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TEST BANK

Exam
Name___________________________________

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
1)Asectionthatdividesthebodyonthelongitudinalplaneintoequalrightandleftpartsiscalled: 1)_______
A)median(midsagittal)
B)oblique
C)transverse
D)frontal
E)coronal

2)Whichofthefollowingisthecorrectsequence,goingfromsimplesttomostcomplex,inthe
2)_______
levelsofstructuralorganizationofthehumanbody:
A)chemicallevel,tissuelevel,cellularlevel,organsystemlevel,organlevel,organismallevel
B)cellularlevel,chemicallevel,tissuelevel,organsystemlevel,organismallevel,organlevel
C)chemicallevel,cellularlevel,tissuelevel,organlevel,organsystemlevel,organismallevel
D)cellularlevel,chemicallevel,tissuelevel,organlevel,organsystemlevel,organismallevel
E)cellularlevel,tissuelevel,chemicallevel,organlevel,organsystemlevel,organismallevel

3)Whichoftheseregionsareassociatedwiththepartsofthearm:
3)_______
A)femoral,popliteal,patellar
B)brachial,antecubital,carpal
C)nasal,oral,occipital
D)pelvic,pubic,inguinal
E)acromial,sacral,gluteal

4)Themuscularsystemconsistsofthe:
4)_______
A)musclesinthewallsofholloworgans
B)musclesoftheheartandthoseinthewallsoftheholloworgans
C)skeletalmuscles
D)skeletalmusclesandthemusclesoftheheart
E)musclesoftheheart

5)Thelymphaticsystem:
5)_______
A)synthesizesvitaminD
B)respondstointernalandexternalchangesbyactivatingappropriatemusclesandglands
C)secreteshormonesthatregulateprocessessuchasgrowth,reproduction,andnutrientuse
(metabolism)bybodycells
D)picksupfluidleakedfrombloodvesselsandreturnsittotheblood
E)producesheat

6)WhichsystemcoverstheexternalsurfaceofthebodyandmanufacturesvitaminD:
6)_______
A)endocrinesystem
B)skeletalsystem
C)nervoussystem
D)integumentarysystem
E)lymphaticsystem

7)WhichoftheseregionsareNOTassociatedwiththeventral(anterior)portionofthehead:
7)_______
A)oral
B)orbital
C)buccal
D)nasal
E)occiptal

8)Whichofthefollowingsystemsismatchedmostaccuratelytothelifefunctionitprovides:
8)_______

A)respiratorysystem-digestion
B)nervoussystem-excretion
C)muscularsystem-maintainingboundaries
D)integumentarysystem-movement
E)nervoussystem-responsiveness

9)Whichofthefollowingelementsofacontrolsystemdetectsachange:
A)receptor
B)controlcenter
C)effector
D)stimulus
E)efferentpathway

10)Whichofthefollowingstatementsiscorrectregardingthelocationofthespleenandstomach:
A)bothoftheseorgansarelocatedmedially
B)bothoftheseorgansarelocatedintheleftupperquadrant
C)thespleenislocatedintheleftupperquadrantandthestomachislocatedintheright
upperquadrant
D)bothoftheseorgansarelocatedintherightupperquadrant
E)thespleenislocatedintherightupperquadrantandthestomachislocatedintheleft
upperquadrant

11)WhichoftheseisNOTasurvivalneed:
A)oxygen
B)water
C)reproduction
D)bodytemperature
E)nutrients

12)Whichofthefollowingisthecorrectorderofelementsinacontrolsystem:
A)receptor,stimulus,afferentpathway,controlcenter,efferentpathway,effector,response
B)stimulus,receptor,efferentpathway,controlcenter,afferentpathway,effector,response
C)receptor,stimulus,efferentpathway,controlcenter,afferentpathway,effector,response
D)stimulus,receptor,afferentpathway,controlcenter,efferentpathway,effector,response
E)effector,stimulus,efferentpathway,controlcenter,afferentpathway,receptor,response

13)Whichofthefollowingactivitiesdoesnotrepresentananatomicalstudy:
A)viewingmuscletissuethroughamicroscope
B)studyinghowthenervesconductelectricalimpulses
C)observingthepartsofareproducingcell
D)examiningthesurfaceofabone

E)makingasectionthroughthehearttoobserveitsinterior

14)Thedorsalbodycavityhousesthe:
A)heartandlungs
B)spinalcordandbrain
C)tongue
D)urinaryandreproductiveorgans
E)digestiveandreproductiveorgans

15)Thestomach,liver,intestines,bladder,rectum,andreproductiveorgansarehousedinthe:
A)abdominopelviccavity

9)_______

10)______

11)______

12)______

13)______

14)______

15)______

B)dorsalcavity
C)spinalcavity
D)cranialcavity
E)thoraciccavity

16)WhichofthefollowingisNOTanecessarylifefunction:
A)nutrients
B)maintainingboundaries
C)movement
D)responsiveness
E)metabolism

17)Thestudyofthefunctionofthebodyandbodypartsiscalled:
A)homeostasis
B)anatomy
C)physiology
D)irritability

E)negativefeedback

18)Whichoftheseregionsintheabdominopelviccavityaremedial:
A)epigastric,umbilical,andhypogastricregions
B)umbilical,rightlumbar,andleftlumbarregions
C)epigastric,right,andlefthypochondriacregions
D)iliac(inguinal),lumbar,andhypogastricregions
E)rightandleftiliac(inguinal),andhypogastricregions

19)Theregionthatcontainsthenavelisthe:
A)umbilicalregion
B)orbitalregion
C)carpalregion
D)anteriorknee
E)inguinalregion

20)Theglutealregionisthe:
A)posteriorkneearea
B)posteriorsurfaceofthehead
C)shoulderbladeregion
D)buttock
E)curveoftheshoulder

21)Whichofthefollowingorientationtermshaveoppositemeanings(inhumans):
A)medialandanterior
B)superficialandproximal
C)posteriorandintermediate
D)distalandproximal
E)medialanddistal

22)Yourbodythermostatislocatedinapartofthebraincalledthehypothalamus.Whichofthe
followingelementsofacontrolsystemdoesthisareainthebrainrepresent:
A)stimulus
B)afferentpathway
C)efferentpathway

16)______

17)______

18)______

19)______

20)______

21)______

22)______

D)effector
E)controlcenter

23)Theovaryispartofwhichofthefollowingtwosystems:
A)digestiveandrespiratorysystems
B)reproductiveandendocrinesystems
C)digestiveandendocrinesystems
D)reproductiveandrespiratorysystems
E)endocrineandrespiratorysystems

24)Eliminationofmetabolicwastesfromthebodyisthefunctionofthe:
A)digestiveandurinarysystems
B)digestivesystem
C)urinarysystem
D)respiratorysystem
E)digestiveandrespiratorysystems

25)Whichventralcavitysubdivisionhasnobonyprotection:
A)spinal
B)pelvic
C)abdominal
D)cranial
E)thoracic

26)Thesystemthatcontrolsandcoordinatesthebodythroughhormonesisthe:
A)digestivesystem
B)nervoussystem
C)endocrinesystem
D)skeletalsystem
E)integumentarysystem

27)Whichtypeofsectioncouldbeusedtoseparatethethoraciccavityfromtheabdominopelvic
cavity:
A)dorsal
B)transverse
C)sagittal
D)coronal
E)ventral

28)Whichofthefollowingregionaltermsmeanstheanteriorsurfaceoftheelbow:
A)vertebralregion
B)antecubitalregion
C)calcanealregion
D)scapularregion
E)glutealregion

29)Indescribingtherelationshipofthethoracicandspinalcavities:
A)thethoraciccavityissuperiortothespinalcavity
B)thethoraciccavityismedialtothespinalcavity
C)thethoraciccavityisproximaltothespinalcavity
D)thethoraciccavityisventraltothespinalcavity
E)thethoraciccavityisinferiortothespinalcavity

30)Whichofthesestructuresisthemostcomplex:
A)atissue
B)amolecule

23)______

24)______

25)______

26)______

27)______

28)______

29)______

30)______

C)acell
D)organsystem
E)anorgan

31)Sarahfellwhileiceskatingandbrokeaboneinhercarpalregion.Whereisthisregion?
A)wrist
B)shoulder
C)lowerleg
D)hip
E)knee

32)Inanatomicalposition:
A)thebodyiserectwiththefeetparallelandthearmshangingatthesideswiththepalms
facingforward
B)thebodyislyingfaceupwiththefeetparallelandthearmsatthesideswiththepalms
facingforward
C)thebodyiserectwiththefeetparallelandthearmshangingatthesideswiththepalms
facingbackward
D)thebodyislyingfaceupwiththefeetparallelandthearmsatthesideswiththepalms
facingbackward
E)thebodyislyingfacedownwiththefeetparallelandthearmsatthesideswiththepalms
facingbackward

33)Thelungsandheartareinthe__________bodycavity.
A)spinal
B)thoracic
C)abdominopelvic
D)cranial
E)dorsal

34)Theribsarelocatedinthe:
A)rightandleftiliacregions
B)rightandlefthypochondriacregions
C)rightandleftpubicregions
D)rightandleftlumbarregions
E)rightandleftinguinalregions

35)Positivefeedbacksystems:
A)operateinsuchawaythattheinitialstimulusisenhancedandincreases
B)regulateheartandbreathingrates,andoperateinsuchawaythattheinitialstimulusis
shutofforreduced
C)regulateheartandbreathingrates,andoperateinsuchawaythattheinitialstimulusis
enhancedandincreases
D)operateinsuchawaythattheinitialstimulusisshutofforreduced
E)regulateheartandbreathingrates

36)Whichofthefollowingorientationanddirectionaltermshavethesamemeaning(inhumans):
A)superiorandcaudal
B)inferiorandcephalad
C)anterioranddorsal
D)inferiorandcranial
E)anteriorandventral

37)Thesystemthattakesinoxygenandreleasescarbondioxidetotheexterioristhe:
A)muscularsystem
B)respiratorysystem

31)______

32)______

33)______

34)______

35)______

36)______

37)______

C)urinarysystem
D)cardiovascularsystem
E)reproductivesystem

38)Indescribingtherelationshipbetweenthepatellarandpoplitealregions:
38)______
A)thepatellarregionislateraltothepoplitealregion
B)thepatellarregionisanteriortothepoplitealregion
C)thepatellarregionisproximaltothepoplitealregion

D)thepatellarregionissuperiortothepoplitealregion
E)thepatellarregionisdistaltothepoplitealregion

SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
39)Acutthatismadealongthemidlineiscalleda__________section.
39)_____________

Figure1.1

UsingFigure1.1,identifythefollowing:
40)LabelEpointstothe__________cavity.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
41)Acontrolmechanismthatrespondstoastimulusbydecreasingitsintensityiscalleda
__________mechanism.

42)Thelarynxisanorganofthe__________system.

40)_____________

41)_____________

42)_____________


Figure1.2

UsingFigure1.2,identifythefollowing:
43)LabelApointstothe__________region.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
44)Thebodysabilitytomaintainstableinternalconditionsisreferredtoas__________.

45)Theabdominalcavityhas__________quadrantsand__________regions.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
46)Thenavelis__________tothespine.

47)__________istheprocessofbreakingdowningestedfoodinpreparationforabsorption.

43)_____________

44)_____________
45)_____________

46)_____________
47)_____________


Figure1.2

UsingFigure1.2,identifythefollowing:
48)LabelEpointstothe__________region.

48)_____________

Figure1.1

UsingFigure1.1,identifythefollowing:
49)LabelBpointstothe__________cavity.

50)LabelFpointstothe__________cavity.

49)_____________
50)_____________

51)Ventralisadirectionaltermsynonymouswith__________inhumans.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
52)Groupsofcellsthathaveacommonfunctionaretermed__________.

51)_____________

52)_____________

Figure1.1

UsingFigure1.1,identifythefollowing:
53)LabelApointstothe__________cavity.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
54)Thecentralregionofthethoraciccavitycontainingtheheartiscalledthe__________.

55)Thesystemthatfunctionsinthestorageofminerals,suchascalcium,iscalledthe
__________system.

56)Thecomponentofacontrolsystemthatprovidesthemeansforthecontrolcenters
response(output)iscalledthe__________.

57)Thethoraciccavityis__________totheabdominopelviccavity.

58)The__________systemiscomposedofkidneys,bladder,ureters,andurethra.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
59)Theabilitytosensechangesandreacttothemistermed__________or__________.

60)Thearmpitareaiscalledthe__________region.

61)Theepigastricregionis__________totherighthypochondriacregionofthe
abdominopelviccavity.

53)_____________

54)_____________
55)_____________

56)_____________

57)_____________
58)_____________

59)_____________
60)_____________
61)_____________


Figure1.2

UsingFigure1.2,identifythefollowing:
62)LabelBpointstothe__________region.

63)LabelCpointstothe__________region.

64)Bloodiscategorizedasa__________becauseitiscomparedofsimilarcellswitha
commonfunction.

65)Thepatellarregionis__________tothepoplitealregion.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
66)Thecranialandspinalcavitiesaresubdivisionsofthe__________cavity.

67)Thefunctionofthe__________systemistocontrolbodyactivitiesviahormones.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
68)__________referstoallofthechemicalreactionsinthebody.

62)_____________
63)_____________
64)_____________

65)_____________

66)_____________
67)_____________

68)_____________


Figure1.1

UsingFigure1.1,identifythefollowing:
69)LabelDpointstothe__________.

69)_____________

Figure1.2

UsingFigure1.2,identifythefollowing:
70)LabelFpointstothe__________region.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
71)Thestudyofthebodyssmallstructuresusingamicroscopeiscalled__________.

70)_____________

71)_____________

Figure1.2

UsingFigure1.2,identifythefollowing:
72)LabelDpointstothe__________region.

72)_____________

Figure1.1

UsingFigure1.1,identifythefollowing:
73)LabelCpointstothe__________cavity.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:

73)_____________

74)Therightandleftiliac(inguinal)regionsarelateraltothe__________region.
74)_____________

75)Thebreakdownofingestedfoodsintosimplemoleculesthatcanthenbeabsorbedinto
75)_____________
thebloodstreamistermed__________.

76)Thethreemedialregionsoftheabdominopelviccavityare__________,__________,and
76)_____________
__________.

77)Bloodclottingandthebirthofababyareexamplesofthe__________feedback
77)_____________
mechanism.

TRUE/FALSE.WriteTifthestatementistrueandFifthestatementisfalse.
78)Theheelofthefootconstitutestheplantarregion.
78)______

79)Thelymphaticsystemcollectsfluidsleakedbythecardiovascularsystemandreturnsthemto
79)______
thebloodstream.

80)Thespleenandthetonsilsarepartofthedigestivesystem.
80)______

81)Theendocrinesystemisthefast-actingbodycontrolsystem.
81)______

82)Thethoraciccavityisseparatedfromtheabdominopelviccavitybythediaphragm.
82)______

83)Thedorsalbodycavityissubdividedintofourquadrantsandnineregions.
83)______

84)Asbodytemperaturedropsbelownormal,chemicalreactionsproceedtoorapidlyandbody
84)______
proteinsbegintobreakdown.

85)Thespinalcavityispartoftheventralbodycavity.
85)______

86)Thehypogastricregionisdirectlysuperiortotheumbilicalregion.
86)______

87)Thereisnophysicalstructurethatseparatestheabdominalcavityfromthepelviccavity.
87)______

88)Thehighestlevelofstructuralorganizationinhumansistheorganlevel.
88)______

89)Mosthomeostaticcontrolmechanismsarenegativefeedbackreactions.
89)______

90)Proximalmeansfartherfromtheoriginofabodypart.
90)______

91)Thesacralregionisontheventral(anterior)bodysurface.
91)______

92)Excretionistheprocessofremovingwastesfromthebody.
92)______

MATCHING.Choosetheitemincolumn2thatbestmatcheseachitemincolumn1.
Matchthefollowing:
93)Tarsal
A)ankle
93)______

94)Inguinal
B)areawherethighmeetsbodytrunk
94)______

95)Umbilical
C)navel
95)______

Matchthefollowing:
96)Dorsal

97)Ventral

98)Lateral

99)Superior

Matchthefollowing.
100)Regulationofwaterandelectrolytes

Matchthefollowing:
101)Popliteal

102)Oral

Matchthefollowing.
103)Heatproduction

104)Respondstostimuli(internaland
external)

A)behind

B)towardtheside

C)infrontof

D)above

96)______

A)urinarysystem

100)_____

A)posteriorkneearea

B)mouth

101)_____

A)nervoussystem

B)muscularsystem

103)_____

97)______
98)______
99)______

102)_____

104)_____

Matchthefollowing:
105)Proximal

A)closetotheoriginofthebodypartorthe
pointofattachmentofalimbtothebody
trunk

105)_____

Matchthefollowing.
106)Siteofhematopoiesis

Matchthefollowing:
107)Patellar

108)Axillary

Matchthefollowing:
109)Deep

Matchthefollowing:
110)Femoral

Matchthefollowing:
111)Distal

A)skeletalsystem

106)_____

A)armpit

B)anteriorknee

107)_____

A)towardthebodysurface
B)
awayfromthebodysurface

109)_____

A)thigh

110)_____

A)fartherfromtheoriginofabodypartor
thepointofattachmentofalimbtothe
bodytrunk

111)_____

108)_____


Matchthefollowing:
112)Coxal

Matchthefollowing.
113)Housesbloodcellsinvolvedin
immunity

Matchthefollowing:
114)Orbital

Matchthefollowing:
115)Inferior

Matchthefollowing.
116)Slow-actingbodycontrolsystem

A)hip

112)_____

A)lymphaticsystem

113)_____

B)respiratorysystem

A)eyearea

114)_____

A)below

115)_____

A)digestivesystem
B)
endocrinesystem

116)_____

Matchthefollowing:
117)Medial
A)towardthemidline
117)_____

ESSAY.Writeyouranswerinthespaceprovidedoronaseparatesheetofpaper.
118)Describeanatomicalposition.Explainwhyanatomicalpositionisused.

119)Explainthedifferencebetweenhomeostatisandmetabolism.

120)Listandexplaintheeightnecessaryhumanlifefunctions.

121)Explainhowscratchinganitchisanexampleofthenegativefeedbackmechanism.

122)Describetheroleoftheeffectorinthenegativefeedbacksystem.

123)List,andbrieflydefine,thehumanbodysorganizationlevelsfromsmallesttolargest.

124)Listandexplainthethreemajorbodyplanesandsections.

125)Distinguishbetweenanatomyandphysiology.

126)Identifythetwodorsalbodycavities,andstatetheirlocationsandtheorganscontainedtherein.

127)Listthefourquadrantsandnineregionsoftheabdominopelviccavity.Explainwhythiscavityhasthese
subdivisions.

128)Listandexplainthefivesurvivalneedsofhumans.


1)A
2)C
3)B
4)C
5)D
6)D
7)E
8)E
9)A
10)B
11)C
12)D
13)B
14)B
15)A
16)A
17)C
18)A
19)A
20)D
21)D
22)E
23)B
24)C
25)C
26)C
27)B
28)B
29)D
30)D
31)A
32)A
33)B
34)B
35)A
36)E
37)B
38)B
39)midsagittalormedian
40)abdominal
41)negativefeedback
42)respiratory
43)epigastric
44)homeostasis
45)4;9
46)ventraloranterior
47)Digestion
48)hypogastric
49)spinal
50)pelvic
51)anterior

52)tissues
53)cranial
54)mediastinum
55)skeletal
56)effector
57)superior
58)urinaryorexcretory
59)irritability;responsiveness
60)axillary
61)medial
62)righthypochondriac
63)umbilical
64)tissue
65)ventraloranterior
66)dorsal
67)endocrine
68)Metabolism
69)diaphragm
70)rightiliac(inguinal)
71)microscopicanatomy
72)rightlumbar
73)thoracic
74)hypogastric
75)digestion
76)epigastricregion,umbilicalregion,hypogastricregion
77)positive
78)FALSE
79)TRUE
80)FALSE
81)FALSE
82)TRUE
83)FALSE
84)FALSE
85)FALSE
86)FALSE
87)TRUE
88)FALSE
89)TRUE
90)FALSE
91)FALSE
92)TRUE
93)A
94)B
95)C
96)A
97)C
98)B
99)D
100)A
101)A
102)B
103)B

104)A
105)A
106)A
107)B
108)A
109)B
110)A
111)A
112)A
113)A
114)A
115)A
116)B
117)A
118)Anatomicalpositionisdefinedasstandingerect,feetparalleltothearms,palmsfacingforward.Anatomical
positionisusedbecauseitisastandardposition;italsohelpsustoavoidconfusion.Additionally,anatomical
positionisareferencepointthathelpsusaccuratelydescribebodypartsandposition.
119)Homeostasisisthebodysattempttomaintainbalanceduringwhichtimeinternalconditionsmayvary.
Metabolismisallchemicalreactionsthatoccurinthebody.
120)1.Maintenanceofboundarieskeepstheinternalenvironmentdistinctfromtheexternalenvironment;membranes
performthisfunctionatthecellularlevelandskinperformsthisfunctionfortheorganism.
2.Movementincludesachangeinthepositionofthebodyorthepropellingofasubstance(suchasblood,urine,
orfood)throughthebodyorgans;constitutesamajorroleofthemuscularsystem.
3.Responsiveness(irritability)theabilitytoreacttostimuli;constitutesamajorroleofthenervoussystem.
4.Metabolismincludesallthechemicalreactionsthatoccurwithinthebodyscells.
5.Excretioneliminationofcarbondioxidebythelungsandnitrogenouswastesbythekidneys.
6.Digestiontheprocessofbreakingdowningestedfoodstuffsintosimplermoleculesthatcanthenbeabsorbed
intothebloodfordeliverytothebodyscells.
7.Growthanincreaseinsize,whichisusuallyaccompaniedbyanincreaseinthenumberofcells.
8.Reproductiontheproductionofnewcellsforgrowthandrepair,andalsotheproductionofoffspring.
121)1.Stimulusorinputistheitch.
2.Areceptorcarriestheinformationaboutthestimulus(itch)tothebrainviaanafferentpathway.
3.Controlcenter(brain)analyzesthisinformationanturnsonaneffectorwhichwillcancelthestimulus.
4.Informationreachestheeffectorviatheefferentpathwayfromthebrain.Musclesmovethehandtoscratchthe
itch.
5.Scratchingcontinuesuntiltheitchgoesaway.Thebrainshutsofftheeffectoroncehomeostatisisrestored.
122)Theeffectoristhecontrolcentersoutputandresponsetothestimulus.Theeffectorsjobistocancelorshutoffthe
controlmechanism.
123)1.chemicallevel:

a.atomsarethebasicbuildingblocksofmatter

b.moleculesareunitsformedbyatomscombining

2.cellularlevel:cellsarethesmallestlivingunitinlivingorganisms

3.tissuelevel:tissuesaregroupingsofcellsperformingacommonfunction

4.organlevel:anorganisastructureconsistingoftwoormoretissuetypes

5.organsystemlevel:anorgansystemdescribesagroupoforgansfunctioning

cooperativelyforacommonpurpose

6.organismlevel:ahumanorganismconsistsofalloftheorgansystemsofthe

odyworkingtogethertopromotehealthyfunctioning
b

(homeostasis)
124)1.Sagittalcutismadealongthelongitudinal(lengthwise)planeofthebody(oranorgan),dividingitintoright
andleftparts.
2.Frontal(coronal)cutismadealongthelongitudinal(lengthwise)planeofthebody(oranorgan),dividingit
intoanteriorandposteriorparts.
3.Transverse(cross-section)cutismadealongthetransverse(horizontal)plane,dividingthebodyintosuperior
andinferiorparts.
125)Anatomyisthestudyofthestructureandshapeofthebodyandbodyparts,andtheirrelationshipstooneanother.
Physiologyisthestudyofhowthebodyanditspartsworkorfunction.
126)1.Cranialcavitythesuperiorposteriorspaceinsidethebonyskullthathousesthebrain.
2.Spinalcavitytheinferiorposteriorspaceinsidethebonyvertebralcolumnthathousesthespinalcord.
127)1.
Thefourquadrantsare:

a. rightupperquadrant

b. rightlowerquadrant

c. leftupperquadrant

d. rightlowerquadrant
2.
Thenineregionsare:

a. epigastricregion

b. umbilicalregion

c. hypogastricregion

d. righthypochondriacregion

e. lefthypochondriacregion

f. rightlumbarregion

g. leftlumbarregion

h. rightiliacregion

i. leftiliacregion
Thiscavityhasbeensubdividedintothesequadrantsandregionsbecauseitislargeandhasmanyorgans.
128)1.Nutrientsincludecarbohydrates,proteins,andfats,whicharetakeninviathedietforenergyandcellbuilding.
2.Oxygenrequiredtoreleaseenergyfromfood.
3.Wateraccountsforover60%ofthebodyweight,andprovidesthebasisforvariousbodyfluids.
4.Appropriatebodytemperaturewhentoohighortoolow,physiologicalactivitiescease,primarilybecause
moleculesaredestroyedorbecomenonfunctional.
5.Appropriateatmosphericpressuretheforceexertedonthesurfaceofthebodybytheweightofair;isessential
fornormaloperationoftherespiratorysystemandbreathing.

Exam
Name___________________________________

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
1)Ninety-sixpercentofthehumanbodyiscomposedoftheelements:
1)_______
A)carbon,calcium,sodium,andoxygen
B)sodium,potassium,hydrogen,andsulfur
C)calcium,magnesium,potassium,andiron
D)carbon,oxygen,iron,andpotassium
E)carbon,oxygen,hydrogen,andnitrogen

2)Triglycerides:
2)_______
A)includecholesterol,bilesalts,vitaminD,sexhormones,andadrenalcorticalhormones
B)haveathree-dimensionalstructurethatcanbeeasilydestroyedbyheat,causingthemtobe
denaturedandnolongercapableofperformingtheirphysiologicalroles
C)arefoundinfatdeposits(e.g.,subcutaneoustissuearoundorgans),andservetoprotect
andinsulatebodyorgans;theyarethemajorsourceofstoredenergyinthebody
D)arefoundinthecellmembraneandparticipateinthetransportoflipidsinplasma;they
arealsoabundantinthebrainandinnervoustissuewheretheyhelptoforminsulating
whitematter
E)includelipoidsubstancessuchasfat-solublevitamins(e.g.,vitaminsA,E,andK),
prostaglandins,andlipoproteins

3)Enzymes:
3)_______
A)increasetheratesofchemicalreactionsbyatleastamillionfold
B)areessentialtovirtuallyeverybiochemicalreactioninthebody
C)whenabsentordestroyed,causeallbiochemicalreactionstocease
D)helpregulategrowthanddevelopment
E)arehighlyspecializedproteinsthatrecognize,bindwith,andinactivatebacteria,toxins,
andsomeviruses

4)Thesimplestatomcontainingoneproton,oneelectron,andnoneutronsis:
4)_______
A)hydrogen
B)nitrogen
C)carbon
D)sodium
E)oxygen

5)Anatomthathaslosttwoelectronsiscalleda(n):
5)_______
A)isotope
B)proton
C)radioisotope
D)cation
E)anion

6)Anatomwith11protons,12neutrons,and10electronsisa(n):
6)_______
A)anion
B)cation
C)isotope
D)molecule
E)radioisotope

7)Inordertobreakadisaccharidedownintosimplesugarunits:
7)_______
A)watermoleculesandcarbonatomsmustberemovedfromeachbond
B)carbonatomsmustbeaddedtoeachbond
C)watermoleculesmustberemovedfromeachbond

D)carbonatomsmustberemovedfromeachbond
E)watermoleculesmustbeaddedtoeachbond

8)Whichofthefollowingstatementsiscorrectregardingtheelectricalchargeofsubatomic
particles:
A)protonsarepositivelycharged,electronsarenegativelycharged,andneutronsareneutral
B)protonsarepositivelycharged,electronsareneutral,andneutronsarenegativelycharged
C)protonsarenegativelycharged,electronsareneutral,andneutronsarenegativelycharged
D)protonsareneutral,electronsarenegativelycharged,andneutronsarepositivelycharged
E)protonsarenegativelycharged,electronsarepositivelycharged,andneutronsareneutral

9)Whichofthefollowingsubstancesbelowismatchedwithitscorrectorganicgroup:
A)steroids-carbohydrates
B)enzymes-proteins
C)DNA-lipids
D)monosaccharides-nucleicacids
E)glycerol-proteins

10)Whichofthefollowingistheroleofmagnesium:
A)itisthemajorextracellularcationinitsionicform,andisimportantforwaterbalance,
conductionofnerveimpulses,andmusclecontraction
B)itisamajorextracellularanioninitsionicform
C)itispresentinbone,andisanimportantcofactorforenzymeactivityinanumberof
metabolicreactions
D)itisacomponentofthefunctionalhemoglobinmoleculethattransportsoxygenwithinred
bloodcells,aswellasacomponentofsomeenzymes
E)itisneededtomakefunctionalthyroidhormones

11)Theorganiccompoundsthatfunctioninbuildingtissuesandactingasenzymesarethe:
A)salts
B)lipids
C)proteins
D)carbohydrates
E)nucleicacids

12)WhichoneofthefollowingDNAbasesarecomplementary:
A)adenineandguanine
B)adenineandthymine
C)cytosineandadenine
D)guanineanduracil
E)thymineandguanine

13)Atomicmassisequivalenttothenumberof__________inanatom.
A)protons
B)neutrons
C)protonsandelectrons
D)protonsandneutrons
E)electrons

14)Isotopeshavedifferentnumbersof__________;thustheyalsohavedifferent__________.
A)neutrons;atomicmasses
B)electrons;atomicnumbers

8)_______

9)_______

10)______

11)______

12)______

13)______

14)______

C)protons;atomismasses
D)neutrons;atomicnumbers
E)protons;atomicnumbers

15)Inactiveenergyisreferredtoas:
A)mechanicalenergy
B)electricalenergy
C)radiantenergy
D)potentialenergy
E)kineticenergy

16)WhichofthefollowinggroupsofchemicalsincludesONLYmonosaccharides:
A)maltose,sucrose,lactose
B)glucose,fructose,maltose
C)fructose,maltose,lactose
D)glucose,fructose,galactose
E)fructose,maltose,sucrose

Figure2.2

17)WhatistheatomicnumberoftheatominFigure2.2:
A)6
B)2
C)12
D)3
E)4

18)WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutATPisfalse:
A)itprovidestheenergyneededtodriveenergy-absorbingchemicalreactions
B)itdrivesthetransportofcertainsolutes(e.g.,aminoacids)acrosscellmembranes
C)itsenergyiscapturedinhigh-energyhydrogenbonds
D)itactivatescontractileproteinsinmusclecellssothatcellscanshortenandperform
mechanicalwork
E)itisamodifiednucleotide

15)______

16)______

17)______

18)______

Figure2.3

19)WhattypeofchemicalbondispicturedinFigure2.3:
A)singlecovalentbond
B)nonpolarcovalentbond
C)doublecovalentbond
D)polarcovalentbond
E)ionicbond

20)Glycogenisthestorageformof__________inanimals.
A)glucose
B)lipids
C)DNA
D)protein
E)aminoacids

21)VitaminDandsexhormonesareboth:
A)nucleicacids
B)steroids
C)proteins
D)polysaccharides
E)enzymes

22)Whichoftheseexamplesisacompound:
A)
B)
C)2H
D)
E)

23)Whenapairofelectronsissharedequallybetweentwoatoms,thebondformediscalleda(n):
A)ionicbond
B)hydrogenbond
C)polarcovalentbond
D)nonpolarcovalentbond
E)carbonbond

24)ThereactionA+BABisanexampleofa(n):
A)decompositionreaction
B)dehydrationreaction
C)synthesisreaction

19)______

20)______

21)______

22)______

23)______

24)______

D)denaturationreaction
E)exchangereaction

25)AsolutionwithapHof7:
A)releasesmorehydrogenionsthanhydroxylionsintosolution
B)isacidic
C)releasesmorehydroxylionsthanhydrogenionsintosolution
D)isbasic
E)isneutral

26)ThenucleotidechainsofDNAareheldtogetherby:
A)hydrogenbonds
B)carbonbonds
C)polarcovalentbonds
D)nonpolarcovalentbonds
E)ionicbonds

27)Whichoftheseelementscomposesbone:
A)calcium
B)chlorine
C)sulfur
D)iodine
E)iron

28)Themostabundantelementinthehumanbodyis:
A)carbon
B)nitrogen
C)oxygen
D)calcium
E)hydrogen

29)ThesugarfoundinDNAis:
A)deoxyribose
B)lactose
C)starch
D)ribose
E)sucrose

30)__________aresimplesugarscontainingbetween3and7carbonatoms.
A)Steroids
B)Proteins
C)Polysaccharides
D)Saturatedfats
E)Monosaccharides

31)WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutRNAistrue:
A)RNAiscomposedofcytosine,guanine,adenine,andthymine
B)RNAissinglestranded
C)RNAisfoundonlyinthenucleusofthecell
D)RNAcontainsdeoxyribose
E)RNAisadoublehelix

32)VitaminDcanbedescribedas:
A)derivativesoffattyacidsfoundincellmembranes;variousfunctionsincludethe
stimulationofuterinecontractions,theregulationofbloodpressure,andthecontrolof
motilityofthegastrointestinaltract
B)takeninviaplantproductssuchaswheatgermandgreenleafyvegetables;maypromote
woundhealingandcontributetofertility(thoughnotproveninhumans)
C)madeavailablelargelybytheactionofintestinalbacteria;alsoprevalentinawidevariety
offoods,andnecessaryfortheproperclottingofblood

25)______

26)______

27)______

28)______

29)______

30)______

31)______

32)______

D)producedintheskinonexposuretoUVradiation;necessaryfornormalbonegrowthand
function
E)aconstituentoforange-pigmentedvegetables(carrots)andfruits(tomatoes),andpartof
thephotoreceptorpigmentinvolvedinvision

33)Themovementofionsacrosscellmembranesisanexampleof:
A)potentialenergy
B)radiantenergy
C)mechanicalenergy
D)electricalenergy
E)chemicalenergy

34)Shell1ofanatomcanholdamaximumof__________electron(s).
A)1
B)2
C)4
D)8
E)18

35)Thesubatomicparticlesthatareresponsibleforthechemicalbehaviorofatomsarethe:
A)electrons
B)neutrons
C)protons
D)ions
E)isotopes

36)Carbohydratesarebuiltupfromtheirbasicbuildingblocksbythe:
A)removalofacarbonatom
B)additionofawatermoleculebetweeneachunit
C)removalofawatermoleculebetweeneverytwounits
D)additionofacarbonatom
E)processtermedhydrolysis

37)Whichofthefollowingsolutionsistheweakestacid:
A)asolutionwithapHof8.6
B)asolutionwithapHof5.2
C)asolutionwithapHof2.4
D)asolutionwithapHof6.4
E)asolutionwithapHof10.1

38)Anatomwithanatomicnumberof14willhave__________electronsinitsvalenceshell.
A)2
B)4
C)8
D)10
E)14

39)Anatomhas6protons,8neutrons,and6electrons.Itsatomicmassis:
A)20
B)2
C)14
D)6
E)8

40)Thejoiningofaminoacidstoformaproteinisanexampleof:
A)ahydrolysisreaction
B)adecompositionreaction
C)asynthesisreaction
D)anexchangereaction
E)adenaturationreaction

41)Enzymesareclassifiedas:
A)triglycerides
B)antibodies
C)structuralproteins
D)functionalproteins
E)hormones

33)______

34)______

35)______

36)______

37)______

38)______

39)______

40)______

41)______

42)Theatomicnumberofanatomrevealsthenumberof:
A)neutronspluselectrons
B)protonspluselectrons
C)protonsintheatomicnucleus
D)protonsplusneutrons
E)electronsintheatomicnucleus

43)Waterisusefulinbodyprocessesbecause:
A)itisaproductinhydrolysisreactions
B)itisagoodsolvent
C)itactsasanenzyne
D)ithasalowheatcapacity
E)itischemicallyinert

44)Glucoseandstarchareexamplesof:
A)proteins
B)triglycerides
C)carbohydrates
D)steroids
E)phospholipids

45)Whichofthefollowingisanexampleofaninorganicmolecule:
A)anaminoacid
B)RNA
C)cholesterol
D)sodiumchloride
E)afattyacid

46)Whichofthesefactorswillnotincreasetherateofachemicalreaction:
A)increasedtemperature
B)increasedconcentrationofreactingparticles
C)decreaseinparticlesize
D)presenceofcatalysts
E)decreasedtemperature

47)Transfatsareoilsthathavebeensolidifiedbytheadditionof:
A)hydrogenatoms
B)oxygenatoms
C)phosphorus-containinggroups
D)nitrogenatoms
E)carbonatoms

48)Whichofthefollowingstatementsaboutenzymesistrue:
A)theyarecarbohydrates
B)theyarerequiredinlargeamountsinordertobeeffective
C)theyarebiologicalcatalysts
D)theyarenotreuseable
E)theyarestableathightemperatures

49)Whichofthesesubstancesisanenzyme:
A)glucose
B)omega-3fattyacid

42)______

43)______

44)______

45)______

46)______

47)______

48)______

49)______

C)triglyceride
D)oxidase
E)nucleotide

50)Saturatedfats:
50)______
A)areformedfrom4interlockingcarbonrings
B)existasliquidsandarederivedfromplants
C)containmanydoublebonds
D)existassolidsatroomtemperature
E)havetwofattyacidchains

SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
51)Describetheroleoftheelectroninchemicalbondformation.
51)_____________

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
52)Isotopesdifferfromeachotheronlyinthenumberof__________theypossess.
52)_____________

53)All__________haveanamine(N )group.
53)_____________

54)Anacidisamoleculethatreleases(donates)__________.Statetheanswerintwoways.

