the la#t w ll a$d te#tame$t o$ the grou$d that t depr !ed them of the r leg t me# ,ut the daughter wa# a,le
to pro!e that there were $o compul#ory he r# or leg t me# u$der Ca$ad a$ law. 2ho #hould pre!a l% 2hy% 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

formal t e# pre#cr ,ed ,y the law# of Ruwa t a$d !al d there a# #uch* the w ll # !al d a$d may ,e pro,ated $ the Ph l pp $e#. Definition; Cognovit; ;orrowing tat%te; C&aracteri>ation (199!) +$ Pr !ate +$ter$at o$al "aw 4Co$fl ct of "aw#7 what #( 1M Cog$o! t% 27 & ,orrow $g #tatute% 37 Character :at o$%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he daughter #hould pre!a l ,ecau#e &rt cle 16 of the 1ew C ! l Code pro! de# that $te#tate a$d te#tame$tary
#ucce## o$ #hall ,e go!er$ed ,y the $at o$al law of the per#o$ who#e #ucce## o$ # u$der co$# derat o$. 2pplicable Laws; %cession of 2liens (1999) 0 chelle* the Fre$ch daughter of Pe$re ch* a )erma$ $at o$al* d ed $ .pa $ lea! $g real propert e# $ the Ph l pp $e# a# well a# !alua,le per#o$al propert e# $ )erma$y.

17 a7 C/)1/6+@ # a co$fe## o$ of 8udgme$t where,y a port o$ of the compla $t # co$fe##ed ,y the defe$da$t who de$ e# the re#t thereof 4Ph l pp $e law H ct o$ary* 3rd 5d.7 4/campo !. Flore$c a$o* ">0 13553* 2S23S507. ,7 C/)1/6+@ # a '#tateme$t of co$fe## o$'
/fte$t me#* t # referred to a# a 'power of attor$ey' or

# mply a# a 'power'* t # the wr tte$ author ty of the de,tor a$d h # d rect o$ to the cler9 of the d #tr ct court* or 8u#t ce of the peace to e$ter 8udgme$t aga $#t the de,tor a# #tated there $. 42ord# a$d Phra#e#* !ol. 7* pp. 115>1667. c7 C/)1/6+@ # a plea $ a$ act o$ wh ch ac9$owledge#
that the defe$da$t d d u$derta9e a$d prom #e a# the pla $t ff $ t# declarat o$ ha# alleged* a$d that t ca$$ot

1.

2hat law determ $e# who #hall #ucceed the decea#ed%

5-pla $ your a$#wer a$d g !e t# legal ,a# #.

2. 2hat law regulate# the d #tr ,ut o$ of the real propert e#


$ the Ph l pp $e#% 5-pla $ your a$#wer a$d g !e t# legal

de$y that t owe# a$d u$8u#tly deta $# from the pla $t ff the
#um cla med ,y h m $ h # declarat o$* a$d co$#e$t# that

,a# # . 3. 2hat law go!er$# the d #tr ,ut o$ of the per#o$al


propert e# $ )erma$y% 5-pla $ your a$#wer a$d g !e t#

8udgme$t ,e e$tered aga $#t the defe$da$t for a certa $ #um. ;2ord# a$d Phra#e#* !ol. 7* pp. 115>1667. d7 C/)1/6+@ # a $ote author : $g a lawyer for co$fe## o$ of 8udgme$t ,y defe$da$t.

legal ,a# #.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&##um $g that the e#tate of the decede$t # ,e $g #ettled $

the Ph l pp $e#7

1. @he $at o$al law of the decede$t 4Fre$ch law7 #hall


go!er$ $ determ $ $g who w ll #ucceed to h # e#tate. @he legal ,a# # # &rt. 16 par. 2* 1CC.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

27

'N/JJ/2+1) .@&@L@5' > "aw# of the #tate or

8ur #d ct o$ u#ed ,y a$other #tate $ dec d $g co$fl ct# ?ue#t o$ed $!ol!ed $ the cho ce of law 4Nlac9G# "aw H ct o$ary* 5th ed. 19797.
37 a7 'CH&J&C@5J+I&@+/1' # otherw #e called 'cla## f cat o$' or '?ual f cat o$.' +t # the proce## of a## g$ $g a d #puted ?ue#t o$ to t# correct legal category

Fre$ch law #hall go!er$ the d #tr ,ut o$ of h # real

propert e# $ the Ph l pp $e# e-cept whe$ the real property


# la$d wh ch may ,e tra$#m tted to a fore g$er o$ly ,y hered tary #ucce## o$.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4Pr !ate +$ter$at o$al "aw* .alo$ga7.


,7 'CH&J&C@5J+I&@+/1' # a proce## $ determ $ $g

2. @he d #tr ,ut o$ of the real propert e# $ the Ph l pp $e# #hall ,e go!er$ed ,y Fre$ch law. @he legal ,a# # # &rt. 16*
1CC7.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

u$der what category a certa $ #et of fact# or rule# fall. 4Para#* Co$fl ct of "aw#* p. 94. 1984 ed.7

Page 18 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

Definition; for%m non?conveniens; long?arm stat%te (199!) 17 2hat # the doctr $e of Forum $o$ co$!e$ e$#% 27 2hat # a 'lo$g arm #tatute'%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

$at o$al ty theory* a$d the ##ue $!ol!ed # wh ch of the law# of the two cou$tr e# #hould apply to determ $e the

17 a7 F/JL0 1/1 C/1651+51. # a pr $c ple $


Pr !ate +$ter$at o$al "aw that where the e$d# of 8u#t ce

order of #ucce## o$* the amou$t of #ucce## o$al r ght#* or* the $tr $# c !al d ty of te#tame$tary pro! # o$#. .uch ##ue # $ot $!ol!ed $ th # ca#e.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

#tro$gly $d cate that the co$tro!er#y may ,e more #u ta,ly tr ed el#ewhere* the$ 8ur #d ct o$ #hould ,e decl $ed a$d the
part e# relegated to rel ef to ,e #ought $ a$other forum.

Be#. 'Je$!o ' > wh ch mea$# 'referr $g ,ac9' # rele!a$t

,ecau#e here* we are apply $g L... law to 0ar o* ,e $g


already t# c t :e$* although the formal t e# of the #eco$d

40ore$o. Ph l pp $e "aw H ct o$ary* p. 254* 1982 ed.7.


,7 2here $ a ,road #e$#e the e$d# of 8u#t ce #tro$gly $d cate that the co$tro!er#y may ,e more #u ta,ly tr ed

marr age w ll ,e go!er$ed ,y Ph l pp $e law u$der the


pr $c ple of le- loc cele,rat o$ #. Domiciliar" t&eor" vs. .ationalit" =&eor" ('##!) H #t $gu #h ,r efly ,ut clearly ,etwee$( Hom c l ary theory

el#ewhere* the$ 8ur #d ct o$ #hould ,e decl $ed a$d the


part e# relegated to rel ef to ,e #ought $ a$other forum. 4Ha$d,oo9 o$ Pr !ate +$ter$at o$al "aw* &ruego7. c7 F/JL0 1/1 C/1651+51. mea$# # mply that a

a$d $at o$al ty theory of per#o$al law. 45E7


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

court may re# #t mpo# t o$ upo$ t# 8ur #d ct o$ e!e$ whe$


8ur #d ct o$ # author :ed ,y the letter of a ge$eral !e$ue #tatute. 4.alo$ga. Pr !ate +$ter$at o$al "aw. p* 51. 1967 ed.7

dom c le or the place of h # ha, tual re# de$ce. @he

H/0+C+"+&JB @H5/JB po# t# that the per#o$al #tatu# a$d r ght# of a per#o$ are go!er$ed ,y the law of h#

1&@+/1&"+@B @H5/JB* o$ the other ha$d* po#tulate#


that t # the law of the per#o$G# $at o$al ty that go!er$#

#uch #tatu# a$d r ght#


,or%m .on Conveniens & Le< Loci Contract%s ('##') Fel pe # a F l p $o c t :e$. 2he$ he we$t to .yd$ey for

d7 Forum $o$ co$!e$ e$# # a doctr $e where,y a court of law ha! $g full <ur #d ct o$ o!er a ca#e ,rought $ a proper !e$ue or d #tr ct decl $e# to determ $e the ca#e o$ t# mer t# ,ecau#e <u#t ce would ,e ,etter #er!ed ,y the tr al o!er the
ca#e $ a$other 8ur #d ct o$. 42e,#terG# H ct o$ary7

!acat o$* he met a former ,u# $e## a##oc ate* who propo#ed
to h m a tra$#act o$ wh ch too9 h m to 0o#cow. Fel pe

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

42M a7 "/1) &J0 .@&@L@5 # a leg #lat !e act wh ch

,ro9ered a co$tract ,etwee$ .yd$ey Coal# Corp. 4Coal#7* a$ &u#tral a$ f rm* a$d 0o#cow 5$ergy Corp. 45$ergy7* a Ju## a$ f rm* for Coal# to #upply coal to 5$ergy o$ a
mo$thly ,a# # for three year#. Noth the#e f rm# were $ot

pro! de# for per#o$al 8ur #d ct o$* ! a #u,#t tuted #er! ce or


proce##* o!er per#o$# or corporat o$# wh ch are $o$>

re# de$t# of the #tate a$d wh ch !olu$tar ly go $to the #tate*


d rectly or ,y age$t or commu$ cate w th per#o$# $ the #tate for l m ted purpo#e#* $act o$# wh ch co$cer$ cla m#

do $g* a$d #t ll do $ot do* ,u# $e## $ the Ph l pp $e#. Fel pe #huttled ,etwee$ .yd$ey a$d 0o#cow to clo#e the co$tract.
He al#o e-ecuted $ .yd$ey a comm ## o$ co$tract w th

Coal# a$d $ 0o#cow w th 5$ergy* u$der wh ch co$tract#


he wa# guara$teed comm ## o$# ,y ,oth f rm# ,a#ed o$ a

relat $g to performa$ce or e-ecut o$ of tho#e purpo#e#


4Nlac9G# "aw H ct o$ary* 5th 5d. 19797.

perce$tage of del !er e# for the three>year per od* paya,le $


.yd$ey a$d $ 0o#cow* re#pect !ely* through depo# t# $

,7 "o$g arm #tatute refer# # mply to author :ed #u,#t tuted


#er! ce. Divorce; effect of 0ivorce grante0 to former ,ilipinos; 1envoi Doctrine (1997)

accou$t# that he ope$ed $ the two c t e#. Noth f rm# pa d


Fel pe h # comm ## o$ for four mo$th#* after wh ch they

#topped pay $g h m. Fel pe lear$ed from h # co$tact#* who


are re# de$t# of .yd$ey a$d 0o#cow* that the two f rm# tal9ed to each other a$d dec ded to cut h m off. He $ow

+$ 1977* 0ar o a$d Clara* ,oth F l p $o c t :e$#* were


marr ed $ the Ph l pp $e#. @hree year# later* they we$t to

the L$ ted .tate# of &mer ca a$d e#ta,l #hed the r re# de$ce

f le# #u t $ 0a$ la aga $#t ,oth Coal# a$d 5$ergy for #pec f c performa$ce. &. Hef $e or e-pla $ the pr $c ple of Cle- loc

$ .a$ Fra$c #co* Cal for$ a. +$ 1987* the couple appl ed for* a$d were gra$ted* L... c t :e$#h p. +$ 1989* 0ar o* cla m $g
to ha!e ,ee$ a,a$do$ed ,y Clara* wa# a,le to #ecure a decree of d !orce $ Je$o* 1e!ada* L...&.

co$tractu#D. 42E7 N. Hef $e or e-pla $ the rule of Cforum $o$ co$!e$ e$#D 43E7
C. .hould the Ph l pp $e court a##ume 8ur #d ct o$ o!er

+$ 1990* 0ar o retur$ed to the Ph l pp $e# a$d marr ed


<ua$a who 9$ew well 0ar oG# pa#t l fe. 4a7 +# the marr age ,etwee$ 0ar o a$d <ua$a !al d% 4,7 2ould the re$!o doctr $e ha!e a$y rele!a$ce to the

the ca#e% 5-pla $. 45E7


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&.

"5= "/C+ C/1@J&C@L. may ,e u$der#tood $ two #e$#e#* a# follow#(

417 +t # the law of the place where co$tract#* w ll#* a$d


other pu,l c $#trume$t# are e-ecuted a$d go!er$# the r Cform# a$d #olem$ t e#D* pur#ua$t to the f r#t

ca#e%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4a7 Be#* ,ecau#e Ph l law recog$ :e# the d !orce ,etwee$


0ar o a$d Clara a# !al d.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4,7 1o* @he re$!o doctr $e # rele!a$t $ ca#e# where o$e


cou$try appl e# the dom c l ary theory a$d the other the

paragraph* &rt cle 17 of the 1ew C ! l Code3 or 427 +t # the proper law of the co$tract3 e. .* the #y#tem of law $te$ded to go!er$ the e$t re co$tract* $clud $g

t# e##e$t al re?u # te#* $d cat $g the law of the place w th wh ch the co$tract ha# t# clo#e#t co$$ect o$ or

Page 19 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

where the ma $ eleme$t# of the co$tract co$!erge. &# llu#trated ,y =ala&ea v. Co.rt o* A''eals ($$8 SCRA $3 [1993])* t # the law of the place where the a rl $e t c9et wa# ##ued* where the pa##e$ger# are $at o$al# a$d re# de$t# of* a$d where the defe$da$t a rl $e compa$y
ma $ta $ed t# off ce.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

cou$try of wh ch they are c t :e$#. . $ce the r marr age #

!al d u$der Ho$g Ro$g law* t #hall ,e !al d a$d re#pected


$ the Ph l pp $e#.

&.

L$der the doctr $e of le- loc co$tractu#* a# a

ge$eral rule* the law of the place where a co$tract # made or e$tered $to go!er$# w th re#pect to t# $ature a$d !al d ty* o,l gat o$ a$d $terpretat o$. @h # ha# ,ee$ #a d to
,e the rule e!e$ though the place where the co$tract wa# made # d ffere$t from the place where t # to ,e performed* a$d part cularly #o* f the place of the ma9 $g

.at%rali>ation ('##() 0 ## L$ !er#e* from F $la$d* came to the Ph l pp $e# o$ a tour #t ! #a. 2h le $ th # cou$try* #he fell $ lo!e w th a$d marr ed a F l p $o doctor. Her tour #t ! #a ha! $g ,ee$ e-p red a$d after the ma- mum e-te$# o$ allowed therefore*
the Nureau of +mm grat o$ a$d Heportat o$ 4N+H7 #

pre#e$tly dema$d $g that #he mmed ately lea!e the cou$try ,ut #he refu#e# to do #o* cla m $g that #he # already a F l p $o C t :e$ ,y her marr age to a F l p $o c t :e$. Ca$ the N+H #t ll order the deportat o$ of 0 ## L$ !er#e% 5-pla $. 5E
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

a$d the place of performa$ce are the #ame (>n"te% A"rl"ne v.


CA, ;.R. 0o. 1$4110, A'r"l $0, $001).
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Be#* the N+H ca$ order the deportat o$ of 0 ## L$ !er#e.


@he marr age of a$ al e$ woma$ to a F l p $o doe# $ot automat cally ma9e her a F l p $o C t :e$. .he mu#t f r#t

N.

F/JL0 1/1 C/1651+51. mea$# that a court ha# d #cret o$ary author ty to decl $e 8ur #d ct o$ o!er a cau#e of act o$ whe$ t # of the ! ew that the act o$ may
,e 8u#tly a$d effect !ely ad8ud cated el#ewhere.

pro!e $ a$ appropr ate proceed $g that #he doe# $ot ha!e


a$y d #?ual f cat o$ for Ph l pp $e c t :e$#h p. (?.n, >an
C!. v. Re'./l"+ o* t!e

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

C. 1o* the Ph l pp $e court# ca$$ot ac?u re 8ur #d ct o$ o!er the ca#e of Fel pe. F r#tly* u$der the rule of forum $o$ co$!e$ e$#* the Ph l pp $e court # $ot a co$!e$ e$t forum
a# all the $c de$t# of the ca#e occurred out# de the Ph l pp $e#. 1e ther are ,oth Coal# a$d 5$ergy do $g

. $ce 0 ## L$ !er#e # #t ll a fore g$er* de#p te her marr age to a F l p $o doctor* #he ca$ ,e deported upo$ e-p ry of her allowa,le #tay $ the Ph l pp $e#.
A'!$.E" (+&&E($E# A'(WE":

!"l"''"nes, 178 SCRA 793 [1988])

1o* the Nureau of +mm grat o$ ca$$ot order deportat o$. &$ al e$ woma$ marry $g a F l p $o* $at !e>
?a 5"& v Co&&"ss"on o* I&&",rat"on, 41 SCRA $9$ [19(1]), (Se+

her

,or$ or $atural :ed* ,ecome# p#o facto a F l p $o f #he #


$ot d #?ual f ed to ,e a c t :e$ of the Ph l pp $e# (Mo
4, 0at.ral"@at"on 5a9). &ll that #he ha# to do # pro!e $

,u# $e## $# de the Ph l pp $e#. .eco$dly* the co$tract# were $ot perfected $ the Ph l pp $e#. L$der the pr $c ple of leloc co$tractu#* the law of the place where the co$tract #

made #hall apply. "a#tly* the Ph l pp $e court ha# $o power


to determ $e the fact# #urrou$d $g the e-ecut o$ of #a d

the deportat o$ proceed $g the fact of her marr age a$d that #he # $ot d #?ual f ed to ,ecome a F l p $o C t :e$.
A'!$.E" (+&&E($E# A'(WE":

co$tract#. &$d e!e$ f a proper dec # o$ could ,e reached* #uch would ha!e $o , d $g effect o$ Coal# a$d 5$ergy a# the court wa# $ot a,le to ac?u re 8ur #d ct o$ o!er the #a d corporat o$#. (Man"la Aotel Cor'. v. 05RC. 343 SCRA 1, 136
14[$000])

+t depe$d#. +f #he # d #?ual f ed to ,e a F l p $o c t :e$* #he may ,e deported. +f #he # $ot d #?ual f ed to ,e a F l p $o
c t :e$* #he may $ot ,e deported. &$ al e$ woma$ who @he marr age marr e# a F l p $o c t :e$ ,ecome# o$e. of

.ationalit" =&eor" ('##!)

PH a$d "6 are HR Ch $e#e. @he r pare$t# are $ow F l p $o c t :e$# who l !e $ 0a$ la. 2h le #t ll #tude$t# $ 01. .tate* they got marr ed although they are f r#t cou# $#. +t appear# that ,oth $ HR a$d $ 01. .tate f r#t cou# $#
could marry legally.

0 ## L$ !er#e to the F l p $o doctor d d $ot automat cally ma9e her a F l p $o c t :e$. .he #t ll ha# to pro!e that #he # $ot d #?ual f ed to ,ecome a c t :e$.
=&eor"; significant relations&ips t&eor" (199!) &,le* a corporat o$ dom c led $ .tate &* ,ut* do $g

,u# $e## $ the Ph l pp $e#* h red 5r c* a F l p $o e$g $eer*


for t# pro8ect $ .tate N. +$ the co$tract of employme$t

@hey pla$ to re# de a$d #et up ,u# $e## $ the Ph l pp $e#.

e-ecuted ,y the part e# $ .tate N* t wa# #t pulated that the

Nut they ha!e ,ee$ $formed* howe!er* that the marr age of f r#t cou# $# here # co$# dered !o d from the ,eg $$ $g ,y rea#o$ of pu,l c pol cy. @hey are $ a d lemma. @hey do$Ot wa$t to ,rea9 Ph l pp $e law* much le## the r marr age !ow. @hey #ee9 your ad! ce o$ whether the r c ! l #tatu# w ll ,e ad!er#ely affected ,y Ph l pp $e dome#t c law% 2hat # your ad! ce% 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

co$tract could ,e term $ated at the compa$yG# w ll* wh ch

#t pulat o$ # allowed $ .tate N. 2he$ 5r c wa# #ummar ly


d #m ##ed ,y &,le* he #ued &,le for damage# the $

Ph l pp $e#. 2 ll the Ph l pp $e court apply the co$tractual #t pulat o$%


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

a7 L# $g the '%!*"!$!C'"T #('T!O"%+!P% T+#O ,'* there are co$tact# # g$ f ca$t to the Ph l pp $e#.
&mo$g the#e are that the place of ,u# $e## # the Ph l pp $e#* the employee co$cer$ed # a F l p $o a$d the

0y ad! #e # a# follow#( @he c ! l #tatu# ofG PH a$d "6 w ll $ot ,e ad!er#ely affected ,y Ph l pp $e law ,ecau#e they are $at o$al# of Ho$g Ro$g a$d $ot F l p $o c t :e$#.Ne $g fore g$er#* the r #tatu#* co$d t o$# a$d legal capac ty $ the
Ph l pp $e# are go!er$ed ,y the law of Ho$g Ro$g* the

#u t wa# f led $ the Ph l pp $e#* there,y 8u#t fy $g the appl cat o$ of Ph l pp $e law. +$ the &mer ca$ & rl $e# ca#e the Court held that whe$ what # $!ol!ed # #uch a# the P' ')O&"T %T'T# !"T# #%T

Page 20 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

protect o$ of the r ght# of F l p $o la,orer#* the court ca$

$atural mother a# her m ddle $ame. @he Court ha# ruled

d #regard cho ce of forum a$d cho ce of law. @herefore the


Ph l pp $e Court #hould $ot apply the #t pulat o$ ?ue#t o$.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

that there # $o law proh , t $g a$ lleg t mate ch ld adopted ,y her $atural father to u#e* a# m ddle $ame* her motherG#
#ur$ame. 2hat # $ot proh , ted # allowed. &fter all* the

,7 1o* le- for #hould ,e appl ed ,ecau#e the #u t # f led $ Ph l pp $e court# a$d 5r c wa# h red $ the Ph l pp $e#. @he Ph l pp $e Co$#t tut o$ afford# full protect o$ to la,or a$d the #t pulat o$ a# to #ummary d #m ##al ru$# cou$ter to our
fu$dame$tal a$d #tatutory law#. =orts; 4rescriptive 4erio0 ('##!)

u#e of the mater$al $ame a# the m ddle $ame # $ accord w th F l p $o culture a$d cu#tom# a$d adopt o$ # $te$ded for the ,e$ef t of the adopted [In reB A%o't"on o* Ste'!an"e
0at!y Astor,a ;ar+"a, ;.R. 0o. 148311, Mar+! 31, $007C Ra/.ya, T!e 5a9 on ersons an% 8a&"ly Relat"ons, '. 613].

)nter?Co%ntr" 20option; ,ormalities ('##9)

+$ a cla## #u t for damage#* pla $t ff# cla med they #uffered $8ur e# from torture dur $g mart al law. @he #u t wa# f led
upo$ Pre# de$t 50O# arr !al o$ e- le $ H+* a L... #tate.

Ha$# Ner,er* a )erma$ $at o$al* a$d h # F l p $o w fe* Jhoda* are perma$e$t re# de$t# of Ca$ada. @hey de# re #o
much to adopt 0ag$o* a$ 8>year old orpha$ed ,oy a$d a ,apt #mal god#o$ of Jhoda. . $ce the acc de$tal death of

@he court $ H+ awarded pla $t ff# the e?u !ale$t of P100 , ll o$ u$der the L... law o$ al e$ tort cla m#. /$ appeal* 50O# 5#tate ra #ed the ##ue of pre#cr pt o$. +t argued that # $ce #a d L... law # # le$t o$ the matter* the court #hould apply( 417 H+O# law #ett $g a two>year l m tat o$ o$ tort
cla m#3 or 427 the Ph l pp $e law wh ch appear# to re?u re that cla m# for per#o$al $8ury ar # $g from mart al law ,e ,rought w th $ o$e year. Pla $t ff# cou$tered that pro! # o$# of the mo#t a$alogou#

0ag$oG# pare$t# $ 2004* he ha# ,ee$ #tay $g w th h # au$t who* howe!er* could hardly afford to feed her ow$ fam ly.
L$fortu$ately* Ha$# a$d Jhoda ca$$ot come to the Ph l pp $e# to adopt 0ag$o although they po##e## all the

?ual f cat o$# a# adopt !e pare$t#. Is t!ere a 'oss"/"l"ty *or t!e& to a%o't Ma,no1 Ao9 s!o.l% t!ey ,o a/o.t "t1 (74)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Be#* t # po## ,le for Ha$# a$d Jhoda to adopt 0ag$o.

federal #tatute* the @orture 6 ct m# Protect o$ &ct* #hould ,e appl ed. +t #et# te$ year# a# the per od for pre#cr pt o$. 0oreo!er* they argued that e?u ty could toll the #tatute of l m tat o$# For t appeared that 50 had procured .
Co$#t tut o$al ame$dme$t# gra$t $g h m#elf a$d tho#e act $g u$der h # d rect o$ mmu$ ty from #u t dur $g h #

Jepu,l c &ct 1o. 8043 or the +$ter>Cou$try &dopt o$ &ct*

allow# al e$# or F l p $o# perma$e$tly re# d $g a,road to

apply for $ter>cou$try adopt o$ of a F l p $o ch ld. @he law howe!er re?u re# that o$ly legally free ch ld* or o$e who ha# ,ee$ !olu$tar ly or $!olu$tar ly comm tted to the H.2H
or a$y of t# accred ted age$c e#* may ,e #u,8ect of $ter>

te$ure. +$ th # ca#e* ha# pre#cr pt o$ #et $ or $ot% Co$# der $g the d ffere$ce# $ the c ted law#* wh ch pre#cr pt !e per od #hould ,e appl ed( o$e year u$der Ph l pp $e law* two year# u$der H+O# law* te$ year# u$der L... federal law* or $o$e of the a,o!e% 5-pla $. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

cou$try adopt o$. @he law further re?u re# that a# de from po##e## $g all the ?ual f cat o$#* the adopt !e pare$t# mu#t come from a cou$try where the Ph l pp $e# ha# d plomat c relat o$# a$d that the go!er$me$t ma $ta $# a # m larly
accred ted age$cy a$d that adopt o$ # allowed u$der the

$at o$al law of the al e$. 0oreo!er* t mu#t ,e further


#how$ that all po## , l t e# for a dome#t c adopt o$ ha!e ,ee$ e-hau#ted a$d the $ter>cou$try adopt o$ # ,e#t for

@he L. Court w ll apply L. law* the law of the <orum* $


determ $ $g the appl ca,le pre#cr pt !e per od. 2h le L. law # # le$t o$ th # matter* the L. Court w ll $ot apply Ph l pp $e law $ determ $ $g the pre#cr pt !e per od. +t #

the $tere#t of the ch ld. Ha$# a$d Jhoda ha!e to f le a$ appl cat o$ to adopt 0ag$o* e ther w th the Jeg o$al @r al Court ha! $g
8ur #d ct o$ o!er 0ag$o or w th the +$ter>Cou$try

ge$erally aff rmed a# a pr $c ple $ pr !ate $ter$at o$al law that procedural law # o$e of the e-cept o$# to the appl cat o$ of fore g$ law ,y the forum. . $ce pre#cr pt o$
# a matter of procedural law e!e$ $ Ph l pp $e

&dopt o$ Noard $ Ca$ada. Ha$# a$d Jhoda w ll the$ u$dergo a tr al cu#tody for # - 467 mo$th# from the t me of placeme$t. +t # o$ly after the lap#e of the tr al cu#tody

8ur #prude$ce* 4Codalt$ !. P/5&S <6"JCSNroum a$d Joot +$ter$at o$al* 238 .CJ& 721 ;1994A7* the L. Court

that the decree of adopt o$ ca$ ,e ##ued. 4arental 2%t&orit"; 1escission of 20option (199!) +$ 1975* Carol ,egot a daughter N $g* out of wedloc9.
2he$ N $g wa# te$ year# old* Carol ga!e her co$#e$t for N $gG# legal adopt o$ ,y 1orma a$d 0a$uel* wh ch wa# gra$ted ,y the court $ 1990. +$ 1991* Carol lear$ed that 1orma a$d 0a$uel were e$gaged $ a call>g rl>r $g that

w ll apply e ther H+ or Federal law $ determ $ $g the


appl ca,le pre#cr pt !e per od a$d $ot Ph l pp $e law. @he Je#tateme$t of &mer ca$ law aff rm# th # pr $c ple.

A#!P$I!'
20option; /se of %rname of &er .at%ral *ot&er ('##-)
May an "lle,"t"&ate +!"l%, .'on a%o't"on /y !er nat.ral *at!er, .se t!e s.rna&e o* !er nat.ral &ot!er as t!e &"%%le na&e1 ($.74)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Be#* a$ lleg t mate ch ld* upo$

catered to tour #t#. .ome of the g rl# l !ed w th 1orma a$d 0a$uel. Carol got N $g ,ac9* who $ the f r#t place wa$ted to retur$ to her $atural mother. 17 2ho ha# a ,etter r ght to the cu#tody of N $g* Carol or 1orma% 27 &# de from ta9 $g phy# cal cu#tody of N $g* what legal
act o$# ca$ Carol ta9e to protect N $g%

adopt o$ ,y her $atural father* ca$ u#e the #ur$ame of her

Page 21 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

17

a7

+t depe$d# o$ whether or $ot N $g wa# at lea#t 18

# #ter. @hu#* u$der the a,o!e>c ted pro! # o$* 5!a

year# old at the t me Carol a##ert# the prerogat !e to ta9e

?ual f ed to adopt 6 c9y. /) )o.l% yo.r ans9er /e t!e sa&e "* t!ey so.,!t to a%o't 2vaDs "lle,"t"&ate %a.,!ter1 23'la"n. ($4)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

cu#tody of N $g. +f #he wa# at lea#t 18 year# old* the$ #he #


$o lo$ger u$der pare$tal author ty a$d $e ther Carol $or

1orma ca$ a##ert the prerogat !e to ta9e cu#tody. Howe!er* f #he wa# le## tha$ 18 year# old* the$ 1orma ha# a ,etter r ght # $ce the adopt o$ ,y 1orma of N $g term $ate# the
pare$tal author ty of Carol o!er N $g.

,7 @he $atural mother* Carol* #hould ha!e the ,etter r ght $


l ght of the pr $c ple that the ch ldG# welfare # the paramou$t co$# derat o$ $ cu#tody r ght#. /,! ou#ly*

0y a$#wer w ll #t ll ,e the #ame. Paragraph 34a7 of &rt cle 184 of the Fam ly Code doe# $ot ma9e a$y d #t $ct o$. @he pro! # o$ #tate# that a$ al e$ who # a former F l p $o c t :e$ # ?ual f ed to adopt a relat !e ,y co$#a$gu $ ty. +) S.''os"n, t!at t!ey *"le% t!e 'et"t"on to a%o't #"+Ey "n t!e year $000, 9"ll yo.r ans9er /e t!e sa&e1 23'la"n. ($4)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

N $gG# co$t $ued #tay $ her adopt $g pare$t#G hou#e* where


$teract o$ w th the call g rl# # $e! ta,le* would ,e detr me$tal to her moral a$d #p r tual de!elopme$t. @h #

could ,e the rea#o$ for N $gG# e-pre##ed de# re to retur$ to her $atural mother. +t #hould ,e $oted* howe!er* that N $g # $o lo$ger a m $or* ,e $g 19 year# of age $ow. +t # dou,tfu1 that a court ca$ #t ll re#ol!e the ?ue#t o$ of
cu#tody o!er o$e who $capac tated.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Be#* my a$#wer w ll #t ll ,e the #ame. L$der .ec. 74,7* &rt. +++ of the 1ew Home#t c &dopt o$ &ct* a$ al e$ who po##e##e# all the ?ual f cat o$# of a F l p $o $at o$al who # ?ual f ed to adopt may already adopt pro! ded that h#
cou$try ha# d plomat c relat o$# w th the Ph l pp $e#* that he ha# ,ee$ l ! $g $ the Ph l pp $e# for at lea#t three 437 co$t $uou# year# pr or to the f l $g of the appl cat o$ for adopt o$ a$d ma $ta $# #uch re# de$ce u$t l the adopt o$ decree # e$tered* that he ha# ,ee$ cert f ed ,y h #

# #u

8ur # a$d $ot otherw #e

27

a 7

/$ the a##umpt o$ that N $g # #t ll a m $or or

otherw #e $capac tated* Carol may pet t o$ the proper court for re#olut o$ or re#c ## o$ of the decree of adopt o$ o$ the grou$d that the adopt $g pare$t# ha!e e-po#ed* or are e-po# $g* the ch ld to corrupt $flue$ce* ta$tamou$t to g ! $g her corrupt $g order# or e-ample#. .he ca$ al#o a#9 for the re!e#t $g $ her of pare$tal author ty o!er N $g. +f Howe!er* N $g # already 19 year# of age a$d therefore $o
lo$ger a m $or* t # $ot Carol ,ut N $g her#elf who ca$ pet t o$ the court for 8ud c al re#c ## o$ of the adopt o$* pro! ded #he ca$ #how a grou$d for d # $her ta$ce of a$ a#ce$da$t. ,7 Carol may f le a$ act o$ to depr !e 1orma of pare$tal author ty u$der &rt cle 231 of the Fam ly Code or f le a$

d plomat c or co$#ular off ce or a$y appropr ate go!er$me$t age$cy that he ha# the legal capac ty to adopt $ h # cou$try* a$d that h # go!er$me$t allow# the adoptee to e$ter h # cou$try a# h # adopted ch ld. 6%alification of 20opter; 2pplicable Law ('##1) & )erma$ couple f led a pet t o$ for adopt o$ of a m $or F l p $o ch ld w th the Jeg o$al @r al Court of 0a9at u$der the pro! # o$# of the Ch ld a$d Bouth 2elfare Code wh ch allowed al e$# to adopt. Nefore the pet t o$ could ,e heard* the Fam ly Code* wh ch repealed the Ch ld a$d Bouth 2elfare Code* came $to effect. Co$#e?ue$tly* the .ol c tor )e$eral f led a mot o$ to d #m ## the pet t o$* o$ the
grou$d that the Fam ly Code proh , t# al e$# from adopt $g. +f you were the 8udge* how w ll you rule o$ the mot o$%

act o$ for the re#c ## o$ of the adopt o$ u$der &rt cle 191
$ relat o$ to &rt cle 231 427 of the Fam ly Code. 6%alification of 20opter ('##9) +$ 1984* 5!a* a F l p $a* we$t to wor9 a# a $ur#e $ the

45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

L.&. @here* #he met a$d fell $ lo!e w th Paul* a$ &mer ca$
c t :e$* a$d they got marr ed $ 1985. 5!a ac?u red

@he mot o$ to d #m ## the pet t o$ for adopt o$ #hould ,e de$ ed. @he law that #hould go!er$ the act o$ # the law $ force at the t me of f l $g of the pet t o$. &t that t me* t wa# the Ch ld a$d Bouth 2elfare Code that wa# $ effect* $ot

&mer ca$ c t :e$#h p $ 1987. Hur $g the r #o8our$ $ the

Ph l pp $e# $ 1990* they f led a 8o $t pet t o$ for the adopt o$ of 6 c9y* a 7>year old daughter of 5!aG# # #ter. @he
go!er$me$t* through the /ff ce of the .ol c tor )e$eral* oppo#ed the pet t o$ o$ the grou$d that the pet t o$er#* ,e $g ,oth fore g$er#* are d #?ual f ed to adopt 6 c9y. a) ($4)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

the Fam ly Code. Pet t o$er# ha!e already ac?u red a !e#ted r ght o$ the r ?ual f cat o$ to adopt wh ch ca$$ot ,e ta9e$ away ,y the Fam ly Code. (Re'./l"+ v. M"ller ;.R. 0o.
1$793$, A'r"l $1, 1999, +"t"n, Re'./l"+ v. Co.rt o* A''eals, $07 SCRA 376)
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

Is t!e ,overn&entDs o''os"t"on tena/le1 23'la"n.

@he mot o$ ha# to ,e gra$ted. @he $ew law #hall go!er$

@he go!er$me$tG# po# t o$ # u$te$a,le. L$der paragraph 3* &rt cle 184 of the Fam ly Code* a$ al e$* a# a ge$eral rule
ca$$ot adopt. Howe!er* a$ al e$ who # a former F l p $o

the r ?ual f cat o$ to adopt a$d u$der the $ew law* the )erma$ couple # d #?ual f ed from adopt $g. @hey ca$$ot cla m that they ha!e already ac?u red a !e#ted r ght ,ecau#e adopt o$ # $ot a r ght ,ut a mere pr ! lege. 1o o$e ac?u re# a !e#ted r ght o$ a pr ! lege.
-"ote. !f t/e e0aminee 1ase2 /is ans3er on t/e current la34 85524 /is '

c t :e$ a$d who #ee9# to adopt a relat !e ,y co$#a$gu $ ty # ?ual f ed to adopt* 4par. 3;aA* &rt. 184* Fam ly Code7
+$ the g !e$ pro,lem* 5!a* a $atural :ed &mer ca$ c t :e$ would l 9e to adopt 6 c9y* a 7>year old daughter of her

ans3er s/oul2 1e consi2ere2 correct. T/is 5uestion is 1ase2 on t/e repeale2

pro6ision of t/e $amil7 Co2e on '2option.8

6%alifications of 20opter ('###)

Page 22 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

.omet me $ 1990* .arah* ,or$ a F l p $o ,ut ,y the$ a $atural :ed &mer ca$ c t :e$* a$d her &mer ca$ hu#,a$d

u$der .ec. 74,7 of J&8552. @he .upreme Court ha# held $


#e!eral ca#e# that whe$ hu#,a$d a$d w fe are re?u red to

@om* f led a pet t o$ $ the Jeg o$al @r al Court of 0a9at * for the adopt o$ of the m $or ch ld of her # #ter* a F l p $a.
Ca$ the pet t o$ ,e gra$ted% 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4per do$dee7 +t depe$d#. Jule# o$ &dopt o$ effect !e

&ugu#t 22* 2002 pro! de# the follow $g3


SEC. 4. Who may adopt. T @he follow $g may adopt( Any Filipino Citizen
a. ,.
c.

adopt 8o $tly* each o$e of them mu#t ,e ?ual f ed to adopt $ h # or her ow$ r ght (Re'./l"+ v. Tole%ano, $33 SCRA 9 (1994). Howe!er* the &mer ca$ hu#,a$d mu#t comply w th the re?u reme$t# of the law $clud $g the re# de$cy re?u reme$t of three 437 year#. /therw #e* the adopt o$ w ll $ot ,e allowed. %ccessional 1ig&ts of 20opte0 C&il0 ('##!) & F l p $o couple* 0r. a$d 0r#. N0* <r.* dec ded to adopt
B6* a$ orpha$ from .t. Cla reO# orpha$age $ 1ew Bor9

of legal age* $ po##e## o$

of full c ! l capac ty a$d legal r ght#*

of good moral character* ha# $ot ,ee$ co$! cted of a$y cr me $!ol! $g moral

d.

turp tude3
e.

who # emot o$ally a$d p#ycholog cally capa,le of car $g


for ch ldre$*

f. g.

at lea#t # -tee$ 4167 year# older tha$ the adoptee*

a$d who # $ a po# t o$ to #upport a$d care for h # ch ldre$ $ 9eep $g w th the mea$# of the fam ly.

@he re?u reme$t of a 16>year d ffere$ce ,etwee$ the

age of the adopter a$d adoptee may ,e wa !ed whe$ the

C ty. @hey lo!ed a$d treated her l 9e a leg t mate ch ld for they ha!e $o$e of the r !ery ow$. Howe!er* N0* <r.* d ed $ a$ acc de$t at #ea* followed to the gra!e a year later ,y h# # c9 father* N0* .r. 5ach left a # :a,le e#tate co$# #t $g of ,a$9 depo# t#* la$d# a$d ,u ld $g# $ 0a$ la. 0ay the adopted ch ld* B6* $her t from N0* <r.% 0ay #he al#o $her t from N0* .r.% +# there a d ffere$ce% 2hy% 5-pla $. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

adopter # the , olog cal pare$t of the adoptee or # the


#pou#e of the adopteeO# pare$t3

B6 ca$ $her t from N0* <r. @he #ucce## o$ to the e#tate of


N0* <r. # go!er$ed ,y Ph l pp $e law ,ecau#e he wa# a

Any Alien po##e## $g the #ame ?ual f cat o$# a# a,o!e>#tated


for F l p $o $at o$al#( Pro! ded* a7 @hat h # cou$try ha# d plomat c relat o$# w th the

F l p $o whe$ he d ed 4&rt cle 16* C ! l Code7. L$der

&rt cle 1039 of the C ! l Code* the capac ty of the he r to

Jepu,l c of the Ph l pp $e#*


,7 that he ha# ,ee$ l ! $g $ the Ph l pp $e# for at lea#t

#ucceed # go!er$ed ,y the $at o$al law of the decede$t a$d $ot ,y the $at o$al law of the he r. He$ce* whether or $ot
B6 ca$ $her t from N0* <r. # determ $ed ,y Ph l pp $e law. L$der Ph l pp $e law* the adopted $her t# from the

three 437 co$t $uou# year# pr or to the f l $g of the pet t o$ for adopt o$ a$d ma $ta $# #uch re# de$ce u$t l
the adopt o$ decree # e$tered*
c7

adopter a# a leg t mate ch ld of the adopter.

that he ha# ,ee$ cert f ed ,y h # d plomat c or co$#ular off ce or a$y appropr ate go!er$me$t age$cy to ha!e the
legal capac ty to adopt $ h # cou$try*

d7

a$d that h # go!er$me$t allow# the adoptee to e$ter h # cou$try a# h # adopted ch ld.

r ght*from the father of the adopter* N0* .r.* ,ecau#e he # $ot a legal he r of N0* .r. @he legal f ct o$ of adopt o$ e- #t# o$ly ,etwee$ the adopted a$d the adopter. (Teot"+o v. Fel #al 13 SCRA
B6* howe!er* ca$$ot $her t* $ h # ow$
406 [1967]). 1e ther may he

$her t from N0* .r. $ repre#e$tat o$*

Pro! ded* further* @hat the re?u reme$t# o$ re# de$cy a$d

cert f cat o$ of the al e$O# ?ual f cat o$ to adopt $ h # cou$try


may ,e wa !ed for the follow $g( a7 a former F l p $o c t :e$ who #ee9# to adopt a relat !e w th $ the fourth 44th7 degree of co$#a$gu $ ty or aff $ ty3 or ,7

,y repre#e$t $g the

N0*

<r.

,ecau#e

repre#e$tat !e mu#t ,e a legal he r $ot o$ly of the per#o$ he repre#e$ted wa# #uppo#ed to $her t 4&rt cle 973* C!l Code7.

# repre#e$t $g ,ut al#o of the decede$t from whom the

o$e who #ee9# to adopt the leg t mate ch ld of h #

c7

F l p $o #pou#e3 or to a F l p $o c t :e$ a$d #ee9# to o$e who # marr ed

A)IL* C!#E
Emancipation (199()
<ul o a$d "ea* ,oth 18 year# old* were #weetheart#. &t a

adopt 8o $tly w th h # #pou#e a relat !e w th $ the fourth 44th7 degree of co$#a$gu $ ty or aff $ ty of the F l p $o #pou#e.

6%alifications of 20opter ('##() " $a* a former F l p $a who ,ecame a$ &mer ca$ c t :e$

#hortly after her marr age to a$ &mer ca$ hu#,a$d* would


l 9e to adopt $ the Ph l pp $e#* 8o $tly w th her hu#,a$d* o$e of her m $or ,rother#. &##um $g that all the re?u red

co$#e$t# ha!e ,ee$ o,ta $ed* could the co$templated 8o $t adopt o$ $ the Ph l pp $e pro#per% 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

party at the hou#e of a mutual fr e$d. "ea met <a9e* al#o 18 year# old* who #howed $tere#t $ her. "ea #eemed to e$terta $ <a9e ,ecau#e #he da$ced w th h m ma$y t me#. +$ a f t of 8ealou#y* <ul o #hot <a9e w th h # fatherG# 38 cal ,er re!ol!er wh ch* ,efore go $g to the party he wa# a,le to get from the u$loc9ed drawer $# de h # fatherG# ,edroom. <a9e d ed a# a re#ult of the lo$e gu$#hot wou$d he #u#ta $ed. H# pare$t# #ued <ul oG# pare$t# for damage# ar # $g from ?ua# >
del ct. &t the t me of the $c de$t* <ul o wa# 18 year# old

Be#* " $a a$d her &mer ca$ hu#,a$d ca$ 8o $tly adopt a m $or ,rother of " $a ,ecau#e #he a$d her hu#,a$d are

,oth ?ual f ed to adopt. " $a* a# a former F l p $o c t :e$* ca$ adopt her m $or ,rother u$der .ec. 74,74 7 of J& 8552 4Home#t c &dopt o$ &ct of 19987* or u$der &rt. 184 437417
of the Fam ly Code. @he al e$ hu#,a$d ca$ $ow adopt

l ! $g w th h # pare$t#. <ul oG# pare$t# mo!ed to d #m ## the compla $t aga $#t them cla m $g that # $ce <ul o wa# already of ma8or ty age* they were $o lo$ger l a,le for h # act#. 17 .hould the mot o$ to d #m ## ,e gra$ted% 2hy% 27 2hat # the l a, l ty of <ul oG# pare$t# to <a9eG# pare$t#% 5-pla $ your a$#wer.

Page 23 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

17 1o* the 0ot o$ to H #m ## #hould $ot ,e gra$ted. &rt cle 236 of the Fam ly Code a# ame$ded ,y Jepu,l c &ct 6809* pro! de# $ the th rd paragraph that '$oth $g $ th # Code #hall ,e co$#trued to derogate from the duty or re#po$# , l ty of pare$t# a$d guard a$# for ch ldre$ a$d ward# ,elow twe$ty>o$e year# of age me$t o$ed $ the #eco$d a$d th rd paragraph# of &rt cle 2180 of the C ! l Code'.
27 @he l a, l ty of <ul oG# pare$t# to <a9eG# pare$t# ar #e#

fam ly home wh ch # def $ed a# the 'dwell $g hou#e' where the hu#,a$d a$d the w fe a$d the r fam ly actually 're# de' a$d the la$d o$ wh ch t # # tuated. 4&rt#. 152 a$d 161* Fam ly Code7

from ?ua# >del ct 4&rt#. 2176 a$d 2180 C ! l Code7 a$d #hall co!er #pec f cally the follow $g( a7 P50*000.00 for the death of the #o$3 ,7 #uch amou$t a# would corre#po$d to lo#t ear$ $g capac ty3 a$d c7 moral damage#. ,amil" Co0e; 1etroactive 2pplication; @este0 1ig&ts ('###) /$ &pr l 15* 1980* Je$e a$d &$gel $a were marr ed to each other w thout a marr age #ettleme$t. +$ 1985* they ac?u red a parcel of la$d $ Pue:o$ C ty. /$ <u$e 1* 1990* whe$ &$gel $a wa# away $ Nagu o* Je$e #old the #a d lot to 0arcelo. +# the #ale !o d or !o da,le% 42E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he #ale # !o d. . $ce the #ale wa# e-ecuted $ 1990* the Fam ly Code # the law appl ca,le. L$der &rt cle 124 of the FC* the #ale of a co$8ugal property ,y a #pou#e w thout the co$#e$t of the other # !o d.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

@he #ale # !o da,le. @he pro! # o$# of the Fam ly Code may apply retroact !ely ,ut o$ly f #uch appl cat o$ w ll $ot mpa r !e#ted r ght#. 2he$ Je$e a$d &$gel $a got marr ed $ 1980* the law that go!er$ed the r property relat o$# wa# the 1ew C ! l Code. L$der the 1CC* a# $terpreted ,y the .upreme Court $ Ae"rs o* 8el"'e v.
Al%on, 100 SCRA 6$8 an% re"terate% "n Ae"rs o* Ay.ste v. Mala/on,a, ;.R 0o, 118(84, $ Se'te&/er 1999 * the #ale

e-ecuted ,y the hu#,a$d w thout the co$#e$t of the w fe # !o da,le. @he hu#,a$d ha# already ac?u red a !e#ted r ght o$ the !o da,le $ature of d #po# t o$# made w thout the co$#e$t of the w fe. He$ce* &rt cle 124 of the Fam ly Code wh ch ma9e# the #ale !o d doe# $ot apply. ,amil" Aome; Dwelling Ao%se (199!) +$ 1991* 6 ctor e#ta,l #hed 8ud c ally out of co$8ugal property* a fam ly home $ 0a$ la worth P200.000.00 a$d e-tra8ud c ally a #eco$d fam ly home $ @agaytay worth P50.000.00. 6 ctor lea#ed the fam ly home $ 0a$ la to a fore g$er. 6 ctor a$d h # fam ly tra$#ferred to a$other hou#e of h # $ Pa# g. Ca$ the two fam ly home# ,e the #u,8ect of e-ecut o$ o$ a 8udgme$t aga $#t 6 ctorG# w fe for $o$>payme$t of the purcha#e $ 1992 of hou#ehold appl a$ce#%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he two 427 #o>called fam ly home# ca$ ,e the #u,8ect of e-ecut o$. 1e ther of the a,ode# are co$# dered fam ly home# ,ecau#e for purpo#e# of a!a l $g the ,e$ef t# u$der the Fam ly Code* there ca$ o$ly ,e o$e 417

,amil"; Constit%tional *an0ates; Divorce (1991) &. How doe# the 1987 Co$#t tut o$ #tre$gthe$ the fam ly a# a$ +$#t tut o$% N. Ho the Co$#t tut o$al pol cy o$ the fam ly a$d the pro! # o$ that marr age # the fou$dat o$ of the fam ly a$d #hall ,e protected ,y the .tate ,ar Co$gre## from e$act $g a law allow $g d !orce $ the Ph l pp $e#%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

comply $g w th the pro! # o$# of &rt cle 52 of the Fam ly Code* $amely* there mu#t ,e a part t o$ a$d d #tr ,ut o$* of the propert e# of the #pou#e#* a$d the del !ery of the

Page 24 of 119

&. .ec* 2* &rt cle ++ of the Co$#t tut o$ pro! de# that( @he .tate recog$ :e# the #a$ct ty of fam ly l fe a$d #hall protect a$d #tre$gthe$ the fam ly a# a ,a# c auto$omou# #oc al $#t tut o$. +t #hall e?ually protect the l fe of the mother a$d the l fe of the u$,or$ from co$cept o$. @he $atural a$d pr mary r ght a$d duty of pare$t# $ the rear $g of the youth for c ! c eff c e$cy a$d the de!elopme$t of moral character #hall rece !e the #upport of the )o!er$me$t. .ect o$ +* &rt cle =6* further pro! de# that( @he .tate recog$ :e# the F l p $o fam ly a# the fou$dat o$ of the $at o$. &ccord $gly* t #hall #tre$gthe$ t# #ol dar ty a$d act !ely promote t# total de!elopme$t.
9"ote. T/e Committee recommen2s t/at a citation of eit/er one of t/e pro6isions 1e cre2ite2 as a complete ans3er:.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

N* 1o* the Co$#t tut o$al pol cy* a# well a# the #upport $g pro! # o$* doe# $ot amou$t to a proh , t o$ to Co$gre## to e$act a law o$ d !orce. @he Co$#t tut o$ o$ly mea$t to help the marr age e$dure* to '#tre$gthe$ t# #ol dar ty a$d act !ely promote t# total de!elopme$t.'
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

N. Be#. Co$gre## # ,arred from e$act $g a law allow $g d !orce* # $ce .ect o$ 2 of &rt cle =6 pro! de#( '.ec. 2. 0arr age* a# a$ $! ola,le #oc al $#t tut o$* # the fou$dat o$ of the fam ly a$d #hall ,e protected ,y the .tate.' . $ce marr age # '+$! ola,le'* t ca$$ot ,e d ##ol!ed ,y a$ a,#olute d !orce. *arriage; 2nn%lment; Effects; 1e$%isites ;efore 1emarriage (199#) @he marr age of H a$d 2 wa# a$$ulled ,y the compete$t court. Lpo$ f $al ty of the 8udgme$t of $ull ty. H ,ega$ loo9 $g for h # pro#pect !e #eco$d mate. He fell $ lo!e w th a #e-y woma$ . who wa$ted to ,e marr ed a# #oo$ a# po## ,le* .e.* after a few mo$th# of court#h p. &# a you$g lawyer* you were co$#ulted ,y H* 4a7 How #oo$ ca$ H ,e 8o $ed $ lawful wedloc9 to h # g rlfr e$d .% L$der e- #t $g law#* are there certa $ re?u # te# that mu#t ,e compl ed w th ,efore he ca$ remarry% 2hat ad! ce would you g !e H% 4,7 .uppo#e that ch ldre$ were ,or$ from the u$ o$ of H a$d 2* what would ,e the #tatu# of #a d ch ldre$% 5-pla $ your a$#wer.
4c7 +f the #u,#e?ue$t marr age of H to . wa# co$tracted ,efore compl a$ce w th the #tatutory co$d t o$ for t# !al d ty* what are the r ght# of the ch ldre$ of the f r#t marr age 4 .e.* of H a$d 27 a$d of the ch ldre$ of the

#u,#e?ue$t marr age 4of H a$d .7%


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4a7 H* or e ther #pou#e for that matter* ca$ marry aga $ after

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

ch ldre$G# pre#umpt !e leg t me# wh ch #hould ,e recorded $ the appropr ate c ! l reg #try a$d reg #tr e# of property. H
#hould ,e #o ad! #ed.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

#e-ually>tra$#m ## ,le d #ea#e* fou$d to ,e #er ou# a$d

for 4a7

@he follow $g are the re?u # te# pre#cr ,ed ,y law a$d + ad! ce to H # to comply w th them* $amely( 17 +f e ther #pou#e co$tracted the marr age $ ,ad fa th* h # or her #hare of the $et prof t# of the commu$ ty

appear# $cura,le. @wo 427 year# after the r marr age* wh ch too9 place o$ 10 /cto,er 1988* Nethel d #co!ered that her hu#,a$d <ame# ha# a #e-ually>tra$#m ## ,le d #ea#e wh ch he co$tracted e!e$ pr or to the r marr age although <ame# d d
$ot 9$ow t h m#elf u$t l he wa# e-am $ed two ;27 year# later whe$ a ch ld wa# already ,or$ to them. Nethel #ue#

property ( or co$8ugal part$er#h p property #hall ,e forfe ted $ fa!or of the commo$ ch ldre$ or* f there
are $o$e* the ch ldre$ of the gu lty #pou#e ,y a pre! ou# marr age or* $ default of ch ldre$* the $$oce$t #pou#e3

<ame# for a$$ulme$t of the r marr age. <ame# oppo#e# the a$$ulme$t o$ the grou$d that he d d $ot e!e$ 9$ow that he had #uch a d #ea#e #o that there wa# $o fraud or ,ad fa th o$ h # part. Hec de. N. .uppo#e that ,oth part e# at the t me of the r marr age
were # m larly affl cted w th #e-ually>tra$#m ## ,le d #ea#e#* #er ou# a$d $cura,le* a$d ,oth 9$ew of the r re#pect !e

27

Ho$at o$# ,y rea#o$ of marr age #hall rema $ !al d e-cept that f the do$ee co$tracted the marr age $ ,ad fa th* #uch do$at o$# made to #a d do$ee are re!o9ed
,y operat o$ of law3

$f rm t e#* ca$ Nethel or <ame# #ue for a$$ulme$t of the r marr age%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

37

@he #pou#e who co$tracted the #u,#e?ue$t marr age $ ,ad fa th #hall ,e d #?ual f ed to $her t from the

a defe$#e whe$ the grou$d

&. @he marr age ca$ ,e a$$ulled* ,ecau#e good fa th # $ot tra$#m ## ,le d #ea#e o$ the part of e ther party.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

# ,a#ed upo$ #e-ually>

$$oce$t #pou#e ,y te#tate a$d $te#tate #ucce## o$3 47 +f ,oth #pou#e# of the #u,#e?ue$t marr age acted $

,ad fa th all do$at o$# ,y rea#o$ of marr age a$d te#tame$tary d #po# t o$# made ,y o$e $ fa!or of the
57

N. Be#* the marr age ca$ #t ll ,e a$$ulled ,ecau#e the fact


that ,oth of them are affl cted w th #e-ually> tra$#m ## ,le d #ea#e# doe# $ot efface or $ull ty the grou$d.
Alternati1e Answer:

other are re!o9ed ,y operat o$ of law. @he 8udgme$t of a$$ulme$t of the marr age* the

part t o$ a$d d #tr ,ut o$ of the propert e# of the #pou#e#* a$d the del !ery of the ch ldre$G# pre#umpt !e leg t me# #hall ,e recorded $ the appropr ate c ! l
reg #try a$d reg #ter# of property* 4&rt cle# 53. 52* 43. 44. Fam ly Code7.

fact that ,oth were affl cted a$d that ,oth 9$ew of the r re#pect !e $f rm t e# co$#t tute# a wa !er of that grou$d.

N. 1o* the marr age ca$ $o lo$ger ,e a$$ulled* ,ecau#e the

*arriage; 2nn%lment; 7%0icial Declaration (199() 0ar a a$d "u #* ,oth F l p $o#* were marr ed ,y a Cathol c
pr e#t $ "ourde# Church* Pue:o$ C ty $ 1976* "u # wa#

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4,7 @he ch ldre$ ,or$ from the u$ o$ of H a$d 2 would ,e leg t mate ch ldre$ f co$ce !ed or ,or$ ,efore the decree of
a$$ulme$t of the marr age 4u$der &rt. 45 of the Fam ly

dru$9 o$ the day of h # wedd $g. +$ fact* he #lumped at the


altar #oo$ after the ceremo$y. &fter marr age* "u # $e!er had a #teady 8o, ,ecau#e he wa# dru$9 mo#t of the t me. F $ally* he could $ot get employed at all ,ecau#e of

Code7 ha# ,ecome f $al a$d e-ecutory 4&rt. 54* Fam ly


CodeM.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

dru$9e$$e##. He$ce* t wa# 0ar a who had to ear$ a l ! $g


to #upport her#elf a$d her ch ld ,egotte$ w th "u #. +$ 1986* 0ar a f led a pet t o$ $ the church matr mo$ al court $

4c7 @he ch ldre$ of the f r#t marr age #hall ,e co$# dered

Pue:o$ C ty to a$$ul her marr age w th "u # o$ the grou$d


of p#ycholog cal mar tal $capac ty to comply w th h #

leg t mate ch ldre$

f co$ce !ed or ,or$ ,efore the

<udgme$t of a$$ulme$t of the marr age of H a$d 2 ha#

o,l gat o$. Her pet t o$ wa# gra$ted ,y the church


matr mo$ al court. 17 Ca$ 0ar a $ow get marr ed legally to a$other ma$

,ecome f $al a$d e-ecutory. Ch ldre$ co$ce !ed or ,or$ of

the #u,#e?ue$t marr age #hall l 9ew #e ,e leg t mate e!e$ f


the marr age of H a$d . ,e $ull a$d !o d for fa lure to

u$der Ph l pp $e law# after her marr age to "u # wa#

comply w th the re?u # te# of &rt cle 52 of the Fam ly Code


4&rt cle 53* Fam ly Code7. &# leg t mate ch ldre$* they ha!e the follow $g r ght#3

a$$ulled ,y the church matr mo$ al court% 5-pla $. 27 2hat mu#t 0ar a do to e$a,le her to get marr ed lawfully to a$other ma$ u$der Ph l pp $e law#%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

a7

@o ,ear the #ur$ame# of the father a$d the mother $ co$form ty w th the pro! # o$# of the C ! l Code o$ .ur$ame#3

,7

@o rece !e #upport from the r pare$t#* the r

a#ce$da$t#* a$d $ proper ca#e#* the r ,rother# a$d


# #ter#* $ co$form ty w th the pro! # o$# of th # Code o$ .upport3 a$d c7 @o ,e e$t tled to the leg t me a$d other #ucce## o$al r ght# gra$ted to them ,y the C ! l

17 1o* 0ar a ca$$ot !al dly co$tract a #u,#e?ue$t marr age w thout a court declarat o$ of $ull ty of the f r#t marr age. @he law doe# $ot recog$ :e the church declarat o$ of $ull ty of a marr age. 27 @o e$a,le 0ar a to get marr ed lawfully to a$other ma$. #he mu#t o,ta $ a 8ud c al declarat o$ of $ull ty of the pr or marr age u$der &rt cle 36 Fam ly Code.
*arriage; 2nn%lment; Legal 2ctions (199-) eparation; 4rescription of

Code 4&rt cle 174* Fam ly Code7.


*arriage; 2nn%lment; Bro%n0s (1991)

/$e of the grou$d# for a$$ulme$t of marr age # that e ther party* at the t me of the r marr age wa# affl cted w th a

27 Nert a$d Na,y were marr ed to each other o$ Hecem,er


23* 1988. . - mo$th# later* #he d #co!ered that he wa# a

Page 25 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

drug add ct. 5ffort# to ha!e h m reha, l tated were u$#ucce##ful. Ca$ Na,y a#9 for a$$ulme$t of marr age* or legal
#eparat o$% 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

+$ 1989* 0ar #* a F l p $o c t :e$* marr ed her ,o## <oh$#o$* a$ &mer ca$ c t :e$* $ @o9yo $ a wedd $g ceremo$y
cele,rated accord $g to <apa$e#e law#. /$e year later*

<oh$#o$ retur$ed to h # $at !e 1e!ada* a$d he !al dly


o,ta $ed $ that #tate a$ a,#olute d !orce from h # w fe

1o* Na,y ca$$ot a#9 for a$$ulme$t of her marr age or for legal #eparat o$ ,ecau#e ,oth the#e act o$# had already
pre#cr ,ed. 2h le co$cealme$t of drug add ct o$ e- #t $g at

0ar #. &fter 0ar # rece !ed the f $al 8udgme$t of d !orce* #he marr ed her ch ldhood #weetheart Pedro* al#o a F l p $o

the t me of marr age co$#t tute# fraud u$der &rt. 46 of the FC wh ch ma9e# the marr age !o da,le u$der &rt. 45 of the
FC* the act o$ mu#t* howe!er* ,e ,rought w th $ 5 year# from the d #co!ery thereof u$der &rt cle 47437* FC* . $ce

c t :e$* $ a rel g ou# ceremo$y $ Ce,u C ty* cele,rated accord $g to the formal t e# of Ph l pp $e law. Pedro later

left for the L$ ted .tate# a$d ,ecame $atural :ed a# a$ &mer ca$ c t :e$. 0ar # followed Pedro to the L$ ted
.tate#* a$d after a #er ou# ?uarrel* 0art# f led a #u t a$d

the drug add ct o$ of Nert wa# d #co!ered ,y Na,y $ <u$e


1989* the act o$ had already pre#cr ,ed $ <u$e of 1994. &lthough drug add ct o$ # a grou$d for legal #eparat o$ u$der &rt. 55457 a$d &rt. 57 of the FC re?u re# that the

o,ta $ed a d !orce decree ##ued ,y the court $ the #tate of 0aryla$d.
0ar # the$ retur$ed to the Ph l pp $e# a$d c!l $ a

act o$ mu#t ,e ,rought w th $ 5 year# from the occurre$ce


of the cau#e. . $ce Nert had ,ee$ a drug add ct from the

ceremo$y cele,rated the

$ Ce,u C ty accord $g to

formal t e# of Ph l pp $e law* #he marr ed her former

t me of the cele,rat o$ of the marr age* the act o$ for legal


#eparat o$ mu#t ha!e ,ee$ ,rought $ot later tha$ 23

cla##mate 6 $ce$t l 9ew #e a F l p $o c t :e$. 2a# the marr age of 0ar # a$d Pedro !al d ,7 whe$
cele,rated% +# the r marr age #t ll !al d e- #t $g $ow%

Hecem,er 1993. He$ce* Na,y ca$$ot* $ow* ,r $g the act o$


for legal #eparat o$.

Jea#o$#. c7 2a# the marr age of 0art# a$d 6 $ce$t !al d whe$
cele,rated% +# the r marr age #t ll !al dly e- #t $g $ow%

*arriage; 2nn%lment; 4roper 4art" (199#)

H a$d )* age 20 a$d 19* re#pect !ely* a$d ,oth # $gle* eloped a$d got marr ed to each other w thout pare$tal co$#e$t $ the ca#e of )* a tee$aged #tude$t of a$ e-clu# !e
college for g rl#. @hree year# later* her pare$t# wa$ted to

Jea#o$#. d7 &t th # po $t $ t me* who # the lawful hu#,a$d of 0art#% Jea#o$#.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

#ee9 8ud c al a$$ulme$t o$ that grou$d. Bou were co$#ulted


a$d a#9ed to prepare the proper compla $t. 2hat ad! ce would you g !e )G# pare$t#% 5-pla $ your a$#wer.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4,7 @he marr age of 0ar # a$d Pedro wa# !al d whe$ cele,rated ,ecau#e the d !orce !al dly o,ta $ed ,y <oh$#o$
$ 0a$ la capac tated 0ar # to marry Pedro. @he marr age of

) h m#elf #hould f le the compla $t u$der &rt cle 45 of the Fam ly Code* a$d $o lo$ger the pare$t# ,ecau#e ) #
already 22 year# of age. *arriage; 2nn%lment; 4roper 4art" (1999)

0ar # a$d Pedro # #t ll !al dly e- #t $g* ,ecau#e the marr age ha# $ot ,ee$ !al dly d ##ol!ed ,y the 0aryla$d d !orce ;&rt. 26* Fam ly Code7.
4c7 @he marr age of 0ar # a$d 6 $ce$t # !o d a, $to

B!ette wa# fou$d to ,e po# t !e for H+6 ! ru#* co$# dered #e-ually tra$#m ## ,le* #er ou# a$d $cura,le. Her ,oyfr e$d
<o#eph wa# aware of her co$d t o$ a$d yet marr ed her. &fter two 427 year# of coha, t $g w th B!ette* a$d $ h #

,ecau#e t # a , gamou# marr age co$tracted ,y 0ar # dur $g the #u,# #te$ce of her marr age w th Pedro 4&rt 25 a$d 41* Fam ly Code7.
@he marr age of 0ar # a$d 6 $ce$t doe# $ot !al dly e- #t ,ecau#e &rt cle 26 doe# $ot apply. Pedro wa# $ot a

,el ef that #he would pro,a,ly $e!er ,e a,le to ,ear h m a healthy ch ld* <o#eph $ow wa$t# to ha!e h # marr age w th
B!ette a$$ulled. B!ette oppo#e# the #u t co$te$d $g that <o#eph # e#topped from #ee9 $g a$$ulme$t of the r

fore g$er at the t me of h # marr age w th mart# a$d the

d !orce a,road 4 $ 0aryla$d7 wa# $ t ated a$d o,ta $ed $ot ,y the al e$ #pou#e* ,ut ,y the F l p $o #pou#e. He$ce* the
0aryla$d d !orce d d $ot capac tate 0art# to marry

marr age # $ce he 9$ew e!e$ ,efore the r marr age that #he wa# affl cted w th H+6 ! ru#.
Ca$ the act o$ of <o#eph for a$$ulme$t of h # marr age w th B!ette pro#per% H #cu## fully.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

6 $ce$t. 4d7 &t th # po $t $ t me* Pedro # #t ll the lawful hu#,a$d of 0ar # ,ecau#e the r !al d marr age ha# $ot ,ee$ d ##ol!ed ,y a$y !al d cau#e 4&rt. 26. Fam ly Code7 *arriage; Divorce Decrees; ,iliation of C&il0ren ('##9) +$ 1985* .o$$y a$d "ulu* ,oth F l p $o c t :e$#* were marr ed $ the Ph l pp $e#. +$ 1987* they #eparated* a$d .o$$y we$t to Ca$ada* where he o,ta $ed a d !orce $ the #ame year. He the$ marr ed a$other F l p $a* &ur $g* $ Ca$ada o$ <a$uary 1*1988. @hey had two #o$#* <ame# a$d <oh$. +$ 1990* after fa l $g to hear from .o$$y* "ulu
marr ed @ r#o* ,y whom #he had a daughter* 6er$a. +$ 1991*

1o* <o#eph 9$ew that B!ette wa# H+6 po# t !e at the t me of the marr age. He #* therefore* $ot a$ $8ured party. @he FC g !e# the r ght to a$$ul the marr age o$ly to a$ $8ured
party. ;&rt. 47 457* FCA
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

@he act o$ for a$$ulme$t ca$ pro#per ,ecau#e the pre#cr pt !e per od of f !e 457 year# ha# $ot yet lap#ed. ;&rt.
45 467* FCA. *arriage; Divorce Decree; @oi0 *arriages (199')

.o$$y ! # ted the Ph l pp $e# where he #uccum,ed to heart attac9..

Page 26 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

a) F"s+.ss t!e e**e+t o* t!e %"vor+e o/ta"ne% /y Sonny


an% 5.l. "n Cana%a. ($4)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Flor a$d 6 rg llo were marr ed to each other $ Jo-a# C ty $ 198/. +$ 1984* Flor wa# offered a teach $g <o, $
Ca$ada* wh ch #he accepted. +$ 1989* #he appl ed for a$d wa# gra$ted Ca$ad a$ c t :e$#h p. @he follow $g year* #he #ued for d !orce from 6 rg l o $ a Ca$ad a$ court. &fter

@he d !orce # $ot !al d. Ph l pp $e law doe# $ot pro! de for


a,#olute d !orce. Ph l pp $e court# ca$$ot gra$t t. &

marr age ,etwee$ two 427 F l p $o# ca$$ot ,e d ##ol!ed ,y a d !orce o,ta $ed a,road. (;ar+"a v. Re%o, ;.R. 0o. 1383$$, <+to/er $, $001). Ph l pp $e law# apply to .o$$y a$d "ulu.
L$der &rt cle 15 of the 1ew C ! l Code* law# relat $g to

6 rg l o wa# #er!ed w th #ummo$#* the Ca$ad a$ court tr ed


the ca#e a$d decreed the d !orce. .hortly thereafter* Flor

marr ed a Ca$ad a$.


Ca$ 6 rg l o marry aga $ 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

$ the Ph l pp $e#%

fam ly r ght# a$d dut e#* #tatu#* a$d capac ty of per#o$# are , $d $g upo$ c t :e$# of the Ph l pp $e# where!er they may ,e. @hu#* the marr age of .o$$y a$d "ulu # #t ll !al d a$d
#u,# #t $g.

1o* 6 rg l o ca$$ot !al dly remarry. H # ca#e # $ot co!ered


,y &rt cle 26 of the Fam ly Code* For #a d &rt cle to ,e

appl ca,le* the #pou#e who f led for d !orce mu#t ,e a


fore g$er at the t me of the marr age. . $ce ,oth of them

/)

23'la"n t!e stat.s o* t!e &arr"a,e /et9een Sonny

an% A.r"n,. ($4)


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

. $ce the decree of d !orce o,ta $ed ,y "ulu a$d .o$y $ Ca$ada # $ot recog$ :ed here $ the Ph l pp $e#* the

were F l p $o# at the t me of the marr age* the d !orce o,ta $ed ,y Flor d d $ot capac tate 6 rg l o to remarry. @he fact that Flor wa# already a$ al e$ at the t me #he o,ta $ed
the d !orce doe# $ot g !e 6 rg l o the capac ty to remarry

u$der Ph l pp $e "aw.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE"(:

marr age ,etwee$ .o$$y a$d &ur $g # !o d. 4&rt. 35* Fam ly Code7 &$y marr age #u,#e?ue$tly co$tracted dur $g
the l fet me of the f r#t #pou#e #hall ,e llegal a$d !o d* #u,8ect o$ly to the e-cept o$ $ the ca#e# of a,#e$ce or

a7 Be#* 6 rg l o ca$ !al dly remarry. &rt. 26 of the FC*

merely .tate# the al e$ #pou#e w thout ta9 $g $to co$# derat o$ h # or her $at o$al ty at the t me of the
marr age. 2h le h # ca#e # $ot co!ered ,y the letter of

where the pr or marr age wa# d ##ol!ed or a$$ulled. (0"nal v. Gaya%o,, ;.R. 0o. 133((8, Mar+! 14, $000) @he marr age
of .o$$y a$d &ur $g doe# $ot fall w th $ the e-cept o$. +) 23'la"n t!e stat.s o* t!e &arr"a,e /et9een 5.l. an% T"rso. ($4)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&rt cle 26 FC* t #* howe!er* co!ered ,y the #p r t of #a d


&rt cle* the $8u#t ce to the F l p $o #pou#e #ought to ,e

cured ,y #a d &rt cle # pre#e$t $ th # ca#e. 4Hepartme$t of


<u#t ce /p $ o$ 1o. 134 .er e# of 19937. ,7 &lthough the marr age or g $ally $!ol!ed F l p $o c t :e$#* t e!e$tually ,ecame a marr age ,etwee$ a$ al e$

@he marr age of "ulu a$d @ r#o # al#o !o d. 0ere a,#e$ce


of the #pou#e doe# $ot g !e r #e to a r ght of the pre#e$t

#pou#e to remarry. &rt cle 41 of the Fam ly Code pro! de# for a !al d , gamou# marr age o$ly where a #pou#e ha# ,ee$
a,#e$t for four co$#ecut !e year# ,efore the #eco$d

a$d a F l p $o after Flor ,ecame a Ca$ad a$ c t :e$. @hu#*


the d !orce decree wa# o$e o,ta $ed ,y a$ al e$ #pou#e

marr ed to a F l p $o. &lthough $oth $g # #a d a,out


whether #uch d !orce d d capac tate Flor to remarry* that

marr age a$d the pre#e$t #pou#e had a well>fou$ded ,el ef that the a,#e$t #pou#e # already dead. 4Jepu,l c !. 1ola#co* ).J. 1o. 94053* 0arch 17* 19937 %) 23'la"n t!e res'e+t"ve *"l"at"on o* -a&es, -o!n an%

fact may a# well ,e a##umed # $ce the pro,lem #tate# that #he marr ed a Ca$ad a$ #hortly after o,ta $ $g the d !orce.
He$ce* 6 rg llo ca$ marry aga $ u$der Ph l pp $e law* pur#ua$t to &rt. 26. FC wh ch appl e# ,ecau#e Flor wa# already a$ al e$ at the t me of the d !orce. *arriage; Divorce Decrees; ,ilipino 2lien (1999) po%ses becoming

#erna. ($4)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

<ame#* <oh$ a$d 6er$a are lleg t mate ch ldre$ # $ce the r pare$t# are $ot !al dly marr ed. L$der &rt cle 165 of the Fam ly Code* ch ldre$ co$ce !ed a$d ,or$ out# de a !al d marr age are lleg t mate* u$le## otherw #e pro! ded $ th #

Ne$ a$d 5!a were ,oth F l p $o c t :e$# at the t me of the r

marr age $ 1967* 2he$ the r marr age tur$ed #our* Ne$

we$t to a #mall cou$try $ 5urope* got h m#elf $atural :ed

Code .
e) )!o are t!e !e"rs o* Sonny1 23'la"n. ($4) S.,,este% ans9erB

there* a$d the$ d !orced 5!a $ accorda$ce w th the law of that cou$try* "ater* he retur$ed to the Ph l pp $e# w th h #
$ew w fe.

.o$$yG# he r# $clude <ame#* <oh$* a$d "ulu. &rt cle 887 of


the C ! l Code pro! de# that the compul#ory he r# of the decea#ed are amo$g other#* h # w dow a$d h # lleg t mate ch ldre$. @he w dow referred to $ &rt cle 887 # the legal

5!a $ow wa$t# to 9$ow what act o$ or act o$# #he ca$ f le
aga $#t Ne$. .he al#o wa$t# to 9$ow f #he ca$ l 9ew #e marry aga $. 2hat ad! ce ca$ you g !e her% V5E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

w fe of the decea#ed. "ulu # #t ll a compul#ory he r of


.o$$y ,ecau#e the d !orce o,ta $ed ,y .o$$y $ Ca$ada ca$$ot ,e recog$ :ed $ the Ph l pp $e#. @he leg t me of each lleg t mate ch ld #hall co$# #t of o$e>half of the

Co$# der $g that &rt. 2642$d par.7 co$template# a d !orce

,etwee$ a fore g$er a$d a F l p $o* who had #uch re#pect !e


$at o$al t e# at the t me of the r marr age* the d !orce $

5urope w ll $ot capac tate the F l p $o w fe to remarry. @he


ad! ce we ca$ g !e her # e ther to f le a pet t o$ for legal

leg t me of a leg t mate ch ld. 4&rt. 176* Fam ly Code7

#eparat o$* o$ the grou$d of #e-ual of

$f del ty a$d

*arriage; Divorce Decrees; ,ilipino 2lien (199-)

po%ses becoming

co$tract $g a , gamou# marr age a,road* or to f le a pet t o$ to d ##ol!e the co$8ugal part$er#h p or a,#olute commu$ ty of property a# the ca#e may,e.

Page 27 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)


AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

5!a may f le a$ act o$ for legal #eparat o$ o$ the grou$d#


of #e-ual $f del ty of her hu#,a$d a$d the co$tract $g ,y her hu#,a$d of a , gamou# marr age a,road.

the marr age* the co$clu# o$ # that H g$aG# father may re!o9e the do$at o$ a$d get ,ac9 the car. *arriage; Bro%n0s; Declaration of .%llit"C 2nn%lmentC Legal eparationC eparation of 4ropert" ('##() 2h ch of the follow $g remed e#* .e.* 4a7 declarat o$ of $ull ty of marr age* 4,7 a$$ulme$t of marr age* 4c7 legal
#eparat o$* a$dSor 4d7 #eparat o$ of property* ca$ a$

.he may remarry. 2h le a #tr ct $terpretat o$ of &rt cle 26


of the Fam ly Code would capac tate a F l p $o #pou#e to

remarry o$ly whe$ the other #pou#e wa# a fore g$er at the t me of the marr age* the H/< ha# ##ued a$ op $ o$ 4/p $ o$ 134 #. of 19937 that the #ame $8u#t ce #ought to ,e cured ,y &rt cle 26 # pre#e$t $ the ca#e of #pou#e# who
were ,oth F l p $o at the t me of the marr age ,ut o$e

,ecame a$ al e$ #u,#e?ue$tly. .a d $8u#t ce # the a$omaly of 5!a rema $ $g marr ed to her hu#,a$d who # $o lo$ger marr ed to her. He$ce* #a d /p $ o$ ma9e# &rt cle 26
appl ca,le to her ca#e a$d the d !orce o,ta $ed a,road ,y her former F l p $o hu#,a$d would capac tate her to

aggr e!ed #pou#e a!a l h m#elfSher#elf of> 4 7 +f the w fe d #co!er# after the marr age that her hu#,a$d ha# C&+H.D. 4 7 +f the w fe goe# 4to7 a,road to wor9 a# a $ur#e a$d
refu#e# to come home after the e-p rat o$ of her

remarry. @o co$tract a #u,#e?ue$t marr age* all #he $eed# to


do # pre#e$t to the c ! l reg #trar the decree of d !orce

whe$ #he appl e# for a marr age l ce$#e u$der &rt cle 13 of
the Fam ly Code. *arriage; Donations b" 1eason of *arriage; Effect of Declaration of .%llit" (199-) 17 /$ the occa# o$ of H g$aG# marr age to )eorge* her father ga!e her a do$at o$ propter $upt a# of a car.

three>year co$tract there. 4 7 +f the hu#,a$d d #co!er# after the marr age that h # w fe ha# ,ee$ a pro#t tute ,efore they got marr ed. 4 !7 +f the hu#,a$d ha# a #er ou# affa r w th h # #ecretary a$d refu#e# to #top $otw th#ta$d $g ad! ce from relat !e# a$d fr e$d#. 4!7 +f the hu#,a$d ,eat# up h # w fe e!ery t me he come# home dru$9. 5E
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

47

. $ce &+H. # a #er ou# a$d $cura,le #e-ually>

tra$#m ## ,le d #ea#e* the w fe may f le a$ action for

.u,#e?ue$tly* the marr age wa# a$$ulled ,ecau#e of the


p#ycholog cal mmatur ty of )eorge. 0ay H g$aG# father re!o9e the do$at o$ a$d get ,ac9 the car% 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

ann%lment of the marr age o$ th # grou$d whether #uch fact wa# co$cealed or $ot from the w fe* pro! ded that the d #ea#e wa# pre#e$t at the t me of the marr age. @he marr age # !o da,le e!e$ though the hu#,a$d wa# $ot aware that he had the d #ea#e at the t me of marr age.
+f the w fe refu#e# to come home for three 437 mo$th# from the e-p rat o$ of her co$tract* #he #

1o* H g$aG# father may $ot re!o9e the do$at o$ ,ecau#e

4 7

H g$a wa# $ot $ ,ad fa th* apply $g &rt. 86437 of the


Fam ly Code.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

pre#umed to ha!e a,a$do$ed the hu#,a$d a$d he may f le


a$ action for /%0icial separation of propert". +f the refu#al

a7 Be#* the do$at o$ # re!oca,le. . $ce the grou$d for the


a$$ulme$t of the marr age # the p#ycholog cal mmatur ty

co$t $ue# for more tha$ o$e year from the e-p rat o$ of her co$tract* the hu#,a$d may f le the action for legal
separation u$der &rt. 55 4107 of the Fam ly Code o$ the

of )eorge* the 8udgme$t wa# $ the $ature of a declarat o$ of $ull ty u$der &rt. 36 of the FC a$d* therefore* the do$at o$ may ,e re!o9ed u$der &rt. 864 17 of the FC for
the rea#o$ that the marr age ha# ,ee$ 8ud c ally declared !o d a, $ t o.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

grou$d of a,a$do$me$t of pet t o$er ,y re#po$de$t w thout 8u#t f a,le cau#e for more tha$ o$e year. @he w fe #
deemed to ha!e a,a$do$ed the hu#,a$d whe$ #he lea!e# the co$8ugal dwell $g w thout a$y $te$t o$ of retur$ $g 4&rt cle 101* FC7. @he $te$t o$ $ot to retur$ ca$$ot ,e pre#umed dur $g the 30year per od of her co$tract.

,7

1o* the do$at o$ ca$$ot ,e re!o9ed. @he law pro! de#

that a do$at o$ ,y rea#o$ of marr age may ,e re!o9ed ,y the do$or f amo$g other ca#e#* the marr age # 8ud c ally declared !o d a, $ t o ;par. 417 &rt. 86. Fam ly CodeA* or

4 7

+f the hu#,a$d d #co!er# after the marr age that h #

w fe wa# a pro#t tute ,efore they got marr ed* he ha# $o

whe$ the marr age # a$$ulled a$d the do$ee acted $ ,ad
fa th ;par. 437* +d.A. . $ce the pro,lem #tate# that the marr age wa# a$$ulled a$d there # $o $t mat o$ of ,ad

remedy. 1o m #repre#e$tat o$ or dece t a# to character*


health* ra$9* fortu$e or cha#t ty #hall co$#t tute fraud a# legal grou$d for a$ act o$ for the a$$ulme$t of marr age

fa th o$ the part of the do$ee H g$a* the co$clu# o$ # that


the do$or ca$$ot re!o9e the do$at o$.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

4&rt cle 46 FC7. 4 !7


@he w fe may f le a$ action for legal separation. @he hu#,a$dO# #e-ual $f del ty # a grou$d for legal

c7 Be#* the do$at o$ ca$ ,e re!o9ed. @he grou$d u#ed $

d ##ol! $g the marr age wa# the p#ycholog cal mmatur ty of )eorge* wh ch # $ot a grou$d for a$$ulme$t of marr age. +f th # term # e?uated w th p#ycholog cal $capac ty a# u#ed $ &rt. 36 of the Fam ly Code* the$ t # a grou$d for declarat o$ of $ull ty of the marr age. Co$#e?ue$tly* par. 417 of &rt. 86* FC* # the appl ca,le law. . $ce &rt. 86 of the FC
ma9e# $o ?ual f cat o$ a# to who fur$ #hed the grou$d or

#eparat o$ 9&rt cle 55* FC7. .he may al#o f le a$ action for /%0icial separation of propert" for fa lure of her hu#,a$d to comply w th h # mart al duty of f del ty 4&rt cle 135 447* 101* FC7. 4!7 @he w fe may f le a$ action for legal separation o$ the grou$d of repeated phy# cal ! ole$ce o$ her per#o$ 4&rt cle 55 417* FC7. .he may al#o f le a$ action for /%0icial

who wa# $ ,ad fa th $ co$$ect o$ w th the $ull f cat o$ of

Page 28 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

separation of propert" for fa lure of the hu#,a$d to comply


w th h # mar tal duty of mutual re#pect 4&rt cle 135 447*

.aud &ra, a to wor9. @here* after ,e $g co$!erted $to +#lam* &r el marr ed 0y#t ca* Jo#a lear$ed of the #eco$d

&rt cle 101* FC7. .he may al#o f le a$ action for 0eclaration
of n%llit" of the marr age f the hu#,a$dO# ,eha! or co$#t tute p#ycholog cal $capac ty e- #t $g at the t me of the cele,rat o$ of marr age.

marr age of &r el o$ <a$uary 1* 1992 whe$ &r el retur$ed to the Ph l pp $e# w th 0y#t ca. Jo#a f led a$ act o$ for legal #eparat o$ o$ Fe,ruary 5* 1994*
17 Hoe# Jo#a ha!e legal grou$d# to a#9 for legal #eparat o$% 27 Ha# the act o$ pre#cr ,ed%

*arriage; Bro%n0s; .%llit"; 2nn%lment; Legal eparation (1997) L$der what co$d t o$#* re#pect !ely* may drug add ct o$ ,e a grou$d* f at all* 4a7 for a declarat o$ of $ull ty of marr age* 4,7 for a$ a$$ulme$t of the marr age co$tract* a$d 4c7 for
legal #eparat o$ ,etwee$ the #pou#e#%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

17 a7 Be#* the a,a$do$me$t of Jo#a ,y &r el for more tha$

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

o$e 417 year # a grou$d for legal #eparat o$ u$le## upo$ retur$ $g to the Ph l pp $e#* Jo#a agree# to coha, t w th

&r el wh ch # allowed u$der the 0u#l m Code. +$ th # ca#e*


there # co$do$at o$.

,7 Be#. @he co$tract $g of a #u,#e?ue$t , gamou# marr age


whether $ the Ph l pp $e# or a,road # a grou$d for legal

4a7 Heclarat o$ of $ull ty of marr age( 17 @he drug add ct o$ mu#t amou$t to p#ycholog cal $capac ty to comply w th the e##e$t al o,l gat o$#
of marr age3

#eparat o$ u$der &rt cle 55477 of the Fam ly Code. 2hether the #eco$d marr age # !al d or $ot* &r el ha! $g co$!erted $to +#lam* # mmater al.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

27 37

+t mu#t ,e a$tecede$t 4e- #t $g at the t me of


marr age7* gra!e a$d $cura,le(

@he ca#e mu#t

,e f led ,efore &ugu#t 1* 1998.

L$der &rt cle 57 of the Fam ly Code* the 1o. aggr e!ed #pou#e mu#t f le the act o$ w th $ f !e 457 year#

27

Necau#e f they got marr ed ,efore &ugu#t 3* 1998* t mu#t ,e f led ,efore &ugu#t 1* 1998. 4,7 &$$ulme$t of the 0arr age Co$tract(
17 @he drug add ct o$ mu#t ,e co$cealed3

from the occurre$ce of the cau#e. @he #u,#e?ue$t marr age of &r el could $ot ha!e occurred earl er tha$ 1990* the t me
he we$t to .aud &ra, a. He$ce* Jo#a ha# u$t l 1995 to ,r $g the act o$ u$der the Fam ly Code.

27
37

+t mu#t e- #t at the t me of marr age3

@here #hould ,e $o coha, tat o$


9$owledge of the drug add ct o$3 @he ca#e

w th

full
from

*arriage; Legal eparation; *%t%al g%ilt ('##-) .aul* a marr ed ma$* had a$ adulterou# relat o$ w th @e## e.
+$ o$e of the try#t#* .aulG# w fe* Cec le* caught them $ flagra$te. &rmed w th a gu$* Cec le #hot .aul $ a f t of

47

# f led w th $ f !e 457 year#

d #co!ery.
4c7 "egal .eparat o$3

e-treme 8ealou#y* $early 9 ll $g h m. Four 447 year# after the


$c de$t* .aul f led a$ act o$ for legal #eparat o$ aga $#t

17 27 37

@here #hould ,e $o co$do$at o$ or co$#e$t to the


drug add ct o$3

Cec le o$ the grou$d that #he attempted to 9 ll h m. (1) I* yo. 9ere Sa.lDs +o.nsel, !o9 9"ll yo. ar,.e !"s +ase1 ($.74)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he act o$ mu#t ,e f led w th $ f !e 457 year# from


the occurre$ce of the cau#e.

Hrug add ct o$ ar #e# dur $g the marr age a$d $ot


at the t me of marr age.

&# the cou$#el of .aul* + w ll argue that a$ attempt ,y the w fe aga $#t the l fe of the hu#,a$d # o$e of the grou$d#
e$umerated ,y the Fam ly Code for legal #eparat o$ a$d

there # $o $eed for cr m $al co$! ct o$ for the grou$d to


,e $!o9ed 4&rt. 55* par. 9* Fam ly Code7.

*arriage; Legal eparation; Declaration of .%llit" ('##')

+f drug add ct o$* ha, tual alcohol #m* le#, a$ #m or


homo#e-ual ty #hould occur o$ly dur $g the marr age*

would th # co$#t tute grou$d# for a declarat o$ of $ull ty or for legal #eparat o$* or would they re$der the marr age
!o da,le% 41E7.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

($) I* yo. 9ere t!e la9yer o* Ce+"le, 9!at 9"ll /e yo.r %e*ense1 ($.74)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&# the cou$#el of Cec le* + w ll $!o9e the adultery of .aul. 0utual gu lt # a grou$d for the d #m ##al of a$ act o$ for

+$ accorda$ce w th law*

f drug add ct o$* ha, tual

legal #eparat o$ 4&rt. 56* par. 4* Fam ly Code7. @he rule #

alcohol #m* le#, a$ #m or homo#e-ual ty #hould occur o$ly


dur $g the marr age* they(

a$chored o$ a well>e#ta,l #hed pr $c ple that o$e mu#t


come to court w th clea$ ha$d#. (3) I* yo. 9ere t!e :.%,e, !o9 9"ll yo. %e+"%e t!e

a7 ,7
c7

2 ll $ot co$#t tute a# grou$d for declarat o$ of $ull ty


4&rt. 36* Fam ly Code73

2 ll co$#t tute a# grou$d# for legal #eparat o$ 4&rt. 56*


FC7 a$d w ll $ot co$#t tute a# grou$d# to re$der the marr age !o da,le 4&rt.45a$d 46* FC7

+ase1 (74)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

+f + were the 8udge* + w ll d #m ## the act o$ o$ the grou$d


of mutual gu lt of the part e#. @he Ph l pp $e Co$#t tut o$

protect# marr age a# a$ $! ola,le #oc al $#t tut o$ 4&rt.


=6* .ec. 2* 1987 Co$#t tut o$7. &$ act o$ for legal #hould ,e ##ued f a$y legal o,#tacle thereto appear# o$

*arriage; Legal

eparation; Bro%n0s; 4rescriptive 4erio0

(199!)
Jo#a a$d &r el were marr ed $ the Cathol c Church of @arlac* @arlac o$ <a$uary 5. 1988. +$ 1990* &r el we$t to

#eparat o$ $!ol!e# pu,l c $tere#t a$d $o #uch decree record. @h # # $ l $e w th the pol cy that $ ca#e of dou,t*

Page 29 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

the court #hall uphold the !al d ty a$d #a$ct ty of marr age
(Gro9n v. ?a&/ao, ;.R. 0o. 5610699, <+to/er 18, 197().

the preced $g &rt cle* o$ly the propert e# ac?u red ,y ,oth of the part e# through the r actual 8o $t co$tr ,ut o$ of
mo$ey* property* or $du#try #hall ,e ow$ed ,y them $ the a,#e$ce* of proof to the co$trary* the r co$tr ,ut o$# a$d corre#po$d $g #hare# are pre#umed to ,e e?ual. @he

*arriage; .on?;igamo%s *arriages ('##-)

commo$ $ proport o$ to the r re#pect !e co$tr ,ut o$#. +$ #ame rule a$d pre#umpt o$ #hall apply to 8o $t depo# t# of mo$ey a$d e! de$ce# of cred t.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

0ar! $* a F l p $o* a$d .helley* a$ &mer ca$* ,oth re# de$t#


of Cal for$ a* dec ded to get marr ed $ the r local par #h.

@wo year# after the r marr age* .helley o,ta $ed a d !orce $ Cal for$ a. 2h le $ Noracay* 0ar! $ met 0a$el* a F l p $a*
who wa# !acat o$ $g there. 0ar! $ fell $ lo!e w th her.

&fter a ,r ef court#h p a$d comply $g w th all the


re?u reme$t#* they got marr ed to 0a$el !al d% 5-pla $. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

$ Ho$g9o$g to a!o d

pu,l c ty* t ,e $g 0ar! $G# #eco$d marr age. +# h # marr age Be#. @he marr age w ll $ot fall u$der &rt. 35447 of the Fam ly Code o$ , gamou# marr age#* pro! ded that .helley
o,ta $ed a$ a,#olute d !orce* capac tat $g her to remarry

C. +t #hould ,e d #t $gu #hed whe$ the property wa# ac?u red. U +f t wa# ac?u red ,efore 0aryG# death* the e#tate of 0ary # e$t tled to 1S2 of the #hare of <ame#.
U +f t wa# ac?u red after 0aryG# death* there w ll

,e $o #hare at all for the e#tate of 0ary. *arriage; 4s"c&ological )ncapacit" (199-) /$ &pr l 15* 1983* <o#e* a$ e$g $eer* a$d 0ar $a* a $ur#e*
were marr ed to each other $ a c ! l ceremo$y $ Noac.

u$der her $at o$al law. Co$#e?ue$tly* the marr age ,etwee$ 0ar! $ a$d 0a$el may ,e !al d a# lo$g a# t wa# #olem$ :ed a$d !al d $ accorda$ce w th the law# of Ho$g9o$g ;&rt. 26*
paragraph# 1 a$d 2* Fam ly CodeA. *arriage; 4ropert" 1elations; @oi0 *arriages (1991)

0ar $du?ue. . - mo$th# after the r marr age* <o#e wa# employed $ a$ o l ref $ery $ .aud &ra, a for a per od of

+$ <u$e 1985* <ame# marr ed 0ary. +$ .eptem,er 1988* he al#o marr ed /phel a w th whom he ,egot two 427 ch ldre$* & a$d N. +$ <uly 1989* 0ary d ed. +$ <uly 1990* he marr ed .h rley a$d a,a$do$ed /phel a* Hur $g the r u$ o$. <ame# a$d /phel a ac?u red a re# de$t al lot worth P300*000.00. /phel a #ue# <ame# for , gamy a$d pray# that h # marr age w th .h rley ,e declared $ull a$d !o d. <ame#* o$ the other
ha$d* cla m# that # $ce h # marr age to /phel a wa#

three year#. 2he$ he retur$ed to the Ph l pp $e#* 0ar $a

wa# $o lo$ger l ! $g $ the r hou#e* ,ut $ Iam,oa$ga C ty* wor9 $g $ a ho#p tal. He a#9ed her to come home* ,ut #he
refu#ed to do #o* u$le## he agreed $ot to wor9 o!er#ea# a$ymore ,ecau#e #he ca$$ot #ta$d l ! $g alo$e. He could

$ot agree a# $ fact* he had # g$ed a$other three year


co$tract. 2he$ he retur$ed $ 1989* he could $ot locate 0ar $a a$ymore. +$ 1992* <o#e f led a$ act o$ #er!ed ,y pu,l cat o$ $ a $ew#paper of ge$eral c rculat o$. 0ar $a d d $ot f le a$y a$#wer* a po## ,le collu# o$ ,etwee$ the part e# wa# ruled out ,y the Pu,l c Pro#ecutor. @r al wa# co$ducted a$d 0ar $a $e ther appeared $or pre#e$ted e! de$ce $ her fa!or.

co$tracted dur $g the e- #te$ce of h # marr age w th 0ary* the former # $ot , $d $g upo$ h m* the #ame ,e $g !o d a, $ t o he further cla m# that h # marr age to .h rley # !al d a$d , $d $g a# he wa# already legally capac tated at the t me
he marr ed her.

a7 +# the co$te$t o$ of <ame# correct% ,7 2hat property Jelat o$# go!er$ed the u$ o$ of <ame#
a$d /phel a% c7 +# the e#tate of 0ary e$t tled to a #hare re# de$t al lot ac?u red ,y <ame# a$d /phel a% $ the

+f you were the 8udge* w ll you gra$t the a$$ulme$t. 5-pla $.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&# 8udge* + w ll $ot gra$t the a$$ulme$t. @he fact# do $ot


#how a$y ta $t of per#o$al ty d #order o$ the part of the

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&. Be#. H # marr age to /phel a # !o d a, $ t o ,ecau#e of h # #u,# #t $g pr or marr age to 0ary. H # marr age to
.h rley* after 0aryG# death* # !al d a$d , $d $g.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

w fe 0ar $a #o a# to le$d #u,#ta$ce to her hu#,a$dG# a!erme$t of p#ycholog cal $capac ty w th $ the mea$ $g of &rt 36 of the Fam ly Code. +$ Santos vs. CA ($40 SCRA $0)* th # part cular grou$d for $ull ty of marr age wa# held to ,e
l m ted o$ly to the mo#t #er ou# ca#e# of per#o$al ty d #order# 4clearly demo$#trat !e of utter #e$# t ! ty or $a, l ty to g !e mea$ $g a$d # g$ f ca$ce to the marr age. 0ar $aG# refu#al to come home to her hu#,a$d u$le## he

<ame# # $ot correct. &. 1o. @he co$te$t o$ of &rt. 40* Fam ly Code* pro! de# that the 'a,#olute $ull ty of a

pre! ou# marr age may ,e

$!o9ed for purpo#e# of

agreed $ot to wor9 o!er#ea#* far from ,e $g $d cat !e of a$

remarr age o$ the ,a# # #olely of a f $al 8udgme$t declar $g #uch pre! ou# marr age !o d.' +t ca$ ,e #a d* therefore* that the marr age of <ame# to .h rley # !o d # $ce h # pre! ou# marr age to /phel a* although t#elf !o d* had $ot yet ,ee$
8ud c ally declared !o d*
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

$#e$# t ! ty to the mea$ $g of marr age* or of a per#o$al ty d #order* actually #how# a #e$# t !e aware$e## o$ her part of the mar tal duty to l !e together a# hu#,a$d a$d w fe. 0ere
refu#al to re8o $ her hu#,a$d whe$ he d d $ot accept the co$d t o$ mpo#ed ,y her doe# $ot fur$ #h a$y ,a# # for co$clud $g that #he wa# #uffer $g from p#ycholog cal

&.

1o. @he co$te$t o$ of <ame# # $ot correct. He ca$$ot #et up a# a defe$#e h # ow$ cr m $al act or

wro$gdo $g>

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

N. @he pro! # o$# of &rt 148 of the Fam ly Code* #hall

$capac ty to d #charge the e##e$t al mar tal o,l gat o$#. 0ere $te$t o$ to l !e apart doe# $ot fall u$der &rt. 36* FC. Furthermore* there # $o proof that the alleged p#ycholog cal $capac ty e- #ted at the t me of the marr age.

go!er$( &rt. 148. +$ ca#e# of coha, tat o$ $ot fall $g u$der

Page 30 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

(Santos v. CA, ;.R. 0o. 11$019, -an.

(C!" M"n, Tso"

*arriage; 4s"c&ological )ncapacit" ('##-)


)emma f led a pet t o$ for the declarat o$ of $ull ty of her marr age w th &r$ell o$ the grou$d of p#ycholog cal $capac ty. .he alleged that after 2 mo$th# of the r marr age* &r$ell #howed # g$# of d # $tere#t $ her* $eglected her a$d we$t a,road. He retur$ed to the Ph l pp $e# after 3 year# ,ut d d $ot e!e$ get $ touch w th her. 2or#e* they met #e!eral t me# $ #oc al fu$ct o$# ,ut he #$u,,ed her. 2he$ #he got # c9* he d d $ot ! # t her e!e$ f he 9$ew of her co$f $eme$t $ the ho#p tal. 0ea$wh le* &r$ell met a$ acc de$t wh ch d #a,led h m from report $g for wor9 a$d ear$ $g a l ! $g to #upport h m#elf.

@he ma$date # actually the #po$ta$eou#* mutual affect o$ ,etwee$ the #pou#e#. +$ the $atural order t # #e-ual $t macy wh ch

,r $g# the #pou#e# whole$e## a$d o$e$e## v. CA, ;.R. 0o.


119190, -an.ary 16,199().

2 ll )emmaG# #u t pro#per% 5-pla $. 45E7


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1o* )emmaG# #u t w ll $ot pro#per. 5!e$ f ta9e$ a# true* the grou$d#* # $gly or collect !ely* do $ot co$#t tute 'p#ycholog cal $capac ty.' +$ Santos v. CA, ;.R. 0o. 11$019, -an.ary 4, 1997* the .upreme Court clearly e-pla $ed that 'p#ycholog cal $capac ty mu#t ,e character :ed ,y 4a7 gra! ty* 4,7 8ur d cal a$tecede$ce* a$d 4c7 $cura, l ty'
(8errar"s v. 8errar"s, ;.R. 0o. 16$368, -.ly 1(, $006C C!oa v. C!oa, ;.R. 0o. 1433(6, 0ove&/er $6, $00$) . @he ll$e##

mu#t ,e #how$ a# dow$r ght $capac ty or $a, l ty to perform o$eG# mar tal o,l gat o$#* $ot a mere refu#al* $eglect* d ff culty or much le##* ll w ll. 0oreo!er* a# ruled $
Re'./l"+ v. Mol"na, ;R 0o. 108(63, 8e/r.ary 13, 199(* t #

e##e$t al that the hu#,a$d # capa,le of meet $g h # mar tal re#po$# , l t e# due to p#ycholog cal a$d $ot phy# cal ll$e##
(Anton"o v. Reyes, ;.R. 0o. 177800, Mar+! 10, $006C Re'./l"+ v. H."ntero6Aa&ano, ;.R. 0o. 149498, May $0, $004). Furthermore* the co$d t o$ compla $ed of d d $ot

e- #t at the t me of the cele,rat o$ of marr age. *arriage; 4s"c&ological )ncapacit" ('##-) &rt cle 36 of the Fam ly Code pro! de# that a marr age co$tracted ,y a$y party who* at the t me of the cele,rat o$* wa# p#ycholog cally $capac tated to comply w th the e##e$t al mar tal o,l gat o$# of marr age* #hall ,e !o d. Choo#e the #pou#e l #ted ,elow who # p#ycholog cally $capac tated. 5-pla $. 42.5E7 a7 1agger ,7 )ay or "e#, a$ c7 Co$ge$ tal #e-ual per!ert d7 )am,ler e7 &lcohol c
@he ,e#t a$#wer# are N a$d C. @o ,e #ure* the e- #te$ce a$d co$cealme$t of the#e co$d t o$# at the $cept o$ of marr age re$der# the marr age co$tract !o da,le 4&rt. 46* Fam ly Code7. @hey may #er!e a# $d c a of p#ycholog cal $capac ty* depe$d $g o$ the degree a$d
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

#e!er ty of the d #order


4, 1997). He$ce*

f the co$d t o$ of homo#e-ual ty* le#, a$ #m or #e-ual per!er# o$* e- #t $g at the $cept o$ of the marr age* # of #uch a degree a# to pre!e$t a$y form of #e-ual $t macy* a$y of them may ?ual fy a# a grou$d for p#ycholog cal $capac ty. @he law pro! de# that the hu#,a$d a$d w fe are o,l ged to l !e together* o,#er!e mutual lo!e* re#pect a$d f del ty 4&rt. 68* Fam ly Code7.

AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

1o$e of them are $ece##ar ly p#ycholog cally $capac tated. Ne $g a $agger* etc. are at ,e#t o$ly phy# cal ma$ fe#tat o$# $d cat !e of p#ycholog cal $capac ty. 0ore tha$ 8u#t #how $g the ma$ fe#tat o$# of $capac ty* the pet t o$er mu#t #how that the re#po$de$t # $capac tated to comply w th the e##e$t al mar tal o,l gat o$# of marr age a$d that t # al#o e##e$t al that he mu#t ,e #how$ to ,e $capa,le of do $g #o due to #ome p#ycholog cal* $ot phy# cal ll$e##
(Re'./l"+ v. H."ntero6Aa&ano, ;.R. 0o. 149498, May $0, $004).
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

& co$ge$ tal #e-ual per!ert may ,e p#ycholog cally $capac > tated f h # per!er# o$ $capac tate# h m from d #charg $g h # mar tal o,l gat o$#. For $#ta$ce* f h # per!er# o$ # of #uch a $ature a# to preclude a$y $ormal #e-ual act ! ty w th h # #pou#e. *arriage; 1e$%isites (1999) +# dro a$d +rma* F l p $o#* ,oth 18 year# of age* were pa##e$ger# of Fl ght 1o. 317 of /r e$tal & rl $e#. @he pla$e they ,oarded wa# of Ph l pp $e reg #try. 2h le e$ route from 0a$ la to )reece #ome pa##e$ger# h 8ac9ed the pla$e* held the ch ef p lot ho#tage at the coc9p t a$d ordered h m to fly $#tead to " ,ya. Hur $g the h 8ac9 $g +# dro #uffered a heart attac9 a$d wa# o$ the !erge of death. . $ce +rma wa# already e ght mo$th# preg$a$t ,y +# dro* #he pleaded to the h 8ac9er# to allow the a## #ta$t p lot to #olem$ :e her marr age w th +# dro. .oo$ after the marr age* +# dro e-p red. &#

the pla$e la$ded $ " ,ya +rma ga!e , rth. Howe!er* the ,a,y d ed a few m $ute# after complete del !ery. Nac9 $ the Ph l pp $e# +rma mmed ately f led a cla m for $her ta$ce. @he pare$t# of +# dro oppo#ed her cla m co$te$d $g that the marr age ,etwee$ her a$d +# dro wa# !o d a, $ t o o$ the follow $g grou$d#( 4a7 they had $ot g !e$ the r co$#e$t to the marr age of the r #o$3 4,7 there wa# $o marr age l ce$#e3 4c7 the #olem$ : $g off cer had $o author ty to perform the marr age3 a$d* 4d7 the #olem$ : $g off cer d d $ot f le a$ aff da! t of marr age w th the proper c ! l reg #trar. 1. Je#ol!e each of the co$te$t o$# 4;aA to ;dA7 ra #ed ,y the pare$t# of +# dro. H #cu## fully.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1. 4a7 @he fact that the pare$t# of +# dro a$d of +rma d d $ot g !e the r co$#e$t to the marr age d d $ot ma9e the marr age !o d a, $ t o. @he marr age # merely !o da,le u$der &rt 45 of the FC. 4,7 &,#e$ce of marr age l ce$#e d d $ot ma9e the marr age !o d a, $ t o. . $ce the marr age wa# #olem$ :ed $ art culo mort #* t wa# e-empt from the l ce$#e re?u reme$t u$der &rt. 31 of the FC. 4c7 /$ the a##umpt o$ that the a## #ta$t p lot wa# act $g for a$d $ ,ehalf of the a rpla$e ch ef who wa# u$der d #a, l ty* a$d ,y rea#o$ of the e-traord $ary a$d e-cept o$al c rcum#ta$ce# of the ca#e ; e. ho#tage # tuat o$7* the marr age wa# #olem$ :ed ,y a$ author :ed off cer u$der &rt. 7 437 a$d &rt. 31. of the FC.

Page 31 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

4d7 Fa lure of the #olem$ : $g off cer to f le the aff da! t of


marr age d d $ot affect the !al d ty of the marr age. +t # merely a$ rregular ty wh ch may #u,8ect the #olem$ : $g off cer to #a$ct o$#.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

+f the two F l p $o# ,el e!ed $ good fa th that the 1otary


Pu,l c marr age # !al d.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

# author :ed to #olem$ :e marr age* the$ the

Co$# der $g that the #olem$ : $g off cer ha# $o author ty to


perform the marr age ,ecau#e u$der &rt. 7 the law

author :e# o$ly the a rpla$e ch ef* the marr age # !o d*


he$ce* a* c* a$d d are mmater al.

4e7 L$der the "ocal )o!er$me$t Code* a tow$ mayor may !al dly #olem$ :e a marr age ,ut #a d law # # le$t a# to the
terr tor al l m t# for the e-erc #e ,y a tow$ mayor of #uch author ty. Howe!er* ,y a$alogy* w th the author ty of

*arriage; 1e$%isites (1999) 2hat # the #tatu# of the follow $g marr age# a$d why%
4a7 & marr age ,etwee$ two 19>year old# w thout pare$tal co$#e$t* 42E7

mem,er# of the <ud c ary to #olem$ :e a marr age* t would #eem that the mayor d d $ot ha!e the re?u # te author ty to
#olem$ :e a marr age out# de of h # terr tor al 8ur #d ct o$. He$ce* the marr age # !o d* u$le## t wa# co$tracted w th

4,7 4c7
4d7

& marr age ,etwee$ two 21>year old# w thout pare$tal 42E7 & marr age ,etwee$ two F l p $o f r#t cou# $# $ .pa $ where #uch marr age # !al d. 42E7
ad! ce. & marr age ,etwee$ two F l p $o# ,efore a $otary pu,l c. 42E7 $ Ho$g9o$g

e ther or ,oth part e# ,el e! $g $ good fa th that the mayor had the legal author ty to #olem$ :e th # part cular marr age 4&rt 35* par 2 Fam ly Code7.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

@he marr age # !al d. L$der the "ocal )o!er$me$t Code* the author ty of a mayor to #olem$ :e marr age# # $ot
re#tr cted w th $ h # mu$ c pal ty mply $g that he ha# the

4e7

& marr age #olem$ :ed ,y a tow$ mayor three tow$#


away from h # 8ur #d ct o$*

42E7

author ty e!e$ out# de the terr tory thereof. He$ce* the


marr age he #olem$ :ed out# de h # mu$ c pal ty # !al d.

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4a7

@he marr age # !o da,le. @he co$#e$t of the part e# to

&$d e!e$ a##um $g that h # author ty # re#tr cted w th $ h#


mu$ c pal ty* #uch marr age w ll $e!erthele##* ,e !al d

the marr age wa# defect !e. Ne $g ,elow 21 year# old* the co$#e$t of the part e# # $ot full w thout the co$#e$t of the r pare$t#. @he co$#e$t of the pare$t# of the part e# to the marr age # $d #pe$#a,le for t# !al d ty.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

,ecau#e #olem$ : $g the marr age out# de #a d mu$ c pal ty # a mere rregular ty apply $g ,y a$alogy the ca#e of 0avarro v Fo&a,toy, $79 S+ra 1$9. +$ th # ca#e* the .upreme
Court held that the cele,rat o$ ,y a 8udge of a marr age out# de the 8ur #d ct o$ of h # court # a mere rregular ty that d d $ot affect the !al d ty of the marr age $otw th#ta$d $g &rt cle 7 of the Fam ly Code wh ch

Netwee$ 21>year old#* the marr age # !al d de#p te the a,#e$ce of pare$tal ad! ce* ,ecau#e #uch a,#e$ce # merely a$ rregular ty affect $g a formal re?u # te .e.* the 4,7 marr age l ce$#e a$d doe# $ot affect the !al d ty of the
marr age therefor.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

pro! de# that a$ $cum,e$t mem,er of the 8ud c ary #


author :ed to #olem$ :e marr age# o$ly w th $ the courtO#

t#elf. @h #

# w thout pre8ud ce to the c ! l*

cr m $al* or adm $ #trat !e l a, l ty of the party re#po$# ,le

8ur #d ct o$. *arriage; 1e$%isites; *arriage License (199-) /$ 6ale$t $eG# Hay 1996* 5lla# a$d Fely* ,oth # $gle a$d 25 year# of age* we$t to the c ty hall where they #ought out a f -er to help them o,ta $ a ?u c9 e marr age. For a fee* the f -er produced a$ a$te>dated marr age l ce$#e for them* +##ued ,y the C ! l Jeg #trar of a #mall remote mu$ c pal ty. He the$ ,rought them to a l ce$#ed m $ #ter $ a re#taura$t

Ny rea#o$ of pu,l c pol cy* the marr age ,etwee$ 4c7 F l p $o f r#t cou# $# # !o d ;&rt. 38* par. 417* Fam ly CodeA* a$d the fact that t # co$# dered a !al d marr age $ a fore g$

cou$try $ th # ca#e* .pa $W doe# $ot !al date t* ,e $g a$

e-cept o$ to the ge$eral rule $ &rt. 96 of #a d Code wh ch accord# !al d ty to all marr age #olem$ :ed out# de the
Ph l pp $e - - - a$d !al d there a# #uch.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE"

,eh $d the c ty hall* a$d the latter #olem$ :ed the r marr age
r ght there a$d the$.

17 +# the r marr age !al d* !o d or !o da,le% 5-pla $.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he marr age t !o d. L$der &rt cle 96 of the Fam ly Code* a marr age !al d where cele,rated # !al d $ the Ph l pp $e#
e-cept tho#e marr age# e$umerated $ #a d &rt cle wh ch marr age# w ll rema $ !o d e!e$ though !al d where #olem$ :ed. @he marr age ,etwee$ f r#t cou# $# # o$e of

@he marr age # !al d. @he rregular ty $ the ##ua$ce of a !al d l ce$#e doe# $ot ad!er#ely affect the !al d ty of the

marr age. @he marr age l ce$#e # !al d ,ecau#e t wa# $ fact ##ued ,y a C ! l Jeg #trar 4&rt#. 3 a$d 4. FC7.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

tho#e marr age# e$umerated there $* he$ce* t # !o d e!e$ though !al d $ .pa $ where t wa# cele,rated.

+t depe$d#. +f ,oth or o$e of the part e# wa# a mem,er of the rel g ou# #ect of the #olem$ : $g off cer* the marr age # ,oth of them were aware of the fact* the marr age # !o d. @hey ca$$ot cla m good fa th $ ,el e! $g that the #olem$ : $g off cer wa# author :ed ,ecau#e the #cope of the
author ty of the #olem$ : $g off cer # a matter of law. +f* !al d. +f $o$e of the part e# # a mem,er of the #ect a$d

Ny rea#o$ of &rt. 15 $ relat o$ to &rt cle 38 of the C ! l

Code* wh ch appl e# to F l p $o# where!er they are* the marr age # !o d.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4d7

+t depe$d#. +f the marr age ,efore the $otary pu,l c #

!al d u$der Ho$g9o$g "aw* the marr age # !al d $ the /therw #e* the marr age that # $!al d $ Ph l pp $e#. Ho$g9o$g w ll ,e $!al d $ the Ph l pp $e#.

howe!er* o$e of the part e# ,el e!ed $ good fa th that the other wa# a mem,er of the #ect* the$ the marr age # !al d

Page 32 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

u$der &rt cle 35 427* FC. +$ that ca#e* the party $ good fa th # act $g u$der a m #ta9e of fact* $ot a m #ta9e of law*

@h # # d ffere$t from the ca#e of 0"nal #. Gaya%o,, (3$8 SCRA 1$$ [$000]7. +$ the #a d ca#e* the # tuat o$ occurred

27 2ould your a$#wer ,e the #ame f t #hould tur$ out that


the marr age l ce$#e wa# #pur ou#% 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

dur $g the Jelat o$# of the $ew C ! l Code where &rt cle 76 thereof clearly pro! de# that dur $g the f !e> year coha, tat o$* the part e# mu#t ,e u$marr ed. @h # # $ot #o
a$ymore $ the Fam ly Code. @he Cha$ge $ the Fam ly

1o* the a$#wer would $ot ,e the #ame. @he marr age would
,e !o d ,ecau#e of the a,#e$ce of a formal re?u # te. +$ #uch a ca#e* there wa# actually $o !al d marr age l ce$#e. *arriage; 1e$%isites; *arriage License ('##')

Code # # g$ f ca$t. +f the #eco$d marr age occurred ,efore the effect ! ty of the Fam ly Code* the a$#wer would that ,e
that the marr age # !o d.

/$ 0ay 1* 1978 Facu$do marr ed Petra* ,y whom he had a #o$ .otero. Petra d ed o$ <uly 1* 1996* wh le Facu$do d ed
o$ <a$uary 1* 2002. Nefore h # dem #e* Facu$do had

N. Hoe# .otero ha!e the per#o$al ty to #ee9 the declarat o$


of $ull ty of the marr age* e#pec ally $ow that Facu$do #

already decea#ed% 5-pla $. 43E7


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

marr ed* o$ <uly 1* 2002* Puerc a. Ha! $g l !ed together a# hu#,a$d a$d w fe # $ce <uly 1* 1990* Facu$do a$d Puerc a d d $ot #ecure a marr age l ce$#e ,ut e-ecuted the re?u # te aff da! t for the purpo#e. @o e$#ure that h # $her ta$ce r ght# are $ot ad!er#ely affected ,y h # father #eco$d marr age* .otero $ow ,r $g# a
#u t to #ee9 a declarat o$ of the $ull ty of the marr age of

N. & !o d marr age may ,e ?ue#t o$ed ,y a$y $tere#ted

party $ a$y proceed $g where the re#olut o$ of the ##ue # mater al. Ne $g a compul#ory he r* .oterro ha# the per#o$al ty to ?ue#t o$ the !al d ty of the marr age of
Facu$do a$d Puerc a. /therw #e* h # part c pat o$ $ the

e#tate o$ Facu$do would ,e affected.


3$8 SCRA 1$$ [$000] ).

(0"nIl #. Gaya%o,,

Facu$do a$d Puerc a* grou$ded o$ the a,#e$ce of a !al d marr age l ce$#e. Puerc a co$te$d# that there wa# $o $eed
for a marr age l ce$#e $ ! ew for her ha! $g l !ed

co$t $uou#ly w th Facu$do for f !e year# ,efore the r

marr age a$d that ha# .otero ha# $o legal per#o$al ty to #ee9
a declarat o$ of $ull ty of the marr age # $ce Facu$do # $ow decea#ed.

*arriage; 1e$%isites; olemni>ing Officers (199!) 1M @he complete pu,l cat o$ of the Fam ly Code wa# made o$ &ugu#t 4* 1987. /$ .eptem,er 4* 1987* <u$ or Cru: a$d )emma Jeye# were marr ed ,efore a mu$ c pal mayor. 2a# the marr age !al d% 27 .uppo#e the couple got marr ed o$ .eptem,er 1* 1994 at
the 0a$ la Hotel ,efore the Ph l pp $e Co$#ul )e$eral to Ho$g9o$g* who wa# o$ !acat o$ $ 0a$ la. @he couple e-ecuted a$ aff da! t co$#e$t $g to the cele,rat o$ of the marr age at the 0a$ la Hotel. +# the marr age !al d%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&. &.

+# the marr age of Facu$do a$d Puerc a !al d* @he marr age w th Puerc a # !o d. @he e-empt o$

de#p te the a,#e$ce of a marr age l ce$#e% 5-pla $. 42E7


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

from the re?u reme$t of a marr age l ce$#e u$der &rt* 34*

Fam ly Code* re?u re# that the ma$ a$d woma$ mu#t ha!e l !ed together a# hu#,a$d a$d w fe for at lea#t f !e year# a$d
w thout a$y legal mped me$t to marry each other dur $g

17 a7 Be#* the marr age # !al d. @he Fam ly Code too9 effect o$ &ugu#t 3* 1988. &t the t me of the marr age o$
.eptem,er 4* 1987* mu$ c pal mayor# were empowered to

tho#e f !e year#. @he coha, tat o$ of Facu$do a$d Puerc a for # - year# from 1990 to <uly 1* 1996 whe$ Petra d ed wa# o$e w th a legal mped me$t he$ce* $ot $ compl a$ce w th
the re?u reme$t of law. /$ other ha$d* the coha, tat o$

thereafter u$t l the marr age o$ <uly 1* 2000* although free from legal mped me$t* d d $ot meet the 5>year coha, tat o$
re?u reme$t.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

#olem$ :e marr age u$der the C ! l Code of 1950. Co$#ul# a$d ! ce> 27 a7 @he marr age # $ot !al d. co$#ul# are empowered to #olem$ :e marr age# ,etwee$ Ph l pp $e c t :e$# a,road $ the co$#ular off ce of the fore g$ cou$try
to wh ch they were a## g$ed a$d ha!e $o power to

#olem$ :e marr age o$ Ph l pp $e #o l.


,7 & Ph l pp $e co$#ul # author :ed ,y law to #olem$ :e

@he marr age of Facu$do a$d Puerc a # 6&"+H. @he

#eco$d marr age wa# #olem$ :ed o$ <uly 1* 2000* whe$ the
Fam ly code wa# already affect !e. @he fam ly code too9

marr age# a,road ,etwee$ F l p $o c t :e$#. He ha# $o


author ty to #olem$ :e a marr age $ the Ph l pp $e#.

effect o$ &ugu#t 3* 1988. L$der the Fam ly Code* $o


marr age l ce$#e # re?u red f the part e# ha!e ,ee$

coha, t $g for the per od of f !e year# a$d there # $o legal


mped me$t. @here mu#t $o legal mped me$t <05? AT
TA2 TIM2 <8 TA2 S<52M0I=ATI<0 <8 TA2
MARRIA;2* a$d $ot the whole f !e year# per od. @h # # clearly the $te$t of the code framer# 4see M"n.tes o* t!e

Co$#e?ue$tly* the marr age $ ?ue#t o$ # !o d* u$le## e ther or ,oth of the co$tract $g part e# ,el e!ed $ good fa th that the co$#ul ge$eral had author ty to #olem$ :e the r marr age
$ wh ch ca#e the marr age # !al d. *arriage; 1e$%isites; @oi0 *arriage (199() & a$d N* ,oth 18 year# old* were #weetheart# #tudy $g $

170t! :o"nt C"v"l Co%e o* t!e 8a&"ly 5a9 Co&&"ttees !el% on A.,.st 9, 19867. &l#o* $ Man@ano #. San+!e@, AM 0<. MT J0061$9, Mar+! 8, $001* the .upreme Court #a d that* a# o$e

0a$ la. /$ &ugu#t 3* 1988* wh le $ f r#t year college* they eloped. @hey #tayed $ the hou#e of a mutual fr e$d $ tow$
=* where they were a,le to o,ta $ a marr age l ce$#e. /$

of the re?u # te# for the e-cept o$ to apply* there mu#t ,e $o legal mped me$t at the t me of the marr age. @he .upreme Court d d $ot #ay that the legal mped me$t mu#t
e- #t all throughout the f !e>year per od.

&ugu#t 30* 1988* the r marr age wa# #olem$ :ed ,y the tow$ mayor of = $ h # off ce. @hereafter* they retur$ed to 0a$ la a$d co$t $ued to l !e #eparately $ the r re#pect !e ,oard $g
hou#e#* co$ceal $g from the r pare$t#* who were l ! $g $

the pro! $ce what they had do$e. +$ 1992* after graduat o$

Page 33 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

from college* & a$d N dec ded to ,rea9 the r relat o$ a$d

parted way#. Noth we$t home to the r re#pect !e tow$# to


l !e a$d wor9.

Ph l pp $e "aw* h # marr age to &$$e # !o d ,ecau#e of a pr or e- #t $g marr age wh ch wa# $ot d ##ol!ed ,y the d !orce decreed $ /#lo. H !orce o,ta $ed a,road ,y a
F l p $o # $ot recog$ :ed.

17 2a# the marr age of & a$d N #olem$ :ed o$ &ugu#t 30* 1988 ,y the tow$ mayor of = $ h # off ce a !al d marr age% 5-pla $ your a$#wer.
27 Ca$ e ther or ,oth of them co$tract marr age w th a$other per#o$ w thout comm tt $g , gamy% 5-pla $ your a$#wer.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

+f No$ wa# $o lo$ger a F l p $o c t :e$* the d !orce # !al d.


He$ce* h # marr age to &$$e # !al d f cele,rated $ accorda$ce w th the law of the place where t wa#

17 @he marr age of & a$d N # !o d ,ecau#e the #olem$ : $g off cer had $o legal author ty to #olem$ :e the marr age. Nut f e ther or ,oth part e# ,el e!ed $ good fa th that the
#olem$ : $g off cer had the legal author ty to do #o* the

cele,rated. . $ce the marr age wa# cele,rated a,oard a !e##el of 1orweg a$ reg #try* 1orweg a$ law appl e#. +f the h # #h p* the marr age # !al d a$d #hall ,e recog$ :ed $ the Ph l pp $e#.

.h p Capta $ ha# author ty to #olem$ :e the marr age a,oard

marr age # !o da,le ,ecau#e the marr age ,etwee$ the part e#* ,oth ,elow 21 year# of age* wa# #olem$ :ed w thout the co$#e$t of the pare$t#. 4&rt. 35* par. 427 a$d &rt. 45 par.
417* Fam ly Code7

&# to the #eco$d ?ue#t o$* f No$ # #t ll a F l p $o* &$$e ca$ f le a$ act o$ for declarat o$ of $ull ty of her marr age
to h m. *arriage; @oi0 *arriages ('##-) ) g a$d J c* Cathol c#* got marr ed whe$ they were 18

27 5 ther or ,oth of the part e# ca$$ot co$tract marr age $ the Ph l pp $e# w th a$other per#o$ w thout comm tt $g , gamy* u$le## there # compl a$ce w th the re?u reme$t# of &rt cle 52 Fam ly Code* $amely( there mu#t ,e a 8udgme$t
of a$$ulme$t or a,#olute $ull ty of the marr age* part t o$ a$d d #tr ,ut o$ of the propert e# of the #pou#e# a$d the

year# old. @he r marr age wa# #olem$ :ed o$ &ugu#t 2* 1989 ,y J cG# u$cle* a Napt #t 0 $ #ter* $ Calam,a* "agu$a. He
o!erloo9ed the fact that h # l ce$#e to #olem$ :e marr age

del !ery of the r ch ldre$G# pre#umpt !e leg t me#* wh ch #hall ,e recorded $ the appropr ate C ! l Jeg #try a$d
Jeg #try of Property* otherw #e the #ame #hall $ot affect

e-p red the mo$th ,efore a$d that the part e# do $ot ,elo$g to h # co$gregat o$. &fter 5 year# of marr ed l fe a$d ,le##ed
w th 2 ch ldre$* the #pou#e# de!eloped rreco$c la,le

d ffere$ce#* #o they parted way#.


2h le #eparated* J c fell $ lo!e w th <ul et* a 16 year> old

th rd per#o$# a$d the #u,#e?ue$t marr age #hall ,e $ull a$d


!o d. 4&rt#. 52 a$d 53. Fam ly Code7
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

#ophomore $ a local college a$d a .e!e$th>Hay &d!e$t #t.


@hey dec ded to get marr ed w th the co$#e$t of <ul etG# # 18 year# old. J c $e!er dou,ted her age much le## the authe$t c ty of her , rth cert f cate. @hey got marr ed $ a

27 Be#* they ca$. @he #u,#e?ue$t marr age co$tracted ,y

pare$t#. .he pre#e$ted to h m a , rth cert f cate #how $g #he

o$e of the part e# w ll $ot g !e r #e to , gamy e!e$ $ the


a,#e$ce of a court declarat o$ of $ull ty of the f r#t marr age. @he #u,# #te$ce of a pr or !al d marr age # a$ $d #pe$#a,le eleme$t of the cr me of , gamy. @he pr or

court declarat o$ of $ull ty of the f r#t marr age # re?u red ,y the Fam ly Code o$ly for the purpo#e of the !al d ty of the #u,#e?ue$t marr age* $ot a# a$ eleme$t of the cr me of , gamy.
*arriage; @oi0 *arriages ('##!)

Cathol c church $ 0a$ la. & year after* <ul et ga!e , rth to tw $#* & ##a a$d &retha. (1) )!at "s t!e stat.s o* t!e &arr"a,e /et9een ;"," an% R"+ K val"%, vo"%a/le or vo"%1 23'la"n. ($.74) (+&&E($E# A'(WE": 5!e$ f the 0 $ #terG# l ce$#e e-p red* the marr age # !al d f e ther or ,oth ) g a$d Jc
,el e!ed $ good fa th that he had the legal author ty to

&. N/1+ a$d &115 met wh le wor9 $g o!er#ea#.

@hey

,ecame #weetheart# a$d got e$gaged to ,e marr ed o$ 1ew

#olem$ :e marr age. 2h le the author ty of the #olem$ : $g off cer # a formal re?u # te of marr age* a$d at lea#t o$e of the part e# mu#t ,elo$g to the #olem$ : $g off cerG# church*

@hey too9 the proper l ce$#e to marry $ 1ew Bor9 C ty* where
BearO# 5!e a,oard a cru #e #h p $ the Car ,,ea$. there # a F l p $o co$#ulate. Nut a# pla$$ed the wedd $g

the law pro! de# that the good fa th of the part e# cure# the
defect $ the lac9 of author ty of the #olem$ : $g off cer
(Art. 37 'ar. $, 8a&"ly Co%eC Se&'"o6F"y, '. 34C Ra/.ya, T!e 5a9 on ersons an% 8a&"ly Relat"ons, '. $08).

ceremo$y wa# off c ated ,y the capta $ of the 1orweg a$>


reg #tered !e##el $ a pr !ate #u te amo$g #elected fr e$d#. Nac9 $ 0a$ la* &$$e d #co!ered that No$ had ,ee$

@he a,#e$ce of pare$tal co$#e$t de#p te the r ha! $g

marr ed $ Nacolod C ty 5 year# earl er ,ut d !orced $ /#lo


o$ly la#t year. H # f r#t w fe wa# al#o a F l p $a ,ut $ow ,a#ed $ .wede$. No$ h m#elf # a re# de$t of 1orway where he a$d &$$e pla$ to l !e perma$e$tly. &$$e reta $# your #er! ce# to ad! #e her o$ whether her marr age to No$ # !al d u$der Ph l pp $e law% +# there

marr ed at the age of 18 # deemed cured ,y the r co$t $ued coha, tat o$ ,eyo$d the age of 21. &t th # po $t* the r
marr age # !al d 4.ee &rt. 45* Fam ly Code7.

($)

)!at "s t!e stat.s o* t!e &arr"a,e /et9een R"+

an% -.l"et K val"%, vo"%a/le or vo"%1 ($.74)


(+&&E($E# A'(WE": @he

a$yth $g el#e #he #hould do u$der the c rcum#ta$ce#% 45E7


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

marr age ,etwee$ <ul et a$d J c # !o d. F r#t of all* the marr age # a , gamou# marr age $ot fall $g u$der &rt cle 41 ;&rt. 35447Fam ly CodeA* &
#u,# #t $g marr age co$#t tute# a legal mped me$t to re> marr age. .eco$dly* <ul et # ,elow e ghtee$ year# of age. @he marr age # !o d e!e$ f co$#e$ted to ,y her pare$t#

+f No$

# #t ll a F l p $o c t :e$* h # legal capac ty #

go!er$ed ,y Ph l pp $e "aw 4&rt. 15 C ! l Code7. L$der

Page 34 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

;&rt. 35417* Fam ly CodeA. @he fact that J c wa# $ot aware
of her real age # mmater al.

L$der &rt cle 213 of the Fam ly Code* $o ch ld u$der 7

year# of age #hall ,e #eparated from the mother u$le## the


court f $d# compell $g rea#o$# to order otherw #e. (1) 23'la"n t!e rat"onale o* t!"s 'rov"s"on. ($.74)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

(3) S.''ose R"+ !"&sel* 'ro+.re% t!e *als"*"e% /"rt! +ert"*"+ate to 'ers.a%e -.l"et to &arry !"& %es'"te !er
&"nor"ty an% ass.re% !er t!at everyt!"n, "s "n or%er.

@he rat o$ale of the 2$d paragraph of &rt cle 213 of the

Ae %"% not %"v.l,e to !er !"s 'r"or &arr"a,e 9"t! ;",". )!at a+t"on, "* any, +an -.l"et taEe a,a"nst !"&1
23'la"n. ($.74)

Fam ly Code # to a!o d the tragedy of a mother who #ee#


her ,a,y tor$ away from her. +t # #a d that the mater$al affect o$ a$d care dur $g the early year# of the ch ld are

<ul et ca$ f le a$ act o$ for the declarat o$ of $ull ty of the marr age o$ the grou$d that he
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

ge$erally $eeded ,y the ch ld more tha$ pater$al care


(Aont"veros v. IAC, ;.R. 0o. 6498$, <+to/er $3, 1984C Tolent"no, Co&&entar"es an% -.r"s'r.%en+e on t!e C"v"l Co%e, #ol.&e <ne, ''. (186(19). @he ge$eral rule # that a

w llfully cau#ed lo## or $8ury to her $ a ma$$er that #

co$trary to moral#* good cu#tom# a$d pu,l c pol cy ;&rt. 21*


1ew C ! l CodeA. .he may al#o ,r $g cr m $al act o$# for #educt o$* fal# f cat o$* llegal marr age a$d , gamy aga $#t

ch ld ,elow 7 year# old #hall $ot ,e #eparated from h #

mother due to h # ,a# c $eed for her lo! $g care (2s'"r"t.


v. C.A., ;.R. 0o. 117640, Mar+! 17,1997).

J c. (4) I* yo. 9ere t!e +o.nsel *or ;",", 9!at a+t"onLs 9"ll yo. taEe to en*or+e an% 'rote+t !er "nterests1 23'la"n.
($.74)

($) ;"ve at least 3 e3a&'les o* M+o&'ell"n, reasonsM


9!"+! :.st"*y t!e taE"n, a9ay *ro& t!e &ot!erDs

+.sto%y o* !er +!"l% .n%er ( years o* a,e. ($.74)


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

+ would f le a$ act o$ to declare the marr age ,etwee$ <ul et a$d J c $ull a$d !o d a, $ t o a$d for J cG# #hare $ the co>ow$er#h p of that marr age to ,e forfe ted $ fa!or a$d co$# dered part of the a,#olute
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

a.
,.

@he mother # $#a$e (Se&'"o6F"y, Aan%/ooE on t!e 8a&"ly Co%e o* t!e !"l"''"nes, ''. $966$9()3
@he mother # # c9 w th a d #ea#e that # com>

commu$ ty $ the marr age ,etwee$ ) g a$d J c ;&rt#. 148 X 147* Fam ly CodeA. + would al#o f le a$ act o$ for damage# aga $#t J c o$ the grou$d# that h # act# co$#t tute a$ a,u#e of r ght a$d they are co$trary to law a$d moral#*
cau# $g damage# to ) g 4.ee &rt# 19* 20* 21* 1ew C ! l

c.
d.

mu$ ca,le a$d m ght e$da$ger the health a$d l fe of the ch ld3 @he mother ha# ,ee$ maltreat $g the ch ld3
@he mother # e$gaged $ pro#t tut o$3

e. @he mother # e$gaged $ adulterou# relat o$#h p3


f. g. h. @he mother # a drug add ct3 @he mother # a ha, tual dru$9 or a$ alcohol c3 @he mother # $ 8a l or #er! $g #e$te$ce.

Code7.
*arriage; @oi0 *arriages; 4s"c&ological )ncapacit" ('##')

&. ) !e a ,r ef def $ t o$ or e-pla$at o$ of the term Cp#ycholog cal $capac tyD a# a grou$d for the declarat o$ of $ull ty of a marr age. 42E7 +f e- #t $g at the $cept o$ of marr age* would the #tate of ,e $g of u$#ou$d m $d or the co$cealme$t of drug
N.

4arental 2%t&orit"; pecial 4arental 2%t&orit"; Liabilit" of =eac&ers ('##() +f dur $g cla## hour#* wh le the teacher wa# chatt $g w th

other teacher# $ the #chool corr dor* a 7 year old male pup l #ta,# the eye of a$other ,oy w th a ,all pe$ dur $g a f ght*
cau# $g perma$e$t ,l $d$e## to the ! ct m* who could ,e

add ct o$* ha, tual alcohol #m* homo#e-ual ty or le#, a$ #m


,e co$# dered $d c a of p#ycholog cal $capac ty% 5-pla $.

l a,le for damage# for the ,oyO# $8ury( the teacher* the
#chool author t e#* or the gu lty ,oyO# pare$t#% 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

42E7.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&.D P.BCH/"/)+C&" +1C&P&C+@BD

d #order of the mo#t #er ou# type #how $g the $capa, l ty

# a me$tal

@he #chool* t# adm $ #trator#* a$d teacher# ha!e #pec al pare$tal author ty a$d re#po$# , l ty o!er the m $or ch ld

of o$e or ,oth #pou#e# to comply the e##e$t al mar tal


o,l gat o$# of lo!e* re#pect* coha, tat o$* mutual help a$d

wh le u$der the r #uper! # o$* $#truct o$ or cu#tody 4&rt cle


218* FC7. @hey are pr $c pally a$d #ol dar ly l a,le for the damage# cau#ed ,y the act# or om ## o$# of the u$ema$c pated m $or u$le## they e-erc #ed the proper

#upport* tru#t a$d comm tme$t. +t mu#t ,e character :ed ,y


<ur d cal a$tecede$ce* gra! ty a$d $cura, l ty a$d t# root

cau#e# mu#t ,e cl $ cally de$t f ed or e-am $ed. (Santos v.

d l ge$ce re?u red u$der the c rcum#ta$ce# 4&rt cle 219*

CA, $40 SCRA $0 [1997]).

FC7. +$ the pro,lem* the @5&CH5J a$d the .CH//"

&L@H/J+@+5. are l a,le for the ,l $d$e## of the ! ct m*


,ecau#e the #tude$t who cau#e t wa# u$der the r #pec al pare$tal author ty a$d they were $egl ge$t. @hey were

N. +$ the ca#e of Santos v. Co.rt o* A''eals, $40 SCRA $0


(1997)* the .upreme Court held that ,e $g of u$#ou$d m $d*

drug

add ct o$*

ha, tual

alcohol #m*

le#, a$ #m

or

$egl ge$t ,ecau#e they were chatt $g $ the corr dor dur $g
the cla## per od whe$ the #ta,, $g $c de$t occurred. @he $c de$t could ha!e ,ee$ pre!e$ted had the teacher ,ee$

homo#e-ual ty may ,e $d c a of p#ycholog cal $capac ty* depe$d $g o$ the degree of #e!er ty of the d #order. Howe!er* the co$cealme$t of drug add ct o$* ha, tual

$# de the cla##room at that t me. @he gu lty ,oyO#


P&J51@. are #u,# d ar ly l a,le u$der &rt cle 219 of the

alcohol #m* le#, a$ #m or homo#e-ual ty # a grou$d of


a$$ulme$t of marr age. 4arental 2%t&orit"; C&il0 %n0er 7 "ears of age ('##-)

Fam ly Code.
4arental 2%t&orit"; %bstit%te vs. pecial ('##!)

Page 35 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

H #t $gu #h ,r efly ,ut clearly ,etwee$( .u,#t tute pare$tal author ty a$d #pec al pare$tal author ty.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

#perm. &fter a #er e# of te#t* &$dyG# #perm wa# med cally $troduced $to NethG# o!ary. .he ,ecame preg$a$t a$d 9

+$ #u,#t tute pare$tal author ty* the pare$t# lo#e the r

pare$tal author ty $ fa!or of the #u,#t tute who ac?u re# t


to the e-clu# o$ of the pare$t#.

mo$th# later* ga!e , rth to a ,a,y ,oy* $amed &l! $. (1) )!o "s t!e 8at!er o* Alv"n1 23'la"n. ($.74)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&$dy # the , olog cal father of &l! $ ,e $g the #ource of

+$ #pec al pare$tal author ty* the pare$t# or a$yo$e e-erc # $g pare$tal author ty doe# $ot lo#e pare$tal author ty. @ho#e who are charged w th #pec al pare$tal
author ty e-erc #e #uch author ty o$ly dur $g the t me that the ch ld # $ the r cu#tody or #uper! # o$.

.u,#t tute pare$tal author ty d #place# pare$tal author ty


wh le #pec al pare$tal author ty co$cur# w th pare$tal

the #perm. &$dy # the legal father of &l! $ ,ecau#e there wa# $e ther co$#e$t $or rat f cat o$ to the art f c al $#em $at o$. L$der the law* ch ldre$ co$ce !ed ,y art f c al $#em $at o$ are leg t mate ch ldre$ of the #pou#e#* pro! ded* that ,oth of them author :ed or rat f ed the $#em $at o$ $ a wr tte$ $#trume$t e-ecuted a$d # g$ed ,y ,oth of them ,efore the , rth of the ch ld 4&rt. 164* Fam ly Code7. ($) )!at are t!e reN."re&ents, "* any, "n or%er *or 2%
to esta/l"s! !"s 'atern"ty over Alv"n. ($.74)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

author ty.
4aternit" & ,iliation (1999)

4a7 @wo 427 mo$th# after the death of her hu#,a$d who wa# #hot ,y u$9$ow$ cr m $al eleme$t# o$ h # way home from off ce* Jo#e marr ed her ch ldhood ,oyfr e$d* a$d #e!e$ 477
mo$th# after #a d marr age* #he del !ered a ,a,y. +$ the

@he follow $g are the re?u reme$t# for 5d to e#ta,l #h h # pater$ ty o!er &l! $( @he art f c al $#em $at o$ ha# ,ee$ author :ed a. or
rat f ed ,y the #pou#e# $ a wr tte$ $#trume$t

a,#e$ce of a$y e! de$ce from Jo#e a# to who # her ch ldG# father* what #tatu# doe# the law g !e to #a d ch ld% 5-pla $. 42E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

,. @he ch ld # leg t mate of the #eco$d marr age u$der

e-ecuted a$d # g$ed ,y them ,efore the , rth of the ch ld3 a$d @he wr tte$ $#trume$t # recorded $ the c ! l reg #try
together w th the , rth cert f cate of the ch ld 4&rt.

4a7

164* 2$d paragraph* Fam ly Code7.

&rt cle 168427 of the Fam ly Code wh ch pro! de# that a 'ch ld ,or$ after o$e hu$dred e ghty day# follow $g the

4aternit" & ,iliation; Common?Law /nion ('##!)


&. J1 a$d H0* w thout a$y mped me$t to marry each other* had ,ee$ l ! $g together w thout ,e$ef t of church

cele,rat o$ of the #u,#e?ue$t marr age # co$# dered to ha!e ,ee$ co$ce !ed dur $g #uch marr age* e!e$ though t ,e ,or$ w th $ three hu$dred day# after the term $at o$ of the former marr age.'
4aternit" & ,iliation; 4roofs (1999) 4,7 1e#tor # the lleg t mate #o$ of Hr. Pere:. 2he$ Hr.

,le## $g#. @he r commo$>law u$ o$ re#ulted $ the , rth of


I01. c!l @wo year# later* they got marr ed $ a

ceremo$y. Could I01 ,e leg t mated% Jea#o$. 45E7


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

I01 wa# leg t mated ,y the #u,#e?ue$t marr age of J1

Pere: d ed* 1e#tor $ter!e$ed $ the #ettleme$t of h # fatherG# e#tate* cla m $g that he # the lleg t mate #o$ of #a d decea#ed* ,ut the leg t mate fam ly of Hr. Pere: # de$y $g 1e#torG# cla m. 2hat e! de$ce or e! de$ce# #hould 1e#tor pre#e$t #o that he may rece !e h # r ghtful #hare $ h #
fatherG# e#tate% 43E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

a$d H0 ,ecau#e at the t me he wa# co$ce !ed* J1 a$d H0 could ha!e !al dly marr ed each other. L$der the Fam ly
Code ch ldre$ co$ce !ed a$d ,or$ out# de of wedloc9 of pare$t# who* at the t me of the formerG# co$cept o$* were

$ot d #?ual f ed ,y a$y mped me$t to marry each other are leg t mated ,y the #u,#e?ue$t marr age of the pare$t#. 4aternit" & ,iliation; 4roofs; Limitations; 20opte0 C&il0 (1999) &,raham d ed $te#tate o$ 7 <a$uary 1994 #ur! !ed ,y h #
#o$ Nraul o. &,rahamG# older #o$ Carlo# d ed o$ 14

@o ,e a,le to $her t* the lleg t mate f l at o$ of 4,7 1e#tor mu#t ha!e ,ee$ adm tted ,y h # father $ a$y of the follow $g( 417 the record of , rth appear $g $ the c ! l reg #ter* 427 a f $al 8udgme$t* 437 a pu,l c docume$t # g$ed ,y the father* or

Fe,ruary 1990.

447 a pr !ate ha$dwr tte$ docume$t # g$ed ,y the lather


4&rt cle 17. $ relat o$ to &rt cle 172 of the Fam ly

Code7.
4aternit" & ,iliation; 2rtificial )nsemination; ,ormalities

Ha$ lo who cla m# to ,e a$ adulterou# ch ld of Carlo# $ter!e$e# $ the proceed $g# for the #ettleme$t of the e#tate of &,raham $ repre#e$tat o$ of Carlo#. Ha$ lo wa# legally adopted o$ 17 0arch 1970 ,y Carlo# w th the 1. L$der the Fam ly Code* how may a$ lleg t mate f l at o$ ,e pro!ed% 5-pla $.
2. &# lawyer for Ha$ lo* do you ha!e to pro!e Ha$ loG# co$#e$t of the ' latterG# w fe.

('##-) 5d a$d Neth ha!e ,ee$ marr ed for 20 year# w thout


ch ldre$. He# rou# to ha!e a ,a,y* they co$#ulted Hr. <u$

Ca$la#* a * prom $e$t med cal #pec al #t o$ huma$ fert l ty.


He ad! #ed Neth to u$dergo art f c al $#em $at o$. +t wa#

lleg t mate f l at o$% 5-pla $. 3. Ca$ Ha$ lo $her t from &,raham $ repre#e$tat o$ of
h # father Carlo#% 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

fou$d that 5dO# #perm cou$t wa# $ade?uate to $duce


preg$a$cy He$ce* the couple loo9ed for a w ll $g do$or. &$dy the ,rother of 5d* read ly co$#e$ted to do$ate h #

1. L$der &rt. 172 $ relat o$ to &rt. 173 a$d&rt. 175 of the FC* the f l at o$ of lleg t mate ch ldre$ may ,e e#ta,l #hed

Page 36 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

$ the #ame way a$d ,y the #ame e! de$ce a# leg t mate ch ldre$. &rt. 172 pro! de# that the f l at o$ of leg t mate

recog$ t o$ of a$ lleg t mate ch ld ca$ ,e ,rought at a$y

ch ldre$ # e#ta,l #hed ,y a$y of the follow $g( 417 the record of , rth appear $g $ the c ! l reg #ter or a f $al
<udgme$t3 or 427 a$ adm ## o$ of leg t mate f l at o$ $ a pu,l c docume$t or a pr !ate ha$dwr tte$ $#trume$t a$d

t me dur $g the l fet me of the ch ld. Howe!er* f the act o$ # ,a#ed o$ 'ope$ a$d co$t $uou# po##e## o$ of the #tatu#
of a$ lleg t mate ch ld* the #ame ca$ ,e f led dur $g the

l fet me of the putat !e father.' +$ the pre#e$t ca#e* the act o$ for compul#ory recog$ t o$ wa# f led ,y <oeyG# mother* H $a* o$ 0ay 16*1994* after the death of .te!e* the putat !e father. @he act o$ w ll pro#per f <oey ca$ pre#e$t h # , rth cert f cate that ,ear# the # g$ature of h # putat !e father. Howe!er* the fact# clearly #tate that
the , rth cert f cate of <oey d d $ot $d cate the fatherG# $ame. & , rth cert f cate $ot # g$ed ,y the alleged father

# g$ed ,y the pare$t co$cer$ed. +$ the a,#e$ce of the


forego $g e! de$ce* the leg t mate f l at o$ #hall ,e pro!ed

,y( 417 the ope$ a$d co$t $uou# po##e## o$ of the #tatu# of
a leg t mate ch ld3 or 427 a$y other mea$# allowed ,y the Jule# of Court a$d #pec al law#.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

2. 1o.

. $ce Ha$ lo ha# already ,ee$ adopted ,y Carlo#*

he cea#ed to ,e a$ lleg t mate ch ld. &$ adopted ch ld ac?u re# all the r ght# of a leg t mate ch ld u$der &rt* 189 of
the FC.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

3. 1o* he ca$$ot. Ha$ lo ca$$ot repre#e$t Carlo# a# the latterG# adopted ch ld $ the $her ta$ce of &,raham ,ecau#e
adopt o$ d d $ot ma9e Ha$ lo a leg t mate gra$dch ld of

ca$$ot ,e ta9e$ a# a record of , rth to pro!e recog$ t o$ of the ch ld* $or ca$ #a d , rth cert f cate ,e ta9e$ a# a recog$ t o$ $ a pu,l c $#trume$t. (Reyes v. Co.rt o* A''eals, ;.R. 0o. 3973(, Mar+! 19, 1987) Co$#e?ue$tly* the act o$ f led ,y <oeyG# mother ha# already pre#cr ,ed. Are t!e %e*enses set .' /y T"nt"n tena/le1 23'la"n. ($4)
/)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&,raham. &dopt o$ # per#o$al ,etwee$ Carlo# a$d Ha$ lo.


He ca$$ot al#o repre#e$t Carlo# a# the latterG# lleg t mate

ch ld ,ecau#e $ #uch ca#e he # ,arred ,y &rt. 992 of the


1CC from &,raham. $her t $g from h # lleg t mate gra$dfather

Be#* the defe$#e# of @ $t $ are te$a,le. +$ Taya, v. Co.rt compel recog$ t o$ of a$ lleg t mate ch ld wa# ,rought

o* A''eals (;.R. 0o. 97$$9, -.ne 9,199$)* a compla $t to

AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

&$ adopted ch ldG# #ucce## o$al r ght# do $ot $clude the

,efore effect ! ty of the Fam ly Code ,y the mother of a

r ght to repre#e$t h # decea#ed adopter $ the $her ta$ce of the latterG# leg t mate pare$t* $ ! ew of &rt. 973 wh ch
pro! de# that $ order that repre#e$tat o$ may ta9e place* the repre#e$tat !e mu#t h m#elf ,e capa,le of #ucceed $g

m $or ch ld ,a#ed o$ 'ope$ a$d co$t $uou# po##e## o$ of the #tatu# of a$ lleg t mate ch ld.' @he .upreme Court held that the r ght of act o$ of the m $or ch ld ha# ,ee$ !e#ted ,y the f l $g of the compla $t $ court u$der the reg me of
the C ! l Code a$d pr or to the effect ! ty of the Fam ly Code. @he rul $g $ Ta7a; 6. Court of 'ppeals f $d# $o

the decede$t. &dopt o$ ,y t#elf d d $ot re$der Ha$ lo a$ he r of the adopterG# leg t mate pare$t. 1e ther doe# h #
,e $g a gra$dch ld of &,raham re$der h m a$ he r of the

latter ,ecau#e a# a$ lleg t mate ch ld of Carlo#* who wa# a leg t mate ch ld of &,raham* Ha$ lo # $capa,le of

appl cat o$ $ the $#ta$t ca#e. &lthough the ch ld wa# ,or$ ,efore the effect ! ty of the Fam ly Code* the compla $t wa#
f led after t# effect ! ty. He$ce* &rt cle 175 of the Fam ly Code #hould apply a$d $ot &rt cle 285 of the C ! l Code.

#ucceed $g &,raham u$der &rt. 992 of the Code. 4aternit" & ,iliation; 1ecognition of illegitimate C&il0 ('##9)

+) ($4)

S.''os"n, t!at -oey %"e% %.r"n, t!e 'en%en+y o*

.te!e wa# marr ed to " $da* w th whom he had a daughter* @ $t $. .te!e fathered a #o$ w th H $a* h # #ecretary of 20 year#* whom H $a $amed <oey* ,or$ o$ .eptem,er 20*
1981. <oeyG# , rth cert f cate d d $ot $d cate the fatherG#

t!e a+t"on, s!o.l% t!e a+t"on /e %"s&"sse%1 23'la"n.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

$ame. .te!e d ed o$ &ugu#t 13* 1993* wh le " $da d ed o$ Hecem,er 3* 1993* lea! $g the r leg t mate daughter* @ $t $* a# #ole he r. /$ 0ay 16* 1994* H $a f led a ca#e o$ ,ehalf of

+f <oey d ed dur $g the pe$de$cy of the act o$* the act o$ #hould #t ll ,e d #m ##ed ,ecau#e the r ght of <oey or h# he r# to f le the act o$ ha# already pre#cr ,ed. 4&rt. 175*

Fam ly Code7

<oey* pray $g that the latter ,e declared a$ ac9$owledged .te!eG# e#tate* wh ch # $ow ,e $g #olely held ,y @ $t $. @ $t $ put up the defe$#e that a$ act o$ for recog$ t o$

lleg t mate #o$ of .te!e a$d that <oey ,e g !e$ h # #hare $

4aternit" & ,iliation; 1ig&ts of Legitimate C&il0ren (199#) N a$d ) 4college #tude$t#* ,oth # $gle a$d $ot d #?ual f ed
to marry each other7 had a roma$t c affa r* ) wa# #e!e$

#hall o$ly ,e f led dur $g the l fet me of the pre#umed


pare$t# a$d that the e-cept o$# u$der &rt cle 285 of the C ! l Code do $ot apply to h m # $ce the #a d art cle ha#

mo$th# $ the fam ly way a# of the graduat o$ of N. J ght


after graduat o$ N we$t home to Ce,u C ty. L$9$ow$ to

,ee$ repealed ,y the Fam ly Code. +$ a$y ca#e* accord $g to


@ $t $* <oeyG# , rth cert f cate doe# $ot #how that .te!e # h #

father. a) Foes -oey !ave a +a.se o* a+t"on a,a"nst T"nt"n *or


re+o,n"t"on an% 'art"t"on1 23'la"n. ($4)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1o* <oey doe# $ot ha!e a cau#e of act o$ aga $#t @ $t $ for recog$ t o$ a$d part t o$. L$der &rt cle 175 of the Fam ly Code* a# a ge$eral rule* a$ act o$ for compul#ory

)* N had a comm tme$t to C 4h # ch ldhood #weetheart7 to marry her after gett $g h # college degree. @wo wee9# after N marr age $ Ce,u C ty* ) ga!e , rth to a #o$ 5 $ 0etro 0a$ la. &fter te$ year# of marr ed l fe $ Ce,u* N ,ecame a w dower ,y the #udde$ death of C $ a pla$e cra#h. /ut of the u$ o$ of N a$d C* two ch ldre$* = a$d B were ,or$. L$9$ow$ to C wh le o$ wee9e$d tr p# to 0a$ la dur $g the la#t 5 year#
of the r marr age* N $!ar a,ly ! # ted ) a$d l !ed at her

re# de$ce a$d a# a re#ult of wh ch* they re$ewed the r relat o$#h p. & ,a,y g rl F wa# ,or$ to N a$d ) two year#

Page 37 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

,efore the death of C. Nr $g $g h # fam ly later to 0a$ la* N


f $ally marr ed ). Jece$tly. ) d ed.

Paul ta left the co$8ugal home ,ecau#e of the e-ce## !e


dr $9 $g of her hu#,a$d* &l,erto. Paul ta* out of her ow$ e$dea!or* wa# a,le to ,uy a parcel of la$d wh ch #he wa# a,le to reg #ter u$der her $ame w th the adde$dum 'w dow.' .he al#o ac?u red #toc9# $ a l #ted corporat o$ reg #tered $ her $ame. Paul ta #old the parcel of la$d to

2hat are the r ght# of NG# four ch ldre$( = a$d B of h # f r#t marr age3 a$d 5 a$d F* h # ch ldre$ w th )% 5-pla $ your
a$#wer.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

L$der the fact# #tated* = a$d B are leg t mate ch ldre$ of N


a$d C. 5 # the leg t mate ch ldre$ of N a$d ). 5 # the

Jafael* who f r#t e-am $ed the or g $al of the tra$#fer

leg t mated ch ld of NX). F # the lleg t mate ch ld of N a$d


C. &# leg t mate ch ldre$ of N a$d C* = a$d B ha!e the follow $g r ght#(

cert f cate of t tle. 17 Ha# &l,erto the r ght to #hare $ the #hare# of #toc9 ac?u red ,y Paul ta%

27 Ca$ &l,erto reco!er the la$d from Jafael%


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

17

@o ,ear the #ur$ame# of the father a$d the mother* $


co$form ty w th the pro! # o$# of the C ! l Code o$

1. a7 Be#. @he Fam ly Code pro! de# that all property


ac?u red dur $g the marr age* whether the ac?u # t o$

27

.ur$ame#3 @o rece !e #upport from the r pare$t#* the r a#ce$da$t#* a$d $ proper ca#e#* the r ,rother# a$d # #ter#* $> co$form ty w th the pro! # o$# of the Fam ly Code o$ r ght# gra$ted to them ,y the C ! l Code. 4&rt cle 174*
Fam ly Code7.

appear# to ha!e ,ee$ made* co$tracted or reg #tered $ the


$ame of o$e or ,oth #pou#e#* # pre#umed to ,e a,#olute

commu$ ty property u$le## the co$trary # pro!ed.

.upport3 a$d 37 @o ,e e$t tled to the leg t me a$d other #ucce## o$al

5 # the leg t mated ch ld of N a$d ). L$der &rt. 177 of the Fam ly Code* o$ly ch ldre$ co$ce !ed a$d ,or$ out# de of
wedloc9 of pare$t# who* at the t me of the co$cept o$ of

,7 Be#. @he #hare# are pre#umed to ,e a,#olute commu$ ty property ha! $g ,ee$ ac?u red dur $g the marr age de#p te the fact that tho#e #hare# were reg #tered o$ly $ her $ame. &l,ertoG# r ght to cla m h # #hare w ll o$ly ar #e* howe!er* at d ##olut o$.
c7 @he pre#umpt o$ # #t ll that the #hare# of #toc9 are ow$ed $ commo$. He$ce* they w ll form part of the

the former* were $ot d #?ual f ed ,y a$y mped me$t to

marry each other may ,e leg t mated. 5 w ll ha!e the #ame


r ght# a# = a$d B.

a,#olute commu$ ty or the co$8ugal part$er#h p depe$d $g


o$ what the property Jelat o$# #.

F # the lleg t mate ch ld of N a$d ). F ha# the r ght to u#e the #ur$ame of )* her mother* a$d # e$t tled to #upport a# well a# the leg t me co$# #t $g of 1S2 of that of each of =* B a$d 5. 4&rt cle 176* Fam ly Code7
4res%mptive Legitime (1999)

d7

. $ce Paul ta ac?u red the #hare# of #toc9 ,y o$erou#

t tle dur $g the marr age* the#e are part of the co$8ugal or

a,#olute commu$ ty property* a# the ca#e may,e 4depe$d $g


o$ whether the marr age wa# cele,rated pr or to. or after*

the effect ! ty of the Fam ly Code7. Her phy# cal #eparat o$ from her hu#,a$d d d $ot d ##ol!e the commu$ ty of
property. He$ce* the hu#,a$d ha# a r ght to #hare $ the #hare# of #toc9.

2hat do you u$der#ta$d ,y 'pre#umpt !e leg t me'* $ what


ca#e or ca#e# mu#t the pare$t del !er #uch leg t me to the
ch ldre$* a$d what are the legal effect# $ each ca#e f the

pare$t fa l# to do #o% 45E7


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

PJ5.L0P@+65 "5)+@+05 # $ot def $ed $ the law. +t#


def $ t o$ mu#t ha!e ,ee$ ta9e$ from &ct 2710* the /ld

H !orce "aw* wh ch re?u red the del !ery to the leg t mate ch ldre$ of 'the e?u !ale$t of what would ha!e ,ee$ due to them a# the r legal port o$ f #a d #pou#e had d ed $te#tate mmed ately after the d ##olut o$ of the commu$ ty of
property.' &# u#ed $ the Fam ly Code* pre#umpt !e

leg t me # u$der#tood a# the e?u !ale$t of the leg t mate

27 a7 L$der a commu$ ty of property* whether a,#olute or relat !e* the d #po# t o$ of property ,elo$g $g to #uch commu$ ty # !o d f do$e ,y 8u#t o$e #pou#e w thout the co$#e$t of the other or author ty of the proper court. Howe!er* the la$d wa# reg #tered $ the $ame of Paul ta a# 'w dow'. He$ce* the ,uyer ha# the r ght to rely upo$ what appear# $ the record of the Jeg #ter of Heed# a$d #hould* co$#e?ue$tly* ,e protected. &l,erto ca$$ot reco!er the la$d from Jafael ,ut would ha!e the r ght of recour#e aga $#t h#

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

ch ldre$G# leg t me# a##um $g that the #pou#e# had d ed mmed ately after the d ##olut o$ of the commu$ ty of
property.

w fe ,7 @he parcel of la$d # a,#olute commu$ ty property ha! $g ,ee$ ac?u red dur $g the marr age a$d through
Paul taG# $du#try de#p te the reg #trat o$ ,e $g o$ly $ the $ame of Paul ta. @he la$d ,e $g commu$ ty property* t#

Pre#umpt !e leg t me # re?u red to ,e del !ered to the commo$ ch ldre$ of the #pou#e# whe$ the marr age # a$$ulled or declared !o d a, $ t o a$d po## ,ly* whe$ the co$8ugal part$er#h p or a,#olute commu$ ty # d ##ol!ed a#
$ the ca#e of legal #eparat o$. Fa lure of the pare$t# to

#ale to Jafael w thout the co$#e$t of &l,erto # !o d. Howe!er* # $ce the la$d # reg #tered $ the $ame of Paul ta a# w dow* there # $oth $g $ the t tle wh ch would ra #e a
#u#p c o$ for Jafael to ma9e $?u ry. He* therefore* # a$

del !er the pre#umpt !e leg t me w ll ma9e the r #u,#e?ue$t


marr age $ull a$d !o d u$der &rt cle 53 of the Fam ly Code. 4ropert" 1elations; 2bsol%te Comm%nit" (199!)

$$oce$t purcha#er for !alue from whom the la$d may $o lo$ger ,e reco!ered.

Page 38 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

c7 1o. Jafael # a$ $$oce$t purcha#er $ good fa th who*


upo$ rely $g o$ the correct$e## of the cert f cate of t tle* ac?u re# r ght# wh ch are to ,e protected ,y the court#.

1. . $ce No, a$d .of a got marr ed +$ 1970* the$ the law

that go!er$# # the 1ew C ! l Code 4Per#o$#7* $ wh ch ca#e* the property relat o$# that #hould ,e appl ed a# regard# the property of the #pou#e# # the #y#tem of relat !e commu$ ty
or co$8ugal part$er#h p of ga $# 4&rt cle 119* C ! l Code7.

L$der the e#ta,l #hed pr $c ple# of la$d reg #trat o$ law* the pre#umpt o$ # that the tra$#feree of reg #tered la$d # $ot
aware of a$y defect $ the t tle of the property he purcha#ed.
(See To:onera v. Co.rt o* A''eals, 103 SCRA 46(). 0oreo!er*

Ny co$8ugal part$er#h p of ga $#* the hu#,a$d a$d the w fe place $ a commo$ fu$d the fru t# of the r #eparate property
a$d the $come from the r wor9 or +$du#try 4&rt cle 142* C ! l Code7. +$ th # $#ta$ce* the lot $her ted ,y No, $ 1975 # h # ow$ #eparate property* he ha! $g ac?u red the #ame ,y lucrat !e t tle 4par. 2* &rt. 148* C ! l Code7. Howe!er* the hou#e co$#tructed from h # ow$ #a! $g# $ 1981 dur $g the #u,# #te$ce of h # marr age w th +##a #

the per#o$ deal $g w th reg #tered la$d may #afely rely o$

the correct$e## of t# cert f cate of t tle a$d the law w ll $ $o way o,l ge h m to go ,eh $d the cert f cate to determ $e the co$d t o$ of the property. [F"re+tor o* 5an%s v. A/a+!e, et al. (3 !"l. 606). 1o #tro$g co$# derat o$# of pu,l c pol cy ha!e ,ee$ pre#e$ted wh ch would lead the Court to re!er#e the e#ta,l #hed a$d #ou$d doctr $e that the ,uyer $ good
fa th of a reg #tered parcel of la$d doe# $ot ha!e to loo9

co$8ugal property a$d $ot e-clu# !e property $ accorda$ce


w th the pr $c ple of 're!er#e acce## o$' pro! ded for $

&rt. 158* C ! l Code.


A'!$.E" A'(WE":

,eyo$d the @orre$# @ tle a$d #earch for a$y h dde$ defect or $choate r ght wh ch may later $!al date or d m $ #h h # r ght to what he purcha#ed. (5o'e@ v. Co.rt o* A''eals. 189
SCRA $(1)

d7 @he parcel of la$d # a,#olute commu$ ty property ha! $g ,ee$ ac?u red dur $g the marr age a$d through
Paul taG# $du#try de#p te reg #trat o$ o$ly $ the $ame of

w th h # #ur! ! $g #pou#e 4&rt#. 985* 986 a$d 997* C!l Code7* may r ghtfully cla m that the hou#e a$d lot are $ot co$8ugal ,ut ,elo$g to the hered tary e#tate of No,. @he !alue of the la$d ,e $g more tha$ the co#t of the

1.

.of a* ,e $g her decea#ed #o$G# legal he r co$curr $g

mpro!eme$t 4&rt. 120* Fam ly Code7.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Paul ta. @he la$d ,e $g commu$ ty property* t# #ale to


Jafael w thout the co$#e$t of &l,erto # !o d.

2. Be#* the a$#wer would #t ll ,e the #ame. . $ce No, a$d

4ropert" 1elations; 2nte .%ptial 2greement (1999)

.uppo#e @ r#o a$d @e## e were marr ed o$ 2 &ugu#t 1988


w thout e-ecut $g a$y a$te $upt al agreeme$t. /$e year

+##a co$tracted the r marr age way ,ac9 $ 1970* the$ the property relat o$# that w ll go!er$ # #t ll the relat !e commu$ ty or co$8ugal part$er#h p of ga $# 4&rt cle 119*

after the r marr age* @ r#o wh le #uper! # $g the clear $g of @e## eG# $her ted la$d upo$ the latterG# re?ue#t* acc de$tally
fou$d the trea#ure $ot $ the $ew r !er ,ed ,ut o$ the property of @e## e. @o whom #hall the trea#ure ,elo$g% 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

C ! l Code7. +t w ll $ot matter f No, d ed ,efore or after &ugu#t 3. 1988 4effect ! ty date of the Fam ly CodeA* what
matter# # the date whe$ the marr age wa# co$tracted. &#

No, a$d +##a co$tracted the r marr age way ,ac9 $ 1970. the property relat o$ that go!er$# them # #t ll the co$8ugal
part$er#h p of ga $#. 4&rt. 158* C ! l Code7
A'!$.E" A'(WE":

. $ce @ r#o a$d @e## e were marr ed ,efore the effect ! ty of

2.

the Fam ly Code* the r property relat o$ # go!er$ed ,y


co$8ugal part$er#h p of ga $#. L$der &rt. 54 of the C ! l

the Fam ly Code too9 effect* the a$#wer w ll $ot ,e the #ame. &rt. 158. C ! l Code* would the$ apply. @he la$d

+f No, d ed ,e fore &ugu#t 3* 1988. wh ch # the date

Code* the #hare of the h dde$ trea#ure wh ch the law award# to the f $der or the propr etor ,elo$g# to the co$8ugal part$er#h p of ga $#. @he o$e>half #hare perta $ $g to @e## e a# ow$er of the la$d* a$d the o$e>half #hare perta $ $g to

would the$ ,e deemed co$8ugal* alo$g w th the hou#e* # $ce co$8ugal fu$d# were u#ed $ co$#truct $g t. @he hu#,a$dG# e#tate would ,e e$t tled to a re m,ur#eme$t of the !alue of the la$d from co$8ugal part$er#h p fu$d#.

@ r#o a# f $der of the trea#ure* ,elo$g to the co$8ugal


part$er#h p of ga $#. 4ropert" 1elations; Con5%gal 4artners&ip of Bains (1993)

+$ 1970* No, a$d +##a got marr ed w thout e-ecut $g a marr age #ettleme$t. +$ 1975* No, $her ted from h # father a re# de$t al lot upo$ wh ch* $ 1981* he co$#tructed a two> room ,u$galow w th #a! $g# from h # ow$ ear$ $g#. &t that t me* the lot wa# worth P800.000.00 wh le the hou#e* whe$ f $ #hed co#t P600*000.00. +$ 1989 No, d ed* #ur! !ed o$ly ,y h # w fe* +##a a$d h # mother* .of a. &##um $g that the
relat !e !alue# of ,oth a##et# rema $ed at the #ame

C ty o$ <uly 10* 1990. Pr or thereto* they e-ecuted a

4ropert" 1elations; *arriage ettlement; Con5%gal 4artners&ip of Bains ('##9) )a,,y a$d 0 la got marr ed at "ourde# Church $ Pue:o$

proport o$( 1. .tate whether .of a ca$ r ghtfully cla m that the hou#e a$d lot are $ot co$8ugal ,ut e-clu# !e property of her decea#ed #o$. ;3EA 2. 2 ll your a$#wer ,e the #ame f No, d ed ,efore &ugu#t 3* 1988% ;2EA
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

marr age #ettleme$t where,y they agreed o$ the reg me of co$8ugal part$er#h p of ga $#. @he marr age #ettleme$t wa# reg #tered $ the Jeg #ter of Heed# of 0a$ la* where 0 la # a re# de$t. +$ 1992* they 8o $tly ac?u red a re# de$t al hou#e a$d lot* a# well a# a co$dom $ um u$ t $ 0a9at . +$ 1995* they dec ded to cha$ge the r property relat o$# to the reg me of complete #eparat o$ of property. 0 la co$#e$ted* a# #he wa# the$ e$gaged $ a lucrat !e ,u# $e##. @he #pou#e#
the$ # g$ed a pr !ate docume$t d ##ol! $g the r co$8ugal part$er#h p a$d agree $g o$ a complete #eparat o$ of

property.

Page 39 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

@hereafter* )a,,y ac?u red a ma$# o$ $ Nagu o C ty* a$d a


5>hectare agr cultural la$d $ /r e$tal 0 $doro* wh ch he reg #tered e-clu# !ely $ h # $ame. +$ the year 2000* 0 laG# ,u# $e## !e$ture fa led* a$d her

Nar Ca$d date# Patr c o 0ah gugmao$ a$d Jowe$a &mor

dec ded to marry each other ,efore the la#t day of the 1991
Nar 5-am $at o$#. @hey agreed to e-ecute a 0arr age .ettleme$t. Jowe$a her#elf prepared the docume$t $ her

cred tor# #ued her for P10*000*000.00. &fter o,ta $ $g a fa!ora,le 8udgme$t* the cred tor# #ought to e-ecute o$ the
#pou#e#G hou#e a$d lot a$d co$dom $ um u$ t* a# well a# )a,,yG# ma$# o$ a$d agr cultural la$d. a) F"s+.ss t!e stat.s o* t!e *"rst an% t!e a&en%e% &arr"a,e settle&ents. ($4)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

ow$ ha$dwr t $g. @hey agreed o$ the follow $g( 417 a co$8ugal part$er#h p of ga $#3 427 each do$ate# to the other f fty perce$t 450E7 of h #Sher pre#e$t property* 437 Jowe$a
#hall adm $ #ter the co$8ugal part$er#h p property3 a$d 447

$e ther may ,r $g a$ act o$ for the a$$ulme$t or declarat o$ of $ull ty of the r marr age. Noth # g$ed the
agreeme$t $ the pre#e$ce of two 427 w t$e##e#. @hey dd

@he marr age #ettleme$t ,etwee$ )a,,y a$d 0 la adopt $g


the reg me of co$8ugal part$er#h p of ga $# #t ll #u,# #t#. +t #

$ot d ##ol!ed ,y the mere agreeme$t of the #pou#e# dur $g the marr age. +t # clear from &rt cle 134 of the Fam ly Code that $ the a,#e$ce of a$ e-pre## declarat o$ $ the marr age #ettleme$t* the #eparat o$ of property ,etwee$ the #pou#e#
dur $g the marr age #hall $ot ta9e place e-cept ,y 8ud c al order. /) F"s+.ss t!e e**e+ts o* t!e sa"% settle&ents on t!e 'ro'ert"es a+N."re% /y t!e s'o.ses. ($4)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

$ot* howe!er* ac9$owledge t ,efore a $otary pu,l c. &. &# to form* # the 0arr age .ettleme$t !al d% 0ay t ,e reg #tered $ the reg #try of property% +f $ot* what #tep#
mu#t ,e ta9e$ to ma9e t reg #tera,le%

N. &re the #t pulat o$# !al d% C. +f the 0arr age .ettleme$t # !al d a# to form a$d the a,o!e #t pulat o$# are l 9ew #e !al d* doe# t $ow follow that #a d 0arr age .ettleme$t # !al d a$d e$forcea,le%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he reg me of co$8ugal part$er#h p of ga $# go!er$# the propert e# ac?u red ,y the #pou#e#. &ll the propert e# ac?u red ,y the #pou#e# after the marr age ,elo$g to the

&. Be#* t # !al d a# to form ,ecau#e t # $ wr t $g. 1o* t ca$$ot ,e reg #tered $ the reg #try of property ,ecau#e t # $ot a pu,l c docume$t. @o ma9e t reg #tera,le* t mu#t ,e reformed a$d ha# to ,e $otar :ed. N. .t pulat o$# 417 a$d 437 are !al d ,ecau#e they are $ot co$trary to law. .t pulat o$ 447 # !o d ,ecau#e t # co$trary to law. .t pulat o$ 427 # !al d up to 1S5 of the r re#pect !e pre#e$t propert e# ,ut !o d a# to the e-ce## 4&rt 84* Fam ly Code7.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE": (+&&E($E# A'(WE":

co$8ugal part$er#h p. L$der &rt cle 116 of the Fam ly Code*


e!e$ f )a,,y reg #tered the ma$# o$ a$d 5>hectare agr cultural la$d e-clu# !ely $ h # $ame* #t ll they are pre#umed to ,e co$8ugal propert e#* u$le## the co$trary # pro!ed. +)

)!at 'ro'ert"es &ay /e !el% ans9era/le *or

M"laDs o/l",at"ons1 23'la"n. ($4)


AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

C. 1o. o$ .eptem,er 15* 1991* the marr age #ettleme$t # $ot yet !al d a$d e$forcea,le u$t l the cele,rat o$ of the

. $ce all the propert e# are co$8ugal* they ca$ ,e held a$#wera,le for 0 laG# o,l gat o$ f the o,l gat o$ redou$ded
to the ,e$ef t of the fam ly. 4&rt. 121 ;3A* Fam ly Code7 Howe!er* the ,urde$ of proof l e# w th the cred tor cla m $g aga $#t the propert e#. (Ayala Invest&ent v. Co.rt
o* A''eals, ;.R. 0o. 118307, 8e/r.ary 1$,1998, re"terate% "n Ao&eo9ners Sav"n,s O 5oan GanE v. Fa"lo, ;.R. 0o.
17380$, Mar+! 11, $007)
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

marr age* to ta9e place ,efore the la#t day of the 1991 ,ar 5-am $at o$#.
4ropert" 1elations; *arriage ettlements (1999)

/$ 10 .eptem,er 1988 Re! $* a 26>year old ,u# $e##ma$* marr ed Rarla* a w $#ome la## of 18. 2 thout the
9$owledge of the r pare$t# or legal guard a$#* Re! $ a$d Rarla e$tered $to a$ a$te>$upt al co$tract the day ,efore

5-cept for the re# de$t al hou#e wh ch # the fam ly home*

the r marr age #t pulat $g that co$8ugal part$er#h p of ga $#


#hall go!er$ the r marr age. &t the t me of the r marr age

all other propert e# of )a,,y a$d 0 la may ,e held

a$#wera,le for 0 laG# o,l gat o$. . $ce the #a d propert e#

are co$8ugal $ $ature* they ca$ ,e held l a,le for de,t# a$d o,l gat o$# co$tracted dur $g the marr age to the e-te$t that the fam ly wa# ,e$ef ted or where the de,t# were co$tracted ,y ,oth #pou#e#* or ,y o$e of them* w th the co$#e$t of the other. & fam ly home # a dwell $g place of a per#o$ a$d h #
fam ly. +t co$fer# upo$ a fam ly the r ght to e$8oy #uch

Re! $G# e#tate wa# worth 50 0 ll o$ wh le RarlaG# wa# !alued at 2 0 ll o$.


& mo$th after the r marr age Re! $ d ed $ a frea9

hel copter acc de$t. He left $o w ll* $o de,t#* $o o,l gat o$#. .ur! ! $g Re! $* a# de from Rarla* are h # o$ly relat !e#( h#
,rother "u # a$d f r#t cou# $ " l a.

17

property* wh ch mu#t rema $ w th the per#o$ co$#t tut $g t a# a fam ly home a$d h # he r#. +t ca$$ot ,e #e :ed ,y cred tor# e-cept $ #pec al ca#e#. (Taneo, -r. v. Co.rt o*
A''eals, ;.R. 0o. 10873$, Mar+! 9, 1999)

2hat property Jelat o$# go!er$ed the marr age of Re! $ a$d Rarla% 5-pla $. 27 Heterm $e the !alue of the e#tate of Re! $* 37 2ho are Re! $G# he r#% 47 How much # each of Re! $G# he r# e$t tled to $her t%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1. . $ce the marr age #ettleme$t wa# e$tered $to w thout


the co$#e$t a$d w thout the part c pat o$ of the pare$t#

4ropert" 1elations; *arriage ettlements (1991)

4they d d $ot # g$ the docume$t7* the marr age #ettleme$t # $!al d apply $g &rt. 78* F.C. wh ch pro! de# that a m $or

Page 40 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

who accord $g to law may co$tract marr age may al#o e$ter $to marr age #ettleme$t# ,ut they #hall ,e !al d o$ly f the
per#o$ who may g !e co$#e$t to the marr age are made

together* J co wa# a #alar ed employee a$d 0a,el 9ept hou#e for J co a$d d d full>t me hou#ehold chore# for h m.
Hur $g the r coha, tat o$* a parcel of coco$ut la$d wa# ac?u red ,y J co from h # #a! $g#.

part e# to the agreeme$t. 4Rarla wa# #t ll a m $or at the t me


the marr age #ettleme$t wa# e-ecuted $ .eptem,er 1988

,ecau#e the law* J.&. 6809* reduc $g the age of ma8or ty to 18 year# too9 effect o$ 18 Hecem,er 19897. @he marr age #ettleme$t ,e $g !o d* the property Jelat o$# go!er$ $g the
marr age #* therefore* u$der &rt. 75 of the FC. a,#olute commu$ ty of property*

&fter l ! $g together for o$e 417 year* J co a$d 0a,el #eparated. J co the$ met a$d marr ed "etty* a # $gle woma$
twe$ty># - 4267 year# of age. Hur $g the marr age of J co

a$d "etty* "etty ,ought a ma$go orchard out of her ow$ per#o$al ear$ $g#. a7 2ho would ow$ the r cela$d* a$d what property
Jelat o$# go!er$# the ow$er#h p% 5-pla $.

2.

&ll the propert e# wh ch Re! $ a$d Rarla ow$ed at the

t me of marr age ,ecame commu$ ty property wh ch #hall

,7

2ho would ow$ the coco$ut la$d* a$d what property

,e d ! ded e?ually ,etwee$ them at d ##olut o$. . $ce Re! $


ow$ed 50 0 ll o$ a$d Rarla. 2 0 ll o$* at the t me of the

Jelat o$# go!er$# the ow$er#h p% 5-pla $.

marr age* 52 0 ll o$ co$#t tuted the r commu$ ty property. Lpo$ the death of Re! $* the commu$ ty wa# d ##ol!ed a$d
half of the 52 0 ll o$ or 26 0 ll o$ # h # #hare $ the commu$ ty. @h # 26 0 ll o$ therefore # h # e#tate.

c7 2ho would ow$ the ma$go orchard* a$d what property Jelat o$# go!er$# the ow$er#h p% 5-pla $. 4a7 J co a$d Cora are the co>ow$er# of the r cela$d. @he
Jelat o$# # that of co>ow$er#h p 4&rt. 147* Fam ly Code*
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

f r#t paragraph7.
9Optional '22en2um. +o3e6er4 after
t/e /alf interest of ico in t/e ricelan2 3ill t/en 1ecome a1solute

3. Rarla a$d "u # are the +$te#tate he r# of Re! $. 4. @hey are e$t tled to #hare the e#tate e?ually u$der &rt cle 1001 of the 1CC. @herefore. Rarla get# 13 0 ll o$
a$d "u # get# 13 0 ll o$.

ico<s marria;e to (ett74

communit7 propert7 of ico an2 (ett7.:

4,7

J co # the e-clu# !e ow$er of the coco$ut la$d. @he

Jelat o$# # a #oleS# $gle propr etor#h p 4&rt. 148. Fam ly

4ropert" 1elations; Obligations; ;enefit of t&e ,amil"

('###) &# f $a$ce off cer of R a$d Co.* 6 ctor $o arra$ged a loa$ of P5 0 ll o$ from P1N for the corporat o$. Howe!er* he wa# re?u red ,y the ,a$9 to # g$ a Co$t $u $g .urety
&greeme$t to #ecure the repayme$t of the loa$. @he

Code* f r#t paragraph # appl ca,le* a$d $ot &rt. 147 Fam ly Code7.
9Optional '22en2um. +o3e6er4 after t/e coconut lan2 of

ico<s marria;e to (ett74 ico 3ill t/en 1ecome a1solute communit7

propert7 of ico an2 (ett7.:

corporat o$ fa led to pay the loa$* a$d the ,a$9 o,ta $ed a 8udgme$t aga $#t t a$d 6 ctor $o* 8o $tly a$d #e!erally. @o e$force the 8udgme$t* the #her ff le! ed o$ a farm ow$ed ,y the co$8ugal part$er#h p of 6 ctor $o a$d h # w fe 5l#a. +#
the le!y proper or $ot% 43E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4c7 J co a$d "etty are the co>ow$er#. @he Jelat o$# # the &,#olute Commu$ ty of Property 4&rt#* 75*90a$d9l* Fam ly Code7. 4ropert" 1elations; /nions wit&o%t *arriage (1997) "u # a$d J ::a* ,oth 26 year# of age a$d # $gle* l !e e-clu# !ely w th each other a# hu#,a$d a$d w fe w thout the ,e$ef t of marr age* "u # # ga $fully employed* J ::a # $ot employed* #tay# at home* a$d ta9e# charge of the hou#ehold chore#. &fter l ! $g together for a l ttle o!er twe$ty year#* "u # wa# a,le to #a!e from h # #alary ear$ $g# dur $g that per od the
amou$t of P200*000.00 pre#e$tly depo# ted $ a ,a$9. &

@he le!y # $ot proper there ,e $g $o #how $g that the

#urety agreeme$t e-ecuted ,y the hu#,a$d redou$ded to the ,e$ef t of the fam ly. &$ o,l gat o$ co$tracted ,y the hu#,a$d alo$e # chargea,le aga $#t the co$8ugal part$er#h p
o$ly whe$ t wa# co$tracted for the ,e$ef t of the fam ly.

2he$ the o,l gat o$ wa# co$tracted o$ ,ehalf of the fam ly ,u# $e## the law pre#ume# that #uch o,l gat o$ w ll redou$d to the ,e$ef t of the fam ly. Howe!er* whe$ the o,l gat o$

hou#e a$d lot worth P500*000.00 wa# rece$tly purcha#ed for

wa# to guara$tee the de,t of a th rd party* a# $ the pro,lem* the o,l gat o$ # pre#umed for the ,e$ef t of the th rd party* $ot the fam ly. He$ce* for the o,l gat o$ u$der
the #urety agreeme$t to ,e chargea,le aga $#t the

part$er#h p t mu#t ,e pro!e$ that the fam ly wa# ,e$ef ted a$d that the ,e$ef t wa# a d rect re#ult of #uch agreeme$t*
(Ayala Invest&ent v. C!"n,, $86 SCRA $($)

the #ame amou$t ,y the couple. /f the P500.000.00 u#ed ,y the commo$>law #pou#e# to purcha#e the property* P200.000.00 had come from the #ale of palay har!e#ted from the hac e$da ow$ed ,y "u # a$d P300*000.00 from the re$tal# of a ,u ld $g ,elo$g $g to J ::a. +$ f $e* the #um of P500.000.00 had ,ee$ part of the fru t# rece !ed dur $g the
per od of coha, tat o$ from the r #eparate property* a car

4ropert" 1elations; /nions wit&o%t *arriage (199')

+$ 1989* J co* the$ a w dower forty 4407 year# of age* coha, ted w th Cora* a w dow th rty 4307 year# of age. 2h le l ! $g together* they ac?u red from the r com, $ed ear$ $g# a parcel of r cela$d.
&fter J co a$d Cora #eparated* J co l !ed together w th

worth P100.000.00. ,e $g u#ed ,y the commo$> law #pou#e#* wa# do$ated <u#t mo$th# ago to J ::a ,y her pare$t#. "u # a$d J ::a $ow dec de to term $ate the r coha, tat o$*
a$d they a#9 you to g !e them your legal ad! ce o$ the

follow $g( 4a7 How* u$der the law #hould the ,a$9 depo# t of
P200*000.00 the hou#e a$d lot !alued at P500.000.00 a$d

0a,el* a ma de$ # -tee$

the car worth P100.000.00 ,e allocated to them%

4167 year# of age. 2h le l ! $g

Page 41 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

4,7 2hat would your a$#wer ,e 4to the a,o!e ?ue#t o$7 had
"u # a$d J ::a ,ee$ l ! $g together all the t me* e.* # $ce twe$ty year# ago* u$der a !al d marr age%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

a7 2ho w ll ,e e$t tled to the hou#e a$d lot% 43E7 @o$y a$d .u#a$ are e$t tled to the hou#e a$d lot a# co> ow$er# $ e?ual #hare#. L$der &rt cle 147 of the Fam ly Code* whe$ a ma$ a$d a woma$ who are capac tated to marry each other l !ed e-clu# !ely w th each other a# hu#,a$d a$d w fe* the property ac?u red dur $g the r coha, tat o$ are pre#umed to ha!e ,ee$ o,ta $ed ,y the r
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

a7 &rt. 147 of the Fam ly Code pro! de# $ part that whe$ a ma$ a$d a woma$ who are capac tated to marry each other* l !e e-clu# !ely w th each other a# hu#,a$d a$d w fe w thout the ,e$ef t of marr age or u$der a !o d marr age* the r wage# a$d #alar e# #hall ,e ow$ed ,y them $ e?ual #hare#
a$d the property ac?u red ,y ,oth of them through the r

wor9 or $du#try #hall ,e go!er$ed ,y the rule# of co> ow$er#h p. +$ the a,#e$ce of proof to the co$trary* propert e# ac?u red
wh le they l !ed together #hall ,e pre#umed to ha!e ,ee$

8o $t effort#* wor9 or $du#try a$d #hall ,e ow$ed ,y them $ e?ual #hare#. @h # # true e!e$ though the effort# of o$e of them co$# #ted merely $ h # or her care a$d ma $te$a$ce of the fam ly a$d of the hou#ehold.
,7 2ould t ma9e a$y d ffere$ce f @o$y could $ot marry

o,ta $ed ,y the r <o $t effort#* wor9er +$du#try* a$d #hall ,e ow$ed ,y them $ e?ual #hare#. & party who d d $ot part c pate $ the ac?u # t o$ ,y the other party of a$y property #hall ,e deemed to ha!e co$tr ,uted 8o $tly $ the
ac?u # t o$ thereof f the formerG# effort# co$# #ted $ the care a$d ma $te$a$ce of the fam ly a$d of the hou#ehold.

.u#a$ ,ecau#e he wa# pre! ou#ly marr ed to &l ce from


whom he # legally #eparated% 42E7

Be#* t would ma9e a d ffere$ce. L$der &rt cle 148 of the Fam ly Code* whe$ the part e# to the coha, tat o$ could $ot
marry each other ,ecau#e of a$ mped me$t* o$ly tho#e propert e# ac?u red ,y ,oth of them through the r actual

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@hu#(
17

the wage# a$d #alar e# of "u # $ the amou$t of

P200*000.00 #hall ,e d ! ded e?ually ,etwee$ "u # a$d


J ::a.

8o $t co$tr ,ut o$ of mo$ey* property* or +$du#try #hall ,e ow$ed ,y them $ commo$ $ proport o$ to the r re#pect !e co$tr ,ut o$#. @he effort# of o$e of the part e# $
ma $ta $ $g the fam ly a$d hou#ehold are $ot co$# dered

the hou#e a$d lot !alued at P500.000.00 ha! $g ,ee$ ac?u red ,y ,oth of them through wor9 or $du#try #hall ,e d ! ded ,etwee$ them $ proport o$ to the r re#pect !e
27

ade?uate co$tr ,ut o$ $ the ac?u # t o$ of the propert e#.


. $ce .u#a$ d d $ot co$tr ,ute to the ac?u # t o$ of the

co$tr ,ut o$* $ co$#o$a$ce w th the rule# o$ co>ow$er#h p. He$ce* "u # get# 2Y5 wh le J ::a get# 3Y5 of P500.000.00.

37 the car worth P100*000.00 #hall ,e e-clu# !ely ow$ed ,y J ::a* the #ame ha! $g ,ee$ do$ated to her ,y her pare$t#.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

hou#e a$d lot* #he ha# $o #hare there $. +f @o$y coha, ted w th .u#a$ after h # legal #eparat o$ from &l ce* the hou#e a$d lot # h # e-clu# !e property. +f he coha, ted w th .u#a$
,efore h # legal #eparat o$ from &l ce* the hou#e a$d lot ,elo$g# to h # commu$ ty or part$er#h p w th &l ce.

4,7 @he property relat o$# ,etwee$ "u # a$d J ::a* the r marr age ha! $g ,ee$ cele,rated 20 year# ago 4u$der the

C ! l Code7 #hall ,e go!er$ed ,y the co$8ugal part$er#h p of


ga $#* u$der wh ch the hu#,a$d a$d w fe place $ a commo$ fu$d the proceed#* product#* fru t# a$d $come

(+CCE((I!'
2mo%nt of %ccessional 1ig&ts ('##!) 0r. =@ a$d 0r#. B@ ha!e ,ee$ marr ed for 20 year#. .uppo#e the w fe* B@* d ed ch ldle##* #ur! !ed o$ly ,y her
hu#,a$d* =@.
2hat would ,e the #hare of =@ from her

from the r #eparate propert e# a$d tho#e ac?u red ,y e ther


or ,oth #pou#e# through the r effort# or ,y cha$ce* a$d

upo$ d ##olut o$ of the marr age or of the part$er#h p* the $et ga $# or ,e$ef t# o,ta $ed ,y e ther or ,oth #pou#e #hall ,e d ! ded e?ually ,etwee$ them 4&rt. 142. C ! l Code7. @hu#( 17 @he #alary of "u # depo# ted $ the ,a$9 $ the amou$t of P200.000.00 a$d the hou#e a$d lot !alued at P500*000.00 #hall ,e d ! ded e?ually ,etwee$ "u # a$d J ::a. 27 Howe!er* the car worth P100.000*00 do$ated to J ::a ,y her pare$t# #hall ,e co$# dered to her ow$ parapher$al

e#tate a# $her ta$ce% 2hy% 5-pla $. 45E7


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

L$der the C ! l Code* the w dow or w dower # a legal a$d compul#ory he r of the decea#ed #pou#e. +f the w dow # the
o$ly #ur! ! $g he r* there ,e $g $o leg t mate a#ce$da$t#*

de#ce$da$t#* ,rother#* a$d # #ter#* $ephew# a$d $ ece#* #he


get# the e$t re e#tate.

property* ha! $g ,ee$ ac?u red ,y lucrat !e t tle 4par. 2* &rt.


148* C ! l Code7.

;arrier between illegitimate & legitimate relatives (199() & # the ac9$owledged $atural ch ld of N who d ed whe$ &

wa# already 22 year# old. 2he$ NG# full ,lood ,rother* C*

4ropert" 1elations; /nions wit&o%t *arriage ('###)

For f !e year# # $ce 1989* @o$y* a ,a$9 6 ce>pre# de$t* a$d


.u#a$* a$ e$terta $er* l !ed together a# hu#,a$d a$d w fe

d ed he 4C7 wa# #ur! !ed ,y h # w dow a$d four ch ldre$ of h # other ,rother H. Cla m $g that he # e$t tled to $her t
from h # fatherG# ,rother C. & ,rought #u t to o,ta $ h #

w thout the ,e$ef t of marr age although they were


capac tated to ma$y each other. . $ce @o$yG# #alary wa#

#hare $ the e#tate of C. 2 ll h # act o$ pro#per%


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

more tha$ e$ough for the r $eed#* .u#a$ #topped wor9 $g a$d merely '9ept hou#e'. Hur $g that per od* @o$y wa# a,le
to ,uy a lot a$d hou#e $ a plu#h #u,d ! # o$. Howe!er* after f !e year#* @o$y a$d .u#a$ dec ded to #eparate.

1o* the act o$ of & w ll $ot pro#per. /$ the prem #e that N* C a$d H are leg t mate ,rother#* a# a$ lleg t mate ch ld of N*
& ca$$ot $her t $ $te#tacy from C who # a leg t mate

,rother of N. /$ly the w fe of C $ her ow$ r ght a$d the

Page 42 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

leg t mate relat !e# of C 4 .e. the ch ldre$ of H a# CG# leg t mate $ephew# $her t $g a# collateral relat !e#7 ca$ $her t $ $te#tacy. 4&rt#. 992* 1001* 1//5 a$d 975* C ! l
Code7
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

How w ll you rule o$ <orgeG# oppo# t o$ to the pro,ate of 0ar aG# w ll. +f you were the <udge% &# <udge* + #hall rule a# follow#( <orgeG# oppo# t o$ #hould ,e #u#ta $ed $ part a$d de$ ed $ part. <orgeG# om ## o$ a# #pou#e of 0ar a # $ot preter t o$ of a compul#ory he r $ the d rect l $e. He$ce* &rt. 854 of the C ! l Code doe# $ot apply* a$d the $#t tut o$ of 0 guela a# he r # !al d* ,ut o$ly
to the e-te$t of the free port o$ of o$e>half. <orge # #t ll
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he act o$ of & w ll $ot pro#per. Ne $g a$ lleg t mate* he # ,arred ,y &rt cle 992 of the C ! l Code from $her t $g a,
$te#tato from the leg t mate relat !e# of h # father.

;arrier between illegitimate & legitimate relatives (199-) Cr #t $a the lleg t mate daughter of <o#e a$d 0ar a* d ed $te#tate* w thout a$y de#ce$da$t or a#ce$da$t. Her !alua,le e#tate # ,e $g cla med ,y &$a* the leg t mate daughter of <o#e* a$d 5duardo* the leg t mate #o$ of 0ar a.

e$t tled to o$e>half of the e#tate a# h # leg t me. 4&rt. 1001*


C ! l Code7
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE"(:

a7 &# <udge* + #hall rule a# follow#( <orgeG# oppo# t o$ #hould ,e #u#ta $ed $ part a$d de$ ed $ part. @h # # a ca#e of

+# e ther* ,oth* or $e ther of them e$t tled to $her t%


5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

$effect !e d # $her ta$ce u$der &rt* 918 of the C ! l Code* ,ecau#e the om ## o$ of the compul#ory he r <orge ,y 0ar a wa# $te$t o$al. Co$#e?ue$tly* the $#t tut o$ of 0 guela a#
he r # # !o d o$ly $#ofar a# the leg t me of <orge

1e ther &$a $or 5duardo # e$t tled to $her t of a, $te#tato from Cr #t $a. Noth are leg t mate relat !e# of
Cr #t $aG# lleg t mate pare$t# a$d therefore they fall u$der the proh , t o$ pre#cr ,ed ,y &rt. 992* 1CC (Man.el v.
8errer, $4$ SCRA 4((C F"a@ v. Co.rt o* A''eals, 18$ SCRA 4$().

pre8ud ced. &ccord $gly* <orge # e$t tled to h # leg t me of


o$e>half of the e#tate* a$d 0 guela get# the other half. ,7
&# <udge* + #hall rule a# follow#(

<orgeG# oppo# t o$

Collation (199() <oa?u $ Jeye# ,ought from <ul o Cru: a re# de$t al lot of

300 #?uare meter# $ Pue:o$ C ty for wh ch <oa?u $ pa d <ul o the amou$t of P300*000.00* 2he$ the deed wa# a,out
to ,e prepared <oa?u $ told <ul o that t ,e draw$ $ the $ame of <oa?u $a Jo-a#* h # ac9$owledged $atural ch ld.

#hould ,e #u#ta $ed. @h # # a ca#e of preter t o$ u$der &rt cle 854 C ! l Code* the re#ult of the om ## o$ of <orge a# compul#ory he r ha! $g the #ame r ght e?u !ale$t to a leg t mate ch ld ' $ the d rect l $e' # that total $te#tacy w ll ar #e* a$d <orge w ll $her t the e$t re e#tate. c7 &# <udge* + #hall rule a# follow#( the oppo# t o$ #hould ,e de$ ed # $ce t # pred cated upo$ cau#e# $ot recog$ :ed
,y law a# grou$d# for d #allowa$ce of a wll* to w t(

@hu#* the deed wa# #o prepared a$d e-ecuted ,y <ul o. <oa?u $a the$ ,u lt a hou#e o$ the lot where #he* her
hu#,a$d a$d ch ldre$ re# ded. Lpo$ <oa?u $G# death* h #

leg t mate ch ldre$ #ought to reco!er po##e## o$ a$d ow$er#h p of the lot* cla m $g that <oa?u $a Jo-a# wa# ,ut
a tru#tee of the r father. 2 ll the act o$ aga $#t <oa?u $a Jo-a# pro#per%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1. that the w ll wa# made w thout h # 9$owledge3 2. that the w ll wa# made w thout h # co$#e$t3 a$d 3. that t ha# the effect of depr ! $g h m of h # leg t me* wh ch # a grou$d that goe# $to the $tr $# c !al d ty of the w ll a$d $eed $ot ,e the purpo#e of #ecur $g to the hu#,a$d h # r ght to the leg t me o$ the theory that the w ll co$#t tute# a$ $effect !e d # $her ta$ce u$der &rt. 918 of the C ! l Code* d7 &# <udge* + #hall rule a# follow#( <orge # e$t tled to rece !e h # leg t me from the e#tate of h # w fe. He wa# $ot d # $her ted $ the w ll e!e$ a##um $g that he ga!e grou$d for d # $her ta$ce* he$ce* he # #t ll e$t tled to h # leg t me. <orge* howe!er* ca$$ot rece !e a$yth $g from the free port o$. He ca$$ot cla m preter t o$ a# he # $ot a
re#ol!ed dur $g the pro,ate proceed $g#. Howe!er* the oppo# t o$ may ,e e$terta $ed for*

Be#* ,ecau#e there # a pre#umed do$at o$ $ fa!or of <oa?u $a u$der &rt. 1448 of the C ! l Code (Fe los Santos v. Reyes, $( -an.ary 199$, $06 SCRA 43(). Howe!er* the do$at o$ #hould ,e collated to the hered tary e#tate a$d the
leg t me of the other he r# #hould ,e pre#er!ed.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

Be#* the act o$ aga $#t <oa?u $a Jo-a# w ll pro#per* ,ut o$ly to the e-te$t of the al ?uot hered tary r ght# of the

leg t mate ch ldre$ a# he r#. <oa?u $a w ll ,e e$t tled to reta $ her ow$ #hare a# a$ lleg t mate ch ld* 4&rt#. 1440 a$d
1453. C ! l Code3 &rt. 176* F. C.7

Disin&eritance vs. 4reterition (199()

0ar a* to #p te her hu#,a$d <orge* whom #he #u#pected wa# ha! $g a$ affa r w th a$other woma$* e-ecuted a w ll*
u$9$ow$ to h m* ,e?ueath $g all the propert e# #he

compul#ory he r $ the d rect l $e. @here ,e $g $o preter t o$* the $#t tut o$ of the # #ter wa# !al d a$d the

o$ly r ght of <orge # to cla m h # leg t me.