55)Compoundsthatcontaincarbon-hydrogenbondingarecollectivelytermed__________
compounds.

56)Decompositionofaproteinproduces__________.

57)Theoutermostshellofanatomiscalledthe__________shell.

58)Thebuildingblocksofnucleicacidsarecalled__________.

54)_____________
55)_____________

56)_____________
57)_____________
58)_____________

Figure2.1

UsingFigure2.1,identifythefollowing:
59)Thestructureofthepolysaccharideis__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
60)Theuniversalenergycompoundthatprovidesvisibleenergytocellsis__________.

61)Glycogenandstarchareexamplesofaspecificcategoryofcarbohydratescalled
__________.

59)_____________

60)_____________
61)_____________


62)AsolutionwithapHof11.7is__________timesmoreacidicthanasolutionwithapH
of8.7.

63)Enzymesareexamplesof__________proteins.Statetheanswerintwoways.

62)_____________

63)_____________

Figure2.1

UsingFigure2.1,identifythefollowing:
64)Thestructureofthemonosaccharideis__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
65)Polarmolecules,likewater,resultwhenelectronsareshared__________.

66)Whenachangeinmatteraltersthebasicnatureofthesubstance,itiscalleda__________
change.

67)Cholesterolisanexampleofa__________,aspecificcategoryoflipids.

68)Inactiveorstoredenergyiscalled__________energy.

64)_____________

65)_____________
66)_____________

67)_____________
68)_____________

Figure2.1

UsingFigure2.1,identifythefollowing:
69)Thestructureofthefunctionalproteinis__________.

70)Thestructureofthenucleotideis__________.

69)_____________
70)_____________

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
71)Thesumoftheprotonsandneutronsinanatomiscalledthe__________.
71)_____________

TRUE/FALSE.WriteTifthestatementistrueandFifthestatementisfalse.
72)Atomsarethesmallestparticlesofacompoundthatstillretainthepropertiesofthatcompound. 72)______

73)Negativelychargedatomsarecalledcations.
73)______

74)Everyatominamoleculehasafullvalenceshell.
74)______

75)Wateristhesinglemostabundantinorganiccompoundinthehumanbody.
75)______

76)Inactiveorstoredenergyiscalledkineticenergy.
76)______

77)Whenasolutionproducesequalnumbersofhydrogenandhydroxylions,itissaidtobeneutral. 77)______

78)Storedenergyiscalledpotentialenergy.
78)______

79)Estrogenandcholesterolarebothsteroids.

79)______

80)Carbonisfoundinallinorganiccompounds.
80)______

81)ThelowerthepH,thegreaterthenumberofhydrogenions.

81)______

82)ThenormalpHofbloodoccupiesanarrowrangearound7.35-7.45.
82)______

83)Enzymesdecreasetheratesofchemicalreactions.
83)______

84)Calciumisoneofthemajorelementscomposingthehumanbody.
84)______

85)Disruptionofthehydrogenbondsoffunctionalproteinsleadstotheirdenaturation.
85)______

86)Compoundsthationizecompletely,producinglargenumbersofhydrogenions(protons),are
86)______
termedweakbases.

MATCHING.Choosetheitemincolumn2thatbestmatcheseachitemincolumn1.
Matchthefollowing:
87)Nucleotidesformthebuildingblocks
A)carbohydrates
87)______
oftheseorganiccompounds

B)nucleicacids
88)Glycogen,glucose,andlactoseare

88)______
examplesoftheseorganic
compounds

Matchthefollowing:
89)Theparticle(s)contributingtothe
A)proton(s)
89)______
atomicnumber

B)protonsandneutrons
90)Theparticle(s)contributingtothe

90)______
atomicmass


Matchthefollowing:
91)Abondinwhichelectronsareshared
unequally

Matchthefollowing:
92)Theparticle(s)thatdifferbetween
isotopes

A)polarcovalentbond

91)______

B)nonpolarcovalentbond

A)neutron(s)

92)______

Matchthefollowing:
93)Atypeofbondimportantinholding
differentpartsofthesamemolecule
togetherinthree-dimensional
structure

94)Typeofbondexhibitedbycarbon
dioxide

Matchthefollowing:
95)DNA,RNA,andATParetypesof
theseorganiccompounds

A)polarcovalentbond

93)______

B)
nonpolarcovalentbond
C)
doublebond

94)______

D)
hydrogenbond

A)nucleicacids

95)______

Matchthefollowing:
96)Thenumberofprotonsisequaltothe
numberofthesesubatomicparticles

A)electron(s)

96)______

Matchthefollowing:
97)Buildingblockisthemonosaccharide

98)Mostofthisorganiccompound
grouparewaterinsoluble

A)lipids

B)carbohydrates

97)______
98)______

99)Triglycerides,steroids,andfatsolublevitaminsaretypesofthese
organiccompounds

Matchthefollowing:
100)Atypeofcovalentbondformed
whenatomssharetwopairsof
electrons

99)______

A)ionicbond

B)singlecovalentbond

100)_____


Matchthefollowing:
101)Buildingblocksoftheseorganic
compoundsareaminoacids

A)proteins

101)_____

Matchthefollowing:
102)Theparticle(s)sharedduring
covalentbondformation

A)electron(s)

102)_____

Matchthefollowing:
103)Antibodies,somehormones,and
enzymesaretypesoftheseorganic
compounds

A)proteins

103)_____

Matchthefollowing:
104)Theparticle(s)lostduringcation
formation

A)electron(s)

104)_____

Matchthefollowing:
105)Abondinwhichelectronsare
completelylostorgainedbythe
atomsinvolved

Matchthefollowing:
106)Theparticle(s)locatedwithinthe
nucleus

A)covalentbond

105)_____

B)
ionicbond

A)protonsandneutrons

106)_____

ESSAY.Writeyouranswerinthespaceprovidedoronaseparatesheetofpaper.
107)Explainwhyadenaturedproteinnolongerfunctions.

108)Explainwhyenzymesarespecifictotheirsubstrates.

109)CompareDNAandRNAfromthestandpointoftheirlocation,role(s),numberofchains,arrangementof
nucleotides,andsugarsandbasespresent.

110)Differentiatebetweenamoleculeandacompound.

111)Distinguishbetweenadehydrationsynthesisandahydrolysisreaction.

112)Discussthemajorpropertiesofwaterthatmakeitsovitaltotheproperfunctioningofthebody.

113)Explainwhyhydrolysis(decomposition)reactionsrequiretheadditionofwater.

114)ExplainwhyATPisclassifiedasanucleicacid.


115)Explainhowsaturatedfatsaredifferentfromunsaturatedfats.

116)Listthethreepartsofanucleotide.

117)Describethedifferencebetweenapolarandanonpolarcovalentbond.Giveandexplainanexampleofeach
typeofbond.

118)Namethistypeofreactionandbrieflyexplainwhatishappeninginthisreaction:

glucose+fructosewater+sucrose


1)E
2)C
3)A
4)A
5)D
6)B
7)E
8)A
9)B
10)C
11)C
12)B
13)D
14)A
15)D
16)D
17)A
18)C
19)E
20)A
21)B
22)A
23)D
24)C
25)E
26)A
27)A
28)C
29)A
30)E
31)B
32)D
33)D
34)B
35)A
36)C
37)D
38)B
39)C
40)C
41)D
42)C
43)B
44)C
45)D
46)E
47)A
48)C
49)D
50)D
51)Whenthevalenceshellofanatomcontainsfewerthan8electrons,anatomwilltendtogain,lose,orshareelectrons

with otheratomstoreachastablestate.Asaresult,chemicalbondssuchascovalentbondsorionicbondsareformed.
52)neutrons
53)aminoacids
54)protons;hydrogenions
55)organic
56)aminoacids
57)valence
58)nucleotides
59)C
60)ATP(adenosinetriphosphate)
61)polysaccharides
62)1000
63)globular;functional
64)A
65)unequally
66)chemical
67)steroids
68)potential
69)B
70)E
71)atomicmassnumber
72)FALSE
73)FALSE
74)TRUE
75)TRUE
76)FALSE
77)TRUE
78)TRUE
79)TRUE
80)FALSE
81)TRUE
82)TRUE
83)FALSE
84)FALSE
85)TRUE
86)FALSE
87)B
88)A
89)A
90)B
91)A
92)A
93)D
94)B
95)A
96)A
97)B
98)A
99)A
100)B
101)A
102)A

103)A
104)A
105)B
106)A
107)Denaturationresultswhenthethree-dimensionalshapeofaproteinisdestroyed.Thefunctionofaproteindepends
onitsstructure.Thepresenceofanactivesiteonthesurfaceofaproteinthatinteractswithothermoleculesmustbe
intactfortheenzymetoworkproperly.
108)Exzymes,likeotherproteins,haveactivesitesontheirsurfacesthatchemicallyinteractwithothermoleculesof
complementaryshapeandcharge.Theseactivesitesmustfitwiththesubstrate.Enzymesbindtothereacting
substratesandstructuralchangesresultinanewproduct.
109)1.LocationDNAislocatedinsidethenucleusofthecell;RNAislocatedinsideandoutsidethenucleusofthecell.
2.Role(s)DNAundergoesreplicationpriortocelldivisiontopassonheredityinformation,andprovides
instructionsforthebuildingofallprotein;RNAcarriesouttheordersforproteinsynthesisissuedbyDNA.
3.NumberofchainsDNAconsistsofadoublechainofnucleotidesintheformofadoublehelix;RNAisasingle
chainofnucleotides.
4.ArrangementofnucleotidesDNAconsistsofsugarandphosphatemoleculesthatformuprightsofaladderlikestructure,andeachrungisformedbytwojoinedbases;inRNA,abaseprojectsfromeachsugar-phosphate
unitinthechainofnucleotides.
5.SugarthesugarinDNAisdeoxyribose;thesugarinRNAisribose.
6.BasesinDNAthebasesareadenine(A),thymine(T),guanine(G)andcytosine(C);inRNAthebasesare
adenine(A),uracil(U),guanine(G)andcytosine(C).
110)Moleculesareformedwhentwoormoreatomsofthesameelementcombinechemically.Compoundsresultwhen
twoormoredifferentatomsbindtogethertoformamolecule.
111)Inadehydrationsynthesisreaction,amorecomplexmoleculeisformedfromtwosimplerones,andawater
moleculeislostaseachbondforms.Anexampleofdehydrationsynthesisisseenwhenadisaccharideisformed
fromtwomonosaccharides.Hydrolysisisthebreakdownofamorecomplexmoleculeintoitsbuildingblocks.A
watermoleculeisaddedtoeachbond,thebondisbroken,andsimplermoleculesareformed.Intheprocess,water
issplitintoahydrogenionandahydroxylion.Anexampleofhydrolysisisseenwhenadisaccharideisbroken
downintotwomonosaccharides.
112)1.Ithasahighheatcapacity,andabsorbsandreleaseslargeamountsofheatbeforeitstemperaturechanges
appreciably.Therefore,ithelpsmaintainhomeostaticbodytemperature.
2.Becauseofitspolarity,itisanexcellentsolventinwhichelectrolytescanionize.Nutrients,respiratorygases,and
wastescandissolveinwater,therebyallowingwatertoactasatransportandexchangemediuminthebody.Water
isalsousedasasolventinspecializedmoleculesthatlubricatethebody,suchasmucusthateasesthemovementof
fecesinthedigestivetube,salivathatmoistensfoodandpreparesitfordigestion,andsynovialfluidsthatlubricate
boneends.
3.Waterisareactantinsometypesofchemicalreactions,suchasdigestionandthebreakdownoflargebiological
molecules.Waterisaddedtothebondsofthelargermoleculesinspecificreactionstermedhydrolysisreactions.
4.Waterservesaprotectivefunctionbyformingawaterycushion(e.g.,cerebrospinalfluidcushionsthebrainand
amnioticfluidcushionsthefetus).
113)Watermoleculesareaddedtothebondsoflargeorganicmolecules.Whenwaterisaddedtoeachbond,thebondis
broken,andthemoleculeisbrokendown.
114)ATPisamodifiednucleotide.Nucleotidesarethebuildingblocksofnucleicacids.ATPconsistsofabase(adenine),
asugar(ribose),andthreephosphategroups.
115)Saturatedfats:

1. tendtobeanimalfats

2. haveallsinglebondsbetweencarbonatoms

3. maybesolid
Unsaturatedfats:

1. tendtobeplantoils

2. havesomedoubleortriplebondsbetweencarbonatoms

3. maybeliquid

116)Nucleotidescontain:
1.
anitrogen-containingbase
2.
apentose(5-carbon)sugar
3.
aphosphategroup
117)1.
Inpolarcovalentbonds,electronsarenotsharedequally.Forinstance,waterisanexampleofapolar
covalentbond.Theelectronpairssharedinwaterspendmoretimewiththeoxygenatomcausingthatendofthe
moleculetobecomeslightlynegativeandthehydrogenendtobecomeslightlypositive.
2.
Innonpolarcovalentbonds,electronsaresharedequally.Forexample,theelectronpairsincarbondioxide
orbittheentiremolecule.
118)Glucoseandfructosearetwomonosaccharides.Sucroseisadisaccharide.Glucoseandfructosearecombiningto
formsucrose.Thisisanexampleofadehydrationsynthesisreaction.Awatermoleculeislostfromthetwosimple
sugarsasthebondformstocreatethedoublesugar.

Exam
Name___________________________________

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
1)WhichofthefollowingisNOTconnectivetissue:
1)_______
A)skeletalmuscle
B)cartilage
C)bone
D)adipose
E)blood

Figure3.3

2)ThetissueshowninFigure3.3mostlikely:
A)transmitselectrochemicalimpulses
B)storesfat
C)coversandlinesbodysurfaces
D)contractstoproducemovement
E)containsamatrix

3)Whichtypeoftissueconductselectrochemicalimpulses:
A)nervoustissue
B)connectivetissue
C)muscletissue
D)densetissue
E)epithelialtissue

4)Gobletcellsarefoundin:
A)stratifiedsquamousepithelium
B)simplesquamousepithelium
C)simplecuboidalepithelium
D)transitionalepithelium
E)simplecolumnarepithelium

5)Thetypeofmusclefoundinthewallsofholloworgans,suchasthestomach,andinthewallsof
bloodvesselsis:
A)bothsmoothmuscleandskeletalmuscle
B)smoothmuscle
C)skeletalmuscle
D)cardiacmuscle
E)bothcardiacmuscleandskeletalmuscle

2)_______

3)_______

4)_______

5)_______


6)Themoleculethatcarriesanaminoacidtotheribosomeforincorporationintoaproteinis:
A)messengerRNA(mRNA)
B)transferRNA(tRNA)
C)DNA
D)ATP
E)ribosomalRNA(rRNA)

7)Thesitewhereribosomesassemblepriortotheirmigrationintothecytoplasmisthe:
A)plasmamembrane
B)chromatin
C)chromosomes
D)nuclearmembrane
E)nucleolus

8)Whichcellstructureformsaninternalframeworkinsidethecellandismadeofmicrotubules,
intermediatefilaments,andmicrofilaments:
A)nucleus
B)plasmamembrane
C)mitochondria
D)cytoplasm
E)cytoskeleton

9)Thetissuethatisusuallywellvascularizedandhasanextensiveextracellularmatrixiscalled:
A)connectivetissue
B)braintissue
C)nervoustissue
D)muscletissue
E)epithelialtissue

10)Whichofthefollowingdonotinvolvethemovementofmoleculesfromanareaofgreater
concentrationtoanareaoflowerconcentration:
A)simplediffusion
B)facilitateddiffusion
C)diffusion
D)osmosis
E)filtration

11)Twotypesofpassivetransportare:
A)endocytosisanddiffusion
B)exocytosisandendocytosis
C)diffusionandfiltration
D)osmosisandendocytosis
E)filtrationandexocytosis

12)Thethreemajorcomponentsofthecytoplasmarethe:
A)cytosol,organelles,andinclusions
B)cytosol,inclusions,andnucleoli
C)organelles,inclusions,andribosomes
D)organelles,inclusions,andnucleoli
E)cytosol,organelles,andnucleoli

6)_______

7)_______

8)_______

9)_______

10)______

11)______

12)______

13)Thetypeoftissuewithamatrixthatconsistsofrowsoffibroblaststhatmanufacturecollagen
fibersis:
A)adiposetissue
B)areolartissue
C)looseconnectivetissue
D)osseoustissue
E)denseconnectivetissue

14)Apatientarrivesinthehospitalextremelydehydrated.Inordertofillhiscellswithfluid,he
shouldbehookedtoa(n)__________intravenousdrip.
A)hypotonic
B)isotonic
C)hypertonic
D)eitherhypertonicorhypotonic
E)eitherisotonicorhyertonic

15)Asolutionthatcontainsfewersolutesthanthecellis:
A)intravenous
B)hypertonic
C)hypotonic
D)Ringerslactate
E)isotonic

16)DNAreplicationtakesplaceduring:
A)prophase
B)interphase
C)metaphase
D)telophase
E)anaphase

17)IfthesequenceofnitrogenousbasesinonestrandofDNAisGTA-GCA,thesequenceofbases
onitscomplementaryDNAstrandwouldbe:
A)CAT-CGT
B)CAU-CGU
C)GAU-GCU
D)ACG-ATT
E)GAT-GCT

18)Themoleculesinthecellmembranethatserveasreceptorsorbindingsitesforhormonesor
otherchemicalmessengersarethe:
A)cholesterolmolecules
B)glycoproteins
C)lipids
D)proteins
E)carbohydrates

19)Identifythetypeoftissuethatisfoundinlymphnodes,thespleen,andbonemarrow:
A)denseconnectivetissue
B)areolartissue
C)osseoustissue
D)adiposetissue
E)reticularconnectivetissue

13)______

14)______

15)______

16)______

17)______

18)______

19)______


20)Cellsthatarespecializedtofightdiseasearecalled:
A)macrophages
B)epithelialcells
C)oocytes
D)nervecells
E)fibroblasts

21)Themoleculethatcontainsanticodonsis:
A)ribosomalRNA(rRNA)
B)transferRNA(tRNA)
C)DNA
D)messengerRNA(mRNA)
E)ATP

22)TheDNAsegmentthatcarriesinformationcodingforaparticularaminoacidisa:
A)gene
B)nucleotide
C)phosphategroup
D)deoxyribosesugar
E)triplet

23)Whichtypeofepithelialtissueisfoundliningkidneytubules:
A)simplecolumnar
B)simplecuboidal
C)simplesquamous
D)pseudostratifiedcolumnar
E)stratifiedsquamous

24)PerformtranscriptiononthispartialsequenceofDNAintomRNA:TTA-GCT-ACT
A)GGC-TAG-TAG
B)AAT-CGA-TGA
C)UUT-CGU-TGU
D)UUA-CGU-AGU
E)AAU-CGA-UGA

25)Thelaststepintheprocessoftissueregenerationis:
A)scabformation
B)surfaceepitheliumregenerates
C)granulationtissueforms
D)bloodclotforms
E)capillariesbecomeverypermeable

26)Thephaseofcelldivisionduringwhichthechromatidsarepulledapartandmovetothe
oppositeendsofthecellis:
A)telophase
B)interphase
C)prophase
D)metaphase
E)anaphase

27)Glands,suchasthethyroid,thatsecretetheirproductsdirectlyintothebloodratherthan

20)______

21)______

22)______

23)______

24)______

25)______

26)______

through

ductsare 27)
classified
as:
A)ceruminous
B)sebaceous
C)endocrine
D)sudoriferous
E)exocrine

28)Fatis:
A)adiposetissue
B)looseconnectivetissue
C)osseoustissue
D)areolartissue
E)denseconnectivetissue

29)Acancerdruginterfereswiththedevelopmentofmitoticspindlefibersduringcelldivision.
Whichphaseisdirectlyaffected:
A)interphase
B)telophase
C)metaphase
D)prophase
E)anaphase

30)Acellwhosejobistodetoxifyharmfulorpoisonoussubstancessuchasalcoholwouldhave
many:
A)peroxisomes
B)lysosomes
C)roughendoplasmicreticulum
D)nuclei
E)flagella

31)WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutDNAisincorrect:
A)itcontains2chains
B)ithasthebaseuracilinsteadofthymine
C)itcontainsdeoxyribosesugars
D)itisreplicatedinpreparationforcelldivision
E)itneverleavesthenucleus

32)Microvilliareapttobefoundincellsthatarespecializedfor:
A)division
B)contraction
C)absorption
D)insulation
E)protection

33)Themovementoffluidthroughthecellmembranefromahighpressureareatoalowerpressure
areaiscalled:
A)activetransport
B)bulktransport
C)osmosis
D)filtration

___
___

28)______

29)______

30)______

31)______

32)______

33)______

E)diffusion

34)Ribosomesarefound:
A)inthecytoplasm
B)ontheGolgiapparatus
C)ontheroughendoplasmicreticulum
D)inthecytoplasmandontheroughendoplasmicreticulum
E)onsmoothendoplasmicreticulum

35)Whichofthefollowingprocessesrequiretheuseofcarriermolecules:
A)osmosisandfiltration
B)filtrationandcellularsecretion
C)facilitateddiffusionandbulktransport
D)bulktransportandosmosis
E)facilitateddiffusionandsolutepumping

36)Whichorganelleusesmolecularoxygentoconvertanddetoxifyharmfulsubstancessuchas
alcoholandfreeradicals:
A)secretoryvesicles
B)lysosomes
C)ribosomes
D)peroxisomes
E)Golgiapparatus

37)Twotypesofendocytosisare:
A)solutepumpingandactivetransport
B)pinocytosisandpassivetransport
C)cellularsecretionandsolutepumping
D)phagocytosisandpinocytosis
E)activetransportandphagocytosis

38)Themoleculethatismadeduringtranscriptionis:
A)transferRNA(tRNA)
B)ATP
C)messengerRNA(mRNA)
D)ribosomalRNA(rRNA)
E)DNA

39)Lookingintoamicroscope,younoticecellsswimming,propelledbyalongtail.Whatcell
structuremustthesecellshaveinordertobemobile:
A)smoothER
B)flagella
C)ribosomes
D)cytoplasm
E)peroxisomes

40)Theeventsofprophaseseemtobeoppositeofthosethatoccurduring:
A)anaphase
B)metaphase
C)cytokinesis
D)interphase
E)telophase

34)______

35)______

36)______

37)______

38)______

39)______

40)______


41)Themoleculesthatmakethecellsurfacefuzzy,sticky,andsugar-richarethe:
A)glycoproteins
B)lipidmolecules
C)cholesterolmolecules
D)proteins
E)phospholipids

42)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTtrueaboutthecellmembrane:
A)itallowswatersolublemoleculestopassthrougheasily
B)itslipidcomponentsareprimarilyphospholipidsandcholesterol
C)itconsistsoftwolipidlayers
D)itregulatestheentryandexitofcellmaterials
E)itcontainsproteinsforspecializedfunctions

43)Acellingestsbacteria.Whattypeoftransportislikelyresponsibleforthisprocess:
A)filtration
B)osmosis
C)diffusion
D)exocytosis
E)endocytosis

44)Theepithelialtissuefoundinareassubjecttoconsiderablefrictionandabuse,suchasthe
esophagus,is:
A)transitional
B)simplesquamousepithelium
C)pseudostratifiedcolumnarepithelium
D)simplecolumnarepithelium
E)stratifiedsquamousepithelium

45)Whichofthesecharacteristicsbestdescribescardiacmuscletissue:
A)singlenucleusandspindle-shapedcells
B)attachedtotheskeleton
C)movementisinvoluntaryandcellspossessstriations
D)multinucleateandlong,cylindricalcells
E)movementisvoluntaryandcellspossessstriations

46)WhichofthefollowingisNOTanactivetransportprocess:
A)facilitateddiffusion
B)endocytosis
C)pinocytosis
D)phagocytosis
E)exocytosis

47)Whatarethecorrectbase-pairingrulesforDNA:
A)adeninebondstoguanineandthyminebonestocytosine
B)adeninebondstouracilandguaninebondstocytosine
C)adeninebondstothymineandguaninebondstocytosine
D)adeninebondstoadenineandguaninebondstoguanine
E)adeninebondstocytosineandthyminebondstoguanine

48)Thecorrectorderofphasesofthecellcycleis:

41)______

42)______

43)______

44)______

45)______

46)______

47)______

48)______

A)telophase,metaphase,anaphase,prophase
B)prophase,metaphase,anaphase,telophase
C)prophase,interphase,metaphase,anaphase,telophase
D)metaphase,anaphase,prophase,telophase
E)interphase,prophase,metaphase,anaphase,telophase

49)Thetinyfinger-likeprojectionsthatincreasethesurfaceareofthecellforquickerabsorptionare 49)______
called:
A)gapjunctions
B)microvilli
C)inclusions
D)tightjunctions
E)desmosomes

50)Facilitateddiffusionrequirestheuseof:
50)______
A)lysosomes
B)proteinchannelsormolecules
C)Golgiapparatus
D)ATP
E)vacuoles

51)Acellwouldplumpwithwaterandpossiblylyseinwhichofthefollowingsolutions:
51)______
A)isotonic
B)hypotonic
C)intravenous
D)Ringers
E)hypertonic

SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
52)Thecelltypefoundinnervoustissueisthe__________.
52)_____________

Figure3.1

UsingFigure3.1,matchthefollowing:
53)Theillustrationofcardiacmuscletissueis__________.

54)Thetypeofconnectivetissuethatcontainsfatstoredinadipocytesiscalled__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
55)Themembraneconnectionsthatpreventtheleakingoffluidbetweencellsarecalled
__________.

56)Whiplikecellularextensionsthatmovesubstancesalongthecellsurfacearecalled
__________.

57)TheDNAsegmentthatcarriesinformationforbuildingoneproteinorpolypeptide
chainiscalleda__________.

58)Thetypeofmuscletissuethatcanbecontrolledvoluntarilyiscalled__________muscle.

59)Thephospholipidtailsare__________,whichmaketheplasmamembraneimpermeable
towater.

53)_____________
54)_____________

55)_____________

56)_____________

57)_____________

58)_____________
59)_____________

Figure3.1

UsingFigure3.1,matchthefollowing:
60)Theillustrationofstratifiedsquamousepitheliumis__________.

61)List,describe,andstatethefunctionsofthethreetypesofmembranejunctions.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
62)Thespecializedcellularcompartmentswithinthecytosolofthecellarecollectively

60)_____________
61)_____________

call ed__________.

62)

_____________

63)Therandommovementofmolecules(andions)downtheirconcentrationgradientis
called__________.

63)_____________

Figure3.1

UsingFigure3.1,matchthefollowing:
64)Theillustrationofsimplesquamousepitheliumis__________.

65)Theillustrationofskeletalmuscletissueis__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
66)Thestep,duringproteinsynthesis,ofassemblingproteinsbydecodingtheinformation
inmessengerRNAiscalled__________.

67)Therod-shapedbodiesthatlieatrightanglestoeachotherandinternallyaremadeup
offinemicrotubingcalled__________.

68)AfterDNAreplicationhasoccurred,eachofthetwostrandsmakingupachromosome
iscalleda__________.

69)Tinyfinger-likeprojectionsoftheplasmamembranethatincreaseitssurfaceareaare
called__________.

70)Epithelialtissueconsistingofonelayerofcellsflattenedlikefishscalesiscalleda
__________epithelium.

71)Themovementofsubstancesthroughthecellmembraneagainsttheirconcentration
gradientiscalled__________.

64)_____________
65)_____________

66)_____________

67)_____________

68)_____________

69)_____________

70)_____________

71)_____________

72)Manylayersofcube-shapedcellsshouldbetermed__________epithelialtissue.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
73)Thecomponentofasolutionthatispresentinthesmalleramountandisdissolvedisthe
__________.

Figure3.2

74)ThecellshowninFigure3.2hasbeenplacedintoa(n)__________solution.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
75)Incelldivision,thetermthatreferstodivisionofthecytoplasmis__________.

76)Theperiodofthecellcyclewhenthecellgrowsandperformsitsmetabolicactivitiesis
__________.

77)Thetypeoftissueconsistingofcellsembeddedinanextracellularmatrixis__________
tissue.

78)Thenetworkofnuclearthreads,composedofDNAandprotein,thatcondensetoform
chromosomesduringmitosisiscalled__________.

72)_____________

73)_____________

74)_____________

75)_____________
76)_____________

77)_____________

78)_____________


Figure3.1

UsingFigure3.1,matchthefollowing:
79)Theillustrationofsimplecuboidalepitheliumis__________.
79)_____________

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
80)Thenucleoplasmandcytosolmakeupthe__________fluid.
80)_____________

81)Thistypeofepithelialtissuefoundliningorgansofthedigestivesystemsuchasthe
81)_____________
smallintestinesisthe__________.

82)__________tissuecontainscellscalledfibroblaststhatmakefiberssuchascollagen.
82)_____________

83)Tendonsandligamentsarecommontothistypeofconnectivetissuecalled__________. 83)_____________

TRUE/FALSE.WriteTifthestatementistrueandFifthestatementisfalse.
84)Whenacellisplacedinahypertonicsolutionitwillswellandmayrupture.
84)______

85)Stratifiedepitheliumconsistsofonelayerofepithelialcells.
85)______

86)Thenonpolartailsoftheplasmamembranearehydrophobic.
86)______

87)Proteinsynthesiscannotproceedwithoutribosomes.
87)______

88)TranslationisthestageinproteinsynthesisduringwhichacomplementarymRNAmoleculeis
88)______
synthesizedfromaDNAtemplate.

89)Smoothmusclecellsareuninucleatedspindle-shapedcellsthatarevoluntary.
89)______

90)Themovementofsubstancesfromanareaofhigherhydrostaticpressuretoanareaoflower
90)______
hydrostaticpressureiscalleddiffusion.


91)Thematrixofhyalinecartilageconsistsofabundantcollagenfibershiddeninarubberymatrix.

92)Thefourprimarytissuetypesareepithelium,muscle,cutaneous,andconnective.

93)Anaphaseisthestageofcelldivisionwhenthecleavagefurrowfirstappears.

94)Desmosomesarejunctionsthatallowcellcommunication.

95)Mitoticspindlesguidetheseparationofchromosomes.

96)TheGolgiapparatusconsistsofastackofflattenedmembranoussacsassociatedwithswarmsof
tinyvesiclesthatarefoundclosetothenucleus.

97)Theprocessoffacilitateddiffusionrequiresenergy.

98)Thegreatertheosmoticpressure,thegreaterthetendencyofwatertomoveintothatarea.

MATCHING.Choosetheitemincolumn2thatbestmatcheseachitemincolumn1.
Matchthefollowing:
99)Mitochondria
A)capturesenergytoproduceATP

Matchthefollowing:
100)Typeoftissuethatconsistsofliving
A)connectivetissue
cellssurroundedbyanextracellular
matrix

Matchthefollowing:
101)Centriolesseparateandmovetoward
oppositesidesofthecell

A)prophase

91)______
92)______
93)______
94)______
95)______
96)______

97)______
98)______

99)______

100)_____

101)_____

Matchthefollowing:
102)Lysosome

103)Peroxisomes

Matchthefollowing:
104)Nucleoliappearineachdaughtercell

Matchthefollowing:
105)Protein

106)mRNA

Matchthefollowing:

A)usesoxygentodetoxifyharmful
substances

102)_____

B)
digestsworn-outornonusablecell
structures

103)_____

A)telophase

104)_____

A)synthesizedduringtranslation

A)synthesizedduringtranscriptionand
containsthecodons

105)_____
106)_____

107)Typeoftissuewhosetwofunctional
characteristicsareirritabilityand
conductivity

108)
Typeoftissuethatcanbeclassifiedas
looseordense

Matchthefollowing:
109)Ribosome

Matchthefollowing:
110)Typeoftissuethatcanbedescribed
asvoluntaryorinvoluntary

A)nervoustissue

107)_____

B)
connectivetissue

108)_____

A)siteofproteinsynthesis

109)_____

A)muscletissue

110)_____

Matchthefollowing:
111)Nucleolus

Matchthefollowing:
112)Typeoftissuethatcanbesimpleor
stratified

A)siteofribosomesynthesis

111)_____

A)epithelialtissue

112)_____

Matchthefollowing:
113)Centriole

Matchthefollowing:
114)Chromosomesclusterandalignatthe
centerofthespindle

A)directsformationofmitoticspindle

113)_____

A)metaphase

114)_____

Matchthefollowing:
115)Microvilli

Matchthefollowing:
116)Cleavagefurrowsqueezesthecell
intotwoparts

A)increasessurfaceareaofplasma
membraneforabsorption

115)_____

A)telophase

116)_____

Matchthefollowing:
117)Typeoftissuethatcontainscollagen,
elastic,orreticularfibers

A)connectivetissue

117)_____

Matchthefollowing:
118)Centromeressplit

Matchthefollowing:
119)Typeoftissuethathasanapical

A)anaphase

surfa ceandabasementmembrane

118)_____

A)
epithe

lialtissue119)

____
_

Matchthefollowing:
120)Golgiapparatus

Matchthefollowing:
121)Nuclearenvelopeandnucleoidbreak
downanddisappear

122)Chromosomesmoveslowlyapart
towardoppositeendsofthecell

Matchthefollowing:
123)Typeoftissuethatisavascular

Matchthefollowing:
124)Microtubule

Matchthefollowing:
125)tRNA

Matchthefollowing:
126)Cytokinesisproducestwoseparate
daughtercells

A)packagessubstancesforreleasefromcell

120)_____

A)anaphase

121)_____

B)prophase

122)_____

A)epithelialtissue

123)_____

A)determinesoverallcellshape

124)_____

A)containstheanticodon
B)
containstheanticodonandcarriesamino
acidstotheribosome

125)_____

A)telophase

126)_____

Matchthefollowing:
127)Typeoftissuethatconsistsof
neuronsandsupportingcells

128)Typeoftissuethatisspecializedto
contractandproducemovement

Matchthefollowing:
129)Chromosomesalignatthemetaphase
plate

130)Spindlebreaksdownanddisappears

Matchthefollowing:
131)DNA

A)muscletissue

127)_____

B)nervoustissue

128)_____

A)metaphase

129)_____

B)telophase

130)_____

A)actsasatemplateduringtranscription
B)
actsasatemplateduringtranscription
andissynthesizedduringtranslation

131)_____


Matchthefollowing:
132)SmoothER

Matchthefollowing:
133)Typeoftissuethatmakesup
endocrineandexocrineglands

A)synthesizescholesterolandfat

132)_____

A)epithelialtissue

133)_____

ESSAY.Writeyouranswerinthespaceprovidedoronaseparatesheetofpaper.
134)Sinceepithelialtissuesareavascular,explainhowthesetissuesreceivenourishment.