Disin&eritance; )neffective (1999) 0r. Palma* w dower* ha# three daughter# H* H>l a$d H>2. He e-ecute# a 2 ll d # $her t $g H ,ecau#e #he marr ed a

$her ted from her pare$t#* to her # #ter 0 guela. Lpo$ her

death* the w ll wa# pre#e$ted for pro,ate. <orge oppo#ed

pro,ate of the w ll o$ the grou$d that the w ll wa# e-ecuted ,y h # w fe w thout h # 9$owledge* much le## co$#e$t* a$d that t depr !ed h m of h # leg t me. &fter all* he had g !e$ her $o cau#e for d # $her ta$ce* added <orge oppo# t o$. $ h#

ma$ he d d $ot l 9e* a$d $#t tut $g daughter# H>1 a$d H>2 a# h # he r# to h # e$t re e#tate of P 1*000*000.00* Lpo$ 0r*
PalmaG# death* how #hould h # e#tate ,e d ! ded% 5-pla $.

45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Page 43 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

@h # # a ca#e of $effect !e d # $her ta$ce ,ecau#e marry $g a ma$ that the father d d $ot appro!e of # $ot a grou$d for
d # $her t $g H. @herefore* the $#t tut o$ of H>l a$d H>2

1028 for ,e $g $ co$# derat o$ of her adulterou# relat o$ w th the te#tator. .he #* therefore* d #?ual f ed to rece !e

#hall ,e a$$ulled $#ofar a# t pre8ud ce# the leg t me of H* a$d the $#t tut o$ of H>l a$d H>2 #hall o$ly apply o$ the
free port o$ $ the amou$t of P500*000.00. @herefore* H*

the legacy. 5r$ e w ll rece !e the legacy $ h # fa!or ,ecau#e t # $ot $off c ou#. @he $#t tut o$ of Naldo* wh ch appl e# o$ly to the free port o$* w ll ,e re#pected. +$ #um* the e#tate
of "am,erto #hall ,e d #tr ,uted a# follow#(
He r
"eg t me "egacy

H>l a$d H>2 w ll get the r leg t me# of P500.000.00 d ! ded


$to three e?ual part# a$d H>l a$d H>2 w ll get a reduced +$#t tut o$ 200.000
50*000 50*000

@/@&"
700*000 250*000 1*000*000

te#tame$tary d #po# t o$ of P250*000.00 each. He$ce* the #hare# w ll ,e(

H
H>l H>2

P166*666.66 P166*666.66 Z P250.000.00 P166*666.66 Z P250*000.00

Naldo 500*000 5l! ra 250*000 5r$ e 50*000 @/@&" 750*000

200*000

Disin&eritance; )neffective; 4reterition ('###) +$ h # la#t w ll a$d te#tame$t* "am,erto 17 d # $her t# h # daughter 2 lma ,ecau#e '#he # d #re#pectful toward# me a$d ra #e# her !o ce tal9 $g to me'* 27 om t# e$t rely h #

A'!$.E" AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

.ame a$#wer a# the f r#t &lter$at !e &$#wer e-cept a# to

#pou#e 5l! ra* 37 lea!e# a legacy of P100*000.00 to h #


m #tre## Jo#a a$d P50*000.00 to h # dr !er 5r$ e a$d 47

d #tr ,ut o$. <u#t ce <urado #ol!ed th # pro,lem d ffere$tly. +$ h # op $ o$* the leg t me of the he r who wa# d # $her ted # d #tr ,uted amo$g the other compul#ory he r# $
proport o$ to the r re#pect !e leg t me#* wh le h # #hare $

$#t tute# h # #o$ Naldo a# h # #ole he r. How w ll you


d #tr ,ute h # e#tate of P1*000*000.00% 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

the $te#tate port o$. +f a$y* # d #tr ,uted amo$g the other
legal he r# ,y accret o$ u$der &rt cle 1018 of the 1CC $ proport o$ to the r re#pect !e $te#tate #hare#. +$ #um the d #tr ,ut o$ #hall ,e a# follow#(
He r "eg t me H #tr ,ut o$ of 2 lmaO# "eg t me Naldo 2 lma 5l! ra 5r$ e @/@&" 250*0000 4250.0007 250*000 125*000 125.000 50*000 500*000 250*000 50*000 "egac y +$#t tut o$ 200*000 @/@&" 575*000 375.000 50.000 200*000 1*000*000

@he d # $her ta$ce of 2 lma wa# $effect !e ,ecau#e the

grou$d rel ed upo$ ,y the te#tator doe# $ot co$#t tute maltreatme$t u$der &rt cle 919467 of the 1ew C ! l Code. He$ce* the te#tame$tary pro! # o$# $ the w ll #hall ,e a$$ulled ,ut o$ly to the e-te$t that her leg t me wa#
mpa red.

@he total om ## o$ of 5l! ra doe# $ot co$#t tute preter t o$ ,ecau#e #he # $ot a compul#ory he r $ the d rect l $e. /$ly
compul#ory he r# $ the d rect l $e may ,e the #u,8ect of

preter t o$. 1ot ha! $g ,ee$ preter ted* #he w ll ,e e$t tled
o$ly to her leg t me.

Aeirs; )ntestate Aeirs; 1eserva =roncal (1999)

@he legacy $ fa!or of Jo#a # !o d u$der &rt cle 1028 for


,e $g $ co$# derat o$ of her adulterou# relat o$ w th the

te#tator. .he #* therefore* d #?ual f ed to rece !e the legacy


of 100*000 pe#o#. @he legacy of 50*000 pe#o# $ fa!or of 5r$ e # $ot $off c ou# $ot ha! $g e-ceeded the free

port o$. He$ce* he #hall ,e e$t tled to rece !e t.


@he $#t tut o$ of Naldo* wh ch appl e# o$ly to the free

+# dro a$d +rma* F l p $o#* ,oth 18 year# of age* were pa##e$ger# of Fl ght 1o. 317 of /r e$tal & rl $e#. @he pla$e they ,oarded wa# of Ph l pp $e reg #try. 2h le e$ route from 0a$ la to )reece #ome pa##e$ger# h 8ac9ed the pla$e* held the ch ef p lot ho#tage at the coc9p t a$d ordered h m to fly $#tead to " ,ya. Hur $g the h 8ac9 $g +# dro #uffered a heart attac9 a$d wa# o$ the !erge of death. . $ce +rma wa# already e ght mo$th# preg$a$t ,y +# dro* #he pleaded to the
h 8ac9er# to allow the a## #ta$t p lot to #olem$ :e her marr age w th +# dro. .oo$ after the marr age* +# dro

port o$* #hall ,e re#pected. +$ #um* the e#tate of "am,erto


w ll ,e d #tr ,uted a# follow#(

e-p red. &# the pla$e la$ded $ " ,ya +rma ga!e , rth.

Naldo>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> > 2 lma>>>>>>>>>>>>>> > 5l! ra>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> > 5r$ e>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >

450*000 250*000

Howe!er* the ,a,y d ed a few m $ute# after complete del !ery. Nac9 $ the Ph l pp $e# +rma +mmed ately f led a cla m for
$her ta$ce. @he pare$t# of +# dro oppo#ed her cla m co$te$d $g that the marr age ,etwee$ her a$d +# dro wa# !o d a, $ t o o$ the follow $g grou$d#( 4a7 they had $ot g !e$ the r co$#e$t to the marr age of the r #o$3 4,7 there

250*000
50*000

1*000*000
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

@he d # $her ta$ce

of 2 lma

wa# effect !e

,ecau#e

d #re#pect of* a$d ra # $g of !o ce to* her father co$#t tute maltreatme$t u$der &rt cle 919467 of the 1ew C ! l Code. .he #* therefore* $ot e$t tled to $her t a$yth $g. Her
$her ta$ce w ll go to the other legal he r#. @he total om ## o$ of 5l! ra # $ot preter t o$ ,ecau#e #he # $ot a

wa# $o marr age l ce$#e3 4c7 the #olem$ : $g off cer had $o author ty to perform the marr age3 a$d* 4d7 the #olem$ : $g off cer d d $ot f le a$ aff da! t of marr age w th the proper
c ! l reg #trar. 2. Hoe# +rma ha!e a$y #ucce## o$al r ght# at all% H #cu##

fully.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

compul#ory he r $ the d rect l $e. .he w ll rece !e o$ly her leg t me. @he legacy $ fa!or of Jo#a # !o d u$der &rt cle

2. +rma

#pou#e to the e#tate of her leg t mate ch ld. 2he$ +# dro

#ucceeded to the e#tate of +# dro a# h # #ur! ! $g

Page 44 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

d ed* he wa# #ucceeded ,y h # #ur! ! $g w fe +rma* a$d h # leg t mate u$,or$ ch ld. @hey d ! ded the e#tate e?ually ,etwee$ them* the ch ld e-clud $g the pare$t# of +# dro. &$ u$,or$ ch ld # co$# dered ,or$ for all purpo#e# fa!ora,le to t pro! ded t # ,or$ later. @he ch ld wa# co$# dered ,or$
,ecau#e* ha! $g a$ $tra>uter $e l fe of more tha$ #e!e$

4c7 = [ 1S2 ,y repre#e$tat o$ of N ,y repre#e$tat o$ of C

C[lS2

B [ 1S4

4d7 = > 1S3 $ h # ow$ r ght B> 1S3 $ h # ow$ r ght 2 > 1S3
$ h # ow$ r ght

mo$th#* t l !ed for a few m $ute# after t# complete


del !ery. +t wa# leg t mate ,ecau#e t wa# ,or$ w th $ the

&rt cle 977 of the C ! l Code pro! de# that he r# who repud ate the r #hare ca$$ot ,e repre#e$ted. )ntestate %ccession (1997) '@' d ed $te#tate o$ 1 .eptem,er 1997.He wa# #ur! !ed ,y ch ldre$7* C 4h # gra$d#o$* ,e $g the leg t mate #o$ of N7* H
4h # other gra$d#o$* ,e $g the #o$ of 5 who wa# a leg t mate #o$ of* a$d who predecea#ed* '@'7* a$d F 4h # gra$d#o$* ,e $g the #o$ of )* a leg t mate #o$ who

!al d marr age of the pare$t#. .ucce## o$ # fa!ora,le to t. 2he$ the ch ld d ed* +rma $her ted the #hare of the ch ld.
Howe!er* the #hare of the ch ld $ the ha$d# of +rma #

#u,8ect to re#er!a tro$cal for the ,e$ef t of the relat !e# of the ch ld w th $ the th rd degree of co$#a$gu $ ty a$d who
,elo$g to the l $e of +# dro.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

0 4h # mother7* 2 4h # w dow7* & a$d N 4h # leg t mate

+f the marr age # !o d. +rma ha# $o #ucce## o$al r ght# w th


re#pect to +# dro ,ut #he would ha!e #ucce## o$al r ght#

w th re#pect to the ch ld.


Aeirs; )ntestate Aeirs; &ares ('##()

repud ated the $her ta$ce from '@'7. H # d #tr ,uta,le $et e#tate # P120.000.00. How #hould th # amou$t ,e #hared $ $te#tacy amo$g the #ur! ! $g he r#%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

"u # wa# #ur! !ed ,y two leg t mate ch ldre$* two lleg t mate ch ldre$* h # pare$t#* a$d two ,rother#. He left
a$ e#tate of P1 m ll o$. "u # d ed $te#tate. 2ho are h # $te#tate he r#* a$d how much # the #hare of each $ h # e#tate%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he legal he r# are &* N* H* a$d 2. C # e-cluded ,y N who


# #t ll al !e. H $her t#

$ repre#e$tat o$ of 5 who

@he $te#tate he r# are the two 427 leg t mate ch ldre$ a$d the two 427 lleg t mate ch ldre$. +$ $te#tacy the e#tate of

predecea#ed. F # e-cluded ,ecau#e of the repud at o$ of )* the predece##or. 0 # e-cluded ,y the leg t mate ch ldre$ of @. @he a$#wer may ,e prem #ed o$ two theor e#( the @heory of 5-clu# o$ a$d the @heory of Co$curre$ce. L$der the T!eory o* 23+l.s"on the leg t me# of the he r# are accorded them a$d the free port o$ w ll ,e g !e$ e-clu# !ely to the leg t mate de#ce$da$t#. He$ce u$der the 5-clu# o$ @heory(
& w ll get P20.000.00. a$d P 13.333.33 41S3 of the free port o$7
N w ll get P 20*000.00. a$d P13. 333.33 41S3 of the free port o$7

the decede$t # d ! ded amo$g the leg t mate a$d lleg t mate ch ldre$ #uch that the #hare of each lleg t mate ch ld # o$e
> half the #hare of each leg t mate ch ld. @he r #hare are (

For each leg t mate ch ld T P333*333.33


For each lleg t mate ch ld T P166*666.66 )ntestate %ccession (199')
(Art"+le 983, 0e9 C"v"l Co%eC Art"+le 1(6, 8a&"ly Co%e)

H w ll get P20.000.00. a$d P13. 333.33 41S3 of the free port o$7

2* the w dow # l m ted to the leg t me of P20.000.00


L$der the T!eory o* Con+.rren+e. +$ add t o$ to the r leg t me#* the he r# of &* N* H a$d 2 w ll ,e g !e$ e?ual

F had three 437 leg t mate ch ldre$( &* N* a$d C. N ha# o$e 417 leg t mate ch ld =. C ha# two 427 leg t mate ch ldre$( B
a$d I.

F a$d & rode together $ a car a$d per #hed together at the
#ame t me $ a !eh cular acc de$t* F a$d & d ed* each of them lea! $g #u,#ta$t al e#tate# $ $te#tacy. a7 2ho are the $te#tate he r# of F% 2hat are the r re#pect !e fract o$al #hare#%

#hare# $ the free port o$#( &( P20.000.00 plu# P10.000.00 41 S4 of the free port o$7 N( P20*000.00 plu# P10.000.00 4lS4 of the free portlo$7 C( P20*000.00 plu# P10.000.00 41S4 of the free port o$7 2( P20*000.00 plu# P10*000.00 4lS4 of the free port o$7 &lter$at !e &$#wer( .hare# $ +$te#tacy
@ > decede$t .ur! !ed ,y(
2 > 2 dow.............................P 30*000.00 & > .o$.................................P 30*000.00
N > .o$.................................P30.000.00

,7 2ho are the $te#tate he r# of &% 2hat are the r


re#pect !e fract o$al #hare#%

5#tate( P120.000.00

c7 +f N a$d C ,oth predecea#ed F* who are FO# $te#tate he r#% 2hat are the r re#pect !e fract o$al #hare#% Ho
they $her t $ the r ow$ r ght or ,y repre#e$tat o$%

0 > 0other............................1o$e

5-pla $ your a$#wer. d7 +f N a$d C ,oth repud ated the r #hare# $ the e#tate

C > )ra$d#o$ 4#o$ of N7.............1o$e

H > )ra$d#o$ 4#o$ of 5 who predecea#ed @7................P 30*000.00

of F who are FG# $te#tate he r#% 2hat are the r


re#pect !e fract o$al #hare#% Ho they $her t $ the r ow$ r ght or ,y repre#e$tat o$% 5-pla $ your a$#wer*
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

F > )ra$d#o$ 4#o$ of ) who repud ated the +$her ta$ce

from'@'7.......................1o$e

4a7 N [ 1S2 4,7 N [ 1S2 I [ 1S4 ,y repre#e$tat o$ of C C[ 1S2

E planation! a7 @he mother 407 ca$$ot $her t from @ ,ecau#e u$der &rt. 985 the a#ce$da$t# #hall $her t $ default of
,7 leg t mate ch ldre$ a$d de#ce$da$t# of the decea#ed. @he w dowG# #hare # P30.000.00 ,ecau#e u$der &rt* 996 t #tate# that f the w dow or w dower a$d

&rt cle 982 of the C ! l Code pro! de# that gra$dch ldre$ $her t ,y r ght of repre#e$tat o$.

leg t mate ch ldre$ or de#ce$da$t# are left* the #ur! ! $g

Page 45 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

#pou#e ha# $ the #ucce## o$ the #ame #hare a# that of


each of the ch ldre$* c7 C ha# $o #hare ,ecau#e h # father # #t ll al !e he$ce

,e #et a# de a# 0ar oG# co$8ugal #hare from the commu$ ty property. @he other half* amou$t $g to o$e m ll o$ pe#o#* # her co$8ugal #hare 4$et e#tate7* a$d #hould ,e d #tr ,uted to
her $te#tate he r#. &pply $g the a,o!e pro! # o$ of law*

#ucce## o$ ,y repre#e$tat o$ #hall $ot apply 4&rt. 9757.


d7 H $her t# P30.000 wh ch # the #hare of h # father 5

who predecea#ed @ ,y ! rtue of &rt. 981 o$ the r ght of


repre#e$tat o$. e7 F ha# $o #hare ,ecau#e h # father ) repud ated the

$her ta$ce. L$der &rt cle 977 he r# who repud ate the r #hare may $ot ,e repre#e$ted.
)ntestate %ccession (1993)

0 chelle a$d <orelle* @e## eG# $ ece#* are e$t tled to o$e> half of her co$8ugal #hare worth o$e m ll o$ pe#o#* or 500*000 pe#o#* wh le the other o$e>half amou$t $g to P500*000 w ll go to 0ar o* @e## eG# #ur! ! $g #pou#e. 0 chelle a$d <orelle are the$ e$t tled to P250*000 pe#o# each a# the r hered tary #hare. )ntestate %ccession (1999)
0r. a$d 0r#. Cru:* who are ch ldle##* met w th a #er ou#

5$r ?ue d ed* lea! $g a $et hered tary e#tate of P1.2 m ll o$. He # #ur! !ed ,y h # w dow* three leg t mate ch ldre$* two leg t mate gra$dch ldre$ # red ,y a leg t mate ch ld who
predecea#ed h m* a$d two recog$ :ed lleg t mate ch ldre$. H #tr ,ute the e#tate $ $te#tacy. ;5EA
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

L$der the theory of Co$curre$ce* the #hare# are a# follow#(


& 4leg t mate ch ld7 [ P200*000

motor !eh cle acc de$t w th 0r. Cru: at the wheel a$d 0r#. Cru: #eated ,e# de h m* re#ult $g $ the $#ta$t death of 0r. Cru:. 0r#. Cru: wa# #t ll al !e whe$ help came ,ut #he al#o d ed o$ the way to the ho#p tal. @he couple ac?u red propert e# worth /$e 0 ll o$ 4P1*000*000.007 Pe#o# dur $g
the r marr age* wh ch are ,e $g cla med ,y the pare$t# of
,oth #pou#e# $ e?ual #hare#. +# the cla m of ,oth #et# of

N 4leg t mate ch ld7 [ P200*000


C 4leg t mate ch ld7 [ P200*000 H 4leg t mate ch ld7 [ / 4predecea#edA
5 4leg t mate ch ld of H7 [ P100*000 > ,y r ght of repre#e$tat o$ F 4leg t mate ch ld of H7 [ P100*000 > ,y r ght of repre#e$tat o$ ) 4 lleg t mate ch ld7 [ P100*000 > 1S2 #hare of the leg t mate ch ld H 4 lleg t mate ch ld7 [ P100*000 > 1S2 #hare of the leg t mate ch ld 2 42 dow7 [ P200.000 > #ame #hare a# leg t mate ch ld
A'!$.E" A'(WE":

pare$t# !al d a$d why% 43E7


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4a7 1o* the cla m of ,oth pare$t# # $ot !al d. 2he$ 0r.

Cru: d ed* he wa# #ucceeded ,y h # w fe a$d h # pare$t# a#


a,#olute commu$ ty amou$t $g to 1 0 ll o$ Pe#o#.

h # $te#tate he r# who w ll #hare h # e#tate e?ually. H #


e#tate wa# 0.5 0 ll o$ pe#o# wh ch # h # half #hare $ the

H# h#

w fe* w ll* therefore* $her t /.25 0 ll o$ Pe#o# a$d


pare$t# w ll $her t 0.25 0 ll o$ Pe#o#.

L$der the theory of 5-clu# o$ the free port o$ 4P300*0007 # d #tr ,uted o$ly amo$g the leg t mate ch ldre$ a$d # g !e$ to them $ add t o$ to the r leg t me. &ll other +$te#tate he r# are e$t tled o$ly to the r re#pect !e leg t me#.
@he d #tr ,ut o$ # a# follow#(
"e#itime
& ;leg t mate ch ld7 N Vleg t mate ch ld7 C 4leg t mate ch ld7 H 4leg t mate ch ld7 5 4leg t mate ch ld of H7 F 4leg t mate ch ld of H7 ) 4 lleg t mate ch ld7 H 4 lleg t mate ch ld7 2 42 dow7 P150.000 P150.000 P150.000 0 P 75*000 P 75.000 P 75.000 P 75.000 P150*000

2he$ 0r#. Cru: d ed* #he wa# #ucceeded ,y her pare$t# a#


her $te#tate he r#. @hey w ll e#tate $her t all of her

co$# #t $g of her 0.5 0 ll o$ half #hare $ the a,#olute


commu$ ty a$d her 0.25 0 ll o$ her $her ta$ce from

F$ee %o$tion
Z P 75*000 Z P150.000 Z P 75.000
0

&otal
> P225.000 > P225.000 > P225.000 0 > P112*500 > P112*500 >P 75*500 > P 75*500 >P150.000

hu#,a$d* or a total of 0.750 0 ll o$ Pe#o#. +$ #um* the pare$t# of 0r. Cru: w ll $her t 250*000 Pe#o# wh le the pare$t# of 0r#. Cru: w ll $her t 750*000 Pe#o#. )ntestate %ccession ('###) 5uge$ o d ed w thout ##ue* lea! $g #e!eral parcel# of la$d $ Nataa$. He wa# #ur! !ed ,y &$to$ o* h # leg t mate ,rother3 0art $a* the o$ly daughter of h # predecea#ed

Z P35.500 Z P 37.500 0 0
0

# #ter
)ntestate %ccession (1993)

@e## e d ed #ur! !ed ,y her hu#,a$d 0ar o* a$d two $ ece#* 0 chelle a$d <orelle* who are the leg t mate ch ldre$ of a$ elder # #ter who had predecea#ed her. @he o$ly property #he
left ,eh $d wa# a hou#e a$d lot worth two m ll o$ pe#o#*

predecea#ed ,rother. .hortly after 5uge$ oG# death* &$to$ o al#o d ed* lea! $g three leg t mate ch ldre$. .u,#e?ue$tly*

0ercede#3 a$d f !e leg t mate ch ldre$ of <oa?u $* a$other

0art $a* the ch ldre$ of <oa?u $ a$d the ch ldre$ of

wh ch @e## e a$d her hu#,a$d had ac?u red w th the u#e of 0ar oG# #a! $g# from h # $come a# a doctor. How much of
the property or t# !alue* f a$y* may 0 chelle a$d <orelle cla m a# the r hered tary #hare#% ;5EA
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&$to$ o e-ecuted a$ e-tra8ud c al #ettleme$t of the e#tate of 5uge$ o* d ! d $g t amo$g them#el!e#. @he #ucceed $g year* a pet t o$ to a$$ul the e-tra8ud c al #ettleme$t wa# f led ,y &$tero* a$ lleg t mate #o$ of &$to$ o* who cla m# he #
e$t tled to #hare $ the e#tate of 5uge$ o. @he defe$da$t# f led a mot o$ to d #m ## o$ the grou$d that &$tero # ,arred ,y &rt cle 992 of the C ! l Code from $her t $g from the leg t mate ,rother of h # father. How w ll you

&rt cle 1001 of the C ! l Code pro! de#* '.hould ,rother#

a$d # #ter# or the r ch ldre$ #ur! !e w th the w dow or w dower* the latter #hall ,e e$t tled to o$e>half of the $her ta$ce a$d the ,rother# a$d # #ter# or the r ch ldre$ to the other half.'
@e## eG# gro## e#tate co$# #t# of a hou#e a$d lot ac?u red

re#ol!e the mot o$% 45E7


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

dur $g her marr age* ma9 $g t part of the commu$ ty property. @hu#* o$e>half of the #a d property would ha!e to

@he mot o$ to d #m ## #hould ,e gra$ted. &rt cle 992 doe# $ot apply. &$tero # $ot cla m $g a$y $her ta$ce from 5uge$ o. He # cla m $g h # #hare $ the $her ta$ce of h #
father co$# #t $g of h # fatherG# #hare $ the $her ta$ce of

Page 46 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

5uge$ o (Fela Mer+e% v. Fela Mer+e%, ;r 0o. 1$6(0(, $7


8e/r.ary 1999).
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

50 $her ted ,y 0r#. "u$a from 0r. "u$a w ll ,e $her ted from her ,y her pare$t#.
Howe!er* f the ch ld had $tra>uter $e l fe of le## tha$ 7 mo$th#* half of the e#tate of 0r. "u$a* or 50* w ll ,e

+t depe$d#. +f &$tero wa# $ot ac9$owledged ,y &$to$ o*

the mot o$ to d #m ## #hould ,e gra$ted ,ecau#e &$tero #


$ot a legal he r of &$to$ o. +f &$tero wa# ac9$owledged* the mot o$ #hould ,e de$ ed ,ecau#e &rt cle 992 # $ot

appl ca,le. @h # # ,ecau#e &$tero # cla m $g h # $her ta$ce


from h # lleg t mate father* $ot from 5uge$ o. )ntestate %ccession; 1eserva =roncal (1999) 0r. "u$a d ed* lea! $g a$ e#tate of @e$ 0 ll o$ 4P1 0*000*000.007 Pe#o#. H # w dow ga!e , rth to a ch ld four

$her ted ,y the w dow 40r#. "u$a7* wh le the other half* or 50* w ll ,e $her ted ,y the pare$t# of 0r. "u$a. Lpo$ the
death of 0r#. "u$a* her e#tate of 50 w ll ,e $her ted ,y her ow$ pare$t#.

mo$th# after 0r* "u$aG# death* ,ut the ch ld d ed f !e hour# after , rth. @wo day# after the ch ldG# death* the w dow of 0r. "u$a al#o d ed ,ecau#e #he had #uffered from d ff cult ch ld, rth. @he e#tate of 0r. "u$a # $ow ,e $g cla med ,y h # pare$t#* a$d the pare$t# of h # w dow. 2ho # e$t tled to
0r. "u$aGa e#tate a$d why% 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

#o$7* N 4a gra$ddaughter* ,e $g the daughter of &7 a$d C a$d H 4the two ac9$owledged lleg t mate ch ldre$ of the

Legitime (1997) '='* the decede$t* wa# #ur! !ed ,y 2 4h # w dow7. & 4h #

decede$t7. '=' d ed th # year 419977 lea! $g a $et e#tate of


P180*000.00. &ll were w ll $g to #ucceed* e-cept & who repud ated the $her ta$ce from h # father* a$d they #ee9

Half of the e#tate of 0r. "u$a w ll go to the pare$t# of 0r#.


"u$a a# the r $her ta$ce from 0r#. "u$a* wh le the other half w ll ,e $her ted ,y the pare$t# of 0r. "u$a a# the

your legal ad! ce o$ how much each ca$ e-pect to rece !e a# the r re#pect !e #hare# $ the d #tr ,ut o$ of the e#tate. ) !e your a$#wer.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

re#er!atar o# of the re#er!ed property $her ted ,y 0r#.


"u$a from her ch ld.

2he$ 0r. "u$a d ed* h # he r# were h # w fe a$d the u$,or$


ch ld. @he u$,or$ ch ld $her ted ,ecau#e the $her ta$ce

@he he r# are N* 2* C a$d H. & $her t# $oth $g ,ecau#e of h # re$u$c at o$. N $her t# a leg t me of P90.000.00 a# the $eare#t a$d o$ly leg t mate de#ce$da$t* $her t $g $ h # ow$ r ght $ot ,y repre#e$tat o$ ,ecau#e of &G# re$u$c at o$. 2 get# a leg t me e?u !ale$t to o$e>half 41 S 27 that of N amou$t $g to P45.000. C a$d H each get# a leg t me
e?u !ale$t to o$e>half 41S27 that of N amou$t $g to

wa# fa!ora,le to t a$d t wa# ,or$ al !e later though t l !ed o$ly for f !e hour#. 0r#. "u$a $her ted half of the 10
0 ll o$ e#tate wh le the u$,or$ ch ld $her ted the other half. 2he$ the ch ld d ed* t wa# #ur! !ed ,y t# mother*

P45.000.00 each. Nut # $ce the total e-ceed# the e$t re


e#tate* the r leg t me# would ha!e to ,e reduced

0r#. "u$a. &# the o$ly he r* 0r#. "u$a $her ted* ,y operat o$ of law* the e#tate of the ch ld co$# #t $g of t# 5
0 ll o$ $her ta$ce from 0r. "u$a. +$ the ha$d# of 0r#.

corre#po$d $g to P22.500.00 each 4&rt. 895. CC7. @he total of all of the#e amou$t# to P180.000.00.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

I0T2STAT2 S>CC2SSI<0
2STAT2B 180,000.00
P90.000.00 4&rt. 9987 &> 4#o$ who repud ated h # $her ta$ce7 1o$e &rt. 9777 N > 4)ra$ddaughter7 1o$e C > 4&c9$owledged lleg t mate ch ld7 P45.000.00 4&rt.9987 H > 4&c9$owledged lleg t mate ch ld7 P45*000.00 4&rt. 9987 @he ac9$owledged lleg t mate ch ld get# 1S2 of the #hare of each leg t mate ch ld.
2> 4w dow get# 1S2 #hare7

"u$a* what #he $her ted from her ch ld wa# #u,8ect to re#er!a tro$cal for the ,e$ef t of the relat !e# of the ch ld w th $ the th rd degree of co$#a$gu $ ty a$d who ,elo$g to

the fam ly of 0r. "u$a* the l $e where the property came from.

2he$ 0r#. "u$a d ed* #he wa# #ur! !ed ,y her pare$t# a# her o$ly he r#. Her pare$t# w ll $her t her e#tate co$# #t $g of the 5 0 ll o$ #he $her ted from 0r. "u$a. @he other 5 0 ll o$ #he $her ted from her ch ld w ll ,e del !ered to the
pare$t# of 0r. "u$a a# ,e$ef c ar e# of the re#er!ed property.

Legitime; Comp%lsor" Aeirs ('##() "u # wa# #ur! !ed ,y two leg t mate ch ldre$* two lleg t mate ch ldre$* h # pare$t#* a$d two ,rother#. He left
a$ e#tate of P1 m ll o$. 2ho are the compul#ory he r# of

"u #* how much # the leg t me of each* a$d how much #


the free port o$ of h # e#tate*
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

+$ #um* 5 0 ll o$ Pe#o# of 0r. "u$aG# e#tate w ll go to the pare$t# of 0r#. "u$a* wh le the other 5 0 ll o$ Pe#o# w ll go to the pare$t# of 0r. "u$a a# re#er!atar o#.

f a$y%

@he compul#ory he r# are the two leg t mate ch ldre$ a$d

AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

the two lleg t mate ch ldre$. @he pare$t# are e-cluded ,y

+f the ch ld had a$ $tra>uter $e l fe of $ot le## tha$ 7


mo$th#* t $her ted from the father. +$ wh ch ca#e* the

e#tate of 100 w ll ,e d ! ded e?ually ,etwee$ the ch ld a$d


the w dow a# legal he r#. Lpo$ the death of the ch ld* t# #hare of 50 #hall go ,y operat o$ of law to the mother* wh ch #hall ,e #u,8ect to re#er!a tro$cal. L$der &rt. 891*

the leg t mate ch ldre$* wh le the ,rother# are $ot compul#ory he r# at all. @he r re#pect !e leg t mate are(
a7 @he leg t me of the two 427 leg t mate ch ldre$ # o$e half 41S27 of the e#tate 4P500*000.007 to ,e d ! ded

the re#er!a # $ fa!or of relat !e# ,elo$g $g to the pater$al l $e a$d who are w th $ 3 degree# from the ch ld. @he
pare$t# of 0r* "u$a are e$t tled to the re#er!ed port o$

,etwee$ them e?ually* or P250*000.00 each. ,7 @he leg t mate of each lleg t mate ch ld # o$e> half
41S27 or the leg t me of each leg t mate ch ld

P125*000.00.

wh ch # 50 a# they are 2 degree# related from ch ld. @he

Page 47 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

c7

. $ce the total leg t me of the compul#ory he r# # P750*000.00* the ,ala$ce of P250*000.00 # the free
port o$.

leg t me of the leg t mate ch ldre$ a$d t follow# that the leg t me of o$e leg t mate ch ld # P100*000. @he leg t me*

Legitime; Comp%lsor" Aeirs vs. econ0ar" Comp%lsor"


Aeirs ('##9)

5m l* the te#tator* ha# three leg t mate ch ldre$* @om* He$ry a$d 2arl to3 a w fe $amed &dette3 pare$t# $amed Pepe a$d
P lar3 a$ lleg t mate ch ld* Jamo$3 ,rother* 0ar93 a$d a

therefore* of the olde#t #o$ # P100*000. Howe!er* # $ce the do$at o$ g !e$ h m wa# P100*000* he ha# already rece !ed $ full h # leg t me a$d he w ll $ot rece !e a$yth $g a$ymore from the decede$t. @he rema $ $g P900*000* therefore* #hall go to the four you$ger ch ldre$ ,y $#t tut o$ $ the w ll* to ,e d ! ded e?ually amo$g them. 5ach w ll rece !e P225*000.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

# #ter* 1a$ette. . $ce h # w fe &dette # well>off* he wa$t# to lea!e to h # lleg t mate ch ld a# much of h # e#tate a# he ca$ legally do. H # e#tate ha# a$ aggregate $et amou$t of Pl*200*000.00* a$d all the a,o!e>$amed relat !e# are #t ll
l ! $g. 5m l $ow come# to you for ad! ce $ ma9 $g a w ll. How w ll you d #tr ,ute h # e#tate accord $g to h # w #he# w thout ! olat $g the law o$ te#tame$tary #ucce## o$% 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&##um $g that the do$at o$ # !al d a# to form a$d #u,#ta$ce* <ua$ ca$$ot $!o9e preter t o$ ,ecau#e he actually had rece !ed a do$at o$ $ter ! !o# from the

te#tatr - 4+++ @ole$t $o 188*1992 ed.7. He would o$ly ha!e a r ght to a complet o$ of h # leg t me u$der &rt. 906 of the C ! l Code. @he e#tate #hould ,e d ! ded e?ually amo$g the f !e ch ldre$ who w ll each rece !e P225*000.00 ,ecau#e the
total hered tary e#tate* after collat $g the do$at o$ to <ua$ 4&rt. 1061* CC7* would ,e P1 m ll o$. +$ the actual d #tr ,ut o$ of the $et e#tate* <ua$ get# $oth $g wh le h#

P600*000.00 W leg t me to ,e d ! ded e?ually ,etwee$ @om* He$ry a$d 2arl to a# the leg t mate ch ldre$. 5ach w ll ,e
e$t tled to P200*000.00. 4&rt. 888* C ! l Code7 P100*000.00 > > #hare of Jamo$ the lleg t mate ch ld.

# ,l $g# w ll get P225*000.00 each.


4reterition; Comp%lsor" Aeir (1999)

5?u !ale$t to 1S2 of the #hare of each leg t mate ch ld. 4&rt.
176* Fam ly Code7

4a7 N

0r* Cru:* w dower* ha# three leg t mate ch ldre$* &*

P200*000.00 W &dette the w fe. Her #hare # e?u !ale$t to


the #hare of o$e leg t mate ch ld. 4&rt. 892* par. 2* C ! l Code7

Pepe a$d P lar* the pare$t# are o$ly #eco$dary compul#ory


he r# a$d they ca$$ot $her t f the pr mary compul#ory he r# 4leg t mate ch ldre$7 are al !e. 4&rt. 887* par. 2* C!l Code7

a$d C. He e-ecuted a 2 ll $#t tut $g a# h # he r# to h# e#tate of /$e 0 ll o$ 4P1*000*000.007 Pe#o# h # two ch ldre$ & a$d N* a$d h # fr e$d F. Lpo$ h # death* how #hould 0r. Cru:G# e#tate ,e d ! ded% 5-pla $. 43E7

4,7

+$ the preced $g ?ue#t o$* #uppo#e 0r. Cru:

$#t tuted h # two ch ldre$ & a$d N a# h # he r# $ h # 2 ll*


,ut ga!e a legacy of P 100*000.00 to h # fr e$d F. How #hould the e#tate of 0r* Cru: ,e d ! ded upo$ h # death%

Nrother 0ar9 a$d # #ter 1a$ette are $ot compul#ory he r# # $ce they are $ot $cluded $ the e$umerat o$ u$der &rt cle
887 of the C ! l Code.

5-pla $* 42E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4a7 &##um $g that the $#t tut o$ of &* N a$d F were to the
e$t re e#tate* there wa# preter t o$ of C # $ce C a #

@he rema $ $g ,ala$ce of P300*000.00 # the free port o$ wh ch ca$ ,e g !e$ to the lleg t mate ch ld Jamo$ a# a$ $#t tuted he r. 4&rt. 914* C ! l Code7 +f #o g !e$ ,y the

compul#ory he r $ the d rect l $e. @he preter t o$ w ll re#ult $ the total a$$ulme$t of the $#t tut o$ of he r#. @herefore* the $#t tut o$ of &* N a$d F w ll ,e #et a# de a$d 0r. Cu:G#

decede$t* Jamo$ would rece !e a total of P400*000.00. 4reterition ('##1) Necau#e her elde#t #o$ <ua$ had ,ee$ pe#ter $g her for cap tal to #tart a ,u# $e##* <o#efa ga!e h m P100*000. F !e

e#tate w ll ,e d ! ded* a# $ $te#tacy* e?ually amo$g &* N

a$d C a# follow#( & > P333*333.333 N > P333.333.333 a$d C> P333*333.33.
4,7 /$ the #ame a##umpt o$ a# letter 4a7* there wa# preter t o$ of C. @herefore* the $#t tut o$ of & a$d N # a$$ulled ,ut the legacy of P100.000.00 to F #hall ,e re#pected for $ot ,e $g $off c ou#. @herefore* the

year# later* <o#efa d ed* lea! $g a la#t w ll a$d te#tame$t $ wh ch #he $#t tuted o$ly her four you$ger ch ldre$ a# her #ole he r#. &t the t me of her death* her o$ly properly left
wa# P900*000.00 $ a ,a$9. <ua$ oppo#ed the w ll o$ the

rema $der of P900.000.00 w ll ,e d ! ded e?ually amo$g &*


N a$d C. 4rocee0ings; )ntestate 4rocee0ings; 7%ris0iction ('##!)

grou$d of preter t o$. How #hould <o#efaG# e#tate ,e d ! ded amo$g her he r#% .tate ,r efly the rea#o$4#7 for your a$#wer. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@here wa# $o preter t o$ of the olde#t #o$ ,ecau#e the


te#tatr - do$ated 100*000 pe#o# to h m. @h # do$at o$ #

co$# dered a$ ad!a$ce o$ the #o$G# $her ta$ce. @here ,e $g $o preter t o$* the $#t tut o$# $ the w ll #hall ,e re#pected ,ut the leg t me of the olde#t #o$ ha# to ,e completed f he
rece !ed le##.

+$ h # l fet me* a Pa9 #ta$ c t :e$* &H+"* marr ed three t me# u$der Pa9 #ta$ law. 2he$ he d ed a$ old w dower* he left ,eh $d # - ch ldre$* two # #ter#* three home#* a$d a$ e#tate worth at lea#t 30 m ll o$ pe#o# $ the Ph l pp $e#. He wa# ,or$ $ "ahore ,ut la#t re# ded $ Ce,u C ty* where he had a ma$# o$ a$d where two of h # you$ge#t ch ldre$ $ow
l !e a$d wor9. @wo of h # olde#t ch ldre$ are farmer# $

&fter collat $g the do$at o$ of P100.000 to the rema $ $g

property of P900*000* the e#tate of the te#tatr -

P1*000*000. /f th # amou$t* o$e>half or P500*000* # the

.ulu* wh le the two m ddle>aged ch ldre$ are employee# $ Iam,oa$ga C ty. F $d $g that the decea#ed left $o w ll* the you$ge#t #o$ wa$ted to f le $te#tate proceed $g# ,efore the Jeg o$al @r al Court of Ce,u C ty. @wo other # ,l $g#

Page 48 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

o,8ected* argu $g that t #hould ,e $ <olo ,efore a .har Oa court # $ce h # la$d# are $ .ulu. Nut &d lO# # #ter# $ Pa9 #ta$ wa$t the proceed $g# held $ "ahore ,efore a
Pa9 #ta$ court.

mother* $ fa!or of a$other # #ter* w th the r mother $ot

o$ly g ! $g her author ty thereto ,ut e!e$ # g$ $g #a d deed#* there # a !al d part t o$ $ter ! !o# ,etwee$ the
mother a$d her ch ldre$ wh ch ca$$ot ,e re!o9ed ,y the mother. .a d deed# of #ale are $ot co$tract# e$tered $to w th re#pect to future $her ta$ce.

2h ch court ha# 8ur #d ct o$ a$d # the proper !e$ue for the $te#tate proceed $g#% @he law of wh ch cou$try #hall
go!er$ #ucce## o$ to h # e#tate% 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

+$ #o far a# the propert e# of the decede$t located $ the

Ph l pp $e# are co$cer$ed* they are go!er$ed ,y Ph l pp $e law 4&rt cle 16* C ! l Code7. L$der Ph l pp $e law* the proper !e$ue for the #ettleme$t of the e#tate # the dom c le of the decede$t at the t me of h # death. . $ce the decede$t
la#t re# ded $ Ce,u C ty* that # the proper !e$ue for the $te#tate #ettleme$t of h # e#tate.

'+t would ,e u$8u#t for the mother to re!o9e the #ale# to a #o$ a$d to e-ecute a # mulated #ale $ fa!or of a daughter who already ,e$ef ted ,y the part t o$.' C. Be#* u$der &rt#. 51 a$d 52 of the 1ew Fam ly Code. +$ ca#e of legal #eparat o$* a$$ulme$t of marr age* declarat o$
of $ull ty of marr age a$d the automat c term $at o$ of a
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Howe!er* the #ucce## o$al r ght# to the e#tate of &H+" are go!er$ed ,y Pa9 #ta$ law* h # $at o$al law* u$der &rt cle 16 of the C ! l Code. %ccession; Deat&; 4res%mptive Legitime (1991) a7 ,7
c7

#u,#e?ue$t marr age ,y the reappeara$ce of the a,#e$t #pou#e* the commo$ or commu$ ty property of the #pou#e# #hall ,e d ##ol!ed a$d l ?u dated. &rt* 51. +$ #a d part t o$* the !alue of the pre#umpt !e leg t me# of all commo$ ch ldre$* computed a# of the date of the f $al 8udgme$t of the tr al court* #hall ,e del !ered $
ca#h* property or #ou$d #ecur t e#* u$le## the part e#* ,y

For purpo#e# of #ucce## o$* whe$ # death deemed to


occur or ta9e place%

0ay #ucce## o$ ,e co$ferred ,y co$tract# or act# $ter


! !o#% +llu#trate. +# there a$y law

mutual agreeme$t* 8ud c ally appro!ed* had already pro! ded for #uch matter#. @he ch ldre$ of the r guard a$* or the tru#tee of the r property* may a#9 for the e$forceme$t of the 8udgme$t. @he del !ery of the pre#umpt !e leg t me# here $ pre#cr ,ed #hall $ $o way pre8ud ce the ult mate #ucce## o$al r ght# of
the ch ldre$ accru $g upo$ the death of e ther or ,oth of

wh ch allow# the del !ery to compul#ory he r# of the r pre#umpt !e leg t me# dur $g
the l fet me of the r pare$t#% +f #o* $ what $#ta$ce#%

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&.

Heath a# a fact # deemed to occur whe$ t actually # pre#umed to ta9e place $ the

ta9e# place. Heath

c rcum#ta$ce# u$der &rt#. 390>391 of the C ! l Code. @he

t me of death # pre#umed to ,e at the e-p rat o$ of the 10> year per od a# pre#cr ,ed ,y &rt cle 390 a$d at the mome$t
of d #appeara$ce u$der &rt cle 391. N. L$der &rt. 84 of the Fam ly Code ame$d $g &rt 130 of

the pare$t#3 ,ut the !alue of the propert e# already rece !ed u$der the decree of a$$ulme$t or a,#olute $ull ty #hall ,e co$# dered a# ad!a$ce# o$ the r leg t me. &rt. 52. @he 8udgme$t of a$$ulme$t or of a,#olute $ull ty
of the marr age* the part t o$ a$d d #tr ,ut o$ of the

the C ! l Code* co$tractual #ucce## o$ # $o lo$ger po## ,le # $ce the law $ow re?u re# that do$at o$# of future property ,e go!er$ed ,y the pro! # o$# o$ the te#tame$tary #ucce## o$ a$d formal t e# of w ll#.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

propert e# of the #pou#e#* a$d the del !ery of the ch ldre$G#


pre#umpt !e leg t me# #hall ,e recorded $ the appropr ate

N. +$ the ca#e of Corona%o vs.CA(l91 SCRA81), t wa# ruled that $o property pa##e# u$der a w ll w thout t# ,e $g pro,ated* ,ut may u$der &rt cle 1058 of the C ! l Code of 1898* ,e #u#ta $ed a# a part t o$ ,y a$ act $ter ! !o#
[Many6<y vs. CA 144SCRA33).

c ! l reg #try a$d reg #tr e# of property3 otherw #e* the #ame #hall $ot affect th rd per#o$#. 8ills; Co0icil; )nstit%tion of Aeirs; %bstit%tion of Aeirs ('##') Ny ! rtue of a Cod c l appe$ded to h # w ll* @heodore

de! #ed to H ! $o a tract of #ugar la$d* w th the o,l gat o$


&$d $ the ca#e of C!ave@ vs, IAC 1191 SCRA$11), t wa# ruled that wh le the law proh , t# co$tract# upo$ future o$ the part of H ! $o or h # he r# to del !er to Net $a a #pec f ed !olume of #ugar per har!e#t dur $g Net $aO#

$her ta$ce* the part t o$ ,y the pare$t* a# pro! ded $ &rt. 1080 # a ca#e e-pre##ly author :ed ,y law. & per#o$ ha# two opt o$# $ ma9 $g a part t o$ of h # e#tate( e ther ,y a$ act $ter ! !o# or ,y w ll. +f the part t o$ # ,y w ll* t # mperat !e that #uch part t o$ mu#t ,e e-ecuted $ accorda$ce w th the pro! # o$# of the law o$ w ll#3 f ,y a$ act $ter ! !o#* #uch part t o$ may e!e$ ,e oral or wr tte$* a$d $eed $ot ,e $ the form of a w ll* pro! ded the leg t me # $ot pre8ud ced. '2here #e!eral # #ter# e-ecute deed# of #ale o!er the r 1 S6
u$d ! ded #hare of the parapher$al property of

l fet me. +t # al#o #tated $ the Cod c l that $ the e!e$t the
o,l gat o$ # $ot fulf lled* Net $a #hould mmed ately #e :e

the property from H ! $o or latterO# he r# a$d tur$ t o!er to


@heodoreO# compul#ory he r#. H ! $o fa led to fulf ll the

o,l gat o$ u$der the Cod c l. Net $a ,r $g# #u t aga $#t H ! $o for the re!er# o$ of the tract of la$d.
a7 H #t $gu #h ,etwee$ modal $#t tut o$ a$d #u,#tat o$ of he r#. 43E7 ,7 H #t $gu #h ,etwee$ # mple a$d f de comm ##ary

#u,#t tut o$ of he r#. 42E7


c7 Hoe# Net $a ha!e a cau#e of act o$ aga $#t H ! $o%

5-pla $ 45E7

the r

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Page 49 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

&. & 0/H&" +1.@+@L@+/1 # the $#t tut o$ of a$ he r made for a certa $ purpo#e or cau#e 4&rt#. 871 a$d 882* 1CC7. .LN.@+@L@+/1 # the appo $tme$t of
a$other he r #o that he may e$ter $to the $her ta$ce $ default of the he r or g $al ty $#t tuted. 4&rt. 857* 1CC7.

,. +$ the ca#e of a fore g$er* h # $at o$al law #hall go!er$ #u,#ta$t !e !al d ty whether he e-ecute# h # w ll $ the
Ph l pp $e# or $ a fore g$ cou$try.

N.

+$ a .+0P"5 .LN.@+@L@+/1 of he r#* the

te#tator de# g$ate# o$e or more per#o$# to #u,#t tute the

he r# $#t tuted $ ca#e #uch he r or he r# #hould d e ,efore h m* or #hould $ot w #h or #hould ,e $capac tated to
accept the $her ta$ce. +$ a F+H5+C/00+..&JB

.LN.@+@L@+/1* the te#tator $#t tute# a f r#t he r a$d charge# h m to pre#er!e a$d tra$#m t the whole or part of
the $her ta$ce to a #eco$d he r. +$ a # mple #u,#t tut o$* o$ly o$e he r $her t#. +$ a f de comm ##ary #u,#t tut o$* ,oth the f r#t a$d #eco$d he r# $her t. 4&rt. 859 a$d 869* 1CC7

8ills; Aolograp&ic 8ills; )nsertions & Cancellations (199-) 6a$e##a d ed o$ &pr l 14* 1980* lea! $g ,eh $d a holograph c w ll wh ch # e$t rely wr tte$* dated a$d # g$ed $ her ow$ ha$dwr t $g. Howe!er* t co$ta $# $#ert o$# a$d ca$cellat o$# wh ch are $ot authe$t cated ,y her # g$ature. For th # rea#o$* the pro,ate of 6a$e##aG# w ll wa# oppo#ed ,y her relat !e# who #tood to $her t ,y her $te#tacy.
0ay 6a$e##aG# holograph c w ll ,e pro,ated% 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Be#* the w ll a# or g $ally wr tte$ may ,e pro,ated. @he $#ert o$# a$d alterat o$# were !o d # $ce they were $ot authe$t cated ,y the full # g$ature of 6a$e##a* u$der &rt.

Net $a ha# a cau#e of act o$ aga $#t H ! $o. @h # # a ca#e of a te#tame$tary d #po# t o$ #u,8ect to a mode a$d the w ll t#elf pro! de# for the co$#e?ue$ce f the mode #
C.

814* 1CC. @he or g $al w ll* howe!er* rema $# !al d ,ecau#e a holograph c w ll # $ot $!al dated ,y the u$authe$t cated $#ert o$# or alterat o$# (A:ero v. CA, $36 SCRA 468].
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

$ot compl ed w th. @o e$force the mode* the w ll t#elf g !e# Net $a the r ght to compel the retur$ of the property to the he r# of @heodore. (Ra/a%"lla v. Cons+ol.ella, 334 SCRA 7$$
[$000] ;R 113($7, $9 -.ne $000).

+t depe$d#. &# a rule* a holograph c w ll # $ot ad!er#ely

affected ,y +$#ert o$# or ca$cellat o$# wh ch were $ot


authe$t cated ,y the full # g$ature of the te#tator (A:ero v. CA, $36 SCRA 468). Howe!er* whe$ the $#ert o$ or ca$cellat o$ amou$t# to re!ocat o$ of the w ll* &rt.814 of

8ills; ,ormalities (199#) 417 +f a w ll # e-ecuted ,y a te#tator who # a F l p $o c t :e$* what law w ll go!er$ f the w ll # e-ecuted $ the

Ph l pp $e#% 2hat law w ll go!er$ f the w ll # e-ecuted $


a$other cou$try% 5-pla $ your a$#wer#.

the 1CC doe# $ot apply ,ut &rt. 830. 1CC. &rt. 830 of the 1CC doe# $ot re?u re the te#tator to authe$t cate h # ca$cellat o$ for the effect ! ty of a re!ocat o$ effected through #uch ca$cellat o$ (Pala9 v. Relova, 13$ SCRA $3(). +$ the Ralaw ca#e* the or g $al holograph c w ll de# g$ated
o$ly o$e he r a# the o$ly #u,#ta$t al pro! # o$ wh ch wa# altered ,y #u,#t tut $g the or g $al he r w th a$other he r. He$ce* f the u$authe$t cated ca$cellat o$ amou$ted to a

427 +f a w ll # e-ecuted ,y a fore g$er* for $#ta$ce* a <apa$e#e* re# d $g $ the Ph l pp $e#* what law w ll go!er$ f
the w ll # e-ecuted $ the Ph l pp $e#% &$d what law w ll

go!er$ f the w ll # e-ecuted $ <apa$* or #ome other


cou$try* for $#ta$ce* the L...&.% 5-pla $ your a$#wer#.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

re!ocat o$ of the w ll* the w ll may $ot ,e pro,ated ,ecau#e t had already ,ee$ re!o9ed.
8ills; Aolograp&ic 8ills; 8itnesses (199!)

417 a. +f the te#tator who # a F l p $o c t :e$ e-ecute# h # w ll $ the Ph l pp $e#* Ph l pp $e law w ll go!er$ the

formal t e#.

/$ h # death,ed* 6 ce$te wa# e-ecut $g a w ll. +$ the room were Car ##a* Carmela* Comel o a$d &tty. C mpo* a $otary pu,l c. .udde$ly* there wa# a #treet ,rawl wh ch caught
Comel oG# atte$t o$* prompt $g h m to loo9 out the

,. +f #a d F l p $o te#tator e-ecute# h # w ll $ a$other


cou$try* the law of the cou$try where he may,e or

w $dow. Cor$el o d d $ot #ee 6 ce$te # g$ a w ll. +# the w ll !al d%


(+&&E($E# A'(WE"(:

Ph l pp $e law w ll go!er$ the formal t e#. 4&rt cle 815* C!l


CodeM

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

427 a. +f the te#tator # a fore g$er re# d $g $ the Ph l pp $e#


a$d he e-ecute# h # w ll $ the Ph l pp $e#* the law of the

a7 Be#* @he w ll # !al d. @he law doe# $ot re?u re a w t$e## to actually #ee the te#tator # g$ the w ll. +t # #uff c e$t f the w t$e## could ha!e #ee$ the act of # g$ $g had he cho#e$ to do #o ,y ca#t $g h # eye# to the proper d rect o$.
,7 Be#* the w ll # !al d. &pply $g the 'te#t of po# t o$'*

cou$try of wh ch he # a c t :e$ or Ph l pp $e law w ll


go!er$ the formal t e#.

although Comel o d d $ot actually #ee 6 ce$te # g$ the w ll*


,. +f the te#tator # a fore g$er a$d e-ecute# h # w ll $ a Cor$el o wa# $ the proper po# t o$ to #ee 6 ce$te # g$ f

fore g$ cou$try* the law of h # place of re# de$ce or the law


of the cou$try of wh ch he # a c t :e$ or the law of the place of e-ecut o$* or Ph l pp $e law w ll go!er$ the formal t e# 4&rt cle# 17. 816. 817. C ! l Code7.
P!((I-LE A##I$I!'AL A'(WE"(:

Cor$el o #o w #hed. 8ills; 7oint 8ills ('###) 0a$uel* a F l p $o* a$d h # &mer ca$ w fe 5lea$or* e-ecuted a <o $t 2 ll $ No#to$* 0a##achu#ett# whe$ they were

a. +$ the ca#e of a F l p $o c t :e$* Ph l pp $e law #hall go!er$ #u,#ta$t !e !al d ty whether he e-ecute# h # w ll $

re# d $g $ #a d c ty. @he law of 0a##achu#ett# allow# the e-ecut o$ of 8o $t w ll#. .hortly thereafter* 5lea$or d ed. Ca$ the #a d 2 ll ,e pro,ated $ the Ph l pp $e# for the

the Ph l pp $e# or $ a fore g$ cou$try.

#ettleme$t of her e#tate% 43E7

Page 50 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Be#* the w ll may ,e pro,ated $ the Ph l pp $e# $#ofar a# the e#tate of 5lea$or # co$cer$ed. 2h le the C ! l Code proh , t# the e-ecut o$ of <o $t w ll# here a$d a,road* #uch proh , t o$ appl e# o$ly to F l p $o#. He$ce* the 8o $t w ll wh ch # !al d where e-ecuted # !al d $ the Ph l pp $e# ,ut o$ly w th re#pect to 5lea$or. L$der &rt cle 819* t # !o d w th re#pect to 0a$uel who#e 8o $t w ll rema $# !o d $ the Ph l pp $e# de#p te ,e $g !al d where e-ecuted.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

co$ta $# o$ly o$e te#tame$tary d #po# t o$. +$ effect* the o$ly te#tame$tary d #po# t o$ u$der the w ll # the g ! $g of the free port o$ to =* # $ce leg t me# are pro! ded ,y law. He$ce* the tr al court may co$# der the $tr $# c !al d ty of

the pro! # o$# of #a d w ll. (0.,."% v. 0.,."%, etal.. 0o. 56


$3447, -.ne $3, 1966, 1( SCRAC 0e'o&.+eno v. CA, 566$97$, 9 <+to/er 1987. 139 SCRA $06).

@he w ll ca$$ot ,e pro,ated $ the Ph l pp $e#* e!e$ though !al d where e-ecuted* ,ecau#e t # proh , ted u$der &rt cle 818 of the C ! l Code a$d declared !o d u$der &rt cle 819* @he proh , t o$ #hould apply e!e$ to the &mer ca$ w fe ,ecau#e the <o $t w ll # offe$# !e to pu,l c pol cy. 0oreo!er* t # a # $gle 8ur d cal act wh ch ca$$ot ,e !al d a# to o$e te#tator a$d !o d a# to the other. 8ills; 4robate; )ntrinsic @ali0it" (199#)
H d ed lea! $g a la#t w ll a$d te#tame$t where $ t # #tated that he wa# legally marr ed to 2 ,y whom he had two leg t mate ch ldre$ & a$d N. H de! #ed to h # #a d forced he r# the e$t re e#tate e-cept the free port o$ wh ch he ga!e to = who wa# l ! $g w th h m at the t me of h # death.

+$ #a d w ll he e-pla $ed that he had ,ee$ e#tra$ged from h # w fe 2 for more tha$ 20 year# a$d he ha# ,ee$ l ! $g w th = a# ma$ a$d w fe # $ce h # #eparat o$ from h # leg t mate fam ly. +$ the pro,ate proceed $g#* = a#9ed for the ##ua$ce of letter# te#tame$tary $ accorda$ce w th the w ll where $ #he # $amed #ole e-ecutor. @h # wa# oppo#ed ,y 2 a$d her ch ldre$. 4a7 .hould the w ll ,e adm tted $ #a d pro,ate proceed $g#% 4,7 +# the #a d de! #e to = !al d% 4c7 2a# t proper for the tr al court to co$# der the $tr $# c !al d ty of the pro! # o$# of #a d w ll% 5-pla $ your a$#wer#*
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4a7 Be#* the w ll may ,e pro,ated f e-ecuted accord $g to the formal t e# pre#cr ,ed ,y law. 4,7 @he $#t tut o$ g ! $g = the free port o$ # $ot !al d* ,ecau#e the proh , t o$# u$der &rt. 739 of the C ! l Code o$ do$at o$# al#o apply to te#tame$tary d #po# t o$# 4&rt cle 1028* C ! l Code7* &mo$g do$at o$# wh ch are co$# dered !o d are tho#e made ,etwee$ per#o$# who were gu lty of adultery or co$cu, $age at the t me of the do$at o$.
4c7 &# a ge$eral rule* the w ll #hould ,e adm tted $ pro,ate proceed $g# f all the $ece##ary re?u reme$t# for t# e-tr $# c !al d ty ha!e ,ee$ met a$d the court #hould $ot co$# der the $tr $# c !al d ty of the pro! # o$# of #a d w ll. Howe!er* the e-cept o$ ar #e# whe$ the w ll $ effect

8ills; 4robate; .otarial an0 Aolograp&ic 8ills (1997)


<oh$$y* w th $o 9$ow$ l ! $g relat !e#* e-ecuted a $otar al w ll g ! $g all h # e#tate to h # #weetheart. /$e day* he had a #er ou# altercat o$ w th h # #weetheart. & few day# later* he wa# $troduced to a charm $g lady who later ,ecame a dear fr e$d. .oo$ after* he e-ecuted a holograph c w ll e-pre##ly re!o9 $g the $otar al w ll a$d #o de# g$at $g h # $ew fr e$d a# #ole he r. /$e day whe$ he wa# clear $g up h # de#9* <oh$$y m #ta9e$ly ,ur$ed* alo$g w th other paper#* the o$ly copy of h # holograph c w ll. H # ,u# $e## a##oc ate* 5duardo 9$ew well the co$te$t# of the w ll wh ch wa# #how$ to h m ,y <oh$$y the day t wa# e-ecuted. & few day# after the ,ur$ $g $c de$t* <oh$$y d ed. Noth w ll# were #ought to ,e pro,ated $ two #eparate pet t o$#.

0oreo!er* $ order that a w ll may ,e re!o9ed ,y a #u,#e?ue$t w ll* t # $ece##ary that the latter w ll ,e !al d a$d e-ecuted w th the formal t e# re?u red for the ma9 $g of a w ll. @he latter #hould po##e## all the re?u # te# of a !al d w ll whether t ,e ord $ary or a holograph c w ll* a$d #hould ,e pro,ated $ order that the re!ocatory clau#e thereof may produce effect. +$ the ca#e at ,ar* # $ce the holograph c w ll t#elf ca$$ot ,e pre#e$ted* t ca$$ot therefore ,e pro,ated. . $ce t ca$$ot ,e pro,ated* t ca$$ot re!o9e the $otar al w ll pre! ou#ly wr tte$ ,y the decede$t. 2. /$ the ,a# # of the Jule# of Court* Jule 76* .ec. 6* pro! de# that $o w ll #hall ,e pro!ed a# a lo#t or de#troyed w ll u$le## t# pro! # o$# are clearly a$d d #t $ctly pro!ed ,y at lea#t two 427 cred ,le w t$e##e#. He$ce* f we a, de #tr ctly ,y the two>w t$e## rule to pro!e a lo#t or de#troyed w ll* the holograph c w ll wh ch <oh$$y allegedly m #ta9e$ly ,ur$ed* ca$$ot ,e pro,ated* # $ce there # o$ly o$e w t$e##* 5duardo* who ca$ ,e called to te#t fy a# to the e- #te$ce of the w ll. +f the holograph c w ll* wh ch purportedly* re!o9ed the earl er $otar al w ll ca$$ot ,e pro!ed ,ecau#e of the a,#e$ce of the re?u red w t$e##* the$ the pet t o$ for the pro,ate of the $otar al w ll #hould pro#per.

2 ll e ther or ,oth pet t o$# pro#per%


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he pro,ate of the $otar al w ll w ll pro#per. @he holograph c w ll ca$$ot ,e adm tted to pro,ate ,ecau#e a holograph c w ll ca$ o$ly ,e pro,ated upo$ e! de$ce of the w ll t#elf u$le## there # a photograph c copy. Nut # $ce the holograph c w ll wa# lo#t a$d there wa# $o other copy* t ca$$ot ,e pro,ated a$d therefore the $otar al w ll w ll ,e adm tted to pro,ate ,ecau#e there # $o re!o9 $g w ll.
A##I$I!'AL A'(WE"(:

1. +$ the ca#e of ;an vs. ?a' (104 !"l 709), the e-ecut o$ a$d the co$te$t# of a lo#t or de#troyed holograph c w ll may $ot ,e pro!ed ,y the ,are te#t mo$y of w t$e##e# who ha!e #ee$ or read #uch w ll. @he w ll t#elf mu#t ,e pre#e$ted otherw #e t #hall produce $o effect. @he law regard# the docume$t t#elf a# mater al proof of authe$t c ty.

8ills; 1evocation of 8ills; Depen0ent 1elative 1evocation ('##()


0r. Jeye# e-ecuted a w ll completely !al d a# to form. & wee9 later* howe!er* he e-ecuted a$other w ll wh ch e-pre##ly re!o9ed h # f r#t w ll* wh ch he tore h # f r#t w ll to p ece#. Lpo$ the death of 0r. Jeye#* h # #eco$d w ll wa# pre#e$ted for pro,ate ,y h # he r#* ,ut t wa# de$ ed pro,ate

Page 51 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

due to formal defect#. &##um $g that a copy of the f r#t w ll


# a!a la,le* may t $ow ,e adm tted to pro,ate a$d g !e$ effect% 2hy%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

e-cluded ,y a leg t mate #o$ of the decede$t ;&rt. 887* 1ew C ! l CodeA. @h # follow# the pr $c ple that the de#ce$da$t# e-clude the a#ce$da$t# from $her ta$ce.
8ills; =estamentar" )ntent (199-) &lfo$#o* a ,achelor w thout a$y de#ce$da$t or a#ce$da$t*

Be#* the f r#t w ll may ,e adm tted to pro,ate a$d g !e$ effect. 2he$ the te#tator tore f r#t w ll* he wa# u$der the

m #ta9e$ ,el ef that the #eco$d w ll wa# perfectly !al d a$d

he would $ot ha!e de#troyed the f r#t w ll had he 9$ow$ that the #eco$d w ll # $ot !al d. @he re!ocat o$ ,y de#truct o$ therefore # depe$de$t o$ the !al d ty of the #eco$d w ll. . $ce t tur$ed out that the #eco$d w ll wa# $!al d* the tear $g of the f r#t w ll d d $ot produce the

wrote a la#t w ll a$d te#tame$t $ wh ch he de! #ed.' all the propert e# of wh ch + may ,e po##e##ed at the t me of my death' to h # fa!or te ,rother 0a$uel. &t the t me he wrote the w ll* he ow$ed o$ly o$e parcel of la$d. Nut ,y the t me
he d ed* he ow$ed twe$ty parcel# of la$d. H # other

effect of re!ocat o$. @h # # 9$ow$ a# the doctr $e of


depe$de$t relat !e re!ocat o$ (Molo v. Molo, 90 !"l 3(.)
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE"(:

1o* the f r#t w ll ca$$ot ,e adm tted to pro,ate. 2h le t # true that the f r#t w ll wa# #ucce##fully re!o9ed ,y the
#eco$d w ll ,ecau#e the #eco$d w ll wa# later de$ ed pro,ate* the f r#t w ll wa#* $e!erthele##* re!o9ed whe$ the

,rother# a$d # #ter# $# #t that h # w ll #hould pa## o$ly the parcel of la$d he ow$ed at the t me t wa# wr tte$* a$d d d $ot co!er h # propert e# ac?u red* wh ch #hould ,e ,y
$te#tate #ucce## o$. 0a$uel cla m# otherw #e.

2ho # correct% 5-pla $.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

te#tator de#troyed t after e-ecut $g the #eco$d $!al d w ll.


(F"a@ v. Fe 5eon, 43 !"l 413 [19$$]).

0a$uel # correct ,ecau#e u$der &rt. 793* 1CC* property ac?u red after the ma9 $g of a w ll #hall o$ly pa## there,y* a# f the te#tator had po##e##ed t at the t me of ma9 $g the

8ills; =estamentar" Disposition ('##-)

Ho$ d ed after e-ecut $g a "a#t 2 ll a$d @e#tame$t lea! $g


h # e#tate !alued at P12 0 ll o$ to h # commo$>law w fe

w ll* #hould t e-pre##ly appear ,y the w ll that #uch wa# h# $te$t o$. . $ce &lfo$#oG# $te$t o$ to de! #e all propert e# he ow$ed at the t me of h # death e-pre##ly appear# o$ the
w ll* the$ all the 20 parcel# of la$d are $cluded $ the

Jo#helle. He # #ur! !ed ,y h # ,rother Jo$ e a$d h # half>


# #ter 0 chelle.
(1) )as FonDs testa&entary %"s'os"t"on o* !"s estate "n a++or%an+e 9"t! t!e la9 on s.++ess"on1 )!et!er yo. a,ree
or not, e3'la"n yo.r ans9er. 23'la"n.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

de! #e.

#!'A$I!'
Donation vs. ale ('##()
a7 to 0ay a per#o$ #ell #ometh $g that doe# $ot ,elo$g

Be#* Ho$G# te#tame$tary d #po# t o$

of h # e#tate # $ accorda$ce w th the law o$ #ucce## o$. Ho$ ha# $o compul#ory he r# $ot ha! $g a#ce$da$t#*

de#ce$da$t# $or a #pou#e ;&rt. 887* 1ew C ! l CodeA. Nrother# a$d # #ter# are $ot compul#ory he r#. @hu#* he ca$
,e?ueath h # e$t re e#tate to a$yo$e who # $ot otherw #e $capac tated to $her t from h m. & commo$>law w fe # $ot $capac tated u$der the law* a# Ho$ # $ot marr ed to

,7 4a7

h m% 5-pla $. 0ay a per#o$ do$ate #ometh $g that doe# $ot ,elo$g to h m% 5-pla $. 5E Be#* a per#o$ may #ell #ometh $g wh ch doe# $ot

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

,elo$g to h m. For the #ale to ,e !al d* the law doe# $ot

a$yo$e.
($) I* Fon *a"le% to e3e+.te a 9"ll %.r"n, !"s l"*et"&e, as !"s
la9yer, !o9 9"ll yo. %"str"/.te !"s estate1 23'la"n. ($.74)

re?u re the #eller to ,e the ow$er of the property at the t me of the #ale. 4&rt cle 1434* 1CC7. +f the #eller ca$$ot tra$#fer ow$er#h p o!er the th $g #old at the t me of del !ery ,ecau#e he wa# $ot the ow$er thereof* he #hall ,e l a,le for
,reach of co$tact.

&fter pay $g the legal o,l gat o$# of the e#tate* + w ll g !e Jo$ e* a# full>,lood ,rother of Ho$*
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4,7

&# a ge$eral rule* a per#o$ ca$$ot do$ate

2S3 of the $et e#tate* tw ce the #hare of 0 chelle* the half> # #ter who #hall rece !e 1S3. Jo#helle w ll $ot rece !e
a$yth $g a# #he # $ot a legal he r ;&rt. 1006 1ew C ! l CodeA.

#ometh $g wh ch he ca$$ot d #po#e of at the t me of the

do$at o$ 4&rt cle 751* 1ew C ! l Code7.


Donations; Con0ition; Capacit" to %e (199-) .omet me $ 1955* @oma# do$ated a parcel of la$d to h#

(3)

Ass.&"n, !e %"e% "ntestate s.rv"ve% /y !"s /rot!er

#tepdaughter +re$e* #u,8ect to the co$d t o$ that #he may

Ron"e, !"s !al*6s"ster M"+!elle, an% !"s le,"t"&ate son -ayson,


!o9 9"ll yo. %"str"/.te !"s estate1 23'la"n. ($.74)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

<ay#o$ w ll ,e e$t tled to the e$t re

P12 0 ll o$ a# the ,rother a$d # #ter w ll ,e e-cluded ,y a leg t mate #o$ of the decede$t. @h # follow# the pr $c ple of
pro- m ty* where 'the $earer e-clude# the farther.'

$ot #ell* tra$#fer or cede the #ame for twe$ty year#. .hortly thereafter* he d ed. +$ 1965* ,ecau#e #he $eeded mo$ey for med cal e-pe$#e#* +re$e #old the la$d to Co$rado. @he follow $g year* +re$e d ed* lea! $g a# her #ole he r a #o$ ,y

the $ame of &rma$do. 2he$ &rma$do lear$ed that the

la$d wh ch he e-pected to $her t had ,ee$ #old ,y +re$e to Co$rado* he f led a$ act o$ aga $#t the latter for a$$ulme$t
of the #ale* o$ the grou$d that t ! olated the re#tr ct o$

(4) Ass.&"n, *.rt!er !e %"e% "ntestate, s.rv"ve% /y !"s *at!er -.an, !"s /rot!er Ron"e, !"s !al*6s"ster M"+!elle, an% !"s le,"t"&ate son -ayson, !o9 9"ll yo. %"str"/.te !"s estate1
23'la"n. ($.74)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

<ay#o$ w ll #t ll ,e e$t tled to the

e$t re P12 0 ll o$ a# the father* ,rother a$d # #ter w ll ,e

mpo#ed ,y @oma#. Co$rado f led a mot o$ to d #m ##* o$ the grou$d that &rma$do d d $ot ha!e the legal capac ty to #ue. +f you were the <udge* how w ll you rule o$ th # mot o$ to d #m ##% 5-pla $.

Page 52 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

(FG .s. CA. 96 SCRA 34$ an% ot!er +ases) (Teves vs. AAC, $3 SCRA 1141).

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&# 8udge* + w ll gra$t the mot o$ to d #m ##. &rma$do ha# $o per#o$al ty to ,r $g the act o$ for a$$ulme$t of the #ale to Co$rado. /$ly a$ aggr e!ed party to the co$tract may ,r $g the act o$ for a$$ulme$t thereof 4&rt. 1397. 1CC7. 2h le &rma$do # he r a$d #ucce##or> $> $tere#t of h # mother 4&rt. 1311* 1CC7* he ;#ta$d $g $ place of h # mother7 ha# $o per#o$al ty to a$$ul the co$tract. Noth are $ot aggr e!ed part e# o$ accou$t of the r ow$ ! olat o$ of the co$d t o$ of* or re#tr ct o$ o$* the r ow$er#h p mpo#ed ,y the do$at o$. /$ly the do$or or h # he r# would ha!e the per#o$al ty to ,r $g a$ act o$ to re!o9e a do$at o$ for ! olat o$ of a co$d t o$ thereof or a re#tr ct o$ thereo$. (;arr"%o .. CA, $36 SCRA 470). Co$#e?ue$tly* wh le the do$or or h # he r# were $ot part e# to the #ale* they ha!e the r ght to a$$ul the co$tract of #ale ,ecau#e the r r ght# are pre8ud ced ,y o$e of the co$tract $g part e# thereof [FG
v. CA, 96 SCRA 34$C Teves vs. AAC. $3 SCRA 114].

ha# $o per#o$al ty to ,r $g the act o$ for a$$ulme$t.


AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

&# 8udge* + w ll gra$t the mot o$ to d #m ##. Compl a$ce w th a co$d t o$ mpo#ed ,y a do$or g !e# r #e to a$ act o$ to re!o9e the do$at o$ u$der &rt. 764* 1CC. Howe!er* the r ght of act o$ ,elo$g# to the do$or. +# tra$#m ## ,le to h # he r#* a$d may ,e e-erc #ed aga $#t the do$eeG# he r#. . $ce &rma$do # a$ he r of the do$ee* $ot of the do$or* he ha# $o legal capac ty to #ue for re!ocat o$ of the do$at o$. &lthough he # $ot #ee9 $g #uch re!ocat o$ ,ut a$ a$$ulme$t of the #ale wh ch h # mother* the do$ee* had e-ecuted $ ! olat o$ of the co$d t o$ mpo#ed ,y the do$or* a$ act o$ for a$$ulme$t of a co$tract may ,e ,rought o$ly ,y tho#e who are pr $c pally or #u,# d ar ly o,l ged there,y 4&rt. 1397* 1CC7. &# a$ e-cept o$ to the rule* t ha# ,ee$ held that a per#o$ $ot #o o,l ged may $e!erthele## a#9 for a$$ulme$t f he # pre8ud ced $ h #

. $ce &rma$do # $e ther the do$or $or he r of the do$or* he

r ght# regard $g o$e of the co$tract $g part e# a$d ca$ #how the detr me$t

wh ch would re#ult to h m from the co$tract $ wh ch he

had $o $ter!e$t o$*

property to Ferd $a$d who the$ #ued to reco!er the la$d from the c ty go!er$me$t. 2 ll the #u t pro#per%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

.uch detr me$t or pre8ud ce ca$$ot ,e #how$ ,y &rma$do. &# a forced he r* &rma$doG# $tere#t $ the property wa#* at ,e#t* a mere e-pecta$cy. @he #ale of the la$d ,y h # mother d d $ot mpa r a$y !e#ted r ght. @he fact rema $# that the premature #ale made ,y h # mother 4premature ,ecau#e o$ly half of the per od of the ,a$ had elap#ed7 wa# $ot !o da,le at all* $o$e of the ! ce# of co$#e$t u$der &rt. 139 of the 1CC ,e $g pre#e$t. He$ce* the mot o$ to d #m ## #hould ,e gra$ted. Donations; Con0itions; 1evocation (1991)
.pou#e# 0 chael a$d " $da do$ated a 3>hectare re# de$t al la$d to the C ty of Nagu o o$ the co$d t o$ that the c ty go!er$me$t would ,u ld thereo$ a pu,l c par9 w th a ,o- $g are$a* the co$#truct o$ of wh ch #hall comme$ce w th $ # - 467 mo$th# from the date the part e# rat fy the do$at o$. @he do$ee accepted the do$at o$ a$d the t tle to the property wa# tra$#ferred $ t# $ame. F !e year# elap#ed ,ut the pu,l c par9 w th the ,o- $g are$a wa# $e!er #tarted. Co$# der $g the fa lure of the do$ee to comply w th the co$d t o$ of the do$at o$* the do$or>#pou#e# #old the

Ferd $a$d ha# $o r ght to reco!er the la$d. +t # true that the do$at o$ wa# re!oca,le ,ecau#e of ,reach of the co$d t o$#. Nut u$t l a$d u$le## the do$at o$ wa# re!o9ed* t rema $ed !al d. He$ce* .pou#e# 0 chael a$d " $da had $o r ght to #ell the la$d to Ferd $a$d. /$e ca$$ot g !e what he doe# $ot ha!e. 2hat the do$or# #hould ha!e do$e f r#t wa# to ha!e the do$at o$ a$$ulled or re!o9ed. &$d after that wa# do$e* they could !al dly ha!e d #po#ed of the la$d $ fa!or of Ferd $a$d.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

&. L$t l the co$tract of do$at o$ ha# ,ee$ re#ol!ed or re#c $ded u$der &rt cle 1191 of the C ! l Code or re!o9ed u$der &rt. 764 of the C ! l Code* the do$at o$ #ta$d# effect !e a$d !al d. &ccord $gly* the #ale made ,y the do$or to Ferd $a$d ca$$ot ,e #a d to ha!e co$!eyed t tle to Ferd $a$d* who* there,y* ha# $o cau#e of act o$ for reco!ery of the la$d act $g for a$d $ h # ,ehalf.

N. @he do$at o$ # o$erou#* &$d ,e $g o$erou#* what appl e# # the law o$ co$tract#* a$d $ot the law o$ do$at o$ 4He "u$a u#. &,r go* 81 .CJ& 1507. &ccord $gly* the pre#cr pt !e per od for the f l $g of #uch a$ act o$ would ,e the ord $ary pre#cr pt !e per od for co$tact# wh ch may e ther ,e # - or te$ depe$d $g upo$ whether t # !er,al or wr tte$. @he f l $g of the ca#e f !e year# later # w th $ the pre#cr pt !e per od a$d* therefore* the act o$ ca$ pro#per*
Alternati1e Answer:

@he law o$ do$at o$ lay# dow$ a #pec al pre#cr pt !e per od $ the ca#e of ,reach of co$d t o$* wh ch # four year# from $o$>compl a$ce thereof 4&rt cle 764 C ! l Code7. . $ce the act o$ ha# pre#cr ,ed* the #u t w ll $ot pro#per* Donations; Effect; illegal & immoral con0itions (1997) &re the effect# of llegal a$d mmoral co$d t o$# o$ # mple do$at o$# the #ame a# tho#e effect# that would follow whe$ #uch co$d t o$# are mpo#ed o$ do$at o$# co$ cau#a o$ero#a%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1o* they do$Gt ha!e the #ame effect. +llegal or mpo## ,le co$d t o$# $ # mple a$d remu$eratory do$at o$# #hall ,e co$# dered a# $ot mpo#ed. He$ce the do$at o$ # !al d. @he do$at o$ w ll ,e co$# dered a# # mple or pure. @he co$d t o$ or mode # merely a$ acce##ory d #po# t o$* a$d t# $ull ty doe# $ot affect the do$at o$* u$le## t clearly appear# that the do$or would $ot ha!e made the do$at o$ w thout the mode or co$d t o$.
Ho$at o$# co$ cau#a o$ero#a # go!er$ed ,y law o$ o,l gat o$# a$d co$tract#* u$der wh ch a$ mpo## ,le or +ll c t co$d t o$ a$$ul# the o,l gat o$ depe$de$t upo$ the co$d t o$ where the co$d t o$ # po# t !e a$d #u#pe$# !e. +f the mpo## ,le or ll c t co$d t o$ # $egat !e* t # # mply co$# dered a# $ot wr tte$* a$d the o,l gat o$ # co$!erted $to a pure a$d # mple o$e. Howe!er* $ order that a$ llegal co$d t o$ may a$$ul a co$tract* the mpo## , l ty

mu#t e- #t at the t me of the creat o$ of the o,l gat o$3 a #uper!e$ $g mpo## , l ty doe# $ot affect the e- #te$ce of the o,l gat o$.
A##I$I!'AL A'(WE":

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CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

1o. +$ # mple or pure do$at o$* o$ly the

llegal or

rre!oca,le* the latter # re!oca,le. +$ the pro,lem g !e$* all


the clau#e# or co$d t o$# me$t o$ed $ the deed of do$at o$* e-cept o$e* are co$# #te$t w th the rule of rre!oca, l ty a$d would ha!e #u#ta $ed the ! ew that the do$at o$ # $ter ! !o# a$d therefore !al d. @he lo$e

mpo## ,le co$d t o$ # co$# dered $ot wr tte$ ,ut the do$at o$ rema $# !al d a$d ,ecome# free from co$d t o$#. @he co$d t o$ or mode ,e $g a mere acce##ory d #po# t o$. +t# $ull ty doe# $ot affect the do$at o$ u$le## t clearly appear# that the do$or would $ot ha!e made the do$at o$ w thout the mode or co$d t o$. /$ the other ha$d* o$erou# do$at o$ # go!er$ed ,y the rule# o$ co$tract#. L$der &rt cle 1183* +mpo## ,le or llegal co$d t o$# #hall a$$ul the o,l gat o$ wh ch depe$d# upo$ them. +$ the#e ca#e#* ,oth
the o,l gat o$ a$d the co$d t o$ are !o d. Donations; ,ormalities; *ortis Ca%sa (199#)

e-cept o$ # the clau#e wh ch re#er!e# the do$orG# r ght to #ell the property at a$y t me ,efore h # death. .uch a re#er!at o$ ha# ,ee$ held to re$der the do$at o$ re!oca,le a$d* therefore* ,ecome# a do$at o$ mort # cau#a ( .",
vs. enN*lor"%a, 17 SCRA $(6, at '. $86). @hat the r ght wa# $ot

N do$ated to 0 a parcel of la$d $ 1980. N made the deed


of do$at o$* e$t tled CHo$at o$ +$ter 6 !o#*D $ a pu,l c

e-erc #ed # mmater al3 t# re#er!at o$ wa# a$ mpl ed recog$ t o$ of the do$orG# power to $ull fy the do$at o$ a$yt me he w #hed to do #o. Co$#e?ue$tly* t #hould ha!e ,ee$ em,od ed $ a la#t w ll a$d te#tame$t. @he #u t for

$ull ty w ll thu# pro#per. Donations; )nter @ivos; 2cceptance (199() /$ <a$uary 21* 1986* & e-ecuted a deed of do$at o$ $ter
! !o# of a parcel of la$d to Hr. N who had earl er co$#tructed thereo$ a ,u ld $g $ wh ch re#earche# o$ the

$#trume$t a$d 0 accepted the do$at o$ $ the #ame docume$t. +t wa# pro! ded $ the deed that the la$d
do$ated #hall ,e mmed ately del !ered to 0 a$d that 0

#hall ha!e the r ght to e$8oy the fru t# fully. @he deed al#o
pro! ded that N wa# re#er! $g the r ght to d #po#e of #a d

la$d dur $g h # 4NO#7 l fet me* a$d that 0 #hall $ot reg #ter the deed of do$at o$ u$t l after NO# death. Lpo$ NO# death* 2* NO# w dow a$d #ole he r* f led a$ act o$ for the reco!ery of the do$ated la$d* co$te$d $g that the do$at o$ made ,y N # a do$at o$ mort # cau#a a$d $ot a do$at o$ $ter ! !o#.
2 ll #a d act o$ pro#per% 5-pla $ your a$#wer.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

dreaded d #ea#e &+H. were ,e $g co$ducted. @he deed* ac9$owledged ,efore a $otary pu,l c* wa# ha$ded o!er ,y & to Hr. N who rece !ed t. & few day# after* & flew to Ha!ao
C ty. L$fortu$ately* the a rpla$e he wa# r d $g cra#hed o$

la$d $g 9 ll $g h m. @wo day# after the u$fortu$ate acc de$t. Hr. N* upo$ ad! ce of a lawyer* e-ecuted a deed
ac9$owledged

Be#* the act o$ w ll pro#per. @he do$at o$ # a do$at o$

mort # cau#a ,ecau#e the re#er!at o$ # to d #po#e of all the property do$ated a$d* therefore* the do$at o$ # re!oca,le
at w ll. &ccord $gly* the do$at o$ re?u re# the e-ecut o$ of a

do$at o$. +# the do$at o$ effect !e% 5-pla $ your a$#wer.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

,efore a $otary

pu,l c accept $g

the

!al d w ll* e ther $otar al or holograph c 4&rt# 755* 728


1CC7.

1o* the do$at o$ # $ot effect !e. @he law re?u re# that the #eparate accepta$ce of the do$ee of a$ mmo!a,le mu#t ,e do$e $ a pu,l c docume$t dur $g the l fet me of the do$or
4&rt. 746 X 749* C ! l Code7 +$ th # ca#e* N e-ecuted the deed of accepta$ce ,efore a $otary pu,l c after the do$or had already d ed.

Donations; ,ormalities; *ortis Ca%sa (1993)

5r$e#to do$ated $ a pu,l c $#trume$t a parcel of la$d to Hemetr o* who accepted t $ the #ame docume$t. +t # there declared that the do$at o$ #hall ta9e effect mmed ately*
w th the do$ee ha! $g the r ght to ta9e po##e## o$ of the la$d a$d rece !e t# fru t# ,ut $ot to d #po#e of the la$d

Donations; 4erfection (1993)


/$ <uly 27* 1997* Pedro ma led $ 0a$ la a letter to h#

wh le 5r$e#to # al !e a# well a# for te$ year# follow $g h # death. 0oreo!er* 5r$e#to al#o re#er!ed $ the #ame deed h # r ght to #ell the property #hould he dec de to d #po#e of t at

,rother* <o#e* a re# de$t of +lollo C ty* offer $g to do$ate a ! $tage #port# car wh ch the latter had lo$g ,ee$ wa$t $g to ,uy from the former. /$ &ugu#t 5* 1997* <o#e called Pedro
,y cellular pho$e to tha$9 h m for h # ge$ero# ty a$d

to

a$y t me > a r ght wh ch he d d $ot e-erc #e at all. &fter h # death* 5r$e#toG# he r# #ea#o$a,ly ,rought a$ act o$ to reco!er the property* alleg $g that the do$at o$ wa# !o d a# t d d $ot comply w th the formal t e# of a w ll. 2 ll the #u t
pro#per% ;5EA
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

$form h m that he wa# #e$d $g ,y ma l h # letter of accepta$ce. Pedro $e!er rece !ed that letter ,ecau#e t wa#
$e!er ma led. /$ &ugu#t 14* 1997* Pedro rece !ed a

telegram from +lo lo $form $g h m that <o#e had ,ee$


9 lled $ a road acc de$t the day ,efore 4&ugu#t 13* 19977

Be#* the #u t w ll pro#per a# the do$at o$ d d $ot comply

w th the formal t e# of a w ll. +$ th # $#ta$ce* the fact that the do$or d d $ot $te$d to tra$#fer ow$er#h p or
po##e## o$ of the do$ated property to the do$ee u$t l the

1. +# there a perfected do$at o$% ;2EA 2. 2 ll your a$#wer ,e the #ame f <o#e d d ma l h#
accepta$ce letter ,ut t wa# rece !ed ,y Pedro $ 0a$ la

day# after <o#eG# death% ;3EA


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

do$orG# death* would re#ult $ a do$at o$ mort # cau#a a$d $ th # 9 $d of d #po# t o$* the formal t e# of a w ll #hould ,e compl ed w th* otherw #e* the do$at o$ # !o d. +$ th # +$#ta$ce* do$at o$ mort # cau#a em,od ed o$ly $ a pu,l c $#trume$t w thout the formal t e# of a w ll could $ot ha!e
tra$#ferred ow$er#h p of d #puted property to a$other.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

1. 1o$e. @here # $o perfected do$at o$. L$der &rt cle 748 of the C ! l Code* the do$at o$ of a mo!a,le may ,e made
orally or $ wr t $g. +f the !alue of the per#o$al property

do$ated e-ceed# f !e thou#a$d pe#o#* the do$at o$ a$d the accepta$ce #hall ,e made $ wr t $g. &##um $g that the
!alue of the th $g do$ated* a ! $tage #port# car* e-ceed#

/$e of the e##e$t al d #t $ct o$# ,etwee$ a do$at o$ $ter

P5*000.00 the$ the do$at o$ a$d the accepta$ce mu#t ,e $ wr t $g. +$ th # $#ta$ce* the accepta$ce of <o#e wa# $ot $
wr t $g* therefore* the do$at o$ # !o d. Lpo$ the other

! !o# a$d a do$at o$ mort # cau#a # that wh le the former #

Page 54 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

ha$d* a##um $g that the #port# car co#t# le## tha$ P5*000.00
the$ the do$at o$ may,e oral* ,ut #t ll* the # multa$eou# del !ery of the car # $eeded a$d there ,e $g $o$e* the do$at o$ wa# $e!er perfected.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Code wh ch re?u re# the do$at o$ a$d the accepta$ce thereof to ,e $ a pu,l c $#trume$t $ order to ,e !al d. @he accepta$ce $ot ,e $g $ a pu,l c $#trume$t* the part

wh ch # $ot o$erou# # !o d a$d Jo#a may reco!er t from &ma$da.


Donations; /nregistere0; Effects; .on?Compliance;

2. Be#* the a$#wer # the #ame. +f <o#eG# ma l co$ta $ $g h # accepta$ce of the do$at o$ wa# rece !ed ,y Pedro after the formerG# death* the$ the do$at o$ # #t ll !o d ,ecau#e u$der &rt cle 734 of the C ! l Code* the do$at o$ # perfected the mome$t the do$or 9$ow# of the accepta$ce ,y the do$ee. @he death of <o#e ,efore Pedro could rece !e the accepta$ce $d cate# that the do$at o$ wa# $e!er perfected. L$der &rt cle 746 accepta$ce mu#t ,e made dur $g the
l fet me of ,oth the do$or a$d the do$ee. Donations; 1e$%isites; )mmovable 4ropert" &$a#tac a purcha#ed a hou#e a$d lot o$ $#tallme$t# at a

1esol%tor" Con0ition ('##-)


.pou#e# &lfredo a$d Jac?uel were act !e mem,er# of a rel g ou# co$gregat o$. @hey do$ated a parcel of la$d $

fa!or of that co$gregat o$ $ a duly $otar :ed Heed of


Ho$at o$* #u,8ect to the co$d t o$ that the 0 $ #ter #hall

co$#truct thereo$ a place of wor#h p w th $ 1 year from the accepta$ce of the do$at o$. +$ a$ aff da! t he e-ecuted o$
,ehalf of the co$gregat o$* the 0 $ #ter accepted the do$at o$. @he Heed of Ho$at o$ wa# $ot reg #tered w th

the Jeg #try of Heed#.


Howe!er* $#tead of co$#truct $g a place of wor#h p* the

hou# $g pro8ect $ Pue:o$ C ty. .u,#e?ue$tly* #he wa# employed $ Cal for$ a a$d a year later* #he e-ecuted a deed of do$at o$* duly authe$t cated ,y the Ph l pp $e Co$#ulate
$ "o# &$gele#* Cal for$ a* do$at $g the hou#e a$d lot to

0 $ #ter co$#tructed a ,u$galow o$ the property he u#ed a#


h # re# de$ce. H #appo $ted w th the 0 $ #ter* the #pou#e#

her fr e$d &ma$da. @he latter ,rought the deed of do$at o$


to the ow$er of the pro8ect a$d d #co!ered that &$a#tac a

re!o9ed the do$at o$ a$d dema$ded that he !acate the prem #e# mmed ately. Nut the 0 $ #ter refu#ed to lea!e*
cla m $g that a# de from u# $g the ,u$galow a# h # re# de$ce* he # al#o u# $g t a# a place for wor#h p o$

left u$pa d $#tallme$t# a$d real e#tate ta-e#. &ma$da pa d the#e #o that the do$at o$ $ her fa!or ca$ ,e reg #tered $ the pro8ect ow$erG# off ce. @wo mo$th# later* &$a#tac a d ed* lea! $g her mother Jo#a a# her #ole he r. Jo#a f led a$
act o$ to a$$ul the do$at o$ o$ the grou$d that &ma$da d d $ot g !e her co$#e$t $ the deed of do$at o$ or $ a

#eparate pu,l c $#trume$t. &ma$da repl ed that the do$at o$ wa# a$ o$erou# o$e ,ecau#e #he had to pay u$pa d $#tallme$t# a$d ta-e#3 he$ce her accepta$ce may ,e mpl ed. 2ho # correct% 42E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

#pec al occa# o$#. L$der the c rcum#ta$ce#* ca$ Al*re%o an% Ra+N.el ev"+t t!e M"n"ster an% re+over 'ossess"on o* t!e 'ro'erty1 I* yo. 9ere t!e +o.'leDs +o.nsel, 9!at a+t"on yo. taEe to 'rote+t t!e "nterest o* yo.r +l"ents1 (74)
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

Be#* &lfredo a$d Jac?uel ca$ ,r $g a$ act o$ for e8ectme$t aga $#t the 0 $ #ter for reco!ery of po##e## o$ of the
property e! ct the 0 $ #ter a$d reco!er po##e## o$ of the property. &$ act o$ for a$$ulme$t of the do$at o$* reco$!eya$ce a$d damage# #hould ,e f led to protect the

Jo#a # correct ,ecau#e the do$at o$ # !o d. @he property do$ated wa# a$ mmo!a,le. For #uch do$at o$ to ,e !al d* &rt cle 749 of the 1ew C ! l Code re?u re# ,oth the
do$at o$ a$d the accepta$ce to ,e $ a pu,l c $#trume$t.

$tere#t# of my cl e$t. @he do$at o$ # a$ o$erou# do$at o$


a$d therefore #hall ,e go!er$ed ,y the rule# o$ co$tract#. Necau#e there wa# $o fulf llme$t or compl a$ce w th the

@here ,e $g $o #how $g that &ma$daG# accepta$ce wa# made $ a pu,l c $#trume$t* the do$at o$ # !o d. @he co$te$t o$ that the do$at o$ # o$erou# a$d* therefore* $eed
$ot comply w th &rt cle 749 for !al d ty # w thout mer t.

co$d t o$ wh ch # re#olutory $ character* the do$at o$ may


$ow ,e re!o9ed a$d all r ght# wh ch the do$ee may ha!e ac?u red u$der t #hall ,e deemed lo#t a$d e-t $gu #hed
(Central !"l"''"ne >n"vers"ty, ;.R. 0o. 11$1$(, -.ly 1(,1997).
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

@he do$at o$ # $ot o$erou# ,ecau#e t d d $ot mpo#e o$ &ma$da the o,l gat o$ to pay the ,ala$ce o$ the purcha#e pr ce or the arrear# $ real e#tate ta-e#. &ma$da too9 t upo$ her#elf to pay tho#e amou$t# !olu$tar ly. For a do$at o$ to

1o* a$ act o$ for e8ectme$t w ll $ot pro#per. + would ad! ce


&lfredo a$d Jac?uel that the 0 $ #ter* ,y co$#truct $g a

,e o$erou#* the ,urde$ mu#t ,e mpo#ed ,y the do$or o$ the do$ee. +$ the pro,lem* there # $o #uch ,urde$ mpo#ed
,y the do$or o$ the do$ee. @he do$at o$ $ot ,e $g

#tructure wh ch al#o #er!e# a# a place of wor#h p* ha#


pur#ued the o,8ect !e of the do$at o$. H # ta9 $g up

re# de$ce $ the ,u$galow may ,e regarded a# a ca#ual


,reach a$d w ll $ot warra$t re!ocat o$ of the do$at o$. . m lar ly* therefore* a$ act o$ for re!ocat o$ of the

o$erou#* t mu#t comply w th the formal t e# of &rt cle 749.


AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

1e ther Jo#a $or &ma$da # correct. @he do$at o$ #


o$erou# o$ly a# to the port o$ of the property corre#po$d $g to the !alue of the $#tallme$t# a$d ta-e# pa d ,y &ma$da.

do$at o$ w ll ,e de$ ed (C. -. ?.lo O Sons, In+. v. Ro&an

Cat!ol"+ G"s!o', ;.R. 0o. 133(07, Mar+! 31, $007C Ae"rs o*Ro@en%o Sev"lla v. Fe 5eon, ;.R. 0o. 1497(0, Mar+! 1$, $004).

@he port o$ $ e-ce## thereof # $ot o$erou#. @he o$erou# port o$ # go!er$ed ,y the rule# o$ co$tract# wh ch do $ot re?u re the accepta$ce ,y the do$ee to ,e $ a$y form. @he
o$erou# part* therefore* # !al d. @he port o$ wh ch # $ot o$erou# mu#t comply w th &rt cle 749 of the 1ew C ! l

Donations; @ali0it"; Effectivit"; for /nborn C&il0 (1999) 5lated that her # #ter who had ,ee$ marr ed for f !e year# wa# preg$a$t for the f r#t t me* &lma do$ated P100*000.00 to the u$,or$ ch ld. L$fortu$ately* the ,a,y d ed o$e hour after del !ery. 0ay &lma reco!er the P100.000.00 that #he

Page 55 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

had do$ated to #a d ,a,y ,efore t wa# ,or$ co$# der $g

that the ,a,y d ed% .tated otherw #e* # the do$at o$ !al d
a$d , $d $g% 5-pla $. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

$ot ,ee$ f -ed $ the Heed of Ho$at o$* the do$ee # $ot yet default $ h # o,l gat o$ u$t l the per od # f -ed ,y order
of the court u$der &rt cle 1197 of the 1ew C ! l Code.

@he do$at o$ # !al d a$d , $d $g* ,e $g a$ act fa!ora,le to the u$,or$ ch ld* ,ut o$ly f the ,a,y had a$ $tra>uter $e l fe of $ot le## tha$ #e!e$ mo$th# a$d pro! ded there wa# due accepta$ce of the do$at o$ ,y the proper per#o$ repre#e$t $g #a d ch ld. +f the ch ld had le## tha$ #e!e$ mo$th# of $tra>uter $e l fe* t # $ot deemed ,or$ # $ce t d ed le## tha$ 24 hour# follow $g t# del !ery* $ wh ch ea#e the do$at o$ $e!er ,ecame effect !e # $ce the do$ee $e!er
,ecame a per#o$* , rth ,e $g determ $at !e of per#o$al ty.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

. $ce the per od ha# $ot ,ee$ f -ed a# yet* the do$ee # $ot yet default* a$d therefore the do$or ha# $o cau#e of act o$ to re!o9e the do$at o$. (F"ssent"n, o'"n"on o* Fav"%e, C-,
Central !"l"''"ne >n"vers"ty v. Co.rt o* A''eals, $46 SCRA 711 [1997])

P"!PE"$*
2ccretion; 2ll%vion ('##1) For ma$y year#* the J o )ra$de r !er depo# ted #o l alo$g t# ,a$9* ,e# de the t tled la$d of <o#e. +$ t me* #uch depo# t
reached a$ area of o$e thou#a$d #?uare meter#. 2 th the perm ## o$ of <o#e* 6 ce$te cult !ated the #a d area. @e$

5!e$ f the ,a,y had a$ $tra>uter $e l fe of more tha$ #e!e$ mo$th# a$d the do$at o$ wa# properly accepted* t would ,e !o d for $ot ha! $g co$formed w th the proper

form. +$ order to ,e !al d* the do$at o$ a$d accepta$ce of per#o$al property e-ceed $g f !e thou#a$d pe#o# #hould ,e
$ wr t $g. 4&rt cle 748* par. 37

year# later* a , g flood occurred $ the r !er a$d tra$#ferred


the 1000 #?uare meter# to the oppo# te ,a$9* ,e# de the

la$d of &gu#t $. @he la$d tra$#ferred # $ow co$te#ted ,y


<o#e a$d &gu#t $ a# r par a$ ow$er# a$d ,y 6 ce$te who

Donations; wit& 1esol%tor" Con0ition ('##()

+$ 1950* Hr. &l,a do$ated a parcel of la$d to Ce$tral L$ !er# ty o$ co$d t o$ that the latter mu#t e#ta,l #h a med cal college o$ the la$d to ,e $amed after h m. +$ the year 2000* the he r# of Hr. &l,a f led a$ act o$ to a$$ul the do$at o$ a$d for the reco$!eya$ce of the property do$ated to them for the fa lure* after 50 year#* of the L$ !er# ty to
e#ta,l #hed o$ the property a med cal #chool $amed after

cla m# ow$er#h p ,y pre#cr pt o$. 2ho #hould pre!a l*% 2hy% 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

,elo$g# ,y r ght of accret o$ to <o#e* the r par a$ ow$er 4&rt. 457 CC7. 2he$* a# g !e$ $ the pro,lem* the !ery #ame area' wa# 'tra$#ferred' ,y flood water# to the

<o#e #hould pre!a l. @he d #puted area* wh ch # a$ allu! o$*

the r father. @he L$ !er# ty oppo#ed the act o$ o$ the grou$d of pre#cr pt o$ a$d al#o ,ecau#e t had $ot u#ed the
property for #ome purpo#e other tha$ that #tated $ the do$at o$. .hould the oppo# t o$ of the L$ !er# ty to the act o$ of Hr. &l,aO# he r# ,e #u#ta $ed% 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

oppo# te ,a$9* t ,ecame a$ a!ul# o$ a$d ow$er#h p thereof # reta $ed ,y <o#e who ha# two year# to remo!e t 4&rt. 459* CC7. 6 ce$teG# cla m ,a#ed o$ pre#cr pt o$ # ,a#ele## # $ce h # po##e## o$ wa# ,y mere tolera$ce of <o#e a$d* therefore*
d d $ot ad!er#ely affect <o#eG# po##e## o$ a$d ow$er#h p

@he do$at o$ may ,e re!o9ed. @he $o$>e#ta,l #hed of the


med cal college o$ the do$ated property wa# a re#olutory

4&rt. 537* CC7. +$a#much a# h # po##e## o$ # merely that of a holder* he ca$$ot ac?u re the d #puted area ,y pre#cr pt o$. 2ccretion; 2v%lsion ('##() &$dre# # a r par a$ ow$er of a parcel of reg #tered la$d. H# la$d* howe!er* ha# gradually d m $ #hed $ area due to the curre$t of the r !er* wh le the reg #tered la$d of 0ar o o$
the oppo# te ,a$9 ha# gradually $crea#ed $ area ,y 200>

co$d t o$ mpo#ed o$ the do$at o$ ,y the do$or. &lthough


the Heed of Ho$at o$ d d $ot f - the t me for the

e#ta,l #hed of the med cal college* the fa lure of the do$ee
to e#ta,l #h the med cal college after f fty 4507 year# from the ma9 $g of the do$at o$ #hould ,e co$# dered a# occurre$ce of the re#olutory co$d t o$* a$d the do$at o$

may $ow ,e re!o9ed. 2h le the ge$eral rule # that $ ca#e the per od # $ot f -ed $ the agreeme$t of the part e#* the per od mu#t ,e f -ed f r#t ,y the court ,efore the o,l gat o$ may ,e dema$ded* the per od of f fty 4507 year# wa# more
tha$ e$ough t me for the do$ee to comply w th the

#?uare meter#. 4a7 2ho ha# the ,etter r ght o!er the 200>#?uare meter area that ha# ,ee$ added to 0ar oO# reg #tered la$d* 0ar o or &$dre#% 4,7 0ay a th rd per#o$ ac?u re #a d 200>#?uare meter
la$d ,y pre#cr pt o$%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

co$d t o$. He$ce* $ th # ca#e* there # $o more $eed for the


court to f - the per od ,ecau#e #uch procedure w th the

a. 0ar o ha# a ,etter r ght o!er the 200 #?uare meter#

co$d t o$. (Central


711).

!"l"''"ne >n"vers"ty v. CA. $46 SCRA

A'!$.E" (+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he do$at o$ may $ot a# yet re!o9ed. @he e#ta,l #hme$t of a med cal college # $ot a re#olutory or #u#pe$# !e co$d t o$
,ut a CchargeD* o,l gat o$D* or a CmodeD. @he $o$>

$crea#e $ area ,y rea#o$ of accret o$* apply $g &rt cle 457 of the 1ew C ! l Code* wh ch pro! de# that Cto the ow$er# of la$d# ad8o $ $g the ,a$9# of r !er# ,elo$g the accret o$
wh ch they gradually rece !ed from the effect# of the

curre$t of the water#D.


&$dre# ca$$ot cla m that the $crea#e $ 0ar oO#

compl a$ce w th the charge or mode w ll g !e the do$or the r ght to re!o9e the do$at o$ w th $ four 447 year# from the t me the charge wa# #uppo#ed to ha!e ,ee$ compl ed w th* or to e$force the charge ,y #pec f c performa$ce w th $ te$ 4107 year# from the t me the cau#e of act o$ accrued. +$a#much a# the t me to e#ta,l #hed the med cal college ha#

la$d # h # ow$* ,ecau#e #uch # a$ accret o$ a$d $ot re#ult of the #udde$ detachme$t of a 9$ow$ port o$ of h # la$d
a$d t# attachme$t to 0ar oO# la$d* a proce## called

Ca!ul# o$D. He ca$ $o lo$ger cla m ow$er#h p of the port o$ of h # reg #tered la$d wh ch wa# gradually a$d $aturally eroded due to the curre$t of the r !er* ,ecau#e he

Page 56 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

had lo#t t ,y operat o$ of law. @hat port o$ of the la$d ha#


,ecome part of the pu,l c doma $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

,. Be#* a th rd party may ac?u re ,y pre#cr pt o$

rea#o$a,le re$t* f the ow$er of the la$d doe# $ot choo#e to appropr ate the ,u ld $g after proper $dem$ ty. @he part e# #hall agree upo$ the term# of the lea#e a$d $ ca#e of d #agreeme$t* the court f - the term# thereof.
;%il0er; Boo0 ,ait& vs. ;a0 ,ait& (1999) Necau#e of co$fu# o$ a# to the ,ou$dar e# of the 4a7 ad8o $ $g lot# that they ,ought from the #ame #u,d ! # o$

the 200

#?uare meter#* $crea#e $ area* ,ecau#e t # $ot $cluded $


the @orre$# @ tle of the r par a$ ow$er. He$ce* th # doe# $ot $!ol!e the mpre#cr pt , l ty co$ferred ,y .ect o$ 47*

P.H. 1o. 1529. @he fact that the r par a$ la$d # reg #tered
doe# $ot automat cally ma9e the accret o$ thereto a reg #tered la$d. (;ran%e v. CA, 117 7$1 (196$)C -a,.al"n, v.
CA, 194 SCRA 60( (1991).

;%il0er; Boo0 ,ait& (199')

compa$y* = co$#tructed a hou#e o$ the ad8o $ $g lot of B $ the ho$e#t ,el ef that t # the la$d that he ,ought from the #u,d ! # o$ compa$y. 2hat are the re#pect !e r ght# of = a$d B w th re#pect to =G# hou#e% 43E7 4,7 .uppo#e = wa# $ good fa th ,ut B 9$ew that = wa# co$#truct $g o$ h # 4BG#7 la$d ,ut # mply 9ept ?u et a,out t* th $9 $g perhap# that he could get =G# hou#e later. 2hat are
the re#pect !e r ght# of the part e# o!er =G# hou#e $ th # ca#e% 42E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

& ow$# a parcel of re# de$t al la$d worth P500*000.00 u$9$ow$ to &* a re# de$t al hou#e co#t $g P 100*000.00 # ,u lt o$ the e$t re parcel ,y N who cla m# ow$er#h p of the la$d. &$#wer all the follow $g ?ue#t o$# ,a#ed o$ the prem #e that N # a ,u lder $ good fa th a$d & # a
la$dow$er $ good fa th.

a7 ,7

0ay & ac?u re the hou#e ,u lt ,y N% +f #o* how% +f the la$d $crea#ed $ !alue to P500*000.00 ,y rea#o$
of the ,u ld $g of the hou#e thereo$* what amou$t

4a7 @he r ght# of B* a# ow$er of the lot* a$d of =* a# ,u lder


of a hou#e thereo$* are go!er$ed ,y &rt. 448 of the C ! l

#hould ,e pa d ,y & $ order to ac?u re the hou#e from N%


c7 &##um $g that the co#t of the hou#e wa# P90*000.00 a$d $ot P100*000.00* may & re?u re N to ,uy the la$d%

Code wh ch gra$t# to B the r ght to choo#e ,etwee$ two

remed e#( 4a7 appropr ate the hou#e ,y $dem$ fy $g = for


t# !alue plu# whate!er $ece##ary e-pe$#e# the latter may

ha!e $curred for the pre#er!at o$ of the la$d* or 4,7


compel = to ,uy the la$d f the pr ce of the la$d # $ot

d7 +f N !olu$tar ly ,uy# the la$d a# de# red ,y &* u$der what c rcum#ta$ce# may & $e!erthele## ,e e$t tled to ha!e the hou#e remo!ed%

e7

+$ what # tuat o$ may a 'forced lea#e' ar #e ,etwee$ &


a$d N. a$d what term# a$d co$d t o$# would go!er$

co$# dera,ly more tha$ the !alue of the hou#e. +f t #* the$ = ca$$ot ,e o,l ged to ,uy the la$d ,ut he #hall pay rea#o$a,le re$t* a$d $ ca#e of d #agreeme$t* the court #hall f - the term# of the lea#e.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

) !e rea#o$# for your a$#wer#.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

the lea#e%

4a7 Be#* & may ac?u re the hou#e ,u ld ,y N ,y pay $g

$dem$ ty to N. &rt cle 448 of the C ! l Code pro! de# that


the ow$er of the la$d o$ wh ch a$yth $g ha# ,ee$ ,u lt*

#ow$ or pla$ted $ good fa th* #hall ha!e the r ght to appropr ate a# h # ow$ the wor9#* #ow $g or pla$t $g* after payme$t of the $dem$ ty pro! ded for $ &rt cle# 546 a$d
546 of the C ! l Code.

4,7 . $ce the lot ow$er B # deemed to ,e $ ,ad fa th 4&rt 4537* = a# the party $ good fa th may 4a7 remo!e the hou#e a$d dema$d $dem$ f cat o$ for damage# #uffered ,y h m* or 4,7 dema$d payme$t of the !alue of the hou#e plu# reparat o$ for damage# 4&rt 447* $ relat o$ to &rt 4547. B co$t $ue# a# ow$er of the lot a$d ,ecome#* u$der the #eco$d opt o$* ow$er of the hou#e a# well* after he pay# the
#um# dema$ded. ;%il0er; Boo0 ,ait& vs. ;a0 ,ait& ('###) +$ good fa th* Pedro co$#tructed a f !e>door commerc al

4,7 & #hould pay N the #um of P50*000. &rt cle 548 of the C ! l Code pro! de# that u#eful e-pe$#e# #hall ,e refu$ded
to the po##e##or $ good fa th w th the r ght of rete$t o$*

,u ld $g o$ the la$d of Pa,lo who wa# al#o $ good fa th.


2he$ Pa,lo d #co!ered the co$#truct o$* he opted to

the per#o$ who ha# defeated h m $ the po##e## o$ ha! $g the opt o$ of refu$d $g the amou$t of the e-pe$#e# or of

appropr ate the ,u ld $g ,y pay $g Pedro the co#t thereof. Howe!er* Pedro $# #t# that he #hould ,e pa d the curre$t

pay $g the $crea#e $ !alue wh ch the th $g may ha!e ac?u red ,y rea#o$ thereof. @he $crea#e $ !alue amou$t#
to P50*000.00.

mar9et !alue of the ,u ld $g* wh ch wa# much h gher ,ecau#e of $flat o$.
17 2ho # correct Pedro or Pa,lo%41E7 27 +$ the mea$t me that Pedro # $ot yet pa d* who # e$t tled to the re$tal# of the ,u ld $g* Pedro or Pa,lo% 41E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4c7 Be#* & may re?u re N to ,uy the la$d. &rt cle 448 of the
C ! l Code pro! de# that the ow$er of the la$d o$ wh ch

a$yth $g ha# ,ee$ ,u lt $ good fa th #hall ha!e the r ght to o,l ge the o$e who ,u lt to pay the pr ce of the la$d f t# !alue # $ot co$# dera,ly more tha$ that of the ,u ld $g* 4d7 +f N agree# to ,uy la$d ,ut fa l# to pay* & ca$ ha!e the

hou#e remo!ed ( Fe'ra vs. F.&lao, 136 SCRA 4(7).

4e7 &rt cle 448 of the C ! l Code pro! de# that the ,u lder ca$$ot ,e o,l ged to ,uy the la$d f t# !alue # co$# dera,ly
more tha$ that of the ,u ld $g. +$ #uch ca#e* he #hall pay

Pa,lo # correct. L$der &rt cle 448 of the 1ew C ! l Code $ relat o$ to &rt cle 546* the ,u lder $ good fa th # e$t tled to a refu$d of the $ece##ary a$d u#eful e-pe$#e# $curred ,y h m* or the $crea#e $ !alue wh ch the la$d may ha!e ac?u red ,y rea#o$ of the mpro!eme$t* at the opt o$ of the la$dow$er. @he ,u lder # e$t tled to a refu$d of the
e-pe$#e# he $curred* a$d $ot to the mar9et !alue of the

mpro!eme$t

Page 57 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

@he ca#e of e+son v. CA, $44 SCRA 40(* # $ot appl ca,le to the pro,lem. +$ the Pec#o$ ca#e* the ,u lder wa# the ow$er of the la$d who later lo#t the property at a pu,l c #ale due to
$o$>payme$t of ta-e#. @he Court ruled that &rt cle 448

#?uare meter#. <o#e cla m# that 0 9e # a ,u lder $ ,ad fa th ,ecau#e he #hould 9$ow the ,ou$dar e# of h # lot* a$d
dema$d# that the port o$ of the hou#e wh ch e$croached o$ h # la$d #hould ,e de#troyed or remo!ed. 0 9e repl e#

doe# $ot apply to the ca#e where the ow$er of the la$d # the ,u lder ,ut who later lo#t the la$d3 $ot ,e $g appl ca,le* the $dem$ ty that #hould ,e pa d to the ,uyer mu#t ,e the
fa r mar9et !alue of the ,u ld $g a$d $ot 8u#t the co#t of

that he # a ,u lder $ good fa th a$d offer# to ,uy the la$d occup ed ,y the ,u ld $g $#tead.
17 +# 0 9e a ,u lder $ good fa th or ,ad fa th% 2hy% 43E7

27 2ho#e prefere$ce #hould ,e followed% 2hy% 42E7 17 Be#* 0 9e # a ,u lder $ good fa th. @here # $o #how $g that whe$ he ,u lt h # hou#e* he 9$ew that a port o$ thereof e$croached o$ <o#eG# lot. L$le## o$e # !er#ed $ the #c e$ce of #ur!ey $g* he ca$$ot determ $e the prec #e ,ou$dar e# or locat o$ of h # property ,y merely e-am $ $g h # t tle. +$ the a,#e$ce of co$trary proof* the law pre#ume# that the e$croachme$t wa# do$e $ good fa th ;Te+!no,as !"ls, v.
CA, $68 SCRA 7, 17 (199()].
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

co$#truct o$ thereof. @he Court op $ed $ that ca#e that to


do otherw #e would u$8u#tly e$r ch the $ew ow$er of the

la$d.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

Pedro # correct. +$ Pec#o$ !#. C&* t wa# held that &rt cle 546 of the 1ew C ! l Code doe# $ot #pec f cally #tate how the !alue of u#eful mpro!eme$t# #hould ,e determ $ed $ f - $g the amou$t of $dem$ ty that the ow$er of the la$d #hould pay to the ,u lder $ good fa th. . $ce the o,8ect !e
of the law # to ad8u#t the r ght# of the part e# $ #uch $ #uch a way a# $e ther o$e $or the other may e$r ch

ma$$er a# 'to adm $ #ter complete 8u#t ce to ,oth of them h m#elf of that wh ch doe# $ot ,elo$g to h m'* the Court
ruled that the ,a# # of re m,ur#eme$t #hould ,e the fa r mar9et !alue of the ,u ld $g.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

2M 1o$e of the prefere$ce# #hall ,e followed. @he prefere$ce of 0 9e ca$$ot pre!a l ,ecau#e u$der &rt cle 448

of the C ! l Code* t # the ow$er of the la$d who ha# the


opt o$ or cho ce* $ot the ,u lder. /$ the other ha$d* the

27 Pa,lo # e$t tled to the re$tal# of the ,u ld $g. &# the

ow$er of the la$d* Pa,lo # al#o the ow$er of the ,u ld $g ,e $g a$ acce## o$ thereto. Howe!er* Pedro who # e$t tled
to reta $ the ,u ld $g # al#o e$t tled to reta $ the re$tal#.

opt o$ ,elo$g# to <o#e* he ca$$ot dema$d that the port o$ of the hou#e e$croach $g o$ h # la$d ,e de#troyed or remo!ed ,ecau#e th # # $ot o$e of the opt o$# g !e$ ,y law to the ow$er of the la$d. @he ow$er may choo#e ,etwee$
the appropr at o$ of what wa# ,u lt after payme$t of $dem$ ty* or to compel the ,u lder to pay for the la$d f

He* howe!er* #hall apply the re$tal# to the $dem$ ty paya,le to h m after deduct $g rea#o$a,le co#t of repa r a$d
ma $te$a$ce.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

the !alue of the la$d # $ot co$# dera,ly more tha$ that of
the ,u ld $g. /therw #e* the ,u lder #hall pay re$t for the

port o$ of the la$d e$croached.


AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

Pa,lo # e$t tled to the re$tal#. Pedro ,ecame a po##e##or $ ,ad fa th from the t me he lear$ed that the la$d ,elo$g# to Pa,lo. &# #uch* he lo#e# h # r ght to the ,u ld $g* $clud $g
the fru t# thereof* e-cept the r ght of rete$t o$. ;%il0er; Boo0 ,ait& vs. ;a0 ,ait&; 2ccession ('###)

17

0 9e ca$$ot ,e co$# dered a ,u lder $ good fa th ,ecau#e he ,u lt h # hou#e w thout f r#t determ $ $g the cor$er# a$d ,ou$dar e# of h # lot to ma9e #ure that h # co$#truct o$ wa# w th $ the per meter of h # property. He

could ha!e do$e th # w th the help of a geodet c e$g $eer a#


a$ ord $ary prude$t a$d rea#o$a,le ma$ would do u$der

a7 Hemetr o 9$ew that a p ece of la$d ,order $g the ,each ,elo$ged to 5r$e#to. Howe!er* # $ce the latter wa# #tudy $g $ 5urope a$d $o o$e wa# ta9 $g care of the la$d* Hemetr o occup ed the #ame a$d co$#tructed thereo$ $ pa #hed# w th ta,le# a$d ,e$che# wh ch he re$ted out to people who wa$t to ha!e a p c$ c ,y the ,each. 2he$ 5r$e#to retur$ed* he dema$ded the retur$ of the la$d. Hemetr o agreed to do #o after he ha# remo!ed the $ pa #hed#. 5r$e#to refu#ed to let Hemetr o remo!e the $ pa #hed# o$ the grou$d that the#e

the c rcum#ta$ce#. 27 <o#eG# prefere$ce #hould ,e followed. He may ha!e the


,u ld $g remo!ed at the e-pe$#e of 0 9e* appropr ate the

,u ld $g a# h # ow$* o,l ge 0 9e to ,uy the la$d a$d a#9 for


damage# $ add t o$ to a$y of the three opt o$#. 4&rt cle# 449* 450* 451* CC7 C&attel *ortgage vs. 4le0ge (1999)

already ,elo$ged to h m ,y r ght of acce## o$. 2ho #


correct% 43E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

H #t $gu #h a co$tract of chattel mortgage from a co$tract of pledge. 42E7


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

5r$e#to # correct* Hemetr o # a ,u lder $ ,ad fa th ,ecau#e he 9$ew ,eforeha$d that the la$d ,elo$ged to 5r$e#to* u$der &rt cle 449 of the 1ew C ! l Code* o$e who
,u ld# o$ the la$d of a$other lo#e# what # ,u lt w thout

+$ a co$tract of CH&@@5" 0/J@)&)5 po##e## o$


,elo$g# to the cred tor* wh le $ a co$tract of P"5H)5

po##e## o$ ,elo$g# to the de,tor. & chattel mortgage # a formal co$tract wh le a pledge # a real co$tract. & co$tract of chattel mortgage mu#t ,e recorded $ a pu,l c $#trume$t to , $d th rd per#o$# wh le a co$tract of pledge mu#t ,e $ a pu,l c $#trume$t co$ta $ $g de#cr pt o$ of the th $g pledged a$d the date thereof to , $d th rd per#o$#.

r ght to $dem$ ty. 5r$e#to ,ecome# the ow$er of the $ pa


#hed# ,y r ght of acce## o$. He$ce* 5r$e#to # well w th $ h # r ght $ refu# $g to allow the remo!al of the $ pa #hed#. ;%il0er; Boo0 ,ait& vs. ;a0 ,ait&; 4res%mption ('##1)

0 9e ,u lt a hou#e o$ h # lot $ Pa#ay C ty. @wo year# later*


a #ur!ey d #clo#ed that a port o$ of the ,u ld $g actually

#tood o$ the $e gh,or $g la$d of <o#e* to the e-te$t of 40

Page 58 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

C&attel *ortgage; )mmovables (199!) 6 $ co$#tructed a ,u ld $g o$ a parcel of la$d he lea#ed

foreclo#ure #ale* foreclo#ed the mortgage a$d ac?u red =O#


hou#e a$d lot. "ear$ $g of the proceed $g# co$ducted ,y the ,a$9* I # $ow dema$d $g that the ,a$9 reco$!ey to

from &$drea. He chattel mortgaged the la$d to Fel c a. 2he$ he could $ot pay Fel c a. Fel c a $ t ated foreclo#ure proceed $g#. 6 $ cla med that the ,u ld $g he had co$#tructed o$ the lea#ed la$d ca$$ot ,e !al dly foreclo#ed
,ecau#e the ,u ld $g wa#* ,y law* a$ mmo!a,le. +# 6 $ correct%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE"(:

h m =O# hou#e or pay =O# loa$ to h m plu# $tere#t#. +# IO# dema$d aga $#t the ,a$9 !al d a$d #u#ta $a,le% 2hy% 5E
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1o* IO# dema$d # $ot !al d. & ,u ld $g # mmo!a,le or

real property whether t # erected ,y the ow$er of the la$d*


,y a u#ufructuary* or ,y a le##ee. +t may ,e treated a# a

a7 @he Chattel 0ortgage # !o d a$d ca$$ot ,e foreclo#ed


,ecau#e the ,u ld $g # a$ mmo!a,le a$d ca$$ot ,e a$ o,8ect of a chattel mortgage.

mo!a,le ,y the part e# to chattel mortgage ,ut #uch #


, $d $g o$ly ,etwee$ them a$d $ot o$ th rd part e#
(2van,el"sta v. Alto S.rety Col, "n+. 103 !"l. 401 [1978]). +$ th # ca#e* # $ce the ,a$9 # $ot a party to the chattel mortgage* t # $ot ,ou$d ,y t* a# far a# the Na$9 # co$cer$ed* the chattel mortgage* doe# $ot e- #t. 0oreo!er*

,7

+t depe$d#. +f the ,u ld $g wa# $te$ded a$d # ,u lt of

l ght mater al#* the chattel mortgage may ,e co$# dered a# !al d a# ,etwee$ the part e# a$d t may ,e co$# dered $

re#pect to them a# mo!a,le property* # $ce t ca$ ,e remo!ed from o$e place to a$other. Nut f the ,u ld $g # of
#tro$g mater al a$d # $ot capa,le of ,e $g remo!ed or

the chattel mortgage doe# $ot e- #t. 0oreo!er* the chattel mortgage # !o d ,ecau#e t wa# $ot reg #tered. &##um $g

tra$#ferred w thout ,e $g de#troyed* the chattel mortgage #


!o d a$d ca$$ot ,e foreclo#ed.

that t # !al d* t doe# $ot , $d the Na$9 ,ecau#e t wa# $ot a$$otated o$ the t tle of the la$d mortgaged to the ,a$9. I ca$$ot dema$d that the Na$9 pay h m the loa$ I e-te$ded
to =* ,ecau#e the Na$9 wa# $ot pr !y to #uch loa$

c7 +f t wa# the la$d wh ch 6 $ chattel mortgaged* #uch mortgage would ,e !o d* or at lea#t u$e$forcea,le* # $ce he
wa# $ot the ow$er of the la$d.

tra$#act o$. 1o* IO# dema$d aga $#t the ,a$9 # $ot !al d. H # dema$d that the ,a$9 reco$!ey to h m =O# hou#e pre#uppo#e# that he ha# a real r ght o!er the hou#e. &ll that I ha# # a per#o$al r ght aga $#t = for damage# for ,reach of the
co$tract of loa$. @he treatme$t of a hou#e* e!e$ f ,u lt o$ re$ted la$d* a#
A'!$.E" (+&&E($E# A'(WE":

+f what wa# mortgaged a# a chattel # the ,u ld $g* the chattel mortgage # !al d a# ,etwee$ the part e# o$ly* o$
grou$d# of e#toppel wh ch would preclude the mortgagor from a##a l $g the co$tract o$ the grou$d that t# #u,8ect> matter # a$ mmo!a,le. @herefore 6 $ G# defe$#e #

u$te$a,le* a$d Fel c a ca$ foreclo#e the mortgage o!er the ,u ld $g* o,#er! $g* howe!er* the procedure pre#cr ,ed for
the e-ecut o$ of #ale of a 8udgme$t de,torG# mmo!a,le

mo!a,le property # !o d $#ofar a# th rd per#o$#* #uch a# the ,a$9* are co$cer$ed. /$ the other ha$d* the Na$9
already had a real r ght o!er the hou#e a$d lot whe$ the mortgage wa# a$$otated at the ,ac9 of the @orre$# t tle.

u$der Jule 39* Jule# of Court* #pec f cally* that the $ot ce of auct o$ #ale #hould ,e pu,l #hed $ a $ew#paper of
ge$eral c rculat o$.

@he ,a$9 later ,ecame the ow$er $ the foreclo#ure #ale. I ca$$ot a#9 the ,a$9 to pay for =O# loa$ plu# $tere#t. @here
# $o pr ! ty of co$tract ,etwee$ I a$d the ,a$9.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

d7 @he pro,lem that 6 $ mortgaged the la$d ,y way of a


chattel mortgage # u$te$a,le. "a$d ca$ o$ly ,e the #u,8ect

@he a$#wer h $ge# o$ whether or $ot the ,a$9 # a$

matter of a real e#tate mortgage a$d o$ly a$ a,#olute ow$er


of real property may mortgage a parcel of la$d. 4&rt cle 2085 427 C ! l Code7. He$ce* there ca$ ,e $o foreclo#ure.

$$oce$t mortgagee $ good fa th or a mortgagee $ ,ad fa th. +$ the former ca#e* IO# dema$d # $ot !al d. +$ the latter ca#e* IO# dema$d aga $#t the ,a$9 # !al d a$d

Nut o$ the a##umpt o$ that what wa# mortgaged ,y way of chattel mortgage wa# the ,u ld $g o$ lea#ed la$d* the$ the

#u#ta $a,le. L$der the @orre$# #y#tem of la$d reg #trat o$* e!ery per#o$

part e# are treat $g the ,u ld $g a# chattel. & ,u ld $g that #


$ot merely #uper mpo#ed o$ the grou$d # a$ mmo!a,le property a$d a chattel mortgage o$ #a d ,u ld $g # legally !o d ,ut the part e# ca$$ot ,e allowed to d #a!ow the r

deal $g w th reg #tered la$d may rely o$ the correct$e## of the cert f cate of t tle a$d the law w ll $ot $ a$y way o,l ge to h m to loo9 ,eh $d or ,eyo$d the cert f cate $ order to
determ $e the co$d t o$ of the t tle. He # $ot ,ou$d ,y

co$tract o$ accou$t of e#toppel ,y deed. Howe!er* f th rd


part e# are $!ol!ed #uch chattel mortgage # !o d a$d ha# $o effect. C&attel *ortgage; )mmovables ('##()

= co$#tructed a hou#e o$ a lot wh ch he wa# lea# $g from B. "ater* = e-ecuted a chattel mortgage o!er #a d hou#e $
fa!or of I a# #ecur ty for a loa$ o,ta $ed from the latter.

a$yth $g $ot a$$otated or reflected $ the cert f cate. +f he proceed# to ,uy the la$d or accept t a# a collateral rely $g o$ the cert f cate* he # co$# dered a ,uyer or a mortgagee $ good fa th. /$ th # grou$d* the Na$9 ac?u re# a clea$ t tle to the la$d a$d the hou#e. Howe!er* a ,a$9 # $ot a$ ord $ary mortgagee. L$l 9e
pr !ate $d ! dual#* a ,a$9 # e-pected to e-erc #e greater

.t ll later* = ac?u red ow$er#h p of the la$d where h # hou#e wa# co$#tructed* after wh ch he mortgaged ,oth hou#e a$d la$d $ fa!or of a ,a$9* wh ch mortgage wa# a$$otated o$
the @orre$# Cert f cate of @ tle. 2he$ = fa led to pay h #

care a$d prude$ce $ t# deal $g#. @he a#certa $me$t of the co$d t o$ of a property offered a# collateral for a loa$ mu#t
,e a #ta$dard a$d $d #pe$#a,le part of t# operat o$. @he ,a$9 #hould ha!e co$ducted further $?u ry regard $g the

loa$ to the ,a$9* the latter* ,e $g the h ghe#t , dder at the

hou#e #ta$d $g o$ the la$d co$# der $g that t wa# already

Page 59 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

#ta$d $g there ,efore = ac?u red the t tle to the la$d. @he ,a$9 ca$$ot ,e co$# dered a# a mortgagee $ good fa th. /$ th # grou$d* IO# dema$d aga $#t the Na$9 # !al d a$d
#u#ta $a,le. C&attel *ortgage; 4ossession (199()

wa# the$ !alued o$ly at P1 0 ll o$. "awre$ce wa# declared $#ol!e$t. &##um $g that the a rcraft wa# #old for Pl 0 ll o$* g !e the order of prefere$ce of the cred tor# of "awre$ce a$d d #tr ,ute the amou$t of P1 0 ll o$.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&* a,out to lea!e the cou$try o$ a fore g$ a## g$me$t* e$tru#ted to N h # ,ra$d $ew car a$d t# cert f cate of reg #trat o$. Fal# fy $g &G# # g$ature. N #old &G# car to C for P200*000.00. C the$ reg #tered the car $ h # $ame. @o complete the $eeded amou$t* C ,orrowed P100.000.00
from the #a! $g# a$d loa$ a##oc at o$ $ h # off ce*

&##um $g that the a rcraft wa# #old for P1 0 ll o$* there #


$o order of prefere$ce. @he P1 0 ll o$ w ll all go to the

co$#t tut $g a chattel mortgage o$ the car. For fa lure of C


to pay the amou$t owed* the #a! $g# a$d loa$ a##oc at o$

,a$9 a# a chattel mortgagee ,ecau#e a chattel mortgage u$der &rt. 2241 447 1CC defeat# &rt. 2244 4127 a$d 414M. &rt. 2241 437 a$d 457 are $ot appl ca,le ,ecau#e the a rcraft # $o lo$ger $ the po##e## o$ of the cred tor. Easement vs. /s%fr%ct (1999) 1. 2hat # ea#eme$t% H #t $gu #h ea#eme$t from u#ufruct.

f led $ the J@C a compla $t for collect o$ w th appl cat o$

for ##ua$ce of a wr t of reple! $ to o,ta $ po##e## o$ of the


!eh cle #o that the chattel mortgage could ,e foreclo#ed. @he J@C ##ued the wr t of reple! $. @he car wa# the$
#e :ed from C a$d #old ,y the #her ff at pu,l c auct o$ at

2. Ca$ there ,e 4a7 a$ ea#eme$t o!er a u#ufruct% 4,7 a u#ufruct o!er a$ ea#eme$t% 4c7 a$ ea#eme$t o!er a$other

ea#eme$t% 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

wh ch the #a! $g# a$d loa$ a##oc at o$ wa# the lo$e , dder.
&ccord $gly* the car wa# #old to t. & few day# later* &

arr !ed from h # fore g$ a## g$me$t. "ear$ $g of what


happe$ed to h # car* & #ought to reco!er po##e## o$ a$d ow$er#h p of t from the #a! $g# a$d loa$ a##oc at o$. a##oc at o$% 5-pla $ your a$#wer.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1. &$ 5&.5051@ or #er! tude # a$ e$cum,ra$ce mpo#ed upo$ a$ mmo!a,le for the ,e$ef t of a$other mmo!a,le ,elo$g $g to a d ffere$t ow$er. 4&rt. 613* 1CC7

Ca$ & reco!er h # car from the #a! $g# a$d loa$

L.LFJLC@ g !e# a r ght to e$8oy the property of a$other


w th the o,l gat o$ of pre#er! $g t# form a$d #u,#ta$ce*

u$le## the t tle co$#t tut $g t or the law otherw #e pro! de#.
4&rt. 562* 1CC7.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

L$der the pre!a l $g rul $g# of the .upreme Court* & ca$ reco!er the car from the .a! $g# a$d "oa$ &##oc at o$ pro! ded he pay# the pr ce at wh ch the &##oc at o$ ,ought
the car at a pu,l c auct o$. L$der that doctr $e* there ha# ,ee$ a$ u$lawful depr !at o$ ,y N of & of h # car a$d* therefore* & ca$ reco!er t from a$y per#o$ $ po##e## o$

5a#eme$t # a$ e$cum,ra$ce mpo#ed upo$ a$ mmo!a,le


for the ,e$ef t of a$other mmo!a,le ,elo$g $g to a d ffere$t ow$er $ wh ch ca#e t # called real or pred al ea#eme$t* or for the ,e$ef t of a commu$ ty or group of

thereof. Nut # $ce t wa# ,ought at a pu,l c auct o$ $ good


fa th ,y the .a! $g# a$d "oa$ &##oc at o$* he mu#t

per#o$# $ wh ch ca#e t # 9$ow$ a# a per#o$al ea#eme$t. @he d #t $ct o$# ,etwee$ u#ufruct a$d ea#eme$t are( purpo#e#* $clud $g 8u# frue$d . 5a#eme$t # l m ted to a #pec f c u#e. ,7 L#ufruct may ,e co$#t tuted o$ mmo!a,le or mo!a,le property. 5a#eme$t may ,e co$#t tuted o$ly o$ a$
mmo!a,le property. a7 L#ufruct $clude# all u#e# of the property a$d for all

re m,ur#e the &##oc at o$ at the pr ce for wh ch the car wa# ,ought.


AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

Be#* & ca$ reco!er h # car from the .a! $g# a$d "oa$ &##oc at o$. +$ a Chattel 0ortgage* the mortgagor mu#t ,e
the a,#olute ow$er of the th $g mortgaged. Furthermore* the per#o$ co$#t tut $g the mortgage mu#t ha!e the free

d #po#al of the property* a$d $ the a,#e$ce thereof* mu#t


,e legally author :ed for the purpo#e. +$ the ca#e at ,ar*

c7

the#e e##e$t al re?u # te# d d $ot apply to the mortgagor N* he$ce the Chattel 0ortgage wa# $ot !al d.

5a#eme$t # $ot e-t $gu #hed ,y the death of the ow$er of the dom $a$t e#tate wh le u#ufruct # e-t $gu #hed ,y the death of the u#ufructuary u$le## a
co$trary $te$t o$ appear#.

C&attel *ortgage; 4reference of Cre0itors (1999)

d7 to

&$ ea#eme$t co$template# two 427 e#tate# ,elo$g $g two 427 d ffere$t ow$er#3 a u#ufruct co$template# o$ly o$e property 4real or per#o$al7 where,y the u#ufructuary u#e# a$d e$8oy# the property a# well a# t#
fru t#* wh le a$other ow$# the $a9ed t tle dur $g the

"awre$ce* a ret red a r force capta $* dec ded to go $to the a r tra$#port ,u# $e##. He purcha#ed a$ a rcraft $ ca#h e-cept for a$ out#ta$d $g ,ala$ce of P500*000.00. He $curred a$ $de,ted$e## of P300*000.00 for repa r# w th a$ a rcraft repa r compa$y. He al#o ,orrowed P1 0 ll o$ from a ,a$9 for add t o$al cap tal a$d co$#t tuted a chattel
mortgage o$ the a rcraft to #ecure the loa$. 2h le o$ a te#t fl ght the a rcraft cra#hed cau# $g phy# cal

per od of the u#ufruct. e7


& u#ufruct may ,e al e$ated #eparately from the

property to wh ch t attache#* wh le a$ ea#eme$t ca$$ot


,e al e$ated #eparately from the property to wh ch t

attache#.

$8ur e# to a th rd party who wa# awarded damage# of P200*000.00.


"awre$ceG# $#ura$ce cla m for damage to the a rcraft wa#

"OT#. !t is recommen2e2 17 t/e Committee t/at

an7 t3o 92: 2istinctions s/oul2 1e ;i6en full cre2it.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

de$ ed thu# lea! $g h m $oth $g el#e ,ut the a rcraft wh ch

Page 60 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

2. 4a7 @here ca$ ,e $o ea#eme$t o!er a u#ufruct. . $ce a$


ea#eme$t may ,e co$#t tuted o$ly o$ a corporeal

mmo!a,le property* $o ea#eme$t may ,e co$#t tuted o$ a


u#ufruct wh ch # $ot a corporeal r ght 4,7 @here ca$ ,e $o u#ufruct o!er a$ ea#eme$t. 2h le a u#ufruct may,e created o!er a r ght* #uch r ght mu#t ha!e a$ e- #te$ce of t# ow$ $depe$de$t of the property. &

there # a degree of regular ty to $d cate co$t $u ty of po##e## o$ a$d that f coupled w th a$ appare$t # g$* #uch ea#eme$t of way may ,e ac?u red ,y pre#cr pt o$.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

Be#* 5r$ e could clo#e the pathway o$ h # la$d. Ho$ ha# $ot ac?u red a$ ea#eme$t of r ght of way e ther ,y

#er! tude ca$$ot ,e the o,8ect of a u#ufruct ,ecau#e t ha# $o e- #te$ce $depe$de$t of the property to wh ch +t
attache#.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE"(:

agreeme$t or ,y 8ud c al gra$t. 1e ther d d the ,uyer#. @hu#* e#ta,l #hme$t of a road or u$lawful u#e of the la$d of 5r$ e
would co$#t tute a$ $!a# o$ of po##e##ory r ght# of the

ow$er* wh ch u$der &rt cle 429 of the C ! l Code may ,e


repelled or pre!e$ted. 5r$ e ha# the r ght to e-clude a$y

@here ca$$ot ,e a u#ufruct o!er a$ ea#eme$t # $ce a$


ea#eme$t pre#uppo#e# two 427 te$eme$t# ,elo$g $g to

per#o$ from the e$8oyme$t a$d d #po#al of the la$d. @h # # a$ attr ,ute of ow$er#h p that 5r$ e e$8oy#. Be#* 5r$ e may clo#e the pathway* #u,8ect howe!er* to the
r ght# of the lot ,uyer#. . $ce there # $o acce## to the
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

d ffere$t per#o$# a$d the r ght attache# to the te$eme$t a$d $ot to the ow$er. 2h le a u#ufruct g !e# the u#ufructuary a r ght to u#e* r ght to e$8oy* r ght to the fru t#* a$d r ght to po##e##* a$ ea#eme$t g !e# o$ly a l m ted u#e of the #er! e$t
e#tate.

pu,l c road* th # re#ult# $ the creat o$ of a legal ea#eme$t.


@he lot ,uyer# ha!e the r ght to dema$d that 5r$ e gra$t

Howe!er* a u#ufruct ca$ ,e co$#t tuted o!er a property that ha# $ t# fa!or a$ ea#eme$t or o$e ,urde$ed w th #er! tude. @he u#ufructuary w ll e-erc #e the ea#eme$t
dur $g the per od of u#ufruct.

them a r ght of way. +$ tur$* they ha!e the o,l gat o$ to pay the !alue of the port o$ u#ed a# a r ght of way* plu# damage#.
)!at are t!e r",!ts o* t!e lot /.yers, "* any1 +) 23'la"n. 42E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4c7 @here ca$ ,e $o ea#eme$t o!er a$other ea#eme$t for the #ame rea#o$ a# $ 4a7. &$ ea#eme$t* although t # a real r ght
o!er a$ mmo!a,le* # $ot a corporeal r ght. @here # a

Joma$ ma- m wh ch #ay# that( @here ca$ ,e $o #er! tude


o!er a$other #er! tude. Easement; Effects; Discontin%o%s Easements; 4ermissive /se ('##9)

Pr or to the gra$t of a$ ea#eme$t* the ,uyer# of the dom $a$t e#tate ha!e $o other r ght tha$ to compel gra$t of
ea#eme$t of r ght of way.

. $ce the propert e# of the ,uyer# are #urrou$ded ,y other mmo!a,le# a$d ha# $o ade?uate outlet to a pu,l c h ghway a$d the #olat o$ # $ot due to the r act#* ,uyer# may
dema$d a$ ea#eme$t of a r ght of way pro! ded proper $dem$ ty # pa d a$d the r ght of way dema$ded # the #horte#t a$d lea#t pre8ud c al to 5r$ e. (#"llan.eva v.
#elas+o, ;.R. 0o. 130847, 0ove&/er $(, $000).

Ho$ wa# the ow$er of a$ agr cultural la$d w th $o acce## to


a pu,l c road. He had ,ee$ pa## $g through the la$d of

5r$ e w th the latterG# ac?u e#ce$ce for o!er 20 year#. .u,#e?ue$tly* Ho$ #u,d ! ded h # property $to 20
re# de$t al lot# a$d #old them to d ffere$t per#o$#. 5r$ e

,loc9ed the pathway a$d refu#ed to let the ,uyer# pa## through h # la$d. a) F"% Fon a+N."re an ease&ent o* r",!t o* 9ay1
23'la"n. ($4)
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

Easement; .%isance; 2batement ('##')


"auro ow$# a$ agr cultural la$d pla$ted mo#tly w th fru t

tree#. Her$a$do ow$# a$ ad8ace$t la$d de!oted to h #


p ggery ,u# $e##* wh ch # two 427 meter# h gher $

ele!at o$. &lthough Her$a$do ha# co$#tructed a wa#te


d #po#al lagoo$ for h # p ggery* t # $ade?uate to co$ta $ the wa#te water co$ta $ $g p g ma$ure* a$d t ofte$ o!erflow# a$d $u$date# "auroO# pla$tat o$. @h # ha#

1o* Ho$ d d $ot ac?u re a$ ea#eme$t of r ght of way. &$ ea#eme$t of r ght of way # d #co$t $uou# $ $ature W t # e-erc #ed o$ly f a ma$ pa##e# o!er #ome,odyG# la$d. L$der &rt cle 622 of the C ! l Code* d #co$t $uou# ea#eme$t#* whether appare$t or $ot* may o$ly ,e ac?u red ,y ! rtue of a t tle. @he .upreme Court* $ A/ellana, Sr. v. Co.rt o*
A''eals (;.R. 0o. 9(039, A'r"l $4, 199$), ruled that a$

$crea#ed the ac d ty of the #o l $ the pla$tat o$* cau# $g the tree# to w ther a$d d e. "auro #ue# for damage# cau#ed to h # pla$tat o$. Her$a$do $!o9e# h # r ght to the ,e$ef t of a $atural ea#eme$t $ fa!or of h # h gher e#tate* wh ch
mpo#e# upo$ the lower e#tate of "auro the o,l gat o$ to rece !e the water# de#ce$d $g from the h gher e#tate. +#

ea#eme$t of r ght of way ,e $g d #co$t $uou# $ $ature #

$ot ac?u ra,le ,y pre#cr pt o$. Further* po##e## o$ of the ea#eme$t ,y Ho$ # o$ly

Her$a$do correct% 45E7


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

perm ## !e* tolerated or w th the ac?u e#ce$ce of 5r$ e. +t # #ettled $ the ca#e of C.ay+on, v. Gene%"+to (;.R. 0o. 9989,
Mar+! 13, 1918) that a perm ## !e u#e of a road o!er the la$d

w th the $atural ea#eme$t to accept or rece !e the water wh ch $aturally a$d w thout $terrupt o$ of ma$ de#ce$d#

Her$a$do # wro$g. +t # true that "auroO# la$d # ,urde$ed

of a$other* $o matter how lo$g co$t $ued* w ll $ot create a$ ea#eme$t of way ,y pre#cr pt o$.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

Be#* Ho$ ac?u red a$ ea#eme$t of r ght of way. &$ ea#eme$t that # co$t $uou# a$d appare$t ca$ ,e ac?u red

,y pre#cr pt o$ a$d t tle. &ccord $g to Profe##or @ole$t $o* a$ ea#eme$t of r ght of way may ha!e a co$t $uou# $ature f

from a h gher e#tate to a lower e#tate. Howe!er* Her$a$do ha# co$#tructed a wa#te d #po#al lagoo$ for h # p ggery a$d t # th # wa#te water that flow# dow$ward to "auroO# la$d. Her$a$do ha#* thu#* $terrupted the flow of water a$d ha# created a$d # ma $ta $ $g a $u #a$ce. L$der &ct. 697 1CC* a,ateme$t of a $u #a$ce doe# $ot preclude reco!ery of damage# ,y "auro e!e$ for the pa#t e- #te$ce of a $u #a$ce.

Page 61 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

@he cla m for damage# may al#o ,e prem #ed $ &rt. 2191 447 1CC.
A'!$.E" A'(WE":

to t me. &# @oma#G ,u# $e## grow#* the $eed for u#e of

moder$ co$!eya$ce# re?u re# w de$ $g of the ea#eme$t.


AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

Her$a$do # $ot correct. &rt cle 637 of the 1ew C ! l Code


pro! de# that the ow$er of the h gher e#tate ca$$ot ma9e

@he fact# #how that the $eed for a w der r ght of way aro#e from the $crea#ed product o$ ow $g to the ac?u # t o$ ,y
@oma# of a$ add t o$al area. L$der &rt. 626 of the C!l Code* the ea#eme$t ca$ ,e u#ed o$ly for the mmo!a,le

wor9# wh ch w ll $crea#e the ,urde$ o$ the #er! e$t e#tate. (Re&&an 2nter'r"ses, In+. v. CA, 330 SCRA 147 [$000]). @he ow$er of the h gher e#tate may ,e compelled to pay
damage# to the ow$er of the lower e#tate.

or g $ally co$templated. He$ce* the $crea#e $ w dth # 8u#t f ed a$d #hould ha!e ,ee$ gra$ted. Easements; 1ig&t of 8a" ('###) @he coco$ut farm of Feder co # #urrou$ded ,y the la$d# of Jomulo. Feder co #ee9# a r ght of way through a port o$ of
the la$d of Jomulo to ,r $g h # coco$ut product# to the

Easements; Classification (1993)


H #t $gu #h ,etwee$( 1. 2. 3. Co$t $uou# a$d d #co$t $uou# ea#eme$t#3 K2EA &ppare$t a$d $o$>appare$t ea#eme$t#3 a$d ;2EA Po# t !e a$d $egat !e ea#eme$t#. ;1EA

mar9et. He ha# cho#e$ a po $t where he w ll pa## through a


hou# $g pro8ect of Jomulo. @he latter wa$t# h m to pa## a$other way wh ch # o$e 9 lometer lo$ger. 2ho #hould pre!a l% 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1.

wh ch # or may ,e $ce##a$t* w thout the $ter!e$t o$ of

C/1@+1L/L. 5&.5051@. are tho#e the u#e of

a$y act of ma$* wh le H+.C/1@+1L/L. 5&.5051@. are tho#e wh ch are u#ed at $ter!al# a$d depe$d upo$ the
act# of ma$. 4&rt. 615* C ! l Code7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Jomulo w ll pre!a l. L$der &rt cle 650 of the 1ew C!l

Code* the ea#eme$t of r ght of way #hall ,e e#ta,l #hed at


the po $t lea#t pre8ud c al to the #er! e$t e#tate a$d where

2.

&PP&J51@ 5&.5051@. are tho#e wh ch are made

9$ow$ a$d are co$t $ually 9ept $ ! ew ,y e-ter$al # g$#

the d #ta$ce from the dom $a$t e#tate to a pu,l c h ghway # the #horte#t. !n case of conflict4 t/e criterion of least pre=u2ice pre6ails
o6er t/e criterion of s/ortest 2istance. . $ce the route cho#e$ ,y

that re!eal the u#e a$d e$8oyme$t of the #ame* wh le 1/1>


&PP&J51@ 5&.5051@. are tho#e wh ch #how $o e-ter$al $d cat o$ of the r e- #te$ce. 4&rt. 615* C ! l Code7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Feder co w ll pre8ud ce the hou# $g pro8ect of Jomulo* Jomulo ha# the r ght to dema$d that Feder co pa## a$other way e!e$ though t w ll ,e lo$ger. Easements; 1ig&t of 8a"; )nseparabilit" ('##1)
5mma ,ought a parcel of la$d from 5?u ta,le>PC+ Na$9* wh ch ac?u red the #ame from Fel #a* the or g $al ow$er.

3.

P/.+@+65 5&.5051@. are tho#e wh ch mpo#e

upo$ the ow$er of the #er! e$t e#tate the o,l gat o$ of allow $g #ometh $g to ,e do$e or of do $g t h m#elf* wh le
15)&@+65 5&.5051@. are tho#e wh ch proh , t the ow$er of the #er! e$t e#tate from do $g #ometh $g wh ch

@hereafter* 5mma d #co!ered that Fel #a had gra$ted a r ght


of way o!er the la$d $ fa!or of the la$d of )eorg $a*

he could lawfully do f the ea#eme$t d d $ot e- #t. 4&rt. 615.


C ! l Code7 Easements; 1ig&t of 8a" (199() @oma# 5$car$ac o$G# 3*000 #?uare meter parcel of la$d*

wh ch had $o outlet to a pu,l c h ghway* ,ut the ea#eme$t


wa# $ot a$$otated whe$ the #er! e$t e#tate wa# reg #tered

where he ha# a pla$t $ur#ery* # located 8u#t ,eh $d &$ ceta 0ag# $oG# two hectare parcel la$d. @o e$a,le @oma# to ha!e acce## to the h ghway* &$ ceta agreed to gra$t h m a
road r ght of way a meter w de through wh ch he could pa##. @hrough the year# @oma#G ,u# $e## flour #hed wh ch

u$der the @orre$# #y#tem. 5mma the$ f led a compla $t for ca$cellat o$ of the r ght of way* o$ the grou$d that t had ,ee$ e-t $gu #hed ,y #uch fa lure to a$$otate. How would you dec de the co$tro!er#y% 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he compla $t for ca$cellat o$ of ea#eme$t of r ght of way

mu#t fa l. @he fa lure to a$$otate the ea#eme$t upo$ the t tle of the #er! e$t e#tate # $ot amo$g the grou$d# for

e$a,led h m to ,uy a$other port o$ wh ch e$larged the area of h # pla$t $ur#ery. Nut he wa# #t ll la$dloc9ed. He could $ot ,r $g $ a$d out of h # pla$t $ur#ery a 8eep or del !ery
pa$el much le## a truc9 that he $eeded to tra$#port h #

e-t $gu #h $g a$ ea#eme$t u$der &rt. 631 of the C ! l Code. L$der &rt cle 617* ea#eme$t# are $#epara,le from the
e#tate to wh ch they act !ely or pa## !ely ,elo$g. /$ce t attache#* t ca$ o$ly ,e e-t $gu #hed u$der &rt. 631* a$d they e- #t e!e$ f they are $ot #tated or a$$otated a# a$

#eedl $g#. He $ow a#9ed &$ ceta to gra$t h m a w der port o$ of her property* the pr ce of wh ch he wa# w ll $g to pay* to e$a,le h m to co$#truct a road to ha!e acce## to h # pla$t $ur#ery. &$ ceta refu#ed cla m $g that #he had already
allowed h m a pre! ou# road r ght of way. +# @oma# e$t tled to the ea#eme$t he $ow dema$d# from &$ ceta%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

e$cum,ra$ce o$ the @orre$# t tle of the #er! e$t e#tate. 4++


@ole$t $o 326* 1987 ed.7
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

L$der .ect o$ 44* PH 1o. 1529* e!ery reg #tered ow$er

rece ! $g a cert f cate of t tle pur#ua$t to a decree of


reg #trat o$* a$d e!ery #u,#e?ue$t $$oce$t purcha#er for

!alue* #hall hold the #ame free from all e$cum,ra$ce#


e-cept tho#e $oted o$ #a d cert f cate. @h # rule* howe!er*

&rt. 651 of the C ! l Code pro! de# that the w dth of the

ea#eme$t mu#t ,e #uff c e$t to meet the $eed# of the dom $a$t e#tate* a$d may accord $gly cha$ge from t me to t me. +t # the $eed of the dom $a$t e#tate wh ch determ $e# the w dth of the pa##age. @he#e $eed# may !ary from t me

adm t# of e-cept o$#. L$der &ct 496* a# ame$ded ,y &ct 1o. 2011* a$d .ect o$ 4*
&ct 3621* a$ ea#eme$t f $ot reg #tered #hall rema $ a$d #hall ,e held to pa## w th the la$d u$t l cutoff or

Page 62 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

e-t $gu #hed ,y the reg #trat o$ of the #er! e$t e#tate.

co$# #te$t w th th # rule* where the d #ta$ce to the #treet or


h ghway # #horte#t.

Howe!er* th # pro! # o$ ha# ,ee$ #uppre##ed $ .ect o$ 44* PH 1o. 1529. +$ other word#* the reg #trat o$ of the #er! e$t e#tate d d $ot operate to cut>off or e-t $gu #h the r ght of way. @herefore* the compla $t for the ca$cellat o$
of the r ght of way #hould ,e d #m ##ed. Easements; 1ig&t of 8a"; 1e$%isites (199-)

27 +# Ha! d e$t tled to a r ght of way $ th # ca#e% 2hy or why $ot%


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Ha! d # the ow$er of the #u,d ! # o$ $ .ta. Jo#a* "agu$a*


w thout a$ acce## to the h ghway. 2he$ he appl ed for a

1o* Ha! d # $ot e$t tled to the r ght of way ,e $g cla med. @he #olat o$ of h # #u,d ! # o$ wa# due to h # ow$ act or om ## o$ ,ecau#e he d d $ot de!elop $to a$ acce## road the r ce f eld wh ch he wa# #uppo#ed to purcha#e accord $g to
h # ow$ repre#e$tat o$ whe$ he appl ed for a l ce$#e to

l ce$#e to e#ta,l #h the #u,d ! # o$* Ha! d repre#e$ted that he w ll purcha#e a r ce f eld located ,etwee$ h # la$d a$d the h ghway* a$d de!elop t $to a$ acce## road. Nut. whe$ the
l ce$#e wa# already gra$ted* he d d $ot ,other to ,uy the r ce f eld* wh ch rema $# u$ut l :ed u$t l the pre#e$t.

e#ta,l #h the #u,d ! # o$ (8loro .s. 5lena%o, $44 SCRA(13).


E5ectment %it vs. Cancellation of =itle ('##9) +$ a$ e8ectme$t ca#e f led ,y Ho$ aga $#t Ce#ar* ca$ the

+$#tead* he cho#e to co$$ect h # #u,d ! # o$ w th the $e gh,or $g #u,d ! # o$ of 1e#tor* wh ch ha# a$ acce## to
the h ghway. 1e#tor allowed h m to do th #* pe$d $g $egot at o$# o$ the compe$#at o$ to ,e pa d. 2he$ they

latter a#9 for the ca$cellat o$ of Ho$G# t tle co$# der $g that he 4Ce#ar7 # the r ghtful ow$er of the lot% 5-pla $. 42E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

fa led to arr !e at a$ agreeme$t* 1e#tor ,u lt a wall acro## the road co$$ect $g w th Ha! dG# #u,d ! # o$. Ha! d f led a compla $t $ court* for the e#ta,l #hme$t of a$ ea#eme$t of
r ght of way through the #u,d ! # o$ of 1e#tor wh ch he cla m# to ,e the mo#t ade?uate a$d pract cal outlet to the h ghway.

Ce#ar ca$$ot a#9 for the ca$cellat o$ of Ho$G# t tle e!e$ f he # the r ghtful ow$er of the lot. +$ a$ act o$ for
e8ectme$t* the o$ly ##ue $!ol!ed # o$e of po##e## o$ de

17 2hat are the re?u # te# for the e#ta,l #hme$t of a


compul#ory ea#eme$t of a r ght of way%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

facto* the purpo#e of wh ch # merely to protect the ow$er from a$y phy# cal e$croachme$t from w thout. @he t tle of the la$d or t# ow$er#h p # $ot $!ol!ed* for f a per#o$ # $ actual po##e## o$ thereof* he # e$t tled to ,e ma $ta $ed a$d re#pected $ t e!e$ aga $#t the ow$er h m#elf. (;ar+"a
v. Anas, ;.R. 0o. 56$061(, May 31, 1967)

&rt* 649* 1CC. @he ow$er* or a$y per#o$ who ,y ! rtue of


a real r ght may cult !ate or u#e a$y mmo!a,le wh ch #

. $ce the ca#e f led ,y Ho$ aga $#t Ce#ar # a$ e8ectme$t

ca#e* the latter ca$$ot a#9 for the ca$cellat o$ of Ho$G# t tle.
He ha# to f le the proper act o$ where the of ##ue

#urrou$ded ,y other mmo!a,le# perta $ $g to other per#o$# a$d w thout ade?uate outlet to a pu,l c h ghway* # e$t tled to dema$d a r ght of way through the $e gh,or $g
e#tate#* after payme$t of the property $dem$ ty.

ow$er#h p o!er the property ca$ ,e ra #ed. E5ectment %it; Commo0at%m ('##-)
&l,erto a$d <a$ $e m grated to the L$ ted .tate# of &mer ca* lea! $g ,eh $d the r 4 ch ldre$* o$e of whom #

.hould th # ea#eme$t ,e e#ta,l #hed $ #uch a ma$$er that t# u#e may ,e co$t $uou# for all the $eed# of the dom $a$t e#tate* e#ta,l #h $g a perma$e$t pa##age* the $dem$ ty #hall co$# #t of the !alue of the la$d occup ed a$d the amou$t of
the damage cau#ed to the #er! e$t e#tate.

0a$$y. @hey ow$ a duple- apartme$t a$d allowed 0a$$y to l !e $ o$e of the u$ t#. 2h le $ the L$ ted .tate#*

&l,erto d ed. H # w dow a$d all h # ch ldre$ e-ecuted a$ 5-tra8ud c al .ettleme$t of &l,ertoG# e#tate where $ the 2> door apartme$t wa# a## g$ed ,y all the ch ldre$ to the r

+$ ca#e the r ght of way # l m ted to the $ece##ary pa##age


for the cult !at o$ of the e#tate #urrou$ded ,y other# a$d for the gather $g of t# crop# through the #er! e$t e#tate

w thout a perma$e$t way* the $dem$ ty #hall co$# #t $ the


payme$t of the damage cau#e ,y #uch e$cum,ra$ce.

mother* <a$ $e. .u,#e?ue$tly* #he #old the property to )eorge. @he latter re?u red 0a$$y to # g$ a prepared "ea#e Co$tract #o that he a$d h # fam ly could co$t $ue occupy $g the u$ t. 0a$$y refu#ed to # g$ the co$tract alleg $g that h#
pare$t# allowed h m a$d h # fam ly to co$t $ue occupy $g the prem #e#.

@h # ea#eme$t # $ot compul#ory f the #olat o$ of the


mmo!a,le # due to the propr etorG# ow$ act#. 4564a7. @he ea#eme$t of r ght of way #hall ,e e#ta,l #hed at the

I* yo. 9ere ;eor,eDs +o.nsel, 9!at le,al ste's 9"ll yo. taEe1 23'la"n. (74)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

po $t lea#t pre8ud c al to the #er! e$t e#tate* a$d $#ofar a# co$# #te$t w th th # rule* where the d #ta$ce from the
dom $a$t e#tate to a pu,l c h ghway may ,e the #horte#t 4Art. 670, 0CCB #%a. %e Galta@ar v. CA. $47 SCRA 333M
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

+f + were )eorgeG# cou$#el* + would f r#t dema$d that 0a$$y !acate the apartme$t. +f 0a$$y refu#e#* + w ll f le a$ e8ectme$t #u t. 2he$ 0a$$y wa# allowed ,y h # pare$t# to occupy the prem #e#* w thout compe$#at o$* the co$tract of
commodatum wa# created. Lpo$ the death of the father*

@he re?u # te# for a compul#ory ea#eme$t of r ght of way are( 4a7 the dom $a$t e#tate # #urrou$ded ,y other mmo!a,le# a$d # w thout a$ ade?uate outlet to a pu,l c

the co$tract wa# e-t $gu #hed a# t # a purely per#o$al


co$tract. &# the $ew ow$er of the apartme$t )eorge #

e$t tled to e-erc #e h # r ght of po##e## o$ o!er the #ame.


E<tra?7%0icial 4artition; ,ra%0 (199#) = wa# the ow$er of a 10*000 #?uare meter property. =

#treet or h ghway3 4,7 proper $dem$ ty mu#t ,e pa d3 4c7 the


#olat o$ mu#t $ot ,e due to the act# of the ow$er of the dom $a$t e#tate3 a$d 4d7 the r ght of way cla med # at a

po $t lea#t pre8ud c al to the #er! e$t e#tate a$d* $#ofar a# #

marr ed B a$d out of the r u$ o$. &* N a$d C were ,or$.

Page 63 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

&fter the death of B* = marr ed I a$d they ,egot a# ch ldre$* H* 5 a$d F. &fter the death of =* the ch ldre$ of the f r#t a$d #eco$d marr age# e-ecuted a$ e-tra8ud c al part t o$ of the afore#tated property o$ 0ay 1* 1970. H* 5 a$d F were g !e$ a o$e thou#a$d #?uare meter port o$ of the property. @hey were m $or# at the t me of the e-ecut o$ of the docume$t. H wa# 17 year# old* 5 wa# 14 a$d F wa# 123 a$d they were made to ,el e!e ,y &* N a$d C that u$le## they # g$ the docume$t they w ll $ot get a$y #hare. I wa#
$ot pre#e$t the$. +$ <a$uary 1974* H* 5 a$d F f led a$ act o$ $ court to $ull fy the #u t alleg $g they d #co!ered the fraud o$ly $ 1973.

#hare allotted ,y law to the f $der # $ce the phra#e ',y cha$ce' mea$# ',y acc de$t'* mea$ $g a$ u$e-pected d #co!ery. @he l ,eral ! ew* howe!er* would #u#ta $ @ mG# r ght to the allocated #hare $terpret $g the phra#e $

?ue#t o$ a# mea$ $g ',y a #tro9e of good fortu$e'* wh ch doe# $ot rule out del ,erate or $te$t o$al #earch. +t # #u,m tted that the l ,eral ! ew #hould pre!a l # $ce $
pract cal real ty* h dde$ trea#ure # hardly e!er fou$d

w thout co$#c ou# effort to f $d t* a$d the #tr ct ! ew would te$d to re$der the codal pro! # o$ $ ?ue#t o$ llu#ory. Ai00en =reas%res (1997)
0arcel $o* a trea#ure hu$ter a# 8u#t a ho,,y* ha# fou$d a

4a7 Ca$ the m $or ty of H* 5 a$d F ,e a ,a# # to $ull fy the


part t o$% 5-pla $ your a$#wer. 4,7 How a,out fraud% 5-pla $ your a$#wer.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

map wh ch appear# to $d cate the locat o$ of h dde$


trea#ure. He ha# a$ dea of the la$d where the trea#ure m ght po## ,ly ,e fou$d. Lpo$ $?u ry* 0arcel $o lear$#

4a7 Be#* m $or ty ca$ ,e a ,a# # to $ull fy the part t o$ ,ecau#e H* 5 a$d F were $ot properly repre#e$ted ,y the r pare$t# or guard a$# at the t me they co$tracted the e-tra>
8ud c al part t o$. 4&rt cle# 1327. 1391* C ! l Code7.

that the ow$er of the la$d* "eopoldo* # a perma$e$t re# de$t of Ca$ada* 1o,ody* howe!er* could g !e h m "eopoldoG# e-act addre##. Llt mately* a$yway* he e$ter# the la$d a$d co$duct# a #earch. He #ucceed#.
"eopoldo lear$ $g of 0arcel $oG# 'f $d'* #ee9# to reco!er

4,7 +$ the ca#e of fraud* whe$ through $# d ou# word# or mach $at o$# of o$e party the other # $duced to e$ter $to
the co$tract w thout wh ch he would $ot ha!e agreed to*

the trea#ure from 0arcel $o ,ut the latter # $ot w ll $g to


part w th t. Fa l $g to reach a$ agreeme$t* "eopoldo #ue#

the act o$ #t ll pro#per ,ecau#e u$der &rt* 1391 of the C ! l


Code* $ ca#e of fraud* the act o$ for a$$ulme$t may ,e ,rought w th $ four year# from the d #co!ery of the fraud.

0arcel $o for the reco!ery of the property. 0arcel $o co$te#t# the act o$. How would you dec de the ca#e%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Ai00en =reas%re (1999) @ m came $to po##e## o$ of a$ old map #how $g where a
purported cache of gold ,ull o$ wa# h dde$. 2 thout a$y

+ would dec de $ fa!or of 0arcel $o # $ce he # co$# dered a f $der ,y cha$ce of the h dde$ trea#ure* he$ce* he # e$t tled to o$e>half 41S27 of the h dde$ trea#ure. 2h le 0arcel $o may ha!e had the $te$t o$ to loo9 for the
h dde$ trea#ure* #t ll he # a f $der ,y cha$ce # $ce t # e$ough that he tr ed to loo9 for t. Ny cha$ce $ the law

author ty from the go!er$me$t @ m co$ducted a rele$tle## #earch a$d f $ally fou$d the trea#ure ,ur ed $ a $ew r !er
,ed formerly part of a parcel of la$d ow$ed ,y #pou#e#

@ r#o a$d @e## e. @he old r !er wh ch u#ed to cut through


the la$d of #pou#e# Lr#ula a$d Lr, to cha$ged t# cour#e through $atural cau#e#. @o whom #hall the trea#ure ,elo$g% 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

doe# $ot mea$ #heer luc9 #uch that the f $der #hould ha!e $o $te$t o$ at all to loo9 for the trea#ure. Ny cha$ce mea$# good luc9* mply $g that o$e who $te$t o$ally loo9# for the trea#ure # em,raced $ the pro! # o$. @he rea#o$ # that t #
e-tremely d ff cult to f $d h dde$ trea#ure w thout loo9 $g for t del ,erately. 0arcel $o # $ot a tre#pa##er # $ce there # $o proh , t o$

@he trea#ure wa# fou$d $ a property of pu,l c dom $ o$* the $ew r !er ,ed. . $ce @ m d d $ot ha!e author ty from

the go!er$me$t a$d* therefore* wa# a tre#pa##er* he # $ot

for h m to e$ter the prem #e#* he$ce* he # e$t tled to half of the trea#ure.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE"(:

e$t tled to the o$e>half #hare allotted to a f $der of h dde$


trea#ure. &ll of t w ll go to the .tate.

+$ add t o$* u$der

&rt. 438 of the 1CC $ order that the f $der ,e e$t tled to the 1S2 #hare* the trea#ure mu#t ,e fou$d ,y cha$ce* that #

1. 0arcel $o d d $ot f $d the trea#ure ,y cha$ce ,ecau#e he had a map* he 9$ew the locat o$ of the h dde$ trea#ure a$d he $te$t o$ally loo9ed for the trea#ure* he$ce* he # $ot

,y #heer luc9. +$ th # ca#e* # $ce @ m fou$d the trea#ure $ot ,y cha$ce ,ut ,ecau#e he rele$tle##ly #earched for t* he #
$ot e$t tled to a$y #hare $ the h dde$ trea#ure.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

e$t tled to a$y part of the trea#ure.

@he law gra$t# a o$e>half #hare to a f $der of h dde$ trea#ure pro! ded he # $ot a tre#pa##er a$d the f $d $g # ,y cha$ce. +t # #u,m tted that @ m # $ot a tre#pa##er de#p te h # $ot gett $g author ty from the go!er$me$t* ,ecau#e the $ew r !er ,ed where he fou$d the trea#ure # property for
pu,l c u#e 4&rt. 420 1CC7* to wh ch the pu,l c ha# leg t mate acce##. @he ?ue#t o$* therefore* ,o l# dow$ to

2. 0arcel $o appear# to ,e a tre#pa##er a$d although there may ,e a ?ue#t o$ of whether he fou$d t ,y cha$ce or $ot* a# he ha# fou$d the h dde$ trea#ure ,y mea$# of a trea#ure map* he w ll $ot ,e e$t tled to a f $derG# #hare. @he h dde$ trea#ure #hall ,elo$g to the ow$er.
3. @he ma $ rule # that h dde$ trea#ure ,elo$g# to the

whether or $ot the f $d $g wa# ,y cha$ce $ ! ew of the fact that @ m 'co$ducted a rele$tle## #earch' ,efore f $d $g the
trea#ure. @he #tr ct or l teral ! ew hold# that del ,erate or

ow$er of the la$d* ,u ld $g or other property o$ wh ch t # fou$d. +f t # fou$d ,y cha$ce ,y a th rd per#o$ a$d he # $ot a tre#pa##er* he # e$t tled to o$e>half 41S27. +f he # a tre#pa##er* he lo#e# e!eryth $g. *ortgage; 4act%m Commissori%m (1999)

$te$t o$al #earch preclude# e$t tleme$t to the o$e>half

Page 64 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

4a7

= ,orrowed mo$ey from B a$d ga!e a p ece of la$d a# #ecur ty ,y way of mortgage. +t wa# e-pre##ly
agreed ,etwee$ the part e# $ the mortgage co$tract

&re the r ght of redempt o$ a$d the e?u ty of redempt o$ g !e$ ,y law to a mortgagor the #ame% 5-pla $. 42E7 @he e?u ty of redempt o$ # d ffere$t from the r ght of redempt o$. 5PL+@B /F J5H50P@+/1 # the r ght of
the mortgagor after 8udgme$t $ a 8ud c al foreclo#ure to
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

that upo$ $o$payme$t of the de,t o$ t me ,y =* the mortgaged la$d would already ,elo$g to B. +f = defaulted $ pay $g* would B $ow ,ecome the ow$er
of the mortgaged la$d% 2hy% 43E7

redeem the property ,y pay $g to the court the amou$t of the r ght of the mortgagor to redeem the property #old at a$ e-tra>8ud c al foreclo#ure ,y pay $g to the ,uyer $ the
foreclo#ure #ale the amou$t pa d ,y the ,uyer w th $ o$e year from #uch #ale. the 8udgme$t de,t ,efore the #ale or co$f rmat o$ of the #ale. /$ the other ha$d* J+)H@ /F J5H50P@+/1 #

4,7

.uppo#e $ the preced $g ?ue#t o$* the agreeme$t


,etwee$ = a$d B wa# that f = fa led to pay the

mortgage de,t o$ t me* the de,t #hall ,e pa d w th the la$d mortgaged ,y = to B. 2ould your a$#wer ,e the
#ame a# $ the preced $g ?ue#t o$% 5-pla $. 43E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4a7

1o* B would $ot ,ecome the ow$er of the la$d. @he

#t pulat o$ # $ the $ature of pactum comm ##or um wh ch # proh , ted ,y law. @he property #hould ,e #old at pu,l c
auct o$ a$d the proceed# thereof appl ed to the $de,ted$e##. &$y e-ce## #hall ,e g !e$ to the mortgagor.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

.%isance; ,amil" Ao%se; .ot .%isance per se ('##-) & drug lord a$d h # fam ly re# de $ a #mall ,u$galow where they #ell #ha,u a$d other proh , ted drug#. 2he$ the pol ce
fou$d the llegal trade* they mmed ately demol #hed the

hou#e ,ecau#e accord $g to them* t wa# a $u #a$ce per #e


that #hould ,e a,ated. Ca$ th # demol t o$ ,e #u#ta $ed%

4d7 1o* the a$#wer would $ot ,e the #ame. @h # # a !al d #t pulat o$ a$d doe# $ot co$#t tute pactum comm ##or um.
+$ pactum comm ##or um* the ac?u # t o$ a$other act # automat c

5-pla $. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1o* the demol t o$ ca$$ot ,e #u#ta $ed. @he hou#e # $ot a $u #a$ce per #e or at law a# t # $ot a$ act* occupat o$* or
#tructure wh ch # a $u #a$ce at all t me# a$d u$der a$y

w thout $eed of a$y further act o$. +$ the $#ta$t pro,lem


# re?u red to ,e performed* $amely* the

co$!eya$ce of the property a# payme$t 4dac o$ e$ pago7. *ortgage; 4act%m Commissori%m ('##1)

c rcum#ta$ce#* regardle## of locat o$ or #urrou$d $g#. & $u #a$ce per #e # a $u #a$ce $ a$d of t#elf* w thout regard to c rcum#ta$ce# [Tolent"no, '. 697, +"t"n, )!eeler v. R"ver
8alls o9er Co., $17 Ala. 677, 111 So. 90(].

@o #ecure a loa$ o,ta $ed from a rural ,a$9* Pur ta a## g$ed her lea#ehold r ght# o!er a #tall $ the pu,l c mar9et $ fa!or of the ,a$9. @he deed of a## g$me$t pro! de# that $ ca#e of default $ the payme$t of the loa$* the ,a$9 #hall ha!e the r ght to #ell Pur taG# r ght# o!er the mar9et #tall a# her attor$ey> $>fact* a$d to apply the proceed# to the payme$t
of the loa$.

.%isance; 4%blic .%isance vs. 4rivate .%isance ('##9) .tate w th rea#o$ whether each of the follow $g a

$u #a$ce* a$d f #o* g !e t# cla## f cat o$* whether pu,l c or


pr !ate( &rt cle 694 of the C ! l Code def $e# $u #a$ce a#

a$y act* om ## o$* e#ta,l #hme$t* ,u# $e##* co$d t o$ or


property* or a$yth $g el#e wh ch $8ure# or e$da$ger# the

17

2a# the a## g$me$t of lea#ehold r ght# a mortgage or a


ce## o$% 2hy% 43E7

health or #afety of other#* or a$$oy# or offe$d# the #e$#e#* or #hoc9#* def e# or d #regard# dece$cy or moral ty or
o,#truct# or $terfere# w th the free pa##age of a$y pu,l c

27 &##um $g the a## g$me$t to ,e a mortgage* doe# the pro! # o$ g ! $g the ,a$9 the power to #ell Pur taG# r ght# co$#t tute pactum comm ##or um or $ot% 2hy%

h ghway or #treet or a$y ,ody of water or h $der# or mpa r# the u#e of property.
+t # a pu,l c $u #a$ce or f t affect# a commu$ ty

42E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

17

lea#ehold

@he a## g$me$t wa# a mortgage* $ot a ce## o$* of the


r ght#. & ce## o$ would ha!e tra$#ferred

ow$er#h p to the ,a$9. Howe!er* the gra$t of author ty to

$e gh,orhood or a$y co$# dera,le $um,er of per#o$#. +t # a d rect e$croachme$t upo$ pu,l c r ght# or property wh ch

the ,a$9 to #ell the lea#ehold r ght# $ ca#e of default # proof that $o #uch ow$er#h p wa# tra$#ferred a$d that a

mere e$cum,ra$ce wa# co$#t tuted. @here would ha!e ,ee$


$o $eed for #uch author ty had there ,ee$ a ce## o$.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

re#ult# $8ur ou#ly to the pu,l c. +t # a pr !ate $u #a$ce* f t affect# o$ly a per#o$ or #mall $um,er of per#o$#. +t ! olate# o$ly pr !ate r ght#. a) A sN.atterDs !.t (14)
+f co$#tructed o$ pu,l c #treet# or r !er,ed#* t # a pu,l c
$6073, 8e/r.ary $1,196() +f co$#tructed o$ pr !ate la$d* t #

$u #a$ce ,ecau#e t o,#truct# the free u#e ,y the pu,l c of #a d place#. (C"ty o* Man"la v. ;ar+"a, ;.R. 0o. 56

27

1o* the clau#e

$ ?ue#t o$

# $ot a pactum

comm ##or um. !t is pactum commissorium 3/en 2efault in t/e pa7ment of t/e loan automaticall7 6ests o3ners/ip of t/e encum1ere2

propert7 in t/e 1an>. +$ the pro,lem g !e$* the ,a$9 doe# $ot
automat cally ,ecome ow$er of the property upo$ default of the mortgagor. @he ,a$9 ha# to #ell the property a$d apply the proceed# to the $de,ted$e##. *ortgage; 1ig&t of 1e0emption vs. E$%it" of 1e0emption

a pr !ate $u #a$ce ,ecau#e t h $der# or mpa r# the u#e of the property ,y the ow$er. A s9"&&"n, 'ool (14) @h # # $ot a $u #a$ce $ the a,#e$ce of a$y u$u#ual co$d t o$ or art f c al feature other tha$ the mere water. +$
/)
A"%al,o 2nter'r"ses v. Galan%an (;.R. 0o. 5634$$, -.ne 13, 197$), the .upreme Court ruled that a #w mm $g pool #

(1999)

,ut

Page 65 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

a dupl cat o$ of $ature W thu#* could $ot ,e co$# dered a# a

4,7 @he mortgage #hall $ot , $d the 1S3 r ght a$d $tere#t
of & a$d #hall ,e deemed to co!er o$ly the r ght# a$d $tere#t# of N a$d C $ the hou#e a$d lot. @he mortgage

$u #a$ce.
+) A !o.se o* 'rost"t.t"on (14)

+rre#pect !e of t# locat o$ a$d how t# ,u# $e## # co$ducted* t # a $u #a$ce # $ce t def e#* #hoc9# a$d d #regard# dece$cy a$d moral ty. +t # a pu,l c $u #a$ce ,ecau#e of t# $8ury to the pu,l c.
%) A no"sy or %an,ero.s *a+tory "n a 'r"vate lan% (14) +f the $o #e $8ur ou#ly affect# the health a$d comfort of

#hall ,e l m ted to the port o$ 42S37 wh ch may ,e allotted to N a$d C $ the part t o$ 4&rt. 493* C ! l Code7.
4c7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

NG# #ole dec # o$ to ,u ld the co$crete fe$ce # $ot

ord $ary people $ the ! c $ ty to a$ u$rea#o$a,le e-te$t* t


# a $u #a$ce. +t # a pu,l c $u #a$ce ,ecau#e there # a te$de$cy to a$$oy the pu,l c. (#elas+o v. Man"la 2le+tr"+
Co., ;.R. 0o. 5618390, A.,.st 6, 19(1)

, $d $g upo$ & a$d C. 5-pe$#e# to mpro!e the th $g ow$ed $ commo$ mu#t ,e dec ded upo$ ,y a ma8or ty of the co>ow$er# who repre#e$t the co$troll $g $tere#t 4&rt#. 489 a$d 492. C ! l Code7.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

e)

>n+olle+te% ,ar/a,e (14)

4d7 CG# #ole dec # o$ to ,u ld the grotto # $ot , $d $g upo$ & a$d N who ca$$ot ,e re?u red to co$tr ,ute to the e-pe$#e# for the em,ell #hme$t of the th $g ow$ed $
commo$ f $ot dec ded upo$ ,y the ma8or ty of the co>

+t w ll ,ecome a $u #a$ce f t #u,#ta$t ally mpa r# the comfort a$d e$8oyme$t of the ad8ace$t occupa$t#. @he a$$oya$ce a$d the #mell mu#t ,e #u,#ta$t al a# to $terfere #e$# ,ly w th the u#e a$d e$8oyme$t ,y per#o$# of ord $ary #e$# , l t e#. +t # a pu,l c $u #a$ce ,ecau#e of t# $8ury to the pu,l c.
Owners&ip; Co?Owners&ip (199')

ow$er# who repre#e$t the co$troll $g $tere#t 4&rt#. 489 a$d


492* C ! l Code7.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&* N a$d C are the co>ow$er# $ e?ual #hare# of a re# de$t al


hou#e a$d lot. Hur $g the r co>ow$er#h p* the follow $g act# were re#pect !ely do$e ,y the co>ow$er#(

4e7 @he #ale to = #hall $ot , $d the 1S3 #hare of N a$d #hall ,e deemed to co!er o$ly the 2S3 #hare of & a$d C $ the la$d 4&rt. 493* C ! l Code7. N #hall ha!e the r ght to redeem the 2S3 #hare #old to = ,y & a$d C # $ce = # a th rd per#o$ 4&rt. 1620* C ! l Code7. Owners&ip; Co?Owners&ip; 4rescription ('###) +$ 1955* Jamo$ a$d h # # #ter Jo#ar o $her ted a parcel of
la$d $ &l,ay from the r pare$t#. . $ce Jo#ar o wa# ga $fully employed $ 0a$ la* #he left Jamo$ alo$e to po##e## a$d cult !ate the la$d. Howe!er* Jamo$ $e!er #hared the

17

& u$dertoo9 the repa r of the fou$dat o$ of the hou#e*

the$ t lt $g to o$e # de* to pre!e$t the hou#e from

collap# $g.
27 N a$d C mortgaged the hou#e a$d lot to #ecure a loa$. 37 N e$gaged a co$tractor to ,u ld a co$crete fe$ce all arou$d the lot.

har!e#t w th Jo#ar o a$d wa# e!e$ a,le to #ell o$e>half of


the la$d $ 1985 ,y cla m $g to ,e the #ole he r of h #

47 C ,u lt a ,eaut ful grotto $ the garde$.


57

& a$d C #old the la$d to = for a !ery good pr ce. 4a7 +# &G# #ole dec # o$ to repa r the fou$dat o$ of the hou#e , $d $g o$ N a$d C% 0ay & re?u re N

a$d C to co$tr ,ute the r 2S3 #hare of the e-pe$#e% Jea#o$#.

pare$t#. Ha! $g reached ret reme$t age $ 1990 Jo#ar o retur$ed to the pro! $ce a$d upo$ lear$ $g what had tra$#p red* dema$ded that the rema $ $g half of the la$d ,e g !e$ to her a# her #hare. Jamo$ oppo#ed* a##ert $g that he ha# already ac?u red ow$er#h p of the la$d ,y pre#cr pt o$* a$d that Jo#ar o # ,arred ,y lache# from dema$d $g
part t o$ a$d reco$!eya$ce. Hec de the co$fl ct $g cla m#.

4,7 2hat # the legal effect of the mortgage co$tract


e-ecuted ,y N a$d C% Jea#o$#. 4c7 +# NG# #ole dec # o$ to ,u ld the fe$ce , $d $g

45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

upo$ & a$d C% 0ay N re?u re & a$d C to


co$tr ,ute the r 2S 3 #hare of the e-pe$#e% Jea#o$#.

Jamo$ # wro$g o$ ,oth cou$t#( pre#cr pt o$ a$d lache#.

H # po##e## o$ a# co>ow$er d d $ot g !e r #e to ac?u # t !e


pre#cr pt o$. Po##e## o$ ,y a co>ow$er # deemed $ot

4d7 +# CG# #ole dec # o$ to ,u ld the grotto , $d $g

ad!er#e to the other co>ow$er# ,ut #* o$ the co$trary*

upo$ & a$d N% 0ay C re?u re & a$d N to


co$tr ,ute the r 2S 3 #hare of the e-pe$#e% Jea#o$#.

deemed ,e$ef c al to them ( on,on v. ;A, 166 SCRA 3(7). Jamo$G# po##e## o$ w ll ,ecome ad!er#e o$ly whe$ he ha# repud ated the co>ow$er#h p a$d #uch repud at o$ wa#
made 9$ow$ to Jo#ar o. &##um $g that the #ale $ 1985 where Jamo$ cla med he wa# the #ole he r of h # pare$t# amou$ted to a repud at o$ of the co>ow$er#h p* the

4e7 2hat are the legal effect# of the co$tract of #ale e-ecuted ,y &. C a$d =% Jea#o$#.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4a7 Be#.

&G# #ole dec # o$ to repa r the fou$dat o$ #

pre#cr pt !e per od ,ega$ to ru$ o$ly from that t me. 1ot


more tha$ 30 year# ha! $g lap#ed # $ce the$* the cla m of

, $d $g upo$ N a$d C. N a$d C mu#t co$tr ,ute 2S3 of the e-pe$#e. 5ach co>ow$er ha# the r ght to compel the other co>ow$er# to co$tr ,ute to the e-pe$#e of pre#er!at o$ of
the th $g 4the hou#e7 ow$ed $ commo$ $ proport o$ to the r re#pect !e $tere#t# 4&rt#. 485 a$d 488* C ! l Code7.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Jo#ar o ha# $ot a# yet pre#cr ,ed. @he cla m of lache# # $ot al#o mer tor ou#. L$t l the repud at o$ of the co> ow$er#h p wa# made 9$ow$ to the other co>ow$er#* $o r ght ha# ,ee$ ! olated for the #a d co>ow$er# to ! $d cate. 0ere delay $
! $d cat $g the r ght* #ta$d $g alo$e* doe# $ot co$#t tute

lache#.

Page 66 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

Jamo$ ha# ac?u red the la$d ,y ac?u # t !e pre#cr pt o$* a$d ,ecau#e of lache# o$ the part of Jo#ar o. Jamo$G# po##e## o$ of the la$d wa# ad!er#e ,ecau#e he a##erted #ole ow$er#h p thereof a$d $e!er #hared the har!e#t therefrom. H # ad!er#e po##e## o$ ha! $g ,ee$ co$t $uou# a$d u$ $terrupted for more tha$ 30 year#* Jamo$ ha# ac?u red the la$d ,y pre#cr pt o$. Jo#ar o # al#o gu lty of lache# $ot ha! $g a##erted her r ght to the har!e#t for more tha$ 40 year#. Owners&ip; Co?Owners&ip; 4rescription ('##')
.e$e$ a$d Peter are ,rother#. .e$e$ m grated to Ca$ada early wh le #t ll a tee$ager. Peter #tayed $ Nulaca$ to ta9e care of the r w dowed mother a$d co$t $ued to wor9 o$ the Fam ly farm e!e$ after her death. Jetur$ $g to the cou$try #ome th rty year# after he had left* .e$e$ #ee9# a part t o$ of the farm to get h # #hare a# the o$ly co>he r of Peter. Peter $terpo#e# h # oppo# t o$* co$te$d $g that ac?u # t !e pre#cr pt o$ ha# already #et $ a$d that e#toppel l e# to ,ar the act o$ for part t o$* c t $g h # co$t $uou# po##e## o$ of the property for at lea#t 10 year#* for almo#t 30 year# $ fact. +t # u$d #puted that Peter ha# $e!er ope$ly cla med #ole ow$er#h p of the property. +f he e!er had the $te$t o$ to do #o* .e$e$ wa# completely g$ora$t of t. 2 ll .e$e$O# act o$ pro#per% 5-pla $. 45E7.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

)o!er$me$t* a$d ut l :ed the #ame $ agr ,u# $e##. +$ 1960* a# NG# ,u# $e## flour #hed* C a$d H #ued N for part t o$ a$d accou$t $g of the $come of the property* cla m $g that a# he r# of the r father they were co> ow$er#

.e$e$O# act o$ w ll pro#per. &rt cle 494 of the 1ew C ! l Code pro! de# that C$o pre#cr pt o$ #hall ru$ $ fa!or of a co>ow$er or co>he r aga $#t h # co>ow$er# or co>he r# #o lo$g a# he e-pre##ly or mpl edly recog$ :e# the co> ow$er#h p $or $ot f ed .e$e$ of h # ha! $g repud ated the #ame.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

.e$e$O# act o$ w ll pro#per. @h # # a ca#e of mpl ed tru#t. 4&rt 1441* 1CC7 For purpo#e# of pre#cr pt o$ u$der the co$cept of a$ ow$er 4&rt. 540* 1CC7. @here # $o #uch co$cept here. Peter wa# a co>ow$er* he $e!er cla med #ole ow$er#h p of the property. He # therefore e#topped u$der &rt. 1431* 1CC. Owners&ip; Co?Owners&ip; 1e0emption (199()
+$ 1937* & o,ta $ed a loa$ of P20*000.00 from the 1at o$al C ty Na$9 of 1ew Bor9* a$ &mer ca$>ow$ed ,a$9 do $g ,u# $e## $ the Ph l pp $e#. @o guara$tee payme$t of h # o,l gat o$* & co$#t tuted a real e#tate mortgage o$ h # 30> hectare parcel of agr cultural la$d. +$ 1939* ,efore he could pay h # o,l gat o$. & d ed $te#tate lea! $g three ch ldre$. N* a #o$ ,y a f r#t marr age* a$d C a$d H* daughter# ,y a #eco$d marr age. +$ 1940* the ,a$9 foreclo#ed the mortgage for $o$>payme$t of the pr $c pal o,l gat o$. &# the o$ly , dder at the e-tra8ud c al foreclo#ure #ale* the ,a$9 ,ought the property a$d wa# later ##ued a cert f cate of #ale. @he war #uper!e$ed $ 1941 w thout the ,a$9 ha! $g ,ee$ a,le to o,ta $ actual po##e## o$ of the property wh ch rema $ed w th &G# three ch ldre$ who appropr ated for them#el!e# the $come from t. +$ 1948* N ,ought the property from the ,a$9 u# $g the mo$ey he rece !ed a# ,ac9 pay from the L. ..

thereof a$d offer $g to re m,ur#e N for whate!er he had pa d $ purcha# $g the property from the ,a$9. +$ ,r ef* how w ll you a$#wer the compla $t of C a$d H* f you were e$gaged ,y H a# h # cou$#el%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

w th $ot ce to h # ,rother#. @o e$a,le the ,uyer to #ecure a $ew t tle $

Page 67 of 119

&# cou$#el of N* + #hall a$#wer the compla $t a# follow#( 2he$ N ,ought the property* t wa# $ot ,y a r ght of redempt o$ # $ce the per od therefore had already e-p red. He$ce* N ,ought the property $ a$ $depe$de$t u$co$d t o$al #ale. C a$d H are $ot co> ow$er# w th N of the property. @herefore* the #u t of C a$d H ca$$ot pro#per.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

&# cou$#el of N* + #hall a$#wer the compla $t a# follow#( From the fact# de#cr ,ed* t would appear that the Cert f cate of #ale ha# $ot ,ee$ reg #tered. @he o$e>year per od of redempt o$ ,eg $# to ru$ from reg #trat o$. +$ th # ca#e* t ha# $ot yet e!e$ comme$ced. L$der the Jule# of Court* the property may ,e relea#ed ,y the <udgme$t de,tor or h # #ucce##or $ $tere#t. 4.ec. 29* Jule 277. +t ha# ,ee$ held that th # $clude# a 8o $t ow$er. (Re*. Ma,no vs.C"ola,
61 !"l. 80).

Owners&ip; Co?Owners&ip; 1e0emption ('###)


&m,ro# o d ed* lea! $g h # three daughter#* Nele$* Jo#ar o a$d .yl! a a hac e$da wh ch wa# mortgaged to the Ph l pp $e 1at o$al Na$9 due to the fa lure of the daughter# to pay the ,a$9* the latter foreclo#ed the mortgage a$d the hac e$da wa# #old to t a# the h ghe#t , dder. . mo$th# later* .yl! a wo$ the gra$d pr :e at the lotto a$d u#ed part of t to redeem the hac e$da from the ,a$9. @hereafter* #he too9 po##e## o$ of the hac e$da a$d refu#ed to #hare t# fru t# w th her # #ter#* co$te$d $g that t wa# ow$ed e-clu# !ely ,y her* ha! $g ,ought t from the ,a$9 w th her ow$ mo$ey. +# #he correct or $ot% 43E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

.yl! a # $ot correct. @he 3 daughter# are the co>ow$er# of the hac e$da ,e $g the o$ly he r# of &m,ro# o. 2he$ the property wa# foreclo#ed* the r ght of redempt o$ ,elo$g# al#o to the 3 daughter#. 2he$ .yl! a redeemed the e$t re property ,efore the lap#e of the redempt o$ per od* #he al#o e-erc #ed the r ght of redempt o$ of her co>ow$er# o$ the r ,ehalf. &# #uch #he # hold $g the #hare# of her two # #ter# $ the property* a$d all the fru t# corre#po$d $g thereto* $ tru#t for them. Jedempt o$ ,y o$e co>ow$er $ure# to the ,e$ef t of all (A%"lle v. CA.17( SCRA 477). .yl! a* howe!er* # e$t tled to ,e re m,ur#ed the #hare# of her two # #ter# $ the redempt o$ pr ce. Owners&ip; Co?Owners&ip; 1e0emption ('##')
&$to$ o* Nart* a$d Carlo# are ,rother#. @hey purcha#ed from the r pare$t# #pec f c port o$# of a parcel of la$d a# e! de$ced ,y three #eparate# deed# of #ale* each deed referr $g to a part cular lot $ meter a$d ,ou$d#. 2he$ the deed# were pre#e$ted for reg #trat o$* the Jeg #ter of Heed# could $ot ##ue #eparate cert f cate# of @ tle had to ,e ##ued* therefore* $ the $ame# of three ,rother# a# co> ow$er# of the e$t re property. @he # tuat o$ ha# $ot cha$ged up to $ow* ,ut each of the ,rother# ha# ,ee$ rece ! $g re$tal# e-clu# !ely from the lot actually purcha#ed ,y h m. &$to$ o #ell# h # lot to a th rd per#o$*

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

h # $ame* the deed of #ale wa# made to refer to u$d ! ded


$tere#t $ the property of the #eller 4&$to$ o7* w th the mete# a$d ,ou$d# of the lot #old ,e $g #tated. Nart a$d Carlo# reacted ,y # g$ fy $g the r e-erc #e of the r r ght of

redempt o$ a# co ow$er#. &$to$ o $ h # ,ehalf a$d $


,ehalf of h # ,uyer* co$te$d# that they are $o lo$ger co> ow$er#* although the t tle co!er $g the property ha# rema $ed $ the r $ame# a# #uch.

.al!ador* a t m,er co$ce## o$a re* ,u lt o$ h # lot a warehou#e where he proce##e# a$d #tore# h # t m,er for #h pme$t. &d8o $ $g the warehou#e # a fur$ ture factory ow$ed ,y 1&JJ&0+= of wh ch .al!ador # a ma8or ty #toc9holder. 1&JJ&0+= lea#ed #pace $ the warehou#e

where t placed t# fur$ ture>ma9 $g mach $ery. 1. How would you cla## fy the fur$ ture>ma9 $g mach $ery
a# property u$der the C ! l Code% 5-pla $.

0ay Nart a$d Carlo# #t ll redeem the lot #old ,y &$to$ o%


5-pla $. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1o* they may $ot redeem ,ecau#e there wa# $o Co>


ow$er#h p amo$g &$to$ o* Nart* a$d Carlo# to #tart w th.

2. .uppo#e the lea#e co$tract ,etwee$ .al!ador a$d 1&JJ&0+= #t pulate# that at the e$d of the lea#e the mach $ery #hall ,ecome the property of the le##or* w ll your
a$#wer ,e the #ame% 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he r pare$t# already part t o$ed the la$d $ #ell $g #eparate port o$# to them. @he # tuat o$ # the #ame a# $ the ca#e S"
v. Co.rt o* A''eals, (34$ SCRA 673 [$000]).

1.

@he fur$ ture>ma9 $g mach $ery # mo!a,le property

4ossession (1993)

,ecau#e t wa# $ot $#talled ,y the ow$er of the te$eme$t. @o ,ecome mmo!a,le u$der &rt. 415 457 of the 1CC* the mach $ery mu#t ,e $#talled ,y the ow$er of the te$eme$t.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

L# $g a fal# f ed ma$agerG# chec9* <u#t $e* a# the ,uyer* wa#


a,le to ta9e del !ery of a #eco$d ha$d car wh ch #he had

8u#t ,ought from L$ ted Car .ale# +$c. @he #ale wa# reg #tered w th the "a$d @ra$#portat o$ /ff ce. & wee9 later* the #eller lear$ed that the chec9 had ,ee$ d #ho$ored* ,ut ,y that t me* <u#t $e wa# $owhere to ,e #ee$. +t tur$ed out that <u#t $e had #old the car to <er co* the pre#e$t po##e##or who 9$ew $oth $g a,out the fal# f ed chec9. +$ a #u t ,y L$ ted Car .ale#* +$c. aga $#t <er co for reco!ery of the car* pla $t ff allege# t had ,ee$ u$lawfully depr !ed of t# property through fraud a$d #hould* co$#e?ue$tly* ,e allowed to reco!er t w thout ha! $g to re m,ur#e the defe$da$t for the pr ce the latter had pa d. .hould the #u t
pro#per% ;5EA
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

+t depe$d# o$ the c rcum#ta$ce# of the ca#e. +f the mach $ery wa# attached $ a f -ed ma$$er* $ #uch a way

that t ca$$ot ,e #eparated from the te$eme$t w thout ,rea9 $g the mater al or cau# $g deter orat o$ thereof* t #
mmo!a,le property ;&rt. 415 437* 1CCA. Howe!er* f the

mach $ery ca$ ,e tra$#ported from place to place w thout mpa rme$t of the te$eme$t to wh ch they were f -ed* the$ t # mo!a,le property. ;&rt. 416 447* 1CCA
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he #u t #hould pro#per a# to the reco!ery of the car. Howe!er* # $ce <er co wa# $ot gu lty of a$y fraud a$d appear# to ,e a$ $$oce$t purcha#er for !alue* he #hould ,e re m,ur#ed for the pr ce he pa d. @h # # w thout pre8ud ce to L$ ted Car .ale#* +$c. r ght of act o$ aga $#t <u#t $e. &#
#hould #uffer the lo##. @herefore* L$ ted Car .ale#* +$c. #hould #uffer the lo##.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

2. +t # mmo!a,le property. 2he$ there # a pro! # o$ $ the lea#e co$tract ma9 $g the le##or* at the e$d of the lea#e* ow$er of the mach $ery $#talled ,y the le##ee* the #a d mach $ery # co$# dered to ha!e ,ee$ $#talled ,y the le##or through the le##ee who acted merely a# h # age$t. Ha! $g ,ee$ $#talled ,y the ow$er of the te$eme$t* the mach $ery
,ecame mmo!a,le .u$der &rt. 415 of the 1CC. (Favao
Sa9&"ll v. Cast"llo 61 !"l. (09)

,etwee$ two $$oce$t part e#* the party cau# $g the $8ury

4ropert"; 1eal vs. 4ersonal 4ropert" (1997) Pedro # the reg #tered ow$er of a parcel of la$d # tuated $

0alolo#* Nulaca$. +$ 1973* he mortgaged the la$d to the Ph l pp $e 1at o$al Na$9 4P1N7 to #ecure a loa$ of

Be#* the #u t w ll pro#per ,ecau#e the cr m $al act of e#tafa #hould ,e deemed to come w th $ the mea$ $g of u$lawful
depr !at o$ u$der &rt. 559* C ! l Code* a# w thout t pla $t ff would $ot ha!e parted w th the po##e## o$ of t#

car.
A'!$.E" A'(WE":

1o* the #u t w ll $ot pro#per. @he #ale # !al d a$d <er co # a


,uyer $ good fa th.