135)Afat-solublevitamin,vitaminA,ismovingdownitsconcentrationgradientintoacell.Whattypeof
membranetransportisresponsibleforitsmovement?Describethisprocess.

136)Discussthefourstagesofmitosis.

137)Discussthethreestepsinproteinsynthesis.

138)List,describe,andstatethefunctionsofthethreemajorelementsofthecytoplasm.

139)ListthethreedifferenttypesofRNAandidentifytheirfunctions.

140)Differentiatebetweenthetwotypesofendoplasmicreticulum.

141)Explainwhyanintravenoussolutionshouldbeisotonicforapatient.

142)Explainthedifferencesamongthethreetypesofmuscletissue.

143)Identifythefivemoleculesfoundintheplasmamembraneandstatetheirfunctions.


1)A
2)C
3)A
4)E
5)B
6)B
7)E
8)E
9)A
10)E
11)C
12)A
13)E
14)A
15)C
16)B
17)A
18)D
19)E
20)A
21)B
22)E
23)B
24)E
25)B
26)E
27)C
28)A
29)D
30)A
31)B
32)C
33)D
34)D
35)E
36)D
37)D
38)C
39)B
40)E
41)A
42)A
43)E
44)E
45)C
46)A
47)C
48)E
49)B
50)B
51)B

52)neuron
53)C
54)adiposetissue
55)tightjunctions
56)cilia
57)gene
58)skeletal
59)hydrophobic
60)D
61)1.Tightjunctionsareareaswherethemembranesofadjacentcellsfusetogether.Thiscreatesanimpermeableleakproofcellularsheetandpreventssubstancesfrompassingbetweenthecells.Tightjunctionsarefoundinepithelia
liningfluidcontainingcavities,suchasthesmallintestine.
2.Desmosomesareareaswherefineproteinfilamentsextendbetweentwoadjacentcellsandareanchoredin
button-likethickeningsofthecellmembranescalledplaque.Thistypeofjunctionholdsadjacentcellstogether
veryfirmlyandisfoundinareaswherecellularsheetsaresubjectedtoconsiderablemechanicalstress,suchasthe
skin.Withineachcell,theplaquesononesideareconnectedtoplaquesontheoppositesidebythickerprotein
filamentsthatacttointernallyanchortheplaquesinplace.
3.Gapjunctionsconsistofhollowproteincylinders,calledconnexons,whichextendcompletelythroughthe
plasmamembraneofneighboringcellsandmeetandjointogetherintheextracellularspace.Thiscreatesa
continuouschannelforthepassageofsubstancesbetweentheinteriorsofthetwoadjacentcells.Gapjunctions,
whichpromoteintercellularcommunication,arefoundbetweenthecardiacmusclecellsintheheart.
62)organelles
63)diffusion
64)A
65)E
66)translation
67)centrioles
68)chromatid
69)microvilli
70)simplesquamous
71)activetransport
72)stratifiedcuboidal
73)solute
74)hypotonic
75)cytokinesis
76)interphase
77)connective
78)chromatin
79)B
80)intracellular
81)simplecolumnar
82)Connective
83)densefibroustissue
84)FALSE
85)FALSE
86)TRUE
87)TRUE
88)FALSE
89)FALSE
90)FALSE
91)TRUE
92)FALSE

93)TRUE
94)FALSE
95)TRUE
96)TRUE
97)FALSE
98)TRUE
99)A
100)A
101)A
102)B
103)A
104)A
105)A
106)B
107)A
108)B
109)A
110)A
111)A
112)A
113)A
114)A
115)A
116)A
117)A
118)A
119)A
120)A
121)B
122)A
123)A
124)A
125)B
126)A
127)B
128)A
129)A
130)B
131)A
132)A
133)A
134)Epithelialtissuesdependondiffusionforfoodandoxygen.Capillariesindeeperconnectivetissuecarrythis
nourishment.
135)VitaminAismovingviasimplediffusion,atypeofpassivetransport.Passivetransportrequiresnoenergyinput
fromthecell.VitaminAismovingfromanareawhereitismoreconcentratedtoanareawhereitisless
concentrated.Thisvitaminismovingwithoutassistancethroughtheplasmamembrane.
136)1.Prophasechromatinthreadscoilandshortensothatvisiblebar-likebodies,calledchromosomes,appear.Each
chromosomeismadeupoftwostrands,calledchromatids,whichareheldtogetherbyacentromere.Additionally,
thecentriolesseparateandmovetowardoppositesidesofthecell,directingtheassemblyofthemitoticspindle
(composedofmicrotubules)betweenthemastheymove.
2.Metaphasethechromosomesclusterandaligninthecenterofthespindle,midwaybetweenthecentrioles,
formingastraightlineofchromosomes.

3. essplitandthechromosomesmoveslowlyaparttowardoppositeendsofthecell.Acleavagefurrowappearsover
Ana themidlineofthespindleandeventuallypinchesthecytoplasmicmassintotwopartsinaprocesscalled
phas cytokinesis.
eth 4.Telophasethechromosomesreachoppositeendsofthecellandtheirmovementends,andtheythenuncoiland
e
becomechromatinagain.Anuclearmembranethenformsaroundeachchromatinmass,thespindlebreaksdown
centr anddisappears,andnucleolire-appearineachofthedaughternuclei.Finally,cytokinesisproducestwoseparate
omer daughtercells.
137)1.UncoilingofDNAtheDNAsegmentorgenethatspecifiesonepolypeptideorproteinuncoils.
2.Transcription(DNA-directedsynthesisofmRNA)onestrandofDNAactsasatemplateforthesynthesisofthe
complementarymRNAmolecule,andthereisatransferofinformationfromtheDNAsbasesequence(code)into
thecomplementarybasesequenceofmRNA(codon).
3.Translation(RNA-directedsynthesisofapolypeptideorprotein)involvesfivesteps.First,mRNAleavesthe
nucleusandattachestoribosomes.Second,tRNA(anticodon)transportsanaminoacidtothemRNAstrandand
recognizesamRNAmolecule(codon).Third,thecodonandtheanticodonbind.Fourth,theribosomemovesthe
mRNAstrandalongaseachcodonisreadsequentially.Finally,aseachaminoacidisboundtothenextbya
polypeptidebond,itstRNAisreleased.Thepolypeptideorproteinchainisreleasedwhenthetermination(stop)
codonisread.
138)1.Thecytosolisasemitransparentfluidthatislargelywater,andcontainsdissolvednutrientsandavarietyof
othersolutes.Itsfunctionistosuspendtheorganellesandinclusions.
2.Organellesarethelittleorgans(specializedcellularcompartments)withinthecytosolthatcarryoutspecific
functionsforthecellasawholeinordertomaintainitslife.
3.Inclusionsarechemicalsubstancesdispersedinthecytoplasmthatmayormaynotbepresent,dependingonthe
specificcelltype.Mostarestorednutrientsorcellproducts,whicharenonfunctioningunits.
139)1.MessengerRNA(mRNA)carriesthemessagecontaininginstructionsforproteinsynthesisfromtheDNAin
thenucleustotheribosomesinthecytoplasm.
2.RibosomalRNA(rRNA)formspartoftheribosomalstructureandhelpscoordinatetheproteinbuilding
process.
3.TransferRNA(tRNA)transportsanaminoacidtotheribosomalsiteandrecognizesthemRNAcodons.
140)1.
Theroughendoplasmicreticulum(ER):

a. isstuddedwithribosomes

b. makesproteinsonitsribosomes
2. ThesmoothER:

a. lacksribosomesonitssurface

b. functionsinlipidmetabolism,drugandpesticidedetoxification
141)Isotonicsolutionshavethesamesoluteandwaterconcentrationsasthecell.Isotonicsolutionscausenovisible
changesincellssincethereisnotanareamorehighlyconcentrated.Theuseofisotonicintravenoussolutions
allowsredbloodcellstoretaintheirnormalsizeanddisc-likeshape.
142)1.
Skeletaltissue:

a.
isattachedtotheskeleton

b.
isundervoluntarycontrol

c.
ismultinucleate

d.
possessesstriations

e.
iscomposedoflong,cylindricalcells
2.
Cardiacmuscle:

a.
isfoundonlyintheheart

b.
isunderinvoluntarycontrol

c.
isuninucleate

d.
possessesstriations

e.
iscomposedofcellsthatareshortandbranching

f.
possessesintercalateddisksthatcontaingapjunctions
3.
Smoothmuscle:

a.
isfoundinwallsofholloworgans


isuninucleate
b.

c.
lacksstriations

d.
possessescellsthatarespindleshaped
143)1.Lipidmolecules(phospholipids)providethemediuminwhichproteinmoleculesfloat,formthebasicfabricof
themembrane,andarerelativelyimpermeabletomostwater-solublemolecules.
2.Cholesterolmoleculeshaveastabilizingeffectandhelptokeepthemembranefluid.
3.Proteinmoleculesareresponsibleforthemostspecializedfunctionsofthemembrane.Theyactasenzymes,
serveasreceptorsorbindingsitesforhormonesandotherchemicalmessengers,actascarriersthatbindto
substancesandmovethemthroughthecellmembrane,andformporesthroughwhichwaterandsmallmolecules
canmove.
4.Carbohydratemoleculesaddanidentificationtagtomarkproteinmolecules,andmakethecellmembranea
fuzzy,sticky,sugar-richarea.
5.Glycoproteinmoleculesdeterminebloodtype;actasreceptorsthatcertainbacteria,viruses,ortheirtoxinscan
bindto;andplayaroleincell-to-cellinteractions.

Exam
Name___________________________________

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
1)Epidermalcellsthatareactivelymitoticandreplacesuperficialcellsthatarecontinuallyrubbed
1)_______
offare:
A)stratumgranulosumcells
B)stratumlucidumcells
C)stratumgerminativumcells
D)stratumspinosumcells
E)stratumcorneumcells

2)Theuppermostlayerofskinis:
2)_______
A)fedbyagoodsupplyofbloodvessels
B)calledthedermis
C)composedofdenseconnectivetissue
D)fullofkeratin
E)calledthehypodermis

3)Theepidermisiscomposedof:
3)_______
A)simplecolumnarepithelium
B)areolartissue
C)densefibrousconnectivetissue
D)stratifiedsquamousepithelium
E)adiposetissue

4)Thetanningeffect(darkeningoftheskin)thatoccurswhenapersonisexposedtothesunis
4)_______
dueto:
A)melanin
B)keratin
C)oil
D)sweat
E)Langerhanscells

5)Nailsarecomposedof:
5)_______
A)keratin
B)carotene
C)hemoglobin
D)melanin
E)sebum

6)Thecategoriesofepithelialtissuemembranesare:
6)_______
A)synovial,cutaneous,andserousmembranes
B)synovial,mucous,andcutaneousmembranes
C)mucous,cutaneous,andserousmembranes
D)synovial,mucous,andserousmembranes
E)synovial,cutaneous,andmucousmembranes

7)Inflammationofthehairfolliclesandsebaceousglandsiscalled:
7)_______
A)impetigo
B)alopecia
C)contactdermatitis

D)psoriasis
E)boils

8)Synovialmembranesarefoundinthe:
A)jointcavities
B)liningofthestomachcavity
C)coveringofthebrain
D)coveringoftheheart
E)liningoftheabdominalcavitywall

9)WhichofthefollowingisNOTatruestatementaboutthepapillarylayerofthedermis:
A)itisthedeepestlayeroftheskin
B)itishighlyvascular
C)itcontainsnerveendingsthatrespondtotouchandtemperaturestimuli
D)itproducesthepatternforfingerprints
E)itislocatedimmediatelybeneaththeepidermis

10)Thesecretionofsweatisstimulated:
A)byhightemperatures
B)byhormones,especiallymalesexhormones
C)asaprotectivecoatingwhenoneisswimming
D)whentheairtemperaturedrops
E)bothbyhightemperaturesandbyhormones,especiallymalehormones

11)Melanocytesarefoundinthe:
A)stratumspinosum
B)stratumbasale
C)stratumgranulosum
D)stratumlucidum
E)stratumcorneum

12)Finger-likeupwardprojectionsofthedermisintotheepidermisarecalled:
A)hairbulbs
B)dermalpapillae
C)Paciniancorpuscles
D)hairfollicles
E)Meissnerscorpuscles

13)Aphysicianestimatesthevolumeoffluidlostinaseverelyburnedpatientby:
A)measuringurinaryoutputandfluidintake
B)usingtheruleofnines
C)performingenzymestudies
D)bloodanalysis
E)observingthetissuesthatareusuallymoist

14)Thesecretionsoftheeccrineglandsare:
A)solelymetabolicwastes
B)basic
C)99%water,sodiumchloride,andtraceamountsofwastes,lacticacid,and

D)fattysubstances,proteins,antibodies,andtraceamountsofmineralsandvitamins
E)primarilyuricacid

8)_______

9)_______

10)______

11)______

12)______

13)______

14)______

15)Thelayeroftheepidermisinwhichcellsfirstdiebecauseoftheirinabilitytogetnutrientsand
oxygenisthe:
A)stratumbasale
B)stratumcorneum
C)stratumspinosum
D)stratumgranulosum
E)stratumlucidum

16)Acneandseborrheaarecausedbyproblemswith:
A)nailbeds
B)sebaceousglands
C)hairfollicles
D)sudoriferousglands
E)eccrineglands

17)Whatisthefirstthreattolifefromamassivethird-degreeburn:
A)bloodloss
B)infection
C)dehydration
D)lossofimmunefunction
E)unbearablepain

18)Inordertowarmthebodyupwhencold:
A)sudoriferousglandsreleasesweat
B)melaninisproduced
C)vitaminDissynthesized
D)thearrectorpilimusclescontracttostandhairsupright
E)sebaceousglandsreleaseoil

19)Whichofthefollowinghomoeostaticimbalancesiscausedbyskinexposuretochemicals:
A)impetigo
B)athletesfoot
C)cyanosis
D)contactdermatitis
E)coldsores

20)Theonlydrymembraneisthe:
A)synovialmembrane
B)mucousmembrane
C)serousmembrane
D)cutaneousmembrane
E)basementmembrane

21)Sweatglandsassociatedwithhairare:
A)sudoriferousglands
B)eccrineglands
C)sudoriferousglandsandeccrineglands
D)sebaceousglandsandeccrineglands
E)sebaceousglands

22)Whichofthefollowingrelationshipsisincorrect:
A)visceralperitoneum-coverstheoutersurfaceofthesmallintestine

15)______

16)______

17)______

18)______

19)______

20)______

21)______

22)______

B)parietalperitoneum-linesthewalloftheabdominalcavity
C)parietalpleura-linesthewallofthoraciccavity
D)visceralpleura-linesthesurfaceofthelungs
E)parietalpericardium-coverstheoutersurfaceoftheheart

Figure4.2

23)ThemembraneshowninFigure4.2is:
A)synovialmembrane
B)cutaneousmembrane
C)pleura,aserousmembrane
D)pericardium,aserousmembrane
E)mucousmembrane

24)Thehypodermisconsistsof:
A)adiposetissue
B)looseconnectivetissue
C)densefibrousconnectivetissue
D)stratifiedsquamousepithelium
E)simplecolumnarepithelium

25)Althoughyougetwetwhileswimming,atoughproteinwithintheskinpreventsitfromsoaking
upmoisturelikeasponge.Thissubstanceis:
A)carotene
B)mucus
C)keratin
D)melanin
E)serousfluid

26)Malepatternbaldnesshasageneticswitchthatturnsoninresponseto:
A)weight
B)femalehormones
C)age
D)size
E)malehormones

23)______

24)______

25)______

26)______

27)Whichofthefollowingisanindicationofmelanoma:
A)asymmetricalmole
B)apigmentedspotthatcontainsareasofdifferentcolors
C)apigmentedspotthatisblack
D)aspotontheskinthatissmallerthanthesizeofapencileraser
E)apigmentedspotthathassmoothborders

28)Asplinterpenetratestothedeepestlayeroftheepidermisonyourfoot.Thislayeris:
A)stratumgranulosum
B)stratumspinosum
C)stratumcorneum
D)stratumlucidum
E)stratumbasale

29)Aneedlewouldpiercetheepidermallayersoftheforearminwhichorder:

1.
stratumbasale

2.
stratumcorneum

3.
stratumgranulosum

4.
stratumlucidum

5.
stratumspinosum
A)1,3,5,2,4
B)2,4,3,5,1
C)2,3,5,1
D)1,5,3,4,2
E)2,3,4,1,5

30)Nutrientsreachthesurfaceoftheskin(epidermis)throughtheprocessof:
A)diffusion
B)evaporation
C)osmosis
D)absorption
E)filtration

31)Whichofthefollowingisaconnectivetissuemembrane:
A)serousmembrane
B)pleuralmembrane
C)cutaneousmembrane
D)mucousmembrane
E)synovialmembrane

32)Sudoriferousglandsareimportantfor:
A)productionofkeratin
B)keepingskinandhaircellssoftandflexible
C)bodyheatregulation
D)productionofvitaminD
E)productionofsweat

33)Whichtypeofmembranecontainsfluidbetweenthevisceralandperietallayers:
A)serous
B)cutaneous
C)mucous
D)connective
E)synovial

34)Whichofthefollowingisavitalfunctionoftheskin:
A)thecellsoftheepidermisstoreglucoseasglycogenforenergy

27)______

28)______

29)______

30)______

31)______

32)______

33)______

34)______

B)itconvertsmodifiedepidermalcholesteroltovitaminD
C)itaidsinthetransportofmaterialsthroughoutthebody
D)itabsorbsvitaminCsothattheskinwillnotbesubjecttodiseases
E)itaidsindesiccation

SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
35)Theglandthatproducessweatisindicatedbylabel__________.
35)_____________

36)Thelayeroftheserousmembranethatcoversanorganisknownasthe__________
36)_____________
layer.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
37)Inahair,theoutermostsinglelayerofcellsthatoverlaponeanotherlikeshinglesis
37)_____________
calledthe__________.

Figure4.1

UsingFigure4.1,identifythefollowing:
38)Thehairfollicleisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
39)Thetypeofburnthatinvolvesinjurytotheepidermisandtheupperregionofthe
dermisandisred,blistered,andpainfulistermedasa__________-degreeburn.

40)Thetwomajorcategoriesofmembranesare__________and__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
41)Thewhite,cheesy-lookingsubstancethatisproducedbythesebaceousglandsand
protectsababysskinwhileitisfloatinginitswater-filledsacinsidethemotheriscalled
__________.

42)Theglandthatproducesamixtureofoilysubstancesandfragmentedcellsisindicated

38)_____________

39)_____________

40)_____________

41)_____________

by label

________ 42)
__.

___
___
___
___
_

Figure4.1

UsingFigure4.1,identifythefollowing:
43)Theregionthatcontainsadiposetissueisindicatedbyletter__________.

44)Epithelialmembranescontaintwotypesoftissue,__________and__________tissue.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
45)Thewhitecresentarealocatedoverthenailmatrixiscalledthe__________.

46)Theskinthatcoversthepalmsofthehandsandthesolesofthefeethasanextralayerof
epidermiscalledthestratum__________.

43)_____________
44)_____________

45)_____________
46)_____________

Figure4.1

UsingFigure4.1,identifythefollowing:
47)Thestructurethatisresponsibleforwhorledridgesontheepidermalsurfacesis
indicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
48)Thedeepestlayerofthedermisiscalledthe__________layer.

49)Thepartofahairthatprojectsfromthesurfaceofthescalporskiniscalledthe
__________.

50)Thepartofthehairenclosedinthefollicleisknownasthe__________.

51)Thetypeofconnectivetissuemembranefoundinjointsisthe__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
52)Thedermisiscomposedofthereticularand__________layers.

47)_____________

48)_____________
49)_____________

50)_____________
51)_____________

52)_____________

Figure4.1

UsingFigure4.1,identifythefollowing:
53)Thestructurethatpullsthehairfollicleintoanuprightpositionisindicatedbyletter
53)_____________
__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
54)Thesebaceousglandsproduce__________.
54)_____________

55)Goosebumpsarecausedbycontractionsofthe__________muscles.
55)_____________

TRUE/FALSE.WriteTifthestatementistrueandFifthestatementisfalse.
56)Eccrineandapocrineglandsarethetwotypesofsebaceousglands.
56)______

57)Joejustburnedhishandonahotpot.Ablisterformsandtheburnispainful;Joesburnwould
57)______
bestbedescribedasathird-degreeburn.

58)Infirst-degreeburns,onlytheepidermisisdamaged.
58)______

59)Theepidermisismadeupofstratifiedsquamousepithelium.
59)______

60)Thereasonthatthenailbedappearspinkisthepresenceofalargenumberofmelanocytesinthe 60)______
underlyingdermis.

61)Hairisproducedbythehairbulbandiscomposedprimarilyofdeadkeratinizedcells.
61)______

62)Themajorportionoftheskiniscomprisedofthedermis.
62)______

63)Thedownytypeofhaircoveringanewborniscalledvernixcaseosa.
63)______

64)Melaninisfoundintheuppermostlayerofskinandhelpspreventwaterloss.
64)______

65)TheABCDruleisusedforclassifyingburns.

66)Squamouscellcarcinomaarisesfromcellsofthestratumspinosum.

67)Theoutermostlayeroftheepidermisisthestratumbasale.

68)Aserousmembraneiscomposedofalayerofsimplesquamousepitheliumrestingonathin
layerofareolarconnectivetissue.

69)Thenailisactuallyamodificationoftheskinandcorrespondstothehoovesofanimals.

70)Skinisalsoknownasasynovialmembrane.

71)Whenanindividualisexposedtoextremelylowairtemperatures,thecapillariesoftheskinwill
dilatesothatbloodwillflushintoskincapillarybedsandheatwillbedissipated.

72)Thethickened,proximalareaofthenailiscalledthenailmatrix,anditisresponsiblefornail
growth.

73)Membranesthatlinebodycavitiesthathaveopeningstotheexteriorofthebodyarecalled
mucousmembranes.

74)Thepinkishhueofhealthyindividualswithfairskinistheresultofthecrimsoncolorof
oxygenatedhemoglobincirculatinginthedermalcapillariesandreflectingthroughthedermis.

75)Theserousmembranethatcoverstheexternalsurfaceofbothlungsiscalledthevisceralpleura.

MATCHING.Choosetheitemincolumn2thatbestmatcheseachitemincolumn1.
Matchthefollowing:
76)Typeofmembranethatlinesopen
A)mucousmembrane
bodycavities

Matchthefollowing:
77)Apocrinegland
A)sudoriferousglandslargelyconfinedto
theaxillaryregion

Matchthefollowing:
78)Acne
A)infectionofthesebaceousglands
accompaniedbyskinpimples

Matchthefollowing:
79)Typeofmembraneadaptedfor
A)mucousmembrane
absorptionorsecretion

80)Onlyexampleofaconnectivetissue
A)synovialmembrane
membrane

Matchthefollowing:
81)Hairroot
A)partofthehairprojectingfromtheskin

65)______
66)______
67)______
68)______

69)______
70)______
71)______

72)______

73)______

74)______

75)______

76)______

77)______

78)______

79)______

80)______

surf ace

81)

______

Matchthefollowing:
82)Impetigo

B)partofthehairenclosedinthefollicle

A)staphylococcusbacterialinfectioncausing
water-filledlesionsaroundthemouth
andnose

82)______

Matchthefollowing:
83)Peritoneum,pericardium,andpleura
areexamplesofthistypeof
membrane

84)
Typeofmembranethathasno
epithelialcellsatall

Matchthefollowing:
85)Dermalsheath

86)Matrix

Matchthefollowing:
87)Seborrhea

88)Athletesfoot

89)Psoriasis

Matchthefollowing:
90)Typeofmembranethatcontainsa
visceralandapartietallayer

A)serousmembrane

83)______

B)
synovialmembrane

84)______

A)dividestoformhaircells

B)outermostcoveringofthehairfollicle

85)______

A)overactivityofsebaceousglandsthat
resultsindandruff

87)______

B)
fungusinfectionbetweentoes
C)
overproductionofskincellscausingdry,
silveryscales

88)______

A)serousmembrane

90)______

86)______

89)______

Matchthefollowing:
91)Coldsores

Matchthefollowing:
92)Typeofmembranethatisdry

Matchthefollowing:
93)Eccrinegland

A)fluid-filledblisterscausedbyherpes
simplexvirus

91)______

A)cutaneousmembrane

92)______

A)sudoriferousglandsfoundalloverthe
body

93)______

Matchthefollowing:
94)Decubitusulcers

95)Alopecia

96)Third-degreeburns

97)Basalcellcarcinoma

98)Malignantmelanoma

Matchthefollowing:
99)Papillarylayer

100)Medulla

A)malignancyofthelowestepidermallayer

B)partial-thicknessburn

C)cancerofskinpigmentcells

D)hairthinningandsomedegreeof
baldness

E)bedsores
F)
full-thicknessburn

94)______
95)______
96)______
97)______

98)______

A)upperlayerofthedermis
99)______

B)centralcoreofeachhair
100)_____
C)
lowerlayerofthedermis

ESSAY.Writeyouranswerinthespaceprovidedoronaseparatesheetofpaper.
101)Identifyfourchangesthatoccurtotheskinandsubcutaneousconnectivetissueasaresultofaging,andstate
howthesechangescanbedelayed.

102)Explainhowtheskinhelpsregulatebodytemperature.

103)Defineandexplainthefunctionofthearrectorpili.

104)Thirteen-year-oldJohnhasbeendiagnosedwithacne.Expaintohimwhatcausesacne.

105)Explainhowtheskinfunctionstoprotectdeepertissues.

106)ExplaintheABCDrule.

107)Listanddescribethethreetypesofepithelialmembranes.

108)Distinguishbetweentheappearancesofpartial-thicknessandfull-thicknessburns.


1)C
2)D
3)D
4)A
5)A
6)C
7)E
8)A
9)A
10)E
11)B
12)B
13)B
14)C
15)E
16)B
17)C
18)D
19)D
20)D
21)A
22)E
23)C
24)A
25)C
26)C
27)B
28)E
29)C
30)A
31)E
32)C
33)A
34)B
35)E
36)visceral
37)cuticle
38)F
39)second
40)epithelialmembranes;connectivemembranes
41)vernixcaseosa
42)C
43)D
44)epithelial;connective
45)lunula
46)lucidum
47)A
48)reticular
49)shaft
50)root
51)synovialmembrane

52)papillary
53)B
54)oil(sebum)
55)arrectorpili
56)FALSE
57)FALSE
58)TRUE
59)TRUE
60)FALSE
61)TRUE
62)TRUE
63)FALSE
64)FALSE
65)FALSE
66)TRUE
67)FALSE
68)TRUE
69)TRUE
70)FALSE
71)FALSE
72)TRUE
73)TRUE
74)TRUE
75)TRUE
76)A
77)A
78)A
79)B
80)A
81)B
82)A
83)A
84)B
85)B
86)A
87)A
88)B
89)C
90)A
91)A
92)A
93)A
94)E
95)D
96)F
97)A
98)C
99)A
100)B
101)1.Theamountofsubcutaneoustissuebelowtheskindecreases,leadingtoanintolerancetocoldintheelderly.
2.Becauseofdecreasedoilproductionanddecliningnumbersofcollagenfibers,theskinbecomesdrierandmay
becomeitchyandbothersome.

3.
skinmakesitmoresusceptibletobruisingandothertypesofinjuries.
Thin 4.Adecreaseinelasticityoftheskin,alongwiththelossofsubcutaneousfat,allowsbagstoformundertheeyes
ning andcausesjowlstosag.
of
Todelaythesechanges,theskinshouldbekeptcleanandshieldedfromthesun,andahealthydietwithplentyof
the fluidsshouldbemaintained.
102)Thenervoussystemisresponsibleforcontrollingalltemperature-regulatingfunctionsoftheskin.Whenthe
temperatureintheexternalenvironmentishigh,heatlossoccursasthenervoussystemactivatessweatglands.
Perspirationisproduced,whichevaporatesfromtheskinsurface,causingheattobedissipated.Atthesametime,
thenervoussystemcausesbloodtobeflushedintoskincapillarybedssothatheatradiatesfromthebodysurface.
Incontrast,whenthetemperatureintheexternalenvironmentislow,thenervoussystempreventsbloodfrom
enteringtheskincapillarysystemandradiationtothebodyexteriorispreventedsothatperspirationdoesnot
occur.Atthesametime,bloodispreventedfromenteringdeepertissuesandthecoretemperatureofthebodyis
maintained.
103)Thearrectorpiliaresmallbandsofsmoothmusclecellsthatconnecteachsideofahairfollicletothedermaltissue.
Theyareactivatedbycoldorfrightand,whencontracted,pullthehairfollicleintoanuprightposition,dimpling
theskinsurfacewithgoosebumps.
104)Acneisanactiveinfectionofthesebaceousglandsaccompaniedbypimplesontheskin.Sebaceousglandsrelease
sebum,oroil,ontotheskinssurface.
105)Skincontains:
1.
keratinwhichtoughenscellsandservesasabarriertomechanicaldamageandchemicaldamage;keratin
alsoservestowaterprooftheskintopreventdesiccation
2.
acidicoilysecretionsthatpreventbacterialdamage
3.
melanintoprotectfromUVdamage
4.
receptorstodetectheat,cold,andpain;servesasaprotectionagainstthermaldamage
106)TheABCDruledescribestheappearanceofthemostseriousformofskincancer,melanoma.TheAisfor
asymmetry.Inmelanoma,thetwosidesofthepigmentedspotormoledonotmatch.TheBisforborder
irregularity.Inmelanoma,thebordersofthelesionarenotsmoothbutexhibitindentations.TheCisforcolor.In
melanoma,thepigmentedspotcontainsareasofdifferentcolors(blacks,browns,tans,andsometimesbluesand
reds).TheDisfordiameter.Inmelanoma,thespotislargerthan6mmindiameter(thesizeofapencileraser).
107)1.
Cutaneousmembraneis:

a.
skin

b.
dry

c.
composedofkeratinizingstratifiedsquamousepitheliumandtheunderlyingconnectivetissueis
oftendenseandfibrous.
2.
Mucousmembrane:

a.
ismoist

b.
isfoundliningallbodycavitiesthatopentotheexterior

c.
oftencontainsstratifiedsquamousepitheliumorsimplecolumnarepithelium
3.
Serousmembrane:

a.
iscomposedoftwolayers(viscerallayercoverstheorganinthecavitywhiletheparietallayerlines
aspecificportionofthewalloftheventralbodycavity)

b.
coversorgansinbodycavitiesthatareclosedtotheexterior

c.
iscontructedofsimplesquamousepitheliumoverlyingathinlayerofareolarconnectivetissue
108)Partialthicknessburnsareburnsthatdontcompletelydamagebothlayersofskin,andincludefirst-andseconddegreeburns.Infirst-degreeburnsonlytheepidermisisdamaged,withrednessandswellingandsomepain.
Theseburnstypicallyhealintwotothreedayswithoutspecialattention.Second-degreeburnsinvolveinjurytothe
epidermisandupperregionofthedermis.Theyarecharacterizedbyredness,blisters,andpain.Ordinarily,no
permanentscarsresultifcareistakentopreventinfection.
Full-thicknessburnsdestroytheentirethicknessofskinandarealsotermedthird-degreeburns.Inthird-degree
burns,theburnedareaappearsblanched(gray-white)orblackened.Theburnedareaisnotpainfulsincenerve
endingsintheareaaredestroyed.Regenerationisnotpossible,thereforeskingraftingmustbedonetocover
underlyingexposedtissues.