P100.000.00. For PedroG# fa lure to pay the loa$* the P1N foreclo#ed o$ the mortgage $ 1980* a$d the la$d wa# #old at pu,l c auct o$ to P1N for ,e $g the h ghe#t , dder. P1N #ecured t tle thereto $ 1987. +$ the mea$wh le* Pedro* who wa# #t ll $ po##e## o$ of the la$d* co$#tructed a warehou#e o$ the property. +$ 1988* the

A'!$.E" A'(WE":

L$der the law o$ .ale#* whe$ the th $g #old # del !ered ,y the #eller to the ,uyer w thout re#er!at o$ of ow$er#h p* the ow$er#h p # tra$#ferred to the ,uyer. @herefore $ the #u t of L$ ted Car .ale#* +$c. aga $#t <er co for the reco!ery of
the car* the pla $t ff #hould $ot ,e allowed to reco!er the

P1N #old the la$d to Pa,lo* the Heed of .ale wa# ame$ded $ 1989 to $clude the warehou#e.
Pedro* cla m $g ow$er#h p of the warehou#e* f le# a compla $t to a$$ul the ame$ded Heed of .ale ,efore the

car w thout re m,ur# $g the defe$da$t for the pr ce that the latter pa d. (2FCA ./l"s!"n, an% F"str"/.t"n, Cor'. vs.
Santos, 184 SCRA 614, A'r"l $6, 1990)

Jeg o$al @r al Court of Pue:o$ C ty* where he re# de#* aga $#t ,oth the P1N a$d Pa,lo. @he P1N f led a mot o$
to d #m ## the compla $t for mproper !e$ue co$te$d $g

4ropert"; 1eal vs. 4ersonal 4ropert" (1999)

that the warehou#e # real property u$der &rt cle 415417 of the C ! l Code a$d therefore the act o$ #hould ha!e $#tead ,ee$ f led $ 0alolo#* Nulaca$. Pedro cla m# otherw #e. @he ?ue#t o$ aro#e a# to whether the warehou#e #hould ,e
co$# dered a# real or a# per#o$al property.

Page 68 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

+f co$#ulted* what would your legal ad! ce ,e%


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he warehou#e wh ch # a co$#truct o$ adhered to the #o l #

a$ mmo!a,le ,y $ature u$der &rt. 415 417 a$d the proper !e$ue of a$y ca#e to reco!er ow$er#h p of the #ame* wh ch # what the purpo#e of the compla $t to a$$ul the ame$ded
Heed of .ale amou$t# to* #hould ,e the place where the property # located* or the J@C of Nulaca$.
A##I$I!'AL A'(WE"(:

latter !acate the prem #e# a$d del !er the #ame to the former. Petro$ la refu#ed to !acate the place o$ the grou$d that the u#ufruct $ her fa!or would e-p re o$ly o$ 1 <u$e
1998 whe$ 0a$uel would ha!e reached h # 30th , rthday

a$d that the death of 0a$uel ,efore h # 30th , rthday d d $ot e-t $gu #h the u#ufruct. 2ho#e co$te$t o$ #hould ,e accepted%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1. Nu ld $g# are alway# mmo!a,le property* a$d e!e$ $ the $#ta$ce# where the part e# to a co$tract #eem to ha!e
dealt w th t #eparate a$d apart from the la$d o$ wh ch t

#tood $ $o w #e doe# t cha$ge t# character a# mmo!a,le property. & ,u ld $g # a$ mmo!a,le e!e$ f $ot erected ,y the ow$er of the la$d. @he o$ly cr ter o$ # u$ o$ or $corporat o$ w th the #o l. (5a%era vs. Ao%,es (CA) 48 <.;. 43(4) (Reyes an% .no, <.tl"ne o* !"l"''"ne C"v"l 5a9,
#ol. $. '.()

C ! l Code* a u#ufruct gra$ted for the t me that may elap#e ,efore a th rd per#o$ reache# a certa $ age #hall #u,# #t for the $um,er of year# #pec f ed e!e$ f the th rd per#o$ #hould d e u$le## there # a$ e-pre## #t pulat o$ $ the co$tract that #tate# otherw #e. +$ the ca#e at ,ar* there # $o e-pre## #t pulat o$ that the co$# derat o$ for the u#ufruct # the e- #te$ce of Petro$ laG# #o$. @hu#* the ge$eral rule a$d $ot the e-cept o$ #hould apply $ th # ca#e.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

Petro$ laG# co$te$t o$ # correct. L$der &rt cle 606 of the

2.

@he warehou#e ,u lt ,y Pedro o$ the mortgaged

property # real property w th $ the co$te-t of &rt cle 415 of the 1ew C ! l Code* although t wa# ,u lt ,y Pedro after the foreclo#ure #ale w thout the 9$owledge a$d co$#e$t of the
$ew ow$er wh ch ma9e# h m a ,u lder $ ,ad fa th* th #

@h # # a u#ufruct wh ch # clearly $te$ded for the ,e$ef t of 0a$uel u$t l he reache# 30 yr#. of age w th Petro$ la #er! $g o$ly a# a co$du t* hold $g the property $ tru#t for h#
,e$ef t. @he death of 0a$uel at the age of 26 therefore*

term $ated the u#ufruct.

doe# $ot alter the character of the warehou#e a# a real property ,y $corporat o$. +t # a #tructure wh ch ca$$ot ,e remo!ed w thout cau# $g $8ury to the la$d. .o* my ad! ce
to Pedro # to f le the ca#e w th the J@C of Nulaca$* the

LA'# $"A'( E" , #EE#(


2c$%isition of Lan0s; Citi>ens&ip 1e$%irement ('##() +$ 1970* the #pou#e# <ua$ a$d <ua$a de la Cru:* the$ F l p $o#* ,ought the parcel of u$reg #tered la$d $ the Ph l pp $e# o$ wh ch they ,u lt a hou#e wh ch ,ecame the r
re# de$ce. +$ 1986* they m grated to Ca$ada a$d ,ecame

# tu# of the property*


9"ote. !f t/e e0aminee 2oes not mention t/at t/e structure 3as 1uilt 17 a 1uil2er in 1a2 fait/4 it s/oul2 1e ;i6en full cre2it:.

ower; Boo0 ,ait&D ;a0 ,ait& ('###)

Fel - cult !ated a parcel of la$d a$d pla$ted t to #ugar ca$e* ,el e! $g t to ,e h # ow$. 2he$ the crop wa# e ght mo$th# old* a$d har!e#ta,le after two more mo$th#* a re#ur!ey of
the la$d #howed that t really ,elo$ged to Fred. 2hat are the opt o$# a!a la,le to Fred% 42E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Ca$ad a$ c t :e$#. @hereafter* $ 1990* they appl ed* oppo#ed ,y the Jepu,l c*
for the reg #trat o$ of the afore#a d la$d $ the r $ame#.

&# to the pe$d $g crop# pla$ted ,y Fel - $ good fa th* Fred ha# the opt o$ of allow $g Fel - to co$t $ue the cult !at o$ a$d to har!e#t the crop#* or to co$t $ue the cult !at o$ a$d
har!e#t the crop# h m#elf. +$ the latter opt o$* howe!er*

.hould the appl cat o$ of the #pou#e# de la Cru: ,e gra$ted o!er the Jepu,l cO# oppo# t o$% 2hy% 5E
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Fel - #hall ha!e the r ght to a part of the e-pe$#e# of


cult !at o$ a$d to a part of the $et har!e#t* ,oth proport o$ to the t me of po##e## o$. 4&rt. 545 1CC7*
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

Co$#t tut o$ proh , t# al e$# from ow$ $g pr !ate la$d# $ the Ph l pp $e#. @h # rule* howe!er* doe# $ot apply to the

Be#* the appl cat o$ #hould ,e gra$ted. &# a rule* the

#pou#e# <ua$ a$d <ua$a de la Cru: ,ecau#e at the t me they ac?u red ow$er#h p o!er the la$d* al,e t mperfect* they were #t ll F l p $o c t :e$#. @he appl cat o$ for reg #trat o$ #

. $ce #ugarca$e # $ot a pere$$ al crop. Fel - # co$# dered a #ower $ good fa th. Ne $g #o* &rt. 448 appl e#. @he opt o$# a!a la,le to Fred are( 4a7 to appropr ate the crop after pay $g Fel - the $dem$ ty u$der &rt. 546* or 4,7 to re?u re Fel - to
pay re$t.

a mere co$f rmat o$ of the the

mperfect t tle wh ch

#pou#e# ha!e already ac?u red ,efore they ,ecame Ca$ad a$ c t :e$#. (Re'./l"+ v. CA, $37 SCRA 76( [1994]). 20verse Claims; .otice of Lev" (1993) .ect o$ 70 of Pre# de$t al Hecree 1o. 1529* co$cer$ $g ad!er#e cla m# o$ reg #tered la$d* pro! de# a 30>day per od of effect ! ty of a$ ad!er#e cla m* cou$ted from the date of
t# reg #trat o$. .uppo#e a $ot ce of ad!er#e cla m ,a#ed

/s%fr%ct (1997) /$ 1 <a$uary 1980* 0 $er!a* the ow$er of a ,u ld $g* gra$ted Petro$ la a u#ufruct o!er the property u$t l 01 <u$e 1998 whe$ 0a$uel* a #o$ of Petro$ la* would ha!e reached
h # 30th , rthday. 0a$uel* howe!er* d ed o$ 1 <u$e 1990

whe$ he wa# o$ly 26 year# old.


0 $er!a $ot f ed Petro$ la that the u#ufruct had ,ee$

e-t $gu #hed ,y the death of 0a$uel a$d dema$ded that the

upo$ a co$tract to #ell wa# reg #tered o$ 0arch 1* 1997 at the $#ta$ce of the NLB5J* ,ut o$ <u$e 1* 1997* or after the lap#e of the 30>day per od* a $ot ce of le!y o$ e-ecut o$ $ fa!or of a <LH)051@ CJ5H+@/J wa# al#o reg #tered to e$force a f $al 8udgme$t for mo$ey aga $#t the reg #tered ow$er. @he$* o$ <u$e 15* 1997 there ha! $g ,ee$ $o formal ca$cellat o$ of h # $ot ce of ad!er#e cla m* the NLB5J pay#

Page 69 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

to the #eller>ow$er the agreed purcha#e pr ce $ full a$d reg #ter# the corre#po$d $g deed of #ale. Necau#e the

re# de$t al* commerc al* product !e

$du#tr al* or # m lar

a$$otat o$ of the $ot ce of le!y # carr ed o!er to the $ew t tle $ h # $ame* the NLB5J ,r $g# a$ act o$ aga $#t the <LH)051@ CJ5H+@/J to ca$cel #uch a$$otat o$* ,ut the latter cla m# that h # l e$ # #uper or ,ecau#e t wa# a$$otated after the ad!er#e cla m of the NLB5J had p#o
facto cea#ed to ,e effect !e. 2 ll the #u t pro#per% ;5EA
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

purpo#e#* a$d o$ly ,y lea#e whe$ $ot $eeded ,y the go!er$me$t for pu,l c #er! ce. 427 +f the la$d # #u ted or actually u#ed for f #hpo$d or a?uaculture purpo#e#* t come# u$der the <ur #d ct o$ of the Nureau of F #her e# a$d &?uat c Je#ource# 4NF&J7 a$d ca$ o$ly ,e ac?u red ,y lea#e. 4P.H. 7057 437 Free Pate$t # a mode of co$ce## o$ u$der .ect o$ 41*
Chapter 6++ of the Pu,l c "a$d &ct* wh ch # appl ca,le

@he #u t w ll pro#per. 2h le a$ ad!er#e cla m duly a$$otated at the ,ac9 of a t tle u$der .ect o$ 7/ of P.H. 1529 # good
o$ly for 30 day#* ca$cellat o$ thereof # #t ll $ece##ary to re$der t $effect !e* otherw #e* the $#cr pt o$ thereof w ll

o$ly for agr cultural la$d#. 447 @he cert f cate of the d #tr ct fore#ter that the la$d #
already 'al e$a,le a$d d #po#a,le' # mply mea$# that the

rema $ a$$otated a# a l e$ o$ the property. 2h le the l fe of ad!er#e cla m # 3/ day# u$der P.H. 1529* t co$t $uou# to ,e effect !e u$t l t # ca$celed ,y formal pet t o$ f led w th
the Jeg #ter of Heed#.

la$d # $o lo$ger $eeded for fore#t purpo#e#* ,ut the Nureau of "a$d# could $o lo$ger d #po#e of t ,y free pate$t
,ecau#e t # already co!ered ,y a lea#e co$tract ,etwee$

@he ca$cellat o$ of the $ot ce of le!y # 8u#t f ed u$der .ect o$ 108 of P.H. 1529 co$# der $g that the le!y o$ e-ecut o$ ca$ $ot ,e e$forced aga $#t the ,uyer who#e
ad!er#e cla m aga $#t the reg #tered ow$er wa# recorded ahead of the $ot ce of le!y o$ e-ecut o$.

NF&J a$d Jeg $a. @hat co$tract mu#t ,e re#pected. 457 a, @he free pate$t of <orge # h ghly rregular a$d !o d

$ t o* $ot o$ly ,ecau#e the Nureau ha# $o #tatutory author ty to ##ue a free pate$t o!er a fore#hore area* ,ut

2nnotation of Lis 4en0ens; 8&en 4roper ('##1) 0ar o #old h # hou#e a$d lot to Carme$ for P1 m ll o$ paya,le $ f !e 457 e?ual a$$ual $#tallme$t#. @he #ale wa# reg #tered a$d t tle wa# ##ued $ Carme$G# $ame. Carme$

al#o ,ecau#e of the fal#e #tateme$t# made $ h # #wor$

appl cat o$ that he ha# occup ed a$d cult !ated the la$d

fa led to pay the la#t three $#tallme$t# a$d 0ar o f led a$.
act o$ for collect o$* damage# a$d attor$ey# fee# aga $#t

her. Lpo$ f l $g of the compla $t* he cau#ed a $ot ce of l # pe$de$# to ,e a$$otated o$ Carme$G# t tle. +# the $ot ce of
l # pe$de$# proper or $ot% 2hy% 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

# $ce <uly 4* 1945* a# re?u red ,y the free pate$t law. L$der .ect o$ 91 of the Pu,l c "a$d &ct* a$y pate$t co$ce## o$ or t tle o,ta $ed thru fal#e repre#e$tat o$ # !o d a, $ t o. +$ ca#e# of th # $ature* t # the go!er$me$t that #hall $#t tute a$$ulme$t proceed $g# co$# der $g that the #u t carr e# w th t a prayer for the re!er# o$ of the la$d to the #tate.
Howe!er* Jeg $a # a party $ $tere#t a$d the ca#e w ll

@he $ot ce of l # pe$de$# # $ot proper for the rea#o$ that


the ca#e f led ,y 0ar o aga $#t Carme$ # o$ly for collect o$* damage#* a$d attor$eyG# fee#.

pro#per ,ecau#e #he ha# a lea#e co$tract for the #ame la$d w th the go!er$me$t. ,orger"; )nnocent 4%rc&aser; Aol0er in ;a0 ,ait& ('##9) Jod* the ow$er of a$ F= ta- * fou$d $ h # !eh cle a$ e$!elope co$ta $ $g @C@ 1o. 65432 o!er a lot reg #tered $ Ce#arG# $ame. Po# $g a# Ce#ar* Jod forged Ce#arG# # g$ature
o$ a Heed of .ale $ JodG# fa!or. Jod reg #tered the #a d

&$$otat o$ of a l # pe$de$# ca$ o$ly ,e do$e $ ca#e# $!ol! $g reco!ery of po##e## o$ of real property* or to
?u et t tle or to remo!e cloud thereo$* or for part t o$ or

a$y other proceed $g affect $g t tle to the la$d or the u#e or occupat o$ thereof. @he act o$ f led ,y 0ar o doe# $ot fall
o$ a$yo$e of the#e. ,ores&ore Lan0s ('###)

docume$t w th the Jeg #ter of Heed#* a$d o,ta $ed a $ew


t tle $ h # $ame. &fter a year* he #old the lot to Ho$* a ,uyer $ good fa th a$d for !alue* who al#o reg #tered the lot

$ h # $ame.
a)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

F"% Ro% a+N."re t"tle to t!e lan%1 23'la"n. ($4)

Jeg $a ha# ,ee$ lea# $g fore#hore la$d from the Nureau of

F #her e# a$d &?uat c Je#ource# for the pa#t 15 year#.


Jece$tly* #he lear$ed that <orge wa# a,le to o,ta $ a free pate$t from the Nureau of &gr culture* co!er $g the #ame

1o* Jod d d $ot ac?u re t tle to the la$d. @he $#cr pt o$ $


the reg #try* to ,e effect !e* mu#t ,e made $ good fa th. @he defe$#e of $defea# , l ty of a @orre$# @ tle doe# $ot

la$d* o$ the ,a# # of a cert f cat o$ ,y the H #tr ct Fore#ter that the #ame # already 'al e$a,le a$d d #po#a,le'. 0oreo!er* <orge had already reg #tered the pate$t w th the
Jeg #ter of Heed# of the pro! $ce* a$d he wa# ##ued a$ /r g $al Cert f cate of @ tle for the #ame. Jeg $a f led a$ act o$ for a$$ulme$t of <orgeG# t tle o$ the grou$d that t wa# o,ta $ed fraudule$tly. 2 ll the act o$ pro#per% 42E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

e-te$d to a tra$#feree who ta9e# the cert f cate of t tle w th $ot ce of a flaw. & holder $ ,ad fa th of a cert f cate of t tle
# $ot e$t tled to the protect o$ of the law* for the law

ca$$ot ,e u#ed a# a #h eld for fraud#. (Sa&onte v. Co.rt o*


A''eals, ;.R. 0o. 104$$3, -.ly 1$, $001)

&$ act o$ for the a$$ulme$t of <orgeG# /r g $al Cert f cate of @ tle w ll pro#per o$ the follow $g grou$d#( 417 L$der Chapter += of C .&* 1o. 141* otherw #e 9$ow$ a# the Pu,l c "a$d &ct* fore#hore la$d# are d #po#a,le for

+$ the ca#e at ,ar* Jod o$ly forged Ce#arG# # g$ature o$ the >Heed of .ale. +t # !ery appare$t that there wa# ,ad fa th o$ the part of Jod from the !ery ,eg $$ $g. &# #uch* he # $ot e$t tled to the protect o$ of the "a$d Jeg #trat o$ &ct. /) F"s+.ss t!e r",!ts o* Fon, "* any, over t!e
'ro'erty. ($4)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Page 70 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

+t # a well>9$ow$ rule $ th # 8ur #d ct o$ that per#o$#


deal $g w th reg #tered la$d ha!e the legal r ght to rely o$

the face of the @orre$# Cert f cate of @ tle a$d to d #pe$#e


w th the $eed to $?u re further* e-cept whe$ the party

@he mortgage to He# der o #hould ,e ca$celled w thout pre8ud ce to h # r ght to go after Catal $o a$dSor the
go!er$me$t for compe$#at o$ from the a##ura$ce fu$d.

co$cer$ed ha# actual 9$owledge of fact# a$d c rcum#ta$ce# that would mpel a rea#o$a,ly caut ou# ma$ to ma9e #uch
$?u ry. (0aa9an Co&&.n"ty R.ral GanE v. Co.rt o*
A''eals, ;.R. 0o. 1$87(3, -an.ary 13, $003)

+$ the g !e$ pro,lem* the property wa# already reg #tered $ the $ame of Jod whe$ he ,ought the #ame from the latter. @hu#* Ho$ could ,e co$# dered a# a ,uyer $ good fa th a$d for !alue. Howe!er* # $ce Jod d d $ot actually #ell a$y property to h m* Ho$ ha# $o r ght to reta $ ow$er#h p o!er the property. He ha# o$ly the r ght to reco!er the purcha#e
pr ce plu# damage#.

,ra%0; 4roc%rement of 4atent; Effect ('###) +$ 1979* 1e#tor appl ed for a$d wa# gra$ted a Free Pate$t o!er a parcel of agr cultural la$d w th a$ area of 30 hectare#* located $ )e$eral .a$to# C ty. He pre#e$ted the Free Pate$t to the Jeg #ter of Heed#* a$d he wa# ##ued a corre#po$d $g /r g $al Cert f cate of @ tle 4/C@7 1o. 375* .u,#e?ue$tly* 1e#tor #old the la$d to 5dd e. @he deed of
#ale wa# #u,m tted to the Jeg #ter of Heed# a$d o$ the ,a# # thereof* /C@ 1o* 375 wa# ca$celled a$d @ra$#fer

,orger"; )nnocent 4%rc&aser; *irror 4rinciple (1991)


Nruce # the reg #tered ow$er* of a parcel of la$d w th a

,u ld $g thereo$ a$d # $ peaceful po##e## o$ thereof. He

Cert f cate of @ tle 4@C@7 1o. 4576 wa# ##ued $ the $ame of 5dd e. +$ 1986* the H rector of "a$d# f led a compla $t for a$$ulme$t of /C@ 1o* 375 a$d @C@ 1o. 4576 o$ the grou$d that 1e#tor o,ta $ed the Free Pate$t through fraud. 5dd e f led a mot o$ to d #m ## o$ the grou$d that he wa#
a$ $$oce$t purcha#er for !alue a$d $ good fa th a$d a#

pay# the real e#tate ta-e# a$d collect# the re$tal# therefrom.
"ater* Catal $o* the o$ly ,rother of Nruce* f led a pet t o$

where he* m #repre#e$t $g to ,e the attor$ey> $>fact of Nruce a$d fal#ely alleg $g that the cert f cate of t tle wa# lo#t* #ucceeded $ o,ta $ $g a #eco$d ow$erG# dupl cate copy of
the t tle a$d the$ had the #ame tra$#ferred $ h # $ame

#uch* he ha# ac?u red a t tle to the property wh ch # !al d* u$a##a la,le a$d $defea# ,le. Hec de the mot o$. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he mot o$ of 1e#tor to d #m ## the compla $t for

a$$ulme$t of /.C.@. 1o. 375 a$d @.C.@. 1o. 4576 #hould ,e de$ ed for the follow $g rea#o$#(
17 5dd e ca$$ot cla m protect o$ a# a$ $$oce$t

through a # mulated deed of #ale $ h # fa!or. Catal $o the$ mortgaged the property to He# der o who had the mortgage a$$otated o$ the t tle. Lpo$ lear$ $g of the fraudule$t
tra$#act o$* Nruce f led a compla $t aga $#t Catal $o a$d

purcha#er for !alue $or ca$ he $terpo#e the defe$#e of $defea# , l ty of h # t tle* ,ecau#e h # @C@ # rooted o$ a !o d t tle. L$der .ect o$ 91 of C& 1o. 141* a#
ame$ded* otherw #e 9$ow$ a# the Pu,l c "a$d &ct*

He# der o to ha!e the t tle of Catal $o a$d the mortgage $ fa!or of He# der o declared $ull a$d !o d. 2 ll the compla $t pro#per* or w ll the t tle of Catal $o a$d
the mortgage to He# der o ,e #u#ta $ed%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

#tateme$t# of mater al fact# $ the appl cat o$# for pu,l c la$d mu#t ,e u$der oath. .ect o$ 91 of the #ame act pro! de# that #uch #tateme$t# #hall ,e co$# dered a#
e##e$t al co$d t o$# a$d part# of the co$ce## o$* t tle* or perm t ##ued* a$y fal#e #tateme$t there $* or

@he compla $t for the a$$ulme$t of Catal $oG# @ tle w ll

pro#per. +$ the f r#t place* the #eco$d ow$erG# copy of the

t tle #ecured ,y h m from the "a$d Jeg #trat o$ Court #

om ## o$ of fact# #hall

p#o facto produce the

!o d a, $ t o* the ow$erG# copy thereof ha! $g $e!er ,ee$ lo#t* let alo$e the fact that #a d #eco$d ow$erG# copy of the t tle wa# fraudule$tly procured a$d mpro! de$tly ##ued ,y the Court. +$ the #eco$d place* the @ra$#fer Cert f cate of @ tle procured ,y Catal $o # e?ually $ull a$d !o d* t ha! $g ,ee$ ##ued o$ the ,a# # of a # mulated or forged Heed of
.ale. & forged deed # a$ a,#olute $ull ty a$d co$!ey# $o

ca$cellat o$ of the co$ce## o$. @he pate$t ##ued to

1e#tor $ th # ca#e # !o d a, $ t o $ot o$ly ,ecau#e t


wa# o,ta $ed ,y fraud ,ut al#o ,ecau#e t co!er# 30

hectare# wh ch # far ,eyo$d the ma- mum of 24 hectare# pro! ded ,y the free pate$t law.
27 @he go!er$me$t ca$ #ee9 a$$ulme$t of the or g $al

a$d tra$#fer cert f cate# of t tle a$d the re!er# o$ of the


la$d to the #tate. 5dd eG# defe$#e # u$te$a,le. @he protect o$ afforded ,y the @orre$# .y#tem to a$

t tle . @he mortgage $ fa!or of He# der o # l 9ew #e $ull a$d !o d ,ecau#e the mortgagor # $ot the ow$er of the mortgaged

$$oce$t purcha#er for !alue ca$ ,e a!a led of o$ly f

property. 2h le t may ,e true that u$der the ')irror Principle' of the @orre$# .y#tem of "a$d Jeg #trat o$* a ,uyer or mortgagee ha# the r ght to rely o$ what appear# o$
the Cert f cate of @ tle* a$d $ the a,#e$ce of a$yth $g to

the la$d ha# ,ee$ t tled thru 8ud c al proceed $g# where the ##ue of fraud ,ecome# academ c after the lap#e of
o$e 417 year from the ##ua$ce of the decree of reg #trat o$. +$ pu,l c la$d gra$t#* the act o$ of the

e-c te #u#p c o$* # u$der $o o,l gat o$ to loo9 ,eyo$d the cert f cate a$d $!e#t gate the mortgagorG# t tle* th # rule doe# $ot f $d appl cat o$ $ the ca#e at ha$d ,ecau#e here.
Catal $oG# t tle #uffer# from two fatal $f rm t e#* $amely(

go!er$me$t to a$$ul a t tle fraudule$tly o,ta $ed doe# $ot pre#cr ,e #uch act o$ a$d w ll $ot ,e ,arred ,y the tra$#fer of the t tle to a$ $$oce$t purcha#er for !alue.
Aomestea0 4atents; @oi0 ale (1999)

a7

@he fact that t ema$ated from a forged deed of a


# mulated #ale3 @he fact that t wa# der !ed from a fraudule$tly

,7

procured or mpro! de$tly ##ued #eco$d ow$erG# copy* the real ow$erG# copy ,e $g #t ll $tact a$d $ the
po##e## o$ of the true ow$er* Nruce.

+$ 1950* the Nureau of "a$d# ##ued a Home#tead pate$t to &. @hree year# later* & #old the home#tead to N. & d ed $ 1990* a$d h # he r# f led a$ act o$ to reco!er the home#tead
from N o$ the grou$d that t# #ale ,y the r father to the

latter # !o d u$der .ect o$ 118 of the Pu,l c "a$d "aw. N co$te$d#* howe!er* that the he r# of & ca$$ot reco!er the

Page 71 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

home#tead from h m a$ymore ,ecau#e the r act o$ ha# pre#cr ,ed a$d that furthermore* & wa# $ par del cto.
Hec de. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Ce#ar ,ought a re# de$t al co$dom $ um u$ t from H gh

@he #ale of the la$d ,y & to N 3 year# after ##ua$ce of the home#tead pate$t* ,e $g $ ! olat o$ of .ect o$ 118 of the
Pu,l c "a$d &ct* # !o d from t# $cept o$.

J #e Co. a$d pa d the pr ce $ full. He mo!ed $to the u$ t* ,ut #omehow he wa# $ot g !e$ the Co$dom $ um Cert f cate of @ tle co!er $g the property. L$9$ow$ to h m*
H gh J #e Co. #u,#e?ue$tly mortgaged the e$t re

co$dom $ um ,u ld $g to 0etro,a$9 a# #ecur ty for a loa$


of P500 m ll o$. H gh J #e Co. fa led to pay the loa$ a$d

@he act o$ f led ,y the he r# of N to declare the $ull ty or $e- #te$ce of the co$tract a$d to reco!er the la$d #hould
,e g !e$ due cour#e. NG# defe$#e of pre#cr pt o$ # u$te$a,le ,ecau#e a$ act o$

the ,a$9 foreclo#ed the mortgage. &t the foreclo#ure #ale* the ,a$9 ac?u red the ,u ld $g* ,e $g the h ghe#t , dder.

wh ch #ee9# to declare the $ull ty or $e- #te$ce of & co$tract doe# $ot pre#cr ,e. (Art"+le 1410C Gana,a vs. Soler, $
8CRA (67)

2he$ Ce#ar lear$ed a,out th #* he f led a$ act o$ to a$$ul the foreclo#ure #ale $#ofar a# h # u$ t wa# co$cer$ed. @he ,a$9 put up the defe$#e that t rel ed o$ the co$dom $ um cert f cate# of t tle pre#e$ted ,y H gh J #e Co.* wh ch were clea$. He$ce* t wa# a mortgagee a$d ,uyer $ good fa th. +# th # defe$#e te$a,le or $ot% 2hy% 45E.7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

/$ the other ha$d* NG# defe$#e of pari 2elicto # e?ually


u$te$a,le. 2h le a# a rule* part e# who are $ par del cto

0etro,a$9G# defe$#e # u$te$a,le. &# a rule* a$ $$oce$t

ha!e $o recour#e aga $#t each other o$ the pr $c ple that a tra$#gre##or ca$$ot prof t from h # ow$ wro$gdo $g* #uch rule doe# $ot apply to ! olat o$# of .ect o$ 118 of the Pu,l c "a$d &ct ,ecau#e of the u$derly $g pu,l c pol cy $ the #a d &ct 'to conser6e t/e lan2 3/ic/ a /omestea2er /as ac5uire2
17 ;ratuitous ;rant from t/e ;o6ernment for /imself an2 /is famil7'.

purcha#er for !alue ac?u re# a good a$d a clea$ t tle to the property. Howe!er* t # #ettled that o$e who clo#e# h # eye# to fact# that #hould put a rea#o$a,le ma$ o$ guard # $ot a$
$$oce$t purcha#er for !alue. +$ the pre#e$t pro,lem the ,a$9 # e-pected* a# a matter of #ta$dard operat $g procedure* to ha!e co$ducted a$ ocular $#pect o$* of the

prom #e# ,efore gra$t $g a$y loa$. &ppare$tly* 0etro,a$9


d d $ot follow th # procedure. /therw #e* t #hould ha!e

+$ 9eep $g w th th # pol cy* t ha# ,ee$ held that o$e who purcha#e# a home#tead w th $ the f !e>year proh , tory per od ca$ o$ly reco!er the pr ce wh ch he ha# pa d ,y f l $g a cla m aga $#t the e#tate of the decea#ed #eller (5a/ra%or vs.
Felos Santos 66 !"l. 7(9) u$der the pr $c ple that $o o$e

d #co!ered that the co$dom $ um u$ t $ ?ue#t o$ wa# occup ed ,y Ce#ar a$d that fact #hould ha!e led t to ma9e further $?u ry. L$der the c rcum#ta$ce#* 0etro,a$9 ca$$ot ,e co$# dered a mortgagee a$d ,uyer $ good fa th. *irror 4rinciple (199#) +$ 1950G#* the )o!er$me$t ac?u red a , g la$ded e#tate $
Ce$tral "u:o$ from the reg #tered ow$er for #u,d ! # o$

#hall e$r ch h m#elf at the e-pe$#e of a$other. &pply $g the pari 2elicto rule to ! olat o$ of .ect o$ 118 of the Pu,l c "a$d &ct* the Court of &ppeal# ha# ruled that 'the home#teader #uffer# the lo## of the fru t# real :ed ,y the !e$dee who $
tur$ forfe t# the mpro!eme$t that he ha# $troduced $to the la$d.' 4</ot vs. San%a%">as, 69 <;, A'r"l 37, 1966M
I"($ AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

@he act o$ to declare the $ull ty of the #ale d d $ot pre#cr ,e


4&rt. 1410M* #uch #ale ,e $g o$e e-pre##ly proh , ted a$d

$to #mall farm# a$d red #tr ,ut o$ of ,o$af de occupa$t#* F wa# a former le##ee of a parcel of la$d* f !e hectare# $ area. &fter complet o$ of the re#ur!ey a$d #u,d ! # o$* F appl ed to ,uy the #a d la$d $ accorda$ce w th the gu del $e# of the

mpleme$t $g age$cy. Lpo$ full payme$t of the pr ce $

declared !o d ,y the Pu,l c "a$d# &ct ;&rt. 1409* par. 477A.


@he proh , t o$ of the law # clearly for the protect o$ of

the he r# of & #uch that the r reco!er $g the property would e$ha$ce the pu,l c pol cy regard $g ow$er#h p of la$d#
ac?u red ,y home#tead pate$t 4&rt. 14167. @he defe$#e of

1957* the corre#po$d $g deed of a,#olute #ale wa# e-ecuted $ h # fa!or a$d wa# reg #tered* a$d $ 1961* a $ew t tle wa# ##ued $ h # $ame. +$ 1963* F #old the #a d la$d to =3 a$d $ 1965 = #old t to B* $ew t tle# were #ucce## !ely ##ued $ the $ame# of the #a d purcha#er#. +$ 1977* C f led a$ act o$ to a$$ul the deed# of #ale to F* =

par del cto # $ot appl ca,le e ther* # $ce the law t#elf allow# the home#teader to reac?u re the la$d e!e$ f t ha#

,ee$ #old.
(EC!'# AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

Pre#cr pt o$ doe# $ot ar #e w th re#pect to act o$# to declare a !o d co$tract a $ull ty 4&rt cle 14107. 1e ther # the doctr $e of par del cto appl ca,le ,ecau#e of pu,l c pol cy. @he law # de# g$ed for the protect o$ of the pla $t ff #o a# to e$ha$ce the pu,l c pol cy of the Pu,l c "a$d &ct to g !e
la$d to the la$dle##.

a$d B a$d the r t tle#* o$ the grou$d that he 4C7 had ,ee$ $ actual phy# cal po##e## o$ of the la$d* a$d that the #ale to F a$d the #u,#e?ue$t #ale# #hould ,e #et a# de o$ the grou$d
of fraud. Lpo$ mot o$ of defe$da$t#* the tr al court d #m ##ed the compla $t* uphold $g the r defe$#e# of the r ,e $g $$oce$t purcha#er# for !alue* pre#cr pt o$ a$d lache#. Pla $t ff appealed.

+f the he r# are $ot allowed to reco!er* t could ,e o$ the grou$d of lache# $a#much a# 40 year# had elap#ed a$d the ow$er had $ot ,rought a$y act o$ aga $#t N e#pec ally f the latter had mpro!ed the la$d. +t would ,e detr me$tal to N f
the pla $t ff # allowed to reco!er. )nnocent 4%rc&aser for @al%e ('##1)

4a7 +# the #a d appeal mer tor ou#% 5-pla $ your a$#wer 4,7 .uppo#e the go!er$me$t age$cy co$cer$ed 8o $ed C $ f l $g the #a d act o$ aga $#t the defe$da$t#* would that cha$ge the re#ult of the l t gat o$% 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4a7 @he appeal # $ot mer tor ou#. @he tr al court ruled correctly $ gra$t $g defe$da$tG# mot o$ to d #m ## for the follow $g rea#o$#( 1. 2h le there # the po## , l ty that F* a former le##ee of the la$d wa# aware of the fact that C wa# the ,o$a f de

Page 72 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

occupa$t thereof a$d for th # rea#o$ h # tra$#fer cert f cate of t tle may ,e !ul$era,le* the tra$#fer of the #ame la$d a$d
the ##ua$ce of $ew @C@# to = a$d B who are $$oce$t

purcha#er# for !alue re$der the latterG# t tle# $defea# ,le. &
per#o$ deal $g w th reg #tered la$d may #afely rely o$ the

correct$e## of the cert f cate of t tle a$d the law w ll $ot $ a$y way o,l ge h m to go ,eh $d the cert f cate to determ $e the co$d t o$ of the property $ #earch for a$y h dde$ defect or $choate r ght wh ch may later $!al date or d m $ #h the r ght to the la$d. @h # # the m rror pr $c ple of
the @orre$# .y#tem of la$d reg #trat o$. 2. @he act o$ to a$$ul the #ale wa# $#t tuted $ 1977 or

re?u red to e-plore ,eyo$d what the record $ the reg #try $d cate# o$ t# face $ ?ue#t for a$y h dde$ defect or $choate r ght wh ch may #u,#e?ue$tly defeat h # r ght thereto. @h # # the '&"rror 'r"n+"'leG of the @orre$# #y#tem wh ch ma9e# t po## ,le for a forged deed to ,e the root of a good t tle. Ne# de#* t appear# that #pou#e# = a$d B are gu lty of
co$tr ,utory $egl ge$ce whe$ they del !ered th # /C@ to the mortgagee w thout a$$otat $g the mortgage thereo$. Netwee$ them a$d the $$oce$t purcha#er for !alue* they

#hould ,ear the lo##.


AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

more tha$ 4107 year# from the date of e-ecut o$ thereof $


1957* he$ce* t ha# lo$g pre#cr ,ed.
3. L$der .ec 45 of &ct 496* Cthe e$try of a cert f cate of

+f the ,uyer N* who rel ed o$ the teller &G# t tle* wa# $ot

aware of the ad!er#e po##e## o$ of the la$d ,y the #pou#e# = a$d B* the$ the latter ca$$ot reco!er the property from N. N ha# $ h # fa!or the pre#umpt o$ of good fa th wh ch
ca$ o$ly ,e o!erthrow$ ,y ade?uate proof of ,ad fa th. Howe!er* $o,ody ,uy# la$d w thout #ee $g the property* he$ce* N could $ot ha!e ,ee$ u$aware of #uch ad!er#e po##e## o$. +f after lear$ $g of #uch po##e## o$* N # mply clo#ed h # eye# a$d d d $oth $g a,out t* the$ the #u t for

t tle #hall ,e regarded a# a$ agreeme$t ru$$ $g w th the

la$d* a$d , $d $g upo$ the appl ca$t a$d all h # #ucce##or#


$ t tle that the la$d #hall ,e a$d alway# rema $ reg #tered

la$d. & t tle u$der &ct 496 # $defea# ,le a$d to pre#er!e that character* the t tle # clea$#ed a$ew w th e!ery tra$#fer for !alue 4Fe -es.s v C"ty o* Man"laC $9 !"l. (3C 5a'eral v
C"ty o* Man"la, 6$ !"l 313C en.llar v 0G 1$0 S 1117.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

reco$!eya$ce w ll pro#per a# the ,uyerG# ,ad fa th w ll ha!e ,ecome e! de$t. .otice of Lis 4en0ens (1999) Jommel wa# ##ued a cert f cate of t tle o!er a parcel of la$d $ Pue:o$ C ty. /$e year later Jachelle* the leg t mate
ow$er of the la$d* d #co!ered the fraudule$t reg #trat o$

4,7 5!e$ f the go!er$me$t 8o $# C* th # w ll $ot alter the

outcome of the ca#e #o much ,ecau#e of e#toppel a# a$

e-pre## pro! # o$ $ .ec 45 of &ct 496 a$d .ec 31 of PH 1529 that a decree of reg #trat o$ a$d the cert f cate of t tle ##ued $ pur#ua$ce thereof C#hall ,e co$clu# !e upo$ a$d
aga $#t all per#o$#* $clud $g the $at o$al go!er$me$t a$d all ,ra$che# thereof* whether me$t o$ed ,y $ame $ the

o,ta $ed ,y Jommel. .he f led a compla $t aga $#t Jommel for reco$!eya$ce a$d cau#ed the a$$otat o$ of a $ot ce of
l # pe$de$# o$ the cert f cate of t tle ##ued to Jommel.

appl cat o$ or $ot.D *irror 4rinciple; ,orger"; )nnocent 4%rc&aser (1999) @he #pou#e# = a$d B mortgaged a p ece of reg #tered la$d
to &* del !er $g a# well the /C@ to the latter* ,ut they co$t $ued to po##e## a$d cult !ate the la$d* g ! $g 1S2 of each har!e#t to & $ part al payme$t of the r loa$ to the

Jommel $ow $!o9e# the $defea# , l ty of h # t tle co$# der $g that o$e year ha# already elap#ed from t# ##ua$ce. He al#o #ee9# the ca$cellat o$ of the $ot ce of "# pe$de$#. 0ay the court ca$cel the $ot ce of l # pe$de$# e!e$ ,efore f $al 8udgme$t # re$dered% 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

& 0ot"+e o* 5"s

en%ens may ,e ca$celed e!e$ ,efore

latter* &* howe!er* w thout the 9$owledge of = a$d B* forged a deed of #ale of the afore#a d la$d $ fa!or of h m#elf* got a @C@ $ h # $ame* a$d the$ #old the la$d to N* who ,ought the la$d rely $g o$ &G# t tle* a$d who thereafter
al#o got a @C@ $ h # $ame. +t wa# o$ly the$ that the

#pou#e# = a$d B lear$ed that the r la$d had ,ee$ t tled $ NG# $ame. 0ay #a d #pou#e# f le a$ act o$ for reco$!eya$ce
of the la$d $ ?ue#t o$ aga $#t ,% Jea#o$. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

f $al <udgme$t upo$ proper #how $g that the $ot ce # for the purpo#e of mole#t $g or hara## $g the ad!er#e party or that the $ot ce of l # pe$de$# # $ot $ece##ary to protect the r ght of the party who cau#ed t to ,e reg #tered. 4.ect o$ 77* P.H. 1o. 15297 +$ th # ca#e* t # g !e$ that Jachelle # the leg t mate ow$er of the la$d $ ?ue#t o$. +t ca$ ,e #a d* therefore* that whe$ #he f led her $ot ce of l # pe$de$# her purpo#e wa# to

@he act o$ of = a$d B aga $#t N for reco$!eya$ce of the

la$d w ll $ot pro#per ,ecau#e N ha# ac?u red a clea$ t tle to


the property ,e $g a$ $$oce$t purcha#er for !alue. & forged deed # a$ a,#olute $ull ty a$d co$!ey# $o t tle.

protect her $tere#t $ the la$d a$d $ot 8u#t to mole#t Jommel. +t # $ece##ary to record the " # pe$de$# to protect her $tere#t ,ecau#e f #he d d $ot do t* there # a po## , l ty that the la$d w ll fall $to the ha$d# of a$
$$oce$t purcha#er for !alue a$d $ that e!e$t* the court

@he fact that the forged deed wa# reg #tered a$d a cert f cate of t tle wa# ##ued $ h # $ame* d d $ot operate to !e#t upo$ a$ ow$er#h p o!er the property of = a$d B. @he
reg #trat o$ of the forged deed w ll $ot cure the $f rm ty.

lo#e# co$trol o!er the la$d ma9 $g a$y fa!ora,le 8udgme$t thereo$ moot a$d academ c. For the#e rea#o$#* the $ot ce of l # pe$de$# may $ot ,e ca$celed. .otice of Lis 4en0ens; =ransferee 4en0ente Lite ('##') .a$cho a$d Pac f co are co>ow$er# of a parcel of la$d. .a$cho #old the property to Nart. Pac f co #ued .a$cho a$d
Nart for a$$ulme$t of the #ale a$d reco$!eya$ce of the

Howe!er* o$ce the t tle to the la$d # reg #tered $ the $ame
of the forger a$d t tle to the la$d thereafter fall# $to the

ha$d# of a$ $$oce$t purcha#er for !alue* the latter ac?u re#


a clea$ t tle thereto. & ,uyer of a reg #tered la$d # $ot

Page 73 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

property ,a#ed o$ the fact that the #ale $cluded h # o$e>

the o,l gat o$. Howe!er* the act o$ wa# ,rought w th $ the
te$>year pre#cr pt !e per od pro! ded ,y law where $ act o$# ,a#ed o$ wr tte$ co$tract# ca$ ,e $#t tuted. a7 2 ll the defe$#e pro#per% Jea#o$. 43E7

half pro> $d ! #o #hare. Pac f co had a $ot ce of l # pe$de$# a$$otated o$ the t tle co!er $g the property a$d ordered the ca$cellat o$ of the $ot ce of l # pe$de$#. @he $ot ce of l #
pe$de$# could $ot ,e ca$celled mmed ately ,ecau#e the

,7 2hat are the e##e$t al eleme$t# of lache#% 42E7


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

t tle o!er the property wa# w th a ,a$9 to wh ch the property had ,ee$ mortgaged ,y Nart. Pac f co appealed the ca#e. 2h le the appeal wa# pe$d $g a$d w th the $ot ce of l # pe$de$# #t ll u$ca$celled* Nart #old the property to Carlo#* who mmed ately cau#ed the ca$cellat o$ of the $ot ce of l # pe$de$#* a# well a# the ##ua$ce of a $ew t tle $
h # $ame. +# Carlo# 4a7 a purcha#er $ good fa th* or 4,7 a tra$#feree pe$de$te l te% +f your a$#wer # 4a7* how ca$ the r ght of Pac f co a# co>ow$er ,e protected% 5-pla $. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1o* the defe$#e w ll $ot pro#per. @he pro,lem d d $ot g !e


v. 0G. 309 SCRA 709).
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

fact# from wh ch lache# may ,e $ferred. 0ere delay $ f l $g

a$ act o$* #ta$d $g alo$e* doe# $ot co$#t tute lache# (A,ra

,7 @he four ,a# c eleme$t# of lache# are3 417 co$duct o$ the

&.

Carlo# # a ,uyer $ ,ad fa th. @he $ot ce of l #

pe$de$# wa# #t ll a$$otated at the ,ac9 of the t tle at the

part of the defe$da$t or of o$e u$der whom he cla m#* g ! $g r #e to the # tuat o$ of wh ch compla $a$t #ee9# a remedy3 427 delay $ a##ert $g the compla $a$tG# r ght#* the compla $a$t ha! $g had 9$owledge or $ot ce of the defe$da$tG# co$duct a$d ha! $g ,ee$ afforded a$ opportu$ ty to $#t tute #u t3 437 lac9 of 9$owledge o$ the

t me he ,ought the la$d from Nart. @he u$ca$celled $ot ce of l # pe$de$# operate# a# co$#truct !e $ot ce of t# co$te$t# a# well a# $tere#t#* legal or e?u ta,le* $cluded there $. &ll
per#o$# are charged w th the 9$owledge of what t co$ta $#. +$ a$ earl er ca#e* t wa# held that a $ot ce of a$ ad!er#e

part of the defe$da$t that the compla $a$t would a##ert the r ght o$ wh ch he ,a#e# h # #u t3 a$d 447 $8ury or pre8ud ce to the defe$da$t $ the e!e$t rel ef # accorded to the compla $a$t* or the #u t # $ot held to ,e ,arred. 4rescription & Lac&es; )n0efeasibilit" 1%le of =orrens =itle ('##') 2ay ,ac9 $ 1948* 2 $daO# hu#,a$d #old $ fa!or of 6erde
.port# Ce$ter Corp. 46erde7 a 10>hectare property

cla m rema $# effect !e a$d , $d $g $otw th#ta$d $g the lap#e of the 30 day# from t# $#cr pt o$ $ the reg #try. @h #
rul $g # e!e$ more appl ca,le $ a l # pe$de$#.

Carlo# # a tra$#feree pe$de$te l te $#ofar a# .a$choO# #hare


$ the co>ow$er#h p $ the la$d # co$cer$ed ,ecau#e the la$d wa# tra$#ferred to h m dur $g the pe$de$cy of the

,elo$g $g to the r co$8ugal part$er#h p. @he #ale wa# made

w thout 2 $daO# 9$owledge* much le## co$#e$t. +$ 1950*

appeal.
N. Pac f co ca$ protect h # r ght a# a co>ow$er ,y pur#u $g h # appeal3 a#9 $g the Court of &ppeal# to order

2 $da lear$ed of the #ale* whe$ #he d #co!ered the deed of #ale amo$g the docume$t# $ her hu#,a$dO# !ault after h # dem #e. .oo$ after* #he $ot ced that the co$#truct o$ of the
#port# comple- had #tarted. Lpo$ complet o$ of the co$#truct o$ $ 1952* #he tr ed ,ut fa led to get free

the re>a$$otat o$ of the l # pe$de$# o$ the t tle of Carlo#3


a$d ,y $!o9 $g h # r ght of redempt o$ of NartO# #hare u$der &rt cle# 1620 of the 1ew C ! l Code.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

mem,er#h p pr ! lege# $ 6erde. 2 $da $ow f le# a #u t aga $#t 6erde for the a$$ulme$t of the #ale o$ the grou$d that #he d d $ot co$#e$t to the #ale. +$ a$#wer* 6erde co$te$d# that* $ accorda$ce w th the .pa$ #h C ! l Code wh ch wa# the$ $ force* the #ale $ 1948
of the property d d $ot $eed her co$curre$ce. 6erde co$te$d# that $ a$y ca#e the act o$ ha# pre#cr ,ed or #

&.

Carlo# # a purcha#er $ good fa th. & po##e##or $

good fa th ha# ,ee$ def $ed a# Co$e who # u$aware that there e- #t# a flaw wh ch $!al date# h # ac?u # t o$ of the th $gD 4&rt. 526* 1CC7. )ood fa th co$# #t# $ the po##e##orO# ,el ef that the per#o$ from whom he rece !ed

the th $g wa# the ow$er of the #ame a$d could co$!ey h #


t tle. +$ the ca#e ;at ,arA* $ ?ue#t o$* wh le Carlo# ,ought

,arred ,y lache#. 2 $da re8o $# that her @orre$# t tle co!er $g the property # $defea# ,le* a$d mpre#cr pt ,le.
&. Hef $e or e-pla $ the term Clache#D. 42E7

the #u,8ect property from Nart wh le a $ot ce of l # pe$de$# wa# #t ll a$$otated thereo$* there wa# al#o a$ e- #t $g court order ca$cel $g the #ame. He$ce* Carlo# ca$$ot ,e co$# dered a# ,e $g Caware of a flaw wh ch $!al date#

N. Hec de the ca#e* #tat $g your rea#o$# for your dec # o$. 43E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

;the rA the ac?u # t o$ of the th $gD # $ce the alleged flaw* the $ot ce of l # pe$de$#* wa# already ,e $g ordered

&.

u$rea#o$a,le a$d u$e-pla $ed le$gth of t me* to do what*

"&CH5. mea$# fa lure or $eglect* for a$

ca$celled at the t me of the purcha#e. /$ th # grou$d alo$e* Carlo# ca$ already ,e co$# dered a ,uyer $ good fa th. ( o
5a& v. Co.rt o* A''eals, 34( SCRA 86, [$000]).

,y e-erc # $g due d l ge$ce* could or #hould ha!e ,ee$ do$e earl er. +t # $egl ge$ce or om ## o$ to a##ert a r ght w th $ a
rea#o$a,le t me. (Fe #era v. CA, 307 SCRA 6$4 [1999])

N.

@o protect h # r ght o!er the #u,8ect property*

N.

2h le &rt cle 1413 of the .pa$ #h C ! l Code d d

Pac f co #hould ha!e t mely f led a$ act o$ for reco$!eya$ce a$d re $#tated the $ot ce of l # pe$de$#.
4rescription & Lac&es; Elements of Lac&es ('###)

$ot re?u re the co$#e$t of the w fe for the !al d ty of the #ale* a$ al e$at o$ ,y the hu#,a$d $ fraud of the w fe #

!o d a# held $ >y CoN.e v. 0avas, 47 !"l. 430


(19$3).

+$ a$ act o$ ,rought to collect a #um of mo$ey ,a#ed o$ a


#urety agreeme$t* the defe$#e of lache# wa# ra #ed a# the

&##um $g that the al e$at o$ $ 1948 wa# $ fraud of 2 $da a$d* therefore* ma9e# the #ale to 6erde !o d* the act o$ to #et a# de the #ale* $o$ethele##* # already ,arred ,y

cla m wa# f led more tha$ #e!e$ year# from the matur ty of

Page 74 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

pre#cr pt o$ a$d lache#. 0ore tha$ 52 year# ha!e already elap#ed from her d #co!ery of the #ale $ 1950.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

4a7 @he mortgage co$tract e-ecuted ,y /* f at all* # o$ly a


!o da,le co$tract # $ce t $!ol!e# a co$8ugal part$er#h p

N. 2 $daO# cla m that her @orre$# @ tle co!er $g the

property # $defea# ,le a$d mpre#cr pt ,le ;doe# $ot hold waterA # $ot te$a,le. @he r.le o* "n%e*eas"/"l"ty o* a Torrens T"tle mea$# that after o$e year from the date of
##ue of the decree of reg #trat o$ or f the la$d ha# falle$

property. @he act o$ to a$$ul the #ame $#t tuted $ 1977* or ele!e$ year# after the e-ecut o$ of the #her ffG# f $al #ale* ha#
o,! ou#ly pre#cr ,ed ,ecau#e(

17

$to the ha$d# of a$ $$oce$t purcha#er for !alue* the t tle


,ecome# $co$te#ta,le a$d $co$tro!ert ,le.

&$ act o$ to a$$ul a co$tract o$ the grou$d of fraud mu#t ,e ,rought w th $ four 447 year# from the date of d #co!ery of the fraud. . $ce th # # $ e##e$ce a$ act o$ to reco!er ow$er#h p* t mu#t ,e rec9o$ed from the date of e-ecut o$ of the co$tract or from the the a##e##orG# off ce for the purpo#e of tra$#ferr $g the
ta- declarat o$* th # ,e $g u$reg #tered la$d* (Gael ..
Inter&e%"ate A''ellate Co.rt ;. R. 56(44$3 -an.30, 1989 169 SCRA 61().

!)P #%C !PT!?!(!T,* o$ the other ha$d* mea$# that $o t tle to the la$d $ derogat o$ of that of the reg #tered ow$er
may ,e ac?u red ,y ad!er#e po##e## o$ or ac?u # t !e pre#cr pt o$ or that the reg #tered ow$er doe# $ot lo#e ,y e-t $ct !e pre#cr pt o$ h # r ght to reco!er ow$er#h p a$d po##e## o$ of the la$d.

reg #trat o$ of the alleged fraudule$t docume$t w th

27 +f the act o$ # to ,e treated a# a$ act o$ to reco!er ow$er#h p of la$d* t would ha!e pre#cr ,ed 8u#t the

@he act o$ $ th # ca#e # for a$$ulme$t of the #ale e-ecuted


,y the hu#,a$d o!er a co$8ugal part$er#h p property

#ame ,ecau#e more tha$ 10 year# ha!e already elap#ed # $ce the date of the e-ecut o$ of the #ale.
(EC!'# AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

co!ered ,y a @orre$# @ tle. A+t"on on +ontra+ts are


s./:e+t to 'res+r"'t"on. 4rescription (199#) +$ 1960* a$ u$reg #tered parcel of la$d wa# mortgaged ,y
ow$er / to 0* a fam ly fr e$d* a# collateral for a loa$. /

4a7 @he act o$ to reco!er ha# ,ee$ ,arred ,y ac?u # t !e

pre#cr pt o$ $ fa!or of 0 co$# der $g that 0 ha# po##e##ed the la$d u$der a cla m of ow$er#h p for te$ 4107 year# w th a 8u#t t tle.
4,7 +f 0 had #ecured a @orre$# @ tle to the la$d* all the

acted through h # attor$ey> $>fact* #o$ .* who wa# duly author :ed ,y way of a #pec al power of attor$ey* where $ / declared that he wa# the a,#olute ow$er of the la$d* that the
ta- declarat o$#Srece pt# were all ##ued $ h # $ame* a$d

more . a$d P could $ot reco!er ,ecau#e f at all the r


remed e# would ,e( 1. & Pet t o$ to Je! ew the Hecree of Jeg #trat o$. @h #

that he ha# ,ee$

$ ope$* co$t $uou# a$d ad!er#e

po##e## o$ $ the co$cept of ow$er.

ca$ ,e a!a led of w th $ o$e 417 year from>the e$try thereof* ,ut o$ly upo$ the ,a# # of 'actual fraud.' @here # $o #how $g that 0 comm tted actual fraud $ #ecur $g h # t tle
to the la$d3 or

&# / wa# u$a,le to pay ,ac9 the loa$ plu# $tere#t for the pa#t f !e ;57 year#* 0 had to foreclo#e the mortgage. &t the
foreclo#ure #ale* 0 wa# the h ghe#t , dder. Lpo$ ##ua$ce

of the #her ffO# f $al deed of #ale a$d reg #trat o$ $ <a$uary*
1966* the mortgage property wa# tur$ed o!er to 0G#

po##e## o$ a$d co$trol 0 ha# # $ce the$ de!eloped the #a d property. +$ 1967* / d ed* #ur! !ed ,y #o$# . a$d P. +$ 1977* after the te$th 410th7 death a$$ !er#ary of h # father /. #o$ P f led a #u t to a$$ul the mortgage deed a$d #u,#e?ue$t #ale of the property* etc.* o$ the grou$d of
fraud. He a##erted that the property $ ?ue#t o$ wa# co$8ugal $ $ature actually ,elo$g $g* at the t me of the

2. &$ act o$ $ per#o$am aga $#t 0 for the reco$!eya$ce of the t tle $ the r fa!or. &ga $* th # remedy # a!a la,le w th $ four year# from the date of the d #co!ery of the fraud ,ut $ot later tha$ te$ 4107 year# from the date of reg #trat o$ of the t tle $ the $ame of 0.
4rescription; 1eal 1ig&ts (199')

& ow$ed a parcel of u$reg #tered la$d located o$ the @arlac

# de of the ,ou$dary ,etwee$ @arlac a$d Pa$ga# $a$. H#

,rother N ow$ed the ad8o $ $g parcel of u$reg #tered la$d o$ the Pa$ga# $a$ # de.

mortgage* to / a$d h # w fe* 2* who#e co$8ugal #hare we$t


to the r #o$# 4. a$d P7 a$d to /. 4a7 +# the #u t f led ,y P ,arred ,y pre#cr pt o$% 5-pla $ your a$#wer.
4,7 &fter the ##ua$ce of the #her ffG# f $al deed of #ale $

& #old the @arlac parcel to = $ a deed of #ale e-ecuted a# a pu,l c $#trume$t ,y & a$d =. &fter = pa d $ full the* pr ce of the #ale* = too9 po##e## o$ of the Pa$ga# $a$ parcel $ the ,el ef that t wa# the @arlac parcel co!ered ,y the deed
of #ale e-ecuted ,y & a$d =.

1966 $ th # ca#e* a##um $g that 0 appl ed for reg #trat o$ u$der the @orre$# .y#tem a$d wa# ##ued a @orre$# @ tle to
the #a d property $ ?ue#t o$* would that added fact ha!e a$y # g$ f ca$t effect o$ your co$clu# o$% .tate your rea#o$.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4a7 L$der &rt. 173 of the C ! l Code* the act o$ # ,arred ,y pre#cr pt o$ ,ecau#e the w fe had o$ly te$ 4107 year# from the tra$#act o$ a$d dur $g the marr age to f le a #u t for the a$$ulme$t of the mortgage deed.
Alternati1e Answers to

&fter twel!e 4127 year#* a co$tro!er#y aro#e ,etwee$ N a$d = o$ the ##ue of the ow$er#h p of the Pa$ga# $a$ parcel* N cla m# a !e#ted r ght of ow$er#h p o!er the Pa$ga# $a$ parcel ,ecau#e N $e!er #old that parcel to = or to a$yo$e el#e.
/$ the other ha$d* = cla m# a !e#ted r ght of ow$er#h p o!er the Pa$ga# $a$ parcel ,y ac?u # t !e pre#cr pt o$*

4a7 f r#t &lter$at !e &$#wer(

,ecau#e = po##e##ed th # parcel for o!er te$ 410A year# u$der cla m of ow$er#h p.

Page 75 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

Hec de o$ the#e cla m#* g ! $g your rea#o$#.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he r ght to reco!er po##e## o$ of reg #tered la$d l 9ew #e


doe# $ot pre#cr ,e ,ecau#e po##e## o$ # 8u#t a $ece##ary

&t th # po $t $ t me* = ca$$ot cla m the r ght of !e#ted

ow$er#h p o!er the Pa$ga# $a$ parcel ,y ac?u # t !e


pre#cr pt o$. +$ add t o$ to the re?u # te# commo$ to ord $ary a$d e-traord $ary ac?u # t !e pre#cr pt o$ co$# #t $g of u$ $terrupted* peaceful* pu,l c* ad!er#e a$d actual po##e## o$ $ the co$cept of ow$er* ord $ary

$c de$t of ow$er#h p.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

ac?u # t !e pre#cr pt o$ for te$ 4107 year# re?u re# 417

po##e## o$ $ good fa th a$d 427 8u#t t tle. '<u#t t tle' mea$# that the ad!er#e cla ma$t came $to po##e## o$ of the property through o$e of the mode# recog$ :ed ,y law for
the ac?u # t o$ of ow$er#h p ,ut the gra$tor wa# $ot the

0 9aeloG# defe$#e of lache#* howe!er* appear# to ,e more #u#ta $a,le. Je$re$ ,ought the la$d a$d had the #ale reg #tered way ,ac9 $ 1965. From the fact#* t appear# that t wa# o$ly $ 1998 or after a$ $e-pl ca,le delay of 33 year# that he too9 the f r#t #tep a##ert $g h # r ght to the la$d. +t wa# $ot e!e$ a$ act o$ to reco!er ow$er#h p ,ut o$ly
,7 po##e## o$ of the la$d. Ny ord $ary #ta$dard#* 33 year# of

ow$er or could $ot tra$#m t a$y r ght 4&rt. 1129. C ! l Code7. +$ th # ca#e* there # $o '8u#t t tle' a$d $o 'mode'
that ca$ ,e $!o9ed ,y = for the ac?u # t o$ of the Pa$ga# $a$ parcel. @here wa# $o co$#truct !e del !ery of

$eglect or $act o$ # too lo$g a$d may,e co$# dered u$rea#o$a,le. &# ofte$ held ,y the .upreme Court* the pr $c ple of mpre#cr pt , l ty #omet me# ha# to y eld to the e?u ta,le pr $c ple of lache# wh ch ca$ co$!ert e!e$ a reg #tered la$d ow$erG# cla m $to a #tale dema$d.
0 9aeloG# cla m of lache#* howe!er* # wea9 $#ofar a# the

the Pa$ga# $a$ parcel ,ecau#e t wa# $ot the #u,8ect>matter of the deed of #ale. He$ce* N reta $# ow$er#h p of the
Pa$ga# $a$ parcel of la$d.

4rimar" Entr" ;oo+; 2c$%isitive 4rescription; Lac&es (1993) +$ 1965* Je$re$ ,ought from Jo,y$ a parcel of reg #tered la$d e! de$ced ,y a duly e-ecuted deed of #ale. @he ow$er pre#e$ted the deed of #ale a$d the ow$erG# cert f cate of t tle to the Jeg #ter of Heed#. @he e$try wa# made $ the day,oo9 a$d corre#po$d $g fee# were pa d a# e! de$ced ,y
off c al rece pt. Howe!er* $o tra$#fer of cert f cate of t tle

eleme$t of e?u ty # co$cer$ed* there ,e $g $o #how $g $ the fact# how he e$tered $to the ow$er#h p a$d po##e## o$ of the la$d. 1eclamation of ,ores&ore Lan0s; Limitations ('###)
Jepu,l c &ct 1899 author :e# mu$ c pal t e# a$d chartered

c t e# to recla m fore#hore la$d# ,order $g them a$d to


co$#truct thereo$ ade?uate doc9 $g a$d har,or fac l t e#. Pur#ua$t thereto* the C ty of Ca! te e$tered $to a$

wa# ##ued to Je$re$ ,ecau#e the or g $al cert f cate of t tle $ Jo,y$G# $ame wa# temporar ly m #placed after f re partly gutted the /ff ce of the Jeg #ter of Heed#. 0ea$wh le* the la$d had ,ee$ po##e##ed ,y Jo,y$G# d #ta$t cou# $* 0 9aelo* ope$ly* ad!er#ely a$d co$t $uou#ly $ the co$cept of ow$er # $ce 1960. +t wa# o$ly $ &pr l 1998 that Je$re$ #ued 0 9aelo to reco!er po##e## o$. 0 9aelo $!o9ed a7 ac?u # t !e pre#cr pt o$ a$d ,7 lache#* a#9 $g that he ,e
declared ow$er of the la$d. Hec de the ca#e ,y e!aluat $g the#e defe$#e#* ;5EA
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

agreeme$t w th the F l>5#tate Jealty Compa$y* author : $g the latter to recla m 300 hectare# of la$d from the #ea ,order $g the c ty* w th 30E of the la$d to ,e recla med to
,e ow$ed ,y F l>5#tate a# compe$#at o$ for t# #er! ce#.

@he .ol c tor )e$eral ?ue#t o$ed the !al d ty of the agreeme$t o$ the grou$d that t w ll mea$ recla m $g la$d u$der the #ea wh ch # ,eyo$d the commerce of ma$. @he
C ty repl e# that th # # author :ed ,y J&. 1899 ,ecau#e t author :e# the co$#truct o$ of doc9# a$d har,or#. 2ho #

correct% 43E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he .ol c tor )e$eral # correct. @he author ty of the C ty of


Ca! te u$der J& 1899 to recla m la$d to # l m ted

a7

Je$re$G# act o$ to reco!er po##e## o$ of the la$d w ll

pro#per. +$ 1965* after ,uy $g the la$d from Jo,y$* he #u,m tted the Heed of .ale to the Jeg #try of Heed# for

reg #trat o$ together w th the ow$erG# dupl cate copy of the

fore#hore la$d#. @he &ct d d $ot author :e t to recla m la$d from the #ea. '@he reclamat o$ ,e $g u$author :ed* the C ty of Ca! te d d $ot ac?u re ow$er#h p o!er the

t tle* a$d pa d the corre#po$d $g reg #trat o$ fee#. L$der

.ect o$ 56 of PH 1o. 1529* the Heed of .ale to Je$re$ # co$# dered reg #tered from the t me the #ale wa# e$tered $
the Hay Noo9 4$ow called the Pr mary 5$try Noo97.

recla med la$d. 1ot ,e $g the ow$er* t could $ot ha!e co$!eyed a$y port o$ thereof to the co$tractor.
+t depe$d#. +f the reclamat o$ of the la$d from the #ea #
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

For all legal $te$t# a$d purpo#e#* Je$re$ # co$# dered the reg #tered ow$er of the la$d. &fter all* t wa# $ot h # fault
that the Jeg #try of Heed# could $ot ##ue the

corre#po$d $g tra$#fer cert f cate of t tle. 0 9aeloG# defe$#e of pre#cr pt o$ ca$ $ot ,e #u#ta $ed. &

@orre$# t tle # mpre#cr pt ,le. 1o t tle to reg #tered la$d $ derogat o$ of the t tle of the reg #tered ow$er #hall ,e ac?u red ,y pre#cr pt o$ or ad!er#e po##e## o$. 4.ect o$ 47*
P.H. 1o* 15297

$ece##ary $ the co$#truct o$ of the doc9# a$d the har,or#* the C ty of Ca! te # correct. /therw #e* t # $ot. . $ce J& 1899 author :ed the c ty to co$#truct doc9# a$d har,or#* all wor9# that are $ece##ary for #uch co$#truct o$ are deemed author :ed. +$clud $g the reclamat o$ of la$d from the #ea. @he reclamat o$ ,e $g author :ed* the c ty # the ow$er of the recla med la$d a$d t may co$!ey a port o$ thereof a# payme$t for the #er! ce# of the co$tractor.
A'!$.E" AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

/$ the a##umpt o$ that the reclamat o$ co$tract wa#

e$tered $to ,efore J& 1899 wa# repealed ,y PH 3>&* the C ty of Ca! te # correct. "a$d# u$der the #ea are ',eyo$d the commerce of ma$' $ the #e$#e that they are $ot #u#cept ,le of pr !ate appropr at o$* ow$er#h p or

Page 76 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

al e$at o$. @he co$tract $ ?ue#t o$ merely call# for the reclamat o$ of 300 hectare# of la$d w th $ the coa#tal water# of the c ty. Per #e* t doe# $ot !e#t* al e$ate or
tra$#fer ow$er#h p of la$d u$der the #ea. @he c ty merely

e$gaged the #er! ce# of F l>5#tate to recla m the la$d for the c ty.
1egistration; Dee0 of *ortgage (199!)

a$#wer or #how up o$ the date of $ t al hear $g* doe# $ot guara$tee the #ucce## of the appl cat o$. +t # #t ll $cum,e$t upo$ the appl ca$t to pro!e w th well $ gh $co$tro!ert ,le e! de$ce that he ha# ac?u red a t tle to the la$d that # f t for reg #trat o$. &,#e$t #uch reg #tra,le t tle* t # the clear duty
of the "a$d Jeg #trat o$ Court to d #m ## the appl cat o$

How do you reg #ter $ow a deed of mortgage of a parcel of


la$d or g $ally reg #tered u$der the .pa$ #h 0ortgage "aw%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

a$d declare the la$d a# pu,l c la$d. &$ appl cat o$ for la$d reg #trat o$ # a proceed $g $ rem. +t# ma $ o,8ect !e # to e#ta,l #h the #tatu# of the re# u$der the Jegal a$ doctr $e or ha# ac?u red the character of
a pr !ate property. +t to # the duty of the appl ca$t whether t # #t ll part of our pu,l c doma $ a# pre#umed

a7 &fter the .pa$ #h 0ortgage "aw wa# a,rogated ,y P.H. 892 o$ Fe,ruary 16* 1976* all la$d# co!ered ,y .pa$ #h t tle# that were $ot ,rought u$der the @orre$# #y#tem w th $ # 16A mo$th# from the date thereof ha!e ,ee$ co$# dered a#
'u$reg #tered pr !ate la$d#.'

o!ercome that pre#umpt o$ w th #uff c e$t e! de$ce. 1eme0ies; 7%0icial 1econstit%tion of =itle (199-) +$ 1989* the he r# of )a! $o* who d ed o$ &ugu#t 10* 1987*

@hu#* a deed of mortgage affect $g la$d or g $ally reg #tered


u$der the .pa$ #h 0ortgage "aw # $ow go!er$ed ,y the

f led a pet t o$ for reco$#t tut o$ of h # lo#t or de#troyed

#y#tem of reg #trat o$ of tra$#act o$# or $#trume$t# affect $g u$reg #tered la$d u$der .ect o$ 194 of the Je! #ed &dm $ #trat !e Code a# ame$ded ,y &ct 1o. 3344. L$der th # law* the $#trume$t or tra$#act o$ affect $g u$reg #tered la$d # e$tered $ a ,oo9 pro! ded for the purpo#e ,ut the
reg #trat o$ thereof # purely !olu$tary a$d doe# $ot

@orre$# @ tle to a parcel of la$d $ 5rm ta* 0a$ la. @h # wa#


oppo#ed ,y 0ar lou who cla med ow$er#h p of the #a d

la$d ,y a #er e# of #ale#. .he cla med that )a! $o had #old the property to Ner$ardo way ,ac9 $ 1941 a$d a# e! de$ce
thereof* #he pre#e$ted a @a- Heclarat o$ $ 1948 $ the $ame of Ner$ardo* wh ch ca$celled the pre! ou# @a-

ad!er#ely affect th rd per#o$# who ha!e a ,etter r ght.

Heclarat o$ $ the $ame of )a! $o. @he$ #he pre#e$ted two deed# of #ale duly reg #tered w th the Jeg #ter of Heed#* the
f r#t o$e e-ecuted ,y Ner$ardo $ 1954 #ell $g the #ame

,7 Ny record $g a$d reg #ter $g w th the Jeg #ter of Heed#


of the place where the la$d # located* $ accorda$ce w th &ct 3344. Howe!er* P.H. 892 re?u red holder# of .pa$ #h

t tle to ,r $g the #ame u$der the @orre$# .y#tem w th $ 6


mo$th# from t# effect ! ty o$ Fe,ruary 16* 1976.

property to Carlo#* a$d the #eco$d o$e e-ecuted ,y Carlo# $ 1963* #ell $g the #ame property to her. .he al#o cla med that #he a$d her predece##or# $ $tere#t ha!e ,ee$ $
po##e## o$ of the property # $ce 1948. +f you were the 8udge* how w ll you dec de the pet t o$%

1eme0ies; 7%0icial Confirmation; )mperfect =itle (199()


/$ <u$e 30* 1986* & f led $ the J@C of &,ra a$

5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

appl cat o$ for reg #trat o$ of t tle to a parcel of la$d u$der


P. H. 1o. 1529* cla m $g that # $ce <u$e 12* 1945* he ha# ,ee$ $ ope$* co$t $uou#* e-clu# !e a$d $otor ou# po##e## o$ a$d occupat o$ of #a d parcel of la$d of the

+f + were the 8udge* + w ll g !e due cour#e to the pet t o$ of


the he r# of )a! $o de#p te the oppo# t o$ of 0ar lou for

pu,l c doma $ wh ch wa# al e$a,le a$d d #po#a,le* u$der a ,o$a f de cla m of ow$er#h p. &fter ##ua$ce of the $ot ce
of $ t al hear $g a$d pu,l cat o$* a# re?u red ,y law* the pet t o$ wa# heard o$ <uly 29* 1987. /$ the day of the hear $g $o,ody ,ut the appl ca$t appeared. 1e ther wa#

the follow $g rea#o$#( a7 <ud c al reco$#t tut o$ of a cert f cate of t tle u$der J&. 1o. 26 parta9e# of a la$d reg #trat o$ proceed $g a$d # perforce a proceed $g $ rem. +t de$ote# re#torat o$ of a$ e- #t $g $#trume$t wh ch ha# ,ee$ lo#t or de#troyed $ t# or g $al form a$d co$d t o$. @he purpo#e of
reco$#t tut o$ of t tle or a$y docume$t # to ha!e the

there a$yo$e who oppo#ed the appl cat o$. @hereupo$* o$ mot o$ of the appl ca$t* the J@C ##ued a$ order of ge$eral
default a$d allowed the appl ca$t to pre#e$t h # e! de$ce. @hat he d d. /$ .eptem,er 30* 1989* the J@C d #m ##ed

#ame reproduced* after proceed $g#. +$ the #ame form they were whe$ the lo## or de#truct o$ occurred. ,7 +f the Court goe# ,eyo$d that purpo#e* t act# w thout
or $ e-ce## of 8ur #d ct o$. @hu#* where the @orre$#

&G# appl cat o$ for lac9 of #uff c e$t e! de$ce. & appealed to
the Court of &ppeal#.

@ tle #ought to ,e reco$#t tuted # $ the $ame of )a! $o* the court ca$$ot rece !e e! de$ce pro! $g that

0ar lou # the ow$er of the la$d. 0ar louG# dom $ cal @he appella$t urged that the J@C erred $ d #m ## $g h #

appl cat o$ for reg #trat o$ a$d $ $ot order $g reg #trat o$ of h # t tle to the parcel of la$d $ ?ue#t o$ de#p te the fact that there wa# $o oppo# t o$ f led ,y a$y,ody to h # appl cat o$. H d the J@C comm t the error attr ,uted to t%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

cla m to the la$d #hould ,e !e$t lated $ a #eparate c ! l act o$ ,efore the Jeg o$al @r al Court $ t# capac ty a#
a court of ge$eral 8ur #d ct o$.
#$# #"C#%. +eirs of Pe2ro Pinate 6s. Dula7. 187 %C ' 12@20 91990:A ?una;an 6s. C$1 Ce1u ?ranc/ B!. 97 %C ' 72 91980:A
epu1lic 6s. !'C. 157 %C ' 62466 91988:A )ar;olles 6s. C'4 230

%C ' 709A epu1lic us4 $eliciano4 148 %C ' 924.

1o* the J@C d d $ot comm t the error attr ,uted to t. +$ a$ appl cat o$ for <ud c al co$f rmat o$ of mperfect or $complete t tle to pu,l c agr cultural la$d u$der .ect o$ 48
of the Pu,l c "a$d &ct* the lac9 of oppo# t o$ a$d the

1eme0ies; 4roce0%re; Cons%lta (199!)


2hat # the procedure of co$#ulta whe$ a$ $#trume$t #

de$ ed reg #trat o$%


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

co$#e?ue$t order of default aga $#t tho#e who d d $ot

Page 77 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

17

@he Jeg #ter of Heed# #hall $ot fy the $tere#ted party $ wr t $g* #ett $g forth the defect# of the $#trume$t or
the legal grou$d rel ed upo$ for de$y $g the

reg #trat o$* a$d ad! # $g that f he # $ot agreea,le to


#uch rul $g* he may* w thout w thdraw $g the

docume$t# from the Jeg #try* ele!ate the matter ,y Co$#ulta to the &dm $ #trator of the "a$d Jeg #trat o$
27

4a7 &$ act o$ for reco$!eya$ce aga $#t Huey # $ot the proper remedy* ,ecau#e Huey # a$ $$oce$t purcha#er for !alue. @he proper recour#e # for "ou e to go after Hewey for damage# ,y rea#o$ of the fraudule$t reg #trat o$ a$d #u,#e?ue$t #ale of the la$d. +f Hewey # $#ol!e$t* "ou e may f le a cla m aga $#t the &##ura$ce Fu$d (Ae"rs
o*
e%ro 5o'e@ v. Fe Castro 3$4 SCRA 791 [$000] +"t"n, S's.

&uthor ty 4"J&7. 2 th $ f !e V57 day# from rece pt of $ot ce of de$ al*

2%.arte v. CA, 3$3 !"l. 46$, 46( [1996]).

the party> $> $tere#t #hall f le h # Co$#ulta w th the


Jeg #ter of Heed# co$cer$ed a$d pay the co$#ulta fee.

37

&fter rece pt of the Co$#ulta a$d payme$t of the corre#po$d $g fee the Jeg #ter of Heed# ma9e# a$ a$$otat o$ of the pe$d $g co$#ulta at the ,ac9 of the
cert f cate of t tle.

47

@he Jeg #ter of Heed# the$ ele!ate# the ca#e to the

"J& &dm $ #trator w th cert f ed record# thereof a$d a


57

4,7 Be#* the remedy w ll pro#per ,ecau#e the act o$ pre#cr ,e# $ te$ 4107 year#* $ot w th $ o$e 417 year whe$ a pet t o$ for the reope$ $g of the reg #trat o$ decree may ,e f led. @he act o$ for reco$!eya$ce # d #t $ct from the pet t o$ to reope$ the decree of reg #trat o$ 4)rey &l,a !. He la Cru:* 17 Ph l. 49 ;1910M7. @here # $o $eed to reope$ the reg #trat o$ proceed $g#* ,ut the property #hould 8u#t ,e reco$!eyed to the real ow$er.
@he act o$ for reco$!eya$ce # ,a#ed o$ mpl ed or co$#truct !e tru#t* wh ch pre#cr ,e# $ te$ 4107 year# from

#ummary of the fact# a$d ##ue# $!ol!ed. @he "J& &dm $ #trator the$ co$duct# hear $g# after due $ot ce or may 8u#t re?u re part e# to #u,m t the r memora$da.

67

&fter hear $g* the "J& &dm $ #trator ##ue# a$ order

pre#cr , $g the #tep to ,e ta9e$ or the memora$dum to ,e made. H # re#olut o$ $ co$#ulta #hall ,e co$clu# !e
a$d , $d $g upo$ all Jeg #ter# of Heed# u$le##

the date of ##ua$ce of the or g $al cert f cate of t tle. @h # rule a##ume# that the defe$da$t # $ po##e## o$ of the la$d. 2here t # the pla $t ff who # $ po##e## o$ of the la$d* the act o$ for reco$!eya$ce would ,e $ the $ature of a #u t for ?u et $g for the t tle wh ch act o$ # mpre#cr pt ,le (Fav"%
v. Malay, 318 SCRA (11 [1999]).

re!er#ed o$ appeal ,y the Court of &ppeal# or ,y the


.upreme Court. 4.ect o$ 117* P.H. 15297.

@he procedure of co$#ulta # a mode of appeal from de$ al ,y the Jeg #ter of Heed# of the reg #trat o$ of the $#trume$t to the Comm ## o$er of "a$d

1eme0ies; 1econve"ance; Elements (1999) Jommel wa# ##ued a cert f cate of t tle o!er a parcel of la$d $ Pue:o$ C ty. /$e year later Jachelle* the leg t mate
ow$er of the la$d* d #co!ered the fraudule$t reg #trat o$

Jeg #trat o$. U


2 th $ f !e day# from rece pt of the $ot ce of de$ al*

o,ta $ed ,y Jommel. .he f led a compla $t aga $#t Jommel for reco$!eya$ce a$d cau#ed the a$$otat o$ of a $ot ce of Jommel $ow $!o9e# the $defea# , l ty of h # t tle co$# der $g that o$e year ha# already elap#ed from t# ##ua$ce. He al#o #ee9# the ca$cellat o$ of the $ot ce of "# pe$de$#. 2l l JachelleG# #u t for reco$!eya$ce pro#per% 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

l # pe$de$# o$ the cert f cate of t tle ##ued to Jommel.

the $tere#ted party may ele!ate the matter ,y co$#ulta


to the Comm ## o$er of "a$d Jeg #trat o$ who #hall

e$ter a$ order pre#cr , $g the #tep to ,e ta9e$ or memora$dum to ,e made. Je#olut o$ $ co$#ulta #hall
,e , $d $g upo$ all Jeg #ter# of Heed# pro! ded that

the party $ $tere#t may appeal to the Court of &ppeal#


w th $ the per od pre#cr ,ed 4.ec. 117* P.H. 15297.

Be#* JachelleG# #u t w ll pro#per ,ecau#e all eleme$t# for a$ act o$ for reco$!eya$ce are pre#e$t* $amely(

1eme0ies; 1econve"ance vs. 1eopening of a Decree;

4rescriptive 4erio0 ('##() "ou e* ,efore lea! $g the cou$try to tra $ a# a chef $ a f !e> #tar hotel $ 1ew Bor9* L...&.* e$tru#ted to h # f r#t>degree cou# $ Hewey a$ appl cat o$ for reg #trat o$* u$der the "a$d Jeg #trat o$ &ct* of a parcel of la$d located $ Nacolod C ty. & year later* "ou e retur$ed to the Ph l pp $e# a$d d #co!ered that Hewey reg #tered the la$d a$d o,ta $ed a$ /r g $al Cert f cate of @ tle o!er the property $ h #
HeweyO# $ame. Compou$d $g the matter* Hewey #old the

cla m $g dom $ cal r ght# o!er the Jachelle # #ame la$d. ,7 Jommel procured h # t tle to the la$d ,y fraud. c7 @he act o$ wa# ,rought w th $ the #tatutory per od of four 447 year# from d #co!ery of the fraud a$d $ot later a7
tha$ te$ 410M year# from the date of reg #trat o$ of JommelG# t tle.
d7 @ tle to the la$d ha# $ot pa##ed $to the ha$d# of a$

$$oce$t purcha#er for !alue. Jommel ca$ $!o9e the $defea# , l ty of h # t tle f Jachelle had f led a pet t o$ to reope$ or re! ew the decree of reg #trat o$. Nut Jachelle $#tead f led a$ ord $ary act o$ $ per#o$am for reco$!eya$ce. +$ the latter act o$* $defea# , l ty # $ot a !al d defe$#e ,ecau#e* $ f l $g #uch act o$* Jachelle # $ot #ee9 $g to $ull fy $or to mpug$ the $defea# , l ty of JommelG# t tle. .he # o$ly a#9 $g the court to compel Jommel to reco$!ey the t tle to her a# the
leg t mate ow$er of the la$d.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

la$d to Huey* a$ $$oce$t purcha#er for !alue. "ou e promptly f led a$ act o$ for reco$!eya$ce of the parcel of
la$d aga $#t Huey.

4a7 4,7

+# the act o$ pur#ued ,y "ou e the proper remedy%

&##um $g that reco$!eya$ce # the proper remedy*

w ll the act o$ pro#per f the ca#e wa# f led ,eyo$d o$e year* ,ut w th $ te$ year#* from the e$try of the decree of reg #trat o$% 5E
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Page 78 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

Be#. @he property reg #tered # deemed to ,e held $ tru#t for the real ow$er ,y the per#o$ $ who#e $ame t # reg #tered. @he @orre$# #y#tem wa# $ot de# g$ed to #h eld
o$e who had comm tted fraud or m #repre#e$tat o$ a$d

@h # act o$ doe# $ot pre#cr ,e. 2 th re#pect to Perc !alG# act o$ for reco$!eya$ce* t would ha!e pre#cr ,ed* ha! $g ,ee$ f led more tha$ te$ 4107 year# after reg #trat o$ a$d

##ua$ce of a$ /.C.@. $ the $ame of 0el! $* were t $ot for


the $here$t $f rm ty of the latterG# t tle. L$der the fact#*

thu# hold# the t tle $ ,ad fa th. ()alstro& v. Ma'a -r., (; .R


3838(, $9 -an. 1990) as +"te% "n Mart"ne@, F., S.&&ary o* SC
Fe+"s"ons, -an.ary to -.ne, 1990, '. 379],

the #tatute of l m tat o$# w ll $ot apply to Perc !al ,ecau#e


0el! $ 9$ew that a part of the la$d co!ered ,y h # t tle actually ,elo$ged to Perc !al. .o* $#tead of $ull fy $g $

1eme0ies; 1econve"ance; 4rescriptive 4erio0 (1997) /$ 10 .eptem,er 1965* 0el! $ appl ed for a free pate$t

co!er $g two lot# > "ot & a$d "ot N > # tuated $ .a$t ago*
+#a,ela. Lpo$ cert f cat o$ ,y the Pu,l c "a$d +$#pector

that 0el! $ had ,ee$ $ actual* co$t $uou#* ope$* $otor ou#* e-clu# !e a$d ad!er#e po##e## o$ of the lot# # $ce 1925* the H rector of "a$d appro!ed 0el! $G# appl cat o$ o$ 04 <u$e
1967. /$ 26 Hecem,er 1967* /r g $al Cert f cate of @ tle 4/C@7 1o. P>2277 wa# ##ued $ the $ame of 0el!l$.

toto the t tle of 0el! $* the court* $ the e-erc #e of e?u ty a$d 8ur #d ct o$* may gra$t prayer for the reco$!eya$ce of "ot N to Perc !al who ha# actually po##e##ed the la$d u$der a cla m of ow$er#h p # $ce 1947. &fter all* f 0el! $G# t tle # declared !o d a, $ t o a$d the la$d # re!erted to the pu,l c
doma $* Perc !al would 8u#t the #ame ,e e$t tled to

prefere$ce r ght to ac?u re the la$d from the go!er$me$t.


Ne# de#* well #ettled # the rule that o$ce pu,l c la$d ha# ,ee$ $ ope$* co$t $uou#* e-clu# !e a$d $otor ou#

/$ 7 .eptem,er 1971* Perc !al f led a prote#t alleg $g that


"ot N wh ch he had ,ee$ occupy $g a$d cult !at $g # $ce

po##e## o$ u$der a ,o$af de cla m of ac?u # t o$ of


ow$er#h p for the per od pre#cr ,ed ,y .ect o$ 48 of the $ co$templat o$ of law ac?u red the character of pr !ate

1947 wa# $cluded $ the Free Pate$t ##ued $ the $ame of 0el! $. @he H rector of "a$d# ordered the $!e#t gat o$ of
Perc !alG# prote#t. @he .pec al +$!e#t gator who co$ducted

Pu,l c "a$d &ct* the #ame p#o 8ure cea#e# to ,e pu,l c a$d la$d. @hu#* reco$!eya$ce of the la$d from 0el! $ to Perc !al would ,e the ,etter procedure* (#"tale vs. Anore,
90 !"l. 877C ena, 5an% T"tles an% Fee%s, 198$, a,e 4$()
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

the $!e#t gat o$ fou$d that Perc !al had ,ee$ $ actual cult !at o$ of "ot N # $ce 1947. /$ 28 1o!em,er 1986* the .ol c tor )e$eral f led $ ,ehalf of the Jepu,l c of the Ph l pp $e# a compla $t for
ca$cellat o$ of the free pate$t a$d the /C@ ##ued $ the $ame of 0el! $ a$d the re!er# o$ of the la$d to pu,l c doma $ o$ the grou$d of fraud a$d m #repre#e$tat o$ $

@he act o$ of the .ol c tor )e$eral #hould pro#per* co$# der $g that the doctr $e of $defea# , l ty of t tle doe# $ot apply to free pate$t #ecured through fraud. & cert f cate
of t tle ca$$ot ,e u#ed a# #h eld to perpetuate fraud. @he .tate # $ot ,ou$d ,y the per od of pre#cr pt o$ #tated $

.ec. 38 of &ct 496. (F"re+tor o* 5an%s vs. A/an"lla,


1$4
SCRA 378)

o,ta $ $g the free pate$t. /$ the #ame date* Perc !al #ued 0art $ for the reco$!eya$ce of "ot N. 0el! $ f led h # a$#wer# $terpo# $g the #ole defe$#e $
,oth ca#e# that the Cert f cate of @ tle ##ued $ h # $ame

@he act o$ for reco$!eya$ce f led ,y Perc !al may #t ll


pro#per pro! ded that the property ha# $ot pa##ed to a$

,ecame $co$tro!ert ,le a$d $defea# ,le upo$ the lap#e of


o$e year from the ##ua$ce of the free pate$t. ) !e$ the c rcum#ta$ce#* ca$ the act o$ of the .ol c tor )e$eral a$d the ca#e for reco$!eya$ce f led ,y Perc !al po## ,ly pro#per%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

$$oce$t th rd party for !alue (Fa/lo .s. Co.rt o* A''eals. $$6 SCRA 618)* a$d pro! ded that the act o$ # f led w th $ the pre#cr pt !e per od of te$ year# (Tale vs. Co.rt o*
A''eals. $08 SCRA $66). . $ce the act o$ wa# f led ,y

Perc !al 19 year# after the ##ua$ce of 0el! $G# t tle* t #

#u,m tted that the #ame # already ,arred ,y pre#cr pt o$. AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE" 4to #eco$d part of ?ue#t o$7 @he act o$ for reco$!eya$ce f led ,y Perc !al w ll pro#per*

'+f fraud ,e d #co!ered $ the appl cat o$ wh ch led to the


##ua$ce of the pate$t a$d Cert f cate of @ tle* th # @ tle

,ecome# p#o facto $ull a$d !o d. @hu#* $ a ca#e where a per#o$ who o,ta $ed a free pate$t* 9$ow $gly made a fal#e
#tateme$t of mater al a$d e##e$t al fact# $ h # appl cat o$

,ecau#e the la$d ha# cea#ed to ,e pu,l c la$d a$d ha# ,ecome pr !ate la$d ,y ope$* co$t $uou#* pu,l c* e-clu# !e po##e## o$ u$der a ,o$a f de cla m of ow$er#h p for more
tha$ th rty year#* a$d Perc !al # #t ll $ po##e## o$ of the property at pre#e$t. H # act o$ for reco$!eya$ce ca$ ,e

for the #ame* ,y #tat $g there $ that the lot $ ?ue#t o$ wa# part of the pu,l c doma $ $ot occup ed or cla med ,y a$y other per#o$* h # t tle ,ecome# p#o facto ca$celed a$d
co$#e?ue$tly re$dered $ull a$d !o d.'

co$# dered a# a$ act o$ to ?u et t tle* wh ch doe# $ot


pre#cr ,e f the pla $t ff # $ po##e## o$ of the property.
(<lv",a v. CA. ;R 1048013. <+to/er $1, 1993)

'+t # to the pu,l c $tere#t that o$e who #ucceed# +$ fraudule$tly ac?u r $g t tle to pu,l c la$d #hould $ot ,e
allowed to ,e$ef t therefrom a$d the .tate* through the

1eme0ies; 1eopening of a Decree; Elements (199')


2hat are the e##e$t al re?u # te# or eleme$t# for the allowa$ce of the reope$ $g or re! ew of a decree of

.ol c tor )e$eral* may f le the corre#po$d $g act o$ for a$$ulme$t of the pate$t a$d the re!er# o$ of the la$d $!ol!ed to the pu,l c doma $' (F"nero .s. F"re+tor o* 5an%sC Paya/an vs. Re'./l"+ 563330(,86$06(3C F"re+tor o*
5an%s .s. Aon. e%ro Sa&son An"&as, 563(68$, 36$96(4.)

reg #trat o$%


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he e##e$t al eleme$t# are( 417 that the pet t o$er ha# a real

or dom $ cal r ght3 427 that he ha# ,ee$ depr !ed thereof through fraud3 437 that the pet t o$ # f led w th $ o$e 417

year from the ##ua$ce of the decree3 a$d 447 that the
property ha# $ot yet ,ee$ tra$#ferred to a$ $$oce$t

Page 79 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

purcha#er QR./l"+o vs. <rellana 30 SCRA 711C >/.%an vs. ;"l


47 SCRA 1().
!P$I!'AL E2$E'#E# A'(WE":

&dm $ #trat !e Code of 1987 wh ch proh , t# off cer# a$d employee# of the go!er$me$t from purcha# $g d rectly or

Pet t o$ for re! ew of the Hecree of Jeg #trat o$. & remedy
e-pre##ly pro! ded $ .ect o$ 32 of P. H. 1o. 1529 4formerly .ect o$ 38. &ct 4967* th # remedy ha# the follow $g eleme$t#(

$d rectly a$y property #old ,y the go!er$me$t for


$o$payme$t of a$y ta-* fee or other pu,l c charge.

a7

@he pet t o$ mu#t ,e f led ,y a per#o$ cla m $g dom $ cal or other real r ght# to the la$d reg #tered $
the $ame of re#po$de$t. wa# procured

4a7 +# the #ale to <ua$ !al d% +f #o* what # the effect of the +##ua$ce of the Cert f cate of @ tle to 0ar a% 4,7 +f the #ale # !o d* may <ua$ reco!er the P10*000.00% +f
$ot* why $ot%

4c7

+f the #ale # !o d* d d t $ot $e!erthele##* operate to

,7

@he reg #trat o$ of the la$d $ the $ame of re#po$de$t


,y mea$# of actual* 4$ot 8u#t

d !ert 0ar a of her ow$er#h p% +f t d d* who the$ # the

ow$er of the property%


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

co$#truct !e7 fraud* wh ch mu#t ,e e-tr $# c.

Fraud #

actual f the reg #trat o$ wa# made through dece t or a$y other $te$t o$al act of dow$r ght d #ho$e#ty to

e$r ch o$e#elf at the e-pe$#e of a$other. +t # e-tr $# c whe$ t # #ometh $g that wa# $ot ra #ed* l t gated a$d
pa##ed upo$ $ the ma $ proceed $g#.

&. @he #ale of the la$d to <ua$ # $ot !al d* ,e $g co$trary to law. @herefore* $o tra$#fer of ow$er#h p of the la$d wa# effected from the del $?ue$t ta-payer to h m. @he or g $al cert f cate# of t tle o,ta $ed ,y 0ar a thru a free pate$t gra$t
from the Nureau of "a$d# u$der Chapter 6++* C& 141 #

c7

@he pet t o$ mu#t ,e f led w th $ o$e 417 year from the


date of the ##ua$ce of the decree. +$$oce$t

!al d ,ut $ ! ew of her del $?ue$cy* the #a d t tle # #u,8ect


to the r ght of the C ty )o!er$me$t to #ell the la$d at pu,l c auct o$. @he ##ua$ce of the /C@ d d $ot e-empt the la$d from the ta- #ale#. .ect o$ 44 of P./. 1o. 1529

d7 @ tle to the la$d ha# $ot pa##ed to a$

purcha#er for !alue 4" ,uda$ !#. ) l* 45\ .CJ& 27*

19727* Ju,l co !#. /rrela$a. 30 .CJ& 511* 196973 JP


!#. C&* 57 ). J 1o. 40402. 0arch 16* 19877. =orrens "stem vs. 1ecor0ing of Evi0ence of =itle (199!)

pro! de# that e!ery reg #tered ow$er rece ! $g a Cert f cate
of @ tle #hall hold the #ame free from a$ e$cum,ra$ce#*

#u,8ect to certa $ e-empt o$#.


N. <ua$ may reco!er ,ecau#e he wa# $ot a party to the

H #t $gu #h the @orre$# #y#tem of la$d reg #trat o$ from the #y#tem of record $g of e! de$ce of t tle.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

! olat o$ of the law. C. 1o* the #ale d d $ot d !e#t 0ar a of her t tle prec #ely ,ecau#e the #ale # !o d. +t # a# good a# f $o #ale e!er too9 place. +$ ta- #ale#* the ow$er # d !e#ted of h # la$d $ t ally upo$ award a$d ##ua$ce of a Cert f cate of .ale* a$d f $ally after the lap#e of the 1 year per od from date of reg #trat o$* to
redeem* upo$ e-ecut o$ ,y the trea#urer of a$ $#trume$t

a7

@he

@/JJ51.

.B.@50

/F

"&1H

J5)+.@J&@+/1 # a #y#tem for the reg #trat o$ of t tle to


the la$d. @hu#* u$der th # #y#tem what # e$tered $ the

Jeg #try of Heed#* # a record of the ow$erG# e#tate or


$tere#t $ the la$d* u$l 9e the #y#tem u$der the .pa$ #h

0ortgage "aw or the #y#tem u$der .ect o$ 194 of the Je! #ed &dm $ #trat !e Code a# ame$ded ,y &ct 3344
where o$ly the e! de$ce of #uch t tle # recorded. +$ the latter #y#tem* what # recorded # the deed of co$!eya$ce from he$ce the ow$erG# t tle ema$atedWa$d $ot the t tle

#uff c e$t $ form a$d effect# to co$!ey the property. 0ar a rema $ed ow$er of the la$d u$t l a$other ta- #ale # to ,e performed $ fa!or of a ?ual f ed ,uyer.

t#elf. ,7 @orre$# #y#tem of la$d reg #trat o$ # that wh ch # pre#cr ,ed $ &ct 496 4$ow PH 15297* wh ch # e ther <ud c al or ?ua# >8ud c al. .y#tem or record $g of e! de$ce of t tle # merely the reg #trat o$ of e! de$ce of ac?u # t o$# of la$d w th the Jeg #ter of Heed#* who a$$otate# the #ame o$ the e- #t $g t tle* ca$cel# the old o$e a$d ##ue# a $ew t tle

C!'$"AC$(
Consens%al vs. 1eal Contracts; Ein0s of 1eal Contracts

(1993) H #t $gu #h co$#e$#ual from real co$tract# a$d $ame at lea#t four 447 9 $d# of real co$tract# u$der the pre#e$t law. ;3EA

,a#ed o$ the docume$t pre#e$ted for reg #trat o$.


/nregistere0 Lan0 (1991) 0ar a 5$r ?ue: fa led to pay the realty ta-e# o$ her u$reg #tered agr cultural la$d located $ 0agdugo* @oledo C ty. +$ 1989* to #at #fy the ta-e# due* the C ty #old t at pu,l c auct o$ to <ua$ 0 ra$da* a$ employee at the

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

C/1.51.L&" C/1@J&C@. are tho#e wh ch are perfected ,y mere co$#e$t 4&rt. 1315. C ! l Code7. J5&" C/1@J&C@. are tho#e wh ch are perfected ,y the del !ery of the o,8ect of the o,l gat o$. 4&rt. 1316* C ! l Code7
5-ample# of real co$tract# are depo# t* pledge*

@rea#urerG# /ff ce of #a d C ty* who#e , d at P10*000.00 wa# the h ghe#t. +$ due t me* a f $al , ll of #ale wa# e-ecuted $
h # fa!or.

commodatum a$d # mple loa$ 4mutuum7. Consi0eration; @ali0it" ('###)


"ol ta wa# employed $ a f $a$ce compa$y. Necau#e #he

0ar a refu#ed to tur$>o!er the po##e## o$ of the property to


<ua$ alleg $g that 417 #he had ,ee$* $ the mea$t me* gra$ted

a free pate$t a$d o$ the ,a# # thereof a$ /r g $al Cert f cate of @ tle wa# ##ued to her* a$d 427 the #ale $ fa!or of <ua$ #
!o d from the ,eg $$ $g $ ! ew of the pro! # o$ $ the

could $ot accou$t for the fu$d# e$tru#ted to her* #he wa# charged w th e#tafa a$d ordered arre#ted. +$ order to #ecure her relea#e from 8a l* her pare$t# e-ecuted a prom ##ory $ote
to pay the f $a$ce compa$y the amou$t allegedly m #appropr ated ,y the r daughter. @he f $a$ce compa$y

Page 80 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 19902006) the$ e-ecuted a$ aff da! t of de# #ta$ce wh ch led to the

w thdrawal of the $format o$ aga $#t "ol ta a$d her relea#e from 8a l. @he pare$t# fa led to comply w th the r
prom ##ory $ote a$d the f $a$ce compa$y #ued them for #pec f c performa$ce. 2 ll the act o$ pro#per or $ot% 43E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

0y a$#wer w ll $ot ,e the #ame a# to damage#. 0ar! $ w ll ,e l a,le for damage# for ,reach of co$tract of opt o$. 2 th the payme$t of the co$# derat o$ for the opt o$ g !e$* a$d
w th the co$#e$t of the part e# a$d the o,8ect of co$tract ,e $g pre#e$t* a perfected co$tract of opt o$ wa# created. the performa$ce of the r o,l gat o$

@he act o$ w ll pro#per. @he prom ##ory $ote e-ecuted ,y "ol taG# pare$t# # !al d a$d , $d $g* the co$# derat o$ ,e $g the e-t $gu #hme$t of "ol taG# c ! l l a, l ty a$d $ot the
#t fl $g of the cr m $al pro#ecut o$.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

(San M",.el, In+. v. A.an,, ;.R. 0o. 13($90, -.ly 31, $000) L$der &rt cle 1170 of the C ! l Code* tho#e who $
are gu lty of

co$tra!e$t o$ thereof* a# $ th # ca#e* whe$ 0ar! $ d d $ot


g !e Carlo# the agreed per od of te$ day#* are l a,le for

@he act o$ w ll $ot pro#per ,ecau#e the co$# derat o$ for the prom ##ory $ote wa# the $o$>pro#ecut o$ of the

damage#.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

cr m $al ca#e for e#tafa. @h # ca$$ot ,e do$e a$ymore ,ecau#e the $format o$ ha# already ,ee$ f led $ court a$d to do t # llegal. @hat the co$# derat o$ for the prom ##ory
$ote # the #t fl $g of the cr m $al pro#ecut o$ # e! de$t

from the e-ecut o$ ,y the f $a$ce compa$y of the aff da! t of de# #ta$ce mmed ately after the e-ecut o$ ,y "ol taG#
pare$t# of the prom ##ory $ote. @he co$# derat o$ ,e $g e$forced ,y court act o$. Contract of Option; Elements ('##9)

0y a$#wer w ll $ot ,e the #ame f Carlo# pa d 0ar! $ P10*000.00 ,ecau#e a$ opt o$ co$tract wa# perfected. @hu#* f 0ar! $ w thdrew the offer pr or to the e-p rat o$ of the 10>day per od* he ,reached the opt o$ co$tract. 4&rt cle 1324* C ! l Code7 +) S.''os"n, t!at Carlos a++e'te% t!e o**er /e*ore Marv"n +o.l% +o&&.n"+ate !"s 9"t!%ra9al t!ereo*1 F"s+.ss t!e le,al +onseN.en+es. ($4)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

llegal* the prom ##ory $ote # $!al d a$d may $ot ,e

& co$tract to co$#truct the hou#e of Carlo# # perfected.

0ar! $ offered to co$#truct the hou#e of Carlo# for a !ery


rea#o$a,le pr ce of P900*000.00* g ! $g the latter 10 day#

w th $ wh ch to accept or re8ect the offer. /$ the f fth day* ,efore Carlo# could ma9e up h # m $d* 0ar! $ w thdrew h #
offer. a) )!at "s t!e e**e+t o* t!e 9"t!%ra9al o* Marv"nDs o**er1 ($4)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Co$tract# are perfected ,y mere co$#e$t ma$ fe#ted ,y the meet $g of the offer a$d the accepta$ce upo$ the th $g a$d the cau#e wh ch are to co$#t tute the co$tract. (;o&e@ v. Co.rt o* A''eals, ;.R. 0o. 1$0(4(, Se'te&/er $1, $000)
L$der &rt cle 1315 of the C ! l Code* Carlo# a$d 0ar! $ are ,ou$d to fulf ll what ha# ,ee$ e-pre##ly #t pulated a$d all

@he w thdrawal of 0ar! $G# offer w ll cau#e the offer to cea#e $ law. He$ce* e!e$ f #u,#e?ue$tly accepted* there

co$#e?ue$ce# thereof. L$der &rt cle 1167* f 0ar! $ would refu#e to co$#truct the hou#e* Carlo# # e$t tled to ha!e the
co$#truct o$ ,e do$e ,y a th rd per#o$ at the e-pe$#e of

could ,e $o co$curre$ce of the offer a$d the accepta$ce. +$ the a,#e$ce of co$curre$ce of offer a$d accepta$ce* there
ca$ ,e $o co$#e$t. (5a.%"+o v. Ar"as Ro%r",.e@, ;.R.

0ar! $. 0ar! $ $ that ca#e w ll ,e l a,le for damage# u$der &rt cle 1170. )ne<istent Contracts vs. 2nn%llable Contracts ('##!) H #t $gu #h ,r efly ,ut clearly ,etwee$ +$e- #te$t co$tract# a$d a$$ulla,le co$tract#.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

0o. 16730, Mar+! 31, 19$$) 2 thout co$#e$t* there # $o perfected co$tract for the co$#truct o$ of the hou#e of Carlo#. (Salon,a v. 8arrales, ;.R. 0o. 564(088, -.ly 10, 1981) &rt cle 1318 of the C ! l Code pro! de# that there ca$
,e $o co$tract u$le## the follow $g re?u # te# co$cur( 417

+15=+.@51@ C/1@J&C@. are co$# dered a# $ot ha! $g


,ee$ e$tered $to a$d* therefore* !o d o, $ t o. @hey do

co$#e$t of the part e#3 427 o,8ect certa $ wh ch # the #u,8ect


matter of the co$tract3 a$d 437 cau#e of the o,l gat o$. 0ar! $ w ll $ot ,e l a,le to pay Carlo# a$y damage# for w thdraw $g the offer ,efore the lap#e of the per od

$ot create a$y o,l gat o$ a$d ca$$ot ,e rat f ed or !al dated* a# there # $o agreeme$t to rat fy or !al date. /$ the other ha$d* &11L""&N"5 or 6/+H&N"5 C/1@J&C@. are
!al d u$t l $!al dated ,y the court ,ut may ,e rat f ed. +$

gra$ted. +$ th # ca#e* $o co$# derat o$ wa# g !e$ ,y Carlo# for the opt o$ g !e$* thu# there # $o perfected co$tract of

$e- #te$t co$tract#* o$e or more re?u # te# of a !al d co$tract are a,#e$t. +$ a$ulla,le co$tract#* all the eleme$t#

opt o$ for lac9 of cau#e of o,l gat o$. 0ar! $ ca$$ot ,e

held to ha!e ,reached the co$tract. @hu#* he ca$$ot ,e held


l a,le for damage#.

of a co$tract are pre#e$t e-cept that the co$#e$t of o$e of the co$tract $g part e# wa# ! t ated or o$e of them ha# $o capac ty to g !e co$#e$t.
.at%re of Contracts; Obligatoriness (1991)

/) )"ll yo.r ans9er /e t!e sa&e "* Carlos 'a"% Marv"n


10,000.00 as +ons"%erat"on *or t!at o't"on1 23'la"n. ($4)
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

0y a$#wer w ll ,e the #ame a# to the perfect o$ of the co$tract for the co$#truct o$ of the hou#e of Carlo#. 1o perfected co$tract ar #e# ,ecau#e of lac9 of co$#e$t. 2 th

Jola$d* a ,a#9et,all #tar* wa# u$der co$tract for o$e year to play>for>play e-clu# !ely for "ady "o!e* +$c. Howe!er* e!e$ ,efore the ,a#9et,all #ea#o$ could ope$* he wa# offered a

more attract !e pay plu# fr $ge# ,e$ef t# ,y .weet @a#te* +$c. Jola$d accepted the offer a$d tra$#ferred to .weet

the w thdrawal of the offer* there could ,e $o co$curre$ce


of offer a$d accepta$ce.

@a#te. "ady "o!e #ue# Jola$d a$d .weet @a#te for ,reach of co$tract. Hefe$da$t# cla m that the re#tr ct o$ to play for
"ady "o!e alo$e t # !o d* he$ce* u$e$forcea,le* a#

Page 81 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

co$#t tute# a$ u$due $terfere$ce w th the r ght of Jola$d to e$ter $to co$tract# a$d the mpa rme$t of h # freedom
to play a$d e$8oy ,a#9et,all.

a$y payme$t at all. Pr $tado ha# al#o a #ta$d $g co$tract w th pu,l #her Pu,l co for the pr $t $g of 10*000 !olume#

of #chool te-t,oo9#. .upl co wa# aware of #a d pr $t $g co$tract. &fter pr $t $g 1*000 !olume#* Pr $tado al#o fa l# to
perform u$der t# pr $t $g co$tract w th Pu,l co. .upl co #ue# Pr $tado for the !alue of the u$pa d del !er e# u$der

Ca$ Jola$d ,e ,ou$d ,y the co$tract he e$tered $to w th "ady "o!e or ca$ he d #regard the #ame% +# he l a,le at all%
How a,out .weet @a#te% +# t l a,le to "ady "o!e%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Jola$d # ,ou$d ,y the co$tract he e$tered $to w th "ady "o!e a$d he ca$$ot d #regard the #ame* u$der the pr $c ple# of o,l gator $e## of co$tract#. /,l gat o$# ar # $g from
co$tract# ha!e the force of law ,etwee$ the part e#.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

the r order agreeme$t. &t the #ame t me Pu,l co #ue# Pr $tado for damage# for ,reach of co$tract w th re#pect to
the r ow$ pr $t $g agreeme$t. +$ the #u t f led ,y .upl co*

Pr $tado cou$ter# that( 4a7 .upl co ca$$ot dema$d payme$t


for del !er e# made u$der the r order agreeme$t u$t l

Be#* Jola$d # l a,le u$der the co$tract a# far a# "ady "o!e # co$cer$ed. He # l a,le for damage# u$der &rt cle 1170 of the C ! l Code # $ce he co$tra!e$ed the te$or of h # o,l gat o$. 1ot ,e $g a co$tract $g party* .weet @a#te # $ot ,ou$d ,y the co$tract ,ut t ca$ ,e held l a,le u$der &rt. 1314. @he ,a# # of t# l a, l ty # $ot pre#cr ,ed ,y co$tract
,ut # fou$ded o$ ?ua# >del ct* a##um $g that .weet @a#te

.upl co ha# completed performa$ce u$der #a d co$tract3 4,7 .upl co #hould pay damage# for ,reach of co$tract3 a$d 4c7
w th Pu,l co #hould ,e l a,le for Pr $tadoO# ,reach of h#

co$tract w th Pu,l co ,ecau#e the order agreeme$t ,etwee$ .upl co a$d Pr $tado wa# for the ,e$ef t of Pu,l co. &re the co$te$t o$# of Pr $tado te$a,le% 5-pla $ your a$#wer# a# to each co$te$t o$. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

9$ew of the co$tract. &rt cle 1314 of the C ! l Code pro! de# that a$y th rd per#o$ who $duce# a$other to ! olate h # co$tract #hall ,e l a,le for damage# to the other
co$tract $g party.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

1o* the co$te$t o$# of Pr $tado are u$te$a,le. Pr $tado

ha! $g fa led to pay for the pr $t $g paper co!ered ,y the


del !ery $!o ce# o$ t me* .upl co ha# the r ght to cea#e ma9 $g further del !ery. &$d the latter d d $ot ! olate the

order agreeme$t (Inte,rate% a+Ea,"n, Cor'orat"on v. Co.rt


o* A''eals, (333 SCRA 1(0, ;.R. 0o. 11711(, -.ne 8, [$000]).

+t # a##umed that "ady "o!e 9$ew of the co$tract. 1e ther


Jola$d $or .weet @a#te would ,e l a,le* ,ecau#e the re#tr ct o$ $ the co$tract # ! olat !e of &rt cle 1306 a#

.upl co ca$$ot ,e held l a,le for damage#* for ,reach of

,e $g co$trary to law moral#* good cu#tom#* pu,l c order or pu,l c pol cy.
.at%re of Contracts; 4rivit" of Contract (199-)

co$tract* a# t wa# $ot he who ! olated the order agreeme$t* ,ut Pr $tado. .upl co ca$$ot ,e held l a,le for Pr $tadoO# ,reach of e$tered $to ,y a$d ,etwee$ Pr $tado a$d Pu,l co. @he r# #
$ot a #t pulat o$ pour atru . ;&fore#a dA .uch co$tract# do could $ot affect th rd per#o$# l 9e .upl co ,ecau#e of the co$tract w th Pu,l co. He # $ot a party to the agreeme$t

Naldomero lea#ed h # hou#e w th a telepho$e to <o#e. @he lea#e co$tract pro! ded that <o#e #hall pay for all electr c ty* water a$d telepho$e #er! ce# $ the lea#ed prem #e# dur $g the per od of the lea#e. . - mo$th# later. <o#e #urrept t ou#ly !acated the prem #e#. He left ,eh $d u$pa d telepho$e , ll# for o!er#ea# telepho$e call# amou$t $g to o!er P20*000.00. Naldomero refu#ed to pay the #a d , ll# o$ the grou$d that
<o#e had already #u,#t tuted h m a# the cu#tomer of the telepho$e compa$y. @he latter ma $ta $ed that Naldomero

,a# c c ! l law pr $c ple of relat ! ty of co$tract# wh ch pro! de# that co$tract# ca$ o$ly , $d the part e# who
e$tered $to t* a$d t ca$$ot fa!or or pre8ud ce a th rd

per#o$* e!e$ f he # aware of #uch co$tract a$d ha# acted w th 9$owledge thereof. (Inte,rate% a+Ea,"n, Cor'orat"on
v. CA, s.'ra.)

rema $ed a# h # cu#tomer a# far a# the r #er! ce co$tract wa#


co$cer$ed* $otw th#ta$d $g the lea#e co$tract ,etwee$

1escission of Contracts; 4roper 4art" (199-)


+$ Hecem,er 1985* .al!ador a$d the .tar .em co$ductor

Naldomero a$d <o#e. 2ho # correct* Naldomero or the


telepho$e compa$y% 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Compa$y 4..C7 e-ecuted a Heed of Co$d t o$al .ale

@he telepho$e compa$y # correct ,ecau#e a# far a# t #

where $ the former agreed to #ell h # 2*000 #?uare meter lot $ Ca $ta* J :al* to the latter for the pr ce of P1*000*000.00*

co$cer$ed* the o$ly per#o$

t co$tracted w th wa#

Naldomero. @he telepho$e compa$y ha# $o co$tract w th

<o#e. Naldomero ca$$ot #u,#t tute <o#e $ h # #tead w thout


the co$#e$t of the telepho$e compa$y 4&rt. 1293* 1CC7.

paya,le P100*000.00 dow$* a$d the ,ala$ce 60 day# after the #?uatter# $ the property ha!e ,ee$ remo!ed. +f the #?uatter# are $ot remo!ed w th $ # - mo$th#* the

P100*000.00 dow$ payme$t #hall ,e retur$ed ,y the !e$dor to the !e$dee*


.al!ador f led e8ectme$t #u t# aga $#t the #?uatter#* ,ut $ $ot lea!e. +$ &ugu#t* 1986* .al!ador offered to retur$ the P100*000.00 dow$ payme$t to the !e$dee* o$ the grou$d

Naldomero #* therefore* l a,le u$der the co$tract.


.at%re of Contracts; 1elativit" of Contracts ('##') Pr $tado # e$gaged $ the pr $t $g ,u# $e##. .upl co

#p te of the dec # o$# $ h # fa!or* the #?uatter# #t ll would

#uppl e# pr $t $g paper to Pr $tado pur#ua$t to a$ order

agreeme$t u$der wh ch .upl co , $d# h m#elf to del !er the #ame !olume of paper e!ery mo$th for a per od of 18
mo$th#* w th Pr $tado $ tur$ agree $g to pay w th $ 60

day# after each del !ery. .upl co ha# ,ee$ fa thfully


del !er $g u$der the order agreeme$t for 10 mo$th# ,ut

that he # u$a,le to remo!e the #?uatter# o$ the property. ..C refu#ed to accept the mo$ey a$d dema$ded that .al!ador e-ecute a deed of a,#olute #ale of the property $ t# fa!or* at wh ch t me t w ll pay the ,ala$ce of the pr ce.
+$c de$tally* the !alue of the la$d had dou,led ,y that t me.

thereafter #topped do $g #o* ,ecau#e Pr $tado ha# $ot made

Page 82 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

.al!ador co$# g$ed the P 100*000.00 $ court* a$d f led a$


act o$ for re#c ## o$ of the deed of co$d t o$al #ale* plu# damage#. 2 ll the act o$ pro#per% 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

property of IB* h # w fe may al#o #ue to reco!er t u$der

&rt cle 2016 of the C ! l Code f #he a$d the fam ly $eeded
the mo$ey for #upport.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE" 345:

1o* the act o$ w ll $ot pro#per. @he act o$ for re#c ## o$

may ,e ,rought o$ly ,y the aggr e!ed party to the co$tract.


. $ce t wa# .al!ador who fa led to comply w th h #

&. 427. 0r#. IB ca$$ot f le a #u t to reco!er what her hu#,a$d lo#t. &rt 2014 of the C ! l Code pro! de# that a$y
lo#er $ a game of cha$ce may reco!er h # lo## from the

co$d t o$al o,l gat o$* he # $ot the aggr e!ed party who

w $$er* w th legal $tere#t from the t me he pa d the amou$t


lo#t. @h # mea$# that o$ly he ca$ f le the #u t. 0r#. IB

may

f le

the act o$

for

re#c ## o$

,ut

the .tar

.em co$ductor Compa$y. @he compa$y* howe!er* # $ot

ca$$ot reco!er a# a #pou#e who ha# $tere#t $ the a,#olute


commu$ ty property or co$8ugal part$er#h p of ga $#* ,ecau#e u$der &rt. 11747M of the Fam ly Code* lo##e# are

opt $g to re#c $d the co$tract ,ut ha# cho#e$ to wa !e


.al!adorG# compl a$ce w th the co$d t o$ wh ch t ca$ do

u$der &rt. 1545* 1CC.


AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

@he act o$ for re#c ## o$ w ll $ot pro#per. @he ,uyer ha#

,or$e e-clu# !ely ,y the lo#er>#pou#e. @herefore* the#e ca$$ot ,e charged aga $#t a,#olute commu$ ty property or
co$8ugal part$er#h p of ga $#. @h # ,e $g #o* 0r#. IB ha#
$o $tere#t $ law to pro#ecute a$d reco!er a# #he ha# $o

$ot comm tted a$y ,reach* let alo$e a #u,#ta$t al or #er ou# o$e* to warra$t the re#c ## o$Sre#olut o$ #ought ,y the
!e$dor. /$ the co$trary* t # the !e$dor who appear# to ha!e fa led to comply w th the co$d t o$ mpo#ed ,y the

legal #ta$d $g $ court to do #o. Con0itional Obligations ('###) Pedro prom #ed to g !e h # gra$d#o$ a car f the latter w ll
pa## the ,ar e-am $at o$#. 2he$ h # gra$d#o$ pa##ed the #a d e-am $at o$#* Pedro refu#ed to g !e the car o$ the

co$tract the fulf llme$t of wh ch would ha!e re$dered the


o,l gat o$ to pay the ,ala$ce of the purcha#e pr ce

dema$da,le. Further* far from ,e $g u$a,le to comply w th what # $cum,e$t upo$ t* e.* pay the ,ala$ce of the pr ce >
the ,uyer ha# offered to pay t e!e$ w thout the !e$dor

ha! $g compl ed w th the #u#pe$# !e co$d t o$ attached to


the payme$t of the pr ce* thu# wa ! $g #uch co$d t o$ a#

grou$d that the co$d t o$ wa# a purely pote#tat !e o$e. +# he correct or $ot% 42E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

well a# the 60>day term $ t# fa!or @he #t pulat o$ that the P100*000.00 dow$ payme$t #hall ,e retur$ed ,y the !e$dor
to the !e$dee f the #?uatter# are $ot remo!ed w th $ # mo$th#* # al#o a co!e$a$t for the ,e$ef t of the !e$dee* wh ch the latter ha# !al dly wa !ed ,y mpl cat o$ whe$ t

1o* he # $ot correct. F r#t of all* the co$d t o$ # $ot purely pote#tat !e* ,ecau#e t doe# $ot depe$d o$ the #ole w ll of
o$e of the part e#. .eco$dly* e!e$ f t were* t would ,e

!al d ,ecau#e t depe$d# o$ the #ole w ll of the cred tor 4the do$ee7 a$d $ot of the de,tor 4the do$or7. Con0itional Obligations ('##()
&re the follow $g o,l gat o$# !al d* why* a$d f they are

offered to pay the ,ala$ce of the purcha#e pr ce upo$ the


e-ecut o$ of a deed of a,#olute #ale ,y the !e$dor. 4&rt. 1545* 1CC7

!al d* whe$ # the o,l gat o$ dema$da,le $ each ca#e%


a7 +f the de,tor prom #e# to pay a# #oo$ a# he ha# the

!-LI&A$I!'(
2leator" Contracts; Bambling ('##!) &. 0r. IB lo#t P100*000 $ a card game called Ju## a$

,7

c7 a

mea$# to pay3 +f the de,tor prom #e# to pay whe$ he l 9e#3 +f the de,tor prom #e# to pay whe$ he ,ecome# lawyer3 w th ca$cer* doe# $ot d e w th $ o$e year. 5E

d7 +f the de,tor prom #e# to pay f h # #o$* who # # c9


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

po9er* ,ut he had $o more ca#h to pay $ full the w $$er at


the t me the #e## o$ e$ded. He prom #ed to pay P=* the the lap#e of two mo$th#* #o P= f led $ court a #u t to collect the amou$t of P50*000 that he wo$ ,ut rema $ed

w $$er* two wee9# thereafter. Nut he fa led to do #o de#p te

4a7 @he o,l gat o$ # !al d. +t # a$ o,l gat o$ #u,8ect to a$ $def $ te per od ,ecau#e the de,tor , $d# h m#elf to
pay whe$ h # mea$# perm t h m to do #o 4&rt cle 1180*

u$pa d. 2 ll the collect o$ #u t aga $#t IB pro#per% Could

1CC7. 2he$ the cred tor 9$ow# that the de,tor already ha#

0r#. IB f le $ tur$ a #u t aga $#t P= to reco!er the


P100*000 that her hu#,a$d lo#t% Jea#o$. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

the mea$# to pay* he mu#t f le a$ act o$ $ court to f - the


per od* a$d whe$ the def $ te per od a# #et ,y the court arr !e#* the o,l gat o$ to pay ,ecome# dema$da,le 9&rt cle 1197* 1CC7. @he o,l gat o$ Cto pay whe$ he l 9e#D # a 4,7 #u#pe$# !e co$d t o$ the fulf llme$t of wh ch # #u,8ect to the #ole w ll of the de,tor a$d* therefore the co$d t o$al
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&. 1. @he #u t ,y P= to collect the ,ala$ce of what he wo$ from IB w ll $ot pro#per. L$der &rt cle 2014 of the C ! l
Code* $o act o$ ca$ ,e ma $ta $ed ,y the w $$er for the

collect o$ of what he ha# wo$ $ a game of cha$ce.


&lthough po9er may depe$d $ part o$ a, l ty* t

fu$dame$tally a game of cha$ce. 27 +f the mo$ey pa d ,y IB to P= wa# co$8ugal or commu$ ty property* the w fe of IB could #ue to reco!er t

o,l gat o$ # !o d. 4&rt cle 1182* 1CC7.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

,ecau#e &rt cle 117477 of the Fam ly Code pro! de# that lo##e# $ gam,l $g or ,ett $g are ,or$e e-clu# !ely ,y the

4c7

co$d t o$*

@he o,l gat o$ # !al d. +t # #u,8ect to a #u#pe$# !e


.e. the future a$d u$certa $ e!e$t of h #

lo#er>#pou#e. He$ce* co$8ugal or commu$ ty fu$d# may $ot ,e u#ed to pay for #uch lo##e#. +f the mo$ey were e-clu# !e

,ecom $g a lawyer. @he performa$ce of th # o,l gat o$ doe#

Page 83 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

$ot depe$d #olely o$ the w ll of the de,tor ,ut al#o o$ other factor# out# de the de,torO# co$trol.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

co$d t o$ of 5!a pa## $g the 1998 Nar 5-am $at o$#.

He$ce* upo$ 5!aG# pa## $g the Nar* the r ght# of the other
,uyer term $ated a$d 5!a ac?u red ow$er#h p of the

4d7

@he o,l gat o$ # !al d. @he death of the #o$ of # made a $egat !e #u#pe$# !e

property.
(EC!'# AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

ca$cer w th $ o$e year

@he #ale to a$other per#o$ ,efore 5!a could ,uy t from

co$d t o$ to h # ma9 $g the payme$t. @he o,l gat o$ # dema$da,le f the #o$ doe# $ot d e w th $ o$e year 4&rt cle
1185* 1CC7. Con0itional Obligations; 4romise (1997) +$ two #eparate docume$t# # g$ed ,y h m* <ua$ 6ale$t $o 'o,l gated' h m#elf each to 0ar a a$d to Perla* thu# >
G@o 0ar a* my true lo!e* + o,l gate my#elf to g !e you my

0a$uel # !al d* a# the co$tract ,etwee$ 0a$uel a$d 5!a # a mere prom #e to #ell a$d 5!a ha# $ot ac?u red a real r ght o!er the la$d a##um $g that there # a pr ce #t pulated $ the co$tract for the co$tract to ,e co$# dered a #ale a$d there wa# del !ery or trad t o$ of the th $g #old. 4,7 1o* #he # $ot e$t tled to the re$tal# collected ,y 0a$uel wa# $ot yet the ow$er of the property.
I"($ AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE": (+&&E($E# A'(WE":

o$e a$d o$ly hor#e whe$ + feel l 9e +t.' > a$d >

,ecau#e at the t me they accrued a$d were collected* 5!a

G@o Perla* my true #weetheart* + o,l gate my#elf to pay you


the P500.00 + owe you whe$ + feel l 9e t.'

&##um $g that 5!a # the o$e e$t tled to ,uy the hou#e a$d

0o$th# pa##ed ,ut <ua$ $e!er ,othered to ma9e good h # prom #e#. 0ar a a$d Perla came to co$#ult you o$ whether
or $ot they could reco!er o$ the ,a# # of the forego $g #ett $g#. 2hat would your legal ad! ce ,e%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

lot* #he # $ot e$t tled to the re$tal# collected ,y 0a$uel ,efore #he pa##ed the ,ar e-am $at o$#. 2hether t # a

co$tract of #ale or a co$tract to #ell* rec procal pre#tat o$#


are deemed mpo#ed & for the #eller to del !er the o,8ect #old a$d for the ,uyer to pay the pr ce. Nefore the

+ would ad! #e 0ar a $ot to ,other ru$$ $g after <ua$ for


the latter to ma9e good h # prom #e. ;@h # # ,ecau#e a prom #e # $ot a$ act o$a,le wro$g that allow# a party to reco!er e#pec ally whe$ #he ha# $ot #uffered damage#

happe$ $g of the co$d t o$* the fru t# of the th $g a$d the $tere#t# o$ the mo$ey are deemed to ha!e ,ee$ mutually
compe$#ated u$der &rt cle 1187.
(EC!'# AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

re#ult $g from #uch prom #e. & prom #e doe# $ot create a$ o,l gat o$ o$ the part of <ua$ ,ecau#e t # $ot #ometh $g wh ch ar #e# from a co$tract* law* ?ua# >co$tract# or ?ua# > del ct# 4&rt* 11577A. L$der &rt. 1182* <ua$G# prom #e to
0ar a # !o d ,ecau#e a co$d t o$al o,l gat o$ depe$d# upo$ the #ole w ll of the o,l gor.

L$der &rt. 1164* there # $o o,l gat o$ o$ the part of 0a$uel to del !er the fru t# 4re$tal#7 of the th $g u$t l the o,l gat o$ to del !er the th $g ar #e#. &# the #u#pe$# !e co$d t o$ ha# $ot ,ee$ fulf lled* the o,l gat o$ to #ell doe# $ot ar #e. E<ting%is&ment; 2ssignment of 1ig&ts ('##1)
@he #ugar ca$e pla$ter# of Nata$ga# e$tered $to a lo$g> term m ll $g co$tract w th the Ce$tral &:ucarera de Ho$

&# regard# Perla* the docume$t # a$ e-pre## ac9$owledgme$t of a de,t* a$d the prom #e to pay what he owe# her whe$ he feel# l 9e t # e?u !ale$t to a prom #e to pay whe$ h # mea$# perm t# h m to do #o* a$d # deemed to ,e o$e w th a$ $def $ te per od u$der &rt. 1180. He$ce the amou$t # reco!era,le after Perla a#9# the court to #et the
per od a# pro! ded ,y &rt. 1197* par. 2. Con0itional Obligations; 1esol%tor" Con0ition (1999)

Pedro +$c. @e$ year# later* the Ce$tral a## g$ed t# r ght# to the #a d m ll $g co$tract to a @a wa$e#e group wh ch would ta9e o!er the operat o$# of the #ugar m ll. @he pla$ter# f led a$ act o$ to a$$ul the #a d a## g$me$t o$ the grou$d that the @a wa$e#e group wa# $ot reg #tered w th the Noard of +$!e#tme$t#. 2 ll the act o$ pro#per or $ot% 5-pla $ ,r efly. 45E7
9"ote. T/e 5uestion presupposes >no3le2;e an2 re5uires t/e application of t/e pro6isions of t/e Omni1us !n6estment Co2e4

+$ 1997* 0a$uel ,ou$d h m#elf to #ell 5!a a hou#e a$d lot wh ch # ,e $g re$ted ,y a$other per#o$* f 5!a pa##e# the
1998 ,ar e-am $at o$#. "uc9 ly for 5!a* #he pa##ed #a d

3/ic/ properl7 1elon;s to Commercial la3:

e-am $at o$#.

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4a7

.uppo#e 0a$uel had #old the #ame hou#e a$d lot to

a$other ,efore 5!a pa##ed the 1998 ,ar e-am $at o$#* # #uch #ale !al d% 2hy% 42E7

@he act o$ w ll pro#per $ot o$ the grou$d $!o9ed ,ut o$ the grou$d that the farmer# ha!e $ot g !e$ the r co$#e$t to the a## g$me$t. @he m ll $g co$tract mpo#e# rec procal
o,l gat o$# o$ the part e#. @he #ugar ce$tral ha# the o,l gat o$ to m ll the #ugar ca$e of the farmer# wh le the

4,7

&##um $g that t # 5!a who # e$t tled to ,uy #a d

hou#e a$d lot* # #he e$t tled to the re$tal# collected ,y

0a$uel ,efore #he pa##ed the 1998 ,ar e-am $at o$#% 2hy% 43E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

latter ha!e the o,l gat o$ to del !er the r #ugar ca$e to the #ugar ce$tral. &# to the o,l gat o$ to m ll the #ugar ca$e* the
#ugar ce$tral # a de,tor of the farmer#. +$ a## g$ $g t#

4a7 Be#* the #ale to the other per#o$ # !al d a# a #ale w th a re#olutory co$d t o$ ,ecau#e what operate# a# a #u#pe$# !e
co$d t o$ for 5!a operate# a re#olutory co$d t o$ for the

r ght# u$der the co$tract* the #ugar ce$tral w ll al#o tra$#fer to the @a wa$e#e t# o,l gat o$ to m ll the #ugar ca$e of the farmer#. @h # w ll amou$t to a $o!at o$ of the co$tract ,y
#u,#t tut $g the de,tor w th a th rd party. L$der &rt cle

,uyer.
I"($ AL$E"'A$IVE A'( WE":

Be#* the #ale to the other per#o$ # !al d. Howe!er* the ,uyer ac?u red the property #u,8ect to a re#olutory

1293 of the C ! l Code* #uch #u,#t tut o$ ca$$ot ta9e effect w thout the co$#e$t of the cred tor. @he former#* who are cred tor# a# far a# the o,l gat o$ to m ll the r #ugar ca$e #

Page 84 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

co$cer$ed* may a$$ul #uch a## g$me$t for $ot ha! $g g !e$
the r co$#e$t thereto.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

5!e$ ; fA a##um $g that there wa# a perfect r ght of f r#t

@he a## g$me$t # !al d ,ecau#e there # a,#olute freedom to tra$#fer the cred t a$d the cred tor $eed $ot get the

refu#al* compe$#at o$ d d $ot ta9e place ,ecau#e the cla m # u$l ?u dated. E<ting%is&ment; Compensation vs. 4a"ment (1993)
Hef $e compe$#at o$ a# a mode of e-t $gu #h $g a$

co$#e$t of the de,tor. He o$ly $eed# to $ot fy h m.


E<ting%is&ment; Ca%se of 2ction ('##!)

o,l gat o$* a$d d #t $gu #h t from payme$t. ;2EA


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@= f led a #u t for e8ectme$t aga $#t NH for $o$>payme$t of co$dom $ um re$tal# amou$t $g to P150*000. Hur $g the pe$de$cy of the ca#e* NH offered a$d @= accepted the full amou$t due a# re$tal# from NH* who the$ f led a mot o$ to d #m ## the e8ectme$t #u t o$ the grou$d that the act o$ # already e-t $gu #hed. +# NHO# co$te$t o$ correct% 2hy or
why $ot% Jea#o$. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

C/0P51.&@+/1 # a mode of e-t $gu #h $g to the co$curre$t amou$t* the o,l gat o$# of tho#e per#o$# who $
the r ow$ r ght are rec procally de,tor# a$d cred tor# of

each other (Tolent"no, 1991 e%., '. 367, +"t"n, $ Castan 760
an% 8ran+"a vs. IAC. 16$ SCRA (73). +t

# multa$eou# ,ala$c $g of two o,l gat o$# to co!ered ,y that of the other.
+"t"n, 8 Manresa 401).

$!ol!e# the $ order

e-t $gu #h them to the e-te$t $ wh ch the amou$t of o$e #


(Fe 5eon, 199$ e%., '. $$1,

NHG# co$te$t o$ # $ot correct. @= ca$ #t ll ma $ta $ the

#u t for e8ectme$t. @he accepta$ce ,y the le##or of the payme$t ,y the le##ee of the re$tal# $ arrear# e!e$ dur $g
the pe$de$cy of the e8ectme$t ca#e doe# $ot co$#t tute a

P&B051@ mea$# $ot o$ly del !ery of mo$ey ,ut al#o

wa !er or a,a$do$me$t of the e8ectme$t ca#e. (S'o.ses


Cl.tar"o v. CA, $16 SCRA 341 [199$]).

performa$ce of a$ o,l gat o$ 4&rt cle 1232* C ! l Code7. +$ payme$t* capac ty to d #po#e of the th $g pa d a$d capac ty
to rece !e payme$t are re?u red for de,tor a$d cred tor* re#pect !ely( $ compe$#at o$* #uch capac ty # $ot $ece##ary* ,ecau#e the compe$#at o$ operate# ,y law a$d

E<ting%is&ment; Compensation ('##')

.toc9to$ # a #toc9holder of Core Corp. He de# re# to #ell h # #hare# $ Core Corp. +$ ! ew of a court #u t that Core Corp. ha# f led aga $#t h m for damage# $ the amou$t of P 10 m ll o$* plu# attor$eyO# fee# of P 1 m ll o$* a# a re#ult of
#tateme$t# pu,l #hed ,y .toc9to$ wh ch are allegedly

$ot ,y the act of the part e#. +$ payme$t* the performa$ce mu#t ,e complete3 wh le $ compe$#at o$ there may ,e
part al e-t $gu #hme$t of a$ o,l gat o$ 4@ole$t $o* #upra7

defamatory ,ecau#e t wa# calculated to $8ure a$d damage


the corporat o$O# reputat o$ a$d goodw ll. @he art cle# of $corporat o$ of Core Corp. pro! de for a r ght of f r#t refu#al $ fa!or of the corporat o$.

E<ting%is&ment; CompensationD et?Off; ;an+s (1993)


=* who ha# a #a! $g# depo# t w th B Na$9 $ the #um of

P1*000*000.00 $cur# a loa$ o,l gat o$ w th the #a d Na$9 $


the #um of P800.000.00 wh ch ha# ,ecome due. 2he$ =

&ccord $gly*

.toc9to$

ga!e

wr tte$

$ot ce

to

the

corporat o$ of h # offer to #ell h # #hare# of P 10 m ll o$.

tr e# to w thdraw h # depo# t* B Na$9 allow# o$ly P200.000.00 to ,e w thdraw$* le## #er! ce charge#* cla m $g that compe$#at o$ ha# e-t $gu #hed t# o,l gat o$ u$der the
#a! $g# accou$t to the co$curre$t amou$t of =G# de,t. = co$te$d# that compe$#at o$ # mproper whe$ o$e of the

@he re#po$#e of Core corp. wa# a$ accepta$ce of the offer $ the e-erc #e of t# r ght# of f r#t refu#al* offer $g for the
purpo#e payme$t $ form of compe$#at o$ or #et>off aga $#t the amou$t of damage# t # cla m $g aga $#t h m*

e-clu# !e of the cla m for attor$eyO# fee#. .toc9to$ re8ected the offer of the corporat o$* argu $g that compe$#at o$ ,etwee$ the !alue of the #hare# a$d the amou$t of damage# dema$ded ,y the corporat o$ ca$$ot legally ta9e effect. +#
.toc9to$ correct% ) !e rea#o$ for your a$#wer. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE"(:

de,t#* a# here* ar #e# from a co$tract of depo# t. &##um $g that the prom ##ory $ote # g$ed ,y = to e! de$ce the loa$ doe# $ot pro! de for compe$#at o$ ,etwee$ #a d loa$ a$d h # #a! $g# depo# t* who # correct% ;3EA
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

B ,a$9 # correct. &$. 1287* C ! l Code* doe# $ot apply. &ll

the re?u # te# of &rt. 1279* C ! l Code are pre#e$t. +$ the ca#e of ;.llas vs. 0G [6$ !"l. 719), the .upreme Court

.toc9to$ # correct. @here # $o r ght of compe$#at o$

held( '@he C ! l Code co$ta $# pro! # o$# regard $g

,etwee$ h # pr ce of P10 m ll o$ a$d Core Corp.O#

u$l ?u dated cla m for damage#. +$ order that compe$#at o$ may ,e proper* the two de,t# mu#t ,e l ?u dated a$d
dema$da,le. @he ca#e for the P 10m ll o$ damage# ,e $g #t ll pe$d $g $ court* the corporat o$ ha# a# yet $o cla m

compe$#at o$ 4#et off7 a$d depo# t. @he#e port o$# of Ph l pp $e law pro! de that compe$#at o$ #hall ta9e place whe$ two per#o$# are rec procally cred tor a$d de,tor of each other. +$ th # co$$ect o$* t ha# ,ee$ held that the

relat o$ e- #t $g ,etwee$ a depo# tor a$d a ,a$9 # that of


cred tor a$d de,tor* - - - &# a ge$eral rule* a ,a$9 ha# a

wh ch # due a$d dema$da,le aga $#t .toc9to$.


A'!$.E" )AI' A'(WE":

@he r ght of f r#t refu#al wa# $ot perfected a# a r ght for the rea#o$ that there wa# a co$d t o$al accepta$ce e?u !ale$t to a cou$ter>offer co$# #t $g $ the amou$t of damage# a# ,e $g cred ted o$ the purcha#e pr ce. @herefore* compe$#at o$ d d $ot re#ult # $ce there wa# $o !al d r ght
of f r#t refu#al 4&rt. 1475 X 1319* 1CC7
A'!$.E" )AI' A'(WE":

r ght of #et off of the depo# t# $ t# ha$d# for the payme$t of a$y $de,ted$e## to t o$ the part of a depo# tor.' He$ce* compe$#at o$ too9 place ,etwee$ the mutual o,l gat o$# of = a$d B ,a$9. E<ting%is&ment; Con0onation ('###) &rturo ,orrowed P500*000.00 from h # father. &fter he had

pa d P300*000.00* h # father d ed. 2he$ the adm $ #trator of h # fatherG# e#tate re?ue#ted payme$t of the ,ala$ce of P200*000.00. &rturo repl ed that the #ame had ,ee$

Page 85 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

co$do$ed ,y h # father a# e! de$ced ,y a $otat o$ at the

@he act o$ w ll $ot pro#per. @he e- #te$ce of $flat o$ or

,ac9 of h # chec9 payme$t for the P300*000.00 read $g( '+$ full payme$t of the loa$'. 2 ll th # ,e a !al d defe$#e $ a$
act o$ for collect o$% 43E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

deflat o$ re?u re# a$ off c al declarat o$ ,y the Na$g9o .e$tral $g P l p $a#.


AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

@he u$lawful deta $er act o$ w ll pro#per. +t # a g !e$ fact


$ the pro,lem* that there wa# $flat o$* wh ch cau#ed the

+t depe$d#. +f the $otat o$ ' $ full payme$t of the loa$' wa#


wr tte$ ,y &rturoG# father* there wa# a$ mpl ed co$do$at o$ of the ,ala$ce that d #charge# the o,l gat o$.

+$ #uch ca#e* the $otat o$ # a$ act of the father from wh ch


co$do$at o$ may ,e $ferred. @he co$do$at o$ ,e $g

mpl ed* t $eed $ot comply w th the formal t e# of a do$at o$ to ,e effect !e. @he defe$#e of full payme$t w ll*
therefore* ,e !al d.

e-cha$ge rate to dou,le. . $ce the co$tract t#elf author :e# the $crea#e $ re$tal $ the e!e$t of a$ $flat o$ or de!aluat o$ of the Ph l pp $e pe#o* the dou,l $g of the mo$thly re$t # rea#o$a,le a$d # therefore a !al d act u$der the !ery term# of the co$tract. Nr a$G# refu#al to pay # thu#
a grou$d for e8ectme$t.

2he$* howe!er* the $otat o$ wa# wr tte$ ,y &rturo h m#elf. +t merely pro!e# h # $te$t o$ $ ma9 $g that payme$t ,ut $ $o way doe# t , $d h # father (?a& v. CA, ;.R 0o. 104($6.
11 8e/r.ary 1999). +$ #uch ca#e* the $otat o$ wa# $ot the act

of h # father from wh ch co$do$at o$ may ,e $ferred. @here ,e $g $o co$do$at o$ at all the defe$#e of full payme$t w ll $ot ,e !al d.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

E<ting%is&ment; Loss (199!) H $o #ued Ne$ for damage# ,ecau#e the latter had fa led to del !er the a$t ?ue 0arcede# Ne$: car H $o had purcha#ed from Ne$* wh ch wa#W ,y agreeme$tWdue for del !ery o$ Hecem,er 31* 1993. Ne$* $ h # a$#wer to H $oG# compla $t* #a d H $oG# cla m ha# $o ,a# # for the #u t* ,ecau#e a# the car wa# ,e $g dr !e$ to ,e del !ered to H $o o$ <a$uary 1* 1994* a rec9le## truc9 dr !er had rammed $to the 0ercede#
Ne$:. @he tr al court d #m ##ed H $oG# compla $t* #ay $g

+f the $otat o$ wa# wr tte$ ,y &rturoG# father* t amou$ted to a$ e-pre## co$do$at o$ of the ,ala$ce wh ch mu#t comply w th the formal t e# of a do$at o$ to ,e !al d u$der the 2$d paragraph of &rt cle 1270 of the 1ew C ! l Code. . $ce the amou$t of the ,ala$ce # more tha$ 5*000 pe#o#* the accepta$ce ,y &rturo of the co$do$at o$ mu#t al#o ,e $ wr t $g u$der &rt cle 748. @here ,e $g $o accepta$ce $
wr t $g ,y &rturo* the co$do$at o$ # !o d a$d the o,l gat o$ to pay the ,ala$ce #u,# #t#. @he defe$#e of full payme$t #* therefore* $ot !al d. +$ ca#e the $otat o$ wa#

Ne$G# o,l gat o$ had $deed* ,ee$ e-t $gu #hed ,y force ma8eure. +# the tr al court correct%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

a7 1o. &rt cle 1262* 1ew C ! l Code pro! de#* '&$ o,l gat o$ wh ch co$# #t# $ the del !ery of a determ $ate

th $g #hall ,e e-t $gu #hed f t #hould ,e lo#t or de#troyed w thout the fault of the de,tor* a$d ,efore he ha# $curred
$ delay.

,7 @he 8udgme$t of the tr al court # $correct. "o## of the


th $g due ,y fortu tou# e!e$t# or force ma8eure # a !al d

$ot wr tte$ ,y &rturoG# father* the a$#wer # the #ame a# the


a$#wer# a,o!e. E<ting%is&ment; E<traor0inar" )nflation or Deflation ('##1)

defe$#e for a de,tor o$ly whe$ the de,tor ha# $ot $curred
delay. 5-t $gu #hme$t of l a, l ty for fortu tou# e!e$t

/$ <uly 1* 1998* Nr a$ lea#ed a$ off ce #pace $ a ,u ld $g


for a per od of f !e year# at a re$tal rate of P1*000.00 a

re?u re# that the de,tor ha# $ot yet $curred a$y delay. +$ the pre#e$t ca#e* the de,tor wa# $ delay whe$ the car wa# de#troyed o$ <a$uary 1* 1993 # $ce t wa# due for del !ery
o$ Hecem,er 31* 1993. 4&rt. 1262 C ! l Code7

mo$th. @he co$tract of lea#e co$ta $ed the pro! #o that ' $ ca#e of $flat o$ or de!aluat o$ of the Ph l pp $e pe#o* the mo$thly re$tal w ll automat cally ,e $crea#ed or decrea#ed depe$d $g o$ the de!aluat o$ or $flat o$ of the pe#o to the dollar.' .tart $g 0arch 1* 2001* the le##or $crea#ed the re$tal to P2*000 a mo$th* o$ the grou$d of $flat o$ pro!e$

c7 +t depe$d# whether or $ot Ne$ the #eller* wa# already $


default at the t me of the acc de$t ,ecau#e a dema$d for

h m to del !er o$ due date wa# $ot compl ed w th ,y h m.


@hat fact $ot ha! $g ,ee$ g !e$ $ the pro,lem* the tr al

,y the fact that the e-cha$ge rate of the Ph l pp $e pe#o to


the dollar had $crea#ed from P25.00[Q1.00 to P50.00[Q1.00. Nr a$ refu#ed to pay the $crea#ed rate a$d a$ act o$ for u$lawful deta $er wa# f led aga $#t h m. 2 ll the act o$ pro#per% 2hy% 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

court erred $ d #m ## $g H $oG# compla $t. Jea#o$( @here # default ma9 $g h m re#po$# ,le for fortu tou# e!e$t#
$clud $g the a##umpt o$ of r #9 or lo##.

+f o$ the other ha$d Ne$ wa# $ot $ default a# $o dema$d


ha# ,ee$ #e$t to h m pr or to the acc de$t* the$ we mu#t

@he u$lawful deta $er act o$ w ll $ot pro#per. 5-traord $ary $flat o$ or deflat o$ # def $ed a# the #harp decrea#e $ the purcha# $g power of the pe#o. +t doe# $ot $ece##ar ly refer to the e-cha$ge rate of the pe#o to the dollar. 2hether or $ot there e- #t# a$ e-traord $ary $flat o$ or deflat o$ # for the court# to dec de. @here ,e $g $o #how $g that the
purcha# $g power of the pe#o had ,ee$ reduced

d #t $gu #h whether the pr ce ha# ,ee$ pa d or $ot. +f t ha# ,ee$ pa d* the #u t for damage# #hould pro#per ,ut o$ly to
e$a,le the ,uyer to reco!er the pr ce pa d. +t #hould ,e

$oted that Ne$* the #eller* mu#t ,ear the lo## o$ the
pr $c ple of res perit 2omino. He ca$$ot ,e held a$#wera,le

treme$dou#ly* there could ,e $o $flat o$ that would 8u#t fy


the $crea#e $ the amou$t of re$tal to ,e pa d. He$ce* Nr a$ could refu#e to pay the $crea#ed rate.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

for damage# a# the lo## of the car wa# $ot mputa,le to h # fault or fraud. +$ a$y ca#e* he ca$ reco!er the !alue of the car from the party who#e $egl ge$ce cau#ed the acc de$t. +f $o pr ce ha# ,ee$ pa d at all* the tr al court acted correctly $ d #m ## $g the compla $t.
E<ting%is&ment; Loss; )mpossible ervice (199()

Page 86 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

+$ 1971* &,le Co$#truct o$* +$c. e$tered $to a co$tract w th @rop cal Home He!eloper#* +$c. where,y the former

ha# ,ee$ e-t $gu #hed ,y the $o!at o$ or e-t $ct o$ of the pr $c pal o,l gat o$ $#ofar a# th rd part e# are co$cer$ed. E<ting%is&ment; 4a"ment (1999) +$ 1983 PH+"CJ5H+@ e-te$ded loa$# to J !ett>.trom
0ach $er e#* +$c. 4J+65@@@>.@J/07* co$# #t $g of L.Q10 0 ll o$ for the co#t of mach $er e# mported a$d

would ,u ld for the latter the hou#e# w th $ t# #u,d ! # o$.


@he co#t of each hou#e* la,or a$d mater al# $cluded* wa# P100*000.00. Four hu$dred u$ t# were to ,e co$#tructed

w th $ f !e year#. +$ 1973* &,le fou$d that t could $o lo$ger co$t $ue w th the 8o, due to the $crea#e $ the pr ce
of o l a$d t# der !at !e# a$d the co$com ta$t worldw de #p ral $g of pr ce# of all commod t e#* $clud $g ,a# c raw mater al# re?u red for the co$#truct o$ of the hou#e#. @he

d rectly pa d ,y PH@"CJ5H+@* a$d 5 0 ll o$ $ ca#h


paya,le $ $#tallme$t# o!er a per od of te$ 4107 year# o$ the

co#t of de!elopme$t had r #e$ to u$a$t c pated le!el# a$d to #uch a degree that the co$d t o$# a$d factor# wh ch formed the or g $al ,a# # of the co$tract had ,ee$ totally cha$ged. &,le ,rought #u t aga $#t @rop cal Home# pray $g that the
Court rel e!e t of t# o,l gat o$. +# &,le Co$#truct o$ e$t tled to the rel ef #ought%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

,a# # of the !alue thereof computed at the rate of e-cha$ge of the L... dollar ! #>]>! # the Ph l pp $e pe#o at the t me of payme$t.
J+65@@>.@J/0 made payme$t# o$ ,oth loa$# wh ch f ,a#ed o$ the rate of e-cha$ge $ 1983 would ha!e fully

#ettled the loa$#.


PH+"CJ5H+@ co$te$d# that the payme$t# o$ ,oth loa$#

Be#* the &,le Co$#truct o$. +$c. # e$t tled to the rel ef #ought u$der &rt cle 1267* C ! l Code. @he law pro! de#( '2he$ the #er! ce ha# ,ecome #o d ff cult a# to ,e

#hould ,e ,a#ed o$ the rate of e-cha$ge e- #t $g at the t me


of payme$t* wh ch rate of e-cha$ge ha# ,ee$ co$# #te$tly

ma$ fe#tly ,eyo$d the co$templat o$ of the part e#* the


o,l gor may al#o ,e relea#ed therefrom* $ whole or $ part.' E<ting%is&ment; .ovation (199!)

$crea# $g* a$d for wh ch rea#o$ there would #t ll ,e a


co$# dera,le ,ala$ce o$ each loa$.

+# the co$te$t o$ of PH+"CJ5H+@ correct% H #cu## fully.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

+$ 1978* No,,y ,orrowed Pl*000*000.00 from Ch to paya,le


$ two year#. @he loa$* wh ch wa# e! de$ced ,y a prom ##ory $ote* wa# #ecured ,y a mortgage o$ real

&# regard# the loa$ co$# #t $g of dollar#* the co$te$t o$ of


PH+"CJ5H+@ # correct. +t ha# to ,e pa d $ Ph l pp $e

property. 1o act o$ wa# f led ,y Ch to to collect the loa$ or


to foreclo#e the mortgage. Nut $ 1991* No,,y* w thout

rece ! $g a$y amou$t from Ch to* e-ecuted a$other prom ##ory $ote wh ch wa# worded e-actly a# the 1978 prom ##ory $ote* e-cept for the date thereof* wh ch wa# the
date of t# e-ecut o$. 17 Ca$ Ch to dema$d payme$t o$ the 1991 prom ##ory $ote $ 1994%

curre$cy computed o$ the ,a# # of the e-cha$ge rate at the @+05 /F P&B051@ of each $#tallme$t* a# held $ Palalo v. 5.@, 34 SCRA 33(. &# regard# the P5 0 ll o$ loa$ $ Ph l pp $e pe#o#* PH+"CJ5H+@ # wro$g. @he payme$t
thereof ca$$ot ,e mea#ured ,y the pe#o>dollar e-cha$ge rate. @hat w ll ,e ! olat !e of the L$ form Curre$cy &ct 4J&* 529A wh ch proh , t# the payme$t of a$ o,l gat o$ wh ch* although to ,e pa d $ Ph l pp $e curre$cy* #

mea#ured ,y a fore g$ curre$cy. ( alan+a v. CA, $38 SCRA


793).

27 Ca$ Ch to foreclo#e the real e#tate mortgage f No,,y fa l# to ma9e good h # o,l gat o$ u$der the 1991 prom ##ory $ote%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

17 Be#* Ch to ca$ dema$d payme$t o$ the 1991 prom ##ory


$ote $ 1994. &lthough the 1978 prom ##ory $ote for P1 o,l gat o$ after the lap#e of te$ 4107 year#* #uch $atural o,l gat o$ ca$ ,e a !al d co$# derat o$ of a $o!ated

Liabilit"; Lease; 7oint Liabilit" ('##1) Four fore g$ med cal #tude$t# re$ted the apartme$t of @helma for a per od of o$e year. &fter o$e #eme#ter* three
of them retur$ed to the r home cou$try a$d the fourth tra$#ferred to a ,oard $g hou#e. @helma d #co!ered that

m ll o$ paya,le two year# later or $ 1980 ,ecame a $atural

prom ##ory $ote dated $ 1991 a$d paya,le two year# later*
or $ 1993. &ll the eleme$t# of a$ mpl ed real $o!at o$ are pre#e$t(

they left u$pa d telepho$e , ll# $ the total amou$t of P80*000.00. @he lea#e co$tract pro! ded that the le##ee# #hall pay for the telepho$e #er! ce# $ the lea#ed prem #e#.
@helma dema$ded that the fourth #tude$t pay the e$t re

a7 a$ old !al d o,l gat o$3 ,7 a $ew !al d o,l gat o$3
c7 capac ty of the part e#3 d7 a$ mu# $o!a$d or $te$t o$ to $o!ate3 a$d

amou$t of the u$pa d telepho$e , ll#* ,ut the latter # w ll $g to pay o$ly o$e fourth of t. 2ho # correct% 2hy% 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he fourth #tude$t # correct. H # l a, l ty # o$ly 8o $t*


he$ce* pro rata. @here # #ol dary l a, l ty o$ly whe$ the

e7

@he old a$d the $ew o,l gat o$ #hould ,e $compat ,le

o,l gat o$ e-pre##ly #o #tate# or whe$ the law or $ature of


the o,l gat o$ re?u re# #ol dar ty 4&rt. 1207* CC7. @he

w th each other o$ all mater al po $t# 4&rt cle 12927. @he two prom ##ory $ote# ca$$ot #ta$d together* he$ce* the
per od of pre#cr pt o$ of te$ 4107 year# ha# $ot yet lap#ed.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

co$tract of lea#e $ the pro,lem doe# $ot* $ a$y way* #t pulate #ol dar ty. Liabilit"; oli0ar" Liabilit" (1993) <oey* <o!y a$d <o8o are #ol dary de,tor# u$der a loa$
o,l gat o$ of P300*000.00 wh ch ha# falle$ due. @he cred tor

27 1o. @he mortgage ,e $g a$ acce##ory co$tract pre#cr ,ed w th the loa$. @he $o!at o$ of the loa$* howe!er* d d $ot e-pre##ly $clude the mortgage* he$ce* the mortgage #

e-t $gu #hed u$der &rt cle 1296 of the 1CC. @he co$tract

ha#* howe!er* co$do$ed <o8oG# e$t re #hare $ the de,t. . $ce <o!y ha# ,ecome $#ol!e$t* the cred tor ma9e# a
dema$d o$ <oey to pay the de,t.

Page 87 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

17

How much* f a$y* may <oey ,e compelled to pay% ;2EA

prom ##ory $ote a# a re#ult of the foreclo#ure of the chattel mortgage. 4c7 @he th rd defe$#e of B # u$te$a,le. B # a #urety of = a$d the e-tra8ud c al dema$d aga $#t the pr $c pal de,tor # $ot $co$# #te$t w th a 8ud c al dema$d aga $#t the #urety. & #urety#h p may co>e- #t w th a mortgage. 4d7 @he fourth defe$#e of B # u$te$a,le. B # l a,le for the e$t re pre#tat o$ # $ce B $curred a #ol dary o,l gat o$ w th =.
(Arts. 1$0(, 1$16. 1$7$ an% $04( C"v"l Co%eC G"+ol Sav"n,s an% 5oan Asso+"ates vs. ;."n!a9a 188 SCRA 64$)

27

@o what e-te$t* f at all* ca$ <o8o ,e compelled ,y <oey to co$tr ,ute to #uch payme$t% ;3EA

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1. <oey ca$ ,e compelled to pay o$ly the rema $ $g ,ala$ce

of P200.000* $ ! ew of the rem ## o$ of <o8oG# #hare ,y the


cred tor. 4&rt. 1219* C ! l Code7

2. <o8o ca$ ,e compelled ,y <oey to co$tr ,ute P50.000 &rt. 1217. par. 3* C ! l Code pro! de#. '2he$ o$e of the #ol dary
de,tor# ca$$ot* ,ecau#e of h # $#ol!e$cy* re m,ur#e h # #hare to the de,tor pay $g the o,l gat o$* #uch #hare #hall

,e ,or$e ,y all h # co>de,tor#* $ proport o$ to the de,t of each.'

Liabilit"; oli0ar" Obligation; *%t%al B%arant" ('##()

. $ce the $#ol!e$t de,torG# #hare wh ch <oey pa d wa# P100*000* a$d there are o$ly two rema $ $g de,tor# >
$amely <oey a$d <o8o > the#e two #hall #hare e?ually the ,urde$ of re m,ur#eme$t. <o8o may thu# ,e compelled ,y <oey to co$tr ,ute P50.000.00. Liabilit"; oli0ar" Obligation (199')

&*N*C*H* a$d 5 made them#el!e# #ol dar ty $de,ted to = for the amou$t of P50*000.00. 2he$ = dema$ded payme$t from &* the latter refu#ed to pay o$ the follow $g grou$d#. a7 N # o$ly 16 year# old.
,7 C ha# already ,ee$ co$do$ed ,y =

c7

H # $#ol!e$t.

d7 5 wa# g !e$ ,y = a$ e-te$# o$ of 6 mo$th# w thout

+$ <u$e 1988* = o,ta $ed a loa$ from & a$d e-ecuted w th B a# #ol dary co>ma9er a prom ##ory $ote $ fa!or of & for the #um of P200*000.00. @he loa$ wa# paya,le at
P20*000.00 w th $tere#t mo$thly w th $ the f r#t wee9 of

the co$#e$t of the other four co>de,tor#. .tate the effect of each of the a,o!e defe$#e# put up ,y & o$ h # o,l gat o$ to pay =* f #uch defe$#e# are fou$d to ,e true.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE"(:

each mo$th ,eg $$ $g <uly 1988 u$t l matur ty $ &pr l


1989. @o #ecure the payme$t of the loa$. = put up a# #ecur ty a chattel mortgage o$ h # car* a @oyota Corolla
#eda$. Necau#e of fa lure of = a$d B to pay the pr $c pal

& may a!a l the m $or ty of N a# a defe$#e* ,ut o$ly for NO# #hare of P 10*000.00. & #ol dary de,tor may

4a7

amou$t of the loa$* the car wa# e-tra8ud c ally foreclo#ed. &
ac?u red the car at &G# h ghe#t , d of P120*000.00 dur $g the auct o$ #ale.

a!a l h m#elf of a$y defe$#e wh ch per#o$ally ,elo$g# to a #ol dary co>de,tor* ,ut o$ly a# to the #hare of that co> de,tor. 4,7 & may a!a l of the co$do$at o$ ,y = of CO# #hare of P 10* 000.00. & #ol dary de,tor may* $ act o$# f led ,y the cred tor* a!a l h m#elf of all defe$#e# wh ch are der !ed per#o$al to h m or perta $ to h # ow$ #hare. 2 th re#pect to tho#e wh ch per#o$ally ,elo$g to other#* he may a!a l
h m#elf thereof o$ly a# regard# that part of the de,t for

&fter #e!eral fru tle## letter# of dema$d aga $#t = a$d B* & #ued B alo$e for the reco!ery of P80.000.00 co$#t tut $g the
def c e$cy. B re# #ted the #u t ra # $g the follow $g defe$#e#(

from the $ature of the o,l gat o$ a$d of tho#e wh ch are

a7
,7

@hat B #hould $ot ,e l a,le at all ,ecau#e = wa# $ot


#ued together w th B. @hat the o,l gat o$ ha# ,ee$ pa d completely ,y &G# ac?u # t o$ of the car through 'dac o$ e$ pago' or payme$t ,y ce## o$.

wh ch the latter are re#po$# ,le. 4&rt cle 1222* 1CC7. 4c7 & may $ot $terpo#e the defe$#e of $#ol!e$cy of H a# a defe$#e. &pply $g the pr $c ple of mutual guara$ty amo$g #ol dary de,tor#* & guara$teed the payme$t of HO# #hare a$d of all the other co>de,tor#. He$ce* & ca$$ot a!a l of the defe$#e of HO# $#ol!e$cy. 4d7 @he e-te$# o$ of # - 467 mo$th# g !e$ ,y = to 5

c7

@hat B #hould $ot ,e held l a,le for the def c e$cy of P80*000.00 ,ecau#e he wa# $ot a co>mortgagor $ the
chattel mortgage of the car wh ch co$tract wa#

d7

e-ecuted ,y = alo$e a# ow$er a$d mortgagor. @hat a##um $g that B # l a,le* he #hould o$ly pay the

proport o$ate #um of P40*000.00. Hec de each defe$#e w th rea#o$#.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

4a7 @h # f r#t defe$#e of B # u$te$a,le. B # #t ll l a,le a# #ol dary de,tor. @he cred tor may proceed aga $#t a$y o$e of the #ol dary de,tor#. @he dema$d aga $#t o$e doe# $ot
preclude further dema$d aga $#t the other# #o lo$g a# the de,t # $ot fully pa d.

may ,e a!a led of ,y & a# a part al defe$#e ,ut o$ly for the #hare of 5* there # $o $o!at o$ of the o,l gat o$ ,ut o$ly a$ act of l ,eral ty gra$ted to 5 alo$e. Loss of t&e t&ing 0%e; ,orce *a5e%re ('###)
Rr #t $a ,rought her d amo$d r $g to a 8ewelry #hop for

clea$ $g. @he 8ewelry #hop u$dertoo9 to retur$ the r $g ,y Fe,ruary 1* 1999.' 2he$ the #a d date arr !ed* the 8ewelry
#hop $formed Rr #t $a that the <o, wa# $ot yet f $ #hed. @hey a#9ed her to retur$ f !e day# later. /$ Fe,ruary 6*

4,7 @he #eco$d defe$#e of B # u$te$a,le. B # #t ll l a,le. @he chattel mortgage # o$ly g !e$ a# a #ecur ty a$d $ot a# payme$t for the de,t $ ca#e of fa lure to pay. B a# a #ol dary co>ma9er # $ot rel e!ed of further l a, l ty o$ the

1999* Rr #t $a we$t to the #hop to cla m the r $g* ,ut #he wa# $formed that the #ame wa# #tole$ ,y a th ef who
e$tered the #hop the $ ght ,efore. Rr #t $a f led a$ act o$

Page 88 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

for damage# aga $#t the 8ewelry #hop wh ch put up the


defe$#e of force ma8eure. 2 ll the act o$ pro#per or $ot%

Ner$ e 50E of the total payme$t# made. (R"llo v. Co.rt o*


A''eals, ;.R. 0o. 1$734(, -.ne 19,199()

45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he act o$ w ll pro#per. . $ce the defe$da$t wa# already $ default $ot ha! $g del !ered the r $g whe$ del !ery wa# dema$ded ,y pla $t ff at due date* the defe$da$t # l a,le for
the lo## of the th $g a$d e!e$ whe$ the lo## wa# due to

4erio0; %spensive 4erio0 (1991)

+$ a deed of #ale of a realty* t wa# #t pulated that the ,uyer would co$#truct a commerc al ,u ld $g o$ the lot wh le the
#eller would co$#truct a pr !ate pa##ageway ,order $g the

force ma8eure. .on?4a"ment of 2morti>ations; 5%stifie0 ('##9) Ner$ e ,ought o$ $#tallme$t a re# de$t al #u,d ! # o$ lot from H56"&1H. &fter ha! $g fa thfully pa d the $#tallme$t# for 48 mo$th#* Ner$ e d #co!ered that $ %b0ivision ;%"er; 8&en

H56"&1H had fa led to de!elop the #u,d ! # o$

accorda$ce w th the appro!ed pla$# a$d #pec f cat o$#

w th $ the t me frame $ the pla$. He thu# wrote a letter to


H56"&1H $form $g t that he wa# #topp $g payme$t.

Co$#e?ue$tly* H56"&1H ca$celled the #ale a$d wrote Ner$ e* $form $g h m that h # payme$t# are forfe ted $ t#
fa!or. a) ($4)

lot. @he ,u ld $g wa# e!e$tually f $ #hed ,ut the #eller fa led to complete the pa##ageway a# #ome of the #?uatter#* who were already 9$ow$ to ,e there at the t me they e$tered $to the co$tract* refu#ed to !acate the prem #e#. +$ fact* pr or to t# e-ecut o$* the #eller f led e8ectme$t ca#e# aga $#t the #?uatter#. @he ,uyer $ow #ue# the #eller for #pec f c performa$ce w th damage#. @he defe$#e # that the o,l gat o$ to co$#truct the pa##ageway #hould ,e w th a per od wh ch* $c de$tally* had $ot ,ee$ f -ed ,y them* he$ce* the $eed for f - $g a 8ud c al per od. 2 ll the act o$ for #pec f c performa$ce of the ,uyer aga $#t the #eller pro#per%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

)as t!e a+t"on o* F2#5A0F 'ro'er1 23'la"n.

1o. the act o$ for #pec f c performa$ce f led ,y the ,uyer # premature u$der &rt. 1197 of the C ! l Code. +f a per od ha#
$ot ,ee$ f -ed although co$templated ,y the part e#* the part e# them#el!e# #hould f - that per od* fa l $g $ wh ch*

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1o* the act o$ of H56"&1H # $ot proper. L$der .ect o$ 23 of Pre# de$t al Hecree 1o. 957* otherw #e 9$ow$ a# the
.u,d ! # o$ a$d Co$dom $ um NuyerG# Protect o$ Hecree* $o$>payme$t of amort :at o$# ,y the ,uyer # 8u#t f ed f

the Court may,e a#9ed to f - t ta9 $g $to co$# derat o$ the pro,a,le co$templat o$ of the part e#. Nefore the per od #
f -ed* a$ act o$ for #pec f c performa$ce # premature.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

$o$>payme$t # due to the fa lure of the #u,d ! # o$ ow$er

to de!elop the #u,d ! # o$ pro8ect accord $g to the appro!ed pla$# a$d w th $ the l m t for comply $g.
(2.,en"o v. Fr"lon, ;.R. 0o. 109404, -an.ary $$, 1996)

+t ha# ,ee$ held $ Gorro&eo vs. CA (4( SCRA 697* that the .upreme Court allowed the # multa$eou# f l $g of act o$ to
f - the pro,a,le co$templated per od of the part e# where $o$e # f -ed $ the agreeme$t f th # would a!o d

/) F"s+.ss t!e r",!ts o* Gern"e .n%er t!e +"r+.&s6 tan+es. ($4)


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

mult pl c ty of #u t#. +$ add t o$* tech$ cal t e# mu#t ,e #u,ord $ated to #u,#ta$t al 8u#t ce.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

L$der P.H. 1o. 957* a ca$cellat o$ opt o$ # a!a la,le to Ner$ e. +f Ner$ e opt# to ca$cel the co$tract* H56"&1H

@he act o$ for #pec f c performa$ce w ll $ot pro#per. @he f l $g of the e8ectme$t #u t ,y the #eller wa# prec #ely $

mu#t re m,ur#e Ner$ e the total amou$t pa d a$d the


amort :at o$# $tere#t* e-clud $g del $?ue$cy $tere#t* plu#

compl a$ce w th h # o,l gat o$# a$d #hould $ot* therefore* ,e faulted f $o dec # o$ ha# yet ,ee$ reached ,y the Court o$ the matter.

$tere#t at legal rate. (2.,en"o v. Fr"lon, ;.R. 0o. 109404,

-an.ary $$, 1996)

$"+($
E<press =r%st; 4rescription (1997) /$ 01 <a$uary 1980* Jede$tor a$d Jemed e# e$tered $to a$ agreeme$t ,y ! rtue of wh ch the former wa# to reg #ter a parcel of la$d $ the $ame of Jemed e# u$der the e-pl c t co!e$a$t to reco$!ey the la$d to Jem g o* #o$ of Jede$tor*
upo$ the #o$G# graduat o$ from college. +$ 1981* the la$d

+) S.''os"n, F2#5A0F !a% *.lly %evelo'e% t!e s./%"v"s"on /.t Gern"e *a"le% to 'ay *.rt!er "nstall&ents a*ter 4 years %.e to /.s"ness reverses.
F"s+.ss t!e r",!ts an% o/l",at"ons o* t!e 'art"es. ($4)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

+$ th # ca#e* pur#ua$t to .ect o$ 24 of P.H. 1o. 957* J.&. 1o. 6552 otherw #e 9$ow$ a# the Jealty +$#tallme$t Nuyer Protect o$ &ct* #hall go!er$. L$der .ect o$ 3 thereof*
Ner$ e # e$t tled( 17 to pay w thout add t o$al $tere#t the u$pa d $#tallme$t# due w th $ a grace per od of four 447

wa# reg #tered $ the $ame of Jemed e#. Jede$tor d ed a year later or $ 1982. +$ 0arch 1983* Jem g o graduated from college. +$ Fe,ruary 1992* Jem g o acc de$tally fou$d a copy of the docume$t #o co$#t tut $g Jemed e# a# the tru#tee of the la$d. +$ 0ay 1994* Jem g o
f led a ca#e aga $#t Jemed e# for the reco$!eya$ce of the

mo$th# or o$e mo$th for e!ery year of $#tallme$t pa d3 27 f the co$tract # ca$celled* Ner$ e # e$t tled to the refu$d of the ca#h #urre$der !alue e?ual to 50E of the total
payme$t# made.

H56"&1H o$ the other ha$d ha# the r ght to ca$cel the


co$tract after 30 day# from rece pt ,y Ner$ e of $ot ce of ca$cellat o$. H56"&1H # howe!er o,l ged to refu$d to

la$d to h m. Jemed e#* $ her a$#wer* a!erred that the dec ded%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

act o$ already pre#cr ,ed. How #hould the matter ,e

Page 89 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

@he matter #hould ,e dec ded $ fa!or of Jem g o 4tru#tee7 ,ecau#e the act o$ ha# $ot pre#cr ,ed. @he ca#e at ,ar $!ol!e# a$ e-pre## tru#t wh ch doe# $ot pre#cr ,e a# lo$g
a# they ha!e $ot ,ee$ repud ated ,y the tru#tee (F"a@ vs.
;orr"+!o. 103 !"l, $61).

)mplie0 =r%st (1993) <ua$ a$d h # # #ter <ua$a $her ted from the r mother two parcel# of farmla$d w th e-actly the #ame area#. For

1. <ua$a ha# the r ght of act o$ to reco!er 4a7 her o$e>half #hare $ the proceed# of the #ale w th legal $tere#t thereof* a$d 4,7 #uch damage# a# #he may ,e a,le to pro!e a# ha! $g ,ee$ #uffered ,y her* wh ch may $clude actual or compe$#atory damage# a# well a# moral a$d e-emplary damage# due to the ,reach of tru#t a$d ,ad fa th (I&'er"al vs. CA, $79 SCRA 67). /f cour#e* f the ,uyer 9$ew of the co>ow$er#h p o!er the lot he wa# ,uy $g* <ua$a ca$ #ee9 4c7
reco$!e$ya$ce of her o$e>half #hare $#tead ,ut #he mu#t

co$!e$ e$ce* the @orre$# cert f cate# of t tle co!er $g ,oth lot# were placed $ <ua$G# $ame alo$e. +$ 1996* <ua$ #old to a$ $$oce$t purcha#er o$e parcel $ t# e$t rety w thout the
9$owledge a$d co$#e$t of <ua$a* a$d wro$gfully 9ept for h m#elf the e$t re pr ce pa d.

mplead the ,uyer a# co>defe$da$t a$d allege h # ,ad fa th $ purcha# $g the e$t re lot. F $ally* co$# #te$t w th the
rul $g $ +mper al u#. C&. <ua$a may #ee9 $#tead 4d7 a declarat o$ that #he # $ow the #ole ow$er of the e$t re

1. 2.

2hat r ght# of act o$* f a$y* doe# <ua$a ha!e aga $#t . $ce the two lot# ha!e the #ame area* #uppo#e <ua$a

rema $ $g lot o$ the theory that <ua$ ha# forfe ted h # o$e> half #hare there $.
A##I$I!'AL A'(WE":

a$dSor the ,uyer% K3EA

1.

fl e# a compla $t to ha!e her#elf declared #ole ow$er of the


e$t re rema $ $g #eco$d lot* co$te$d $g that her ,rother had forfe ted h # #hare thereof ,y wro$gfully d #po# $g of her u$d ! ded #hare $ the f r#t lot. 2 ll the #u t pro#per% ;2EA
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

ha! $g fraudule$tly #old o$e of the two parcel# wh ch he partly held $ tru#t for <ua$aG# ,e$ef t. <ua$a may cla m

<ua$a ca$ f le a$ act o$ for damage# aga $#t <ua$ for

actual or compe$#atory damage for the lo## of her #hare $


the la$d3 moral damage# for the me$tal a$gu #h* a$- ety* moral #hoc9 a$d wou$ded feel $g# #he had #uffered3

1. 2he$* for co$!e$ e$ce* the @orre$# t tle to the two parcel# of la$d were placed $ <oa$G# $ame alo$e* there wa# created a$ mpl ed tru#t 4a re#ult $g tru#t7 for the ,e$ef t of
<ua$a w th <ua$ a# tru#tee of o$e>half u$d ! ded or deal

port o$ of each of the two lot#. @herefore* <ua$a ca$ f le a$ act o$ for damage# aga $#t <oa$ for ha! $g fraudule$tly #old
o$e of the two parcel# wh ch he partly held $ tru#t for <ua$aG# ,e$ef t. <ua$a may cla m actual or compe$#atory

e-emplary damage ,y way of e-ample for the commo$ good* a$d attor$eyG# fee#. <ua$a ha# $o cau#e of act o$ aga $#t the ,uyer who ac?u red the la$d for !alue a$d $ good fa th* rely $g o$ the tra$#fer cert f cate #how $g that <ua$ # the reg #tered ow$er of the la$d.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

2.

damage for the lo## of her #hare $ the la$d3 moral damage# for the me$tal a$gu #h* a$- ety* moral #hoc9 a$d wou$ded feel $g# #he had #uffered3 e-emplary damage ,y way of
e-ample for the commo$ good* a$d attor$eyG# fee#.

the e$t re rema $ $g area w ll $ot pro#per ,ecau#e wh le <ua$G# act $ #ell $g the other lot wa# wro$gful. +t d d $ot

<ua$aG# #u t to ha!e her#elf declared a# #ole ow$er of

ha!e the legal effect of forfe t $g h # #hare $ the rema $ $g


lot. Howe!er* <ua$a ca$ f le a$ act o$ aga $#t <ua$ for

<ua$a ha# $o cau#e of act o$ aga $#t the ,uyer who ac?u red the la$d for !alue a$d $ good fa th* rely $g o$ the tra$#fer cert f cate of t tle #how $g that <ua$ # the reg #tered ow$er
of the la$d.
A'!$.E" A'(WE":

part t o$ or term $at o$ of the co>ow$er#h p w th a prayer that the lot #old ,e ad8ud cated to <ua$* a$d the rema $ $g lot ,e ad8ud cated a$d reco$!eyed to her.
A'!$.E" A'(WE":

1. L$der &rt cle 476 of the C ! l Code* <ua$a ca$ f le a$

2. @he #u t w ll pro#per* apply $g the rul $g $ +mper al !#. C& c ted a,o!e. Noth law a$d e?u ty author :e #uch a re#ult* #a d the .upreme Court.
.tr ctly #pea9 $g* <ua$aG# co$te$t o$ that her ,rother had

act o$ for ?u et $g of t tle a# there # a cloud $ the t tle to

the #u,8ect real property. .eco$d* <ua$a ca$ al#o f le a$

act o$ for damage# aga $#t <ua$* ,ecau#e the #ettled rule #

forfe ted h # #hare $ the #eco$d lot # $correct. 5!e$ f the

that the proper recour#e of the true ow$er of the property


who wa# pre8ud ced a$d fraudule$tly d #po##e##ed of the #ame # to ,r $g a$ act o$ for damage# aga $#t tho#e who cau#ed or employed the #ame. @h rd* # $ce <ua$a had the

two lot# ha!e the #ame area* t doe# $ot follow that they
ha!e the #ame !alue. . $ce the #ale of the f r#t lot o$ the @orre$# t tle $ the $ame of <ua$ wa# !al d* all that <ua$a

r ght to her #hare $ the property ,y way of $her ta$ce* #he ca$ dema$d the part t o$ of the th $g ow$ed $ commo$* u$der &rt cle 494 of the C ! l Code* a$d a#9 that the t tle to
the rema $ $g property ,e declared a# e-clu# !ely her#.

may reco!er # the !alue of her u$d ! ded $tere#t there $* plu# damage#. +$ add t o$* #he ca$ a#9 for part t o$ or
reco$!eya$ce of her u$d ! ded $tere#t $ the #eco$d lot* w thout pre8ud ce to a$y agreeme$t ,etwee$ them that $

l eu of the payme$t of the !alue of <ua$aG# #hare $ the f r#t lot a$d damage#* the #eco$d lot ,e reco$!eyed to her.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

Howe!er* # $ce the farmla$d wa# #old to a$ $$oce$t purcha#er for !alue* the$ <ua$a ha# $o cau#e of act o$
aga $#t the ,uyer co$# #te$t w th the e#ta,l #hed rule that

2. @he #u t w ll $ot pro#per* # $ce <ua$G# wro$gful act of

the r ght# of a$ $$oce$t purcha#er for !alue mu#t ,e re#pected a$d protected $otw th#ta$d $g the fraud

poc9et $g the e$t re proceed# of the #ale of the f r#t lot # $ot a grou$d for d !e#t $g h m of h # r ght# a# a co>ow$er
of the #eco$d lot. +$deed* #uch wro$gdo $g ,y <ua$ doe#

employed ,y the #eller $ #ecur $g h # t tle. (2%.arte vs. CA,


$73 SCRA 391)
A##I$I!'AL A'(WE":

$ot co$#t tute* for the ,e$ef t of <ua$a* a$y of the mode# of ac?u r $g ow$er#h p u$der &rt. 712* C ! l Code.

Page 90 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics

(Year 1990-2006)

=r%st; )mplie0 1es%lting =r%st (1999) +$ 1960* 0auree$ purcha#ed two lot# $ a plu#h #u,d ! # o$ reg #ter $g "ot 1 $ her $ame a$d "ot 2 $ the $ame of her ,rother 2alter w th the latterG# co$#e$t. @he dea wa# to c rcum!e$t a #u,d ! # o$ pol cy aga $#t the ac?u # t o$ of more tha$ o$e lot ,y o$e ,uyer. 0auree$ co$#tructed a hou#e o$ "ot 1 w th a$ e-te$# o$ o$ "ot 2 to #er!e a# a gue#t hou#e. +$ 1987* 2alter who had #uffered #er ou# ,u# $e## lo##e# dema$ded that 0auree$ remo!e the e-te$# o$ hou#e # $ce the lot o$ wh ch the e-te$# o$ wa# ,u lt wa# h # property. +$ 1992* 0auree$ #ued for the reco$!eya$ce to her of "ot 2 a##ert $g that a re#ult $g tru#t wa# created whe$ #he had the lot reg #tered $ 2alterG# $ame e!e$ f #he pa d the purcha#e pr ce. 2alter oppo#ed the #u t argu $g that a##um $g the e- #te$ce of a re#ult $g tru#t the act o$ of 0auree$ ha# already pre#cr ,ed # $ce te$ year# ha!e already elap#ed from the reg #trat o$ of the t tle $ h # $ame. Hec de. H #cu## fully.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@h # # a ca#e of a$ mpl ed re#ult $g tru#t. +f 2alter cla m# to ha!e ac?u red ow$er#h p of the la$d ,y pre#cr pt o$ or f he a$chor# h # defe$#e o$ e-t $ct !e pre#cr pt o$* the te$ year per od mu#t ,e rec9o$ed from 1987 whe$ he dema$ded that 0auree$ remo!e the e-te$# o$ hou#e o$ "ot 1o. 2 ,ecau#e #uch dema$d amou$t# to a$ e-pre## repud at o$ of the tru#t a$d t wa# made 9$ow$ to 0auree$. @he act o$ for reco$!eya$ce f led $ 1992 # $ot yet ,arred ,y pre#cr pt o$. (S'o.ses A.an, v. Co.rt o* A''eals, Se't.
13, 1994).

(ALE(
2ssignment of Cre0it vs. %brogation (199() Peter Co* a trader from 0a$ la* ha# dealt ,u# $e## w th &ll ed Commod t e# $ Ho$g9o$g for f !e year#. &ll through the year#* Peter Co accumulated a$ $de,ted$e## of P500*000.00 w th &ll ed Commod t e#. Lpo$ dema$d ,y t# age$t $ 0a$ la* Peter Co pa d &ll ed Commod t e# ,y chec9 the amou$t owed. Lpo$ depo# t $ the payeeG# accou$t $ 0a$ la* the chec9 wa# d #ho$ored for $#uff c e$cy of fu$d#. For a$d $ co$# derat o$ of P1.00* &ll ed Commod t e# a## g$ed the cred t to Had8 Nutu who ,rought #u t aga $#t Peter Co $ the J@C of 0a$ la for reco!ery of the amou$t owed. Peter Co mo!ed to d #m ## the compla $t aga $#t h m o$ the grou$d that Had8 Nutu wa# $ot a real party $ $tere#t a$d* therefore* w thout legal capac ty to #ue a$d that he had $ot agreed to a #u,rogat o$ of cred tor.

2 ll Peter CoG# defe$#e of a,#e$ce of agreeme$t to a #u,rogat o$ of cred tor pro#per%


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1o* CoG# defe$#e w ll $ot pro#per. @h # # $ot a ca#e of #u,rogat o$* ,ut a$ a## g$me$t of cred t. '%%!*")#"T O$ C #D!T # the proce## of tra$#ferr $g the r ght of the a## g$or to the a## g$ee. @he a## g$me$t may ,e do$e e ther gratu tou#ly or o$erou#ly* $ wh ch ca#e* the a## g$me$t ha# a$ effect # m lar to that of a #ale (0y+o Sales Cor'.v.GA 8"nan+e Cor'. ;.R 0o.(1694. A.,.16, 1991 $00 SCRA 63(). &# a re#ult of the a## g$me$t* the pla $t ff ac?u red all the r ght# of the a## g$or $clud $g the r ght to #ue $ h # ow$ $ame a# the legal a## g$ee. +$ a## g$me$t* the de,torG# co$#e$t # $ot e##e$t al for the !al d ty of the a## g$me$t

(Art. 16$4C 14(7. CCC Ro%r",.e@ v. CA, et al, ;. R 0o. 84$$0, Mar+! $7. 199$ $0( SCRA 773).
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

1o* the defe$#e of Peter Co w ll $ot pro#per. Had8 Nutu !al dly ac?u red h # r ght ,y a$ a## g$me$t of cred t u$der &rt cle 1624 of the C ! l Code. Howe!er* the pro! # o$# o$ the co$tract of #ale 4&rt cle 1475 C ! l Code7 w ll apply* a$d the tra$#act o$ # co!ered ,y the .tatute of Fraud#. 4&rt. 1403 par. 427 C ! l Code7 Con0itional ale vs. 2bsol%te ale (1997) H #t $gu #h ,etwee$ a co$d t o$al #ale* o$ the o$e ha$d* a$d a$ a,#olute #ale* o$ the other ha$d.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

& C/1H+@+/1&" .&"5 # o$e where the !e$dor # gra$ted the r ght to u$ laterally re#c $d the co$tract pred cated o$ the fulf llme$t or $o$>fulf llme$t* a# the ca#e may ,e* of the pre#cr ,ed co$d t o$. &$ &N./"L@5 .&"5 # o$e where the t tle to the property # $ot re#er!ed to the !e$dor or f the !e$dor # $ot gra$ted the r ght to re#c $d the co$tract ,a#ed o$ the fulf llme$t or $o$> fulf llme$t* a# the ca#e may ,e* of the pre#cr ,ed co$d t o$.

Contract of ale vs. 2genc" to ell (1999) & gra$ted N the e-clu# !e r ght to #ell h # ,ra$d of 0ao$g pa$t# $ +#a,ela* the pr ce for h # mercha$d #e paya,le w th $ 60 day# from del !ery* a$d prom # $g N a comm ## o$ of 20E o$ all #ale#. &fter the del !ery of the mercha$d #e to N ,ut ,efore he could #ell a$y of them* NO# #tore $ +#a,ela wa# completely ,ur$ed w thout h # fault* together w th all of &G# pa$t#. 0u#t N pay & for h # lo#t pa$t#% 2hy% 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he co$tract ,etwee$ & a$d N # a #ale $ot a$ age$cy to #ell ,ecau#e the pr ce # paya,le ,y N upo$ 60 day# from del !ery e!e$ f N # u$a,le to re#ell t. +f N were a$ age$t* he # $ot ,ou$d to pay the pr ce f he # u$a,le to re#ell t. &# a ,uyer* ow$er#h p pa##ed to N upo$ del !ery a$d* u$der &rt. 1504 of the C ! l Code* the th $g per #he# for the ow$er. He$ce* N mu#t #t ll pay the pr ce. Contract of ale; *arital Comm%nit" 4ropert"; ,ormalities ('##-)
.pou#e# N o$g a$d " $da wa$ted to #ell the r hou#e. @hey fou$d a pro#pect !e ,uyer* Jay. " $da $egot ated w th Jay for the #ale of the property. @hey agreed o$ a fa r pr ce of P2 0 ll o$. Jay #e$t " $da a letter co$f rm $g h # $te$t o$ to ,uy the property. "ater* a$other couple* Ner$ e a$d 5le$a* offered a # m lar hou#e at a lower pr ce of P 1.5 0 ll o$. Nut Jay $# #ted o$ ,uy $g the hou#e of N o$g a$d " $da for #e$t me$tal rea#o$#. Jay prepared a deed of #ale to ,e # g$ed ,y the couple a$d a ma$agerG# chec9 for P2 0 ll o$. &fter rece ! $g the P2 0 ll o$* N o$g # g$ed the deed of #ale. Howe!er* " $da wa# $ot a,le to # g$ t ,ecau#e #he wa# a,road. /$ her retur$* #he refu#ed to # g$ the docume$t #ay $g #he cha$ged her m $d. " $da f led #u t for $ull f cat o$ of the deed of #ale a$d for moral a$d e-emplary damage# aga $#t Jay.

)"ll t!e s."t 'ros'er1 23'la"n. ($.74)


AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

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CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

1o* the #u t w ll $ot pro#per. @he co$tract of #ale wa# perfected whe$ " $da a$d Jay agreed o$ the o,8ect of the #ale a$d the pr ce ;&rt. 1475* 1ew C ! l CodeA. @he co$#e$t of " $da ha# already ,ee$ g !e$* a# #how$ ,y her agreeme$t to the pr ce of the #ale. @here # therefore co$#e$t o$ her part a# the co$#e$t $eed $ot ,e g !e$ $ a$y #pec f c form. He$ce* her co$#e$t may ,e g !e$ ,y mpl cat o$* e#pec ally # $ce #he wa# aware of* a$d part c pated $ the #ale of the property ( elayo v. CA, ;.R. 0o. 1413$3, -.ne 8, $007). Her act o$ for moral a$d e-emplary damage# w ll al#o $ot
pro#per ,ecau#e the ca#e doe# $ot fall u$der a$y of tho#e me$t o$ed $ &rt. 2219 a$d 2232 of the C ! l Code.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

+$ a C/1@J&C@ /F .&"5* ow$er#h p # tra$#ferred to the ,uyer upo$ del !ery of the o,8ect to h m wh le $ a

C/1@J&C@ @/ .5""* ow$er#h p # reta $ed ,y the #eller


u$t l the purcha#e pr ce # fully pa d. +$ a co$tract to #ell*

del !ery of the o,8ect doe# $ot co$fer ow$er#h p upo$ the ,uyer. +$ a co$tract of #ale* there # o$ly o$e co$tract e-ecuted ,etwee$ the #eller a$d the ,uyer* wh le $ a co$tract to #ell* there are two co$tract#* f r#t the co$tract to #ell 4wh ch # a co$d t o$al or preparatory #ale7 a$d a
#eco$d* the f $al deed of #ale or the pr $c pal co$tract wh ch # e-ecuted after full payme$t of the purcha#e pr ce.

@he #u t w ll pro#per. .ale of commu$ ty property re?u re#


wr tte$ co$#e$t of ,oth #pou#e#. @he fa lure or refu#al of " $da to aff - her # g$ature o$ the deed of #ale* coupled w th her e-pre## declarat o$ of oppo# $g the #ale $egate# a$y !al d co$#e$t o$ her part. @he co$#e$t of N o$g ,y h m#elf # $#uff c e$t to effect a !al d #ale of commu$ ty

Contract to ell; 2cceptance; 1ig&t of ,irst 1ef%sal (1991) & # the le##ee of a$ apartme$t ow$ed ,y B. & allowed h# marr ed ,ut employed daughter N* who#e hu#,a$d wor9# $
Ruwa t* to occupy t. @he relat o$#h p ,etwee$ B a$d &

property (Art. 96, 8a&"ly Co%eC A/alos v. Ma+atan,ay, ;.R.


0o. 177043, Se'te&/er 30, $004).

#oured. . $ce he ha# $o rea#o$ at all to e8ect &* B* $ co$$ !a$ce w th the C ty 5$g $eer* #ecured from the latter a$ order for the demol t o$ of the ,u ld $g. & mmed ately
f led a$ act o$ $ the Jeg o$al @r al Court to a$$ul the order

Foes Ray !ave any +a.se o* a+t"on a,a"nst G"on, an% 5"n%a1 Can !e also re+over %a&a,es *ro& t!e s'o.ses1
23'la"n. ($.74) Co$# der $g that the co$tract ha# already ,ee$ perfected

a$d to e$8o $ t# e$forceme$t. B a$d & were a,le to forge a comprom #e agreeme$t u$der wh ch & agreed to a twe$ty perce$t 420E7 $crea#e $ the mo$thly re$tal#. @hey further agreed that the lea#e w ll e-p re two 427 year# later a$d that $ the e!e$t that B would #ell the property* e ther & or h #
daughter N #hall ha!e the r ght of f r#t refu#al. @he

a$d ta9e$ out of the operat o$ of the #tatute of fraud#* Jay ca$ compel " $da a$d N o$g to o,#er!e the form re?u red ,y law $ order for the property to ,e reg #tered $ the $ame of Jay wh ch ca$ ,e f led together w th the act o$ for the reco!ery of hou#e ;&rt. 1357 1ew C ! l CodeA. +$ the alter$at !e* he ca$ reco!er the amou$t of @wo m ll o$ pe#o#
4P2*000*000.007 that he pa d. /therw #e* t would re#ult $ #olut o $de, t or u$8u#t e$r chme$t. Jay ca$ reco!er moral damage# o$ the grou$d that the

Comprom #e &greeme$t wa# appro!ed ,y the court. . 467


mo$th# ,efore the e-p rat o$ of the lea#e* & d ed. B #old

the property to the 6 #orro Jealty Corp. w thout $ot fy $g N. N the$ f led a$ act o$ to re#c $d the #ale $ fa!or of the
corporat o$ a$d to compel B to #ell the property to her

# $ce u$der the Comprom #e &greeme$t* #he wa# g !e$ the


r ght of f r#t refu#al wh ch* #he ma $ta $# # a #t pulat o$ pour atru u$der &rt cle 1311 of the C ! l Code. +# #he

correct%

act o$ f led ,y " $da # clearly a$ u$fou$ded c ! l #u t wh ch

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

N # $ot correct. Her act o$ ca$$ot pro#per. &rt cle 1311

fall# u$der mal c ou# pro#ecut o$ Q on+e v. 5e,as'", ;.R.


0o. (9184, May 6,199$).

Contract to ell ('##1) &rturo ga!e J chard a rece pt wh ch #tate#(

re?u re# that the th rd per#o$ $te$ded to ,e ,e$ef ted mu#t commu$ cate h # accepta$ce to the o,l gor ,efore the re!ocat o$. @here # $o #how $g that N ma$ fe#ted her
accepta$ce to B at a$y t me ,efore the death of & a$d ,efore the #ale. He$ce* N ca$$ot e$force a$y r ght u$der

'e(eipt Jece !ed from J chard a# dow$ payme$t for my 1995


@oyota Corolla w th plate 1o. =BI>1 23..............

the alleged #t pulat o$ pour atru . Do%ble ales ('##1)

P50.000.00
Nala$ce paya,le( 12S30S01........ P50 000.00 .eptem,er 15* 2001. 4.gd.7 &rturo Hoe# th # rece pt e! de$ce a co$tract to #ell%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

/$ <u$e 15* 1995* <e#u# #old a parcel of reg #tered la$d to


<a me. /$ <u$e 30* 1995* he #old the #ame la$d to <o#e. 2ho ha# a ,etter r ght f( the f r#t #ale # reg #tered ahead of the #eco$d a7 #ale*

w th 9$owledge of the latter. 2hy% 43E7

,7 2hy% 45E7

the #eco$d #ale # reg #tered ahead of the f r#t #ale* w th 9$owledge of the latter% 2hy% 45E7

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

+t # a co$tract of #ale ,ecau#e the #eller d d $ot re#er!e

4a7 @he f r#t ,uyer ha# the ,etter r ght f h # #ale wa# f r#t

to ,e reg #tered* e!e$ though the f r#t ,uyer 9$ew of the

ow$er#h p u$t l he wa# fully pa d.


Contract to ell vs. Contract of ale (1997)

.tate the ,a# c d ffere$ce 4o$ly $ the r legal effect#7 > Netwee$ a co$tract to #ell* o$ the o$e ha$d* a$d a co$tract
of #ale* o$ the other.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

#eco$d #ale. @he fact that he 9$ew of the #eco$d #ale at the t me of h # reg #trat o$ doe# $ot ma9e h m a# act $g $ ,ad fa th ,ecau#e the #ale to h m wa# ahead $ t me* he$ce* ha# a pr or ty $ r ght. 2hat create# ,ad fa th $ the ca#e of dou,le #ale of la$d # 9$owledge of a pre! ou# #ale.

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CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

,7 @he f r#t ,uyer # #t ll to ,e preferred* where the #eco$d #ale # reg #tered ahead of the f r#t #ale ,ut w th 9$owledge of the latter. @h # # ,ecau#e the #eco$d ,uyer* who at the t me he reg #tered h # #ale 9$ew that the property had already ,ee$ #old to #omeo$e el#e* acted $ ,ad fa th.
4&rt cle 1544* C.C.7 Do%ble ales ('##!)

427 year#* or u$t l 3 <u$e 1973. +t # further #tated there $

that #hould the 6e$dor 4<ul et7 fa l to e-erc #e her r ght to redeem w th $ the #a d per od* the co$!eya$ce #hall ,e deemed a,#olute a$d rre!oca,le. Jomeo d d $ot ta9e po##e## o$ of the property. He d d $ot pay the ta-e# thereo$. <ul et d ed $ <a$uary +973 w thout ha! $g repurcha#ed the property. Her o$ly #ur! ! $g he r* her #o$ =* fa led to repurcha#e the property o$ or ,efore 3 <u$e 1973. +$ 1975*
Jomeo #old the property to B for P50*000.00. Lpo$

<6* ow$er of a parcel of la$d* #old t to PP. Nut the deed of #ale wa# $ot reg #tered. /$e year later* <6 #old the parcel
aga $ to JJ* who #ucceeded to reg #ter the deed a$d to

o,ta $ a tra$#fer cert f cate of t tle o!er the property $ h #


ow$ $ame.

2ho ha# a ,etter r ght o!er the parcel of la$d* JJ or PP%


2hy% 5-pla $ the legal ,a# # for your a$#wer. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

lear$ $g of the #ale* = f led a$ act o$ for the $ull f cat o$ of the #ale a$d for the reco!ery of the property o$ the grou$d that the #o>called deed of a,#olute #ale e-ecuted ,y h#
mother wa# merely a$ e?u ta,le mortgage* ta9 $g Jomeo to ta9e po##e## o$ of the property a$d to pay the $to

+t depe$d# o$ whether or $ot JJ # a$ $$oce$t purcha#er


for !alue.

accou$t the $ade?uacy of the pr ce a$d the fa lure of ta-e# thereo$. Jomeo a$d B ma $ta $ that there wa# a !al d
a,#olute #ale a$d that the docume$t # g$ed ,y the former o$ 3 <u$e 1973 wa# merely a prom #e to #ell.

L$der the @orre$# .y#tem* a deed or $#trume$t operated


o$ly a# a co$tract ,etwee$ the part e# a$d a# e! de$ce of

author ty to the Jeg #ter of Heed# to ma9e the reg #trat o$. +t # the reg #trat o$ of the deed or the $#trume$t that # the operat !e act that co$!ey# or affect# the la$d. 4.ec. 51* P.H.
1o. 15297.

a7 +f you were the <udge* would you uphold the theory of =%


,7 +f you dec de $ fa!or of Jomeo a$d B* would you uphold the !al d ty of the prom #e to #ell%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

+$ ca#e# of dou,le #ale of t tled la$d* t # a well>#ettled rule


that the ,uyer who f r#t reg #ter# the #ale $ good fa th ac?u re# a ,etter r ght to the la$d. 4&rt. 1544* C ! l Code7.