Exam
Name___________________________________

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
1)Thecanalthatrunsthroughthecoreofeachosteoncontains:
1)_______
A)redmarrow
B)cartilageandlamellae
C)yellowmarrowandSharpeysfibers
D)osteoclastsandosteoblasts
E)bloodvesselsandnervefibers

2)WhichofthesebonesisNOTassociatedwiththefoot:
2)_______
A)tarsals
B)calcaneus
C)metatarsals
D)talus
E)metacarpals

3)Articulationspermittingonlyslightdegreesofmovementare__________,whereasarticulations 3)_______
permittingnomovementarecalled__________.
A)amphiarthroses;synarthroses
B)amphiarthroses;diarthroses
C)diarthroses;amphiarthroses
D)diarthroses;synarthroses
E)synarthroses;amphiarthroses

4)Thereare__________vertebraeintheneckregion.
4)_______
A)sevencervical
B)fivelumbar
C)twelvethoracic
D)sevenlumbar
E)fivethoracic

5)Whattypeofcelldoesparathyroidhormone(PTH)activate:
5)_______
A)periosteum
B)lacunae
C)osteoblast
D)osteocyte
E)osteoclast

Figure5.4

6)ThetypeofjointshowninFigure5.4is:
A)asuture
B)acartilaginousjoint
C)afibrousjoint
D)anamphiarthroticjoint
E)asynovialjoint

7)Theatlasisthe:
A)lastlumbarvertebra
B)partofthesacrum
C)firstthoracicvertebra
D)secondcervicalvertebra
E)firstcervicalvertebra

8)Whichofthefollowingiscorrectofthefemalepelviswhencomparingitwiththemalepelvis:
A)thedistancebetweenthefemaleischialspinesisgreater
B)theangleofthefemalepubicarchissmaller
C)thefemalepelvisasawholeisdeeper,andthebonesareheavierandthicker
D)thefemaleiliacbonesarelessflared
E)thedistancebetweenthefemaleischialtuberositiesisless

9)Allofthefollowingfacialbonesarepairedexceptone.Whichofthefollowingistheunpaired
facialbone:
A)maxillae
B)lacrimal
C)zygomatic
D)palatine
E)vomer

10)Thesellaturcicaispartofthe__________bone.
A)ethmoid
B)parietal
C)frontal
D)sphenoid
E)temporal

11)Inadults,thefunctionoftheyellowmarrowisto:
A)decreasefrictionatjointsurfaces
B)storeadiposetissue

6)_______

7)_______

8)_______

9)_______

10)______

11)______

C)formbloodcells
D)storecalciumandphosphorus
E)causelengthwisegrowthinlongbones

12)Thehyoidboneisuniquebecause:
A)ithasnospecificfunction
B)itlargelyconsistsofcartilage
C)ithasanunusualshape
D)itiscoveredwithmucosa
E)itistheonlyboneofthebodythatdoesnotdirectlyarticulatewithanyotherbone

13)Whichofthefollowinggroupsofbonesinthehumanbody,categorizedaccordingtoshape,is
correct:
A)coxalbones-irregularbones
B)cranium-sesamoidbones
C)skullbones-flatbones
D)armandlegbones-shortbones
E)wristandanklebones-longbones

14)Astructurefoundonthefemuristhe:
A)anteriorcrest
B)intercondylarfossa
C)trochlea
D)lateralmalleolus
E)medialmalleolus

15)Whatkindoftissueistheforerunneroflongbonesintheembryo:
A)densefibrousconnectivetissue
B)hyalinecartilage
C)fibrocartilage
D)elasticconnectivetissue
E)loosefibrousconnectivetissue

16)Thesternumistheresultoffusionofthreebonescalledthe:
A)ischium,ilium,coccyx
B)trueribs,manubrium,xiphoidprocess
C)manubrium,body,xiphoidprocess
D)jugularnotch,sternalangle,xiphisternaljoint
E)pubis,ischium,ilium

17)Thepresenceofanepiphysealplateindicatesthat:
A)boneisdead
B)bonediameterisdecreasing
C)bonediameterisincreasing
D)bonelengthisincreasing
E)bonelengthisnolongerincreasing

18)Thesuturefoundbetweentheparietalandtemporalboneisthe:
A)coronalsuture
B)sagittalsuture
C)boththesquamoussutureandthesagittalsuture
D)lambdoidsuture

12)______

13)______

14)______

15)______

16)______

17)______

18)______

E)squamoussuture

19)Thebonecellswithinlacunaereceivenourishmentfrombloodvesselsthroughpassageways
called:
A)perforatingcanals
B)medullarycavities
C)lamellae
D)Haversiancanals
E)canaliculi

20)Transverseforaminaarefoundinthe:
A)lumbarvertebrae
B)thoracicvertebrae
C)cervicalvertebrae
D)sacrum
E)coccyx

21)Ashallow,basin-likedepressioninaboneoftenservingasanarticularsurfaceisa:
A)meatus
B)foramen
C)fossa
D)sinus
E)groove

22)Whichisthecorrectorderofribs,fromsuperiortoinferior:
A)floatingribs,trueribs,falseribs
B)floatingribs,falseribs,trueribs
C)trueribs,falseribs,floatingribs
D)falseribs,floatingribs,trueribs
E)trueribs,floatingribs,falseribs

23)Thefactor(s)thatdeterminewherebonematrixistoberemodeledis(are):
A)sexhormones
B)stressesofgravityandmusclepullontheskeleton
C)calciumleveloftheblood
D)growthhormone
E)parathyroidhormone(PTH)

19)______

20)______

21)______

22)______

23)______

Figure5.3

24)ThetypeoftissueshowninFigure5.3isfoundmostlyin:
A)articularcartilage
B)shortbones

24)______

C)yellowmarrow
D)theepiphysis
E)thediaphysis

25)Fourofthefiveanswerslistedbelowarepartsofthesameanatomicalarea.Selecttheexception.
A)radius
B)clavicle
C)fibula
D)humerus
E)scapula

26)Acompoundfracturecanbedescribedaswhen:
A)theboneisbrokenintomanyfragments
B)theboneiscrushed
C)thebrokenboneendsareforcedintoeachother
D)thebrokenboneisexposedtotheoutside
E)adjacentbonesfracturesimultaneously

27)Theaxialskeletoncontains:

1.
skull

2.
armsandlegs

3.
ribsandsternum

4.
vertebrae

5.
pelvicgirdles
A)1,2,3,5
B)1,3,4
C)1,3,4,5
D)2,5
E)2,3,4,5

28)WhichofthesebonesisNOTalongbonefoundintheleg:
A)femur
B)fibula
C)metatarsals
D)tibia
E)patella

29)Osteonsarecharacteristicof__________.
A)compactbone
B)articularcartilage
C)yellowmarrow
D)spongybone
E)Sharpeysfibers

30)Whichofthefollowingisanexampleofabonethatformsfromfibrousmembranes:
A)theparietalbone
B)thefemur
C)thehumerus
D)theradius
E)thetibia

31)Fingersandtoesarereferredtoas:
A)tarsals
B)carpals
C)metatarsals
D)metacarpals
E)phalanges

32)Aroundorovalopeningthroughaboneisa:
A)fossa
B)fissure
C)facet
D)foramen
E)trochanter

25)______

26)______

27)______

28)______

29)______

30)______

31)______

32)______


33)Afracturethatiscommoninchildren,whoseboneshaverelativelymorecollagenintheirmatrix
andaremoreflexiblethanthoseofadults,isa(n):
A)depressedfracture
B)spiralfracture
C)openfracture
D)impactedfracture
E)greenstickfracture

34)Thesmallcavitiesinbonetissuewhereosteocytesarefoundarecalled:
A)lacunae
B)lamellae
C)trabeculae
D)Volkmannscanals
E)Haversiancanals

35)Thegreatertrochanterislocatedonthe:
A)femur
B)humerus
C)fibula
D)tibia
E)radius

36)Themostimportantmineralsstoredinbonesare:
A)calciumandiron
B)calciumandpotassium
C)sodiumandpotassium
D)calciumandphosphorus
E)sodiumandphosphorus

37)Abonefracturewheretheboneisbrokenintomanyfragmentsisa:
A)compoundfracture
B)compressionfracture
C)simplefracture
D)comminutedfracture
E)greenstickfracture

38)Themiddlenasalconchaearepartofthe:
A)sphenoidbone
B)vomerbone
C)nasalbone
D)ethmoidbone
E)maxillae

39)Afracturethatiscommoninosteoporoticbonesisa(n):
A)depressedfracture
B)spiralfracture
C)simplefracture
D)compressionfracture
E)impactedfracture

40)Whichofthesearebone-formingcells:
A)osteocytes
B)osteoclasts
C)lamellae
D)canaliculi

33)______

34)______

35)______

36)______

37)______

38)______

39)______

40)______

E)osteoblasts

41)Therearefourstagesinthehealingofabonefracture.Whichofthefollowingbestillustratesthe 41)______
sequenceofthesestages:
1. bonycallusformation 3. fibrocartilagecallusformation
2. boneremodeling
4. hematomaformation
A)1,3,2,4
B)4,3,1,2
C)1,2,3,4
D)1,3,4,2
E)4,3,2,1

42)Boneformationcanbereferredtoas:
42)______
A)osteoarthritis
B)gout
C)osteoporosis
D)ossification
E)rickets

43)Theperiosteumissecuredtotheunderlyingbonebydenseconnectivetissuefiberscalled:
43)______
A)endochondralbone
B)Sharpeysfibers
C)articularcartilage
D)abonymatrixwithhyalinecartilage
E)Volkmannscanals

44)Thetailboneisthe:
44)______
A)pubis
B)sacrum
C)coccyx
D)patella
E)ischium

45)Whichofthefollowingbonecategoriesiscomposedoftwolayersofcompactbonesandwiching 45)______
alayerofspongybonebetweenthem:
A)flatbone
B)irregularbone
C)compactbone
D)longbone
E)sesamoidbone

SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.


Figure5.2

UsingFigure5.2,identifythefollowing:
46)Thefemurisindicatedbyletter__________.

47)Thephalangesofthefootareindicatedbyletter__________.

48)Thesacrumisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
49)Thediseaseinwhichuricacidaccumulatesinthebloodandmaybedepositedas
needle-shapedcrystalsinthesofttissuesofjointsiscalled__________.

50)ThediseaseinchildrenwhosedietslackcalciumorvitaminD,wherethebonesfailto
calcify,iscalled__________.

51)Theheadofthehumerusfitsintothe__________ofthescapula.

46)_____________
47)_____________
48)_____________

49)_____________

50)_____________

51)_____________


Figure5.1

UsingFigure5.1,identifythefollowing:
52)Theareathatcontainsglassyhyalinecartilagethatprovidesasmoothslipperysurface
whichdecreasesfrictionisindicatedbyletter__________.

52)_____________


Figure5.2

UsingFigure5.2,identifythefollowing:
53)Themandibleisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
54)Aroundorovalholethroughabone,whichcontainsbloodvesselsand/ornerves,is
calleda__________.

53)_____________

54)_____________


Figure5.1

UsingFigure5.1,identifythefollowing:
55)Thedistalepiphysisisindicatedbyletter__________.

56)Thediaphysisisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
57)Theheelboneiscalledthe__________.

58)Alargeroundedprojectiononaboneiscalleda__________.

59)Theelbowjointisanexampleofa__________jointinwhichmovementoccursinonly
oneplane.

60)Afracturewherethebonebreakscleanlybutdoesnotpenetratetheskinistermeda
__________fracture.

55)_____________
56)_____________

57)_____________
58)_____________
59)_____________

60)_____________


Figure5.1

UsingFigure5.1,identifythefollowing:
61)Theareathatcausesthelengthwisegrowthofalongboneisindicatedbyletter
__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
62)Cube-shapedbonesthatcontainmostlyspongybonearecalled__________bones.

61)_____________

62)_____________


Figure5.2

UsingFigure5.2,identifythefollowing:
63)Thesternumisindicatedbyletter__________.

64)Theradiusboneisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
65)Thepartoftheethmoidbonethatcontainsholeyareaswithfibersthatcarryimpulses
fromtheolfactoryreceptorsofthenosetothebrainisthe__________.

66)__________aregiantcellsthatdestroybone.

63)_____________
64)_____________

65)_____________

66)_____________


Figure5.2

UsingFigure5.2,identifythefollowing:
67)Thescapulaisindicatedbyletter__________.

68)Thefrontalboneisindicatedbyletter__________.

67)_____________
68)_____________


Figure5.1

UsingFigure5.1,identifythefollowing:
69)Theareathatservesasastorageareaforfatinadultsisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
70)Theonlyfreelymovableboneintheskullisthe__________.

71)Listanddiscussthestructuresofalongbone.

69)_____________

70)_____________
71)_____________

Figure5.1

UsingFigure5.1,identifythefollowing:
72)Spongyboneisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
73)Theexternalacoustic(auditory)meatusisfoundonthe__________bone.

74)Bloodcellformationiscalled__________.

72)_____________

73)_____________
74)_____________

Figure5.2

UsingFigure5.2,identifythefollowing:
75)Thefibulaisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
76)Anincreaseinbonediameteriscalled__________growth.

TRUE/FALSE.WriteTifthestatementistrueandFifthestatementisfalse.
77)Osteoblastsrespondtotheparathyroidhormone(PTH).

75)_____________

76)_____________

77)______


78)Spinalcurvaturesthatarepresentatbirtharecalledprimarycurvatures(thecervicalandlumbar
curvatures)andthosethatdeveloplateraresecondarycurvatures(thethoracicandsacral
curvatures).

79)Inanatomicalposition,thelaterallowerlegboneisthefibula.

80)Mostofthestressonthevertebralcolumnoccursonthesturdiestvertebraeinthesacralregion.

81)Thediaphysisofalongboneiscomposedofspongybone.

82)Theheaviest,strongestboneinthebodyisthefemur.

83)Hematopoiesisreferstotheformationofbloodcellswithintheredmarrowcavitiesofcertain
bones.

84)Themasterglandofthebody(pituitarygland)ishousedinasaddlelikedepressioninthe
temporalbonecalledthesellaturcica.

85)Therearesevencervical,twelvethoracic,andfivelumbarvertebrae.

86)Ribsnumbered11and12aretrueribsbecausetheyhavenoanteriorattachments.

87)Thezygomaticbonesformthecheekbones.

88)Thespinalcordpassesthroughthebodyofeachvertebra.

89)Fontanelsallowforgrowthofthebrain.

90)Allflatbonesareformedfromhyalinecartilage.

MATCHING.Choosetheitemincolumn2thatbestmatcheseachitemincolumn1.
Matchthefollowing:
91)Knucklejoints
A)ball-and-socketjoint

92)Shoulderjoint
B)condyloidjont

Matchthefollowing:
93)Fracturewherebonefragmentsinto
A)comminuted
manypieces

Matchthefollowing:
94)Cellsthatcandissolvethebony
A)osteons
matrix

B)
osteoclasts

Matchthefollowing:
95)Coxalbone
A)irregularbone

Matchthefollowing:

78)______

79)______
80)______
81)______
82)______
83)______

84)______

85)______
86)______
87)______
88)______
89)______
90)______

91)______
92)______

93)______

94)______

95)______

96)Wristjoint

Matchthefollowing:
97)Smallchannelsthatradiatethrough
thematrixofbone

Matchthefollowing:
98)Sternum

Matchthefollowing:
99)Typeoffractureinwhichboneis
crushed

A)planejoint

96)______

A)canaliculi

97)______

B)Sharpeysfibers

A)flatbone

98)______

A)compression

99)______

Matchthefollowing:
100)Patella

101)Carpals

Matchthefollowing:
102)Typeoffractureinwhichthebroken
boneportionispressedinward

A)shortbone

B)shortandsesamoidbone

100)_____

A)depressed

102)_____

101)_____

Matchthefollowing:
103)Trueribs

Matchthefollowing:
104)Anincompletefractureorcrackingof
thebonewithoutactualseparationof
theparts(commoninchildren)

A)flatbone

103)_____

A)greenstick

104)_____

Matchthefollowing:
105)Femur

Matchthefollowing:
106)Elbowjoint

Matchthefollowing:
107)Parietalbones

Matchthefollowing:
108)Areawherebonegrowthtakesplace

109)Cellsthatcanbuildbonymatrix

A)longbone

105)_____

A)hingejoint

106)_____

A)flatbone

107)_____

A)epiphysealplate

B)osteocytes
C)
osteoblasts

108)_____
109)_____

D)epiphysealline

Matchthefollowing:
110)Atlas

Matchthefollowing:
111)Layersofcalcificationthatarefound
inbone

Matchthefollowing:
112)Fractureinwhichbrokenboneends
areforcedintoeachother

A)irregularbone

110)_____

A)lacunae

111)_____

B)lamellae

A)impacted

112)_____

Matchthefollowing:
113)Ulna

Matchthefollowing:
114)Jointbetweenatlasandaxis

A)longbone

A)pivotjoint
B)
saddlejoint

113)_____

114)_____

Matchthefollowing:
115)Fibula
A)longbone
115)_____

ESSAY.Writeyouranswerinthespaceprovidedoronaseparatesheetofpaper.
116)If6-year-oldSarahfellandbrokeherfemur,damagingtheproximalepiphysealplate,whatmightshe
expectasshegrowsolder?Whatisanepiphysealplateandwhyisitsignificanttothissituation?

117)Listsomeofthefeaturesofafemalepelvisthatmakeitdifferentfromamalepelvis.

118)Differentiatetherolesofosteoclasts,osteoblasts,andosteocytesinbone.

119)Definefontanelanddiscussitsfunctions.Identifythefourfontanelsintheinfantandcitetheirlocations.

120)Explainthefivefunctionsoftheskeletalsystem.

121)Differentiateamongthethreetypesofjointsbasedonstructuralandfunctionalclassification.Provide
examplesofeachtypeofjoint.

122)Explainhowatlasandaxisaredifferentfromothervertebrae.Discusstherolestheyplayinthebody.

123)Discussthetwofactorsthatcauseboneremodelingthroughoutlife.

124)Listandexplainthestepsintherepairprocessofasimplefracture.


1)E
2)E
3)A
4)A
5)E
6)E
7)E
8)A
9)E
10)D
11)B
12)E
13)A
14)B
15)B
16)C
17)D
18)E
19)E
20)C
21)C
22)C
23)B
24)E
25)C
26)D
27)B
28)E
29)A
30)A
31)E
32)D
33)E
34)A
35)A
36)D
37)D
38)D
39)D
40)E
41)B
42)D
43)B
44)C
45)A
46)H
47)Z
48)R
49)gout
50)rickets
51)glenoidcavity

52)D
53)N
54)foramen
55)I
56)C
57)calcaneus
58)tuberosity
59)hinge
60)simpleorclosed
61)E
62)short
63)O
64)Q
65)cribriformplate
66)Osteoclasts
67)D
68)L
69)H
70)mandible
71)1.Diaphysistheshaftofthelongbone:a)itismadeofcompactbone;b)itiscoveredbyafibrousconnective
tissuemembrane,theperiosteum.Theperiosteumissecurelyheldtothecompactbonebeneathbyconnective
tissuefiberscalledperforatingorSharpeysfibers;c)itcontainsahollowcavitycalledthemedullarycavitythat
storesadiposetissueasyellowmarrow,andisthesiteofhematopoiesis(redbloodcellformation)ininfantswhenit
containsredmarrow.
2.Epiphysessomewhatroundedendsofthelongbone:eachepiphysishasanouterlayerofcompactbone
coveringaninnercoreofspongybone.Theexternalsurfaceiscoveredbyalayerofhyalinecartilage,insteadofa
periosteum,calledarticularcartilage.Thisprovidesforasmooth,glidingjoint.
3.Epiphysealline/platethejunctionbetweentheepiphysesandthediaphysis.Duringgrowthyearsismadeof
hyalinecartilageandiscalledtheepiphysealplate.Itcausesthelengthwisegrowthofthebone.Bytheendof
puberty,longbonesstoplengtheningwhentheplatehasbeenreplacedbybone.Itnowappearsasathinbony
ridgeandiscalledtheepiphysealline.
72)A
73)temporal
74)hematopoiesis
75)X
76)appositional
77)FALSE
78)FALSE
79)TRUE
80)FALSE
81)FALSE
82)TRUE
83)TRUE
84)FALSE
85)TRUE
86)FALSE
87)TRUE
88)FALSE
89)TRUE
90)FALSE
91)B
92)A

93)A
94)B
95)A
96)A
97)A
98)A
99)A
100)B
101)A
102)A
103)A
104)A
105)A
106)A
107)A
108)A
109)C
110)A
111)B
112)A
113)A
114)A
115)A
116)Theepiphysealplateisaflatplateofhyalinecartilageseeninyounggrowingbone.Epiphysealplatescausethe
lengthwisegrowthoflongbone.Sincethischildisstillgrowingandhasnotcompletedpuberty,shemayexpect
impairedgrowthinthatoneepiphysealplate.LuckyforSarah,thereisanepiphysealplatelocatedatboththedistal
andproximalendsofthefemur.Thehealthydistalplatecancontinuetogrow.
117)Thefemalepelvis:

a.
hasalargerandmorecircularinlet.

b.
isshallowerthanthemalepelvis.

c.
haslighterandthinnerbones.

d.
hasashorterandlesscurvedsacrum.

e.
hasamoreroundedpubicarch.

f.
hasshorterischialspinesthatarealsofartherapart.
118)1.
Osteoclastsaregiantbone-destroyingcellsthatbreakdownbonematrixandreleasecalciumionsintothe
blood.Theyareactiviatedbyahormonecalledparathyroidhormone(PTH).
2.
Osteoblastsarebone-formingcells.Theyaddbonetissuetogrowingbones.
3.
Osteocytesarematurebonecells.Intheirformerlives,theywereosteoblaststhatlaiddownbonematrix,
butbecametrappedinit.
119)Fontanelsarefibrousmembranesconnectingthecranialbonesoftheinfantskull.
Theyservetwofunctions:theyallowthefetalskulltobecompressedslightlyduringchildbirthandtheyallowthe
infantbraintogrowduringthelaterpartofpregnancyandearlyinfancy.Thefourfontanelsare:
1.Anteriorfontanelthisisthelargestfontanelandislocatedbetweenthepareitalbonesandthefrontalbone.Itis
diamond-shaped.
2.Mastoidfontanelsuperiortotheposteriorpartofthetemporalboneonalateralviewofthecranium.
3.Posteriorfontanelsmaller,triangularfontanellocatedposteriorlyonthelateralviewofthecranium.
4.Sphenoidalfontanelsuperiortotheanteriorpartofthetemporalboneonthelateralviewofthecranium.

120)1.Supporttheskeletalsystemformsthebodysinternalstructuralframework.Thebonesofthelegsactaspillars
tosupportthebodytrunkwhenwestand,andtheribcagesupportsthethoracicwall.
2.Movementtheskeletalmuscles,attachedtobonesbytendons,usethebonesasleverstomovethebodyandits
parts.
3.Protectionbones,suchastheskull,thorax,andpelvis,protecttheenclosedsoftbodyorgans.

4. atisstoredintheinternalcavitiesofbones.Bonesalsoserveasastorehouseforminerals,themostimportantbeing
Stora calciumandphosphorus.
gef 5.Hematopoiesisbloodcellformationoccurswithintheredmarrowofcertainbones.
121)1.
Synarthrosesareimmovablejoints.Thesejointsarestructurallyclassifiedasfibrousjointssincethebones
areunitedbyfibroustissue.Skullsuturesareoneexampleofafibrousjoint.
2.
Amphiarthrosesareslightlymovablejoints.Thesejointsarestructurallyclassifiedascartilaginousjoints
sincetheboneendsareconnectedbycartilage.Thepubicsymphysisandintervertebraljointsaretwoexamples.
3.
Diathrosesarefreelymovablejoints.Thesejointsarestructurallyclassifiedassynovialjointssincethe
articulatingboneendsareseparatedbyajointcavitycontainingsynovialfluid.Therearemanyexamplesof
synovialjoints,includingtheelbow,knee,andshoulder.
122)1.
Unlikeallothervertebra,atlas(C1)hasnobody.Axis(C2)hasalargeprocesscalledthedensorodontoid
process.
2.
Thestructuraldifferencesofthesetwovertebraeallowyoutorotateyourheadfromsidetosidetoindicate
no.Thejointbetweenthesetwovertebraeisapivotjoint.
123)1.Calciumlevelsinthebloodstreamdeterminewhenboneistobebrokendown.Whencalciumlevelsinthe
bloodstreamdropbelownormal,theparathyroidglandsproduceandreleaseparathyroidhormone(PTH)intothe
blood.PTHactivatesosteoclasts(giantbone-destroyingcellsinbone)tobreakdownboneandreleasecalciuminto
theblood.Conversely,whencalciumlevelsinthebloodstreamaretoohigh,osteoblasts(bone-formingcellsin
bone)areactivatedandcalciumisdepositedinbonematrixashardcalciumsalts.
2.Stressesofmusclepullandgravityactingontheskeletondeterminewherebonematrixistobebrokendownor
formedsothattheskeletoncanremainstrongforaslongaspossible.Longbonesgrowinlengthandinthicknessas
thebodyincreasesinsizeandasaresultoftheactivityofbulkymuscles.Atthesesites,osteoblasts(bone-forming
cells)laydownnewmatrixandbecometrappedwithinit.Oncetheyaretrapped,theybecomeosteocytesortrue
bonecells.
124)Step1ishematomaformation.Ahematoma,orbloodfilledswelling,formswhenbonebreaksandbloodvessels
rupture.Bonecellsaredeprivedofnutritionanddie.
Step2isfibrocartilaginouscallusformation.Thesiteofdamageexperiencesgrowthofnewcapillariesintothe
clottedbloodanddisposalofdeadtissuebyphagocytes.Connectivetissuecellsofvarioustypesformamassof
repairtissuecalledfibrocartilagecallus.Thisfibrocartilagecalluscontainsseveralelements:somecartilagematrix,
somebonymatrix,andcollagenfibers.Thisfibrocartilagecallusactstosplintthebrokenbone,closingthegap.
Step3isbonycallusformation.Asmoreosteoblastsandosteoclastsmigrateintotheareaandmultiply,
fibrocartilageisgraduallyreplacedbyacallusofspongybone(thebonycallus).
Step4isboneremodeling.Overthenextfewmonths,bonycallusisremodeledinresponsetothemechanical
stressesplacedonit,sothatitformsastrong,permanentpatchatthefracturesite.

Exam
Name___________________________________

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
1)Themuscletissuetypethatconsistsofsingle,verylong,cylindrical,multinucleatecellswith
1)_______
veryobviousstriationsis:
A)skeletalmuscleonly
B)cardiacandsmoothmuscle
C)cardiacandskeletalmuscle
D)cardiacmuscleonly
E)smoothmuscleonly

2)WhichoneofthefollowingdoesNOTcompresstheabdomen:
2)_______
A)rectusabdominis
B)internaloblique
C)latissimusdorsi
D)externaloblique
E)transversusabdominis

3)Neurotransmittersarereleaseduponstimulationfromanerveimpulsebythe:
3)_______
A)thickfilaments
B)motorunit
C)axonterminalsofthemotorneuron
D)sarcolemmaofthemusclecell
E)myofibrils

4)Whattypeofmembranewrapsafascicle:
4)_______
A)perimysium
B)aponeuroses
C)tendons
D)epimysium
E)endomysium

5)Whichoneofthefollowingmusclesisinvolvedinabductionofthearmattheshoulderjoint:
5)_______
A)bicepsbrachii
B)tricepsbrachii
C)deltoid
D)latissimusdorsi
E)pectoralismajor

6)Whiledoingjumpingjacksduringanexerciseclass,yourarmsandlegsmovelaterallyaway
6)_______
fromthemidlineofyourbody.Thismotioniscalled:
A)extension
B)adduction
C)circumduction
D)flexion
E)abduction

7)Whichofthefollowingmusclesclosesthejaw:
7)_______
A)thefrontalis
B)themasseterandthetemporalis
C)thesternocleidomastoid

D)themasseter
E)thebuccinator

8)Anelaborateandspecializednetworkofmembranesinskeletalmusclecellsthatfunctionin
calciumstorageisthe:
A)sarcolemma
B)mitochondria
C)sarcoplasmicreticulum
D)myofibrillarnetwork
E)intermediatefilamentnetwork

9)Asarcomereis:
A)theareabetweentwointercalateddiscs
B)thenonfunctionalunitofskeletalmuscle
C)thewavylinesonthecell,asseeninamicroscope
D)thecontractileunitbetweentwoZdiscs
E)acompartmentinamyofilament

10)Amusclelocatedontheventral(anterior)sideofthebodyisthe:
A)occipitalis
B)gluteusmedius
C)gastrocnemius
D)latissimusdorsi
E)pectoralismajor

11)Whichofthefollowingmusclesisnotinvolvedindorsiflexionand/orplantarflexionofthefoot:
A)gastrocnemius
B)extensordigitorumlongus
C)soleus
D)iliopsoas
E)tibialisanterior

12)Duringskeletalmusclecontraction,myosincrossbridgesattachtoactivesitesof:
A)theHzone
B)Zdiscs
C)actinfilaments
D)myosinfilaments
E)thickfilaments

13)Theplasmamembraneofamusclecelliscalledthe:
A)myofilament
B)sarcomere
C)sarcolemma
D)sarcoplasm
E)sarcoplasmicreticulum

14)Thegapbetweentheaxonterminalofamotorneuronandthesarcolemmaofaskeletalmuscle
celliscalledthe:
A)crossbridge
B)motorunit
C)neuromuscularjunction
D)sarcomere

8)_______

9)_______

10)______

11)______

12)______

13)______

14)______

E)synapticcleft

15)WhichofthesepathwaystoregenerateATPduringmuscleactivityisthefastest:
A)directphosphorylationofADPbycreatinephosphate
B)aerobicrespiration
C)bothaerobicrespirationandanaerobicglycolysis
D)oxidativephosphorylation
E)anaerobicglycolysisandlacticacidformation

16)Whichofthefollowingmusclesinsertsonthecalcaneus:
A)thesoleus
B)theiliopsoas
C)thetibialisanterior
D)thesartorius
E)thesemitendinosus

17)Anursinginfantdevelopsapowerfulsuckingmusclethatadultsalsouseforwhistlingor
blowingatrumpetcalledthe:
A)zygomaticus
B)temporalis
C)masseter
D)buccinator
E)platysma

18)Anaerobicglycolysisoccurswithout:
A)glucose
B)oxygen
C)lacticacid
D)ATP
E)carbondioxide

Figure6.3

19)ThetypeofmuscletissuepicturedinFigure6.3is:
A)striated
B)foundonlyintheheart
C)skeletalmuscle
D)voluntary
E)smoothmuscle

20)Paralysisofwhichofthefollowingwouldmakeanindividualunabletoflexthethigh:

15)______

16)______

17)______

18)______

19)______

20)______

A)bicepsfemoris
B)vastusintermedius
C)vastuslateralis
D)vastusmedialis
E)iliopsoasandrectusfemoris

21)Acetylcholineis:
A)anoxygen-bindingprotein
B)acomponentofthickmyofilaments
C)asourceofenergyformusclecontraction
D)anionpumponthepostsynapticmembrane
E)aneurotransmitterthatstimulatesskeletalmuscle

22)Whichoneofthefollowingiscomposedofmyosinprotein:
A)lightbands
B)Zdiscs
C)thickfilaments
D)thinfilaments
E)allmyofilaments

23)Placethesestructuresoftheskeletalmuscleinorderfromlargesttosmallest:

1.
fascicle

2.
myofilament

3.
musclefiber(cell)

4.
myofibril

5.
sarcomere
A)1,3,4,5,2
B)2,5,4,3,1
C)1,4,3,2,5
D)3,1,2,4,5

24)Amusclegroupthatworkswithandassiststheactionofaprimemoverisa(n):
A)synergistonly
B)antagonistandfixator
C)antagonistandsynergist
D)fixatoronly
E)antagonistonly

25)Whichofthefollowingmusclesareantagonists:
A)vastusmedialisandvastuslateralis
B)bicepsbrachiiandtricepsbrachii
C)bicpesfemorisandbicepsbrachii
D)gastrocnemiusandsoleus
E)masseterandtemporalis

26)Muscletissuethathasinvoluntaryregulationofcontractionis:
A)skeletalmuscleonly
B)cardiacmuscleonly
C)cardiacmuscleandskeletalmuscle
D)smoothmuscleonly

E)cardiacmuscleandsmoothmuscle

27)Whichofthesemusclesisnotresponsibileforflexionorextensionofthearm?
A)platysma
B)tricepsbrachii

21)______

22)______

23)______

E)3,2,5,4,1
24)______

25)______

26)______

27)______

C)bicepsbrachii
D)brachialis
E)latissimusdorsi

28)Whichoneofthefollowingfunctionsdocalciumionsperformduringskeletalmuscle
contraction:
A)releasetheinhibitiononZdiscs
B)bindtoregulatoryproteinsonthemyosinfilaments,changingboththeirshapeandtheir
positiononthethickfilaments
C)increasetheactionpotentialtransmittedalongthesarcolemma
D)causeATPbindingtoactin
E)exposemyosinbindingsitesontheactin

29)Thestriationsthatgiveskeletalmuscleitscharacteristicstripedappearanceareproduced,forthe
mostpart,by:
A)adifferenceinthethicknessofthesarcolemma
B)thesarcoplasmicreticulum
C)thearrangementofmyofilaments
D)thecockedpositionsoftheheadsofthethickfilaments
E)theTtubules

30)WhichoneofthefollowingmuscleactionswouldNOTbeclassifiedasanISOTONIC
contraction:
A)tyingyourshoe
B)throwingaball
C)liftingaglassofwatertoyourmouth
D)pushingagainstastationarywall
E)writingaletter

31)Sandraisplayingthepianoforherrecital.Whichmuscleisnotinvolvedinthemovementofher
handsand/orfingers:
A)extensordigitorumlongus
B)extensorcarpiradialis
C)flexorcarpiulnaris
D)flexorcarpiradialis
E)extensordigitorum

32)Themechanicalforceofcontractionisgeneratedby:
A)thetemporarydisappearanceofthinfilaments
B)shorteningofthethinfilaments
C)shorteningofthethickfilaments
D)theaccordian-likefoldingofthinandthickfilaments
E)aslidingofthinfilamentspastthickones

33)Askeletalmuscletwitchdiffersfromatetaniccontractioninthat:
A)themuscletwitchisabriefandjerkymovement,whilethetetaniccontractionis
prolongedandcontinuous
B)thetetaniccontractionisconsideredabnormal,whilethetwitchisanormalmuscle
response
C)thetetaniccontractioniscausedbyasinglestimulus,whilethetwitchiscausedbyvery
rapidmultiplestimuli
D)themuscletwitchisprolongedandcontinuouswhileatetaniccontractionisbriefand

28)______

29)______

30)______

31)______

32)______

33)______

jerky
E)themuscletwitchoccursonlyinsmallmuscleswhileatetaniccontractionoccursinlarge
musclegroups

34)Whichoftheseeventsmustoccurfirsttotriggertheskeletalmuscletogenerateanaction
potentialandcontract:
A)acetylcholine(ACh)causestemporarypermeabilitytosodium
B)acetylcholinesterase(AchE)breaksdownacetylcholine(ACh)
C)diffusionofpotassiumionsoutofthecell
D)sodiumionsrushintothecell
E)operationofthesodium-potassiumpump

35)Creatinephosphate(CP)functionswithinthemusclecellsby:
A)formingachemicalcompoundwithactin
B)storingenergythatwillbetransferredtoATPtoresynthesizeADPasneeded
C)inducingaconformationalchangeinthemyofilaments
D)storingenergythatwillbetransferredtoADPtoresynthesizeATPasneeded
E)formingatemporarychemicalcompoundwithmyosin

36)Whichofthefollowingdoesnotdescribecardiacmuscletissue:
A)rhythmiccontractions
B)involuntary
C)striations
D)uninucleate
E)attachedtobones

37)WhichofthefollowingisNOTafunctionofthemuscularsystem:
A)maintenanceofposture
B)productionofmovement
C)hematopoiesis
D)stabilizationofjoints
E)generationofheat

38)Theconditionofskeletalmusclefatiguecanbebestexplainedby:
A)atotallackofATP
B)theinabilitytogeneratesufficientquantitiesofATPduetofeedbackregulationofsynthesis
C)theall-or-nonelaw
D)inadequatenumbersofmitochondria
E)insufficientintracellularquantitiesofATPduetoexcessiveconsumption

39)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTacriteriagenerallyusedinnamingmuscles:
A)numberoforiginsofthemuscle
B)shapeofthemuscle
C)methodofattachmentofthemuscletobone
D)relativesizeofthemuscle
E)actionofthemuscle

40)Whichoneofthefollowingistheactionoftheorbicularisoris:
A)allowsblinking,squinting,andvariousotherprotectivemechanismsfortheeye
B)pullsthelowerlipdownandback
C)drawstheeyebrowstogether
D)closesthejaw

34)______

35)______

36)______

37)______

38)______

39)______

40)______

E)closes,purses,andprotrudesthelips

41)Theaxonterminalsofanervecellandthesarcolemmaofaskeletalmusclecelljoinatthe:
41)______
A)myofibril
B)motorunit
C)synapticcleft
D)neuromuscularjunction
E)actionpotential

42)Paralysisofwhichofthefollowingwouldmakeanindividualunabletoflextheknee:
42)______
A)iliopsoas
B)hamstringmusclegroup
C)sartorius
D)gastrocnemius
E)glutealmusclegroup

43)Theinsertionofthegluteusmaximusisthe:
43)______
A)sacrum
B)ilium
C)femur
D)tibia
E)calcaneus

44)Themajorfunctionofthesarcoplasmicreticuluminskeletalmusclecontractionisto:
44)______
A)makeandstorephosphocreatine
B)provideasourceofmyosinforthecontractionprocess
C)synthesizeactinandmyosinmyofilaments
D)regulateintracellularcalciumconcentration
E)storeATP

45)Whichofthefollowingmusclesadductsthethigh:
45)______
A)peroneusmuscles
B)adductormuscles
C)gluteusmaximus
D)quadricepsgroup
E)sartorius

SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
46)Only__________musclecellsarecylindricalandmultinucleated.
46)_____________

47)The__________zoneofasarcomerecontainsnoactinfilamentswhiletheskeletal
47)_____________
muscleisatrest(noncontractilestate).

48)The__________ofamuscleisattachedtotheimmovableorlessmovablebone.
48)_____________

49)Whenaskeletalmuscleisfullycontracted,the__________areclosertothethick
49)_____________
filaments.

50)The__________musclerunsdeeptotheexternalobliquemuscle.
50)_____________

51)Fasciclearrangementsproduceskeletalmuscleswithdifferentstructuresandfunctional 51)_____________
properties,anddeterminetheirindividualrangeofmotionandpower.Listtheseven
differentfasciclearrangementsofhumanskeletalmusclesandgiveaspecificexampleof
each:

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
52)Thegapbetweenthemotorneuronandthemusclefiberitsuppliesatthe
neuromuscularjunctioniscalledthe__________.

52)_____________

Figure6.1

UsingFigure6.1,matchthefollowing:
53)ThelightercentralareaoftheAbandisindicatedbyletter__________.

54)TheAbandwithinaskeletalmusclefiberisindicatedbyletter__________.

55)TheIbandwithinaskeletalmusclefiberisindicatedbyletter__________.

53)_____________
54)_____________
55)_____________

Figure6.2

UsingFigure6.2,matchthefollowing:
56)Theconnectivetissuethatwrapsafascicle,orbundleofmusclefibers,isindicatedby
letter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
57)Themuscletissuethatnormallyexhibitsvoluntarycontractionsis__________muscle.

58)Themusclethathasthemajorresponsibilityforcausingaparticularmovementisthe
__________.

59)Thequadricepsfemorismusclegroupiscomposedofthethreevastusmusclesandthe
__________muscle.

60)Themusclereferredtoasthesmilingmusclebecauseitraisedthecornersofthemouth
upwardisthe__________.

61)Aninheriteddiseasethatcausesmusclestodegenerateandatrophyisknownas
__________.

62)Theheadsofthemyosinmyofilamentsarecalled__________whentheylinkthethick
andthinfilamentstogetherduringskeletalmusclecontraction.

56)_____________

57)_____________
58)_____________

59)_____________

60)_____________

61)_____________

62)_____________

Figure6.2

UsingFigure6.2,matchthefollowing:
63)Theendomysiumthatwrapsindividualmusclefibersisindicatedbyletter__________.

64)Listthefivegoldenrulesofgrossskeletalmuscleactivity.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
65)Thearrangementoffasciclesinorbicularisorisis__________.

66)Asmooth,sustainedcontractioniscalled__________.

67)Skeletalmuscleisoftenattachedtobonebystrong,cordlikestructurescalled

63)_____________
64)_____________

65)_____________
66)_____________
___ _______.

67)

_____________

Figure6.2

UsingFigure6.2,matchthefollowing:
68)Theconnectivetissueovercoatthatwrapstheentiremuscleisindicatedbyletter
__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
69)Themovementthatiscommonlyseeninaball-in-socketjoint,thatincludesa
combinationofflexion,extension,abduction,andadduction,iscalled__________.

68)_____________

69)_____________

Figure6.1

UsingFigure6.1,matchthefollowing:

70)Thethinfilamentisindicatedbyletter__________.

70)_____________

Figure6.2

UsingFigure6.2,matchthefollowing:
71)Themusclefiberisindicatedbyletter__________.
71)_____________

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
72)Theonlyenergysourcethatcanbeusedtodirectlypowermuscleactivityis__________. 72)_____________

73)Only__________musclecellspossessintercalateddiscs.
73)_____________

TRUE/FALSE.WriteTifthestatementistrueandFifthestatementisfalse.
74)Anaponeurosisisaropelikepieceofmusclefasciathatformsindirectconnectionstomusclesof 74)______
theleg.

75)Skeletalmusclesneednervestimulationforcontractiontooccur.
75)______

76)Thedeepestmuscleoftheabdominalwallisthetransversusabdominis.
76)______

77)Thickfilamentsaremadeofaproteincalledactin.
77)______

78)Oneoftheimportantfunctionsofskeletalmuscleistogenerateheat.
78)______

79)Asustainedpartialcontractionofskeletalmuscleiscalledmuscletone.
79)______

80)Theinsertionofthebicepsbrachiimuscleisontheradius.
80)______

81)Supinationandpronationrefertoupanddownmovementsofthefootattheankle.
81)______

82)Dorsiflexionandplantarflexionaresynergisticactions.
82)______

83)Amuscletwitchresultswhenthemuscleisstimulatedsorapidlythatnoevidenceofrelaxation
83)______
isseen.

84)Aprimemoverofthearmthatactsinadductionisthedeltoid.

85)Anervecellandallthemusclecellsthatitstimulatesarereferredtoasamotorunit.

86)Thebicpesbrachiimuscleisnamedforthetwoheadsthatorginiatefromtheshouldergirdle.

87)Acontractioninwhichaskeletalmuscledoesnotshortenbutitstensionincreasesiscalled
isometric.

88)Theneurotransmitterusedbythenervoussystemtoactivateskeletalmusclecellsis
acetylcholine.

89)Theepimysiumcoversindividualmusclefibers.

90)Thereare206skeletalmusclesinthehumanbody.

91)Skeletalmuscleisconsideredinvoluntarybecauseitistheonlytypeofmuscleusuallysubjectto
consciouscontrol.

92)Cardiacmusclefibersarerelativelyshort,taperingcellswithinasinglecentrallylocatednucleus.

93)Whenamusclefibercontracts,theIbandsdiminishinsize,theHzonesdisappear,andtheA
bandsmoveclosertogetherbutdonotdiminishinlength.

94)Plantarflexionattheanklejointisaccomplishedbythetibialisanteriormuscle.

95)Theeffectoftheneurotransmitteronthemusclecellmembraneistotemporarilymodifyits
permeabilityofionssuchasNa+andK+.

96)Lacticacidresultsfromaerobicrespiration.

MATCHING.Choosetheitemincolumn2thatbestmatcheseachitemincolumn1.
Matchthefollowing:
97)ThedistancebetweentwoZdiscs
A)myosinfilaments

98)Thetypeoffilamentthatisstudded
B)Zdiscs
withmyosinheads

C)sarcomere
99)Actinfilamentsareanchoredtothese

disclikemembranes

Matchthefollowing:
100)Areserve,high-energycompound
A)creatinephosphate
usedtoconvertADPtoATPbythe
transferofahigh-energyphosphate
group
B)
aerobicrespiration

Matchthefollowing:
101)Themovementofalimbtowardthe
body midline

84)______
85)______
86)______
87)______

88)______

89)______
90)______
91)______

92)______
93)______

94)______
95)______

96)______

97)______
98)______

99)______

100)_____

A)
adduc

tion

101)

____
_

Matchthefollowing:
102)Bothactinandmyosinarefoundin
thisband

Matchthefollowing:
103)Destroysacetylcholine(ACh)

Matchthefollowing:
104)Typeofmovementthatresultswhen
theforearmrotateslaterallysothat
thepalmfacesanteriorly

105)
Typeofmovementthatresultswhen
theforearmrotatesmediallysothe
palmfacesposteriorly

Matchthefollowing:
106)LightercentralportionoftheAband

Matchthefollowing:
107)Themovementofabonearoundits
longitudinalaxis

A)Iband

102)_____

B)Aband

A)potassiumions
B)
enzymes

103)_____

A)supination

104)_____

B)
pronation

105)_____

A)Hzone

106)_____

A)rotation

107)_____

Matchthefollowing:
108)Otherwiseknownasthickfilaments

Matchthefollowing:
109)Themovementofalimbawayfrom
thebodymidline

110)Primaryactionoftherectus
abdominis

Matchthefollowing:
111)Neurotransmittersubstancereleased
atmotorendplatesbythemotor
neuron

A)myosinfilaments
B)
actinfilaments

108)_____

A)abduction

109)_____

B)flexion

110)_____

A)enzymes

111)_____

B)


Matchthefollowing:
112)Tinycontractileunitthatshortens
duringmusclecontraction

acetylcholine

A)sarcomere

112)_____

Matchthefollowing:
113)Servesastheactualgosignalfor
musclecontraction

Matchthefollowing:
114)Primaryactionoftheadductor
muscles

115)Typeofmovementthatincreasesthe
angleofthejoint

Matchthefollowing:
116)Ametabolicpathwaythatproduces
water,carbondioxide,andATP,and
providesforalargeamountofATP
perglucosebecauseoxygenisused

Matchthefollowing:
117)Primaryactionofthedeltoid

Matchthefollowing:
118)Normallystoredinthesarcoplasmic
reticulum

Matchthefollowing:
119)Primaryactionoftheerectorspinae

Matchthefollowing:
120)Containsonlytheactinfilaments

Matchthefollowing:
121)Typeofmovementthatdecreasesthe
angleofthejoint

A)sodiumions

113)_____

B)calciumions

A)adduction

114)_____

B)extension

115)_____

A)aerobicrespiration

116)_____

B)
anaerobicrespiration

A)abduction

117)_____

A)acetylcholine

118)_____

B)calciumions

A)extension

119)_____

A)Aband
B)
Iband

120)_____

A)flexion

121)_____

ESSAY.Writeyouranswerinthespaceprovidedoronaseparatesheetofpaper.

122)Explainthedifferencebetweenamotorunitandaneuromuscularjunction.

123)Explainhowisometricandisotoniccontractionsdiffer,usingexamplesofeach.

124)Describetheeventsthatoccurfromthetimethatamotorneuronreleasesacetylcholineattheneuromuscular
junctionuntilmusclecellcontractionoccurs.

125)Compareskeletal,smooth,andcardiacmusclesastotheirbodylocation,microscopicanatomy,regulationof
contraction,speedofcontraction,andrhythmicity.

126)Explainthestepsintheslidingfilamenttheoryofmusclecontraction,followingthespreadingofanaction
potentialalongthesarcolemma.

127)Listthesevencriteriathatareusedinnamingmusclesandgiveanexampleofeach.

128)Whatistheeffectofagingonskeletalmuscles?

129)Explainhowmusclemovementsmatureinababy,usingexamplesofeach.


1)A
2)C
3)C
4)A
5)C
6)E
7)B
8)C
9)D
10)E
11)D
12)C
13)C
14)E
15)E
16)A
17)D
18)B
19)E
20)E
21)E
22)C
23)A
24)A
25)B
26)E
27)A
28)E
29)C
30)D
31)A
32)E
33)A
34)A
35)D
36)E
37)C
38)E
39)C
40)E
41)D
42)B
43)C
44)D
45)B
46)skeletal
47)H
48)origin
49)Zdiscs
50)internaloblique
51)1.Circularorbicularisoris,orbicularisoculi

2. major
Con 3.Parallelsartorius
verg 4.Unipennateextensordigitorumlongus
ent 5.Multipennatedeltoid
pecto 6.Fusiformbicepsbrachii
ralis 7.Bipennaterectusfemoris
52)synapticcleft
53)D
54)A
55)B
56)C
57)skeletal
58)primemover
59)rectusfemoris
60)zygomaticus
61)musculardystrophy
62)crossbridges
63)B
64)1.Withfewexceptions,allmusclescrossatleastonejoint.
2.Typically,thebulkofthemuscleliesproximaltothejointcrossed.
3.Allmuscleshaveatleasttwoattachments:theoriginandtheinsertion.
4.Musclescanonlypull:theyneverpush.
5.Duringcontraction,themuscleinsertionmovestowardtheorigin.
65)circular
66)tetanus
67)tendons
68)A
69)circumduction
70)C
71)D
72)ATP
73)cardiac
74)FALSE
75)TRUE
76)TRUE
77)FALSE
78)TRUE
79)TRUE
80)FALSE
81)FALSE
82)FALSE
83)FALSE
84)FALSE
85)TRUE
86)TRUE
87)TRUE
88)TRUE
89)FALSE
90)FALSE
91)FALSE
92)FALSE
93)TRUE

94)FALSE
95)TRUE
96)FALSE
97)C
98)A
99)B
100)A
101)A
102)B
103)B
104)A
105)B
106)A
107)A
108)A
109)A
110)B
111)B
112)A
113)B
114)A
115)B
116)A
117)A
118)B
119)A
120)B
121)A
122)1.Themotorunitistheoneneuronandalloftheskeletalmusclecellsitstimulates.
2.Theneuromuscularjunctionoccursbetweentheaxonterminalsofoneneuronandthesarcolemmaofaskeletal
musclecell.
123)1.Isometriccontractionsarecontractionsinwhichthemusclesdonotshorten.Anexampleofanisometric
contractionispushingagainstawallwithbentelbows.Themusclescannotshortensincethewalldoesntmove.
2.Isotoniccontractionsoccurwhenmusclesshortenandmovementoccursduetotheslidingofthemyofilaments.
Flexionandextensionofthearmarejusttwoexamplesofisotoniccontractions.
124)Acetylcholineisreleased,whichdiffusesthroughthesynapticcleftandattachestoreceptorsonthesarcolemma.
Thesarcolemmapermeabilitytosodiumionsincreasesbriefly,causingsodiumionstorushintothemusclecell,
whichchangestheelectricalconditionsoftherestingsarcolemma.Anactionpotentialisinitiatedandsweepsover
theentiresarcolemma.Calciumionsarereleasedfromstorageareasinsidethesarcoplasmicreticulumofthe
musclecell.Theyattachtothemyofilaments,whichtriggerstheslidingofthemyofilamentsandcausesamuscle
cellcontraction.
125)Bodylocationskeletalmuscleisattachedtobonesortoskin(somefacialmuscles);cardiacmuscleislocatedinthe
wallsoftheheart;smoothmuscleisfoundinthewallsofhollowvisceralorgans(otherthantheheart).
Microscopicanatomyskeletalmuscleconsistsofverylong,cylindrical,multinucleatedcellswithveryobvious
striations;cardiacmuscleconsistsofbranchingchainsofcellsthatareuninucleatedandpossessstriations;smooth
muscleconsistsofsinglefusiformuninucleatedcellsthatlackstriations.
Regulationofcontractionskeletalmuscleisvoluntaryvianervoussystemcontrols,butthisnormalvoluntary
controlcanbeoverriddenbyinvoluntaryreflexarcs(asexplainedinlaterchapters);cardiacmuscleisinvoluntary
viatheheartpacemaker,nervoussystemcontrols,andhormones;smoothmuscleisinvoluntaryvianervoussystem
controls,hormones,otherchemicals,andstretching.
Speedofcontractionskeletalmuscleisslowtofast;cardiacmuscleisslow;smoothmuscleistheslowest.
Rhythmicityskeletalmuscleisarrhythmic;cardiacmuscleisrhythmic;smoothmuscleissometimesrhythmic.

126)Anactionpotentialtriggersthesarcoplasmicreticulumtoreleasecalciumionsintothesarcoplasmofthemuscle
cell.Thecalciumionsbindtoregulatoryproteinsontheactinfilaments,changingboththeirshapeandtheir
positionontheactinfilaments.Thisactionallowsmyosinreceptorsitesonthethinactinfilamentstobecome
exposed.Themyosinheadsattachtothemyosinbindingsitesontheactinfilaments.EnergizedbyATP,themyosin
headsswiveltowardthecenterofthesarcomere,attachinganddetachingseveraltimes.Intheprocessthethin
actinfilamentsarepulledtowardthecenterofthesarcomere.Asthiseventoccurssimultaneouslyinsarcomeres
throughoutthecell,themusclecellshortens.Whentheactionpotentialends,thecalciumionsarereabsorbedback
intothesarcoplasmicreticulumstorageareas,causingtheregulatoryproteinstoresumetheiroriginalshapeand
position.Sincethemyosinheadsnowhavenothingtoattachto,themusclecellrelaxesandreturnstoitsoriginal
length.
127)1.Directionofthemusclefibers(e.g.,externaloblique)
2.Relativesizeofthemuscle(e.g.,maximus,minimus,longus)
3.Locationofthemuscle(e.g.,temporalis,frontalis)
4.Numberoforigins(e.g.,biceps,triceps,quadriceps)
5.Locationofthemusclesoriginandinsertion(e.g.,thesternocleidomastoidmusclehasitsoriginonthesternum
[sterno]andclavicle[cleido]andinsertsonthemastoidprocessofthetemporalbone)
6.Shapeofthemuscle(e.g.,thedeltoidmuscleisroughlytriangulardeltoidmeanstriangular)
7.Actionofthemuscle(e.g.,theadductormusclesofthethighallbringaboutitsadduction,andtheextensor
musclesofthewristallextendthewrist)
128)Withaging,theamountofconnectivetissueinmuscleincreasesandtheamountofskeletalmuscletissuedecreases,
thusthemusclesbecomestringier(moresinewy).Sinceskeletalmusclerepresentsalargerportionofbodyweight,
itbeginstodeclineinelderlypersonsasthisnormallossofmusclemassoccurs.Anotherresultofthelossinmuscle
massisadecreaseinmusclestrengthstrengthdecreasesbyabout50%bytheageof80.Regularexercisecanhelp
offsettheeffectsofagingonthemuscularsystem,andfrailelderswhobegintopumpironcanrebuildmuscle
massandsignificantlyincreasetheirfunctionalstrength.
129)1.Muscledevelopmentproceedsinacephalic/caudaldirection.Forinstance,babiescanraisetheirheadsbefore
theycanwalk.
2.Musclecontrolproceedsinaproximal/distaldirection.Forinstance,babiescanperformgrossmovementslike
wavebye-byebeforetheycanusethepinchergrasptopickupapin.

Exam
Name___________________________________

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
1)Thevitalcentersforthecontrolofvisceralactivitiessuchasheartrate,breathing,bloodpressure, 1)_______
swallowing,andvomitingarelocatedinthe:
A)hypothalamus
B)pons
C)cerebrum
D)midbrain
E)medullaoblongata

2)Immediatelyafteranactionpotentialispropagated,whichoneofthefollowingionsrapidly
2)_______
diffusesoutofthecellintothetissuefluid:
A)potassium
B)calcium
C)sodium
D)chloride
E)magnesium

3)Theblood-brainbarrieriseffectiveagainstthepassageof:
3)_______
A)nutrientssuchasglucose
B)metabolicwastesuchasurea
C)water
D)anesthetics
E)alcohol

4)Thesympatheticandparasympatheticnervoussystemsaresubdivisionsofthe:
4)_______
A)autonomicnervoussystem
B)voluntarynervoussystem
C)somaticnervoussystem
D)centralnervoussystem
E)peripheralnervoussystem

5)Anactionpotential:
5)_______
A)involvestheoutfluxofnegativeionstodepolarizethemembrane
B)involvestheinfluxofnegativeionstodepolarizethemembrane
C)isinitiatedbypotassiumionmovements
D)involvestheoutfluxofpositiveionstodepolarizethemembrane
E)isessentialfornerveimpulsepropagation

6)Cellbodiesofthesensoryneuronsofthespinalnervesarelocatedin:
6)_______
A)thedorsalrootgangliaofthespinalcord
B)thethalamus
C)thehypothalamus
D)theventralrootgangliaofthespinalcord
E)sympatheticganglia

7)Theeffectsofthesympatheticnervoussystemareessentiallyoppositeofthe:
7)_______
A)motordivision
B)parasympatheticnervoussystem
C)sensorydivision

D)centralnervoussystem
E)autonomicnervoussystem

8)Cerebrospinalfluidcirculatesthroughallofthefollowingexcept:
A)corpuscallosum
B)lateralventricles
C)fourthventricle
D)cerebralaqueduct
E)subarachnoidspace

9)Whichoneofthefollowingisthecorrectsequenceinconnectivetissuesheaths,goingfrom
outermosttoinnermostlayer:
A)perineurium,endoneurium,epineurium
B)epineurium,perineurium,endoneurium
C)perineurium,epineurium,endoneurium
D)epineurium,endoneurium,perineurium
E)endoneurium,epineurium,perineurium

10)Sallyhasabraininjury;sheknowswhatshewantstosaybutcantvocalizethewords.Thepart
ofherbrainthatdealswiththeabilitytospeakisthe:
A)centralsulcus
B)Brocasarea
C)primarymotorarea
D)longitudinalfissure
E)gyrus

11)Whichoneofthefollowingisthecorrectsequenceofeventsthatfollowsathresholdpotential:
1.themembranebecomesdepolarized
2.sodiumchannelsopenandsodiumionsdiffuseinward
3.themembranebecomesrepolarized
4.potassiumchannelsopenandpotassiumionsdiffuseoutwardwhilesodiumisactively
transportedoutofthecell
A)2,1,4,3
B)3,2,4,1
C)2,1,3,4
D)4,1,3,2
E)1,2,4,3

12)Whichoneofthefollowingbestdescribesthewaxy-appearingmaterialcalledmyelin:
A)amassofwhitelipidmaterialthatsurroundsthedendritesofaneuron
B)anoutermembraneonaneuroglialcell
C)amassofwhitelipidmaterialthatinsulatestheaxonofaneuron
D)alipid-protein(lipoprotein)cellmembraneontheoutsideofaxons
E)amassofwhitelipidmaterialthatsurroundsthecellbodyofaneuron

13)WhichofthesecellsarenotatypeofneurogliafoundintheCNS:
A)Schwanncells
B)oligodendrocytes
C)ependymalcells
D)astrocytes
E)microglia

14)Bipolarneuronsarecommonly:
A)motorneurons
B)foundintheeyeandnose
C)moreabundantinadultsthaninchildren

8)_______

9)_______

10)______

11)______

12)______

13)______

14)______

D)calledneuroglia
E)foundinganglia

15)Whichoneofthefollowingstatementsaboutagingismostaccurate:
A)thebrainreachesitsmaximumweightaroundtheseventhdecadeoflife
B)synapticconnectionsaretoofixedtopermitagreatdealoflearningaftertheageof35
C)despitesomeneuronalloss,anunlimitednumberofneuralpathwaysareavailableand
readytobedeveloped;therefore,additionallearningcanoccurthroughoutlife
D)increasedefficiencyofthesympatheticnervoussystemenhancestheabilitytolearn
E)learningthroughouttheadultandagingyearsissupportedprimarilybyglialproliferation

16)Lobethatcontainstheprimarymotorareathatenablesvoluntarycontrolofskeletalmuscle
movements:
A)frontallobe
B)occipitallobe
C)parietallobe
D)diencephalon
E)temporallobe

17)Theelevatedridgesoftissueonthesurfaceofthecerebralhemispheresareknownas__________
whiletheshallowgroovesaretermed__________.
A)sulci;gyri
B)tracts;ganglia
C)ganglia;gyri
D)gyri;sulci
E)receptors;effectors

18)Anactionpotentialiscausedbyaninfluxoftheseionsintothecell:
A)bothpotassiumandsodium
B)potassium
C)sodium
D)magnesium
E)calcium

19)Thefunctionoftheolfactorynerveconcerns:
A)smell
B)chewing
C)vision
D)eyemovement
E)hearing

20)Thegapbetweentwocommunicatingneuronsistermed:
A)nodeofRanvier
B)synapticcleft
C)effector
D)cellbody
E)Schwanncell

21)Whichofthenervesplexusesoriginatesfromventralrami - :
A)brachial
B)lumbar
C)sacral
D)spinal
E)cervical

22)Theareaofthebrainstemthatplaysaroleinconsciousnessandtheawake/sleepcyclesisthe:

15)______

16)______

17)______

18)______

19)______

20)______

21)______

22)______

A)cerebellum
B)thalamus
C)reticularactivatingsystem(RAS)
D)pinealgland
E)limbicsystem

23)AneuronwithacellbodylocatedintheCNSwhoseprimaryfunctionisconnectingother
neuronsiscalleda(n):
A)efferentneuron
B)glialcell
C)afferentneuron
D)satellitecell
E)associationneuron

24)Afferentnervesarecalled__________,andmotornervesarecalled__________.
A)peripheralnerves;cranialnerves
B)sensorynerves;efferentnerves
C)cranialnerves;peripheralnerves
D)motornerves;sensorynerves
E)mixednerves;motornerves

25)Lossofmusclecoordinationresultsfromdamagetothe:
A)hypothalamus
B)cerebrum
C)midbrain
D)cerebellum
E)thalamus

26)Theolfactoryareaisfoundwithinthe:
A)occipitallobe
B)parietallobe
C)frontallobe
D)temporallobe
E)pyramidaltract

27)Thesciaticnerveisthelargestnerveinthebodyresultingfromacombinationofwhichtwo
nerves:
A)pudendalandfemoralnerves
B)pudendalandcommonperonealnerves
C)pudendalandtibialnerves
D)commonfibularandtibialnerves
E)femoralandtibialnerves

28)Thesubstancethatisreleasedataxonalendingstopropagateanervousimpulseiscalled:
A)anion
B)anactionpotential
C)thesodium-potassiumpump
D)aneurotransmitter
E)nerveglue

29)Impulseconductionisfastestinneuronsthatare:
A)sensory

23)______

24)______

25)______

26)______

27)______

28)______

29)______

B)unmyelinated
C)cerebral
D)motor
E)myelinated

30)Whichoneofthefollowingrepresentsthecorrectsequencefromoutermosttoinnermostlayers
ofthemeninges:
A)duramater,arachnoidmater,piamater
B)piamater,duramater,arachnoidmater
C)arachnoidmater,duramater,piamater
D)duramater,piamater,arachnoidmater
E)piamater,arachnoidmater,duramater

31)Thenervethatcontainssensoryfibersthatareinvolvedinhearingis:
A)cranialnerveVIII
B)cranialnerveII
C)cranialnerveIX
D)cranialnerveIII
E)cranialnerveV

32)Thediffusionofpotassiumionsoutofaneuroncausesittoexperience:
A)repolarization
B)anactionpotential
C)anerveimpulse
D)agradedpotential
E)depolarization

33)Damagetothisnerveresultsinwristdrop,theinabilitytoextendthehandatthewrist:
A)obturator
B)radial
C)axillary
D)phrenic
E)femoral

34)SpinalnervesexitingthecordfromthelevelofL4toS4formthe:

30)______

31)______

32)______

33)______

34)______

A)lumbarplexus
B)sacralplexus
C)femoralplexus
D)obturatorplexus
E)thoracicplexus

35)Whichofthefollowingisatraumaticbraininjury:
A)aphasia
B)cerebraledema
C)cerebrovascularaccident(CVA)
D)Parkinsonsdisease
E)Alzheimersdisease

36)Theperipheralnervoussystemconsistsof:
A)thespinalandcranialnerves
B)thebrainandspinalcord
C)spinalnervesonly
D)cranialnervesonly
E)thebrainonly

37)Theneuronprocessesthatnormallyreceiveincomingstimuliarecalled:

35)______

36)______

37)______

A)Schwanncells
B)dendrites
C)neurolemmas
D)satellitecells
E)axons

38)Whichofthenerveplexusesservestheshoulderandarm:
A)sacral
B)cervical
C)phrenic
D)lumbar
E)brachial

39)Preparingthebodyforthefight-or-flightresponseduringthreateningsituationsistheroleof
the:
A)sympatheticnervoussystem
B)somaticnervoussystem
C)cerebrum
D)afferentnervoussystem
E)parasympatheticnervoussystem

40)Thecerebrospinalfluid:
A)entersthefourventriclesafterfillingandcirculatingthroughthesubarachnoidspace
B)issecretedbythearachnoidvilli
C)isidenticalincompositiontowholeblood
D)issecretedmostlybytheependymalcellsliningthebrainventricles
E)iscontinuallyformedmostlybythechoroidplexuses

41)Thetermcentralnervoussystemreferstothe:
A)spinalcordandspinalnerves
B)autonomicandperipheralnervoussystems
C)brain,spinalcord,andcranialnerves
D)brainandcranialnerves
E)brainandspinalcord

42)WhichoneoftheseeffectorsisNOTdirectlycontrolledbytheautonomicnervoussystem:
A)smoothmuscle
B)cardiacmuscle
C)mostglands
D)skeletalmuscle
E)abdominalorgans

43)Sympatheticnervoussystemstimulationcauses:
A)increasedbloodglucose,decreasedGIperistalsis,andincreasedheartrateandblood
pressure
B)decreasedbloodglucose,increasedGIperistalsis,anddecreasedheartrateandblood
pressure
C)increasedbloodglucose,increasedGIperistalsis,anddecreasedheartrateandblood
pressure
D)decreasedbloodglucose,decreasedGIperistalsis,anddecreasedheartrateandblood
pressure
E)decreasedbloodglucose,increasedGIperistalsis,andincreasedheartrateandblood
pressure

44)Incontrasttothesomaticnervoussystem,theautonomicnervoussystem:
A)stimulatesitseffectorcells

38)______

39)______

40)______

41)______

42)______

43)______

44)______

B)hascentersinthebrainandspinalcord
C)hasbothafferentandefferentfibers
D)hastwomotorneurons
E)hastwoafferentneurons

45)Whichofthefollowingisthecorrectsequenceinatypicalreflexarc:
A)receptor,afferentneuron,efferentneuron,integrationcenter,effector
B)effector,efferentneuron,integrationcenter,afferentneuron,receptor
C)receptor,afferentneuron,integrationcenter,efferentneuron,effector
D)effector,afferentneuron,integrationcenter,efferentneuron,receptor
E)receptor,efferentneuron,integrationcenter,afferentneuron,effector

46)Theabilitytorespondtoastimulusistermed:
A)polarized
B)depolarized
C)irritability
D)all-or-noneresponse
E)conductivity

47)Whichofthefollowingeffectsischaracteristicoftheparasympatheticnervoussystem:
A)increasesmetabolicrate
B)stimulatessweatglandstoproduceperspiration
C)decreasesheartrate
D)decreasesurineoutput
E)decreasesactivityofthedigestivesystem

48)Whichofthefollowingsensoryreceptorsisatouchreceptor:
A)Golgitendonorgan
B)Paciniancorpuscle
C)Meissnerscorpuscle
D)musclespindles
E)nakednerveendings

49)Themidbrain,pons,andmedullaoblongataarehousedinthe:
A)diencephalon
B)brainstem
C)pinealgland
D)hypothalamus
E)cerebellum

50)Thegraymatterofthespinalcord:
A)surroundsthewhitematterofthespinalcord
B)surroundsthecentralcanal
C)containsmyelinatedfibertracts
D)alwayscarriessensoryinformationtothebrain
E)ismadeupofthedorsal,lateral,andventralcolumns

51)Whichoneofthefollowingisthecorrectsequenceofnervesthatexitthespinalcord,goingfrom
superiortoinferior:
A)cervicalspinalnerves,lumbarspinalnerves,thoracicspinalnerves,sacralspinalnerves
B)cervicalspinalnerves,thoracicspinalnerves,sacralspinalnerves,lumbarspinalnerves
C)thoracicspinalnerves,cervicalspinalnerves,sacralspinalnerves,lumbarspinalnerves

45)______

46)______

47)______

48)______

49)______

50)______

51)______

D)thoracicspinalnerves,cervicalspinalnerves,lumbarspinalnerves,sacralspinalnerves
E)cervicalspinalnerves,thoracicspinalnerves,lumbarspinalnerves,sacralspinalnerves

52)CollectionsofnervecellbodiesinsidetheCNSarecalled:
A)nuclei
B)ganglia
C)nerves
D)tracts
E)tractsorganglia

53)Whichoneofthefollowingdescribessaltatoryconduction:
A)isfasterthanconductiononanunmyelinatedfiber
B)occursonlyifnodesofRanvierarelacking
C)occursonlyifthemyelinsheathiscontinuous
D)isslowerthanconductiononanunmyelinatedfiber
E)occursonlyintheabsenceofaxonhillocks

54)TheSchwanncellformsamyelinsheatharoundthe:
A)nucleus
B)cellbody
C)axon
D)nodesofRanvier
E)dendrites

55)Thepituitaryglandismostcloselyassociatedwiththe:
A)hypothalamus
B)medullaoblongata
C)pinealgland
D)midbrain
E)thalamus

56)Musclesandglandsare:
A)effectors
B)partofthecentralnervoussystem
C)partoftheperipheralnervoussystem
D)receptors
E)myelinated

57)Whitemattersreferstomyelinatedfibersinthe:
A)SNS
B)PNS
C)ANS
D)CNS
E)bothANSandSNS

58)Sympatheticdivisionfibersleavethespinalcordinthe:
A)thoracolumbarregion,andthepostganglionicfiberssecreteacetylcholine
B)craniosacralregions,andthepostganglionicfiberssecretenorepinephrine
C)craniosacralregion,andthepreganglionicfiberssecretenorepinephrine
D)craniosacralregion,andthepostganglionicfiberssecreteacetylcholine
E)thoracolumbarregion,andthepostganglionicfiberssecretenorepinephrine

52)______

53)______

54)______

55)______

56)______

57)______

58)______

59)Controloftemperature,endocrineactivity,metabolism,andthirstarefunctionsassociatedwith
59)______
the:
A)thalamus
B)cerebellum
C)hypothalamus
D)medullaoblongata
E)cerebrum

60)Thesubarachnoidspaceliesdirectlybetweenthe:
60)______
A)arachnoidmaterandcerebellum
B)arachnoidmaterandcerebrum
C)skullandarachnoidmater
D)arachnoidmaterandduramater
E)arachnoidmaterandpiamater

61)Thethreemajorpartsofthebrainstemarethe:
61)______
A)basalnuclei,pinealbody,andchoroidplexus
B)duramater,arachnoidmater,andpiamater
C)midbrain,pons,andmedullaoblongata
D)thalamus,epithalamus,andhypothalamus
E)cerebrum,cerebellum,anddiencephalon

SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
62)Diminishedeffectivenessofthesympatheticnervoussystemthatcancauseatypeoflow 62)_____________
bloodpressureduringrapidchangesinbodyposition(suchaswhenelderlypersons
standupquicklyaftersittingorlyingdown)iscalled__________.

63)Atypeofreflexthatstimulatestheskeletalmusclesiscalleda__________reflex.
63)_____________

64)ThegapsbetweenSchwanncellsfoundatregularintervalsinperipheralsystemneurons 64)_____________
arecalled__________.

65)Whentherearefewerpositiveionssittingontheinnerfaceoftheneuronsplasma
65)_____________
membranethanthereareontheouterfaceofthetissuefluidthatsurroundsit,the
membraneissaidtobe__________.

66)Thecranialnerveresponsibleforcontrollingtonguemovementsisthe__________nerve, 66)_____________
number__________.


Figure7.1

UsingFigure7.1,identifythefollowing:
67)Theneuralprocessesthatconveyincomingmessagestowardthecellbodyareindicated
byletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
68)CellsfoundintheCNSthatclingtoneuronsandanchorthemtobloodvesselsarecalled
__________.

69)Thelargefibertractthatallowscommunicationbetweenthetwocerebralhemispheresis
calledthe__________.

70)MyelinatedregionsoftheCNSarereferredtoas__________matter.

71)Thethalamus,hypothalamus,andepithalamuscollectivelyconstitutethe__________.

72)A__________isatypeoftraumaticbraininjurythatresultsinmarkedtissue
destruction.

73)Thefissureinthebrainthatseparatesthetwocerebralhemispheresiscalledthe
__________.

67)_____________

68)_____________

69)_____________

70)_____________
71)_____________
72)_____________

73)_____________


74)Theprogressivedegenerativediseasethatresultsindementiaassociatedwithashortage
ofacetylcholineandstructuralchangesinbrainareasinvolvingcognitionandmemory
iscalled__________.

75)Thehypothalamusregulatesthe__________gland.

76)ThatpartofthePeripheralNervousSystem(PNS)thatisvoluntaryandconducts
impulsesfromtheCentralNervousSystem(CNS)totheskeletalmusclesisthe
__________nervoussystem.

74)_____________

75)_____________
76)_____________

Figure7.1

UsingFigure7.1,identifythefollowing:
77)Theaxonisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
78)Thecellbodiesofthe__________neuronsarealwayslocatedwithintheCNS.