Per#o$# deal $g w th property co!ered ,y @orre$# t tle are


$ot re?u red to go ,eyo$d what appear# o$ t# face.
(<rN."ola v. CA 386, SCRA 301, [$00$]C Fo&"n,o v. Ra+es 401

SCRA 19(, [$003]). @hu#* a,#e$t a$y #how $g that JJ 9$ew

&. + w ll $ot uphold the theory of = for the $ull f cat o$ of the #ale a$d for the reco!ery of the property o$ the grou$d that the #o>called #ale wa# o$ly a$ e?u ta,le mortgage. &$ e?u ta,le mortgage may ar #e o$ly f* $ truth* the #ale wa# o$e w th the r ght of repurcha#e. @he fact# of the ca#e #tate that the r ght to repurcha#e wa# gra$ted after the a,#olute deed of #ale wa# e-ecuted. Follow $g the rule $ Cr.@o vs.
Carr"a,a (1(4 SCRA 330)* a deed of repurcha#e e-ecuted

a,out* or ought to ha!e 9$ow$ the pr or #ale of the la$d to PP or that he acted $ ,ad fa th* a$d ,e $g f r#t to reg #ter the #ale* JJ ac?u red a good a$d a clea$ t tle to the property a# aga $#t PP.
E$%itable *ortgage (1991) /$ 20 Hecem,er 1970* <ul et* a w dow* ,orrowed from

$depe$de$tly of the deed of #ale where the two #t pulat o$# are fou$d $ two $#trume$t# $#tead of o$e docume$t* the r ght of repurcha#e would amou$t o$ly to o$e opt o$ gra$ted ,y the ,uyer to the #eller. . $ce the co$tract
ca$$ot ,e upheld a# a co$tract of #ale w th the r ght to repurcha#e* &rt. 1602 of the C ! l Code o$ e?u ta,le

Jomeo P4*000.00 a$d* a# #ecur ty therefore* #he e-ecuted a


deed of mortgage o!er o$e of her two 427 reg #tered lot#

mortgage w ll $ot apply. @he rule could ha!e ,ee$ d ffere$t f ,oth deed# were e-ecuted o$ the #ame occa# o$ or date*
$ wh ch ca#e* u$der the rul $g $ #pou#e# Claravall v. CA (190 SCRA 439), the co$tract may #t ll ,e #u#ta $ed a# a$ e?u ta,le mortgage* g !e$ the c rcum#ta$ce# e-pre##ed $

wh ch ha# a mar9et !alue of P15*000.00. @he docume$t a$d the cert f cate of t tle of the property were del !ered to
Jomeo.

&rt. 1602. @he re#er!ed r ght to repurcha#e # the$ deemed

/$ 2 <u$e 1971* <ul et o,ta $ed a$ add t o$al #um of P3*000


from Jomeo. /$ th # date* howe!er* Jomeo cau#ed the preparat o$ of a deed of a,#olute #ale of the a,o!e

a$ or g $al $te$t o$. N. +f + were to dec de $ fa!or of Jomeo a$d B* + would


$ot uphold the !al d ty of the prom #e to #ell* #o a# to

property* to wh ch <ul et aff -ed her # g$ature w thout f r#t


read $g the docume$t. @he co$# derat o$ $d cated # P7*000.00. .he thought that th # docume$t wa# # m lar to the f r#t #he # g$ed. 2he$ #he reached home* her #o$ =*

e$force t ,y a$ act o$ for #pec f c performa$ce. @he


prom #e to #ell would o$ly amou$t to a mere offer a$d* therefore* t # $ot e$forcea,le u$le## t wa# #ought to ,e

e-erc #ed ,efore a w thdrawal or de$ al thereof. 5!e$ a##um $g the fact# g !e$ at the e$d of the ca#e* there
would ha!e ,ee$ $o #eparate co$# derat o$ for #uch

after read $g the dupl cate copy of the deed* $formed her
that what #he # g$ed wa# $ot a mortgage ,ut a deed of a,#olute #ale. /$ the follow $g day* 3 <u$e 1971* <ul et*

accompa$ ed ,y =* we$t ,ac9 to Jomeo a$d dema$ded the reformat o$ t* Jomeo prepared a$d # g$ed a docume$t where $* a# !e$dee $ the deed of #ale a,o!e me$t o$ed* he
o,l gated a$d ,ou$d h m#elf to re#ell the la$d to <ul et or

prom #e to #ell. @he co$tract would at mo#t amou$t to a$ opt o$ wh ch aga $ may $ot ,e the ,a# # for a$ act o$ for #pec f c performa$ce.
E$%itable *ortgage vs. ale ('##9)

her he r# a$d #ucce##or# for the #ame co$# derat o$ a# reflected $ the deed of #ale 4P7*0007 w th $ a per od of two

/$ <uly 14* 2004* Pedro e-ecuted $ fa!or of <ua$ a Heed of &,#olute .ale o!er a parcel of la$d co!ered ,y @C@ 1o.

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CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

6245. +t appear# $ the Heed of .ale that Pedro rece !ed

from <ua$ P120*000.00 a# purcha#e pr ce. Howe!er* Pedro reta $ed the ow$erG# dupl cate of #a d t tle. @hereafter* <ua$* a# le##or* a$d Pedro* a# le##ee* e-ecuted a co$tract of lea#e o!er the property for a per od of o$e 417 year w th a mo$thly re$tal of Pl*000.00. Pedro* a# le##ee* wa# al#o o,l gated to pay the realty ta-e# o$ the property dur $g the
per od of lea#e.

= #old a parcel of la$d to B o$ 01 <a$uary 2002* payme$t a$d del !ery to ,e made o$ 01 Fe,ruary 2002. +t wa# #t pulated that f payme$t were $ot to ,e made ,y B o$ 01 Fe,ruary 2002* the #ale ,etwee$ the part e# would automat cally ,e re#c $ded. B fa led to pay o$ 01 Fe,ruary 2002* ,ut offered to pay three day# later* wh ch payme$t =
refu#ed to accept* cla m $g that the r co$tract of #ale had

already ,ee$ re#c $ded. +# =O# co$te$t o$ correct% 2hy% 5E


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

.u,#e?ue$tly* Pedro f led a compla $t aga $#t <ua$ for the reformat o$ of the Heed of &,#olute .ale* alleg $g that the tra$#act o$ co!ered ,y the deed wa# a$ e?u ta,le mortgage. +$ h # !er f ed a$#wer to the compla $t* <ua$ alleged that the property wa# #old to h m u$der the Heed of &,#olute .ale* a$d $terpo#ed cou$tercla m# to reco!er po##e## o$ of the
property a$d to compel Pedro to tur$ o!er to h m the ow$erG# dupl cate of t tle. Je#ol!e the ca#e w th rea#o$#. 46E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1o* = # $ot correct. +$ the #ale of mmo!a,le property*

e!e$ though t may ha!e ,ee$ #t pulated* a# $ th # ca#e* that


upo$ fa lure to pay the pr ce at the t me agreed upo$ the

re#c ## o$ of the co$tract #hall of r ght ta9e place* the !e$dee may pay* e!e$ after the e-p rat o$ of the per od* a# lo$g a# $o dema$d for re#c ## o$ of the co$tract ha# ,ee$ made upo$ h m e ther 8ud c ally or ,y a $otar al act 4&rt cle 1592* 1ew C ! l code7. . $ce $o dema$d for re#c ## o$ wa# made o$ B* e ther 8ud c ally or ,y a $otar al act* = ca$$ot
refu#e to accept the payme$t offered ,y B three 437 day#

@he compla $t of Pedro aga $#t <ua$ #hould ,e d #m ##ed. @he $#ta$ce# whe$ a co$tract W regardle## of t# $ome$clature W may ,e pre#umed to ,e a$ e?u ta,le mortgage are e$umerated $ &rt cle 1602 of the C ! l Code( '&rt. 1602. @he co$tract #hall ,e pre#umed to ,e a$
e?u ta,le mortgage* $ a$y of the follow $g ca#e#( 1. 2he$ the pr ce of a #ale w th r ght to repurcha#e # u$u#ually $ade?uate( 2. 2he$ the !e$dor rema $# $ po##e## o$ a# le##ee or otherw #e3

after the e-p rat o$ of the per od. @h # # a co$tract to #ell a$d $ot a co$tract of a,#olute #ale* # $ce a# there ha# ,ee$ $o del !ery of the la$d. &rt cle 1592
of the 1ew C ! l code # $ot appl ca,le. +$#tead* &rt cle 1595 of the 1ew C ! l Code appl e#. @he #eller ha# two
A'!$.E" (+&&E($E# A'(WE":

alter$at !e remed e#( 417 #pec f c performa$ce* or 427 re#c ## o$ or re#olut o$ u$der &rt cle 1191 of the 1ew C!l code. +$ ,oth remed e#* damage# are due ,ecau#e of default.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

3.

2he$ upo$ or after the e-p rat o$ of the r ght to repurcha#e a$other $#trume$t e-te$d $g the per od of
redempt o$ or gra$t $g a $ew per od # e-ecuted3 2he$ the purcha#er reta $# for h m#elf a part of the purcha#e pr ce3 +$ a$y other ca#e where t may ,e fa rly $ferred that

Be#* the co$tract wa# automat cally re#c $ded upo$ BO# fa lure to pay o$ 01 Fe,ruary 2002. Ny the e-pre## term# of the co$tract* there # $o $eed for = to ma9e a dema$d $
order for re#c ## o$ to ta9e place. (Art"+le 1191, 0e9 C"v"l
Co%e, S.r"a v. IAC 171 SCRA 661 [198(]C >. . v. %e los An,eles 37 SCRA 10$ [19(0]).

4.

5.
6.

2he$ the !e$dor , $d# h m#elf to pay the ta-e# o$ the th $g #old3 the real $te$t o$ of the part e# # that the tra$#act o$ #hall #ecure the payme$t of a de,t or the performa$ce of a$y other o,l gat o$.

*ace0a Law ('###) Pr #c lla purcha#ed a co$dom $ um u$ t $ 0a9at C ty from the C t la$d Corporat o$ for a pr ce of P10 0 ll o$* paya,le
P3 0 ll o$ dow$ a$d the ,ala$ce w th $tere#t thereo$ at 14E per a$$um paya,le $ # -ty 4607 e?ual mo$thly

'+$ a$y of the forego $g ca#e#* a$y mo$ey* fru t#* or other
,e$ef t to ,e rece !ed ,y the !e$dee a# re$t or otherw #e

$#tallme$t# of P198*333.33. @hey e-ecuted a Heed of !e$dee fa l to pay three 437 #ucce## !e $#tallme$t#* the #ale #hall ,e deemed automat cally re#c $ded w thout the

Co$d t o$al .ale $ wh ch t # #t pulated that #hould the

#hall ,e co$# dered a# $tere#t wh ch #hall ,e #u,8ect to the


u#ury law#.'

$ece## ty of 8ud c al act o$ a$d all payme$t# made ,y the

&rt cle 1604 #tate# that 'the pro! # o$# of art cle 1602 #hall
al#o apply to a co$tract purport $g to ,e a$ a,#olute #ale.'

!e$dee #hall ,e forfe ted $ fa!or of the !e$dor ,y way of

For &rt cle# 1602 a$d 1604 to apply* two re?u # te# mu#t

co$cur( 17 the part e# e$tered $to a co$tract de$om $ated a# a co$tract of #ale3 a$d 27 the r $te$t o$ wa# to #ecure a$ e- #t $g de,t ,y way of mortgage. (Ae"rs o* Gal"te v. 5"&,
;.R. 0o. 17$168, Fe+e&/er 10, $004)

mo$th#* #he fa led to pay. /$ the 49th mo$th* #he tr ed to pay the $#tallme$t# due ,ut the !e$dor refu#ed to rece !e
Co$d t o$al .ale pur#ua$t to the #t pulat o$ for automat c

re$tal for the u#e a$d occupa$cy of the u$ t a$d a# l ?u dated damage#. For 46 mo$th#* Pr #c lla pa d the mo$thly $#tallme$t# rel g ou#ly* ,ut o$ the 47th a$d 48th

the payme$t# te$dered ,y her. @he follow $g mo$th* the

!e$dor #e$t her a $ot ce that t wa# re#c $d $g the Heed of re#c ## o$* a$d dema$ded that #he !acate the prem #e#. .he
the C ! l Code.

+$ the g !e$ ca#e* although Pedro reta $ed po##e## o$ of the property a# le##ee after the e-ecut o$ of the Heed of .ale* there # $o #how $g that the $te$t o$ of the part e# wa# to
#ecure a$ e- #t $g de,t ,y way of mortgage. He$ce* the

repl ed that the co$tract ca$$ot ,e re#c $ded w thout

8ud c al dema$d or $otar al act pur#ua$t to &rt cle 1592 of a7 +# &rt cle 1592 appl ca,le% 43E7 ,7 Ca$ the !e$dor re#c $d the co$tract% 42E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

compla $t of Pedro #hould ,e d #m ##ed.


)mmovable 4ropert"; 1escission of Contract ('##()

Page 94 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

a7

&rt cle 1592 of the C ! l Code doe# $ot apply to a co$d t o$al #ale. +$ #alarao v. CA, 304 SCRA 177* the

Option Contract ('##')


5-pla $ the $ature of a$ opt o$ co$tract. 42E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

.upreme Court held that &rt cle 1592 appl e# o$ly to a


co$tract of #ale a$d $ot to a Heed of Co$d t o$al .ale

where the #eller ha# re#er!ed t tle to the property u$t l full
payme$t of the purcha#e pr ce. @he law appl ca,le # the 0aceda "aw.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&$ /P@+/1 C/1@J&C@ # o$e gra$t $g a pr ! lege to

,uy or #ell w th $ a$ agreed t me a$d at a determ $ed pr ce. pr ce. 4&rt. 1479 a$d 1482* 1CC7 Option Contract; Earnest *one" (199() "@ appl ed w th NP+ to purcha#e a hou#e a$d lot $ Pue:o$

+t mu#t ,e #upported ,y a co$# derat o$ d #t $ct from the

1o* the !e$dor ca$$ot re#c $d the co$tract u$der the ,7 c rcum#ta$ce#. L$der the 0aceda "aw* wh ch # the law
appl ca,le* the #eller o$ $#tallme$t may $ot re#c $d the

co$tract t ll after the lap#e of the ma$datory grace per od of


30 day# for e!ery o$e year of $#tallme$t payme$t#* a$d o$ly after 30 day# from $ot ce of ca$cellat o$ or dema$d for re#c ## o$ ,y a $otar al act. +$ th # ca#e* the refu#al of the

C ty* o$e of t# ac?u red a##et#. @he amou$t offered wa#

Pl*000*000.00 paya,le* a# follow#( P200*000.00 dow$ payme$t* the ,ala$ce of P800*000.00 paya,le w th $ 90 day# from <u$e 1* 1985. NP+ accepted the offer* whereupo$ "@
drew a chec9 for P200*000.00 $ fa!or of NP+ wh ch the

#eller to accept payme$t from the ,uyer o$ the 49th mo$th wa# $ot 8u#t f ed ,ecau#e the ,uyer wa# e$t tled to 60 day# grace per od a$d the payme$t wa# te$dered w th $ that
per od. 0oreo!er* the $ot ce of re#c ## o$ #er!ed ,y the

#eller o$ the ,uyer wa# $ot effect !e ,ecau#e the $ot ce wa# $ot ,y a $otar al act. Ne# de#* the #eller may #t ll pay w th $ 30 day# from #uch $otar al $ot ce ,efore re#c ## o$ may ,e effected. &ll the#e re?u reme$t# for a !al d re#c ## o$ were
$ot compl ed w th ,y the #eller. He$ce* the re#c ## o$ #

latter thereafter depo# ted $ t# accou$t. /$ .eptem,er 5* 1985* "@ wrote NP+ re?ue#t $g e-te$# o$ u$t l /cto,er 10* 1985 w th $ wh ch to pay the ,ala$ce* to wh ch NP+ agreed. /$ /cto,er 5* 1985* due to the e-pected delay $ the rem tta$ce of the $eeded amou$t ,y h # f $a$c er from the L$ ted .tate#* "@ wrote NP+ re?ue#t $g a la#t e-te$# o$
u$t l /cto,er 30* 1985* w th $ wh ch to pay the ,ala$ce.

$!al d.
*ace0a Law; 1ecto Law (1999)

NP+ de$ ed "@# re?ue#t ,ecau#e a$other had offered to ,uy the #ame property for P1*500*000.00. NP+ ca$celled t# agreeme$t w th "@ a$d offered to retur$ to h m the amou$t
of P200*000.00 that "@ had pa d to t. /$ /cto,er 20*

2hat are the #o>called '0aceda' a$d 'Jecto' law# $


co$$ect o$ w th #ale# o$
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

$#tallme$t#% ) !e the mo#t

1985* upo$ rece pt of the amou$t of P800*000.00 from h # L. f $a$c er* "@ offered to pay the amou$t ,y te$der $g a
ca#h erG# chec9 therefor ,ut wh ch NP+ refu#ed to accept.

mporta$t feature# of each law. 45E7 @he )ACE*A "AW 4J.&. 6557 # appl ca,le to #ale# of mmo!a,le property o$ $#tallme$t#. @he mo#t mporta$t feature# are (R"llo v. CA, $4( SCRA 461)B

"@ the$ f led a compla $t aga $#t NP+ $ the J@C for #pec f c performa$ce a$d depo# ted $ court the amou$t of P800*000.00. +# NP+ legally correct $ ca$cel $g t# co$tract
w th "@%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

417 &fter ha! $g pa d $#tallme$t# for at lea#t two year#* the ,uyer # e$t tled to a ma$datory grace per od of o$e mo$th
for e!ery year of $#tallme$t payme$t# made* to pay the

NP+ # $ot correct $ ca$cel $g the co$tract w th "@. +$


5"na To'a+"o v Co.rt o* A''eals an% G I Invest&ent (;. R 0o. 10$606, -.ly 3. 1993, $11 SCRA $91) the .upreme Court

u$pa d $#tallme$t# w thout $tere#t.


+f the co$tract # ca$celled* the #eller #hall refu$d to the ,uyer the ca#h #urre$der !alue e?u !ale$t to f fty perce$t 450E7 of the total payme$t# made* a$d after f !e year# of $ot to e-ceed $ $ety perce$t 490E7 of the total payme$t#

held that the ear$e#t mo$ey # part of the purcha#e pr ce a$d # proof of the perfect o$ of the co$tract. .eco$dly* $otar al or
8ud c al re#c ## o$ u$der &rt. 1592 a$d 1991 of the C!l

Code # $ece##ary (Ta,./a v. %e 5eon, 13$ SCRA ($$.)


AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

$#tallme$t#* a$ add t o$al f !e perce$t 45E7 e!ery year ,ut

NP+ # correct $ ca$cel $g t# co$tract w th "@ ,ut NP+

made.

mu#t do #o ,y way of 8ud c al re#c ## o$ u$der &rt cle 1191


C ! l Code. @he law re?u re# a 8ud c al act o$* a$d mere $ot ce of re#c ## o$ # $#uff c e$t f t # re# #ted. @he law al#o pro! de# that #l ght ,reach # $ot a grou$d for

427 +$ ca#e the $#tallme$t# pa d were le## tha$ 2 year#* the #eller #hall g !e the ,uyer a grace per od of $ot le## tha$ 60
day#. +f the ,uyer fa l# to pay the $#tallme$t# due at the e-p rat o$ of the grace per od* the #eller may ca$cel the co$tract after 30 day# from rece pt ,y the ,uyer of the

re#c ## o$ (Son, 8o O Co, vs, Aa9a""an !"l Co., 4( !"ls.


8$1), Helay $ the fulf llme$t of the o,l gat o$ 4&rt.

$ot ce of ca$cellat o$ or dema$d for re#c ## o$ ,y $otar al


act.

1169* C ! l Code7 # a grou$d to re#c $d* o$ly f t me # of the e##e$ce. /therw #e* the court may refu#e the re#c ## o$ f there # a 8u#t cau#e for the f - $g of a per od.

@he 'EC&+ "AW 4&rt. 1484M refer# to #ale of mo!a,le#


ca#e of default ,y the ,uyer* to o$e of three remed e#(

paya,le $ $#tallme$t# a$d l m t $g the r ght of #eller* $

4erfecte0 ale; 2cceptance of Earnest *one" ('##')


Nert offer# to ,uy . meo$O# property u$der the follow $g term# a$d co$d t o$#( P1 m ll o$ purcha#e pr ce* 10E opt o$ mo$ey* the ,ala$ce paya,le $ ca#h upo$ the

a7

e-act fulf llme$t3 ,7 ca$cel the #ale f two or more $#tallme$t# ha!e $ot

c7

,ee$ pa d3 foreclo#e the chattel mortgage o$ the th $g# #old* al#o $ ca#e of default of two or more $#tallme$t#* w th $o
further act o$ aga $#t the purcha#er.

cleara$ce of the property of all llegal occupa$t#. @he opt o$ mo$ey # promptly pa d a$d . meo$ clear# the property of
llegal occupa$t# $ $o t me at all. Howe!er* whe$ Nert

te$der# payme$t of the ,ala$ce a$d a#9 . meo$ for the deed

Page 95 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

for a,#olute #ale* . meo$ #udde$ly ha# a cha$ge of heart*

0ay &dela #t ll e-erc #e her r ght of redempt o$% 5-pla $.

cla m $g that the deal # d #ad!a$tageou# to h m a# he ha# fou$d out that the property ca$ fetch three t me the agreed purcha#e pr ce. Nert #ee9# #pec f c performa$ce ,ut . meo$
co$te$d# that he ha# merely g !e$ Nert a$ opt o$ to ,uy a$d $oth $g more* a$d offer# to retur$ the opt o$ mo$ey wh ch Nert refu#e# to accept. N. 2 ll NertO# act o$ for #pec f c performa$ce

45E7
Be#* &dela may #t ll e-erc #e her r ght of redempt o$
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

$otw th#ta$d $g the lap#e of more tha$ 30 day# from $ot ce


of the #ale g !e$ to her ,ecau#e &rt cle 1623 of the 1ew C ! l Code re?u re# that the $ot ce $ wr t $g of the #ale mu#t come from the pro#pect !e !e$dor or !e$dor a# the

pro#per% 5-pla $. 44E7


C.

ca#e may ,e. +$ th # ca#e* the $ot ce of the #ale wa# g !e$ ,y
the !e$dee a$d the Jeg #ter of Heed#. @he per od of 30

0ay . meo$ 8u#t fy h # refu#al to proceed w th the

#ale ,y the fact that the deal # f $a$c ally d #ad!a$tageou# to

day# $e!er tolled. .he ca$ #t ll a!a l of that r ght.


AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

h m% 5-pla $. 44E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&dela ca$ $o lo$ger e-erc #e her r ght of redempt o$. &#

NertO# act o$ for #pec f c performa$ce w ll pro#per ,ecau#e there wa# a , $d $g agreeme$t of #ale* $ot 8u#t a$
N.

co>ow$er* #he had o$ly 30 day# from the t me #he rece !ed wr tte$ $ot ce of the #ale wh ch $ th # ca#e too9 the form of a copy of the deed of #ale ,e $g g !e$ to her (Cone:ero
v.
CA, 16 SCRA ((7 [1966]). @he law doe# $ot pre#cr ,e

opt o$ co$tract. @he #ale wa# perfected upo$ accepta$ce ,y . meo$ of 10E of the agreed pr ce. @h # amou$t # $ really ear$e#t mo$ey wh ch* u$der &rt. 1482* C#hall ,e co$# dered
a# part of the pr ce a$d a# proof of the perfect o$ of the

co$tract.D (To'a+"o v. CA, $11 SCRA $91 [199$]C #"llon,+o


Realty v. Gor&a!e+o, 67 SCRA 37$ [19(7]). C.

a$y part cular form of wr tte$ $ot ce* $or a$y d #t $ct !e method for $ot fy $g the redempt o$er (2t+./an v. CA, 148 SCRA 70( [198(]). .o lo$g a# the redempt o$er wa# $formed $ wr t $g* he ha# $o cau#e to compla $ (F"str"to v. CA, 19(
SCRA 606, 609 [1991]). +$ fact* $ H #tr to* a wr tte$ $ot ce

. meo$ ca$$ot 8u#t fy h # refu#al to proceed w th ,y the fact that the deal # f $a$c ally

wa# held u$$ece##ary where the co>ow$er had actual

the #ale

9$owledge of the #ale* ha! $g acted a# m ddlema$ a$d ,e $g


pre#e$t whe$ the !e$dor # g$ed the deed of #ale.

d #ad!a$tageou# to h m. Ha! $g made a ,ad ,arga $ # $ot a legal grou$d for pull $g out a , d $g co$tract of #ale* $ the a,#e$ce of #ome act o$a,le wro$g ,y the other party (#ales
v. #"lla, 37 !"l (69 [1916])* a$d $o #uch wro$g ha# ,ee$

1ig&t of ,irst 1ef%sal; Lessee; Effect (199-) L,aldo # the ow$er of a ,u ld $g wh ch ha# ,ee$ lea#ed ,y
Jem g o for the pa#t 20 year#. L,aldo ha# repeatedly

comm tted ,y Nert.

1e0emption; Legal; ,ormalities ('##1) Netty a$d "yd a were co>ow$er# of a parcel of la$d. "a#t <a$uary 31* 2001* whe$ #he pa d her real e#tate ta-* Netty

d #co!ered that "yd a had #old her #hare to 5mma o$


1o!em,er 10* 2000. @he follow $g day* Netty offered to redeem her #hare from 5mma* ,ut the latter repl ed that NettyG# r ght to redeem ha# already pre#cr ,ed. +# 5mma correct or $ot% 2hy% 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

a##ured Jem g o that f he #hould dec de to #ell the ,u ld $g* he w ll g !e Jem g o the r ght of f r#t refu#al. /$ <u$e 30* 1994* L,aldo $formed Jem g o that he wa# w ll $g to #ell the ,u ld $g for P5 0 ll o$. @he follow $g day* Jem g o #e$t a letter to L,aldo offer $g to ,uy the ,u ld $g at P4.5 0 ll o$. L,aldo d d $ot reply. /$e wee9 later* Jem g o
rece !ed a letter from .a$to# the $form $g h m that

5mma* the ,uyer* # $ot correct. Netty ca$ #t ll e$force her r ght of legal redempt o$ a# a co>ow$er. &rt cle 1623 of the

,u ld $g ha# ,ee$ #old to h m ,y L,aldo for P5 0 ll o$* a$d that he w ll $ot re$ew Jem g oG# lea#e whe$ t e-p re#. Jem g o f led a$ act o$ aga $#t L,aldo a$d .a$to# for ca$cellat o$ of the #ale* a$d to compel L,aldo to e-ecute a

C ! l Code g !e# a co>ow$er 30 day# from wr tte$ $ot ce of


the #ale ,y the !e$dor to e-erc #e h # r ght of legal

redempt o$. +$ the pre#e$t pro,lem* the 30>day per od for


the e-erc #e ,y Netty of her r ght of redempt o$ had $ot

deed of a,#olute #ale $ h # fa!or* ,a#ed o$ h # r ght of f r#t refu#al. a7 2 ll the act o$ pro#per% 5-pla $. ,7 +f L,aldo had g !e$ Jem g o a$ opt o$ to purcha#e the
,u ld $g $#tead of a r ght of f r#t refu#al* w ll your a$#wer ,e the #ame% 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

e!e$ ,egu$ to ru$ ,ecau#e $o $ot ce $ wr t $g of the #ale


appear# to ha!e ,ee$ g !e$ to her ,y "yd a. 1e0emption; Legal; ,ormalities ('##')

1o* the act o$ to compel L,aldo to e-ecute the deed of

a,#olute #ale w ll $ot pro#per. &ccord $g to An, ?. v.


Co.rt

&dela a$d Neth are co>ow$er# of a parcel of la$d. Neth #old


her u$d ! ded #hare of the property to =a$dro* who

o* A''eals ($38 SCRA 60$)* the r ght of f r#t refu#al # $ot

promptly $ot f ed &dela of the #ale a$d fur$ #hed the latter a copy of the deed of a,#olute #ale. 2he$ =a$dro pre#e$ted the deed for reg #trat o$* the reg #ter of deed# al#o $ot f ed
&dela of the #ale* e$clo# $g a copy of the deed w th the $ot ce. Howe!er* &dela g$ored the $ot ce#. & year later* =a$dro f led a pet t o$ for the part t o$ of the property.

,a#ed o$ co$tract ,ut # pred cated o$ the pro! # o$# of

huma$ relat o$# a$d* therefore* t# ! olat o$ # pred cated o$ ?ua# >del ct. .eco$dly* the r ght of f r#t refu#al mpl e# that the offer of the per#o$ $ who#e fa!or that r ght wa# g !e$ mu#t co$form w th the #ame term# a$d co$d t o$# a# tho#e
g !e$ to the offeree. +$ th # ca#e* howe!er* Jem g o wa#

Lpo$ rece pt of #ummo$#* &dela mmed ately te$dered the re?u # te amou$t for the redempt o$. =a$dro co$te$d# that &dela lo#t her r ght of redempt o$ after the e-p rat o$ of 30 day# from her rece pt of the $ot ce of the #ale g !e$ ,y h m.

offer $g o$ly P4.5 0 ll o$ $#tead of P5 0 ll o$.


AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

1o* the act o$ w ll $ot pro#per. @he le##eeG# r ght of f r#t refu#al doe# $ot go #o far a# to g !e h m the power to

d ctate o$ the le##or the pr ce at wh ch the latter #hould #ell

Page 96 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

h # property. Lpo$ the fact# g !e$* the le##or had


#uff c e$tly compl ed w th h # comm tme$t to g !e the le##ee a r ght of f r#t refu#al whe$ he offered to #ell the property to the le##ee for P5 0 ll o$* wh ch wa# the #ame pr ce he got $
#ell $g t to .a$to#. He certa $ly had the r ght to treat the

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

17 & ca$ e-erc #e h # r ght of repurcha#e w th $ four 447 year# from the date of the co$tract 4&rt. 1606* C ! l Code7.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

le##eeG# cou$ter>offer of a le##er amou$t a# a re8ect o$ of h # offer to #ell at P5 0 ll o$. @hu#* he wa# free to f $d a$other ,uyer upo$ rece pt of #uch u$accepta,le cou$ter>offer 4&rt.
1319. 1CC7.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

2M + would ad! #e N to f le a$ act o$ for co$#ol dat o$ of

t tle a$d o,ta $ a 8ud c al order of co$#ol dat o$ wh ch mu#t


,e recorded $ the Jeg #try of Property 4&rt. 1607. C!l

Code7. =ransfer of Owners&ip; .on?4a"ment of t&e 4rice (1991) Pa,lo #old h # car to &lfo$#o who ##ued a po#tdated chec9 $ full payme$t therefor. Nefore the matur ty of the chec9* &lfo$#o #old the car to )regor o who later #old t to )a,r el. 2he$ pre#e$ted for payme$t* the chec9 ##ued ,y &lfo$#o wa# d #ho$ored ,y the drawee ,a$9 for the rea#o$ that he* &lfo$#o* had already clo#ed h # accou$t e!e$ ,efore
he ##ued h # chec9.

Be#* the a$#wer w ll ,e the #ame. @he act o$ w ll $ot


pro#per ,ecau#e a$ opt o$ mu#t ,e #upported ,y a

co$# derat o$ #eparate a$d d #t $ct from the purcha#e pr ce.


+$ th # ca#e there # $o #eparate co$# derat o$. @herefore*

the opt o$ may ,e w thdraw$ ,y L,aldo at a$y t me. 4&rt.


1324* 1CC7 1ig&t of ,irst 1ef%sal; Lessee; Effect (1993) +$ a 20>year lea#e co$tract o!er a ,u ld $g* the le##ee # e-pre##ly gra$ted a r ght of f r#t refu#al #hould the le##or dec de to #ell ,oth the la$d a$d ,u ld $g. Howe!er* the

Pa,lo #ued to reco!er the car from )a,r el alleg $g that he


4Pa,lo7 had ,ee$ u$lawfully depr !ed of t ,y rea#o$ of

&lfo$#oG# decept o$. 2 ll the #u t pro#per%


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

le##or #old the property to a th rd per#o$ who 9$ew a,out the lea#e a$d $ fact agreed to re#pect t. Co$#e?ue$tly* the le##ee ,r $g# a$ act o$ aga $#t ,oth the le##or>#eller a$d the
,uyer 4a7 to re#c $d the #ale a$d 4,7 to compel #pec f c

1o. @he #u t w ll $ot pro#per ,ecau#e Pa,lo wa# $ot


u$lawfully depr !ed of the car although he wa# u$lawfully

performa$ce of h # r ght of f r#t refu#al $ the #e$#e that the le##or #hould ,e ordered to e-ecute a deed of a,#olute #ale
$ fa!or of the le##ee at the #ame pr ce. @he defe$da$t#

depr !ed of the pr ce. @he perfect o$ of the #ale a$d the del !ery of the car wa# e$ough to allow &lfo$#o to ha!e a r ght of ow$er#h p o!er the car* wh ch ca$ ,e lawfully
tra$#ferred to )regor o. &rt. 559 appl e# o$ly to a per#o$

who # $ po##e## o$ $ good fa th of the property* a$d $ot


to the ow$er thereof. &lfo$#o* $ the pro,lem* wa# the ow$er* a$d* he$ce* )a,r el ac?u red the t tle to the car. 1o$>payme$t of the pr ce $ a co$tract of #ale doe# $ot re$der $effect !e the o,l gat o$ to del !er. @he o,l gat o$

co$te$d that the pla $t ff ca$ $e ther #ee9 re#c ## o$ of the #ale $or compel #pec f c performa$ce of a 'mere' r ght of
f r#t refu#al. Hec de the ca#e. ;5EA
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he act o$ f led ,y the le##ee* for ,oth re#c ## o$ of the

offe$d $g #ale a$d #pec f c performa$ce of the r ght of f r#t


refu#al wh ch wa# ! olated* #hould pro#per. @he rul $g $
2N.ator"al Realty Fevelo'&ent, In+. vs. May*a"r T!eater, In+. ($64 SCRA 483), a ca#e w th # m lar fact#* #u#ta $# ,oth

to del !er a th $g # d ffere$t from the o,l gat o$ to pay t# pr ce. 2FCA ./l"s!"n, Co. v. Santos (1990) =ransfer of Owners&ip; 1is+ of Loss (199#) H #old a #eco$d>ha$d car to 5 for P150*000.00 @he agreeme$t ,etwee$ H a$d 5 wa# that half of the purcha#e pr ce* or P75*000.00* #hall ,e pa d upo$ del !ery of the car
to 5 a$d the ,ala$ce of P75*000.00 #hall ,e pa d $ f !e

r ght# of act o$ ,ecau#e the ,uyer $ the #u,#e?ue$t #ale 9$ew the e- #te$ce of r ght of f r#t refu#al* he$ce $ ,ad

fa th.
A'!$.E" A'(WE":

@he act o$ to re#c $d the #ale a$d to compel the r ght to

f r#t refu#al w ll $ot pro#per. (An, ?. As.n+"on vs. CA, $38 SCRA 60$). @he Court ruled $ a u$a$ mou# e$ ,a$c dec # o$ that the r ght of f r#t refu#al # $ot fou$ded upo$ co$tract ,ut o$ a ?ua# >del ctual relat o$#h p co!ered ,y the
pr $c ple# of huma$ relat o$# a$d u$8u#t e$r chme$t 4&rt.

e?ual mo$thly $#tallme$t# of P15*000.00 each. @he car wa# del !ered to 5* a$d 5 pa d the amou$t of P75.000.00 to H. "e## tha$ o$e mo$th thereafter* the car wa# #tole$ from 5G# garage w th $o fault o$ 5G# part a$d wa# $e!er reco!ered. +#
5 legally ,ou$d to pay the #a d u$pa d ,ala$ce of

19* et #e?. C ! l Code7. He$ce the o$ly act o$ that w ll

P75.000.00% 5-pla $ your a$#wer.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

pro#per accord $g to the .upreme Court # a$ 'act o$ for damage# $ a proper forum for the purpo#e.' 1ig&t of 1ep%rc&ase (199()

Be#* 5 # legally ,ou$d to pay the ,ala$ce of P75*000.00.

/$ <a$uary 2* 1980* & a$d N e$tered $to a co$tract


where,y & #old to N a parcel of la$d for a$d $

@he ow$er#h p of the car #old wa# ac?u red ,y 5 from the mome$t t wa# del !ered to h m. Ha! $g ac?u red ow$er#h p* 5 ,ear# the r #9 of the lo## of the th $g u$der the doctr $e of re# per t dom $o. ;&rt cle# 1496. 1497* C!l Code7.

co$# derat o$ of P10.000.00. & re#er! $g to h m#elf the r ght to repurcha#e the #ame. Necau#e they were fr e$d#* $o
per od wa# agreed upo$ for the repurcha#e of the property. 17 L$t l whe$ mu#t & e-erc #e h # r ght of repurcha#e% 27 +f & fa l# to redeem the property w th $ the allowa,le

LEA(E
E<ting%is&ment; =otal Distr%ction; Lease0 4ropert" (199()

per od* what would you ad! #e N to do for h # ,etter protect o$%

& # the ow$er of a lot o$ wh ch he co$#tructed a ,u ld $g $ the total co#t of P10*000*000.00. /f that amou$t N

Page 97 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

co$tr ,uted P5*000*000.00 pro! ded that the ,u ld $g a# a

whole would ,e lea#ed to h m 4N7 for a per od of te$ year# from <a$uary 1. 1985 to Hecem,er 31* 1995 at a re$tal of P100*000.00 a year. @o #uch co$d t o$* & agreed. /$ Hecem,er 20* 1990* the ,u ld $g wa# totally ,ur$ed. .oo$
thereafter* &G# wor9er# cleared the de,r # a$d #tarted

phe$ome$o$ are #t ll u$pred cta,le de#p te the ad!a$ce# $ #c e$ce* the phe$ome$o$ # co$# dered u$fore#ee$.
Leasee & Lessor; 1ig&ts an0 Obligations (199#)

& !aca$t lot #e!eral ,loc9# from the ce$ter of the tow$ wa# lea#ed ,y t# ow$er to a you$g ,u# $e##ma$ N for a term of
f ftee$ 4157 year# re$ewal upo$ agreeme$t of the part e#.

co$#truct o$ of a $ew ,u ld $g. N the$ #er!ed $ot ce upo$ & that he would occupy the ,u ld $g ,e $g co$#tructed
upo$ complet o$* for the u$e-p red port o$ of the lea#e

term* e-pla $ $g that he had #pe$t partly for the co$#truct o$ of the ,u ld $g that wa# ,ur$ed. & re8ected NG#
dema$d. H d & ha# a r ght $ re8ect $g NG# dema$d%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&fter ta9 $g po##e## o$ of the lot* the le##ee ,u lt thereo$ a ,u ld $g of m -ed mater al# a$d a #tore. &# the year# pa##ed* he e-pa$ded h # ,u# $e##* ear$ $g more prof t#. Ny the te$th 410th7 year of h # po##e## o$* he wa# a,le to ,u ld a
three 437>#tory ,u ld $g worth at lea#t P300*000.00. Nefore the e$d of the term of the lea#e* N $egot ated w th the #o* they could $ot agree o$ the $ew co$d t o$# for the

Be#. & wa# correct $ re8ect $g the dema$d of N. &# a re#ult of the total de#truct o$ of the ,u ld $g ,y fortu tou# e!e$t*
the lea#e wa# e-t $gu #hed. 4&rt. 1655* C ! l Code.7 )mplie0 .ew Lease (1999)

la$dow$er for t# re$ewal* ,ut de#p te the r attempt# to do

L$der what c rcum#ta$ce# would a$ mpl ed $ew lea#e or a 42E7 ta+"ta re+on%.++"on ar #e%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

re$ewal. Lpo$ the e-p rat o$ of the term of the lea#e* the la$dow$er a#9ed N to !acate the prem #e# a$d remo!e h # ,u ld $g a$d other mpro!eme$t#. N refu#ed u$le## he wa#
re m,ur#ed for $ece##ary a$d u#eful e-pe$#e#. N cla med

that he wa# a po##e##or a$d ,u lder $ good fa th* w th r ght


of rete$t o$. @h # ##ue # $ow ,efore the court for

&$ mpl ed $ew lea#e or tac ta reco$ducc o$ ar #e# f at the e$d of the co$tract the le##ee #hould co$t $ue e$8oy $g the th $g lea#ed for 15 day# w th the ac?u e#ce$ce of the le##or*
a$d u$le## a $ot ce to the co$trary ,y e ther part e# ha# pre! ou#ly ,ee$ g !e$ 4&rt. 16707. +$ #hort* $ order that

re#olut o$ $ a pe$d $g l t gat o$. a7 2hat are the r ght# of N% ,7 2hat are the r ght# of the la$dow$er%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

there may ,e tac ta reco$ducc o$ there mu#t ,e e-p rat o$


of the co$tract3 there mu#t ,e co$t $uat o$ of po##e## o$

a7

N ha# the r ght to remo!e the ,u ld $g a$d other mpro!eme$t# u$le## the la$dow$er dec de# to reta $ the

for 15 day# or more3 a$d there mu#t ,e $o pr or dema$d to


!acate. Lease of 1%ral Lan0s ('###) +$ 1995* 0ar9 lea#ed the r ce la$d of 1ard $g $ 1ue!a

5c 8a for a$ a$$ual re$tal of P1*000.00 per hectare. +$ 1998*


due to the 5l 1 $o phe$ome$o$* the r ce har!e#t fell to o$ly 40E of the a!erage har!e#t for the pre! ou# year#.

,u ld $g at the t me of the term $at o$ of the lea#e a$d pay the le##ee o$e>half of the !alue of the mpro!eme$t# at that t me. @he le##ee may remo!e the ,u ld $g e!e$ though the pr $c pal th $g may #uffer damage ,ut N #hould $ot cau#e a$y more mpa rme$t upo$ the property lea#ed tha$ # $ece##ary. @he cla m of N that he wa# a po##e##or a$d ,u lder $ good fa th w th the r ght of rete$t o$ # $ot te$a,le. N # $ot a ,u lder $ good fa th ,ecau#e a# le##ee he
doe# $ot cla m ow$er#h p o!er the property lea#ed.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

0ar9 a#9ed 1ard $g for a reduct o$ of the re$tal to P500.00


per hectare for that year ,ut the latter refu#ed. +# 0ar9 legally e$t tled to #uch reduct o$% 42E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

,7

@he la$dow$erSle##or may refu#e to re m,ur#e 1S2 of

the !alue of the mpro!eme$t# a$d re?u re the le##ee to

1o* 0ar9 # $ot e$t tled to a reduct o$. L$der &rt cle 1680 of the C ! l Code* the le##ee of a rural la$d # e$t tled to a reduct o$ of the re$t o$ly $ ca#e of lo## of more tha$ 1S2
of the fru t# through e-traord $ary a$d u$fore#ee$

remo!e the mpro!eme$t#. ;&rt cle 1678* C ! l Code7* Leasee; Deat& =&ereof; Effects (1997) .tat $g ,r efly the the# # to #upport your a$#wer to each of
the follow $g ca#e#* w ll the death > a7 of the le##ee

fortu tou# e!e$t#. 2h le the drought ,rought a,out ,y the '5l 1 $o' phe$ome$o$ may ,e cla## f ed a# e-traord $ary* t # $ot co$# dered a# u$fore#ee$.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

e-t $gu #h the lea#e agreeme$t%


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1o. @he death of the le##ee w ll $ot e-t $gu #h the lea#e

Be#* 0ar9 # e$t tled to a reduct o$ of the re$t. H # lo## wa#


more tha$ 1S2 of the fru t# a$d the lo## wa# due to a$

agreeme$t* # $ce lea#e # $ot per#o$al $ character a$d the


r ght # tra$#m ## ,le to the he r#. (Ae"rs o* F"&a+.lan,an
vs. IAC, 1(0 SCRA 393).

e-traord $ary a$d u$fore#ee$ fortu tou# e!e$t. @he '5l


1 $o'

u$commo$3 t doe# $ot occur w th regular ty. &$d $e ther


could the part e# ha!e fore#ee$ t# occurre$ce. @he e!e$t

phe$ome$o$

# e-traord $ary ,ecau#e

Option to ;%"; E<pire0 ('##1)


/$ <a$uary 1* 1980* 1e#tor lea#ed the f #hpo$d of 0ar o

#hould ,e fore#eea,le ,y the part e# #o that the le##ee ca$ cha$ge the t me for h # pla$t $g* or refra $ from pla$t $g* or ta9e #tep# to a!o d the lo##. @o ,e fore#eea,le* the t me a$d the place of the occurre$ce* a# well a# the mag$ tude of the
ad!er#e effect# of the fortu tou# e!e$t mu#t ,e capa,le of ,e $g pred cted. . $ce the e-act place* the e-act t me* a$d

for a per od of three year# at a mo$thly re$tal of P1*000.00* w th a$ opt o$ to purcha#e the #ame dur $g the per od of the lea#e for the pr ce of P500*000.00. &fter the e-p rat o$ of the three>year per od* 0ar o allowed 1e#tor to rema $ $
the lea#ed prem #e# at the #ame re$tal rate. /$ <u$e 15*

the e-act mag$ tude of the ad!er#e effect# of the '5l 1 $o'

1983* 1e#tor te$dered the amou$t of P500*000.00 to 0ar o a$d dema$ded that the latter e-ecute a deed of a,#olute #ale of the f #hpo$d $ h # fa!or. 0ar o refu#ed* o$ the grou$d that 1e#tor $o lo$ger had a$ opt o$ to ,uy the f #hpo$d.

Page 98 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

1e#tor f led a$ act o$ for #pec f c performa$ce. 2 ll the act o$ pro#per or $ot% 2hy% 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

#u,le##ee ca$ $!o9e $o r ght #uper or to that of h # #u,le##or* the mome$t the #u,le##or # duly ou#ted from the
prem #e#* the #u,le##ee ha# $o leg to #ta$d o$. @he #u,le##eeG# r ght* f a$y* # to dema$d reparat o$ for damage# from h # #u,le##or* #hould the latter ,e at fault.
(Ae"rs o*Sev"lla v. Co.rt o* A''eals ;.R. 0o. 498$3, 8e/r.ary
$6, 199$).

1o* the act o$ w ll $ot pro#per. @he mpl ed re$ewal of the lea#e o$ a mo$th>to>mo$th ,a# # d d $ot ha!e the effect of e-te$d $g the l fe of the opt o$ to purcha#e wh ch e-p red at the e$d of the or g $al lea#e per od. @he le##or # correct $ refu# $g to #ell o$ the grou$d that the opt o$ had e-p red. %blease vs. 2ssignment of Lease; 1escission of Contract ('##9)
L$der a wr tte$ co$tract dated Hecem,er 1* 1989* 6 ctor lea#ed h # la$d to <oel for a per od of f !e 457 year# at a mo$thly re$tal of Pl*000.00* to ,e $crea#ed to Pl*200.00 a$d Pl*500.00 o$ the th rd a$d f fth year* re#pect !ely. /$ <a$uary 1* 1991* <oel #u,lea#ed the la$d to Co$rad for a per od of two 427 year# at a mo$thly re$tal of Pl*500.00.

%blease; Dela" in 4a"ment of 1entals (199!)

+$ <a$uary 1993* Four>) !e# Corporat o$ lea#ed the e$t re twel!e floor# of the )P. @ower# Comple-* for a per od of
te$ year# at a mo$thly re$tal of P3*000*000.00. @here # a

pro! # o$ $ the co$tract that the mo$thly re$tal# #hould ,e pa d w th $ the f r#t f !e day# of the mo$th. For the mo$th
of 0arch* 0ay* <u$e* /cto,er a$d Hecem,er 1993* the

re$tal# were $ot pa d o$ t me w th #ome re$tal# ,e $g


delayed up to te$ day#. @he delay wa# due to the hea!y

/$ Hecem,er 31* 1992* <oel a## g$ed the lea#e to h # compadre* 5r$ e* who acted o$ the ,el ef that <oel wa# the r ghtful ow$er a$d po##e##or of the #a d lot. <oel ha# ,ee$ fa thfully pay $g the #t pulated re$tal# to 6 ctor. 2he$
6 ctor lear$ed o$ 0ay 18* 1992 a,out the #u,lea#e a$d a## g$me$t* he #ued <oel* Co$rad a$d 5r$ e for re#c ## o$ of

paper wor9 $!ol!ed $ proce## $g the chec9#.


Four>) !e# Corporat o$ al#o #u,lea#ed f !e of the twel!e

floor# to wholly>ow$ed #u,# d ar e#. @he lea#e co$tract e-pre##ly proh , t# the a## g$me$t of the lea#e co$tract or
a$y port o$ thereof. @he re$tal !alue of the ,u ld $g ha#

the co$tract of lea#e a$d for damage#.


a) )"ll t!e a+t"on 'ros'er1 I* so, a,a"nst 9!o&1 23'la"n. ($4)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

$crea#ed ,y 50E # $ce t# lea#e to Four>) !e# Corporat o$. 17 Ca$ the ,u ld $g ow$er e8ect Four>) !e# Corporat o$ o$
grou$d# of the repeated delay# $ the payme$t of the re$t% 2M Ca$ the ,u ld $g ow$er a#9 for the ca$cellat o$ of the

Be#* the act o$ of for re#c ## o$ of the co$tract of lea#e a$d


for damage# w ll pro#per. L$der &rt cle 1659 of the C ! l Code* ' f the le##or or the le##ee #hould $ot comply w th the o,l gat o$# #et forth $ &rt cle# 1654 a$d 1657* the

co$tract for ! olat o$ of the pro! # o$ aga $#t a## g$me$t%


(+&&E($E# A'(WE"(:

aggr e!ed party may a#9 for re#c ## o$ of the co$tract a$d

17 a7 @he 'repeated delay#' $ the payme$t of re$tal# would* at ,e#t* ,e a #l ght or ca#ual ,reach wh ch doe# $ot fur$ #h a grou$d for e8ectme$t e#pec ally ,ecau#e the delay# were o$ly due to hea!y paper wor9. 1ote that there wa# $ot e!e$
a dema$d for payme$t o,! ou#ly ,ecau#e the delay la#ted

$dem$ f cat o$ for damage#* or o$ly the latter* allow $g the co$tract to rema $ $ force.' &rt cle 1649 of the #ame Code pro! de# that 'the le##ee ca$$ot a## g$ the lea#e w thout the
co$#e$t of the le##or* u$le## there # a #t pulat o$ to the co$trary.' Co$#e$t # $ece##ary ,ecau#e a## g$me$t would cau#e $o!at o$ ,y the #u,#t tut o$ of o$e of the part e#.
(Gan,ayan v. Co.rt o* A''eals, ;.R. 0o. 1$3781, A.,.st $9,
199() Howe!er* the rule

for o$ly a few day# 410 day# ,e $g the lo$ge#t7* at the e$d of wh ch t me payme$t# were pre#uma,ly made a$d were
accepted. @here wa#* therefore* $o default. 1ote al#o that there wa# $o dema$d made upo$ the le##ee to !acate the prem #e# for $o$>payme$t of the mo$thly re$t. @here #*

# d ffere$t

$ the ca#e of

therefore* $o cau#e of act o$ for e8ectme$t ar # $g from the 'repeated delay#'.

#u,lea# $g. 2he$ there # $o e-pre## proh , t o$ $ the


Co$tract of "ea#e* the le##ee may #u,let the th $g lea#ed. 4&rt. 1650* C ! l Code7

@he ,u ld $g ow$er ca$$ot e8ect Four>) !e# ,7 Corporat o$ o$ the grou$d of repeated delay# $ the payme$t of re$tal#. @he delay $ the payme$t of the re$tal#
# m $ mal a$d ca$$ot ,e made the ,a# # of a$ e8ectme$t

+$ the g !e$ ca#e* whe$ <oel a## g$ed the lea#e to 5r$ e* the
#ame wa# do$e w thout the co$#e$t of 6 ctor. @he

#u t. @he delay wa# due to the hea!y paperwor9 $!ol!ed $


proce## $g the chec9#. +t would ,e otherw #e f the lea#e

a## g$me$t # !o d. Howe!er* there # $o $d cat o$ that $ the wr tte$ co$tract of lea#e ,etwee$ 6 ctor a$d <oel* that
#u,lea# $g the prem #e# # proh , ted. He$ce* the #u,lea#e

co$tract #tated that $ the payme$t of re$tal# w th $ the f r#t


f !e day# of the mo$th* t me # of the e##e$ce or that the

of <oel w th Co$rad # !al d. +$ ! ew of the forego $g* 6 ctor ca$ f le the ca#e of re#c ## o$ a$d damage# o$ly
aga $#t <oel a$d 5r$ e ,ut he ca$$ot $clude Co$rad. /) In +ase o* res+"ss"on, %"s+.ss t!e r",!ts an% o/l",at"ons o* t!e 'art"es. ($4)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

le##ee w ll ,e $ delay f he fall# to pay w th $ the agreed per od w thout $eed of dema$d. +$ th # ca#e he ca$

8ud c ally e8ect the te$a$t o$ the grou$d of lac9 of payme$t


of the pr ce #t pulated after a dema$d to !acate* 4&rt cle

1673427* 1ew C ! l Code7* c7 1o. Je#olut o$ of a co$tract w ll $ot ,e perm tted for a
#l ght or ca#ual ,reach* ,ut o$ly for #uch #u,#ta$t al a$d

Je#c ## o$ of the lea#e $ece##ar ly re?u re# the retur$ of the th $g to the le##or. He$ce* the 8udgme$t gra$t $g re#c ## o$
of the co$tract #hould al#o order the le##ee to !acate a$d

fu$dame$tal ,reach a# would defeat the !ery o,8ect of the


part e# $ ma9 $g the agreeme$t.(=e'e%a v. CA, $16 SCRA $93]. @he delay of te$ 41077 day# # $ot #uch a #u,#ta$t al

retur$ the lea#ed prem #e# to the le##or. Howe!er* # $ce the

Page 99 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

a$d fu$dame$tal ,reach to warra$t the re#olut o$ of the

co$tract of lea#e #pec ally #o whe$ the delay wa# due to the
hea!y paperwor9 $ proce## $g the chec9#.

&* a$d that he ha# $ot ,ee$ rem ## $ the payme$t of re$t. 2 ll the act o$ pro#per% 43E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

27 a7 1o. .u,lea#e # d ffere$t from a## g$me$t of lea#e. .u,lea#e* $ot ,e $g proh , ted ,y the co$tract of lea#e # therefore allowed a$d ca$$ot ,e $!o9ed a# a grou$d to

Be#* the act o$ w ll pro#per. L$der &rt cle 1651 of the C!l Code* the #u,le##ee # ,ou$d to the le##or for all act# wh ch refer to the u#e a$d pre#er!at o$ of the th $g lea#ed $ the ma$$er #t pulated ,etwee$ the le##or a$d the le##ee. %blease; @ali0it"; 2ssignment of %blease (199#) & lea#ed a parcel of la$d to N for a per od of two year#. @he
lea#e co$tract d d $ot co$ta $ a$y e-pre## proh , t o$

ca$cel the lea#e* ,7 1o* the le##or ca$$ot ha!e the lea#e ca$celled for alleged ! olat o$ of the pro! # o$ aga $#t a## g$me$t. @he le##ee d d
$ot a## g$ the lea#e* or a$y port o$ thereof* to the

aga $#t the a## g$me$t of the lea#ehold or the #u,lea# $g of


the lea#ed prem #e#. Hur $g the th rd year of the lea#e* N #u,lea#ed the la$d to C. +$ tur$* C* w thout &G# co$#e$t* a## g$ed the #u,lea#e to H. & the$ f led a$ act o$ for the

#u,# d ar e#. +t merely #u,lea#ed #ome floor# to

t#

#u,# d ar e#. . $ce the pro,lem doe# $ot #tate that the co$tract of lea#e co$ta $# a proh , t o$ aga $#t #u,lea#e* the #u,lea#e # lawful* the rule ,e $g that $ the a,#e$ce of a$ e-pre## proh , t o$ a le##ee may #u,let the th $g lea#ed* $ whole or $ part* w thout pre8ud ce to h #S t# re#po$# , l ty
to the le##or for the performa$ce of the co$tract. %blease; %blessee; Liabilit" (1999)

re#c ## o$ of the co$tract of lea#e o$ the grou$d that N ha# ! olated the term# a$d co$d t o$# of the lea#e agreeme$t. +f you were the 8udge* how would you dec de the ca#e*
part cularly w th re#pect to the !al d ty of(

4a7 NG# #u,lea#e to C% a$d 4,7 CG# a## g$me$t of the #u,lea#e to H%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

0ay a le##ee #u,lea#e the property lea#ed w thout the co$#e$t of the le##or* a$d what are the re#pect !e l a, l t e#
of the le##ee a$d #u,>le##ee to the le##or $ ca#e of #uch #u,lea#e% 43E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&lthough the or g $al per od of two year# for the lea#e co$tract ha# e-p red* the lea#e co$t $ued w th the ac?u e#ce$ce of the le##or dur $g the

4a7 NG# #u,lea#e to C # !al d.

th rd year. He$ce* there ha# ,ee$ a$ mpl ed re$ewal of the


co$tract of lea#e. L$der &rt. 1650 of the C ! l Code* the

Be#* pro! ded that there # $o e-pre## proh , t o$ aga $#t

#u,lea# $g. L$der the law* whe$ $ the co$tract of lea#e of th $g# there # $o e-pre## proh , t o$* the le##ee may #u,let
the th $g lea#ed w thout pre8ud ce to h # re#po$# , l ty for the performa$ce of the co$tract toward the le##or. ;&rt* 16507

le##ee may #u,let the th $g lea#ed* $ whole or $ part* whe$ the co$tract of lea#e doe# $ot co$ta $ a$y e-pre## ;&rt cle proh , t o$. # 1650* 1670 C ! l Code7. &G#
act o$ for re#c ## o$ #hould $ot pro#per o$ th # grou$d.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

+$ ca#e there # a #u,lea#e of the prem #e# ,e $g lea#ed* the #u,le##ee # ,ou$d to the le##or for all the act# wh ch refer to the u#e a$d pre#er!at o$ of the th $g lea#ed $ the
ma$$er #t pulated ,etwee$ the le##or a$d the le##ee. 4&rt. 1651M

4,7 CG# a## g$me$t of the #u,lea#e to H # $ot !al d. L$der

&rt. 1649* of the C ! l Code* the le##ee ca$$ot a## g$ the lea#e w thout the co$#e$t of the le##or* u$le## there # a #t pulat o$ to the co$trary. @here # $o #uch #t pulat o$ $

the co$tract.

+f the law proh , t# a## g$me$t of the lea#e

@he #u,le##ee # #u,# d ar ly l a,le to the le##or for a$y re$t


due from the le##ee. Howe!er* the #u,le##ee #hall $ot ,e

re#po$# ,le ,eyo$d the amou$t of the re$t due from h m.


4&rt. 16527 &# to the le##ee* the latter #hall #t ll ,e re#po$# ,le to the le##or for the re$t#3 ,r $g to the 9$owledge of the le##or e!ery u#urpat o$ or u$toward act wh ch a$y th rd per#o$ may ha!e comm tted or may ,e ope$ly prepar $g to carry

w thout the co$#e$t of the le##or* all the more would the a## g$me$t of a #u,lea#e ,e proh , ted w thout #uch co$#e$t. @h # # a ! olat o$ of the co$tract a$d # a !al d

grou$d for re#c ## o$ ,y &.

C!))!' CA""IE"(

out upo$ the th $g lea#ed3 ad! #e the ow$er the $eed for all repa r#3 to retur$ the th $g lea#ed upo$ the term $at o$ of the lea#e 8u#t a# he rece !ed t* #a!e what ha# ,ee$ lo#t or mpa red ,y the lap#e of t me or ,y ord $ary wear a$d tear
or from a$ $e! ta,le cau#e3 re#po$# ,le for the deter orat o$ or lo## of the th $g lea#ed* u$le## he pro!e# that t too9 place w thout h # fault.

E<traor0inar" Diligence ('###)

He#p te a war$ $g from the pol ce that a$ attempt to h 8ac9 a P&" pla$e w ll ,e made $ the follow $g wee9* the a rl $e d d $ot ta9e e-tra precaut o$#* #uch a# fr #9 $g of
pa##e$ger#* for fear of ,e $g accu#ed of ! olat $g huma$ r ght#. @wo day# later* a$ armed h 8ac9er d d attempt to

h 8ac9 a P&" fl ght to Ce,u. &lthough he wa# #u,dued ,y


the other pa##e$ger#* he ma$aged to f re a #hot wh ch ht

%blease; %blessee; Liabilit" ('###) & lea#ed h # hou#e to N w th a co$d t o$ that the lea#ed

prem #e# #hall ,e u#ed for re# de$t al purpo#e# o$ly. N


#u,lea#ed the hou#e to C who u#ed t a# a warehou#e for

a$d 9 lled a female pa##e$ger. @he ! ct mG# pare$t# #ued the a rl $e for ,reach of co$tract* a$d the a rl $e ra #ed the defe$#e of force ma8eure. +# the a rl $e l a,le or $ot% 42E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

fa,r c#. Lpo$ lear$ $g th #* & dema$ded that C #top u# $g


the hou#e a# a warehou#e* ,ut C g$ored the dema$d* &

the$ f led a$ act o$ for e8ectme$t aga $#t C* who ra #ed the defe$#e that there # $o pr ! ty of co$tract ,etwee$ h m a$d

@he a rl $e # l a,le. +$ ca#e of death of a pa##e$ger* commo$ carr er# are pre#umed to ha!e ,ee$ at fault or to ha!e acted $egl ge$tly* u$le## they pro!e that they o,#er!ed
e-traord $ary d l ge$ce 4&rt cle 1756* C ! l Code7. @he

Page 100 of 119


CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

fa lure of the a rl $e to ta9e e-tra precaut o$# de#p te a pol ce war$ $g that a$ attempt to h 8ac9 the pla$e would ,e made* wa# $egl ge$ce o$ the part of the a rl $e. Ne $g
$egl ge$t* t # l a,le for the death of the pa##e$ger. @he

$egate #ale ,ecau#e they $d cate that ow$er#h p o!er the

u$ t# wa# $e!er $te$ded to tra$#fer to the d #tr ,utor. 2genc"; co%ple0 wit& an interest ('##1) J chard #old a large parcel of la$d $ Ce,u to "eo for P100 m ll o$ paya,le $ a$$ual $#tallme$t# o!er a per od of te$ year#* ,ut t tle w ll rema $ w th J chard u$t l the purcha#e pr ce # fully pa d. @o e$a,le "eo to pay the pr ce* J chard ga!e h m a power>of>attor$ey author : $g h m to #u,d ! de the la$d* #ell the $d ! dual lot#* a$d del !er the proceed# to J chard* to ,e appl ed to the purcha#e pr ce. F !e year# later*
J chard re!o9ed the power of attor$ey a$d too9 o!er the

defe$#e of force ma8eure # $ot te$a,le # $ce the #hoot $g


$c de$t would $ot ha!e happe$ed had the a rl $e ta9e$

#tep# that could ha!e pre!e$ted the h 8ac9er from ,oard $g the pla$e.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

L$der &rt cle 1763 of the C ! l Code* the commo$ carr er #


$ot re?u red to o,#er!e e-traord $ary d l ge$ce $

pre!e$t $g $8ury to t# pa##e$ger# o$ accou$t of the w llful act# or $egl ge$ce of other pa##e$ger# or of #tra$ger#. @he commo$ carr er* $ that ca#e* # re?u red to e-erc #e o$ly the d l ge$ce of a good father of a fam ly3 he$ce* the fa lure of the a rl $e to ta9e 5=@J& precaut o$# $ fr #9 $g the
pa##e$ger# a$d ,y lea! $g that matter to the #ecur ty per#o$$el of the a rport* doe# $ot co$#t tute a ,reach of

#ale of the #u,d ! # o$ lot# h m#elf. +# the re!ocat o$ !al d or $ot% 2hy% 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

that duty #o a# to ma9e the a rl $e l a,le. Ne# de#* the u#e of rre# #t ,le force ,y the h 8ac9er# wa# farce ma8eure that could $ot ha!e ,ee$ pre!e$ted e!e$ ,y the o,#er!a$ce of
e-traord $ary d l ge$ce.

@he re!ocat o$ # $ot !al d. @he power of attor$ey g !e$ to the ,uyer # rre!oca,le ,ecau#e t # coupled w th a$ $tere#t( the age$cy # the mea$# of fulf ll $g the o,l gat o$ of the ,uyer to pay the pr ce of the la$d 4&rt cle 1927* CC7. +$ other word#* a , lateral co$tract 4co$tract to ,uy a$d #ell
the la$d7 # depe$de$t o$ the age$cy.

A&E'C*
2genc" ('##()

2genc"; B%arantee Commission ('##!) &# a$ age$t* &" wa# g !e$ a guara$tee comm ## o$* $ add t o$ to h # regular comm ## o$* after he #old 20 u$ t# of refr gerator# to a cu#tomer* H@ Hotel. @he cu#tomer*
howe!er* fa led to pay for the u$ t# #old. &"O# pr $c pal*

<o>&$$ a#9ed her clo#e fr e$d* & ##a* to ,uy #ome grocer e#

for her $ the #upermar9et. 2a# there a $om $ate co$tract e$tered $to ,etwee$ <o>&$$ a$d & ##a% +$ the aff rmat !e*
what wa# t% 5-pla $. 5E
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

HJN+* dema$ded from &" payme$t for the cu#tomerO# accou$ta, l ty. &" o,8ected* o$ the grou$d that h # 8o, wa# o$ly to #ell a$d $ot to collect payme$t for u$ t# ,ought ,y
the cu#tomer. +# &"O# o,8ect o$ !al d% Ca$ HJN+ collect from h m or

Be#* there wa# a $om $ate co$tract.

/$ the a##umpt o$

that & ##a accepted the re?ue#t of her clo#e fr e$d <o>&$$ to ,ut #ome grocer e# for her $ the #upermar9et* what they e$tered $to wa# a $om $ate co$tract of &ge$cy. &rt cle 1868 of the 1ew C ! l Code pro! de# that ,y the co$tract of age$cy a per#o$ , $d# h m#elf to re$der #ome #er! ce or to
do #ometh $g $ repre#e$tat o$ or o$ ,ehalf of a$other* w th the co$#e$t or author ty of the latter.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

$ot% Jea#o$. 45E7


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1o* &"G# o,8ect o$ # $ot !al d a$d HJN+ ca$ collect from &". . $ce &" accepted a guara$tee comm ## o$* $ add t o$
to h # regular comm ## o$* he agreed to ,ear the r #9 of

Be#* they e$tered $to a $om $ate co$tract of lea#e to


#er! ce $ the a,#e$ce of a relat o$ of pr $c pal a$d age$t ,etwee$ them 4&rt cle 1644* 1ew C ! l Code7. 2genc" vs. ale ('###)

collect o$ a$d to pay the pr $c pal the proceed# of the #ale o$ the #ame term# agreed upo$ w th the purcha#er 4&rt cle 1907* C ! l Code7
2genc"; 1eal Estate *ortgage ('##!)

& fore g$ ma$ufacturer of computer# a$d a Ph l pp $e


d #tr ,utor e$tered $to a co$tract where,y the d #tr ,utor

C= e-ecuted a #pec al power of attor$ey author : $g HB to #ecure a loa$ from a$y ,a$9 a$d to mortgage h # property co!ered ,y the ow$erO# cert f cate of t tle. +$ #ecur $g a loa$ from 0Na$9* HB d d $ot #pec fy that he wa# act $g for C=
$ the tra$#act o$ w th #a d ,a$9.

agreed to order 1*000 u$ t# of the ma$ufacturerG# computer#


e!ery mo$th a$d to re#ell them $ the Ph l pp $e# at the

+# C= l a,le for the ,a$9 loa$% 2hy or why $ot% <u#t fy your a$#wer. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

ma$ufacturerG# #ugge#ted pr ce# plu# 10E. &ll u$#old u$ t#


at the e$d of the year #hall ,e ,ought ,ac9 ,y the

C= # l a,le for the ,a$9 loa$ ,ecau#e he author :ed the

ma$ufacturer at the #ame pr ce they were ordered. @he


ma$ufacturer #hall hold the d #tr ,utor free a$d harmle## from a$y cla m for defect# $ the u$ t#. +# the agreeme$t

mortgage o$ h # property to #ecure the loa$ co$tracted ,y


HB. +f HB later default# a$d fa l# to pay the loa$* C= #

o$e for #ale or age$cy% 45E7


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he co$tract # o$e of age$cy* $ot #ale. @he $ot o$ of #ale # $egated ,y the follow $g $d c a( 417 the pr ce # f -ed ,y the
ma$ufacturer w th the 10E mar9>up co$#t tut $g the

l a,le to pay. Howe!er* h # l a, l ty # l m ted to the e-te$t of the !alue of the #a d property. &"@5J1&@+65 &1.25J( C= # $ot per#o$ally l a,le to the ,a$9 loa$ ,ecau#e t wa#
co$tracted ,y HB $ h # per#o$al capac ty. /$ly the property of C= # l a,le. He$ce* wh le C= ha# author :ed

comm ## o$3 427 the ma$ufacturer reac?u re# the u$#old u$ t# at e-actly the #ame pr ce3 a$d 437 warra$ty for the u$ t# wa# ,or$e ,y the ma$ufacturer. @he forego $g
$d c a

the mortgage o$ h # property to #ecure the loa$ of HB* the ,a$9 ca$$ot #ue C= to collect the loa$ $ ca#e HB default# thereo$. @he ,a$9 ca$ o$ly foreclo#e the property of C=.

Page 101 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

&$d f the proceed# of the foreclo#ure are $ot #uff c e$t to pay the loa$ $ full* the ,a$9 ca$$ot ru$ after C= for the def c e$cy.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

&ll tho#e co$tract# were e-ecuted ,y N wh le & wa#

co$f $ed due to ll$e## $ the 0a9at 0ed cal Ce$ter. Jule
o$ the !al d ty a$d , $d $g effect of each of the a,o!e

2h le a# a ge$eral rule the pr $c pal # $ot l a,le for the

co$tract# upo$ & the pr $c pal. 5-pla $ your a$#wer#*


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

co$tract e$tered $to ,y h # age$t $ ca#e the age$t acted $


h # ow$ $ame w thout d #clo# $g h # pr $c pal* #uch rule

@he age$cy couched $ ge$eral term# compr #ed o$ly act# of


adm $ #trat o$ 4&rt. 1877* C ! l Code7. @he lea#e co$tract

doe# $ot apply f the co$tract $!ol!e# a th $g ,elo$g $g to the pr $c pal. +$ #uch ca#e* the pr $c pal # l a,le u$der
&rt cle 1883 of the C ! l Code. @he co$tract # deemed made o$ h # ,ehalf (Sy6:.+o v. Sy6:.+o 40 !"l. 634 [19$0]).
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

o$ the 0a$ la parcel # $ot !al d* $ot e$forcea,le a$d $ot , $d $g upo$ &. For N to lea#e the property to C* for more tha$ o$e 417 year* & mu#t pro! de N w th a #pec al power of attor$ey 4&rt. 1878. C ! l Code7. @he lea#e of the Calooca$ C ty property to H # !al d a$d , $d $g upo$ &. . $ce the lea#e # w thout a f -ed term* t # u$der#tood to ,e from mo$th to mo$th* # $ce the re$tal # paya,le mo$thly 4&rt. 1687* C ! l Code7. @he #ale of the Pue:o$ C ty parcel to 5 # $ot !al d a$d $ot
, $d $g upo$ &. N $eeded a #pec al power of attor$ey to

C= would $ot ,e l a,le for the ,a$9 loa$. C=G# property

would al#o $ot ,e l a,le o$ the mortgage. . $ce HB d d $ot #pec fy that he wa# act $g for C= $ the tra$#act o$ w th the
,a$9* HB $ effect acted $ h # ow$ $ame. +$ the ca#e of
R.ral GanE o* Go&/on v. CA, $1$ SCRA, (199$)* the .upreme

Court* u$der the #ame fact#* ruled that ' $ order to , $d the
pr $c pal ,y a mortgage o$ real property e-ecuted ,y a$

age$t* t mu#t upo$ t# face purport to ,e made* # g$ed a$d


#ealed $ the $ame of the pr $c pal* otherw #e* t w ll , $d

the age$t o$ly. +t # $ot e$ough merely that the age$t wa# $ fact author :ed to ma9e the mortgage* f he* ha# $ot acted $ the $ame of the pr $c pal. 1e ther # t ord $ar ly #uff c e$t that $ the mortgage the age$t de#cr ,e# h m#elf a# act $g ,y ! rtue of a power of attor$ey* f $ fact the age$t ha# acted $ h # ow$ $ame a$d ha# #et h # ow$ ha$d a$d #eal to the
mortgage. @here # $o pr $c ple of law ,y wh ch a per#o$

!al dly #ell the la$d 4&rt#. 1877 a$d 1878* C ! l Code7. @he #ale of the la$d at a !ery good pr ce doe# $ot cure the defect of the co$tract ar # $g from lac9 of author ty 4owers of t&e 2gent (199!)
Pr me Jealty Corporat o$ appo $ted 1e#tor the e-clu# !e

ca$ ,ecome l a,le o$ a real e#tate mortgage wh ch #he $e!er


e-ecuted $ per#o$ or ,y attor$ey $ fact'.

2ppointment of %b?2gent (1999)

age$t $ the #ale of lot# of t# $ewly de!eloped #u,d ! # o$. Pr me Jealty told 1e#tor that he could $ot collect or rece !e payme$t# from the ,uyer#. 1e#tor wa# a,le to #ell te$ lot# to <e#u# a$d to collect the dow$ payme$t# for #a d lot#. He d d $ot tur$ o!er the collect o$# to Pr me Jealty. 2ho #hall ,ear the lo## for 1e#torG# defalcat o$* Pr me Jealty or <e#u#%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

= appo $t# B a# h # age$t to #ell h # product# $ Ce,u C ty.


Ca$ B appo $t a #u,>age$t a$d f he doe#* what are the effect# of #uch appo $tme$t% 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

a7 @he ge$eral rule # that a per#o$ deal $g w th a$ age$t

Be#* the age$t may appo $t a #u,#t tute or #u,>age$t f the pr $c pal ha# $ot proh , ted h m from do $g #o* ,ut he #hall
,e re#po$# ,le for the act# of the #u,#t tute( 417 whe$ he wa# $ot g !e$ the power to appo $t o$e3

mu#t $?u re $to the author ty of that age$t. +$ the pre#e$t ca#e* f <e#u# d d $ot $?u re $to that author ty* he # l a,le for the lo## due to 1e#torG# defalcat o$ u$le## &rt cle 1900*
C ! l Code go!er$#* $ wh ch ca#e the de!eloper corporat o$

,ear# the lo##. &rt. 1900 C ! l Code pro! de#( '.o far a# th rd per#o$# are co$cer$ed* a$ act # deemed to ha!e ,ee$ performed w th $ the #cope of the age$tG# author ty* f #uch act # w th $ the term# of the power of attor$ey* a# wr tte$* e!e$ f the age$t ha# $ fact e-ceeded the l m t# of h # author ty accord $g to a$ u$der#ta$d $g ,etwee$ the pr $c pal a$d the age$t.

427 whe$ he wa# g !e$ #uch power* ,ut w thout de# g$at $g the per#o$* a$d the per#o$ appo $ted wa# $otor ou#ly $compete$t or $#ol!e$t.

Beneral 2genc" vs. pecial 2genc" (199')

& a# pr $c pal appo $ted N a# h # age$t gra$t $g h m ge$eral a$d u$l m ted ma$ageme$t o!er &G# propert e#* #tat $g that & w thhold# $o power from N a$d that the age$t may e-ecute #uch act# a# he may co$# der appropr ate. &ccord $gly* N lea#ed &G# parcel of la$d $ 0a$ la to C for
four 447 year# at P60*000.00 per year* paya,le a$$ually $ ad!a$ce.

Howe!er* $ot

f <e#u# made due

$?u ry a$d he wa#

$formed ,y the pr $c pal Pr me Jealty of the l m t# of


1e#torG# author ty. Pr me Jealty #hall ,ear the lo##.

,7 Co$# der $g that Pr me Jealty Corporat o$ o$ly 'told'


1e#tor that he could $ot rece !e or collect payme$t#* t appear# that the l m tat o$ doe# $ot appear $ h # wr tte$

N lea#ed a$other parcel of la$d of & $ Calooca$ C ty to H w thout a f -ed term at P3*000.00 per mo$th paya,le
mo$thly.

author ty or power of attor$ey. +$ th # ca#e* $#ofar a# <e#u#*


who of # a th rd per#o$

# co$cer$ed* 1e#torG# act#

N #old to 5 a th rd parcel of la$d ,elo$g $g to & located $ Pue:o$ C ty for three 437 t me# the pr ce that wa# l #ted $
the $!e$tory ,y & to N.

collect $g payme$t# # deemed to ha!e ,ee$ performed w th $ the #cope of h # author ty V&rt cle 1900. C ! l Code7. He$ce* the pr $c pal # l a,le.
Howe!er* f <e#u# wa# aware of the l m tat o$ of 1e#torG#

power a# a$ age$t* a$d Pr me Jealty Corporat o$ doe# $ot

Page 102 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

rat fy the #ale co$tract* the$ <e#u# #hall ,e l a,le 4&rt cle 1898. C ! l Code7. =ermination; Effect of Deat& of 2gent (1997)

allow $g the other ge$eral part$er to , $d the corporat o$ w ll ! olate the corporat o$ law pr $c ple that o$ly the ,oard of d rector# may , $d the corporat o$. 37 1o* for the #ame rea#o$# g !e$ $ the &$#wer to 1um,er 2 a,o!e.
Conve"ance of a 4artnerFs &are Dissol%tion (1993) H elle* Rarlo a$d L$a are ge$eral part$er# $ a mercha$d # $g f rm. Ha! $g co$tr ,uted e?ual amou$t# to
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

.tat $g ,r efly the the# # to #upport your a$#wer to each of the follow $g ca#e#* w ll the death > 4c7 of a$ age$t e$d a$ age$cy%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Be#. @he death of a$ age$t e-t $gu #he# the age$cy* ,y


e-pre## pro! # o$ of par. 3* &rt 1919 of the C ! l Code.

the cap tal* they al#o agree o$ e?ual d #tr ,ut o$ of whate!er

PA"$'E"(.IP
Composition of 4artners&ips; po%ses; Corporations

$et prof t # real :ed per f #cal per od. &fter two year# of

(199!) 17 Ca$ a hu#,a$d a$d w fe form a l m ted part$er#h p to


e$gage $ real e#tate ,u# $e##* w th the w fe ,e $g a l m ted part$er% 27 Ca$ two corporat o$# orga$ :e a ge$eral part$er#h p u$der the C ! l Code of the Ph l pp $e#% 37 Ca$ a corporat o$ a$d a$ $d ! dual form a ge$eral

operat o$* howe!er* L$a co$!ey# her whole $tere#t $ the part$er#h p to <u#t $e* w thout the 9$owledge a$d co$#e$t of H elle a$d Rarlo. 1. +# the part$er#h p d ##ol!ed% 12EA 2. 2hat are the r ght# of <u#t $e* f a$y* #hould #he de# re to part c pate $ the ma$ageme$t of the part$er#h p a$d $
the d #tr ,ut o$ of a $et prof t of P360.000.00 wh ch wa#

real :ed after her purcha#e of L$aG# $tere#t% ;3EA


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

part$er#h p%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1. 1o* a co$!eya$ce ,y a part$er of h # whole $tere#t $ a part$er#h p doe# $ot of t#elf d ##ol!e the part$er#h p $
the a,#e$ce of a$ agreeme$t. 4&rt. 1813. C ! l Code7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

17 a7 Be#. @he C ! l Code proh , t# a hu#,a$d a$d w fe from co$#t tut $g a u$ !er#al part$er#h p. . $ce a l m ted part$er#h p # $ot a u$ !er#al part$er#h p* a hu#,a$d a$d w fe may !al dly form o$e. ,7 Be#. 2h le #pou#e# ca$$ot e$ter $to a u$ !er#al

<u#t $e ca$$ot $terfere r part c pate $ the ma$ageme$t or adm $ #trat o$ of the part$er#h p ,u# $e##

2.

part$er#h p* they ca$ e$ter $to a l m ted part$er#h p or ,e


mem,er# thereof 4C+J u. .uter* etal. 27 .CJ& 1527.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

or affa r#. .he may* howe!er* rece !e the $et prof t# to wh ch L$a would ha!e otherw #e ,ee$ e$t tled. +$ th # ca#e* P120.000 4&rt. 1813* C ! l Code7 Dissol%tion of 4artners&ip (1999) Paul $e* Patr c a a$d Pr #c lla formed a ,u# $e## part$er#h p for the purpo#e of e$gag $g $ $eo$ ad!ert # $g for a term of f !e 457 year#. Paul $e #u,#e?ue$tly a## g$ed to Ph l p her $tere#t $ the part$er#h p. 2he$ Patr c a a$d Pr #c lla lear$ed of the a## g$me$t* they dec ded to d ##ol!e the part$er#h p ,efore the e-p rat o$ of t# term a# they had a$
u$product !e ,u# $e## relat o$#h p w th Ph l p $ the pa#t. /$ the other ha$d* u$aware of the mo!e of Patr c a a$d

27

a7

1o* & corporat o$ # ma$aged ,y t# ,oard of +f the corporat o$ were to ,ecome a part$er*

d rector#.

co>part$er# would ha!e the power to ma9e the corporat o$


party to tra$#act o$# $ a$ rregular ma$$er # $ce the

part$er# are $ot age$t# #u,8ect to the co$trol of the Noard of H rector#. Nut a corporat o$ may e$ter $to a 8o $t
!e$ture w th a$other corporat o$ a# lo$g a# the $ature of the !e$ture # $ l $e w th the ,u# $e## author :ed ,y t# charter. (T.ason O Co., In+. v. Golano, 97 !"l. 106).

,7 &# a ge$eral rule a corporat o$ may $ot form a ge$eral


part$er#h p w th a$other corporat o$ or a$ $d ! dual ,ecau#e a corporat o$ may $ot ,e ,ou$d ,y per#o$# who

Pr #c lla ,ut #e$# $g the r $egat !e react o$ to h # ac?u # t o$ of Paul $eG# $tere#t* Ph l p # multa$eou#ly pet t o$ed for the d ##olut o$ of the part$er#h p.
1. +# the d ##olut o$ do$e ,y Patr c a a$d Pr #c lla w thout

are $e ther d rector# $or off cer# of the corporat o$.

the co$#e$t of Paul $e or Ph l p !al d% 5-pla $.

Howe!er* a corporat o$ may form a ge$eral part$er#h p w th a$other corporat o$ or a$ $d ! dual pro! ded the
follow $g co$d t o$# are met( 17 @he &rt cle# of +$corporat o$ of the corporat o$ e-pre##ly allow# the corporat o$ to e$ter $to

2. Hoe# Ph l p ha!e a$y r ght to pet t o$ for the d ##olut o$ of the part$er#h p ,efore the e-p rat o$ of t# #pec f ed term% 5-pla $. 1* L$der &rt. 1830 417 4c7 of the 1CC* the d ##olut o$ ,y Patr c a a$d Pr #c lla # !al d a$d d d $ot ! olate the co$tract of part$er#h p e!e$ though Paul $e a$d Ph l p d d $ot
co$#e$t thereto. @he co$#e$t of Paul $e # $ot $ece##ary
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

part$er#h p#3
27 @he &rt cle# of Part$er#h p mu#t pro! de that all

part$er# w ll ma$age the part$er#h p* a$d they


37

,ecau#e #he had already a## g$ed her $tere#t to Ph l p. @he


co$#e$t of Ph l p # $ot al#o $ece##ary ,ecau#e the

#hall ,e 8o $tly a$d #e!erally l a,le3 a$d +$ ca#e of a fore g$ corporat o$* t mu#t ,e l ce$#ed to do ,u# $e## $ the Ph l pp $e#.

a## g$me$t to h m of Paul $eG# $tere#t d d $ot ma9e h m a


part$er* u$der &rt* 1813 of the 1CC.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

c7 1o. & corporat o$ may $ot ,e a ge$eral part$er ,ecau#e


the pr $c ple of mutual age$cy $ ge$eral part$er#h p

+$terpret $g &rt. 1830 417 4c7 to mea$ that f o$e of the

part$er#

had a## g$ed h # $tere#t o$ the part$er#h p to

Page 103 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

a$other the rema $ $g part$er# may $ot d ##ol!e the

& #hould ,e h red a# .ecretary. @he dec # o$ for the h r $g


of & pre!a l# ,ecau#e t # a$ act of adm $ #trat o$ wh ch

part$er#h p* the d ##olut o$ ,y Patr c a a$d Pr #c lla w thout


the co$#e$t of Paul $e or Ph l p # $ot !al d.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

ca$ ,e performed ,y the duly appo $ted ma$ag $g part$er#* 2 a$d =. N ca$$ot ,e h red* ,ecau#e $ ca#e of a t e $ the dec # o$ of the ma$ag $g part$er#* the deadloc9 mu#t ,e dec ded ,y the
part$er# ow$ $g the co$troll $g $tere#t. +$ th # ca#e* the oppo# t o$ of = a$d B pre!a l# ,ecau#e B ow$# the

2.

1o* Ph l p ha# $o r ght to pet t o$ for d ##olut o$

,ecau#e he doe# $ot ha!e the #ta$d $g of a part$er 4&rt. 1813 1CC7. Dissol%tion of 4artners&ip; =ermination (199()

&* N a$d C formed a part$er#h p for the purpo#e of


co$tract $g w th the )o!er$me$t $ the co$#truct o$ of o$e of t# ,r dge#. /$ <u$e 30* 1992* after complet o$ of the pro8ect* the ,r dge wa# tur$ed o!er ,y the part$er# to the )o!er$me$t. /$ &ugu#t 30* 1992* H* a #uppl er of mater al# u#ed $ the pro8ect #ued & for collect o$ of the $de,ted$e## to h m. & mo!ed to d #m ## the compla $t

co$troll $g +$tere#t 4&rt. 1801* C ! l Code7.


Obligations of a 4artner; )n0%strial 4artner ('##1)

<oe a$d Judy formed a part$er#h p to operate a car repa r #hop $ Pue:o$ C ty. <oe pro! ded the cap tal wh le Judy
co$tr ,uted h # la,or a$d $du#try. /$ o$e # de of the r

#hop* <oe ope$ed a$d operated a coffee #hop* wh le o$ the


other # de* Judy put up a car acce##or e# #tore. 0ay they

aga $#t h m o$ the grou$d that t wa# the &NC part$er#h p that # l a,le for the de,t. H repl ed that &NC part$er#h p
wa# d ##ol!ed upo$ complet o$ of the pro8ect for wh ch purpo#e the part$er#h p wa# formed. 2 ll you d #m ## the compla $t aga $#t & +f you were the <udge%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

e$gage $ #uch #eparate ,u# $e##e#% 2hy% ;5EA


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

<oe* the cap tal #t part$er* may e$gage $ the re#taura$t


,u# $e## ,ecau#e t # $ot the #ame 9 $d of ,u# $e## the

part$er#h p # e$gaged $. /$ the other ha$d* Judy may $ot


e$gage $ a$y other ,u# $e## u$le## the r part$er#h p

&# <udge* + would $ot d #m ## the compla $t aga $#t &.

,ecau#e & # #t ll l a,le a# a ge$eral part$er for h # pro rata #hare of 1S3 4&rt. 1816* C. C.<. H ##olut o$ of a part$er#h p cau#ed ,y the term $at o$ of the part cular u$derta9 $g #pec f ed $ the agreeme$t doe# $ot e-t $gu #h o,l gat o$#*
wh ch mu#t ,e l ?u dated dur $g the 'w $d $g up' of the part$er#h p affa r# 4&rt cle# 1829 a$d 1830. par. 1>a* C ! l

e-pre##ly perm t# h m to do #o ,ecau#e a# a$ $du#tr al part$er he ha# to de!ote h # full t me to the ,u# $e## of the part$er#h p ;&rt. 1789* CC7.

Co66odatu6 , )utuu6
Commo0at%m (199() &* upo$ re?ue#t* loa$ed h # pa##e$ger <eep$ey to N to e$a,le N to ,r $g h # # c9 w fe from Pa$ ?u . @arlac to the Ph l pp $e )e$eral Ho#p tal $ 0a$ la for treatme$t. /$ the
way ,ac9 to Pa$ ?u * after lea! $g h # w fe at the ho#p tal*

Code7.
Effect of Deat& of 4artner (1997)

.tat $g ,r efly the the# # to #upport your a$#wer to each of the follow $g ca#e#* w ll the death > of a part$er term $ate
the part$er#h p%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Be#. @he death of a part$er w ll term $ate the part$er#h p*


,y e-pre## pro! # o$ of par. 5* &rt. 1830 of the C ! l Code. Obligations of a 4artner (199')

2* =* B a$d I orga$ :ed a ge$eral part$er#h p w th 2 a$d = a# $du#tr al part$er# a$d B a$d I a# cap tal #t part$er#. B
co$tr ,uted P50*000.00 a$d I co$tr ,uted P20*000.00 to

the commo$ fu$d. Ny a u$a$ mou# !ote of the part$er#* 2 a$d = were appo $ted ma$ag $g part$er#* w thout a$y #pec f cat o$ of the r re#pect !e power# a$d dut e#. & appl ed for the po# t o$ of .ecretary a$d N appl ed for the
po# t o$ of &ccou$ta$t of the part$er#h p.

people #topped the pa##e$ger <eep$ey. N #topped for them a$d allowed them to r de o$ ,oard* accept $g payme$t from them 8u#t a# $ the ca#e of ord $ary pa##e$ger <eep$ey# ply $g the r route. &# N wa# cro## $g Nam,a$* there wa# a$ o$ru#h of "ahar from 0t P $atu,o* the <eep that wa# loa$ed to h m wa# wrec9ed. 17 2hat do you call the co$tract that wa# e$tered $to ,y & a$d N w th re#pect to the pa##e$ger <eep$ey that wa# loa$ed ,y & to N to tra$#port the latterG# # c9 w fe to 0a$ la%
27 +# N o,l ged to pay & for the u#e of the pa##e$ger

8eep$ey% 37 +# N l a,le to & for the lo## of the <eep$ey%


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

17 @he co$tract # called 'commodatum'. ;&rt. 1933. C!l

Code7. C/00/H&@L0 # a co$tract ,y wh ch o$e of the


@he h r $g of & wa# dec ded upo$ ,y 2 a$d =* ,ut wa#

part e# 4,a lor7 del !er# to a$other 4,a lee7 #ometh $g $ot

oppo#ed ,y B a$d I. @he h r $g of N wa# dec ded upo$ ,y 2 a$d I* ,ut wa# oppo#ed ,y = a$d B.

co$#uma,le #o that the latter may u#e t for a certa $ t me a$d retur$ t. 27

2ho of the appl ca$t# #hould ,e h red ,y the part$er#h p%


5-pla $ a$d g !e your rea#o$#.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1o* N # $ot o,l ged to pay & for the u#e of the pa##e$ger <eep$ey ,ecau#e commodatum # e##e$t ally gratu tou#. 4&rt. 1933. C ! l CodeA

37 Be#* ,ecau#e N de!oted the th $g to a purpo#e d ffere$t


from that for wh ch t ha# ,ee$ loa$ed 4&rt. 1942* par. 2* C ! l Code7

Page 104 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)


AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

1o* ,ecau#e a$ o,l gat o$ wh ch co$# #t# $ the del !ery of a determ $ate th $g #hall ,e e-t $gu #hed f t #hould ,e lo#t or de#troyed w thout the fault of the de,tor* a$d ,efore he ha# $curred $ delay. 4&rt. 1262. C ! l Code7 Commo0at%m ('##9)
Nefore he left for J yadh to wor9 a# a mecha$ c* Pedro left h # &d!e$ture !a$ w th @ to* w th the u$der#ta$d $g that the latter could u#e t for o$e year for h # per#o$al or fam ly u#e wh le Pedro wor9# $ J yadh. He d d $ot tell @ to that the ,ra9e# of the !a$ were faulty. @ to had the !a$ tu$ed up a$d the ,ra9e# repa red. He #pe$t a total amou$t of P15*000.00. &fter u# $g the !eh cle for two wee9#* @ to d #co!ered that t co$#umed too much fuel. @o ma9e up for the e-pe$#e#* he lea#ed t to &$$a,elle.

ot!er &ater"als 9!"le "t 9as 9"t! T"to1 23'la"n. ($4)


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@wo mo$th# later* Pedro retur$ed to the Ph l pp $e# a$d a#9ed @ to to retur$ the !a$. L$fortu$ately* wh le ,e $g dr !e$ ,y @ to* the !a$ wa# acc de$tally damaged ,y a cargo truc9 w thout h # fault. a) )!o s!all /ear t!e 17,000.00 s'ent *or t!e re'a"r o* t!e van1 23'la"n. ($4)
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

@ to mu#t ,ear the P15*000.00 e-pe$#e# for the !a$. )e$erally* e-traord $ary e-pe$#e# for the pre#er!at o$ of the th $g loa$ed are pa d ,y the ,a lor* he ,e $g the ow$er of the th $g loa$ed. +$ th # ca#e howe!er* @ to #hould ,ear the e-pe$#e# ,ecau#e he $curred the e-pe$#e# w thout f r#t $form $g Pedro a,out t. 1e ther wa# the repa r #how$ to ,e urge$t. L$der &rt cle 1949 of the C ! l Code* ,a lor ge$erally ,ear# the e-traord $ary e-pe$#e# for the pre#er!at o$ of the th $g a$d #hould refu$d the #a d e-pe$#e# f made ,y the ,a lee3 Pro! ded* @he ,a lee ,r $g# the #ame to the atte$t o$ of the ,a lor ,efore $curr $g them* e-cept o$ly f the repa r # urge$t that reply ca$$ot ,e awa ted.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

@he P15*000.00 #pe$t for the repa r of the !a$ #hould ,e ,or$e ,y Pedro. 2here the ,a lor del !er# to the ,a lee a $o$>co$#umma,le th $g #o that the latter may u#e t for a certa $ t me a$d retur$ the de$t cal th $g* the co$tract perfected # a Co$tract of Commodatum. 4&rt. 1933* C ! l Code7 @he ,a lor #hall refu$d the e-traord $ary e-pe$#e# dur $g the co$tract for the pre#er!at o$ of the th $g loa$ed pro! ded the ,a lee ,r $g# the #ame to the 9$owledge of the ,a lor ,efore $curr $g the #ame* e-cept whe$ they are #o urge$t that the reply to the $ot f cat o$ ca$$ot ,e awa ted w thout da$ger. 4&rt. 1949 of the C ! l Code7 +$ the g !e$ pro,lem* Pedro left h # &d!e$ture !a$ w th @ to #o that the latter could u#e t for o$e year wh le he wa# $ J yadh. @here wa# $o me$t o$ of a co$# derat o$. @hu#* the co$tract perfected wa# commodatum. @he amou$t of P15*000.00 wa# #pe$t ,y @ to to tu$e up the !a$ a$d to repa r t# ,ra9e#. .uch e-pe$#e# are e-tra> ord $ary e-pe$#e# ,ecau#e they are $ece##ary for the pre#er!at o$ of the !a$ @hu#* the #ame #hould ,e ,or$e ,y the ,a lor* Pedro.

/)

)!o s!all /ear t!e +osts *or t!e vanDs *.el, o"l an%

@ to mu#t al#o pay for the ord $ary e-pe$#e# for the u#e a$d pre#er!at o$ of the th $g loa$ed. He mu#t pay for the ga#ol $e* o l* grea# $g a$d #pray $g. He ca$$ot a#9 for re m,ur#eme$t ,ecau#e he ha# the o,l gat o$ to retur$ the de$t cal th $g to the ,a lor. L$der &rt cle 1941 of the C ! l Code* the ,a lee # o,l ged to pay for the ord $ary e-pe$#e# for the u#e a$d pre#er!at o$ of the th $g loa$ed. +) Foes e%ro !ave t!e r",!t to retr"eve t!e van even /e*ore t!e la'se o* one year1 23'la"n. ($4)
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

1o* Pedro doe# $ot ha!e the r ght to retr e!e the !a$ ,efore the lap#e of o$e year. @he part e# are mutually ,ou$d ,y the term# of the co$tract. L$der the C ! l Code* there are o$ly 3 $#ta$ce# whe$ the ,a lor could !al dly a#9 for the retur$ of the th $g loa$ed e!e$ ,efore the e-p rat o$ of the per od. @he#e are whe$( 417 a precar um co$tract wa# e$tered 4&rt cle 194773 427 f the ,a lor urge$tly $eed# the th $g 4&rt cle 194673 a$d 437 f the ,a lee comm t# act# of $grat tude 4&rt cle 19487. 1ot o$e of the # tuat o$# # pre#e$t $ th # ca#e. @he fact that @ to had lea#ed the th $g loa$ed to &$$a,elle would $ot 8u#t fy the dema$d for the retur$ of the th $g loa$ed ,efore e-p rat o$ of the per od. L$der &rt cle 1942 of the C ! l Code* lea# $g of the th $g loa$ed to a th rd per#o$ $ot mem,er of the hou#ehold of the ,a lee* w ll o$ly e$t tle ,a lor to hold ,a lee l a,le for the lo## of the th $g loa$ed.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

&# a rule* Pedro doe# $ot ha!e the r ght to retr e!e the !a$ ,efore the lap#e of o$e year. &rt cle 1946 of the Code pro! de# that 'the ,a lor ca$$ot dema$d the retur$ of the th $g loa$ed t ll after the e-p rat o$ of the per od #t pulated* or after the accompl #hme$t of the u#e for wh ch the commodatum ha# ,ee$ co$#t tuted. Howe!er* f $ the mea$t me* he #hould ha!e urge$t $eed of the th $g* he may dema$d t# retur$ or temporary u#e.' +$ the g !e$ pro,lem* Pedro allowed @ to to u#e the !a$ for o$e year. @hu#* he #hould ,e ,ou$d ,y the #a d agreeme$t a$d he ca$$ot a#9 for the retur$ of the car ,efore the e-p rat o$ of the o$e year per od. Howe!er* f Pedro ha# urge$t $eed of the !a$* he may dema$d for t# retur$ or temporary u#e. %) )!o s!all /ear t!e e3'enses *or t!e a++"%ental %a&a,e +a.se% /y t!e +ar,o tr.+E, ,rant"n, t!at t!e tr.+E %r"ver an% tr.+E o9ner are "nsolvent1 23'la"n. ($4)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

)e$erally* e-traord $ary e-pe$#e# ar # $g o$ the occa# o$ of the actual u#e of the th $g loa$ed ,y the ,a lee* e!e$ f $curred w thout fault of the ,a lee* #hall ,e #houldered e?ually ,y the ,a lor a$d the ,a lee. 4&rt. 1949 of the C ! l Code7. Howe!er* f Pedro had a$ urge$t $eed for the !eh cle* @ to would ,e $ delay for fa lure to mmed ately retur$ the #ame* the$ @ to would ,e held l a,le for the e-traord $ary e-pe$#e#. Commo0at%m vs. /s%fr%ct (1993)

Page 105 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

H #t $gu #h u#ufruct from commodatum a$d #tate whether


the#e may ,e co$#t tuted o!er co$#uma,le good#. ;2EA
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1. L.LFJLC@ # a r ght g !e$ to a per#o$ 4u#ufructuary7 to


e$8oy the property of a$other w th the o,l gat o$ of pre#er! $g t# form a$d #u,#ta$ce. 4&rt. 562. C ! l Code7

*%t%%m; )nterests ('##1) .amuel ,orrowed P300*000.00 hou# $g loa$ from the ,a$9 at 18E per a$$um $tere#t. Howe!er* the prom ##ory $ote
co$ta $ed a pro! #o that the ,a$9 're#er!e# the r ght to

$crea#e $tere#t w th $ the l m t# allowed ,y law*' Ny ! rtue


of #uch pro! #o* o!er the o,8ect o$# of .amuel* the ,a$9

/$ the other ha$d* C/00/H&@L0 # a co$tract ,y wh ch o$e of the part e# 4,a lor7 del !er# to a$other 4,a lee7 #ometh $g $ot co$#uma,le #o that the latter may u#e t for a
certa $ t me a$d retur$ t.

$crea#ed the $tere#t rate per od cally u$t l t reached 48E per a$$um. F $ally* .amuel f led a$ act o$ ?ue#t o$ $g the
r ght of the ,a$9 to $crea#e the $tere#t rate up to 48E. @he ,a$9 ra #ed the defe$#e that the Ce$tral Na$9 of the

+$ u#ufruct the u#ufructuary get# the r ght to the u#e a$d to


the fru t# of the #ame* wh le $ commodatum* the ,a lee o$ly ac?u re# the u#e of the th $g loa$ed ,ut $ot t# fru t#.