79)CranialnerveIIIisknownasthe__________nerve.

80)Theautonomicnervoussystemisalsoreferredtoasthe__________nervoussystem

77)_____________

78)_____________
79)_____________
sin ceitcontrols

activities 80)
of
smooth
and
cardiac
muscles
and
glands.

81)Theonlymajornerveoutofthecervicalplexusthatsuppliesthediaphragmandmuscles
oftheshoulderandneckisthe__________nerve.

82)OneofthelastareasoftheCNStomatureisthe__________,whichregulatesbody
temperature.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
83)Theareainthecenterofthegraymatterofthespinalcordthatcontainscerebrospinal
fluidfluidthatcontinuesdownthefourthventricleiscalledthe__________.

Figure7.1

UsingFigure7.1,identifythefollowing:

___
___
___
___
_

81)_____________

82)_____________

83)_____________

84)ThegapsbetweenSchwanncellsareindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
85)Allmotorandassociationneuronsareclassifiedstructurallyas__________neurons.

86)__________cellsformthemyelinsheathsaroundnervefibersinthePNS.

84)_____________

85)_____________
86)_____________

Figure7.1

UsingFigure7.1,identifythefollowing:
87)Themetaboliccenteroftheneuronisindicatedbyletter__________.

88)Thenucleusoftheneuronisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
89)Theperineuriumisacoarseconnectivewrappingthatdefinestheboundaryofafiber
bundlecalleda(n)__________.

90)The__________isaconnectivetissuewrappingaroundfasiclesofneuronfibers.

91)Cerebrospinalfluidisformedfrombloodbythe__________.

87)_____________
88)_____________

89)_____________

90)_____________
91)_____________

92)Eachspinalnervedividesintoadorsalandaventral__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
93)Thebraindysfunctionwherebloodsupplytoaregion(orregions)ofthebrainis
blockedandvitalbraintissuedies,asbyabloodclotorarupturedbloodvessel,iscalled
__________.

94)Neuronswithtwoprocesses,anaxonandadendrite,arestructurallyclassifiedas
__________neurons.

95)Theonlypairofcranialnervestoextendtothethoracicandabdominalcavitiesisthe
__________nerves.

96)Thebrainandspinalcordareprotectedandcushionedbythreeconnectivetissue
membranesthatarecollectivelycalled__________.

97)Explainhowmultiplesclerosisaffectsnervefunctioning.

98)The__________divisionoftheANSactivateswhenwearefrightenedorstressed.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
99)__________diseaseresultsfromadegenerationofthedopamine-releasingneuronsof
thesubstantianigra.

100)Theprimarymotorareaofthebrainallowsustoconsciouslycontrolour__________
muscles.

101)Bundlesofnervefibers(neuronprocesses)runningthroughtheCNSarecalled
__________,whereasinthePNStheyarecalled__________.

102)The__________nerve,thelargestnerveinthebody,splitsintothecommonfibularand
tibialnerves.

92)_____________

93)_____________

94)_____________

95)_____________

96)_____________

97)_____________
98)_____________

99)_____________

100)____________

101)____________

102)____________


Figure7.1

UsingFigure7.1,identifythefollowing:
103)Theaxonterminalsareindicatedbyletter__________.
103)____________

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
104)Sweatglandsthatproduceperspirationwhenstimulatedareinnervatedonlybythe
104)____________
__________fibers.

TRUE/FALSE.WriteTifthestatementistrueandFifthestatementisfalse.
105)Anafferentsensoryneuroncarriesstimulifromthecentralnervoussystemtotheeffector.
105)_____

106)Sympatheticpostganglionicfibersreleasenorepinephrineandthepreganglionicaxonreleases
106)_____
acetyocholine.

107)Thereisnopossibilityofdamagingthespinalcordbelowthethirdlumbarvertebra.
107)_____

108)Theglossopharyngealnerveistheonlycranialnervepairthatcontainssensoryfibers.
108)_____

109)Apolarizedneuronhasfewerpositiveionsinsideincomparisontotheoutsideoftheneuron.
109)_____

110)Oneofthemajorfunctionsoftheponsistoproducereleasingfactorsthatcontrolthefunctionof the anteri

or
110)
pituitary.

111)Myelinationofnervefibersinthecentralnervoussystemisthejoboftheoligodendrocyte.

112)Themusculocutaneousnerveisamajornerveofthebrachialplexus.

113)Neuronsinadultsdonotundergomitosis.

114)SensoryneuronscarryinformationawayfromtheCNS.

115)Thecollectionofspinalnervesattheinferiorendofthespinalcordiscalledthecaudaequina.

116)Cerebrospinalfluidcirculateswithintheventriclesofthebrainandalsointhesubarachnoid
spaceoutsidethebrain.

117)Partofthediencephalonstructureisformedbythehypothalamus.

118)Mostbodyorgansareinnervatedbyonlythesympatheticdivisionofthenervoussystem.

119)Reflexesarerapid,predictable,andautomaticresponsestostimuli.

120)OligodendrocytesproducemyelinsheathsinthePNS.

121)Incontrasttotheparasympatheticdivision,thesympatheticdivisionhasnumerousganglionic
neuronsinthegraymatterofthespinalcord.

122)Bipolarneuronsarerareinadults.

123)Thereare31pairsofcranialnervesand12pairsofspinalnerves.

124)Theall-or-nonephenomenonasappliedtonerveconductionstatesthatthewholenervecell
mustbestimulatedforconductiontotakeplace.

125)Saltatoryconductionoccursduetothepresenceofsalt(NaCl)aroundtheneuron.

126)CranialnerveXIistheaccessorynervethatcontrolstonguemovement.

127)ThenodesofRanvierarefoundatregularintervalsonlyonmyelinated,peripheralnervefibers.

128)Cellbodiesofsensoryneuronsarealwayslocatedinganglialyingoutsidethecentralnervous
system.

129)Difficultyinbreathingmayreflectdamagetorespiratorycenterslocatedinthecerebellum.

MATCHING.Choosetheitemincolumn2thatbestmatcheseachitemincolumn1.
Matchthefollowing:
130)Motorcontrolofthevisceralorgans
A)reticularformation

Matchthefollowing:
131)CranialnerveVII
A)Facial

B)

____
_
111)_____
112)_____
113)_____
114)_____
115)_____
116)_____

117)_____
118)_____
119)_____
120)_____
121)_____

122)_____
123)_____
124)_____

125)_____
126)_____
127)_____
128)_____

129)_____

130)_____

131)_____

Olfactory

Matchthefollowing:
132)Somaticmotorcortex

133)Motorspeecharea

Matchthefollowing:
134)CranialnerveIX

Matchthefollowing:
135)Auditoryarea

Matchthefollowing:
136)Containscentersthatcontrolheart
rate,bloodpressure,breathing,
swallowing,andvomiting

A)corticospinaltract

B)basalnuclei
C)
frontallobe

132)_____
133)_____

A)Glossopharyngeal

134)_____

A)temporallobe
B)
occipitallobe

135)_____

A)medullaoblongata

136)_____

Matchthefollowing:
137)Fibersemergefromthemedullaand
runtothethroat

138)CranialnerveIV

139)Promotesdigestiveactivityand
regulatesheartactivity

Matchthefollowing:
140)Composedofcerebralpedunclesand
thecorporaquadrigemina

141)Relaystationforsensoryimpulses
passingtothesensorycortex

Matchthefollowing:
142)Premotorarea

143)Primarysensorycortex

A)Vagus

137)_____

B)Trigeminal

C)Accessory

138)_____
139)_____

D)Trochlear

E)Hypoglossal

A)thalamus

140)_____

B)midbrain

141)_____

A)parietallobe

B)frontallobe
C)
interbrain

142)_____
143)_____

D)pyramidaltract

Matchthefollowing:
144)Specificperiodduringwhich
potassiumionsdiffuseoutofthe
neuronduetoachangeinmembrane
permeability

Matchthefollowing:
145)Regulatesbodytemperature,water
balance,andmetabolism

A)polarization

144)_____

B)
repolarization

A)hypothalamus

145)_____

Matchthefollowing:
146)Moveseyeslaterally

Matchthefollowing:
147)Periodwhentheinteriorofthecell
becomeslessnegativeduetoan
influxofsodiumions

148)
Termedanerveimpulsewhen
transmitted

Matchthefollowing:
149)Visualarea

Matchthefollowing:
150)Controlslensshapeandpupilsize

151)CranialnerveII

Matchthefollowing:
152)Glandthathangsfromthe
hypothalamus

A)Abducens
B)
Vestibulocochlear

146)_____

A)actionpotential

147)_____

B)
repolarization

C)depolarization

148)_____

A)occipitallobe
B)
midbrain

149)_____

A)Optic

B)Oculomotor

150)_____

A)pituitarygland

152)_____

151)_____

Matchthefollowing:
153)Periodwhentheneuronisatrest;it
hasamorenegativeinteriorin
comparisontothepositiveexterior

154)

A)gradedpotential

B)
polarization

153)_____

Localdepolarizationisalsoknownas
154)_____
thisterm

ESSAY.Writeyouranswerinthespaceprovidedoronaseparatesheetofpaper.
155)Comparethesympatheticandparasympatheticbranchesoftheautonomicnervoussystemwithrespectto
thelocationofthecenters,locationoftheganglia,neurotransmitters,andtheirspecificeffects.

156)Listandexplainthethreegeneralfunctionsofthenervoussystem

157)Listthefoureventsthatleadtotransmissionofanimpulseacrossasynapse.

158)Listanddescribethetwoprincipaldivisionsoftheperipheralnervoussystemandtheirsubdivisions.

159)ListanddescribetheprotectivestructuresfoundintheCNS.

160)DescribethecellsthatformmyelinsheathsintheCNSandPNS.

161)Listandexplainthefourmajoreventsthattakeplaceduringtheconductionofanerveimpulsebeginning
withtherestingmembrane.


1)E
2)A
3)B
4)A
5)E
6)A
7)B
8)A
9)B
10)B
11)A
12)C
13)A
14)B
15)C
16)A
17)D
18)C
19)A
20)B
21)B
22)C
23)E
24)B
25)D
26)D
27)D
28)D
29)E
30)A
31)A
32)A
33)B
34)B
35)B
36)A
37)B
38)E
39)A
40)E
41)E
42)D
43)A
44)D
45)C
46)C
47)C
48)C
49)B
50)B
51)E

52)B
53)A
54)C
55)A
56)A
57)D
58)E
59)C
60)E
61)C
62)orthostatichypotension
63)somatic
64)nodesofRanvier
65)polarized
66)hypoglossal;XII
67)A
68)astrocytes
69)corpuscallosum
70)white
71)diencephalon(interbrain)
72)contusion
73)longitudinalfissure
74)Alzheimersdisease
75)pituitary
76)somatic
77)B
78)motor
79)oculomotor
80)involuntary
81)phrenic
82)hypothalamus
83)centralcanal
84)H
85)multipolar
86)Schwann
87)D
88)E
89)fascicle
90)perineurium
91)choroidplexuses
92)ramus
93)cerebrovascularaccident(CVA),commonlycalledastroke
94)bipolar
95)vagus
96)meninges
97)Peoplewithmultiplesclerosis(MS)experiencedestructionoftheirmyelinsheaths.Asdestructionprogresses,the
electricalcurrentisshort-circuited.ThepersonaffectedwithMSmayexperiencevisualandspeechdisturbances
andlosemusclecontrol.
98)sympathetic
99)Parkinsons
100)skeletal
101)tracts;nerves

102)sciatic
103)C
104)sympathetic
105)FALSE
106)TRUE
107)TRUE
108)FALSE
109)TRUE
110)FALSE
111)TRUE
112)TRUE
113)TRUE
114)FALSE
115)TRUE
116)TRUE
117)TRUE
118)FALSE
119)TRUE
120)FALSE
121)FALSE
122)TRUE
123)FALSE
124)FALSE
125)FALSE
126)FALSE
127)TRUE
128)TRUE
129)FALSE
130)A
131)A
132)C
133)C
134)A
135)A
136)A
137)E
138)D
139)A
140)B
141)A
142)B
143)A
144)B
145)A
146)A
147)C
148)A
149)A
150)B
151)A
152)A
153)B

154)A
155)1.LocationoftheCenters

SympatheticNervousSystemcentersarelocatedinthegraymatterofthespinalcordfrom to (thereforeitis
alsocalledthethoracolumbarnervoussystem).
ParasympatheticNervousSystemcentersarelocatedinthebrain(innucleiofseveralofthecranialnerves)andin
thesacralregionofthespinalcord( to ).
2.LocationofGanglia
SympatheticNervousSystemgangliaarelocatedinasympatheticchainortrunkslocatedjustoutsidethespinal
cordoneachside.Accordingly,preganglionicneuronshaveshortaxonsandpostganglionicneuronshavelong
axons.
ParasympatheticNervousSystemgangliaarelocatedinterminalganglia,ashortdistancefromtheorgansserved.
Accordingly,preganglionicneuronshavelongaxonsandpostganglionicneuronshaveshortaxons.
3. Neurotransmitters
SympatheticNervousSystempreganglionicaxonsarecholinergicfibers(produceacetylcholine)and
postganglionicaxonsareadrenergicfibers(producenorepinephrine).
ParasympatheticNervousSystembothpreganglionicandpostganglionicaxonsarecholinergicfibers(produce
acetylcholine).
4.GeneralEffectsgenerallyspeaking,thesympatheticandparasympatheticbranchesoftheautonomicnervous
systemareantagonistic:onanyoneorgan,thesetwobrancheshaveoppositeandcounter-balancingeffects.
SympatheticNervousSystemoftenreferredtoasthefightorflightnervoussystem;itisactivewheninan
emergencyorathreateningsituation.
ParasympatheticNervousSystemoftenreferredtoastherestanddigestnervoussystem;itismostactivewhen
thebodyisnotthreatenedinanywayandisfunctioningtoconservebodyenergyandpromotenormaldigestion
andelmination.
156)1.Sensory(input)functionthenervoussystemusesmillionsofsensoryreceptorstomonitorchanges(stimuli)
insideandoutsidethebody;thegatheredinformationiscalledthesensoryfunction.
2.Integrativefunctionthenervoussystemprocessesandinterpretssensoryinputandmakesdecisionsabout
whatshouldbedoneandthemagnitudetowhichitshouldbedoneateachmoment.
3.Motor(output)functiontheprocessofreactiontostimuli;thebodyrespondsbyactivatingmusclesthatcan
producemotionorglandsthatcanproduceandsecretehormones.
157)1. Theimpulsearrivesatthesynapticknobofthepresynapticneuron.
2. Thesynapticvesiclefuseswiththepresynapticneuronmembraneandthechemicalneurotransmitterisreleased
viaexocytosis.
3. Theneurotransmitterisreleased,travelsacrossthesynapticcleft,andbindstoreceptorsitesonthepostsynaptic
neuron.Ifsufficientneurotransmitterisreleased,theentireseriesofeventsinvolvedintheconductionofanerve
impulsewilloccurinthepostsynapticneuron.
4. Theelectricalchangespromptedbyneurotransmitterbindingareverybriefbecausetheneurotransmitteris
quicklyremovedfromthesynapseeitherbyre-uptakeintotheaxonalterminalorbyenzymaticbreakdown.
158)1.Sensory(afferent)divisionconsistsofnervefibersthatconveyimpulsestothecentralnervoussystemfrom
sensoryreceptorslocatedinvariouspartsofthebody(i.e.,skin,skeletalmuscle,visceralorgans).Thisisfurther
subdividedinto:
a. Somaticsensory(afferent)fibersconsistofnervefibersthatconvey
impulsesfromtheskin,skeletalmuscle,andjointstothecentralnervous
system.
b. Visceralsensory(afferent)fibersconsistofnervefibersthatconvey
impulsesfromthevisceralorganstothecentralnervoussystem.
2.Motor(efferent)divisionconsistsofnervefibersthatconveyimpulsesfromthecentralnervoussystemto
effectedorganscalledeffectors(i.e.,musclesandglands).Thisisfurthersubdividedinto:
a. Somatic(voluntary)nervoussystemcarriesimpulsesfromthecentral
nervoussystemtoeffectors(skeletalmuscles);allowsforconsciouscontrolof
skeletalmuscle.
b. Autonomic(involuntary)nervoussystemcarriesimpulsesfromthecentral

nervoussystemtosmoothandcardiacmuscleandglands;hastwo
subdivisionstheparasympatheticandsympatheticnervoussystems.
159)1.
Thebrainandspinalcordareprotectedbyabonyskullandabonyvertebralcolumn.
2.
Therearethreelayersofmembranes(meninges)coveringthestructuresintheCNS.

a.
Theoutermostduramatersurroundthebrain.Thisdouble-layeredmembraneisaleathery
covering.

b.
Themiddlemembranelayeristhearachnoidmater,whichhasacobwebappearance.

c.
Thepiamateristheinnermostlayer,whichclingstothesurfaceofthebrainandspinalcord.
3.
Cerebrospinalfluidformsawatercushionthatcirculatesinandaroundthebrainandspinalcord.TheCSF
protectstheCNSfromblowsandothertrauma.Also,rememberfromapreviouschapterthatwaterhasahighheat
capacitythatpreventschangesintemperature.
160)1.
IntheCNS,oligodendrocyteswraptheirextensionsaroundnervefibersproducingmyelinsheaths.
Oligodendrocytescanwrapasmanyas60differentnervefibersatthesametime.
2.
InthePNS,Schwanncellswraparoundtheaxonsofnervefibers.
161)1.Electricalconditionofaresting(polarized)membraneinarestingmembrane,theexternalfaceofthe
membraneisslightlypositive;itsinternalfaceisslightlynegative.Thechiefextracellularionissodium,whereasthe
chiefintracellularionispotassium.Apolarizedmembraneisrelativelyimpermeabletobothions.
2.Depolarizationandgenerationofanactionpotentialastimuluschangesthepermeabilityofapatchofthe
membrane,andsodiumionsdiffuserapidlyintothecell.Thischangesthepolarityofthemembrane(theoutside
becomesmorenegative).Ifthestimulusisstrongenough,anactionpotentialisinitiated.
3.Propagationofanactionpotentialdepolarizationofthefirstmembranepatchcausespermeabilitychangesin
theadjacentmembraneandtheeventsdescribedin2(above)arerepeated.Thustheactionpotentialpropagates
rapidlyalongtheentirelengthofthemembrane.
4.Repolarizationpotassiumionsdiffuseoutofthecellasmembranepermeabilitychangesagain,restoringthe
negativechargeontheinsideofthemembraneandthepositivechargeontheoutsidesurface.Repolarization
occursinthesamedirectionasdepolarization.Theionicconditionsoftherestingstatearelaterrestoredbythe
activityofthesodium-potassiumpump.

Exam
Name___________________________________

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
1)Whichoneofthefollowingcorrectlyliststheorderofthepartsthroughwhichlightpassesasit
1)_______
enterstheeye:
A)vitreoushumor,lens,aqueoushumor,cornea
B)lens,aqueoushumor,cornea,vitreoushumor
C)cornea,aqueoushumor,lens,vitreoushumor
D)cornea,lens,aqueoushumor,vitreoushumor
E)aqueoushumor,cornea,lens,vitreoushumor

2)Sensorineuraldeafnessoccurswhenthereisdamageordegenerationofreceptorcellsofthe:
2)_______
A)spiralorganofCortiorcochlearnerve
B)semicircularcanals
C)spiralorganofCorti
D)roundwindow
E)ossicles

3)Theoilysecretionsthatlubricatetheeyeareproducedbythe:
3)_______
A)ceruminousglands
B)apocrineglands
C)ciliaryglands
D)lacrimalglands
E)tarsalglands

4)Thegreatestvisualacuityisfoundatthe:
4)_______
A)lens
B)foveacentralis
C)ciliarybody
D)opticdisc
E)iris

5)Tarsalglandsassociatedwiththeedgesoftheeyelidsareconsideredmodified:
5)_______
A)sweatglands
B)sebaceousglands
C)ceruminousglands
D)apocrineglands
E)lacrimalglands

6)Thepigmentedportionoftheeyethathasaroundedopeningthroughwhichlightpassesisthe: 6)_______
A)cornea
B)sclera
C)iris
D)lens
E)retina

7)Thegel-likesubstancethatreinforcestheeyeballandpreventsitfromcollapsinginwardisthe:
7)_______
A)choroidcoat
B)canalofSchlemm
C)aqueoushumor
D)vitreoushumor
E)ciliarybody

8)Inflammationoftheconjunctivainvolveswhichofthefollowing:
8)_______
A)portionoftheeyethatcontainstheopticnerve

B)extrinsiceyemuscles
C)circularbandsurroundingthepupil
D)delicatemembraneliningtheeyelidsandcoveringthefrontoftheeyeball
E)glandsthatproducetears

9)Eyessuddenlyexposedtobrightlightexperience:
A)photopupillaryreflex
B)convergence
C)accommodationpupillaryreflex
D)hemianopia
E)eyestrain

10)Thethreesetsofcolorreceptorswithintheretinaaresensitivetowavelengthsofvisiblelight
thatare:
A)blue,green,andred
B)green,yellow,andpurple
C)orange,green,andpurple
D)red,blue,andyellow
E)red,green,andyellow

11)Whichcranialnerveisresponsibleformovingtheeyelaterally:
A)cranialnerveVIII(vestibulocochlear)
B)cranialnerveIII(oculomotor)
C)cranialnerveII(optic)
D)cranialnerveIV(trochlear)
E)cranialnerveVI(abducens)

12)Thedecreasedlenselasticityassociatedwithagingthatmakesitdifficulttofocusonnearobjects
isknownas:
A)myopia
B)presbyopia
C)strabismus
D)hyperopia
E)hemianopia

13)Equilibriumreceptorsarelocatedinthe:
A)tympanicmembrane
B)innerear
C)externalear
D)middleear
E)ossicles

14)Whichoneofthefollowingnervesservestheanteriortongue:
A)cochlear
B)vestibular
C)vagus
D)facial
E)glossopharyngeal

15)TheonlyspecialsensethatisNOTfullyfunctionalatbirthis:
A)taste
B)vision
C)hearing
D)smell
E)touch

9)_______

10)______

11)______

12)______

13)______

14)______

15)______

16)Themiddlecoatoftheeyeballthatcontainspigmentwhichpreventslightfromscatteringinthe
eyeballisthe:
A)sclera
B)pupil
C)retina
D)choroid
E)cornea

17)Stimulationofsourreceptorsoccursinresponseto:
A)sugar
B)salt
C)beefsteak
D)saccharine
E)lemons

18)Whichlayeroftheeyecontainsrodsandcones:
A)iris
B)retina
C)sclera
D)choroid
E)opticnerve

19)Haircellsthatfunctionashearingreceptorsarelocatedwithinthe:
A)auditorytube
B)ovalwindow
C)auricle
D)spiralorganofCorti
E)ossicles

20)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTpartoftheinnerear?
A)semicircularcanals
B)ossicles
C)vestibule
D)cochlea
E)membranouslabyrinth

21)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTaprimarytastesensation:
A)salty
B)sweet
C)pungent
D)sour
E)bitter

22)Soundwavesenteringtheexternalauditorycanalhittheeardrum,alsoknownasthe:
A)ovalwindow
B)ossicles
C)tympanicmembrane
D)pinna
E)auricle

23)Theauditoryossiclecalledtheanvilisalsocalledthe:
A)incus
B)stapes
C)malleus
D)bonylabyrinth
E)cochlea

24)Whatstructureoftheeyefocuseslightontheretina:
A)opticchiasma
B)lens
C)choroid
D)sclera
E)iris

16)______

17)______

18)______

19)______

20)______

21)______

22)______

23)______

24)______

25)Thecongenitalconditionofcrossedeyesisalsoknownas:
A)hemianopia
B)hyperopia
C)presbyopia
D)strabismus
E)myopia

26)Theportionofthebonylabyrinthresponsibleforstaticequilibriumisthe:
A)ovalwindow
B)ossicles
C)semicircularcanals
D)vestibule
E)cochlea

27)Theinabilitytoseedistantobjectsistermednearsightedor:
A)emmetropia
B)presbyopia
C)myopia
D)hyperopia
E)astigmatism

28)Anearinfectionfollowinganillnesssuchasacoldhaspassedfromthethroatthroughthe
auditorytubetothe:
A)middleear
B)semicircularcanals
C)innerear
D)eardrum
E)outerear

29)Thepathwayofvibrationsthroughtheossiclesfromthetympanicmembrane,oreardrum,tothe
ovalwindowis:
A)incus,malleus,stapes
B)stapes,incus,malleus
C)malleus,stapes,incus
D)malleus,incus,stapes
E)stapes,malleus,incus

30)Thehighlycontagiousbacterialinfectionknownaspinkeyeiscausedbybacterialorviral
irritationofthe:
A)cornea
B)conjunctiva
C)retina
D)choroid
E)sclera

31)WhichoneofthefollowingcranialnervesisNOTinvolvedineithertasteorsmell:
A)vestibular(VIII)
B)glossopharyngeal(IX)
C)olfactorynerve(I)
D)facialnerve(VII)
E)vagus(X)

25)______

26)______

27)______

28)______

29)______

30)______

31)______

32)Theaqueoushumoroftheeyeisreabsorbedintovenousbloodthroughthe:
A)inferiorlarimalcanal
B)pupil
C)nasolacrimalduct
D)scleralvenoussinus(canalofSchlemm)
E)ciliarybody

33)Theglandthatproducestearsintheeyeiscalledthe:
A)ceruminousgland
B)ciliarygland
C)tarsalgland
D)lacrimalgland
E)sebaceousgland

34)Dynamicequilibriumreceptorsarefoundinthe:
A)ovalwindow
B)cochlea
C)semicircularcanals
D)malleus
E)vestibule

35)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTtrueofcolorblindness:
A)lackofredorgreenreceptorsisthemostcommontype
B)itissex-linked,inheritedhomeostaticimbalance
C)itiscausedbyadefectingenesontheX(female)sexchromosome
D)itoccursmostofteninwomen
E)itresultsfromlackofcones

36)Receptorsstimulatedbythephysicalforcesthatcausemovementoffluidorvibrationwithinthe
bodyare:
A)proprioceptors
B)thermoreceptors
C)chemoreceptors
D)gustatoryreceptors
E)mechanoreceptors

37)Thetransparentcentralanteriorportionofthesclerathroughwhichlightenterstheeyeiscalled
the:
A)cornea
B)choroid
C)pupil
D)iris
E)retina

38)Gustatoryhairsaretotasteasolfactoryhairsareto:
A)bothhearinganddynamicequilibrium
B)dynamicequilibrium
C)sight
D)hearing
E)smell

39)HearingreceptorswithinthespiralorganofCortiarecalled:
A)conecells
B)Corticells
C)haircells
D)rodcells

32)______

33)______

34)______

35)______

36)______

37)______

38)______

39)______

E)ceruminouscells

40)Thefibrousoutermosttunicseenanteriorilyasthewhiteoftheeyeisthe:
40)______
A)retina
B)sclera
C)choroid
D)cornea
E)foveacentralis

SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.

Figure8.1

UsingFigure8.1,identifythefollowing:
41)Thetympanicmembraneisindicatedbyletter__________.

42)Aconditioninwhichearossiclesfuseisknownas__________.

43)Bitterreceptorsonthetonguestastebudsrespondto__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
44)Theeyeconditionresultingfromtheinabilityoftheaqueoushumortodrainfromthe
eyeiscalled__________.

45)Fibersfromthemedialsideofeacheyecrossovertotheoppositesideofthebrainatthe
__________.

41)_____________
42)_____________
43)_____________

44)_____________

45)_____________


Figure8.1

UsingFigure8.1,identifythefollowing:
46)Thestapes(stirrup)isindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
47)Tinystonesmadeofcalciumsaltsthatrollinresponsetochangesingravitationalpull
arecalled__________.

46)_____________

47)_____________


Figure8.1

UsingFigure8.1,identifythefollowing:
48)Thepharyngotympanic(auditory)tubeisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
49)Earwaxisproducedby__________.

48)_____________

49)_____________


Figure8.1

UsingFigure8.1,identifythefollowing:
50)Thecochleaisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
51)Thesixmusclesattachedtotheoutersurfaceoftheeyethatproducegrosseye
movementsandmakeitpossiblefortheeyestofollowobjectsarethe__________.

52)Theareaofsharpestvisualacuitythatnormallycontainsonlyconesisthe__________.

53)Theseriousinnerearconditionthatcausesnausea,vertigo,andprogressivedeafnessis
called__________.

54)Thethreesubdivisionsofthebonylabyrinthoftheinternalearare__________,
__________,and__________.

50)_____________

51)_____________

52)_____________
53)_____________

54)_____________


Figure8.1

UsingFigure8.1,identifythefollowing:
55)Thesemicircularcanalsareindicatedbyletter__________.

56)Themalleus(hammer)isindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
57)Thesmall,peglikeprojectionsofthetonguessurfacearecalled__________.

58)Rodsandconesarecalled__________becausetheyrespondtolight.

59)Theupside-downimageformedontheretinaasaresultofthelight-bendingactivityof
thelensisthe__________.

60)Thereceptorsfortasteandsmellareclassifiedas__________.

61)Thestirrupboneoftheinternalearisalsoknownas__________.

62)Adivisionofthecranialnerve,the__________transmitsinformationtothecerebellum
aboutequilibrium.

63)__________glandsarelocatedonthelateralendofeacheye.

64)Aqueoushumorisreabsorbedintovenousbloodatthesclera-corneaconjunction
throughthe__________.

65)Lossofthesamesideofthevisualfieldofbotheyesfromdamagetothevisualcortexon
onesideonlyiscalled__________.

55)_____________
56)_____________

57)_____________
58)_____________
59)_____________

60)_____________
61)_____________
62)_____________

63)_____________
64)_____________

65)_____________


66)Thecochlearnervetransmitsimpulsestotheauditorycortexlocatedinthe__________.

67)Theoverlappingofthetwovisualfieldsthatprovidesfordepthperception(3-Dvision)
resultsin__________.

68)Afterage40thelensoftheeyebecomeslesselastic;thisconditioniscalled__________.

66)_____________
67)_____________

68)_____________

Figure8.1

UsingFigure8.1,identifythefollowing:
69)Theauricle(pinna)isindicatedbytheletter__________.
69)_____________

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
70)Thelensdividestheeyeintotwosegments,the__________andthe__________
70)_____________
segments.

TRUE/FALSE.WriteTifthestatementistrueandFifthestatementisfalse.
71)Thepinna,alsocalledtheauricle,iswhatmostpeoplecalltheear.
71)______

72)Deafnessisdefinedashearinglossrangingfromslighttototalloss.
72)______

73)Theconjunctivaisanothernameforthesclera.
73)______

74)Thestirrupisalsoreferredtoasthestapes.
74)______

75)Unlikethetastesensation,itisNOTnecessarytohavethechemicalsassociatedwithsmells
75)______
dissolvedinbodyfluids.

76)Thepupilisthecircularopeningintheiristhroughwhichlightpasses.

77)Inordertohearsound,vibrationspassfromtheeardrumtotheossicles,andontotheoval
window.

78)Tearsaresecretedfromlacrimalglandslocatedonthemedialendofeacheye.

79)Thenormalrestingeyeisgenerallysetfordistantvision.

80)Theciliarybodyisasmoothmusclestructuretowhichthelensisattached.

81)Theolfactoryreceptorsareresponsibleforthesenseoftaste.

82)Anastigmatismresultsfromunequalcurvaturesofthecorneaorlens.

83)Therearetwovarietiesofcones;onerespondstoredlightandtheotherrespondstogreenlight.

84)Thefunctionoftheauditorytubeistotransmitsoundvibrations.

85)Thebonylabyrinthoftheinternalearconsistsofthecochlea,vestibule,andthesemicircular
canals.

86)Grosseyemovementsareproducedbyfiveextrinsiceyemusclesattachedtotheoutersurfaceof
eacheye.

87)Inclosevisionandbrightlight,thepupilwilldilate.

88)Therearefivebasictastesensationsthatcorrespondtooneofthefivemajortypesoftastebuds.

89)Dynamicequilibriumreceptorsreportthepositionoftheheadwithrespecttothepullofgravity
whenthebodyisnotmoving.

90)Conesenablevisionindimlight.

MATCHING.Choosetheitemincolumn2thatbestmatcheseachitemincolumn1.
Matchthefollowingtastesensations:
91)Aminoacidglutamate
A)umamireceptors

92)Hydrogenionsinsolution
A)sourreceptors

Matchthefollowingearstructurestotheirappropriatedescriptions:
93)Auditorytube
A)outerear

94)Pinna
B)middleear

C)
linksthemiddleearandthethroat

D)linkstheinnerearandthecochlea

Matchthefollowingdescriptionstotheirappropriateeyestructure:
95)Blood-richtunicthatcontainsdark
A)cornea
pigment

76)______
77)______

78)______
79)______
80)______
81)______
82)______
83)______
84)______
85)______

86)______

87)______
88)______
89)______

90)______

91)______
92)______

93)______
94)______

95)______

B)choroid

Matchthefollowingtastesensations:
96)Oranges,tomatoes
A)sourreceptors

Matchthefollowingdescriptionstotheirappropriateeyestructure:
97)Blindspot
A)foveacentralis

98)Areaofgreatestvisualacuity
B)opticdisk

C)
opticdisc

Matchthefollowingtastesensations:
99)Metalionsinsolution
A)saltyreceptors

Matchthefollowingearstructurestotheirappropriatedescriptions:
100)Malleus
A)stirrup

101)SpiralorganofCorti
B)hammer

C)
containsthehaircells

D)snail-likesubdivisionoftheosseous
labyrinth

Matchthefollowingeyedisorderswiththeirdescriptions:
102)Eyeballistooshort
A)hyperopia

Matchthefollowingearstructurestotheirappropriatedescriptions:
103)Stapes
A)saddlehorn

B)
stirrup

104)Semicircularcanals
A)containsreceptorsfordynamic
equilibrium

B)containsthecochlea

Matchthefollowingdescriptionstotheirappropriateeyestructure:
105)Containsmillionsofphotoreceptors
A)foveacentralis

106)Smoothmusclestructuresattachedto
B)retina
thelens

C)ciliarybody

D)extrinsiceyemuscles

Matchthefollowingtastesensations:
107)Sugar,saccharine
A)sweetreceptors

96)______

97)______
98)______

99)______

100)_____
101)_____

102)_____

103)_____

104)_____

105)_____
106)_____

107)_____

Matchthefollowingdescriptionstotheirappropriateeyestructure:
108)Flexiblebiconvexcrystal-like
A)cornea
structure

B)lens

Matchthefollowingtastesensations:
109)Alkaloids
A)bitterreceptors

Matchthefollowingeyedisorderswiththeirdescriptions:
110)Blurryimagesduetounequal
A)glaucoma
curvaturesofthecorneaorlens

B)astigmatism
111)Increasedpressurewithintheeye

C)cataracts

Matchthefollowingearstructurestotheirappropriatedescriptions:
112)Vestibule
A)snail-likesubdivisionoftheosseous
labyrinth

113)Cochlea
B)

containstheossicles
114)Tympanicmembrane
C)

eardrum

D)containsthereceptorsforstatic
equilibrium

E)containsthereceptorsfordynamic
equilibrium

F)outerear

Matchthefollowingeyedisorderswiththeirdescriptions:
115)ProlongedvitaminAdeficiency
A)nightblindness
resultsindeteriorationoftheneural
retina

Matchthefollowingdescriptionstotheirappropriateeyestructure:
116)Roundedopeningthroughwhich
A)cornea
lightpasses

B)sclera
117)Whiteoftheeye

C)iris

D)pupil

Matchthefollowingeyedisorderswiththeirdescriptions:

108)_____

109)_____

110)_____

111)_____

112)_____

113)_____
114)_____

115)_____

116)_____

117)_____

118)Inflammationoftheconjunctiva
A)conjunctivitis
118)_____

Matchthefollowingearstructurestotheirappropriatedescriptions:
119)Incus
A)anvil
119)_____

B)
wedge

Matchthefollowingdescriptionstotheirappropriateeyestructure:
120)Circularlyandradiallyarranged
A)iris
120)_____
pigmentedsmoothmusclefibers

B)suspensoryligaments

Matchthefollowingeyedisorderswiththeirdescriptions:
121)Nearsightedness
A)myopia
121)_____

B)
presbyopia

ESSAY.Writeyouranswerinthespaceprovidedoronaseparatesheetofpaper.
122)Describethepathoftheopticfibersfromtheopticnervetotheoccipitallobeofthebrain.

123)Describethepathwayoflightthroughtheeyeballandtheprocessoflightrefraction.

124)Discusstheage-relateddisorderspresbyopiaandpresbycusis.Identifythestructureseachdisorderaffects.

125)Explainstaticanddynamicequilibriumandtheirinterrelationships.

126)Explainthemeaningofanodorsnapshotanditsrelevancetohumanbeings.

127)Explainthemechanismofhearing.

128)Describetheroleofthelensinvision.Nameandexplainthediseasecausedbythehardeningofthelens.


1)C
2)A
3)E
4)B
5)B
6)C
7)D
8)D
9)A
10)A
11)D
12)B
13)B
14)D
15)B
16)D
17)E
18)B
19)D
20)B
21)C
22)C
23)A
24)B
25)D
26)D
27)C
28)A
29)D
30)B
31)A
32)D
33)D
34)C
35)D
36)E
37)A
38)E
39)C
40)B
41)I
42)otosclerosis
43)alkaloids
44)glaucoma
45)opticchiasma
46)H
47)otoliths
48)A
49)ceruminousglands
50)B
51)extrinsicmuscles

52)foveacentralis
53)Menieressyndrome
54)cochlea,vestibule,semicircularcanals
55)C
56)E
57)papillae
58)photoreceptors
59)realimage
60)chemoreceptors
61)stapes
62)vestibularnerve
63)Lacrimal
64)scleralvenoussinusorcanalofSchlemm
65)hemianopia
66)temporallobe
67)binocularvision
68)presbyopia
69)F
70)anterior(aqueous);posterior(vitreous)
71)TRUE
72)TRUE
73)FALSE
74)TRUE
75)FALSE
76)TRUE
77)TRUE
78)FALSE
79)TRUE
80)TRUE
81)FALSE
82)TRUE
83)FALSE
84)FALSE
85)TRUE
86)FALSE
87)FALSE
88)TRUE
89)FALSE
90)FALSE
91)B
92)A
93)C
94)A
95)B
96)A
97)C
98)A
99)A
100)B
101)A
102)A
103)D

104)A
105)B
106)C
107)A
108)B
109)A
110)B
111)A
112)D
113)A
114)C
115)A
116)D
117)B
118)A
119)A
120)A
121)A
122)Opticfibersfromeacheyeleavethebackoftheeyeballthroughtheopticnerve.Attheopticchiasma,themedial
fibersofeacheyecrossovertotheoppositeside.Theresultantoptictractscontainfibersfromthelateralsideofthe
eyeonthesamesideandthemedialsideoftheoppositeeye.Theopticfiberssynapsewithneuronsinthe
thalamus,whichthencontinueontotheoccipitallobeofthebrain.
123)Lighttravelsthroughthecornea,aqueoushumor,lens,andvitreoushumorbeforebeingfocusedontheretina
duringnormalvision.Refractionbythecorneaandhumorsisconstant,whereasthelenschangesitsshapetobe
eithermoreorlessconvexasneeded.Thegreatertheconvexity,themorelightisbent.
124)1.
Presbyopialiterallymeansoldvisionandoccursaroundage40andlater.Asweage,thelensoftheeye
becomeslesselastic.Asaresult,wehaveadifficulttimefocusingonthingsclosetous,suchasreadinga
newspaper,andweessentiallybecomefarsighted.
2.
Presbycusisisatypeofsensorineuraldeafnessthatoftenoccursasweageintooursixties.Thedeterioration
andatrophyoftheorganofCortileadtoalossintheabilitytohearhightonesandspeechsounds.Insomecasesof
presbycusis,theossiclesoftheearfuseleadingtodifficultyconductingsoundintheinnerear.
125)Staticequilibriumisregulatedbythemaculaeofthevestibule.Themaculaereportonthepositionoftheheadwith
respecttothepullofgravitywhenthebodyisatrest.Eachmaculaisapatchofreceptorcellsembeddedinthe
otolithicmembrane.Theotolithicmembranecontainsotolithswhichrollinresponsetochangesinthepullof
gravity.Thismovementcausesthehaircellsofthemembranetobend,sendingimpulsesalongthevestibularnerve
tothecerebellum,relatinginformationregardingthepositionoftheheadinspace.Dynamicequilibriumis
regulatedbythesemicircularcanals.Thecristaampullarisofthemembranoussemicircularcanalconsistsofatuft
ofhaircellsandtheirgelatinouscapcalledthecupula.Movementoftheheadcausesthecupulatomoveinthe
oppositedirection,stimulatingthehaircells,whichthentransmitimpulsesupthevestibularnervetothe
cerebellum.Staticanddynamicequilibriumworktogethertoprovideinformationtothecerebellumtohelpcontrol
balance.
126)Olfactoryreceptorcellstransmitimpulsestotheolfactorycortexofthebrainforinterpretation.Anodorsnapshot
ismade,whichthenbecomespartofourlong-termmemory.Theolfactorypathwaysarecloselytiedtothelimbic
system,theemotional-visceralpartofthebrain.Odorselicitstrongemotionalresponses,bothpositiveand
negative.Thesmelloffreshlybakedcookies,acertainperfume,oradentistsofficeallengendertheirownunique
response.
127)Soundwavesenterthepinnaandaretransmitteddowntheexternalauditorycanaluntiltheyhitthetympanic
membraneandcauseittovibrate.Vibrationofthetympanicmembranethencausestheossiclesofthemiddleearto
vibrate,whichinturnpressesontheovalwindowoftheinnerear.Vibrationoftheovalwindowsetsthefluidsof
theinnerearinmotion.MovementofthecochlearfluidsthenstimulatethehaircellsoftheorganofCorti,whichin
turntransmitimpulsesalongthecochlearnervetotheauditorycortexinthetemporallobe,whereinterpretationof
soundoccurs.

128)1.
Thelensistheonlystructureintheeyethatcanchangeshapetorefractlight.Thelensbecomesmoreorless
convexinordertoproperlyfocuslightontheretina.
2.
Cataractsarecausedwhenthelensbecomesincreasinglyhardandopaque.Visionbecomeshazyand
blindnesscanoccurintheaffectedeye.

Exam
Name___________________________________

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
1)Insulincauses:
1)_______
A)adecreaseintheconcentrationofbloodglucose
B)anincreaseinbloodpressure
C)adecreaseinbloodpressure
D)anincreaseintheproductionofglucagon
E)anincreaseintheconcentrationofbloodglucose

2)Thecellsinthetestesthatproducetestosteronearecalled:
2)_______
A)interstitialcells
B)alphacells
C)gonadotropiccells
D)betacells
E)pancreaticisletcells

3)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTasignofdiabetesmellitus:
3)_______
A)polydipsia
B)polyuria
C)polyphagia
D)moonface
E)acidosis

4)Diabetesinsipidusiscausedbyhyposecretionof:
4)_______
A)glucagon
B)antidiuretichormone(ADH)
C)growthhormone
D)prolactin(PRL)
E)parathyroidhormone(PTH)

5)Tetanyresultingfromuncontrolledmusclespasmsmayindicateamalfunctionofthe:
5)_______
A)pinealgland
B)adrenalcortex
C)thymus
D)posteriorpituitary
E)parathyroidglands

6)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTasymptomofCushingssyndrome:
6)_______
A)bronzeskintones
B)highbloodpressure
C)buffalohump
D)moonface
E)waterretention

7)Whichoneofthefollowinghormonesexertsitsprimaryeffectsonthereproductiveorgans:
7)_______
A)prolactin
B)adrenocorticotropichormone
C)thyroid-stimulatinghormone
D)follicle-stimulatinghormone
E)growthhormone


8)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTananteriorpituitaryhormone:
A)prolactin
B)antidiuretichormone
C)follicle-stimulatinghormone
D)adrenocorticotropichormone
E)luteinizinghormone

9)Insulinworksasanantagonistto:
A)oxytocin
B)glucagon
C)testosterone
D)thyroidhormone
E)thymosin

10)Anenlargementofthethyroidglandresultingfromadeficiencyofdietaryiodineiscalled:
A)goiter
B)acromegaly
C)cretinism
D)myxedema
E)exophthalmos

11)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTafunctionofoxytocin:
A)stimulationofuterinecontractions
B)stimulationofmenstruation
C)stimulationofbreastmilkejection
D)laborinduction
E)postpartumbleedingcontrol

12)Insulinisproducedbycellsofthepancreaticisletscalled:
A)alphacells
B)deltacells
C)gammacells
D)betacells
E)thetacells

13)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTanactionofthecatecholamines:
A)increasedheartrate
B)dilationofthesmallpassagesofthelungs
C)stimulationofthesympatheticnervoussystem
D)decreasedbloodpressure
E)increasedbloodglucoselevels

14)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOToneofthemajorprocessescontrolledbyhormones:
A)mobilizingbodydefensesagainststressors
B)growthanddevelopment
C)maintainingelectrolytebalance
D)bodycoordination
E)regulatingcellularmetabolism

15)EstrogensdoallofthefollowingEXCEPT:
A)stimulatemenstruation

8)_______

9)_______

10)______

11)______

12)______

13)______

14)______

15)______

B)stimulatethedevelopmentofsecondarysexcharacteristicsinfemales
C)helpmaintainpregnancy
D)stimulategrowthoffacialhair
E)preparetheuterustoreceiveafertilizedegg

16)Hypersecretionofgrowthhormoneafterlongbonegrowthhasended(asanadult)iscalled:
A)pituitarydwarfism
B)acromegaly
C)gigantism
D)myxedema
E)Cushingsdisease

17)Risingbloodlevelsofaldosteronecausethekidneytubulesto:
A)reabsorbcalcium
B)reabsorbsodium
C)reabsorbiodine
D)reabsorbpotassium
E)reabsorbhydrogen

18)Thechemicalmessengersoftheendocrinesystemareknownas:
A)stimuli
B)neurons
C)effectors
D)hormones
E)targetcells

19)Alcoholinhibitsthesecretionof:
A)prolactin(PRL)
B)antidiuretichormone(ADH)
C)parathyroidhormone(PTH)
D)oxytocin
E)glucagon

20)Thehormonethatappearstohelpregulateoursleep-awakecyclesis:
A)melatonin
B)thyroxine
C)progesterone
D)thymosin
E)glucagon

21)Whichhormoneworkswithestrogentobringaboutthemenstualcycle:
A)prolactin
B)oxytocin
C)testosterone
D)humanchorionicgonadotropin
E)progesterone

22)Mostendocrineorgansareproddedintoactionbyotherhormones;thistypeofstimulusis
called:
A)neuralstimulus
B)humoralstimulus
C)hormonalstimulus

16)______

17)______

18)______

19)______

20)______

21)______

22)______

D)receptor-mediatedstimulus
E)steroidstimulus

23)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTproducedbytheadrenalcortex:
A)mineralocorticoids
B)glucocorticoids
C)sexhormones
D)aldosterone
E)epinephrine

24)Theelementnecessaryinthedietforproperthyroidfunctionis:
A)sodium
B)potassium
C)iodine
D)bromine
E)calcium

25)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTtypicalofthechangesthatfollowthebindingofahormone
toitstargetcells:
A)mitosisisstimulated
B)cellularmutationsoccur
C)proteinsaresynthesizedinthecell
D)plasmamembranepermeabilitychanges
E)enzymesareactivatedorinactivated

26)Whichofthesehormonesisreleasedbytheadrenalmedulla:
A)sexhormones
B)aldosterone
C)glucocorticoids
D)epinephrine
E)cortisone

27)Thebodysmajormetabolichormoneiscalled:
A)calcitonin
B)growthhormone
C)thyroidhormone
D)prolactin
E)adrenaline

28)Thehormonethattriggersovulationofaneggfromthefemaleovaryis:
A)luteinizinghormone
B)prolactin
C)interstitialcell-stimulatinghormone
D)progesterone
E)follicle-stimulatinghormone

29)Tropichormones:
A)stimulatethepinealglandtosecretehormones
B)stimulatenervoustissue
C)stimulateprostaglandins
D)stimulateotherendocrineglandstosecretehormones
E)stimulatethethymusglandtosecretehormones

30)ThehormoneresponsibleforthematurationofwhitebloodcellsknownasTlymphocytesis:
A)aldosterone
B)progesterone

23)______

24)______

25)______

26)______

27)______

28)______

29)______

30)______

C)thymosin
D)melatonin
E)thyroxine

31)Thehypothalamusismostcloselyassociatedwiththe:
A)thymusgland
B)thyroidgland
C)pituitarygland
D)pinealgland
E)pancreas

32)Growthhormone:
A)resultsinCushingsdiseaseifproducedinexcess
B)isproducedbythethyroidgland
C)promotesgrowthinlongbonesandskeletalmuscles
D)issecretedbythethymusgland
E)preventsurineproduction

33)Negativefeedbackmechanismsregulate:
A)steroidhormonesonly
B)veryfewhormones
C)mosthormones
D)prostaglandinhormonesonly
E)aminoacid-basedhormonesonly

34)Theenzymeproducedbythekidneyswhenbloodpressuredrops,stimulatingareleaseof
aldosterone,iscalled:
A)cortisol
B)renin
C)angiotensin
D)vasopressin
E)cortisone

35)Prostaglandinsare:
A)lipidhormonesmanufacturedincellplasmamembranes
B)steroidhormones
C)aminoacid-basedhormones
D)targetorgans
E)glycerolhormones

36)ThesecondarysexcharacteristicsbroughtaboutbytestosteronesecretiondoNOTinclude:
A)developmentofheavymuscles
B)growthoffacialhair
C)loweringthevoice
D)developmentofheavybones
E)developmentofbreasts

37)Thethyroidglandislocated:
A)withintheparathyroidglands
B)belowtheAdamsapple
C)withinthemediastinum
D)withinthepancreas

31)______

32)______

33)______

34)______

35)______

36)______

37)______

E)abovethekidneys

38)Beinglipidsoluble,steroidscandoallthefollowingEXCEPT:
A)bindtoreceptorproteinswithinthenucleus
B)catalyzecyclicAMP
C)enterthenucleus
D)activategenestotranscribemRNAforproteinsynthesis
E)diffusethroughtheplasmamembranesoftargetcells

39)GlucocorticoidsdoallofthefollowingEXCEPT:
A)decreaseedema
B)suppressinflammation
C)increasebloodglucoselevels
D)helpresistlong-termstress
E)regulatesaltcontentoftheblood

40)WhichofthesehormonesdoesNOTplayaroleinreproduction:
A)estrogen
B)luteinizinghormone
C)testosterone
D)follicle-stimulatinghormone
E)antidiuretichormone

41)WhichoneofthefollowinghormonesisNOTproducedbytheanteriorlobeofthepituitary
gland:
A)thyroid-stimulatinghormone
B)oxytocin
C)growthhormone
D)prolactin
E)luteinizinghormone

42)Hyposecretionofthyroxineinearlychildhoodleadsto:
A)exophthalmos
B)myxedema
C)cretinism
D)acromegaly
E)dwarfism

43)Thefight-or-flightresponsetriggersthereleaseof:
A)growthhormone
B)epinephrine
C)melatonin
D)prolactin
E)ADH

44)Thepinealglandproduces
A)insulin
B)cortisol
C)melatonin
D)thymosin
E)estrogen

45)Whichofthesehormonesregulatecalciumlevelsinthebody:
A)T3andT4
B)calcitoninandparathyroidhormone
C)melatoninandglucocorticoids

38)______

39)______

40)______

41)______

42)______

43)______

44)______

45)______

D)oxytocinandprolactin
E)insulinandglucagon

SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.

Figure9.1

UsingFigure9.1,identifythefollowing:
46)Theproducerofhormonesreleasedbytheposteriorpituitaryisindicatedbyletter
__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
47)Ahormonecalled__________playsanimportantroleinincubatingaspecialgroupof
whitebloodcells.

48)The__________cellsofthetestesproducetestosterone.

49)Ahormonecalled__________isbelievedtoplayanimportantroleinestablishingthe
bodysday-nightcycle.

50)Adrenocorticotropichormonestimulatesthecortexportionofthe__________gland.

46)_____________

47)_____________

48)_____________
49)_____________

50)_____________

Figure9.1

UsingFigure9.1,identifythefollowing:
51)Thepinealglandisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
52)Calcitoninismadebythe__________ofthethyroidgland.

51)_____________

52)_____________

Figure9.1

UsingFigure9.1,identifythefollowing:
53)Theglandsthatproducesteroidsandcatecholaminesareindicatedbyletter__________.

53)_____________


Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
54)Cortisoneandcortisolandtypesof__________producedbythemiddlecorticallayerof
theadrenalgland.

54)_____________

Figure9.1

UsingFigure9.1,identifythefollowing:
55)Theglandthatisprimarilyresponsibleforbodymetabolismisindicatedbyletter
__________.

56)Thepancreasisindicatedbyletter__________.

57)Theglandthatisthemajorproduceroffemalehormonesisindicatedbyletter
__________.

58)Theparathyroidglandsareindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
59)Anothernameforantidiuretichormone(ADH)is__________.

60)Anothernameforepinephrineis__________.

61)Hypersecretionofgrowthhormoneduringchildhoodresultsin__________.

62)Mineralocorticoidsregulatetheconcentrationof__________and__________ionsinour
blood.

63)Anenlargementofthethyroidglandiscalleda__________.

64)Insulinandglucagonarebothhormonesthatareproducedby__________.

55)_____________

56)_____________
57)_____________

58)_____________

59)_____________
60)_____________
61)_____________
62)_____________

63)_____________
64)_____________

Figure9.1

UsingFigure9.1,identifythefollowing:
65)Thethymusglandisindicatedbyletter__________.

66)Theglandthatproducesmelatoninisindicatedbyletter__________.

67)Theglandthatproducesinsulinandglucagonisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
68)Theenzymeproducedbythekidneyswhenbloodpressuredrops,whichcausesthe
releaseofaldosterone,iscalled__________.

69)Hypersecretionofglucocorticoids,oftencausedbyatumor,resultsin__________.

70)Homepregnancytestscheckforahormoneinthefemalesurinecalled__________.

71)Generalizedhyposecretionofalladrenalcortexhormonesleadsto__________.

72)Glucagonactsasanantagonisttoahormonecalled__________.

73)Theposteriorpituitaryglandreleasestwohormonescalled__________and__________.

65)_____________
66)_____________
67)_____________

68)_____________

69)_____________
70)_____________
71)_____________
72)_____________
73)_____________

Figure9.1

UsingFigure9.1,identifythefollowing:
74)Theglandthatproducesthymosinisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
75)Malesexhormonesproducedbytheadrenalcortexarecalled__________.

76)Anteriorlyprotrudingeyesassociatedwithhyperthyroidismiscalled__________.

Figure9.1

74)_____________

75)_____________
76)_____________

UsingFigure9.1,identifythefollowing:
77)Theglandthatproducestestosteroneisindicatedbyletter__________.
77)_____________

78)Theglandthathasbothglandularandnervoustissueassociatedwithitisindicatedby
78)_____________
letter__________.

79)Theglandsthatactasantagoniststothethyroidglandareindicatedbyletter
79)_____________
__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
80)Polyuria,polydipsia,andpolyphagiaareindicativeofadiseasecalled__________.
80)_____________

TRUE/FALSE.WriteTifthestatementistrueandFifthestatementisfalse.
81)Releasingandinhibitinghormonesproducedbythehypothalamustraveltotheanterior
81)______
pituitarythroughthebloodoftheportalcirculation.

82)Neurosecretorycellstransportoxytocinandantidiuretichormonetotheanteriorpituitarygland 82)______
forstorage.

83)Theglucocorticoidshelpthebodyhandlelong-termstressprimarilybyincreasingbloodglucose 83)______
levels.

84)Theendocrinesystemisgenerallyfasterthanthenervoussystemincoordinatingtheactivitiesof 84)______
bodycells.

85)Theposteriorpituitaryglandstoresthehormonesitreleases,butdoesnotmanufacturethem.
85)______

86)Melatoninproductionpeaksduringthenighttohelpregulatethebodysday-nightcycle.
86)______

87)Mosthormonesareregulatedbynegativefeedbackmechanisms.
87)______

88)Glucocorticoids,glucagon,andepinephrinearehyperglycemichormones.
88)______

89)Bothmaleandfemalesexhormonesareproducedbytheadrenalcortexthroughoutlifein
89)______
relativelysmallamounts.

90)Theadrenalglandsaresimilartothepituitaryglandinthattheyhavebothglandularandneural 90)______
tissue.

91)Alcoholcansuppresstheproductionofantidiuretichormone.
91)______

92)Theadrenalmedullaandposteriorpituitaryarebothcomposedofnervoustissue.
92)______

93)Parathyroidhormoneisthemostimportantregulatorofbloodcalciumconcentration.
93)______

94)Vasopressinisanothernameforantidiuretichormone.
94)______

95)Thethymusglandislocatedintheneckwrappedaroundthetrachea.
95)______

96)Thepituitaryglandisfoundinthebraincloselyassociatedwiththehypothalamus.
96)______

97)Myxedemaistheresultofhyperthyroidism.
97)______


98)Thetargetissueofprolactinisthefemalebreast.

99)Diabetesinsipidusiscausedbyhyposecretionofinsulin.

100)Calcitoninisahormoneantagonistictoparathormoneintheregulationofbloodcalcium
concentration.

101)Thyroidhormoneisactuallytwoiodine-containinghormonescalledT3andT4.

102)Hyposecretionofthyroxineinchildrencanresultincretinism.

103)Hypersecretionofgrowthhormoneduringchildhoodleadstopituitarydwarfism.

104)Adrenalineisalsoknownasepinephrine.

105)Hypersecretionofthesexhormonesmayleadtomasculinizationinbothmenandwomen.

106)HyposecretionofFSHorLHleadstosterilityinbothmalesandfemales.

107)Thepancreashasbothendocrineandexocrinefunctions.

108)Mineralocorticoidshelpregulatebothwaterandelectrolytebalanceinbodyfluids.

109)Exocrineglandsareconsideredductlessglandsbecausetheyreleasetheirhormonesintothe
bloodorlymph.

110)Thepancreasproducesbothglucagonandglucocorticoids.

111)Theadrenalcortexismadeupofneuraltissue.

112)Theplacentaisatemporaryorganformedintheuterusofpregnantwomen.

MATCHING.Choosetheitemincolumn2thatbestmatcheseachitemincolumn1.
Matchthefollowinghormoneswiththeirendocrinegland:
113)Parathormone
A)anteriorpituitary

114)Thymosin
B)thymus

115)Aldosterone
C)testes

116)Follicle-stimulatinghormone
D)parathyroids

E)
thyroid

F)adrenalmedulla

G)adrenalcortex

Matchthefollowingactionswiththeappropriatehormone:
117)Reducesbloodglucoselevels
A)glucagon

B)

98)______
99)______
100)_____

101)_____
102)_____
103)_____
104)_____
105)_____
106)_____
107)_____
108)_____
109)_____

110)_____
111)_____
112)_____

113)_____
114)_____
115)_____
116)_____

117)_____

insulin

Matchthefollowinghormoneswiththeirendocrinegland:
118)Thyroxine

119)Humanchorionicgonadotropin

120)Oxytocin

121)Thyroid-stimulatinghormone

122)Glucagon

123)Growthhormone

124)Glucocorticoids

125)Adrenocorticotropichormone

Matchthefollowingactionswiththeappropriatehormone:
126)Promoteswaterretentionbythe
kidneys

Matchthefollowinghormoneswiththeirendocrinegland:
127)Melatonin

128)Insulin

129)Catecholamines

130)Luteinizinghormone

Matchthefollowingactionswiththeappropriatehormone:
131)Promotesgrowthofuterinelining

132)Raisesbloodcalciumlevels

A)posteriorpituitary

B)thymus

C)alphacellsofpancreaticislets

D)placenta

E)pancreaticislets

F)thyroid

G)adrenalcortex

H)anteriorpituitary
I)
uterus

J)parathyroids

A)epinephrine

118)_____
119)_____
120)_____
121)_____
122)_____
123)_____
124)_____
125)_____

126)_____

B)antidiuretichormone

A)thymus

B)adrenalmedulla

C)pineal

D)adrenalcortex
E)
betacellsofpancreaticislets

F)corpusluteum

G)anteriorpituitary

127)_____

A)progesterone
B)
thyroidhormone

A)glucocorticoids
B)
parathyroidhormone

131)_____

128)_____
129)_____
130)_____

132)_____


Matchthefollowinghormoneswiththeirendocrinegland:
133)Antidiuretichormone

Matchthefollowingactionswiththeappropriatehormone:
134)Stimulatesgrowthofboneand
muscles

Matchthefollowinghormoneswiththeirendocrinegland:
135)Cortisone

Matchthefollowingactionswiththeappropriatehormone:
136)Stimulatescontractionoftheuterus

137)ProgramsTlymphocytes

Matchthefollowinghormoneswiththeirendocrinegland:
138)Calcitonin

Matchthefollowingactionswiththeappropriatehormone:
139)Stimulatesmilkproduction

Matchthefollowinghormoneswiththeirendocrinegland:
140)Prolactin

A)posteriorpituitary
B)
adrenalcortex

133)_____

A)growthhormone

134)_____

B)estrogen

A)adrenalcortex
B)
adrenalmedulla

135)_____

A)thymosin

B)oxytocin

136)_____
137)_____

A)thyroid
B)
parathyroids

138)_____

A)prolactin
B)
calcitonin

139)_____

A)anteriorpituitary
140)_____
B)
ovaries

ESSAY.Writeyouranswerinthespaceprovidedoronaseparatesheetofpaper.
141)Explainthenegativefeedbackinteractionbetweencalcitoninandparathormone.

142)Explainthecausesandeffectsofmenopause.

143)Explainhowinsulinandglucagonworkasantagoniststooneanother.

144)Explainthepituitary-hypothalamusrelationship.

145)Describethethreetypesofstimulithatactivatetheendocrineorgans.

146)Jamieisdehydratedfromplayingaroughgameoffootballonahotsummerafternoon.Explainwhybeeris
notagoodchoiceofbeverageconsideringwhatyouknowaboutantidiuretichormone.

147)Four-year-oldTimisextremelysmallforhisage,andheshowssignsofmentalretardation.Hishairis

thinning dry.Hisparentshavereadaboutcretinismandpituitarydwarfismaspossiblediagnosesfortheirsonand
andhis havetakenhimtothepediatricianforteststoberun.Whichdiagnosisdoyouthinkiscorrect?Explainwhy.
skinis

148)Comparetheeffectsofhypersecretionandhyposecretionofgrowthhormoneonachild.

149)Explainthetwomajorchemicalclassificationsofhormones.


1)A
2)A
3)D
4)B
5)E
6)A
7)D
8)B
9)B
10)A
11)B
12)D
13)D
14)D
15)D
16)C
17)B
18)D
19)B
20)A
21)E
22)C
23)E
24)C
25)B
26)D
27)C
28)A
29)D
30)C
31)C
32)C
33)C
34)B
35)A
36)E
37)B
38)B
39)E
40)E
41)B
42)C
43)B
44)C
45)B
46)B
47)thymosin
48)interstitial
49)melatonin
50)adrenal
51)A

52)parafollicularcells
53)G
54)glucocorticoids
55)D
56)H
57)I
58)E
59)vasopressin
60)adrenaline
61)gigantism
62)sodium;potassium
63)goiter
64)pancreaticisletcells
65)F
66)A
67)H
68)renin
69)Cushingssyndrome
70)humanchorionicgonadotropin(hCG)
71)Addisonsdisease
72)insulin
73)oxytocin;antidiuretichormone
74)F
75)androgens
76)exophthalmos
77)J
78)C
79)E
80)diabetesmellitus
81)TRUE
82)FALSE
83)TRUE
84)FALSE
85)TRUE
86)TRUE
87)TRUE
88)TRUE
89)TRUE
90)TRUE
91)TRUE
92)TRUE
93)TRUE
94)TRUE
95)FALSE
96)TRUE
97)FALSE
98)TRUE
99)FALSE
100)TRUE
101)TRUE
102)TRUE
103)FALSE

104)TRUE
105)TRUE
106)TRUE
107)TRUE
108)TRUE
109)TRUE
110)FALSE
111)FALSE
112)TRUE
113)D
114)B
115)G
116)A
117)B
118)F
119)D
120)A
121)H
122)C
123)H
124)G
125)H
126)B
127)C
128)E
129)B
130)G
131)B
132)D
133)A
134)A
135)A
136)B
137)A
138)A
139)A
140)A
141)Calcitonin,releasedbythethyroidgland,decreasesbloodcalciumlevelsbycausingcalciumtobedepositedinthe
bones.Parathormone,releasedbytheparathyroidsinresponsetolowbloodcalciumlevels,stimulatesbone
destructionbyosteoclasts,causingreleaseofcalciumintotheblood.PTHis,therefore,ahypercalcemichormone,
whereascalcitoninisahypocalcemichormone.PTHisthemostimportantregulatorofcalciumionhomeostasisof
theblood.
142)Theonsetofmenopause,commonlycalledchangeoflife,isbroughtaboutbydeclineandatrophyoftheovaries.
Thedecreasedproductionofestrogenandotherfemalehormonesresultsintheinabilitytobearchildren,
arteriosclerosis,osteoporosis,decreasedskinelasticity,andsympatheticnervoussystemchanges.Thesechangesin
thesympatheticnervoussystembringaboutwhatarecommonlycalledhotflashes.Othersymptomsinclude
fatigue,nervousness,andmoodchanges.
143)Hormonesthatperformoppositeactionsarecalledantagonists.Insulinlowersbloodglucoselevelsbyincreasing
theabilityofcellstotransportglucoseacrosstheirplasmamembranes.Glucagontargetsthelivertobreakdown
storedglycogenintoglucose.Theglucoseisthenreleasedintothebloodstreamtoincreasebloodglucoselevels.
144)Hormonesfromtheanteriorpituitaryarereleasedinresponsetoreleasingandinhibitinghormonesproducedby
thehypothalamus.Thehypothalamusreleasesthesehormonesintothebloodoftheportalcirculation,which

conn bloodsupplyofthehypothalamuswiththatoftheanteriorpituitary.Hormonesfromtheposteriorpituitaryare
ects madeinthehypothalamusbyhypothalamicneurons.Thosehormonesarethenstoredintheposteriorpituitary
the untiltheirreleaseisnecessary.
145)Themostcommonstimulusishormonal.Inhormonalstimulus,endocrineorgansareproddedintoactionbyother
hormones,knownastropichormones.Anothertypeofstimulusishumoral,inwhichchangingbloodlevelsof
certainionsandnutrientsstimulatehormonerelease.Thethirdtypeofstimulusisneural,inwhichnervefibers
stimulatehormonerelease.
146)Antidiuretichormonepreventsurineproductionandpromoteswaterretentionbythekidneys.However,alcoholic
beveragesinhibitADHsecretionandresultinalargeoutputofurine.Jamieisalreadydehydratedandalcoholwill
onlyfurtherthatsituation.
147)Thelikelydiagnosisiscretinism.Hyposecretionofthethyroidhormoneinearlychildhoodleadstocretinism.
Cretinismresultsindwarfismandmentalretardation.Cretinismalsocauseshairtobescantyandthedryskin.Itis
unlikelyTimsuffersfrompituitarydwarfism.Pituitarydwarfismresultsfromhyposecretionofgrowthhormonein
childrenbutdoesnotcausetheothersymptomslisted.
148)Hyposecretionofgrowthhormoneinachildleadstopituitarydwarfism.Bodyproportionsarenormal,butthe
persondoesnotexceed4feetinheight.
Hypersecretionofgrowthhormoneinachildleadstogigantism.Althoughbodyproportionsarenormal,the
personcanreach8to9feetinheight.
149)Theaminoacid-basedmoleculesincludeproteins,peptides,andamines.Thesteroidhormonesincludethesex
hormonesmadebythegonadsandthehormonesproducedbytheadrenalcortex.