Ph l pp $e# had already #u#pe$ded the L#ury "aw. 2 ll the act o$ pro#per or $ot% 2hy% 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he act o$ w ll pro#per. 2h le t # true that the $tere#t

L#ufruct may ,e co$#t tuted o$ the whole or a part of the


fru t# of the th $g. 4&rt. 564. C ! l Code7. +t may e!e$ ,e

ce l $g# #et ,y the L#ury "aw are $o lo$ger $ force* t ha# ,ee$ held that PH 1o. 1684 a$d CN C rcular 1o. 905
merely allow co$tract $g part e# to #t pulate freely o$ a$y

co$#t tuted o!er co$#uma,le# l 9e mo$ey (Al.nan v. #eloso,


$ commodatum* co$#uma,le good# may ,e #u,8ect thereof o$ly whe$ the
7$ !"l. 747). /$ the other ha$d*

ad8u#tme$t $ the $tere#t rate o$ a loa$ or for,eara$ce of


mo$ey ,ut do $ot author :e a u$ lateral $crea#e of the

purpo#e of the co$tract # $ot the co$#umpt o$ of the o,8ect* a# whe$ t # merely for e-h , t o$. 4&rt. 1936* C ! l
Code7
A'!$.E" A'(WE":

$tere#t rate ,y o$e party w thout the otherG# co$#e$t ( 0G v. CA, $38 SCRA $< [1994]]). @o #ay otherw #e w ll ! olate the pr $c ple of mutual ty of co$tract# u$der &rt cle 1308 of the C ! l Code. @o ,e !al d* therefore* a$y cha$ge of $tere#t mu#t ,e mutually agreed upo$ ,y the part e# (F"@on
v,
Ma,saysay, 7( SCRA $7< [19(4]). +$ the pre#e$t pro,lem*

1. @here are #e!eral po $t# of d #t $ct o$ ,etwee$ u#ufruct a$d commodatum. L#ufruct # co$#t tuted ,y law* ,y co$tract* ,y te#tame$tary #ucce## o$* or ,y pre#cr pt o$ 4&rt. 1933. C ! l Code7. L#ufruct create# a real r ght to the fru t# of a$otherG# property* wh le commodatum create# o$ly a purely per#o$al r ght to u#e a$otherG# property* a$d re?u re# a #t pulat o$ to e$a,le the ,a lee to 'ma9e u#e' of the fru t# 4&rt#. 1939X 1940* C ! l Code7. L#ufruct may,e o$erou# wh le commodatum # alway# or e##e$t ally
@he co$tract gratu tou# 4&rt#. 1933 X 1935* C ! l Code7.

the de,tor $ot ha! $g g !e$ h # co$#e$t to the $crea#e $ $tere#t* the $crea#e # !o d. *%t%%m; )nterests ('##') Carlo# #ue# H $o for 4a7 collect o$ o$ a prom ##ory $ote for a loa$* w th $o agreeme$t o$ $tere#t* o$ wh ch H $o defaulted* a$d 4,7 damage# cau#ed ,y H $o o$ h # 4Carlo#O7 pr cele## 0 chaela$gelo pa $t $g o$ wh ch H $o # l a,le o$ the prom ##ory $ote a$d award# damage# to Carlo# for the damaged pa $t $g* w th $tere#t# for ,oth award#. 2hat rate# of $tere#t may the court mpo#e w th re#pect to ,oth award#% 5-pla $. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

co$#t tut $g u#ufruct # co$#e$#ual* wh le commodatum # a real co$tract 4perfected o$ly ,y del !ery of the #u,8ect matter thereof7. Howe!er* ,oth $!ol!e the e$8oyme$t ,y a per#o$ of the property of a$other* d ffer $g o$ly a# to the e-te$t a$d #cope of #uch e$8oyme$t ;8u# frue$d $ o$e a$d
<u# ute$d e ther a$ $ the other73 ,oth may ha!e a# #u,8ect matter mmo!a,le or a mo!a,le3 a$d* ,oth may,e

2 th re#pect to the collect o$ of mo$ey or prom ##ory $ote* t ,e $g a for,eara$ce of mo$ey* the legal rate of $tere#t for
ha! $g defaulted o$ the payme$t of 12E w ll apply. 2 th re#pect to the damage# to the pa $t $g* t # 6E from the

co$#t tuted o!er co$#uma,le good# 4&rt#. 574 X 1936* C ! l Code7.

t me of the f $al dema$d up to the t me of f $al ty of

& co$#uma,le th $g may ,e the #u,8ect>matter of a$ a,$ormal u#ufruct ,ut $ a $ormal u#ufruct* the #u,8ect>

8udgme$t u$t l 8udgme$t cred t # fully pa d. @he court


co$# der# the latter a# a for,eara$ce of mo$ey. (2astern
S!"''"n, 5"nes, In+. v. CA, $34 SCRA (8 [1994]C Art $$10 an% $$11, CC)

matter may ,e u#ed o$ly for e-h , t o$. & commodatum of


a co$#uma,le th $g may ,e o$ly for the purpo#e of e-h , t $g* $ot co$#um $g t. *%t%%m vs. Commo0at%m ('##!)

H #t $gu #h ,r efly ,ut clearly ,etwee$ 0utuum a$d


commodatum.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

*%t%%m; )nterests ('##!) @he part e# $ a co$tract of loa$ of mo$ey agreed that the yearly $tere#t rate # 12E a$d t ca$ ,e $crea#ed f there #
a law that would author :e the $crea#e of $tere#t rate#.

.uppo#e /N* the le$der* would $crea#e ,y 5E the rate of


$tere#t to ,e pa d ,y @B* the ,orrower* w thout a law author : $g #uch $crea#e* would /NO# act o$ ,e 8u#t a$d

+$ 0L@LL0* the o,8ect ,orrowed mu#t ,e a co$#uma,le th $g the ow$er#h p of wh ch # tra$#ferred to the ,orrower who $cur# the o,l gat o$ to retur$ the #ame co$#uma,le to
the le$der $ a$ e?ual amou$t* a$d of the #ame 9 $d a$d ?ual ty. +$ C/00/H&@L0* the o,8ect ,orrowed #

!al d% 2hy% Ha# @B a remedy aga $#t the mpo# t o$ of the rate $crea#e% 5-pla $. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

u#ually a $o$>co$#uma,le th $g the ow$er#h p of wh ch # $ot tra$#ferred to the ,orrower who $cur# the o,l gat o$ to retur$ the !ery th $g to the le$der.

/NG# act o$ # $ot 8u#t a$d !al d. @he de,tor ca$$ot ,e

re?u red to pay the $crea#e $ $tere#t there ,e $g $o law


author : $g t* a# #t pulated $ the co$tract. +$crea# $g the

Page 106 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 19902006) rate $ the a,#e$ce of #uch law ! olate# the pr $c ple of

mutual ty of co$tract#.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

5!e$ f there wa# a law author : $g the $crea#e $ $tere#t


rate* the #t pulat o$ # #t ll !o d ,ecau#e there # $o

@o whom #hould a del !er the ,ag of mo$ey% Hec de w th rea#o$#.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

corre#po$d $g #t pulat o$ to decrea#e the $tere#t due whe$


the law reduce# the rate of $tere#t.

#EP!(I$
Compensation; ;an+ Loan (1997)

N would ha!e $o r ght to cla m the mo$ey. &rt cle 1990 of the C ! l Code # $ot appl ca,le. @he law refer# to a$other th $g rece !ed $ #u,#t tut o$ of the o,8ect depo# ted a$d # pred cated upo$ #ometh $g e-cha$ged. @he 0ayor of 0a$ la ca$$ot $!o9e. &rt cle 719 of the C!l Code wh ch re?u re# the f $der to depo# t the th $g w th the
0ayor o$ly whe$ the pre! ou# po##e##or # u$9$ow$.

+$ order to #ecure a ,a$9 loa$* =BI Corporat o$ #urre$dered t# depo# t cert f cate* w th a matur ty date of 01 .eptem,er 1997 to the ,a$9. @he corporat o$ defaulted o$ the due repayme$t of the loa$* prompt $g the ,a$9 to e$ca#h the depo# t cert f cate. =BI Corporat o$ ?ue#t o$ed the a,o!e act o$ ta9e$ ,y the ,a$9 a# ,e $g a ca#e of
pactum comm ##or um. @he ,a$9 d #agree#. 2hat # your op $ o$%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

+$ th # ca#e * a mu#t retur$ the ,ag of mo$ey to the ,a$9 a#


the pre! ou# po##e##or a$d 9$ow$ ow$er 4&rt#. 719 a$d

1990. C ! l Code.7

(+"E$*
1ecover" of Deficienc" (1997) &N #old to CH a motor !eh cle for a$d $ co$# derat o$ of P120*000.00 to ,e pa d $ twel!e mo$thly e?ual $#tallme$t#
of P10*000*00* each $#tallme$t ,e $g due a$d paya,le o$

2e #u,m t that there # $o pactum comm ##or um here.

Hepo# t# of mo$ey $ ,a$9# a$d # m lar $#t tut o$# are go!er$ed ,y the pro! # o$# o$ # mple loa$# 4&rt. 1980. C ! l Code7. @he relat o$#h p ,etwee$ the depo# tor a$d a ,a$9 #
o$e of cred tor a$d de,tor. Na# cally th # # a matter of

the 15th day of each mo$th #tart $g <a$uary 1997.


@o #ecure the prom ##ory $ote* CH 4a7 e-ecuted a chattel

compe$#at o$ a# all the eleme$t# of compe$#at o$ are pre#e$t $ th # ca#e (G I vs. CA, $3$ SCRA 30$).
A##I$I!'AL A'(WE":

mortgage o$ the #u,8ect motor !eh cle* a$d 4,7 fur$ #hed a
#urety ,o$d ##ued ,y Ph lam l fe* CH fa led to pay more

2here the #ecur ty for the de,t # al#o mo$ey depo# ted $ a
,a$9* t # $ot llegal for the cred tor to e$ca#h the t me depo# t cert f cate# to pay the de,torG# o!erdue o,l gat o$.
(C!. .s. CA, et al., ;.R (8719, Se'te&/er $6, 1989).

tha$ two 427 $#tallme$t#* &N we$t after the #urety ,ut he wa# o$ly a,le to o,ta $ three>fourth# 43S47 of the total amou$t #t ll due a$d ow $g from CH. &N #ee9# your ad! ce
o$ how he m ght* f at all* reco!er the def c e$cy.

Deposit; E<c&ange (199') = a$d B #taged a dar $g ,a$9 ro,,ery $ 0a$ la at 10(30

How would you cou$#el &N%


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&0 $ the mor$ $g of a regular ,u# $e## day* a$d e#caped


w th the r loot of two 427 ,ag#* each ,ag co$ta $ $g

P50*000*00. Hur $g the r fl ght to elude the pol ce* = a$d B e$tered the $ear,y loc9ed hou#e of &* the$ wor9 $g $ h # Pue:o$ C ty off ce. From &G# hou#e* = a$d B #tole a ,o- co$ta $ $g ca#h total $g P50*000.00 wh ch ,o- & had ,ee$ 9eep $g $
depo# t for h # fr e$d N.

Be#* he ca$ reco!er the def c e$cy. @he act o$ of &N to go after the #urety ,o$d ca$$ot ,e ta9e$ to mea$ a wa !er of h # r ght to dema$d payme$t for the whole de,t* @he amou$t rece !ed from the #urety # o$ly payme$t pro ta$to* a$d a$ act o$ may ,e ma $ta $ed for a def c e$cy de,t.

A'$IC."E(I(
2ntic&resis (1999) /l ! a ow$# a !a#t ma$go pla$tat o$ wh ch #he ca$ $o lo$ger properly ma$age due to a l $ger $g ll$e##. . $ce #he # $de,ted to Peter $ the amou$t of P500.000.00 #he a#9# Peter to ma$age the pla$tat o$ a$d apply the har!e#t to the
payme$t of her o,l gat o$ to h m* pr $c pal a$d $tere#t*

+$ the r hurry* = a$d B left $ &G# ,edroom o$e 417 of the


,ag# wh ch they had ta9e$ from the ,a$9.

2 th = a$d B $ow at large a$d $owhere to ,e fou$d* the ,ag co$ta $ $g P50.000.00 # $ow cla med ,y N* ,y the
0ayor of 0a$ la* a$d ,y the ,a$9.

u$t l her $de,ted$e## #hall ha!e ,ee$ fully pa d. Peter

N cla m# that the depo# tory. &* ,y force ma8eure had


o,ta $ed the ,ag of mo$ey $ place of the ,o- of mo$ey

agree#.

17 2hat 9 $d of co$tract # e$tered $to ,etwee$ /l ! a

depo# ted ,y N. @he 0ayor of 0a$ la* o$ the other ha$d* cla m# that the ,ag of mo$ey #hould ,e depo# ted w th the /ff ce of the 0ayor a# re?u red of the f $der ,y the pro! # o$# of the C ! l Code. @he ,a$9 re# #t# the cla m# of N a$d the 0ayor of 0a$ la.

a$d Peter% 5-pla $. 27 2hat #pec f c o,l gat o$# are mpo#ed ,y law o$ Peter a# a co$#e?ue$ce of the r co$tract% 37 Hoe# the law re?u re a$y #pec f c form for the !al d ty of the r co$tract% 5-pla $
47 0ay /l ! a re>ac?u re the pla$tat o$ ,efore her e$t re

$de,ted$e## #hall ha!e ,ee$ fully pa d% 5-pla $.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Page 107 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

1.

& co$tract of a$t chre# # wa# e$tered $to ,etwee$

/l ! a a$d Peter. L$der &rt cle 2132 of the 1ew C ! l Code* ,y a co$tract of a$t chre# # the cred tor ac?u re# the
r ght to rece !e the fru t# of a$ mmo!a,le of h # de,tor* w th the o,l gat o$ to apply them to the payme$t of the

payme$t of the loa$. Howe!er* the loa$ wa# $ot pa d o$ t me. & mo$th after 4 year#* may the #hare# of #toc9 pledged ,e deemed ow$ed ,y &NC or $ot% Jea#o$. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

$tere#t* a$d thereafter to the pr $c pal of h # cred t.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he #hare# of #toc9 ca$$ot ,e deemed ow$ed ,y &NC upo$

2.

Peter mu#t pay ta-e# a$d charge# upo$ the la$d a$d

default of 01/. @hey ha!e to ,e foreclo#ed. L$der &rt cle 2088 of the C ! l Code* the cred tor ca$$ot appropr ate the th $g# g !e$ ,y way of pledge. &$d e!e$ f the part e# ha!e
#t pulated that &NC ,ecome# the ow$er of the #hare# $

,ear the $ece##ary e-pe$#e# for pre#er!at o$ a$d repa r wh ch he may deduct from the fru t#. 4&rt* 2135* 1CC7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

ca#e 01/ default# o$ the loa$* #uch #t pulat o$ # !o d for ,e $g a pactum comm ##or um. 4le0ge; *ortgage; 2ntic&resis (199-) +$ the pro! $ce* a farmer couple ,orrowed mo$ey from the local mercha$t. @o guara$tee payme$t* they left the @orre$# @ tle of the r la$d w th the mercha$t* for h m to hold u$t l they pay the loa$. +# there a > a7 co$tract of pledge* ,7 co$tract of mortgage*
c7 co$tract of a$t chre# #* or d7 $o$e of the a,o!e%

3.

#pec f ed $ wr t $g* otherw #e the a$t chre# # w ll ,e !o d. 4&rt. 2134* 1CC7


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he amou$t of the pr $c pal a$d $tere#t mu#t ,e

1o. &rt. 2136 #pec f cally pro! de# that the de,tor 4. ca$$ot re>ac?u re the e$8oyme$t of the mmo!a,le w thout f r#t ha! $g totally pa d what he owe# the cred tor. Howe!er* t # pote#tat !e o$ the part of the cred tor to do #o $ order to e-empt h m from h # o,l gat o$ u$der &rt. 2135* 1CC* @he de,tor ca$$ot re>ac?u re the e$8oyme$t

5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

u$le## Peter compel# /l ! a to e$ter aga $ the e$8oyme$t of


the property.

1o$e of the a,o!e. @here # $o pledge ,ecau#e o$ly


mo!a,le property may ,e pledged 4&rt. 2094. 1CC7. +f at

all* there wa# a pledge of the paper or docume$t

PLE#&E
4le0ge (199!)

co$#t tut $g the @orre$# @ tle* a# a mo!a,le ,y t#elf* ,ut

+$ 1982* .te!e ,orrowed P400.000.00 from Ha$$y* collateral :ed ,y a pledge of #hare# of #toc9 of Co$cepc o$
Corporat o$ worth P800*000*00. +$ 1983* ,ecau#e of the

$ot of the la$d wh ch the t tle repre#e$t#. @here # $o mortgage ,ecau#e $o deed or co$tract wa#
e-ecuted $ the ma$$er re?u red ,y law for a mortgage

4&rt#. 2085 to 2092* 1CC3 2124 to 2131* 1CC7. @here # $o co$tract of a$t chre# # ,ecau#e $o r ght to the fru t# of the property wa# g !e$ to the cred tor 4&rt. 2132 1CC7.
& co$tract of # mple loa$ wa# e$tered $to w th #ecur ty

eco$om c cr # #* the !alue of the #hare# pledged fell to o$ly


P100*000.00. Ca$ Ha$$y dema$d that .te!e #urre$der the other #hare# worth P700*000.00%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

a7 1o. N lateral co$tract# ca$$ot ,e cha$ged u$ laterally. & pledge # o$ly a #u,# d ary co$tract* a$d .te!e # #t ll $de,ted to Ha$$y for the amou$t of P400*000.00 de#p te
the fall $ the !alue of the #toc9# pledged. ,7 1o. Ha$$yG# r ght a# pledgee # to #ell the pledged

arra$geme$t agreed upo$ ,y the part e# wh ch # $ot o$e of


tho#e me$t o$ed a,o!e.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

#hare# at a pu,l c #ale a$d 9eep the proceed# a# collateral for the loa$. @here # $o #how $g that the fall $ the !alue of the pledged property wa# attr ,uta,le to the pledgerG# fault or fraud. /$ the co$trary* the eco$om c cr # # wa# the culpr t. Had the pledgee ,ee$ dece !ed a# to the #u,#ta$ce or ?ual ty of the pledged #hare# of #toc9* he would ha!e had
the r ght to cla m a$other th $g $ the r place or to the mmed ate payme$t of the o,l gat o$. @h # # $ot the ca#e

@here # a co$tract of mortgage co$#t tuted o!er the la$d.


@here # $o part cular form re?u red for the !al d ty of a

mortgage of real property. +t # $ot co!ered ,y the #tatute of fraud# $ &rt. 1403* 1CC a$d e!e$ a##um $g that t # co!ered* the del !ery of the t tle to the cred tor ha# ta9e$ t out of the co!erage thereof. & co$tract of mortgage of real property # co$#e$#ual a$d # , $d $g o$ the part e# de#p te
a,#e$ce of wr t $g. Howe!er* th rd part e# are $ot ,ou$d

,ecau#e of the a,#e$ce of a wr tte$ $#trume$t e! de$c $g

here .
4le0ge ('##!)

&NC loa$ed to 01/ P40*000 for wh ch the latter pledged 400 #hare# of #toc9 $ =BI +$c. +t wa# agreed that f the pledgor fa led to pay the loa$ w th 10E yearly $tere#t w th $ four year#* the pledgee # author :ed to foreclo#e o$ the #hare# of #toc9. &# re?u red* 01/ del !ered
po##e## o$ of the #hare# to &NC w th the u$der#ta$d $g

the mortgage a$d* therefore the a,#e$ce of reg #trat o$. Nut th # doe# $ot affect the !al d ty of the mortgage ,etwee$ the part e# 4&rt. 2125* 1CC7* @he cred tor may compel the
de,tor to e-ecute the mortgage $ a pu,l c docume$t $

order to allow t# reg #trat o$ 4&rt. 1357.1CC $ relat o$ to &rt. 1358. 1CC7.

/+A(I-C!'$"AC$
Page 108 of 119

that the #hare# would ,e retur$ed to 01/

upo$ the

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

6%asi?Contracts; .egotiori%m Bestio (199')

+$ fear of repr #al# from lawle## eleme$t# ,e# eg $g h # ,ara$gay* = a,a$do$ed h # f #hpo$d* fled to 0a$ la a$d left for 5urope. .ee9 $g that the f #h $ the f #hpo$d were ready
for har!e#t* B* who # $ the ,u# $e## of ma$ag $g f #hpo$d# o$ a comm ## o$ ,a# #* too9 po##e## o$ of the property* har!e#ted the f #h a$d #old the e$t re har!e#t to I.

hou#e u$der the pr $c ple of $egot orum ge#t o. He wa# $ot l a,le a# the ,ur$ $g of the hou#e # a fortu tou# e!e$t. +# N l a,le to & for damage# u$der the forego $g c rcum#ta$ce#%
1o. N # $ot l a,le for damage#* ,ecau#e he # a ge#tor $
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@hereafter* B ,orrowed mo$ey from 2 a$d u#ed the


mo$ey to ,uy $ew #uppl e# of f #h fry a$d to prepare the f #hpo$d for the $e-t crop.

$egot orum ge#t o 4&rt. 2144* C ! l Code7 Furthermore* N # $ot l a,le to & ,ecau#e &rt cle 2147 of the C ! l Code # $ot appl ca,le. N d d $ot u$derta9e r #9y operat o$# wh ch the ow$er wa# $ot accu#tomed to em,ar9 upo$(
a7 he ha# $ot preferred h # ow$ $tere#t to that of the

a7

2hat # the <ur d cal relat o$ ,etwee$ = a$d B dur $g

=G# a,#e$ce% ,7 Lpo$ the retur$ of = to the ,ara$gay* what are the o,l gat o$# of B to = a# regard# the co$tract w th I% c7 Lpo$ =G# retur$* what are the o,l gat o$# of = a# regard# BG# co$tract w th 2%

d7

2hat legal effect# w ll re#ult f = e-pre##ly rat f e# BG#

ow$er3 ,7 he ha# $ot fa led to retur$ the property or ,u# $e## after dema$d ,y the ow$er3 a$d c7 he ha# $ot a##umed the ma$ageme$t $ ,ad fa th.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

ma$ageme$t a$d what would ,e the o,l gat o$# of = $ fa!or of B% 5-pla $ all your a$#wer#.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

He would ,e l a,le u$der &rt. 2147 417 of the C ! l Code*

,ecau#e he u#ed the property for a$ operat o$ wh ch the

4a7 @he 8ur d cal relat o$ # that of the ?ua# >co$tract of

'$egot orum ge#t o'. B

# the 'ge#tor' or 'off c ou#

operator # $ot accu#tomed to* a$d $ #o do $g* he e-po#ed the hou#e to $crea#ed r #9* $amely the operat o$ of a pe$# o$ hou#e o$ the #eco$d floor a$d #tore# o$ the f r#t
floor 6%asi?Contracts; .egotiori%m Bestio (1999)

ma$ager' a$d = # the 'ow$er' 4&rt. 2144* C ! l Code7.

4,7 B mu#t re$der a$ accou$t of h # operat o$# a$d del !er to = the pr ce he rece !ed for the #ale of the har!e#ted f #h
4&rt* 2145* C ! l Code7.

&rma$do ow$# a row of re# de$t al apartme$t# $ .a$ <ua$*

4c7 = mu#t pay the loa$ o,ta $ed ,y B from 2 ,ecau#e =


mu#t a$#wer for o,l gat o$# co$tracted w th th rd per#o$# $ the $tere#t of the ow$er 4&rt. 2150* C ! l Code7* 4d7 5-pre## rat f cat o$ ,y = pro! de# the effect# of a$

u$collected re$tal# accumulated for three 437 year#. &mparo*

0etro 0a$ la* wh ch he re$t# out to te$a$t#. /$ 1 &pr l 1991 he left for the L$ ted .tate# w thout appo $t $g a$y adm $ #trator to ma$age h # apartme$t# #uch that a $ ece of &rma$do* co$cer$ed w th the $tere#t of her

u$cle* too9 t upo$ her#elf to adm $ #ter the property. &# a


co$#e?ue$ce* #he $curred e-pe$#e# $ collect $g the re$t# a$d $ #ome $#ta$ce# e!e$ #pe$t for $ece##ary repa r# to

e-pre## age$cy a$d = # l a,le to pay the comm ## o$#


ha, tually rece !ed ,y the ge#tor a# ma$ager 4&rt. 2149* C ! l Code7. 6%asi?Contracts; .egotiori%m Bestio (199()

pre#er!e the property. 1. 2hat <ur d cal relat o$ ,etwee$ &mparo a$d &rma$do*
f a$y* ha# re#ulted from &mparoG# u$ lateral act of a##um $g the adm $ #trat o$ of &rma$doG# apartme$t#%

+$ .eptem,er* 1972* upo$ declarat o$ of mart al rule $ the Ph l pp $e#. &* together w th h # w fe a$d ch ldre$. d #appeared from h # re# de$ce alo$g &. 0a, $ .treet.
5rm ta* 0a$ la. N* h # mmed ate $e gh,or* $ot c $g that my#ter ou# d #appeara$ce of & a$d h # fam ly* clo#ed the door# a$d w $dow# of h # hou#e to pre!e$t t from ,e $g

5-pla $. 2. 2hat r ght# a$d o,l gat o$#* f a$y* doe# &mparo ha!e u$der the c rcum#ta$ce#% 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1egot orum ge#t o e- #ted ,etwee$ &mparo a$d .he !olu$tar ly too9 charge of the age$cy &rma$do* or

1.

,urglar :ed. Bear# pa##ed w thout N hear $g from & a$d h # fam ly* N co$t $ued ta9 $g care of &G# hou#e* e!e$ cau# $g
m $or repa r# to ,e do$e at h # hou#e to pre#er!e t. +$

ma$ageme$t of the ,u# $e## or property of her u$cle w thout a$y power from her u$cle who#e property wa#
$eglected. .he # called the ge#tor $egot orum or off c ou# ma$ager* 4&rt. 2144* 1CC7

1976* whe$ ,u# $e## ,ega$ to per9 up $ the area* a$ e$terpr # $g ma$. C* approached N a$d propo#ed that they ,u ld #tore# at the grou$d floor of the hou#e a$d co$!ert t# #eco$d floor $to a pe$# o$ hou#e. N agreed to C# propo#al a$d together they #pe$t for the co$#truct o$ of #tore# at the grou$d floor a$d the co$!er# o$ of the #eco$d floor $to a
pe$# o$ hou#e. 2h le co$#truct o$ wa# go $g o$* f re

2. +t # recomme$ded ,y the Comm ttee that a$ e$umerat o$ of a$y two 427 o,l gat o$# a$d two 427 r ght# a# e$umerated $ &rt#. 2145 to 2152* 1CC* would e$t tle the e-am $ee to full cred t.
&rt. 2145. @he off c ou# ma$ager #hall perform h # dut e#

occurred at a $ear,y hou#e. @he hou#e# at the e$t re ,loc9*


$clud $g &G# were ,ur$ed. &fter the 5H.& re!olut o$ $

Fe,ruary 1986* & a$d h # fam ly retur$ed from the L$ ted


.tate# where they too9 refuge $ 1972. Lpo$ lear$ $g of what happe$ed to h # hou#e. & #ued N for damage#* N

w th all the d l ge$ce of a good father of a fam ly* a$d pay the damage# wh ch through h # fault or $egl ge$ce may ,e
#uffered ,y the ow$er of the property or ,u# $e## u$der

ma$ageme$t .

pleaded a# a defe$#e that he merely too9 charge of h #

Page 109 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

@he court# may* howe!er*

$crea#e or moderate the

427 2he$ the co$tract refer# to th $g# perta $ $g to the

$dem$ ty accord $g to the c rcum#ta$ce# of each ca#e. &rt. 2146. +f the off c ou# ma$ager delegate# to a$other per#o$ all or #ome of h # dut e#* he #hall ,e l a,le for the act# of the delegate* w thout pre8ud ce to the d rect o,l gat o$ of the latter toward the ow$er of the ,u# $e##.

ow$er of the ,u# $e##*


9"OT#. !t is recommen2e2 17 t/e Committee t/at an enumeration of an7 t3o 92: o1li;ations an2 an7 t3o 92: ri;/ts as enumerate2 la 'rts. 2145 to 21524 "CC 3oul2 entitle t/e e0aminee to full cre2it.:

6%asi?Contracts; ol%tio )n0ebiti ('##!) HP/ we$t to a #tore to ,uy a pac9 of c garette# worth

@he re#po$# , l ty of two or more off c ou# ma$ager# #hall


,e #ol dary* u$le## ma$ageme$t wa# a##umed to #a!e the th $g or ,u# $e## from mm $e$t da$ger.

P225.00 o$ly. He ga!e the !e$dor* JJ&* a P500>pe#o , ll. @he !e$dor ga!e h m the pac9 plu# P375.00 cha$ge. 2a#
there a d #cou$t* a$ o!er# ght* or a$ error $ the amou$t g !e$% 2hat would ,e HP/O# duty* f a$y* $ ca#e of a$

&rt. 2147. @he off c ou# ma$ager #hall ,e l a,le for a$y fortu tou# e!e$t(

417 +f he u$derta9e# r #9y operat o$# wh ch the ow$er wa#


$ot accu#tomed to em,ar9 upo$3 427 +f he ha# preferred h # ow$ $tere#t to that of the

e-ce## $ the amou$t of cha$ge g !e$ ,y the !e$dor% How # th # # tuat o$al relat o$#h p ,etwee$ HP/ a$d JJ& de$om $ated% 5-pla $. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@here wa# error $ the amou$t of cha$ge g !e$ ,y JJ&.

ow$er3

@h # # a ca#e of solutio in2e1iti $ that HP/ rece !ed


#ometh $g that # $ot due h m. He ha# the o,l gat o$ to retur$ the P100.003 otherw #e* he w ll u$8u#tly e$r ch

437

+f he fa l# to retur$ the property or ,u# $e## after

dema$d ,y the ow$er* 447 +f he a##umed the ma$ageme$t $ ,ad fa th. &rt. 2148. 5-cept whe$ the ma$ageme$t wa# a##umed to #a!e the property or ,u# $e## from mm $e$t da$ger* the off c ou# ma$ager #hall ,e l a,le for fortu tou# e!e$t#

h m#elf at the e-pe$#e of JJ&. 4&rt. 2154* C ! l Code7


AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

HP/ ha# the duty to retur$ to JJ& the e-ce## P100 a#

tru#tee u$der &rt cle 1456 of the C ! l Code wh ch pro! de#( +f property # ac?u red through m #ta9e or fraud* the per#o$
o,ta $ $g t #* ,y force of law* co$# dered a tru#tee of a$

417 +f he # ma$ fe#tly u$f t to carry o$ the ma$ageme$t3 427 +f ,y h # +$ter!e$t o$ h e pre!e$ted a more compete$t per#o$ from ta9 $g up the ma$ageme$t. &rt. 2149. @he rat f cat o$ of the ma$ageme$t ,y the ow$er of the ,u# $e## produce# the effect# of a$ e-pre## age$cy*
e!e$ f the ,u# $e## may $ot ha!e ,ee$ #ucce##ful.

mpl ed tru#t for the ,e$ef t of the per#o$ from whom the
property come#. @here or #* $ th # ca#e* a$ mpl ed

co$#truct !e tru#t $ fa!or of JJ&.

$!"$( , #A)A&E(
Collapse of tr%ct%res; Last Clear C&ance (199#) 0r a$d 0r# J ow$ a ,ur$ed>out ,u ld $g* the f rewall of wh ch collap#ed a$d de#troyed the #hop occup ed ,y the fam ly of 0r a$d 0r# .* wh ch re#ulted $ $8ur e# to #a d

&rt. 2150* &lthough the off c ou# ma$ageme$t may $ot


ha!e ,ee$ e-pre##ly rat f ed* the ow$er of the property or ,u# $e## who e$8oy# the ad!a$tage# of the #ame #hall ,e

l a,le for o,l gat o$# $curred $ h # $tere#t* a$d #hall re m,ur#e the off c ou# ma$ager for the $ece##ary a$d
u#eful e-pe$#e# a$d for the damage# wh ch the latter may

ha!e #uffered $ the performa$ce of h # dut e#. @he #ame o,l gat o$ #hall ,e $cum,e$t upo$ h m whe$ the ma$ageme$t had for t# purpo#e the pre!e$t o$ of a$ mm $e$t a$d ma$ fe#t lo##* although $o ,e$ef t may ha!e
,ee$ der !ed.

couple a$d the death of the r daughter. 0r a$d 0r# . had ,ee$ war$ed ,y 0r X 0r# J to !acate the #hop $ ! ew of t# pro- m ty to the wea9e$ed wall ,ut the former fa led to do #o.
0r X 0r# . f led aga $#t 0r a$d 0r# J a$ act o$ for

reco!ery of damage# the former #uffered a# a re#ult of the collap#e of the f rewall. +$ defe$#e* 0r a$d 0r# J rely o$ the doctr $e of la#t clear cha$ce alleg $g that 0r a$d 0r# . had the la#t clear cha$ce to a!o d the acc de$t f o$ly they
heeded the formerO# war$ $g to !acate the #hop* a$d therefore 0r a$d 0r# JO# pr or $egl ge$ce #hould ,e

&rt. 2151. 5!e$ though the ow$er d d $ot der !e a$y ,e$ef t a$d there ha# ,ee$ $o mm $e$t a$d ma$ fe#t
da$ger to the property or ,u# $e##* the ow$er # l a,le a#

d #regarded. +f you were the 8udge* how would you dec de the ca#e%

u$der the f r#t paragraph of the preced $g art cle* pro! ded( 417 @he off c ou# ma$ager ha# acted $ good fa th* a$d

.tate your rea#o$#.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

427 @he property or ,u# $e## # $tact* ready to ,e retur$ed


to the ow$er.

+ would dec de $ fa!or of 0r X 0r# .. @he propr etor of a ,u ld $g or #tructure # re#po$# ,le for the damage# re#ult $g from t# total or part al collap#e* f t #hould ,e due
to the lac9 of $ece##ary repa r# 4&rt 2190 C ! l Code7 &# regard# the defe$#e of Cla#t clear cha$ce*D the #ame # $ot te$a,le ,ecau#e accord $g to the .C $ o$e +ase (Fe
Roy v CA 5680(18, -an $9, 1988, 17( S (7() the doctr $e of

&rt. 2152. @he off c ou# ma$ager # per#o$ally l a,le for

co$tract# wh ch he ha# e$tered $to w th th rd per#o$#* e!e$ though he acted $ the $ame of the ow$er* a$d there #hall ,e $o r ght of act o$ ,etwee$ the ow$er a$d th rd per#o$#.
@he#e pro! # o$# #hall $ot apply(

la#t
clear cha$ce # $ot appl ca,le to $#ta$ce# co!ered ,y &rt 2190 of the C ! l Code.

417

+f the ow$er ha# e-pre##ly or tac tly rat f ed the

ma$ageme$t* or

Page 110 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006) Further* $ !oen"3 Constr.+t"on, In+. v. Inter&e%"ate &!a l $g of that port o$ of .ect o$ 12 of &rt cle ++ of the A''ellate Co.rt (;.R. 5667$97, Mar+! 10, 198(. 148 SCRA

373) the .upreme Court held that the role of the commo$

law 'la#t clear cha$ce' doctr $e $ relat o$ to &rt cle 2179 of


the C ! l Code # merely to m t gate damage# w th $ the co$te-t of co$tr ,utory $egl ge$ce. Damages (199!) /$ <a$uary 5*

1992*

1o$oy

o,ta $ed

a loa$

of

Pl*000*000.00 from h # fr e$d Jaffy. @he prom ##ory $ote d d $ot #t pulate a$y payme$t for +$tere#t. @he $ote wa#

due o$ <a$uary 5* 1993 ,ut ,efore th # date the two ,ecame pol t cal e$em e#. 1o$oy* out of #p te* del ,erately defaulted
$ pay $g the $ote* thu# forc $g Jaffy to #ue h m. 17 2hat actual damage# ca$ Jaffy reco!er% 27 37 47 57 Ca$ Jaffy a#9 for moral damage# from 1o$oy% Ca$ Jaffy a#9 for $om $al damage#% Ca$ Jaffy a#9 for temperate damage#% Ca$ Jaffy a#9 for attor$eyG# fee#%

1987 Co$#t tut o$ wh ch read#3 @he .tate - -- #hall e?ually protect the l fe of the mother a$d the l fe of the u$,or$ from co$cept o$* '---' wh ch he cla m# co$fer# a c ! l per#o$al ty o$ the u$,or$ from the mome$t of co$cept o$. Noy f led a ca#e for damage# aga $#t the a,ort o$ #t* pray $g there $ that the latter ,e ordered to pay h m( 4a7 P30*000.00 a# $dem$ ty for the death of the fetu#* 4,7 P100.000.00 a# moral damage# for the me$tal a$gu #h a$d a$- ety he
#uffered* 4d7 4c7 P50*000.00 a# e-emplary damage#*

P20*000.00 a# $om $al damage#* a$d 4e7 P25*000.00 a#


attor$eyG# fee#. 0ay actual damage# ,e al#o reco!ered% +f #o* what fact# #hould ,e alleged a$d pro!ed%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Be#* pro! ded that the pecu$ ary lo## #uffered #hould ,e

#u,#ta$t ated a$d duly pro!ed. Damages arising from Deat& of /nborn C&il0 ('##() +f a preg$a$t woma$ pa##e$ger of a ,u# were to #uffer a$
a,ort o$ follow $g a !eh cular acc de$t due to the gro## $egl ge$ce of the ,u# dr !er* may #he a$d her hu#,a$d

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

17

of P1 m ll o$* together w th $tere#t at the legal rate from the date of 8ud c al or e-tra8ud c al dema$d. +$ add t o$*

Jaffy may reco!er the amou$t of the prom ##ory $ote

howe!er* $a#much a# the de,tor # $ ,ad fa th* he # l a,le for all damage# wh ch may ,e rea#o$a,ly attr ,uted to the
$o$>performa$ce of the o,l gat o$. 4&rt. 2201427. 1CC7.
27

cla m damage# from the ,u# compa$y for the death of the r u$,or$ ch ld% 5-pla $. 5E
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Be#* u$der &rt cle 2220* 1CC moral damage# are


$ ca#e of ,reach of co$tract where the

reco!era,le

defe$da$t acted fraudule$tly or $ ,ad fa th.

37 1om $al damage# may $ot ,e reco!era,le $ th # ca#e ,ecau#e Jaffy may already ,e $dem$ f ed of h # lo##e# w th the award of actual a$d compe$#atory damage#. 1/0+1&" H&0&)5. are ad8ud cated o$ly $ order that a r ght of the pla $t ff* wh ch ha# ,ee$ ! olated or $!aded ,y the defe$da$t may ,e ! $d cated or recog$ :ed* a$d $ot
for the purpo#e of $dem$ fy $g the pla $t ff for a$y lo## #uffered ,y h m. 4&rt cle 2231. C ! l Code7
47

1o* the #pou#e# ca$$ot reco!er actual damage# $ the form of $dem$ ty for the lo## of l fe of the u$,or$ ch ld. @h # # ,ecau#e the u$,or$ ch ld # $ot yet co$# dered a per#o$ a$d the law allow# $dem$ ty o$ly for lo## of l fe of per#o$. @he mother* howe!er may reco!er damage# for the ,od ly $8ury #he #uffered from the lo## of the fetu# wh ch # co$# dered
part of her $ter$al orga$. @he pare$t# may al#o reco!er damage# for $8ur e# that are $fl cted d rectly upo$ them* e.g.* moral damage# for me$tal a$gu #h that atte$ded the . $ce there # gro## lo## of the u$,or$ ch ld. $egl ge$ce*

e-emplary damage# ca$ al#o ,e reco!ered. (;el.s v. CA,


$ SCRA 801 [1961])

Jaffy may a#9 for* ,ut would mo#t l 9ely $ot ,e

awarded temperate damage#* for the rea#o$ that h # actual damage# may already ,e compe$#ated upo$ proof thereof w th the prom ##ory $ote. @50P5J&@5 H&0&)5.

may ,e awarded o$ly whe$ the court f $d# that #ome


pecu$ ary lo## ha# ,ee$ #uffered ,ut t# amou$t ca$$ot*

Deat& )n0emnit" (199!) <oh$$y 0ato$G# co$! ct o$ for hom c de wa# aff rmed ,y the Court of &ppeal# a$d $ add t o$* although the pro#ecut o$ had $ot appealed at all. @he appellate court $crea#ed the $dem$ ty for death from P30*000.00 to P50*000.00. /$ h # appeal to the .upreme Court* amo$g

from the $ature of the ca#e* ,e pro!ed w th certa $ty. 4&rt cle 2224* C ! l Code7 57 Be#* u$der paragraph 2* &rt cle 2208 of the C ! l Code*

the other th $g# <oh$$y 0ato$ ,rought to the h gh courtG#


atte$t o$* wa# the $crea#e of $dem$ ty mpo#ed ,y the

Court of &ppeal# de#p te the clear fact that the People had $ot appealed from the appellate courtG# 8udgme$t.

co$# der $g that 1o$oyG# act or om ## o$ ha# compelled Jaffy to l t gate to protect h # $tere#t#. Furthermore.

+# <oh$$y 0ato$ correct%


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

attor$ey#G fee# may ,e awarded ,y the court whe$ t # 8u#t


a$d e?u ta,le. 4&rt cle 220841107 C ! l Code7. Damages arising from Deat& of /nborn C&il0 (1991) /$ her th rd mo$th of preg$a$cy* Jo#emar e* marr ed to

a7 +$ A/e:a& v. Co.rt o* A''eals* the .upreme Court #a d that e!e$ f the ##ue of damage# were $ot ra #ed ,y the

appella$t $ the Court of &ppeal# ,ut the Court of &ppeal#


$ t# f $d $g# $crea#ed the damage#* the .upreme Court

w ll $ot d #tur, the f $d $g# of the Court of &ppeal#. ,7 1o* the co$te$t o$ of the accu#ed # $ot correct ,ecau#e upo$ appeal to the &ppellate Court* the court ac?u red
8ur #d ct o$ o!er the e$t re ca#e* cr m $al a# well a# c ! l.

Noy* for rea#o$# 9$ow$ o$ly to her* a$d w thout $form $g Noy* we$t to the cl $ c of =* a 9$ow$ a,ort o$ #t* who for a
fee* remo!ed a$d e-pelled the fetu# from her wom,* Noy

lear$ed of the a,ort o$ # - 467 mo$th# later.

. $ce the co$! ct o$ of hom c de had ,ee$ appealed* there

Page 111 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

# $o f $al ty $ the amou$t of $dem$ ty ,ecau#e the c ! l


l a, l ty ar # $g from the cr me a$d the 8udgme$t o$ the

& !a$ ow$ed ,y /rla$do a$d dr !e$ ,y H ego* wh le $egot at $g a dow$h ll #lope of a c ty road* #udde$ly ga $ed
#peed* o,! ou#ly ,eyo$d the author :ed l m t $ the area*

cr me ha# $ot yet ,ecome f $al


c7 Be#. . $ce the c ! l $dem$ ty # a$ award $ the c ! l

act o$ ar # $g from the cr m $al offe$#e* the rule that a party


ca$$ot ,e gra$ted aff rmat !e rel ef u$le## he h m#elf ha#

appealed #hould apply. @herefore* t wa# error for the Court of &ppeal# to ha!e e-pa$ded the $dem$ ty # $ce the
8udgme$t o$ the c ! l l a, l ty had ,ecome f $al.

a$d ,umped a car $ fro$t of t* cau# $g #e!ered damage to the care a$d #er ou# $8ur e# to t# pa##e$ger#. /rla$do wa# $ot $ the car at the t me of the $c de$t. @he car ow$er a$d the $8ured pa##e$ger# #ued /rla$do a$d H ego for damage# cau#ed ,y H egoO# $egl ge$ce. +$ the r defe$#e* H ego cla m#
that the dow$h ll #lope cau#ed the !a$ to ga $ #peed a$d

that* a# he #tepped o$ the ,ra9e# to chec9 the accelerat o$*


the ,ra9e# loc9ed* cau# $g the !a$ to go e!e$ fa#ter a$d

d7 1o.

Court# ca$ re! ew matter# $ot a## g$ed a# error#.

e!e$tually to h t the car $ fro$t of t. /rla$do a$d H ego


co$te$d that the #udde$ malfu$ct o$ of the !a$O# ,ra9e #y#tem # a fortu tou# e!e$ a$d that* therefore* they are

(Ay%ro Reso.r+e vs. CA . $04 SCRA 309).

Defense; D%e Diligence in election ('##()

e-empt from a$y l a, l ty.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

&# a re#ult of a coll # o$ ,etwee$ the ta- ca, ow$ed ,y & a$d a$other ta- ca, ow$ed ,y N* =* a pa##e$ger of the f r#t ta- ca,* wa# #er ou#ly $8ured. = later f led a cr m $al act o$
aga $#t ,oth dr !er#.

+# th # co$te$t o$ te$a,le% 5-pla $. 42E7

1o. 0echa$ cal defect# of a motor !eh cle do $ot co$#t tute fortu tou# e!e$t* # $ce the pre#e$ce of #uch defect# would
ha!e ,ee$ read ly detected ,y d l ge$t ma $te$a$ce chec9.

0ay ,oth ta- ca, ow$er# ra #e the defe$#e of due d l ge$ce $ the #elect o$ a$d #uper! # o$ of the r dr !er# to ,e
a,#ol!ed from l a, l ty for damage# to =% Jea#o$. 5E
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he fa lure to ma $ta $ the !eh cle $ #afe ru$$ $g co$d t o$


co$#t tute# $egl ge$ce.

+t depe$d#. +f the c ! l act o$ # ,a#ed o$ a ?ua# >del ct the ta- ca, ow$er# may ra #e the defe$#e of d l ge$ce of a good
father of a fam ly $ the #elect o$ a$d #uper! # o$ of the dr !er3 f the act o$ aga $#t them # ,a#ed o$ culpa

Liabilit"; 2irline Compan"; .on?4erformance of an Obligation ('##!) H@ a$d 0@ were prom $e$t mem,er# of the fre?ue$t
tra!eler#O clu, of F= & rl $e#. +$ Ho$g9o$g* the couple were a## g$ed #eat# $ Nu# $e## Cla## for wh ch they had /$ chec9 $g $* howe!er* they were ,ought t c9et#. told

co$tractual or c ! l l a, l ty ar # $g from a cr me* they ca$$ot

ra #e the defe$#e. ,iling of eparate Civil 2ction; .ee0 for 1eservation ('##()

they were upgraded ,y computer to F r#t Cla## for the fl ght to 0a$ la ,ecau#e the Nu# $e## .ect o$ wa# o!er,oo9ed. Noth refu#ed to tra$#fer de#p te ,etter #eat#* food* ,e!erage a$d other #er! ce# $ F r#t Cla##. @hey #a d they had gue#t# $ Nu# $e## Cla## they #hould atte$d to. @hey felt hum l ated* em,arra##ed a$d !e-ed* howe!er* whe$ the #tewarde## allegedly threate$ed to offload them f they d d $ot a!a l of the upgrade. @hu# they ga!e $* ,ut dur $g the tra$#fer of luggage H@ #uffered pa $ $ h # arm a$d wr #t.
&fter arr !al $ 0a$ la* they dema$ded a$ apology from F=O# ma$ageme$t a# well a# $dem$ ty payme$t. 2he$ $o$e wa# forthcom $g* they #ued the a rl $e for a m ll o$

&# a re#ult of a coll # o$ ,etwee$ the ta- ca, ow$ed ,y & a$d a$other ta- ca, ow$ed ,y N* =* a pa##e$ger of the f r#t ta- ca,* wa# #er ou#ly $8ured. = later f led a cr m $al act o$

aga $#t ,oth dr !er#.

+# t $ece##ary for = to re#er!e h # r ght to $#t tute a c ! l


act o$ for damage# aga $#t ,oth ta- ca, ow$er# ,efore he ca$ f le a c ! l act o$ for damage# aga $#t them% 2hy
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

+t depe$d#. +f the #eparate c ! l act o$ # to reco!er damage# ar # $g from the cr m $al act* re#er!at o$ # $ece##ary. +f the
c ! l act o$ aga $#t the ta- ca, ow$er# # ,a#ed o$ culpa co$tractual* or o$ ?ua# >del ct* there # $o $eed for

re#er!at o$.

pe#o# $ damage#. +# the a rl $e l a,le for actual a$d moral damage#% 2hy or why $ot% 5-pla $ ,r efly. 45E7

AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1o* #uch re#er!at o$ # $ot $ece##ary. L$der .ect o$ 1 of

Jule 111 of the 2000 Jule# o$ Cr m $al Procedure* what #


Cdeemed $#t tutedD w th the cr m $al act o$ # o$ly the

act o$ to reco!er c ! l l a, l ty ar # $g from the cr me or edel cto. &ll the other c ! l act o$# u$der &rt cle# 32* 33* 34
a$d 2176 of the 1ew C ! l Code are $o lo$ger Cdeemed

H@ a$d 0@* o!er the r o,8ect o$#* to F r#t Cla## ,ecau#e they had co$tracted for Nu# $e## Cla## pa##age. Howe!er* although there # a ,reach of co$tract* H@ a$d 0@ are e$t tled to actual damage# o$ly for #uch pecu$ ary lo##e#

F= & rl $e# comm tted ,reach of co$tract whe$ t upgraded

$#t tutedD* a$d may ,e f led #eparately a$d pro#ecuted $depe$de$tly e!e$ w thout a$y re#er!at o$ $ the cr m $al
act o$ 4.ect o$ 3* Jule 111* +, d7. @he fa lure to ma9e a

#uffered ,y them a# a re#ult of #uch ,reach. @here #eem# to ,e $o #how $g that they $curred #uch pecu$ ary lo##. @here # $o #how $g that the pa $ $ H@G# arm a$d wr #t re#ulted d rectly from the carr erG# act# compla $ed of. He$ce* they
are $ot e$t tled to actual damage#. 0oreo!er* H@ could

re#er!at o$ $ the cr m $al act o$ # $ot a wa !er of the r ght


to f le a #eparate a$d $depe$de$t c ! l act o$ ,a#ed o$

the#e art cle# of the 1ew C ! l Code (Cas.'anan v. 5aroya


;R 0o. 147391, A.,.st $6, $00$).

ha!e a!o ded the alleged $8ury ,y re?ue#t $g the a rl $e #taff to do the luggage tra$#fer a# a matter of duty o$ the r part.
@here # al#o $o ,a# # to award moral damage# for #uch

,reach of co$tract ,ecau#e the fact# of the pro,lem do $ot #how ,ad fa th or fraud o$ the part of the a rl $e. (Cat!ay
a+"*"+ v. #a@N.e@, 399 SCRA $0( [$003]). Howe!er* they

,ort%ito%s Event; *ec&anical Defects ('##')

Page 112 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

may reco!er moral damage# f the cau#e of act o$ # ,a#ed


o$ &rt cle 21 of the C ! l Code for the hum l at o$ a$d

@he act o$ may or may $ot pro#per. 0oral damage# $clude


phy# cal #uffer $g* me$tal a$gu #h* fr ght* #er ou# a$- ety* ,e#m rched reputat o$* wou$ded feel $g#* moral #hoc9*

em,arra##me$t they felt whe$ the #tewarde## threate$ed to


offload them f they d d $ot a!a l of the upgrade.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

+f t ca$ ,e pro!ed that H@G# pa $ $ h # arm a$d wr #t

occa# o$ed ,y the tra$#fer of luggage wa# cau#ed ,y fault or $egl ge$ce o$ the part of the a rl $eG# #tewarde##* actual
damage# may ,e reco!ered.

they are the pro- mate re#ult of the defe$da$tG# wro$gful act or om ## o$. 0oral damage# pred cated upo$ a ,reach

#oc al hum l at o$* a$d # m lar $8ury. &lthough $capa,le of pecu$ ary computat o$* moral damage# may ,e reco!ered f

@he a rl $e may ,e l a,le for moral damage# pur#ua$t to &rt.

a+"*"+ A"r9ays, 5t%. v. Co.rt o* A''eals, ;.R. 0o. 60701, Mar+! 7, 1993) 2here there # $o #how $g that the a rl $e

of co$tract of carr age are reco!era,le o$ly $ $#ta$ce# where the carr er # gu lty of fraud or ,ad fa th or where the m #hap re#ulted $ the death of a pa##e$ger. (Cat!ay

2219 4107 f the cau#e of act o$ # ,a#ed o$ &rt cle 21 or a$ act co$trary to moral# $ ! ew of the hum l at o$ #uffered ,y
H@ a$d 0@ whe$ they were #eparated from the r gue#t# a$d were threate$ed to ,e offloaded.

acted fraudule$tly or $ ,ad fa th* l a, l ty for damage# # l m ted to the $atural a$d pro,a,le co$#e?ue$ce# of the ,reach of
the co$tract of carr age wh ch the part e# had fore#ee$ or

Liabilit"; 2irline Compan"; .on?4erformance of an


Obligation ('##9)

could ha!e rea#o$a,ly fore#ee$. +$ #uch a ca#e the l a, l ty doe# $ot $clude moral a$d e-emplary damage#. +$ the $#ta$t ca#e* f the $!olu$tary upgrad $g of the &lmeda#G #eat accommodat o$ wa# $ot atte$ded ,y fraud or ,ad fa th* the award of moral damage# ha# $o leg to #ta$d o$. @hu#* #pou#e# would $ot al#o ,e e$t tled to e-emplary damage#. +t # a re?u # te $ the gra$t of e-emplary damage#
that the act of the offe$der mu#t ,e accompa$ ed ,y ,ad

Hr. a$d 0r#. &lmeda are prom $e$t c t :e$# of the cou$try
a$d are fre?ue$t tra!eler# a,road. +$ 1996* they ,oo9ed

rou$d>tr p ,u# $e## cla## t c9et# for the 0a$ la>Ho$g Ro$g> 0a$ la route of the P $oy & rl $e#* where they are holder# of )old 0a,alo# Cla## Fre?ue$t Fl er card#. /$ the r retur$
fl ght* P $oy & rl $e# upgraded the r t c9et# to f r#t cla##

w thout the r co$#e$t a$d* $#p te of the r prote#tat o$# to ,e allowed to rema $ $ the ,u# $e## cla## #o that they could ,e w th the r fr e$d#* they were told that the ,u# $e## cla## wa# already fully ,oo9ed* a$d that they were g !e$ pr or ty $ upgrad $g ,ecau#e they are el te mem,er#Sholder# of )old 0a,alo# Cla## card#. . $ce they were em,arra##ed at the d #cu## o$# w th the fl ght atte$da$t#* they were forced to ta9e the fl ght at the f r#t cla## #ect o$ apart from the r fr e$d# who were $ the ,u# $e## cla##. Lpo$ the r retur$ to
0a$ la* they dema$ded a wr tte$ apology from P $oy & rl $e#. 2he$ t we$t u$heeded* the couple #ued P $oy

fa th or do$e $ wa$to$* fraudule$t or male!ole$t ma$$er.


(Morr"s v. Co.rt o* A''eals, ;.R. 0o. 1$(97(, 8e/r.ary $1, $001) 0oreo!er* to ,e e$t tled thereto* the cla ma$t mu#t

f r#t or

e#ta,l #h

h#

r ght

to

moral*

temperate*

compe$#atory damage#. 4&rt. 2234* C ! l Code7 . $ce the

&lmeda# are $ot e$t tled to a$y of the#e damage#* the award for e-emplary damage# ha# $o legal ,a# #. 2here the award#
for moral a$d e-emplary damage# are el m $ated* #o mu#t

the award for attor$eyG# fee# ,e el m $ated. (<rosa v. Co.rt


o* A''eals, ;.R. 0o. 111080, A'r"l 7, $000C Morr"s v. Co.rt o* A''eals, ;.R. 0o. 1$(97(, 8e/r.ary $1, $001) @he mo#t that

& rl $e# for ,reach of co$tract cla m $g moral a$d


e-emplary damage#* a# well a# attor$eyG# fee#. 2 ll the act o$ pro#per% ) !e rea#o$#. 45E7
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

ca$ ,e ad8udged $ the r fa!or for P $oy & rl $e#G ,reach of


co$tract # a$ award for $om $al damage# u$der &rt cle

Be#* the act o$ w ll pro#per. &rt cle 2201 of the C ! l Code e$t tle# the per#o$ to reco!er damage# wh ch may ,e
attr ,uted to $o$>performa$ce of a$ o,l gat o$. +$ Al"tal"a
A"r9ays v. Co.rt o* A''eals (;.R. 0o. ((011, -.ly $4, 1990)*

2221 of the C ! l Code. (Cat!ay a+"*"+ A"r9ays v. S's.


Fan"el O Mar"a 5."sa #asN.e@, ;.R. 0o. 170843, Mar+! 14,
$003)

whe$ a$ a rl $e ##ue# t c9et to a pa##e$ger co$f rmed o$ a

Howe!er* f #pou#e# &lmeda could pro!e that there wa# ,ad

part cular fl ght* a co$tract of carr age ar #e# a$d the

fa th o$ the part of P $oy & rl $e# whe$ t ,reached the

pa##e$ger e-pect# that he would fly o$ that day. 2he$ the a rl $e del ,erately o!er,oo9ed* t too9 the r #9 of ha! $g to
depr !e #ome pa##e$ger# of the r #eat $ ca#e all of them would #how up. For the $d g$ ty a$d $co$!e$ e$ce of

co$tract of carr age* t could ,e l a,le for moral* e-emplary a# well a# attor$eyG# fee#. Liabilit"; Emplo"er; Damage ca%se0 b" Emplo"ees (1997) a7 2he$ would a$ employerG# l a, l ty for damage* cau#ed
,y a$ employee $ the performa$ce of h # a## g$ed ta#9#* ,e pr mary a$d whe$ would t ,e #u,# d ary $

,e $g refu#ed the co$f rmed #eat* #a d pa##e$ger # e$t tled


to moral damage#.

+$ the g !e$ pro,lem* #pou#e# &lmeda had a ,oo9ed


rou$dtr p ,u# $e## cla## t c9et w th P $oy & rl $e#. 2he$

$ature% ,7 2ould the defe$#e of due d l ge$ce $ the #elect o$ a$d


#uper! # o$ of the employee ,e a!a la,le to the employer $ ,oth $#ta$ce#%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":(

the r t c9et# were upgraded to f r#t cla## w thout the r


co$#e$t* P $oy & rl $e# ,reached the co$tract. &# ruled $
=.l.eta v. an A&er"+an (;.R. 0o. 56$8789, -an.ary 8, 19(3),

$ ca#e of o!er,oo9 $g* a rl $e # $ ,ad fa th. @herefore* #pou#e# &lmeda are e$t tled to damage#.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

4a7 @he employerG# l a, l ty for damage ,a#ed o$ culpa


a?u l a$a u$der &rt* 2176 a$d 2180 of the C ! l Code # pr mary3 wh le that u$der &rt. 103 of the Je! #ed Pe$al

Code # #u,# d ary.

Page 113 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

4,7 @he defe$#e of d l ge$ce $ the #elect o$ a$d #uper! # o$ of the employee u$der &rt cle 2180 of the C ! l Code # a!a la,le o$ly to tho#e pr mar ly l a,le thereu$der* ,ut $ot to tho#e #u,# d ar ly l a,le u$der &rt cle 103 of the Je! #ed Pe$al Code (?.&.l vs. -.l"ano, ($ !"l. 94).

the !eh cle at the t me of the acc de$t* ,e held #ol dar ly

l a,le w th h # dr !er* <oh$% 45E7


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Be#. &rt may ,e held #ol dary l a,le w th <oh$* f t wa# pro!e$ that the former could ha!e pre!e$ted the

Liabilit"; owner w&o was in t&e ve&icle (199-)

0arc al* who doe# $ot 9$ow how to dr !e* ha# alway# ,ee$ dr !e$ ,y Ne$* h # dr !er of te$ year# whom he had cho#e$ carefully a$d ha# $e!er f gured $ a !eh cular m #hap. /$e
day* 0arc al wa# r d $g at the ,ac9 #eat of h # 0ercede#

m #fortu$e w th the u#e of due d l ge$ce. &rt cle 2184 of the C ! l Code #tate#( '+$ motor m #hap#* the ow$er # #ol dary l a,le w th h # dr !er* f the former* who wa# $ the !eh cle* could ha!e* ,y the u#e of due d l ge$ce* pre!e$ted the
m #fortu$e* - - -'
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

Ne$: ,e $g dr !e$ alo$g 5H.& ,y Ne$. &,#or,ed $ read $g a ,oo9* 0arc al d d $ot $ot ce that they were approach $g the cor$er of Pue:o$ &!e$ue* whe$ the traff c
l ght had 8u#t tur$ed yellow. Ne$ #udde$ly #tepped o$ the ga# to cro## the $ter#ect o$ ,efore the traff c l ght could

1. +t depe$d#. @he .upreme Court $ C!a'&an vs, >n%er9oo% ($( !"l 3(4), held( '&$ ow$er who # t# $ h #

tur$ red. Nut* too late. 0 dway $ the $ter#ect o$* the traff c
l ght cha$ged* a$d a <eep$ey full of pa##e$ger# #udde$ly

automo, le* or other !eh cle* a$d perm t# h # dr !er to co$t $ue $ a ! olat o$ of law ,y the performa$ce of $egl ge$t act#* after he ha# had a rea#o$a,le opportu$ ty to o,#er!e them a$d to d rect that the dr !er cea#e therefrom*
,ecome# h m#elf re#po$# ,le for #uch act#* - - - /$ the

cro##ed the carG# path. & coll # o$ ,etwee$ the two !eh cle# wa# $e! ta,le. &# a re#ult* #e!eral 8eep$ey pa##e$ger# were
#er ou#ly $8ured. & #u t for damage# ,a#ed o$ culpa

a?u l a$a wa# f led aga $#t 0arc al a$d Ne$* #ee9 $g to hold
them 8o $tly a$d #e!erally l a,le for #uch $8ur e#. 0ay 0arc al ,e held l a,le% 5-pla $.
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

other ha$d* f the dr !er* ,y a #udde$ act of $egl ge$ce* a$d w thout the ow$er ha! $g a rea#o$a,le opportu$ ty to pre!e$t the act or t# co$t $ua$ce* $8ure# a per#o$ or ! olate# the cr m $al law* the ow$er of the automo, le* although pre#e$t there $ at the t me the act wa# comm tted # $ot re#po$# ,le* e ther c ! lly or cr m $ally* therefor. @he act compla $ed of mu#t ,e co$t $ued $ the pre#e$ce of the
ow$er for #uch a le$gth of t me that the ow$er* ,y h # ac?u e#ce$ce* ma9e# h # dr !erG# act h # ow$.' Liabilit"; owner w&o was in t&e ve&icle ('##')

0arc al may $ot ,e l a,le ,ecau#e u$der &rt. 2184* 1CC*

the ow$er who # $ the !eh cle # $ot l a,le w th the dr !er f ,y the e-erc #e of due d l ge$ce he could ha!e pre!e$ted the $8ury. @he law doe# $ot re?u re the ow$er to #uper! #e
the dr !er e!ery m $ute that he wa# dr ! $g. /$ly whe$

Hoe# the pre#e$ce of the ow$er $# de the !eh cle cau# $g


damage to a th rd party affect h # l a, l ty for h # dr !erO# $egl ge$ce% 5-pla $ 42E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

through h # $egl ge$ce* the ow$er ha# lo#t a$ opportu$ ty to


pre!e$t the acc de$t would he ,e l a,le 4Cae%o v. ?tt P!e
T!a", $6 SCRA 410 +"t"n, C!a'&an v. >n%er9oo% an% Manlan,"t v. Ma.ler, $70 SCRA 760). +$ th # ca#e* the fact

that the ow$er wa# a,#or,ed $ read $g a ,oo9 doe# $ot co$clu# !ely #how that he lo#t the opportu$ ty to pre!e$t

the acc de$t through h # $egl ge$ce.


AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

+$ motor !eh cle m #hap#* the ow$er # made #ol dar ly l a,le w th h # dr !er f he 4the ow$er7 wa# $ the !eh cle a$d could ha!e* ,y the u#e of due d l ge$ce* pre!e$ted the m #hap. (Cae%o v. ?. P!e T!a", $6 SCRA 410 [1968]).
*oral Damages & 2tt" ,ees ('##') /rt llo co$tract# Fa,r cato* +$c. to #upply a$d $#tall t le

Be#* 0arc al #hould ,e held l a,le. &rt. 2164. 1CC ma9e#

a$ ow$er of a motor !eh cle #ol dar ly l a,le w th the dr !er f* ,e $g $ the !eh cle at the t me of the m #hap* he could ha!e pre!e$ted t ,y the e-erc #e of due d l ge$ce. @he traff c co$d t o$# alo$g 5H.& at a$y t me of day or $ ght
are #uch a# to re?u re the o,#er!a$ce of utmo#t care a$d

mater al# $ a ,u ld $g he # do$at $g to h # pro! $ce. /rt llo pay# 50E of the co$tract pr ce a# per agreeme$t. +t # al#o agreed that the ,ala$ce would ,e paya,le per od cally after e!ery 10E performa$ce u$t l completed. &fter perform $g
a,out 93E of the co$tract* for wh ch t ha# ,ee$ pa d a$

total alert$e## $ ! ew of the large $um,er of !eh cle#

ru$$ $g at great #peed. 0arc al wa# $egl ge$t $ that he

re$dered h m#elf o,l ! ou# to the traff c ha:ard# ,y read $g


a ,oo9 $#tead of focu# $g h # atte$t o$ o$ the road a$d

add t o$al 40E a# per agreeme$t* Fa,r cato* +$c. d d $ot complete the pro8ect due to t# #udde$ ce##at o$ of

#uper! # $g the ma$$er $ wh ch h # car wa# ,e $g dr !e$. @hu# he fa led to pre!e$t h # dr !er from attempt $g to ,eat the traff c l ght at the 8u$ct o$ of Pue:o$ &!e$ue a$d 5H.&* wh ch 0arc al* w thout ,e $g a dr !er h m#elf could
ha!e ea# ly perce !ed a# a rec9le## cour#e of co$duct. Liabilit"; owner w&o was in t&e ve&icle (1993)

operat o$#. +$#tead* Fa,r cato* +$c. dema$d# payme$t of the la#t 10E of the co$tract de#p te t# $o$>complet o$ of the pro8ect. /rt llo refu#e# to pay* $!o9 $g the #t pulat o$ that payme$t of the la#t amou$t 10E #hall ,e upo$ complet o$. Fa,r cato* +$c. ,r $g# #u t for the e$t re 10E. Plu# damage#* /rt llo cou$ter# w th cla m# for 4a7 moral damage# for Fa,r cato* +$c.O# u$fou$ded #u t wh ch ha# damaged h#
reputat o$ a# a ph la$throp #t a$d re#pect ,u# $e##ma$ $ h # commu$ ty* a$d 4,7 attor$eyO# fee#.
&. Hoe# /rt llo ha!e a legal ,a# # for h # cla m for moral

& )alla$t dr !e$ ,y <oh$ a$d ow$ed ,y &rt* a$d a Corolla


dr !e$ ,y t# ow$er* ) $a* coll ded #omewhere alo$g &dr at co .treet. &# a re#ult of the acc de$t* ) $a had a co$cu## o$. .u,#e?ue$tly. ) $a ,rought a$ act o$ for

damage#% 42E7

N. How a,out h # cla m for attor$eyO# fee#* ha! $g h red a


lawyer to defe$d h m% 43E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

damage# aga $#t <oh$ a$d &rt. @here # $o dou,t that the
coll # o$ # due to <oh$G# $egl ge$ce. Ca$ &rt* who wa# $

Page 114 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

&. @here # $o legal ,a# # to /rt lloO# cla m for moral damage#. +t doe# $ot fall u$der the co!erage of &rt cle 2219
of the 1ew C ! l Code. N. /rt llo # e$t tled to attor$eyO# fee# ,ecau#e Fa,r catoO# compla $t # a ca#e of mal c ou# pro#ecut o$ or a clearly

a) )!en a (6year ol% /oy "n:.res !"s 'lay&ate 9!"le 'lay"n, 9"t! !"s *at!erDs r"*le. 23'la"n. ($4)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

u$fou$ded c ! l act o$. 4&rt. 2208 ;4A a$d ;11A* 1CC7.


*oral Damages; .on?1ecover" =&ereof ('##-)

@he pare$t# of the 7>year old ,oy who cau#ed $8ury to h # playmate are l a,le u$der &rt cle 219 of the Fam ly Code* $ relat o$ to &rt cle 2180 of the C ! l Code # $ce they e-erc #e pare$tal author ty o!er the per#o$ of the ,oy. (Ta&ar,o v.
Co.rt o* A''eals, ;.R. 0o. 87044, -.ne 3, 199$C 2l+ano v. A"ll, ;.R. 0o. 56$4803, May $6, 19(()

L$der &rt cle 2219 of the C ! l Code* moral damage# may ,e reco!ered $ the ca#e# #pec f ed there $ #e!eral of wh ch are e$umerated ,elow. Choo#e the ca#e where $ you ca$$ot reco!er moral
damage#. 5-pla $. 42.5E7 a7 & cr m $al offe$#e re#ult $g $ phy# cal $8ur e# ,7 Pua# >del ct# cau# $g phy# cal $8ur e# c7

/)

)!en a %o&est"+ !el'er, 9!"le !a,,l"n, *or a

lo9er 'r"+e 9"t! a *"s! ven%or "n t!e +o.rse o* /.y"n, *oo%st.**s *or !er e&'loyerDs *a&"ly, sla's t!e *"s! ven%or, +a.s"n, !er to *all an% s.sta"n "n:.r"es. 23'la"n. ($4)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

+mmoral ty or d #ho$e#ty
+llegal #earch

5mployer of the dome#t c helper who #lapped a f #h

d7
e7

0al c ou# pro#ecut o$


+mmoral ty a$d d #ho$e#ty* per #e*

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

!e$dor. L$der &rt cle 2180* par. 5 of the C ! l Code* 'employer# #hall ,e l a,le for the damage# cau#ed ,y the r employee# a$d hou#ehold helper# act $g w th $ the #cope of
the r a## g$ed ta#9#* e!e$ though the former are $ot

are $ot amo$g tho#e ca#e# e$umerated $ &rt cle 2219 wh ch ca$ ,e the ,a# # of a$ act o$ for moral damage#. @he
law #pec f cally me$t o$# adultery or co$cu, $age* etc. ,ut $ot a$y a$d e!ery mmoral act. 6%asi?Delict (199') &# the re#ult of a coll # o$ ,etwee$ a pu,l c #er! ce

e$gaged $ a$y ,u# $e## or $du#try.'


A +ar'enter "n a +onstr.+t"on +o&'any +) a++"%entally !"ts t!e r",!t *oot o* !"s +o69orEer 9"t! a !a&&er. 23'la"n. ($4)

@he ow$er of the co$#truct o$ compa$y. &rt cle 2180*


paragraph 4 #tate# that 'the ow$er# a$d ma$ager# of a$

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

pa##e$ger ,u# a$d a cargo truc9 ow$ed ,y H* = #u#ta $ed phy# cal $8ur e# a$d B d ed. Noth = a$d B were pa##e$ger# of the ,u#. Noth dr !er# were at fault* a$d #o = a$d I* the
o$ly he r a$d leg t mate ch ld of the decea#ed B* #ued the ow$er# of ,oth !eh cle#.

e#ta,l #hme$t or e$terpr #e are l 9ew #e re#po$# ,le for


damage# cau#ed ,y the r employee# $ the #er! ce of the ,ra$che# $ wh ch the latter are employed or o$ the occa# o$ of the r fu$ct o$#.' %) A 176year ol% !",! s+!ool st.%ent sta/s !"s +lass&ate 9!o "s !"s r"val *or a ,"rl 9!"le t!ey 9ere ,o"n, o.t o* t!e +lassroo& a*ter t!e"r last +lass.

a7

e-erc #ed the d l ge$ce of a good father of a fam ly%

0ay the ow$er of the ,u# ra #e the defe$#e of ha! $g

,7 0ay H ra #e the #ame defe$#e%


c7 0ay = cla m moral damage# from ,oth defe$da$t#%

d7 0ay I cla m moral damage# from ,oth defe$da$t#% ) !e rea#o$# for all your a$#wer#*
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

23'la"n. ($4)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he #chool* teacher a$d adm $ #trator a# they e-erc #e


#pec al pare$tal author ty. 4&rt. 2180* par. 7 $ relat o$ to &rt. 218 a$d &rt. 219 of the Fam ly Code7

4a7 1o. @he ow$er of the ,u# ca$$ot ra #e the defe$#e ,ecau#e the carr erG# l a, l ty # ,a#ed o$ ,reach of co$tract 4,7 Be#. H ca$ ra #e the defe$#e ,ecau#e h # l a, l ty #

e)

)!at %e*ense, "* any, "s ava"la/le to t!e&1 ($4)

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

,a#ed o$ a ?ua# >del ct. 4c7 Necau#e = #uffered phy# cal $8ur e#* = ca$ cla m moral damage# aga $#t H* ,ut a# aga $#t the ow$er of the ,u#. =
ca$ cla m moral damage# o$ly f = pro!e# rec9le## $egl ge$ce of the carr er amou$t $g to fraud. 4d7 I ca$ cla m moral damage# aga $#t ,oth defe$da$t#

@he defe$#e that m ght ,e a!a la,le to them # the o,#er!a$ce of a good father of the fam ly to pre!e$t the

damage. 4"a#t par.* &rt. 2180* C ! l Code7


6%asi?Delict; 2cts contrar" to morals (199-) Jo#a wa# lea# $g a$ apartme$t $ the c ty. Necau#e of the

Je$t Co$trol "aw* her la$dlord could $ot $crea#e the re$tal a# much a# he wa$ted to* $or term $ate her lea#e a#
lo$g a# #he wa# pay $g her re$t. +$ order to force her to

,ecau#e the rule# o$ damage# ar # $g from death due to a

?ua# >del ct are al#o appl ca,le to death of a pa##e$ger


cau#ed ,y ,reach of co$tract ,y a commo$ carr er 4&rt#.

1755. 1756* 1764* 2206 a$d 2219. C ! l Code7.

lea!e the prem #e#* the la$dlord #topped ma9 $g repa r# o$ the apartme$t* a$d cau#ed the water a$d electr c ty #er! ce# to ,e d #co$$ected. @he d ff culty of l ! $g w thout
electr c ty a$d ru$$ $g water re#ulted $ Jo#aG# #uffer $g a $er!ou# ,rea9dow$. .he #ued the la$dlord for actual a$d

6%asi?Delict ('##9)

L$der the law o$ ?ua# >del ct* a# de from the per#o$# who cau#ed $8ury to per#o$#* who el#e are l a,le u$der the
follow $g c rcum#ta$ce#(

moral damage#. 2 ll the act o$ pro#per% 5-pla $.


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Page 115 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

Be#* ,a#ed o$ ?ua# >del ct u$der the huma$ relat o$#

for ?ua# >del ct may $o$ethele## pro#per. @he .upreme


Court ha# co$# #te$tly ruled that the act that ,rea9# the

pro! # o$# of the 1ew C ! l Code 4&rt cle# 19* 20 a$d 217 ,ecau#e the act comm tted ,y the le##or # co$trary to moral#. 0oral damage# are reco!era,le u$der &rt cle 2219 4107 $ relat o$ to &rt cle 21. &lthough the act o$ # ,a#ed o$ ?ua# >del ct a$d $ot o$ co$tract* actual damage# may ,e reco!ered f the le##ee # a,le to pro!e the lo##e# a$d
e-pe$#e# #he #uffered.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE"(:

co$tract may al#o ,e a tort. @here # a f duc ary relat o$#h p ,etwee$ the ,a$9 a$d the depo# tor* mpo# $g utmo#t
d l ge$ce $ ma$ag $g the accou$t# of the depo# tor. @he

d #ho$or of the chec9 ad!er#ely affected the cred t #ta$d $g of @o$y* he$ce* he # e$t tled to damage# (S"n,son v. G I,
;.R. 0o. 56$493$, -.ne $(, 1968C A&er"+an 23'ress Internat"onal, In+. v. IAC, ;.R. 0o. ($383, 0ove&/er 9, 1988C Consol"%ate% GanE an% Tr.st v. CA, ;.R. 0o. 56(0(66 0ove&/er 9,1998).

a7 Be#* ,a#ed o$ ,reach of co$tract. @he le##or ha# the

o,l gat o$ to u$derta9e repa r# to ma9e the apartme$t


ha, ta,le a$d to ma $ta $ the le##ee $ the peaceful a$d

ade?uate e$8oyme$t of the lea#e for the e$t re durat o$ of

the co$tract 4&rt cle 1654. 1CC7. . $ce there wa# w llful ,reach of co$tract ,y the le##or* the le##ee # e$t tled to

moral damage# u$der &rt cle 3220* 1CC. .he # al#o


e$t tled to actual damage#* e. g. lo## of $come* med cal e-pe$#e#* etc.* wh ch #he ca$ pro!e at the tr al.

@icario%s Liabilit" (1991) Joma$o wa# ,umped ,y a m $ !a$ ow$ed ,y the .olomo$ .chool of Pract cal &rt# 4..P&7. @he m $ !a$ wa# dr !e$ ,y Peter* a #tude$t a## #ta$t who#e a## g$me$t wa# to clea$ the
#chool pa##ageway# da ly o$e hour ,efore a$d o$e hour

,7

Be#* ,a#ed o$ co$tract a$dSor o$ tort. @he le##or

w llfully ,reached h # o,l gat o$# u$der &rt cle 1654. 1CC* he$ce* he # l a,le for ,reach of co$tract. For #uch ,reach*
the le##ee may reco!er moral damage# u$der &rt. 2220 of

the 1CC* a$d actual damage# that #he may ha!e #uffered o$
accou$t thereof. &$d # $ce the co$duct of the le##or wa# co$trary to moral#* he may al#o ,e held l a,le for ?ua# >

after regular cla##e#* $ e-cha$ge for free tu t o$. Peter wa# a,le to dr !e the #chool !eh cle after per#uad $g the regular dr !er* Paul* to tur$ o!er the wheel to h m 4Peter7. Joma$o #uffered #er ou# phy# cal $8ur e#. @he acc de$t happe$ed at $ ght whe$ o$ly o$e headl ght of the !eh cle wa# fu$ct o$ $g a$d Peter o$ly had a #tude$t dr !erG# perm t. &# a co$#e?ue$ce* Peter wa# co$! cted $ the cr m $al ca#e.
@hereafter* Joma$o #ued for damage# aga $#t Peter a$d

..P&.
a7 2 ll the act o$ for damage# aga $#t Peter a$d ..P&

del ct. @he le##ee may reco!er moral damage# u$der &rt cle
2219 4107 $ relat o$ to &rt cle 21* a$d all actual damage# wh ch #he may ha!e #uffered ,y rea#o$ of #uch co$duct u$der &rt cle# 9* 20 a$d 21.

pro#per% ,7 2 ll your a$#wer ,e the #ame f* Paul* the regular


dr !er* wa# mpleaded a# party defe$da$t for allow $g Peter to dr !e the m $ !a$ w thout a regular dr !erG# c7 +# the e-erc #e of due d l ge$ce $ the #elect o$ a$d #uper! # o$ of Peter a$d Paul a mater al ##ue to ,e re#ol!ed $ th # ca#e%

c7 Be#* the act o$ #hould pro#per for ,oth actual a$d moral
damage#. +$ fact* e!e$ e-emplary damage# a$d attor$eyG#

l ce$#e.

fee# ca$ ,e cla med ,y Jo#a* o$ the author ty of Ma,/an.a vs. IAC (13( SCRA 3$8)* co$# der $g that* a# g !e$* the le##orG# w llful a$d llegal act of d #co$$ect $g the water a$d
electr c #er! ce# re#ulted $ Jo#aG# #uffer $g a $er!ou#

(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

,rea9dow$. &rt. 20 1CC a$d &rt* 21* 1CC author :e the

award of damage# for #uch w llful a$d llegal co$duct.


6%asi?Delict; *ismanagement of DepositorFs 2cco%nt

&. Be#. +t w ll pro#per 4&rt* 21807 ,ecau#e at the t me he dro!e the !eh cle* he wa# $ot perform $g h # a## g$ed ta#9# a# pro! ded for ,y &rt. 2180. 2 th re#pect to ..P&* t # $ot
l a,le for the act# of Peter ,ecau#e the latter wa# $ot a$ employee a# held ,y .upreme Court $ 8"la&er C!r"st"an
Inst"t.te vs. CA. (190 SCRA 487). Peter ,elo$g# to a #pec al

('##-) @o$y ,ought a Ford 5-ped t o$ from a car dealer $


0u$t $lupa C ty. &# payme$t* @o$y ##ued a chec9 draw$ aga $#t h # curre$t accou$t w th Prem um Na$9. . $ce he

category of #tude$t# who re$der #er! ce to the #chool $

e-cha$ge for free tu t o$ fee#. N. + would ma $ta $ the #ame a$#wer ,ecau#e the $c de$t

ha# a good reputat o$* the car dealer allowed h m to

mmed ately dr !e home the !eh cle merely o$ h # a##ura$ce


that h # chec9 # #uff c e$tly fu$ded. 2he$ the car dealer depo# ted the chec9* t wa# d #ho$ored o$ the grou$d of

d d $ot occur wh le the employee wa# $ the performa$ce of


h # duty a# #uch employee. @he $c de$t occurred at $ ght

'&ccou$t Clo#ed.' &fter a$ $!e#t gat o$* t wa# fou$d that a$ employee of the ,a$9 m #placed @o$yG# accou$t ledger.
@hu#* the ,a$9 erro$eou#ly a##umed that h # accou$t $o lo$ger e- #t#. "ater t tur$ed out that @o$yG# accou$t ha# more tha$ #uff c e$t fu$d# to co!er the chec9. @he dealer howe!er* mmed ately f led a$ act o$ for reco!ery of

t me* a$d $ a$y ca#e* there wa# $o $d cat o$ $ the pro,lem that he wa# perform $g h # dut e# a# a dr !er.
C. +$ the ca#e of Peter* f he were to ,e co$# dered a#

po##e## o$ of the !eh cle aga $#t @o$y for wh ch he wa#

employee* the e-erc #e of due d l ge$ce $ the #elect o$ a$d #uper! # o$ of peter would $ot ,e a mater al ##ue # $ce the co$! ct o$ of Peter would re#ult $ a #u,# d ary l a, l ty where the defe$#e would $ot ,e a!a la,le ,y the employer. +$ the ca#e of Paul* # $ce the ,a# # of #u,# d ary l a, l ty # the pater fam l a# rule u$der &rt. 2180* the defe$#e of #elect o$ a$d #uper! # o$ of the employee would ,e a !al d defe$#e.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

terr ,ly hum l ated a$d em,arra##ed. Hoe# @o$y ha!e a


cau#e of act o$ aga $#t Prem um Na$9% 5-pla $. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Be#* @o$y may f le a$ act o$ aga $#t Prem um Na$9 for

damage# u$der &rt. 2176. 5!e$ f there e- #t# a co$tractual


relat o$#h p ,etwee$ @o$y a$d Prem um Na$9* a$ act o$

Page 116 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

C. +$ the ca#e of Peter* f he were to ,e co$# dered a$

@he doctr $e of 6+C&J+/L. "+&N+"+@B # that wh ch

employee* the e-erc #e of due d l ge$ce $ the #elect o$ a$d #uper! # o$ of Peter would $ot ,e a mater al ##ue # $ce the co$! ct o$ of Peter would re#ult $ a #u,# d ary l a, l ty where the defe$#e would $ot ,e a!a la,le ,y the employer. +$ the ca#e of Paul* # $ce he wa# $ the performa$ce of h # wor9 at the t me the $c de$t occurred* the #chool may ,e held #u,# d ar ly l a,le $ot ,ecau#e of the co$! ct o$ of
Peter* ,ut ,ecau#e of the $egl ge$ce of Paul u$der &rt.

re$der# a per#o$ l a,le for the $egl ge$ce of other# for who#e act# or om ## o$ the law ma9e# h m re#po$# ,le o$ the theory that they are u$der h # co$trol a$d #uper! # o$. @icario%s Liabilit" ('##!) /< wa# employed a# profe## o$al dr !er of 00 @ra$# t ,u#
ow$ed ,y 0r. N@. +$ the cour#e of h # wor9* /< h t a pede#tr a$ who wa# #er ou#ly $8ured a$d later d ed $ the

2180.
@icario%s Liabilit" ('##1) &fter wor9 $g o!ert me up to m d$ ght* &l,erto* a$ e-ecut !e of a$ $#ura$ce compa$y dro!e a compa$y

ho#p tal a# a re#ult of the acc de$t. @he ! ct mO# he r# #ued the dr !er a$d the ow$er of the ,u# for damage#. +# there a pre#umpt o$ $ th # ca#e that 0r. N@* the ow$er* had ,ee$ $egl ge$t% +f #o* # the pre#umpt o$ a,#olute or $ot% 5-pla $. 45E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

!eh cle to a fa!or te 6 deo9e ,ar where he had #ome dr $9#


a$d #a$g #ome #o$g# w th fr e$d# to 'u$w $d'. &t 2(00

a.m.* he dro!e home* ,ut $ do $g #o* he ,umped a tr cycle* re#ult $g $ the death of t# dr !er. 0ay the $#ura$ce
compa$y ,e held l a,le for the $egl ge$t act of &l,erto%

employer. Howe!er* #uch pre#umpt o$ # re,utta,le. @he l a, l ty of the employer #hall cea#e whe$ they pro!e that

Be#* there # a pre#umpt o$ of $egl ge$ce o$ the part of the

they o,#er!ed the d l ge$ce of a good father of a fam ly to


pre!e$t damage 4&rt cle 2180* C ! l Code7. 2he$ the employee cau#e# damage due to h # ow$

2hy%
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

@he $#ura$ce compa$y # $ot l a,le ,ecau#e whe$ the


acc de$t occurred* &l,erto wa# $ot act $g w th $ the a## g$ed ta#9# of h # employme$t.

$egl ge$ce wh le perform $g h # ow$ dut e#* there ar #e# the


=uris tantum pre#umpt o$ that the employer # $egl ge$t*

re,utta,le o$ly ,y proof of o,#er!a$ce of the d l ge$ce of a


good father of a fam ly (Metro Man"la Trans"t v. CA, $$3
SCRA 7$1 [1993]C Felsan Trans'ort 5"nes v, COtA

+t # true that u$der &rt. 2180 4par. 57* employer# are l a,le
for damage# cau#ed ,y the r employee# who were act $g

Constr.+t"on, 41$ SCRA 7$4 $003).

w th $ the #cope of the r a## g$ed ta#9#. Howe!er* the mere fact that &l,erto wa# u# $g a #er! ce !eh cle of the employer
at the t me of the $8ur ou# acc de$t doe# $ot $ece##ar ly

" 9ew #e* f the dr !er # charged a$d co$! cted $ a cr m $al ca#e for cr m $al $egl ge$ce* N@ # #u,# d ar ly l a,le for the
damage# ar # $g from the cr m $al act.

mea$ that he wa# operat $g the !eh cle w th $ the #cope of h # employme$t. +$ Cast"le3 In%.str"al Cor'. v. #asN.e@ -r (3$1 SCRA393 [1999]). the .upreme Court held that
$otw th#ta$d $g the fact that the employee d d #ome o!ert me wor9 for the compa$y* the former wa#*

@icario%s Liabilit" ('##-)


&rturo #old h # Pa8ero to Ne$8am $ for P1 0 ll o$. Ne$>

8am $ too9 the !eh cle ,ut d d $ot reg #ter the #ale w th the
"a$d @ra$#portat o$ /ff ce. He allowed h # #o$ Carlo#* a

$e!erthele##* e$gaged $ h # ow$ affa r# or carry $g out a

per#o$al purpo#e whe$ he we$t to a re#taura$t at 2(00 a.m. after com $g out from wor9. @he t me of the acc de$t 4al#o 2(00 a. m.7 wa# out# de $ormal wor9 $g hour#.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

m $or who d d $ot ha!e a dr !erG# l ce$#e* to dr !e the car to ,uy pa$ de #al $ a ,a9ery. /$ the way* Carlo# dr ! $g $ a
rec9le## ma$$er* # de#w ped He$$ #* the$ r d $g a , cycle. &# a re#ult* he #uffered #er ou# phy# cal $8ur e#. He$$ # f led a cr m $al compla $t aga $#t Carlo# for rec9le##

@he $#ura$ce compa$y # l a,le f &l,erto wa# $egl ge$t $ the operat o$ of the car a$d the car wa# a## g$ed to h m for the ,e$ef t of the $#ura$ce compa$y* a$d e!e$ though he
wa# $ot w th $ the #cope of h # a## g$ed ta#9# whe$ the acc de$t happe$ed. +$ o$e ca#e dec ded ,y the .upreme Court* where a$ e-ecut !e of a pharmaceut cal compa$y wa#

mprude$ce re#ult $g $ #er ou# phy# cal $8ur e#.


1. Can Fenn"s *"le an "n%e'en%ent +"v"l a+t"on a,a"nst Carlos an% !"s *at!er Gen:a&"n *or %a&a,es /ase% on N.as"6%el"+t1 23'la"n. ($,74)
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

Be#* He$$ # ca$ f le a$ $depe$de$t

g !e$ the u#e of a compa$y car* a$d after off ce hour#* the e-ecut !e made per#o$al u#e of the car a$d met a$ acc de$t*
the employer wa# al#o made l a,le u$der &rt. 2180 of the

c ! l act o$ aga $#t Carlo# a$d h # father for damage# ,a#ed o$ ?ua# >del ct there ,e $g a$ act or om ## o$ cau# $g
damage to a$other w thout co$tractual o,l gat o$. L$der

C ! l Code for the $8ury cau#ed ,y the $egl ge$t operat o$


of the car ,y the e-ecut !e* o$ the grou$d that the car

wh ch cau#ed the $8ury wa# a## g$ed to the e-ecut !e ,y the


employer for the pre#t ge of the compa$y. @he $#ura$ce

.ect o$ 1 of Jule 111 of the 2000 Jule# o$ Cr m $al Procedure* what # deemed $#t tuted w th the cr m $al act o$ # o$ly the act o$ to reco!er c ! l l a, l ty ar # $g from
the act or om ## o$ pu$ #hed ,y law. &$ act o$ ,a#ed o$

compa$y wa# held l a,le e!e$ though the employee wa# $ot perform $g w th $ the #cope of h # a## g$ed ta#9# whe$ the acc de$t happe$ed [#alen@.ela v. CA, $73 SCRA 3<3 (1996)].
@icario%s Liabilit" ('##') 5-pla $ the co$cept of ! car ou# l a, l ty $ ?ua# >del ct#.

?ua# >del ct # $o lo$ger deemed $#t tuted a$d may ,e f led #eparately ;.ect o$ 3* Jule 111* Jule# of Cr m $al ProcedureA.
$. Ass.&"n, Fenn"sD a+t"on "s tena/le, +an Gen:a&"n ra"se
t!e %e*ense t!at !e "s not l"a/le /e+a.se t!e ve!"+le "s not

41E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

re,"stere% "n !"s na&e1 23'la"n. ($.74)

Page 117 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

1o* Ne$8am $ ca$$ot ra #e the

defe$#e that the !eh cle # $ot reg #tered $ h # $ame. H #

called Co$comou#eD $ 0a$ la% 2hat w ll ,e your ad! ce to h m% 45E7


(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

l a, l ty* ! car ou# $ character* # ,a#ed o$ &rt cle 2180 ,ecau#e he # the father of a m $or who cau#ed damage due
to $egl ge$ce. 2h le the #u t w ll pro#per aga $#t the

417 @he rec proc ty pr $c ple $ pr !ate $ter$at o$al law may
,e appl ed $ our 8ur #d ct o$. .ect o$ 3 of J.&. 8293* the +$tellectual Property Code* pro! de# for rec proc ty* a#

reg #tered ow$er* t # the actual ow$er of the pr !ate !eh cle who # ult mately l a,le (See F.av"t v. CA, ;.R. 0o. 56$9(79,
May 18, 1989). @he purpo#e of car reg #trat o$ # to reduce

d ff culty $ de$t fy $g the party l a,le $ ca#e of acc de$t#


(#"llan.eva v. Fo&"n,o, ;.R. 0o. 144$(4, Se'te&/er 14,
$004).

follow#( '&$y per#o$ who # a $at o$al* or who # dom c led* or ha# a real a$d effect !e $du#tr al e#ta,l #hme$t $ a cou$try wh ch # a party to a$y co$!e$t o$* treaty or agreeme$t relat $g to $tellectual property r ght# or the repre## o$ of u$fa r compet t o$* to wh ch the Ph l pp $e# # al#o a party*
or e-te$d# rec procal r ght# to $at o$al# of the Ph l pp $e#

@icario%s Liabilit"; 4%blic /tilit" ('###)

. l!e#tre lea#ed a car from &! #>Je$t>&>Car Co. at the 0acta$ +$ter$at o$al & rport. 1o #oo$er had he dr !e$ the car out# de the a rport whe$* due to h # $egl ge$ce* he
,umped a$ F= ta- ow$ed a$d dr !e$ ,y 6 ctor* cau# $g

damage to the latter $ the amou$t of P100*000.00. 6 ctor for damage# aga $#t ,oth . l!e#tre a$d &! #* f led a$ act o$ ,a#ed o$ ?ua# >del ct. &! # f led a mot o$ to d #m ## the compla $t aga $#t t o$ the grou$d of fa lure to #tate a cau#e
of act o$. Je#ol!e the mot o$. 43E7
(+&&E($E# A'(WE":

,y law* #hall ,e e$t tled to ,e$ef t# to the e-te$t $ece##ary to g !e effect to a$y pro! # o$ of #uch co$!e$t o$* treaty or rec procal law* $ add t o$ to the r ght# to wh ch a$y ow$er of a$ $tellectual property r ght # otherw #e e$t tled ,y th # &ct. 4$7' @o llu#trate( the Ph l pp $e# may refra $ from
mpo# $g a re?u reme$t of local $corporat o$ or

e#ta,l #hme$t of a local dom c le for the protect o$ of


$du#tr al property r ght# of fore g$ $at o$al# 4c t :e$# of Ca$ada* .w t:erla$d* L...7 f the cou$tr e# of #a d fore g$

@he mot o$ to d #m ## #hould ,e gra$ted* &6+. # $ot the


employer of . l!e#tre3 he$ce* there # $o r ght of act o$ aga $#t &6+. u$der &rt cle 2180 of the C ! l Code. 1ot ,e $g the employer* &6+. ha# $o duty to #uper! #e . l!e#tre. 1e ther ha# &6+. the duty to o,#er!e due d l ge$ce $ the #elect o$ of t# cu#tomer#. Ne# de#* t wa#

$at o$al# refra $ from o$ F l p $o c t :e$#.


AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

mpo# $g #a d re?u reme$t

Jec proc ty pr $c ple ca$$ot ,e appl ed $ our 8ur #d ct o$

,ecau#e the Ph l pp $e# # a party to the @J+P. agreeme$t a$d the 2@/. @he pr $c ple $!ol!ed # the mo#t>fa!ored
$at o$ clau#e wh ch # the pr $c ple of $o$> d #cr m $at o$.

g !e$ $ the pro,lem that the cau#e of the acc de$t wa# the
$egl ge$ce of . l!e#tre.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

@he protect o$ afforded to $tellectual property protect o$


$ the Ph l pp $e# al#o appl e# to other mem,er# of the

@he mot o$ #hould ,e de$ ed. L$der the Pu,l c .er! ce

2@/. @hu#* t # $ot really rec proc ty pr $c ple $ pr !ate


$ter$at o$al law that appl e#* ,ut the mo#t>fa!ored $at o$

"aw* the reg #tered ow$er of a pu,l c ut l ty # l a,le for the damage# #uffered ,y th rd per#o$# through the u#e of #uch pu,l c ut l ty. He$ce* the cau#e of act o$ # ,a#ed $ law* the
Pu,l c .er! ce "aw.

clau#e u$der pu,l c $ter$at o$al law.


427 @here # $o legal rea#o$ why 'o$comou#e' ca$$ot ,e

protected u$der the law. &mo$g tho#e e-cluded from


pate$t protect o$ are 'pla$t !ar et e# or a$ mal ,reed#* or e##e$t ally , olog cal proce## for the product o$ of pla$t#

I'$ELLEC$+AL P"!PE"$*
)ntellect%al Creation ('##!)

a$d a$ mal#' 4.ect o$ 22.4 +$tellectual Property Code* J.&. 1o. 82937. @he 'o$comou#e' $ the pro,lem # $ot a$

Hr. &"= # a #c e$t #t ho$ored for wor9 related to the

huma$ ge$ome pro8ect. &mo$g h # p o$eer $g effort# co$cer$ #tem cell re#earch for the cure of &l:he merO# d #ea#e. L$der corporate #po$#or#h p* he helped de!elop a
m cro,e that ate a$d d ge#ted o l #p ll# $ the #ea. 1ow he lead# a college team for ca$cer re#earch $ 0..

e##e$t ally , olog cal proce## for the product o$ of a$ mal#. +t # a real $!e$t o$ ,ecau#e t# ,ody cell# do $ot $aturally
occur $ $ature ,ut are the product of ma$G# $ge$u ty* $tellect a$d $du#try.

.tate. @he team ha# e-per me$ted o$ a mou#e who#e ,ody cell# repl cate a$d ,ear ca$cerou# tumor. Called
Co$comou#eD* t # a l fe>form u#eful for med cal re#earch a$d t # a $o!el creat o$. +t# ,ody cell# do $ot $aturally

@he ,reed $g of o$comou#e ha# $o!elty* $!e$t !e #tep a$d $du#tr al appl cat o$. @he#e are the three re?u # te# of pate$ta, l ty. 4.ec. 29* +PC7 @here are $o eth cal rea#o$# why Hr. &H= a$d h # college
team ca$$ot ,e g !e$ e-clu# !e ow$er#h p o!er the r

occur $ $ature ,ut are the product of ma$O# $tellect* $du#try a$d $ge$u ty. Howe!er* there # a dou,t whether
local property law# a$d eth c# would allow r ght# of

$!e$t o$. @he u#e of #uch ge$et cally mod f ed mou#e* u#eful for ca$cer re#earch* outwe gh# co$# derat o$# for
a$ mal r ght#.

e-clu# !e ow$er#h p o$ a$y l fe>form. Hr. &"= $eed# your


ad! ce( 417 whether the rec proc ty pr $c ple $ pr !ate $ter$at o$al law could ,e appl ed $ our 8ur #d ct o$3 a$d 427

@here are $o legal a$d eth cal rea#o$# that would fru#trate Hr. &"=G# cla m of e-clu# !e ow$er#h p o!er 'o$comou#e'.
&$ mal# are property capa,le of ,e $g appropr ated a$d

whether there are legal a$d eth cal rea#o$# that could fru#trate h # cla m of e-clu# !e ow$er#h p o!er the l fe>form

ow$edG. +$ fact* o$e ca$ ow$ pet dog# or cat#* or a$y other
a$ mal. +f w ld a$ mal# are capa,le of ,e $g ow$ed* w th

more rea#o$ a$ mal# tech$olog cally e$ha$ced or corrupted

Page 118 of 119

CIVIL LAW Answers to the BAR as Arranged by Topics (Year 1990-2006)

,y ma$G# $!e$t o$ or $du#try are #u#cept ,le to e-clu# !e ow$er#h p ,y the $!e$tor.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

@he o$comou#e # a h gher l fe form wh ch doe# $ot fall w th $ the def $ t o$ of the term ' $!e$t o$'. 1e ther may t fall w th $ the am, t of the term 'ma$ufacture' wh ch u#ually mpl e# a $o$> l ! $g mecha$ #t c product. @he o$comou#e # ,etter regarded a# a 'd #co!ery' wh ch # the commo$ patr mo$y of ma$.
AL$E"'A$IVE A'(WE":

@he 'o$comou#e' # a $o$>pate$ta,le $!e$t o$. He$ce* ca$$ot ,e ow$ed e-clu# !ely ,y t# $!e$tor. +t # a method for the treatme$t of the huma$ or a$ mal ,ody ,y #urgery or therapy a$d d ag$o#t c method# pract ced o$ #a d ,od e# are $ot pate$ta,le u$der .ec. 22 of the +PC.

Page 119 of 119