Exam
Name___________________________________

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
1)Normalwholebloodcontains__________gofhemoglobinper100mL.
1)_______
A)4-8
B)12-18
C)15-20
D)30-35
E)42-48

2)Thematrixofbloodiscalled:
2)_______
A)buffycoat
B)lymphocytes
C)formedelements
D)plasma
E)erythrocytes

3)Whichofthefollowingisabloodclottingdisorder:
3)_______
A)polycythemia
B)leukopenia
C)hemophilia
D)leukocytosis
E)anemia

4)ThemostcommontypeofbloodintheU.S.populationis:
4)_______
A)A
B)B
C)AB
D)O
E)AO

5)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTaphysicalcharacteristicofblood:
5)_______
A)sticky
B)sweettasting
C)alkaline
D)heavierthanwater
E)opaque

6)Erythrocytes:
6)_______
A)clotblood
B)number4000to11,000percubicmillimeterofblood
C)cantravelbydiapedesis
D)areanucleate
E)havelobednucleiandcytoplasmicgranules

7)Excessiveerythrocytesresultin:
7)_______
A)leukopenia
B)perniciousanemia
C)sicklecellanemia
D)polycythemia
E)leukocytosis

8)Thetypeofleukocytesthatbecomemacrophagesinthetissuesare:
8)_______
A)neutrophils
B)monocytes
C)eosinophils
D)lymphocytes
E)basophils

9)Inacentrifugedbloodsample,thebuffycoatbetweentheformedelementsandtheplasma
contains:
A)leukocytesonly
B)leukocytesanderythrocytes
C)plateletsanderythrocytes
D)leukocytesandplatelets
E)eythrocytesonly

10)CompatibilitytestingforagglutinationofdonorRBCsbytherecipientsserumiscalled:
A)crossmatching
B)bloodtyping
C)hemodialysis
D)transfusionreaction
E)hemolysis

11)Treatmentofhemophiliaofteninvolves:
A)vitaminKsupplementsandB12injections
B)transfusionofplasmaorinjectionsofmissingclottingfactor
C)injectionsofmissingclottingfactorsandB12injections
D)vitaminKsupplementsonly
E)transfusionofplasmaandvitaminKsupplements

12)Thereareanaverageof__________WBCspercubicmillimeterofwholeblood.
A)100-1000
B)4000-11,000
C)10,000-20,000
D)50,000-100,000
E)1million-3million

13)Whichtypeofleukocytecontainsheparin,ananticoagulant:
A)lymphocyte
B)neutrophil
C)eosinophil
D)basophil
E)monocyte

14)Asubstancethatstimulatestheimmunesystemtoreleaseantibodies:
A)prothrombinactivator
B)fibrinogen
C)antibody
D)interleukin
E)antigen

15)Bloodnormallyclotsinapproximately:
A)15minutes
B)3to6minutes
C)5to10minutes
D)1minute
E)30minutes

16)ABObloodgroupsarebasedonthepresenceof:
A)Aantigens

9)_______

10)______

11)______

12)______

13)______

14)______

15)______

16)______

B)Bantigens
C)Oantigens
D)A,B,andOantigens
E)AandBantigens

17)Severeshockoccurswithbloodlossof:
A)over10percent
B)over20percent
C)over30percent
D)over50percent
E)over5percent

18)Theuniversalrecipienthasbloodtype:
A)A
B)B
C)AB
D)ABO
E)O

19)Whichbloodtype(s)canapersonwithbloodtypeOreceive:
A)bloodtypeA
B)bloodtypesA,B,AB,orO
C)bloodtypeB
D)bloodtypeO
E)bloodtypeAB

20)Megakaryocytespinchoffanucleatefragmentscalled:
A)neutrophils
B)erythrocytes
C)granulocytes
D)agranulocytes
E)platelets

21)Themostnumerouswhitebloodcellsarethe:
A)eosinophils
B)basophils
C)monocytes
D)lymphocytes
E)neutrophils

22)Theionessentialforbloodclottingis:
A)potassium
B)iodine
C)sodium
D)calcium
E)hydrogen

23)Whichofthefollowingisnotatypeofredbloodcelldisorder?
A)perniciousanemia
B)leukemia
C)aplasticanemia
D)sicklecellanemia
E)polycythemia

24)Aclotthatbreaksawayfromavesselwallandcirculatesfreelywithinthebloodstreamiscalled
a(n):
A)embolus
B)thromboplastin
C)thrombus
D)fibrin

17)______

18)______

19)______

20)______

21)______

22)______

23)______

24)______

E)clottingcascade

25)Theorganlargelyresponsibleforthesynthesisofclottingfactorsisthe:
A)pancreas
B)kidneys
C)spleen
D)liver
E)thyroid

26)WhichoneofthefollowingdoesNOTdescribebloodplasma:
A)itisthecolorofredwine
B)itcontainsplasmaproteins
C)itcontainsmetalions(salts)
D)itcontainshormones
E)itspHis7.35to7.45

27)Whichoneofthefollowinggroupsconsistofgranulocytes:
A)basophilsandeosinophils
B)neutrophils,lymphocytes,andeosinophils
C)lymphocytesandmonocytes
D)neutrophils,eosinophils,andbasophils
E)eosinophilsandmonocytes

28)Bleedingdisordersoftenresultfromalackofwhichoneofthefollowingvitamins:
A)vitaminB12
B)vitaminA
C)vitaminC
D)vitaminK
E)vitaminD

29)Whichchemicalisreleasedtobringaboutvasoconstrictionduringthevascularspasmphaseof
hemostasis:
A)thrombopoietin
B)interleukin
C)erythropoietin
D)serotonin
E)renin

30)Thetypeofleukocytesthatwouldincreaserapidlyduringallergyattacksandinfectionsof
parasiticwormsare:
A)neutrophils
B)lymphocytes
C)monocytes
D)basophils
E)eosinophils

31)TheprocesswherebythebindingofantibodiestoantigenscausesRBCstoclumpiscalled:
A)hemostasis
B)clottingcascade
C)hemolysis
D)coagulation
E)agglutination

32)Plateletsarefragmentsofmultinucleatecellscalled:
A)eosinophils
B)megakaryocytes

25)______

26)______

27)______

28)______

29)______

30)______

31)______

32)______

C)macrophages
D)basophils
E)erythrocytes

33)Bloodcellformationiscalled__________andoccursinredbonemarrow.
A)hemolysis
B)agglutination
C)hematopoiesis
D)coagulation
E)hemostasis

34)TheaveragefunctionallifespanofanRBCis:
A)thebodyslifetime
B)50-75days
C)100-120days
D)oneyear
E)20-30days

35)Whichofthesebloodtypescarriesnoantigens:
A)bloodtypesA,B,andAB
B)bloodtypeA
C)bloodtypeO
D)bloodtypeB
E)bloodtypeAB

36)Whichantigen(s)doestypeABbloodcontain:
A)sometimesAantigens,othertimesBantigens
B)Bantigen
C)Aantigen
D)AandBantigens
E)noantigens

37)AnemiasappearinginoldageresultfromallofthefollowingEXCEPT:
A)drugtherapy
B)leukemia
C)erythrocytemutations
D)nutritionaldeficiencies
E)vitamindeficiencies

38)A__________clotisformedduringtheprocessofhemostasis.
A)fibrinogen
B)fibrin
C)prothrombin
D)thromboplastin
E)thrombin

39)Thehormonethatregulatestherateoferythrocyteproductioniscalled:
A)renin
B)vasopressin
C)erythropoietin
D)thrombopoietin
E)leukopoietin

33)______

34)______

35)______

36)______

37)______

38)______

39)______


40)TheimmuneserumusedtopreventmaternalsensitizationtoRhantigensis:
A)interleukin
B)RhoGAM
C)agglutinin
D)serotonin
E)HepBIg

41)BloodcellformationinadultsoccursinallofthefollowingEXCEPTthe:
A)flatbonesofthepelvis
B)shaftofthefemur
C)proximalepiphysesofthehumerusandfemur
D)flatbonesoftheskull
E)theepiphysealplates

42)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTtrueofWBCs:
A)theyusediapedesistomoveinandoutofbloodvessels
B)theyinitiatetheclottingprocess
C)theylocateareasoftissuedamagethroughchemotaxis
D)theymovebyameboidmotion
E)theyaccountforlessthan1percentoftotalbloodvolume

43)AnimmatureRBCiscalleda:
A)granulocyte
B)hemocytoblast
C)reticulocyte
D)agranulocyte
E)megakaryocyte

44)Prothrombinactivatorcovertsprothrombinto:
A)prothrombinactivator
B)thrombin
C)fibrinactivator
D)serotonin
E)fibrinogen

45)Theseriesofreactionsthatstopbloodflowfollowingacutiscalled:
A)homeostasis
B)hemostasis
C)coagulation
D)agglutination
E)erythropoiesis

46)Whichoneofthefollowingrepresentsthepropersequenceofhemostasis:
A)vascularspasm,coagulation,plateletplugformation
B)plateletplugformation,coagulation,vascularspasm
C)coagulation,plateletplugformation,vascularspasm
D)vascularspasm,plateletplugformation,coagulation
E)coagulation,vascularspasm,plateletplugformation

47)Whichoneofthefollowingformedelementsisthemostabundant:
A)platelets

40)______

41)______

42)______

43)______

44)______

45)______

46)______

47)______

B)basophils
C)erythrocytes
D)eosinophils
E)lymphocytes

SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
48)Thevolumeoferythrocyteswithinagivenvolumeofwholeblood,expressedasa
48)_____________
percentage,is__________.

49)Theiron-containingproteinfoundinRBCsthattransportsthemajorityofoxygen
49)_____________
carriedinthebloodis__________.

50)TheconditioninwhichfetalRBCsaredestroyedfasterthantheinfantlivercanridthe
50)_____________
bodyofthebreakdownproductsofhemoglobiniscalled__________.

Figure10.1

UsingFigure10.1,identifythefollowing:
51)Thelymphocyteisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
52)ThemovementofWBCstoareasofinflammationinresponsetochemicalmediatorsis
called__________.

53)TherarestbloodtypeintheUnitedStatesistype__________.

54)AnabnormalelevationofWBCsabovethenormalcountof11,000cells/mm3iscalled

51)_____________

52)_____________

53)_____________
___ _______.

54)

_____________

Figure10.1

UsingFigure10.1,identifythefollowing:
55)Theneutrophilisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
56)Whitebloodcellsarealsocalled__________.

57)Theplasmaproteinthatcontributestotheosmoticpressureofbloodis__________.

58)Theprocessbywhichbleedingisstoppediscalled__________.

59)BloodtypeAcarriesthe__________antigen.

60)Adecreaseinthebloodsabilitytotransportoxygeniscalled__________.

61)TheprocessbywhichWBCsareabletoeasilyslipinandoutofbloodvesselsiscalled
__________.

62)IfyoucarrytheRhantigen,youarereferredtoasRh__________.

63)Athrombusthathasbrokenawayfromavesselwallandisfreelyfloatinginthe
bloodstreamiscalledan__________.

55)_____________

56)_____________
57)_____________
58)_____________
59)_____________
60)_____________
61)_____________

62)_____________
63)_____________


Figure10.1

UsingFigure10.1,identifythefollowing:
64)Themostcommontypeofleukocyteisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
65)Hereditarybleedingdisordersthatresultfromlackofclottingfactorsarereferredtoas
__________.

64)_____________

65)_____________


Figure10.1

UsingFigure10.1,identifythefollowing:
66)Theeosinophilisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
67)Aninsufficiencyofcirculatingplateletsiscalled__________.

66)_____________

67)_____________


Figure10.1

UsingFigure10.1,identifythefollowing:
68)Themonocyteisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
69)Theredbloodcelldisordercausedbylifeatahighaltitudeiscalled__________.

70)Substancesthatthebodyrecognizesasforeignarecalled__________.

71)Thebloodtypereferredtoastheuniversaldonoriscalledtype__________.

68)_____________

69)_____________
70)_____________
71)_____________


Figure10.1

UsingFigure10.1,identifythefollowing:
72)Thetypeofleukocytethatfightsallergiesandparasiticwormsisindicatedbyletter
__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
73)ApersonwithtypeBbloodcanreceivebloodfrombloodtype(s)__________.

74)Theconditioninwhichmaternalantibodiescrosstheplacentaanddestroythebabys
RBCsiscalled__________.

75)Theanucleatecellsthatfunctiontotransportoxygentothebodyscellsarecalled
__________.

72)_____________

73)_____________
74)_____________

75)_____________


Figure10.1

UsingFigure10.1,identifythefollowing:
76)Thegranulocytesareindicatedbyletters__________and__________.
76)_____________

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
77)Theprocessofbloodcellformationwithintheredmarrowofbonesiscalled__________. 77)_____________

TRUE/FALSE.WriteTifthestatementistrueandFifthestatementisfalse.
78)Leukocytesaremorenumerousinbloodthanerythrocytes.
78)______

79)AnabnormallylowWBCcountiscalledleukopenia.
79)______

80)Aphlebotomistcollectsandprocessesbloodsamplesforlaboratoryanalysis.
80)______

81)Basophilsarethemostnumeroustypeofleukocyte.
81)______

82)Thetemperatureofbloodisslightlylowerthanbodytemperature.
82)______

83)Erythropoeitinisreleasedtostimulateplateletproductioninresponsetoinadequateamountsof 83)______
oxygenintheblood.

84)Bloodplasmaislargelywater.
84)______

85)Hemophiliaiscommonlycalledbleedersdisease.
85)______

86)UniversaldonorscanreceivebloodgroupsA,B,AB,andO.
86)______

87)Rh-relatedproblemsoccurinpregnantRh-womencarryinganRh+baby.

88)Theprocessbywhichwhitebloodcellsmoveinandoutofbloodvesselsiscalledphagocytosis.

89)Normalbloodvolumeinhealthymalesis5-6liters.

90)Allformedelementsarisefromacommontypeofstemcellcalledahemocytoblast.

91)BloodtypeAwillrespondtoabloodtransfusionofbloodtypeBwithanti-Bantibodies.

92)NormalpHofbloodisbetween7.35and7.45.

MATCHING.Choosetheitemincolumn2thatbestmatcheseachitemincolumn1.
Matchthefollowingbloodtypes:
93)Thebloodtypeknownasthe
A)BloodtypeAB
universalrecipient

Matchthefollowingfunctionwithitsbloodcell:
94)Produceantibodies
A)monocytes

B)
lymphocytes

Matchthefollowingbloodtypes:
95)Thebloodtypethatformsanti-Aand
A)BloodtypeO
anti-Bantibodies

Matchthefollowingfunctionwithitsbloodcell:
96)Long-termclean-upteam
A)monocytes

B)
lymphocytes

Matchthefollowingbloodtypes:
97)ThebloodtypethatpossessestheA
A)BloodtypeO
antigenonly

B)BloodtypeA
98)Thebloodtypeknownasthe

univeraldonor

Matchthefollowingfunctionwithitsbloodcell:
99)FormBandTlymphocytes
A)monocytes

100)Increaseduringallergyattacks
B)neutrophils

101)Activephagocytesthatincrease
C)basophils
rapidlyduringacuteinfection

D)eosinophils
102)Killparasiticworms

E)lymphocytes

87)______
88)______
89)______
90)______
91)______
92)______

93)______

94)______

95)______

96)______

97)______

98)______

99)______
100)_____
101)_____

102)_____


Matchthefollowingbloodtypes:
103)Thebloodtypethatcanreceiveblood
typesBandOonly

A)BloodtypeB

103)_____

Matchthefollowingfunctionwithitsbloodcell:
104)Activephagocytesthatbecome
macrophages

105)Transportsoxygenboundto
hemoglobin
106)
Transportcarbondioxide
107)
Containhistamine

A)eosinophils

104)_____

B)leukocytes

105)_____

C)lymphocytes

D)erythrocytes

E)monocytes

F)basophils

106)_____
107)_____

Matchthefollowingbloodtypes:
108)Thebloodtypethathasnoantigens
A)BloodtypeO
108)_____

ESSAY.Writeyouranswerinthespaceprovidedoronaseparatesheetofpaper.
109)Listanddescribethestructureofthetwomajorclassificationsofleukocytes.

110)Explaintheantigen-antibodyresponseasitrelatestobloodgroups.

111)Describethethreephasesofthenormalblood-clottingprocess.

112)Explainthecause,effect,andtreatmentofhemophilia.

113)Scottsbloodtestshowsthathehasexcessredbloodcells.Identifyanddescribetwocausesofthisdisorder.

114)Joannahaslearnedthatshehasleukocytosis.Explainthisdisordertoher.

115)DescribeABOandRhbloodgroups.

116)Discusshemolyticdiseaseofthenewborn(erythroblastosisfetalis).


1)B
2)D
3)C
4)D
5)B
6)D
7)D
8)B
9)D
10)A
11)B
12)B
13)D
14)E
15)B
16)E
17)C
18)C
19)D
20)E
21)E
22)D
23)B
24)A
25)D
26)A
27)D
28)D
29)D
30)E
31)E
32)B
33)C
34)C
35)C
36)D
37)C
38)B
39)C
40)B
41)B
42)B
43)C
44)B
45)B
46)D
47)C
48)hematocrit
49)hemoglobin
50)physiologicjaundice
51)D

52)positivechemotaxis
53)AB
54)leukocytosis
55)A
56)leukocytes
57)albumin
58)hemostasis
59)A
60)anemia
61)diapedesis
62)positive
63)embolus
64)A
65)hemophilia
66)C
67)thrombocytopenia
68)B
69)polycythemia
70)antigens
71)O
72)C
73)B;O
74)hemolyticdiseaseofthenewborn
75)erthrocytes(RBCs)
76)A;C
77)hematopoiesis
78)FALSE
79)TRUE
80)TRUE
81)FALSE
82)FALSE
83)FALSE
84)TRUE
85)TRUE
86)FALSE
87)TRUE
88)FALSE
89)TRUE
90)TRUE
91)TRUE
92)TRUE
93)A
94)B
95)A
96)A
97)B
98)A
99)D
100)C
101)A
102)B
103)A

104)E
105)D
106)D
107)F
108)A
109)Thetwomajorgroupsarethegranulocytesandtheagranulocytes.
1.
Thegranulocyteshavelobednucleiandgranulesinthecytoplasm.
2.
Theagranulocyteslackcytoplasmicgranules.Theirnucleiaremorenormalinshape(eitherspherical,oval,
orkidney-shaped).
110)Antigensaresurfaceproteinsfoundonallcellsincludingbloodcells.Inthecaseofbloodgroups,anindividuals
bloodtypereflectsthepresenceorabsenceofspecificantigens.Anantigen-antibodyresponseisinitiatedifthe
individualreceivesatransfusionofbloodcontainingantigensthatitidentifiesasbeingforeign.Antibodiesfound
inapersonsbloodbindtotheforeignantigen,causingagglutination,orclumping.Theantigen-antibody
complexesclogthesmallbloodvessels,andtheforeignRBCsarelysed,releasinghemoglobinintothebloodstream.
Themostseriouscomplicationofatransfusionreactioniskidneyfailureduetoblockageofthekidneytubulesby
thehemoglobinmolecules.
111)Hemostasisinvolvesthreemajorphases.Thefirstphaseisplateletplugformation,inwhichplateletsbecome
stickyandclingtothesiteofinjury.Thesecondphaseisthevascularspasmphase,inwhichserotoninreleasedby
theplateletscausesthebloodvesselstospasmandconstrict,thusdecreasingbloodloss.Thethirdphaseis
coagulationwhereinthromboplastininteractswithPF3andcalcium,aswellasotherbloodproteins,toform
prothrombinactivator.Prothrombinactivatorconvertsprothrombintothrombin,whichthenjoinswithfibrinogen
toformfibrin,thebasisoftheclot.
112)Hemophiliareferstoseveraldifferenthereditarybleedingdisordersthatcanresultfromalackofanyofthefactors
neededforclotting.Hemophiliacausesuncontrolledbleeding.Treatmentinvolvestransfusionofeitherfreshblood
plasmaorthespecificpurifiedclottingfactorthattheindividualismissing.
113)Scottsdisorderispolycythemia,whichresultsfromexcessnumbersoferythrocytesintheblood.
Thisdisordermayresultfrom:

1.
Bonemarrowcancer(calledpolycythemiavera)

2.
Lifeatahighaltitudewheretheairisthinnerandlessoxygenisavailable(calledsecondary
polycythemia)
Increasedsluggishnessofthebloodresultsfrompolycythemia.
114)Leukocytosisisawhitebloodcelldisorder.ItresultswhenthetotalWBCcountisabove11,000cellspercubic
millimeterofblood.Leukocytosisgenerallyindicatesabacterialorviralinfectioninthebody.
115)Thebloodgroupsarebasedonthepresenceorabsenceofspecificsurfaceantigens.BloodgroupAhastypeA
antigensontheirRBCs,bloodgroupBhastypeBantigensontheirRBCs,bloodgroupABhasbothtypeAandtype
BantigensontheirRBCs,andbloodgroupOlackseithertypeAortypeBantigens.TheRh+bloodgroupindicates
thepresenceoftheRhantigensontheirRBCs.IndividualsbelongtobloodgroupsA,B,AB,orO,andtheyarealso
classifiedaseitherRh+orRh-.
116)ErythroblastosisfetalisresultsfromRhincompatibilitybetweenanRh-womanandherRh+baby.Withdeliveryof
thefirstsuchinfant,themothersbloodbecomessensitizedbytheRh+antigensoftheinfantandshebegins
forminganti-Rh+antibodies.Withthesecondandsubsequentpregnancies,inwhichthewomancarriesRh+
infants,themothersantibodiescrosstheplacentaanddestroythebabysRBCs.Thebabybecomesanemicand
hypoxic,andbraindamageanddeathmayresultunlessfetaltransfusionsareperformed.Preventionofproblemsin
futurepregnanciesinvolvestreatmentoftheRh-womanwithRhoGAMuponthebirthofherfirstchildtoprevent
sensitizationandanti-Rhantibodyformation.

Exam
Name___________________________________

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
1)Thecarotidarteryislocatedinthe:
1)_______
A)groin
B)leg
C)abdomen
D)armpit
E)neck

2)Pulmonaryveins:
2)_______
A)splitoffthepulmonarytrunk
B)transportoxygenatedbloodtotheheart
C)returnbloodtotherightatriumoftheheart
D)transportoxygenatedbloodtothelungs
E)transportbloodrichincarbondioxidetothelungs

3)Whichoneofthefollowingbloodvesselsinthefetushasthehighestconcentrationofoxygen:
3)_______
A)umbilicalarteries
B)inferiorvenacava
C)ductusvenosus
D)leftatrium
E)ductusarteriosus

4)Whichoneofthefollowingistrueconcerningthelub-dupsoundsoftheheart:
4)_______
A)thefirstsoundislongerandlouderandiscausedbyclosureoftheAVvalves;thesecond
soundisshorterandsharperandiscausedbyclosureofthesemilunarvalves
B)thefirstsoundisshorterandsharperandiscausedbyclosureofthetricuspidvalve;the
secondsoundislongerandlouderandiscausedbyclosureofthemitralvalve
C)theyarecausedbycontractionoftheventricles,followedbycontractionoftheatria
D)thefirstsoundislongerandlouderandiscausedbyclosureofthetricuspidvalve;the
secondsoundisshorterandsharperandiscausedbyclosureofthemitralvalve
E)thefirstsoundisshorterandsharperandiscausedbyclosureofthesemilunarvalves;the
secondsoundislongerandlouderandiscausedbyclosureoftheAVvalves

5)Generalizedvasoconstrictionoccursasaresultof:
5)_______
A)adecreaseinparasympatheticnervoussystemfiring
B)anincreaseinbloodpressure
C)anincreaseinsympatheticnervoussystemfiring
D)adecreaseinsympatheticnervoussystemfiring
E)anincreaseinparasympatheticnervoussystemfiring

6)WhichofthesearteriesisNOTabranchoftheabdominalaorta:
6)_______
A)leftcommoncarotidartery
B)inferiormesentericartery
C)commoniliacarteries
D)gonadalarteries
E)renalarteries

7)Thetricuspidvalveislocatedbetweenthe:
7)_______
A)rightventricleandthepulmonarytrunk
B)leftventricleandpulmonaryartery
C)rightatriumandrightventricle

D)rightatriumandleftatrium
E)leftventricleandaorta


8)Thebrachialvein:
A)drainsbloodfromthepoplitealvein,thenemptiesthatbloodintotheexternaliliacvein
B)drainsbloodfromtheinternaljugularvein,thenemptiesthatbloodintothesuperiorvena
cava
C)drainsbloodfromthepoplitealvein,thenemptiesthatbloodintothefemoralvein
D)drainsbloodfromtheaxillaryvein,thenemptiesthatbloodintothesuperiorvenacava
E)drainsbloodfromtheradialandulnarveins,thenemptiesthatbloodintotheaxillaryvein

9)Whichoneisthecorrectsequencegoingfromtheoutermosttotheinnermostlayerofablood
vesselwall:
A)tunicaintima,tunicamedia,tunicaexterna
B)tunicaexterna,tunicamedia,tunicaintima
C)tunicamedia,tunicaintima,tunicaexterna
D)tunicaexterna,tunicaintima,tunicamedia
E)tunicamedia,tunicaexterna,tunicaintima

10)Whichofthefollowingreducesheartrate:
A)increasedbodytemperature
B)thyroxine
C)exercise
D)highbloodpressure
E)epinephrine

11)WhichoneofthefollowingareasisNOTapressurepoint:
A)renalartery
B)radialartery
C)posteriortibialartery
D)facialartery
E)dorsalispedisartery

12)Thethicklayeroftheheartwallthatcontainscontractilecardiacmuscletissueisthe:
A)VISCERALPERICARDIUM

B)PARIETALPERICARDIUM
C)EPICARDIUM

D)ENDOCARDIUM
E)MYOCARDIUM

13)Thevolumeofbloodpumpedoutbyeachventriclewitheachbeatoftheheartiscalledthe:
A)diastolicpressure
B)strokevolume
C)cardiacoutput
D)heartrate
E)cardiaccycle

14)Therightandleftrenalveinsemptybloodfromthe:
A)commoniliacvein
B)hepaticportalvein
C)inferiorvenacava
D)vertebralvein
E)kidneys

8)_______

9)_______

10)______

11)______

12)______

13)______

14)______

15)Whatstructuredividestheleftfromtherightventricle:
A)tricuspidvalve
B)interatrialseptum
C)interventricularseptum
D)bicuspidvalve
E)chordaetendineae

16)Substancestendtoleavethebloodstreamatthearterialendofthecapillarybecause:
A)bloodpressureishigheratthearterialendofthecapillary
B)interstitialpressureishigheratthearterialendofthecapillary
C)theosmoticpressureofthebloodishigheratthevenularendofthecapillary
D)bloodpressureishigheratthevenularendofthecapillary
E)theosmoticpressureofthebloodishigheratthearterialendofthecapillary

17)Veins:
A)carrybloodawayfromtheheart
B)transportoxygen-richblood
C)branchintosmallervesselscalledarterioles
D)operateunderhighpressure
E)oftenhavevalvestopreventthebackflowofblood

18)Whichoneofthefollowingvesselsreceivesbloodduringrightventricularsystole:
A)aorta
B)coronaryarteries
C)pulmonaryveins
D)pumonarytrunk
E)superiorvenacava

19)Inwhichoneofthefollowingbloodvesselsisbloodpressurethehighest:
A)arterioles
B)arteries
C)venacava
D)capillaries
E)veins

20)Whichoneofthefollowingisthemainfunctionofreninandaldosterone:
A)theyareproducedwheneverbloodpressurerisesandultimatelycauseanincreaseinblood
volumeandbloodpressure
B)theyareproducedwheneverbloodpressurefallsandultimatelycauseanincreaseinblood
volumeandbloodpressure
C)theyareproducedwhenbloodpressurerisesandhavenolong-termeffectonblood
volumeandbloodpressure
D)theyareproducedwheneverbloodpressurerisesandultimatelycauseadecreaseinblood
volumeandbloodpressure
E)theyareproducedwheneverbloodpressurefallsandultimatelycauseadecreaseinblood
volumeandbloodpressure

21)Thesinoatrialnodeislocatedinthe:
A)rightatrium

B)aorta
C)rightventricle
D)leftatrium
E)interventricularseptum

22)Apersonwithaheartrateof75beatsperminuteandastrokevolumeof60mLperbeathasa
cardiacoutputof:

15)______

16)______

17)______

18)______

19)______

20)______

21)______

22)______

A)0.8mL/minute
B)4500mL/minute
C)6000mL/minute
D)120mL/minute
E)1.25mL/minute

23)Thepathofbloodflowwithinthesystemicvascularsystemis:
A)arterioles,arteries,capillarybeds,veins,venules
B)arterioles,arteries,capillarybeds,venules,veins
C)arteries,arterioles,capillarybeds,veins,venules
D)arterioles,arteries,venules,veins,capillarybeds
E)arteries,arterioles,capillarybeds,venules,veins

24)Whentheventriclescontract,thebicuspid(mitral)valvepreventsbloodfromflowingfromthe:
A)leftventricletotheleftatrium
B)rightventricletotherightatrium
C)rightatriumtotheleftatrium

D)leftatriumtotherightatrium
E)leftventricletotherightventricle

25)Whichoneofthefollowingbloodvesselscarriesoxygenatedblood:
A)inferiorvenacava
B)pulmonaryvein
C)pulmonaryartery
D)coronarysinus
E)superiorvenacava

26)Thesuperiorvenacavaempties:
A)oxygenatedbloodintotheleftatrium
B)deoxygenatedbloodintotherightventricle
C)deoxygenatedbloodintotheleftatrium
D)deoxygenatedbloodintotherightatrium
E)oxygenatedbloodintotheleftventricle

27)Aheartrateofover100beatsperminuteiscalled:
A)heartblock
B)diastole
C)tachycardia
D)bradycardia
E)ischemia

28)Anincreaseinparasympatheticactivity(primarilybythevagusnerves)causes:
A)anincreaseinbothheartrateandcardiacoutput
B)adecreaseinbothheartrateandcardiacoutput
C)adecreaseinheartrateandanincreaseincardiacoutput
D)anincreaseinheartrateandadecreaseincardiacoutput
E)nochangeinbothheartrateandcardiacoutput

29)TheexternaliliacveinreceivesbloodfromallofthefollowingEXCEPT:
A)vertebralvein
B)fibularvein
C)anteriortibialvein

23)______

24)______

25)______

26)______

27)______

28)______

29)______

D)poplitealvein
E)femoralvein

30)Whichoneofthefollowingrepresentsthecorrectpathforthetransmissionofanimpulseinthe
intrinsicconductionsystemoftheheart:
A)sinoatrial(SA)node,atrioventricular(AV)bundle,atrioventricular(AV)node,rightand
leftbundlebranches,Purkinjefibers
B)atrioventricular(AV)node,atrioventricular(AV)bundle,sinoatrial(SA)node,Purkinje
fibers,rightandleftbundlebranches
C)sinoatrial(SA)node,atrioventricular(AV)node,atrioventricular(AV)bundle,rightand
leftbundlebranches,Purkinjefibers
D)sinoatrial(SA)node,atrioventricular(AV)bundle,atrioventricular(AV)node,Purkinje
fibers,rightandleftbundlebranches
E)atrioventricular(AV)node,sinoatrial(SA)node,atrioventricular(AV)bundle,rightand
leftbundlebranches,Purkinjefibers

31)Whichofthefollowingbloodvesselsisadirectbranchoftheascendingaorta:
A)carotidartery
B)leftcoronaryartery
C)rightsubclavianartery
D)boththerightandleftcoronaryarteries
E)rightcoronaryartery

32)Whichofthesepathwayscorrectlytracesbloodasittravelsfromtheaorticarchtotheleftarm:
A)aorticarch,leftsubclavianartery,leftaxillaryartery,leftbrachialartery
B)ascendingaorta,rightcoronaryarteries
C)aorticarch,brachiocephalictrunk,rightcommoncarotidartery
D)abdominalaorta,celiactrunk,leftgastricartery
E)aorticarch,leftcommoncarotidartery,leftinternalcarotidartery

33)TherightAVvalveisknownasthe:
A)pulmonarysemilunarvalve
B)aorticsemilunarvalve
C)tricuspidvalve
D)bicuspidvalve
E)mitralvalve

34)WhichoneofthefollowingdoesNOTreceiveblooddirectlyfromtheaorticarch:
A)thoracicaorta
B)leftsubclavianartery
C)leftcommoncarotidartery
D)rightcommoncarotidartery
E)brachiocephalicartery

35)Whichareaoftheheartreceivesbloodfromthesystemicveins:
A)rightventricle
B)aorta
C)leftventricle
D)rightatrium
E)leftatrium

36)Whichoneofthefollowingiscausedbyadecreaseinvenousreturntotheheart:

30)______

31)______

32)______

33)______

34)______

35)______

36)______

A)anincreaseinstrokevolumeandadecreaseincardiacoutput
B)anincreaseinstrokevolumeandcardiacoutput
C)adecreaseinstrokevolumeandanincreaseincardiacoutput
D)adecreaseinstrokevolumeandcardiacoutput
E)nochangeinstrokevolumeandcardiacoutput

37)Thelayeroftheheartwallsynonymouswiththeviscerallayeroftheserouspericardiumis:
A)endocardium
B)eitherendocardiumorepicardium
C)parietallayeroftheserouspericardium
D)myocardium
E)epicardium

38)Whichoneofthefollowingaredirectbranchesoftheleftcoronaryartery:
A)anteriorinterventricularandcircumflexarteries
B)anteriorinterventricularandmarginalarteries
C)anteriorandposteriorinterventriculararteries

D)circumflexandmarginalarteries
E)posteriorinterventricularandmarginalarteries

39)Theumbilicalveincarries:
A)metabolicwastesandcarbondioxidefromthefetustotheplacenta
B)metabolicwastesandcarbondioxidefromtheplacentatothefetus
C)oxygenandnutrientsfromtheplacentatothefetus
D)oxygenandnutrientsfromthefetustotheplacenta

E)bloodfromthenavelintotheinferiorvenacava

40)Themitralvalveisnormallyclosed:
A)whentheventricleisindiastole
B)whentheatriumiscontracting
C)whentheventricleiscontracting
D)whentheventricleisinsystole
E)bythemovementofbloodfromtheatriumtotheventricle

41)Bloodtravelstothestomachbywayofthebranchoftheceliactrunkcalledthe:
A)superiormesentericartery
B)inferiormesentericartery
C)leftgastricatery
D)commonhepaticartery
E)splenicartery

42)Theaorticsemilunarvalveiscomposedof:
A)threecuspsandopenswhentherightatriumcontracts
B)twocuspsandcloseswhenbloodisfillingthepulmonarycircuit
C)threecuspsandopenswhentheleftventriclecontracts
D)twocuspsandopenswhentherightatriumcontracts
E)twocuspsandopenswhentheleftventriclecontracts

43)Thefrictionbloodencountersasitflowsthroughthevesselsiscalled:
A)cardiacoutput
B)bloodpressure
C)peripheralresistance

37)______

38)______

39)______

40)______

41)______

42)______

43)______

D)diastolicpressure
E)strokevolume

44)WhichoneofthefollowingarethemainfunctionsofreninandangiotensinII:
44)______
A)bloodpressurerisesthiscausesvasoconstrictionandadecreaseinbloodpressure
B)bloodpressurefallsthiscausesvasoconstrictionandanincreaseinbloodpressure
C)bloodpressurefallsthiscausesvasodilationandanincreaseinbloodpressure
D)bloodpressurerisesthiscausesvasoconstrictionandfurtherincreasesbloodpressure
E)bloodpressurerisesthiscausesvasodilationandadecreaseinbloodpressure

45)Varicoseveinsarecausedby:
45)______
A)orthostatichypotension
B)alossofelasticityinbloodvessels
C)theaccumulationoffattysubstanceswithinbloodvessels
D)excessiveproductionoftheenzymerenin
E)incompetentvenousvalves

SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
46)Thecompletecircleofconnectingvesselsinthebrainiscalledthe__________.
46)_____________

47)Thevesselthatdrainsbloodfromallbodyregionsbelowthediaphragmmusclebefore
47)_____________
emptyingintotherightatriumisthe__________.

48)Theflowofbloodthroughacapillarybediscalled__________.
48)_____________

Figure11.1

UsingFigure11.1,identifythefollowing:
49)Thesinoatrial(SA)nodeisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
50)Theflaplikeopeningintheinteratrialseptumofthefetusthroughwhichbloodis
shunteddirectlyfromtherightatriumtotheleftatriumisthe__________.

49)_____________

50)_____________


51)Duringdiastole,thepressureintheheartis__________.

52)__________areabnormalheartsoundsthatarefairlycommoninyoungchildrenwith
healthyheartsbecausetheirheartwallsarerelativelythinandvibratewithrushing
blood.

53)Fluidtendstobeforcedoutofacapillarybedby__________while__________tendsto
drawfluidintothecapillarybed.

54)Largerveinshave__________topreventthebackflowofblood.

55)Thesinglevesselthatdrainsbloodfromthedigestivetractorganstotheliveristhe
__________.

56)Thetinywhitecordsthatanchorthecuspsorflapsofendocardiumtothewallsofthe
ventriclesarecalledthe__________.

51)_____________
52)_____________

53)_____________

54)_____________
55)_____________

56)_____________

Figure11.1

UsingFigure11.1,identifythefollowing:
57)ThePurkinjefibersareindicatedbylabel__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
58)Thepressurebloodexertsagainsttheinnerwallsofthebloodvesselsisknownas
__________.

59)Asystolicbloodpressurereadingbelow100mmHGiscalled__________.

60)Theumbilicalcordcontainsanumbilical__________thattransportsoxygenand
nutrient-richbloodtothefetus.

61)Lackofadequatebloodsupplytotheheartiscalled__________.

57)_____________

58)_____________

59)_____________
60)_____________

61)_____________

Figure11.1

UsingFigure11.1,identifythefollowing:
62)Thebundlebranchesareindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
63)Thecirculationfromthehearttothelungsandbackisknownas__________circulation.

64)Theamountofbloodbeingpumpedoutoftheheartatanytimeiscalled__________.

65)Thehormonesepinephrineandthyroxinewillcausetheheartrateto__________.

Figure11.1

UsingFigure11.1,identifythefollowing:

62)_____________

63)_____________
64)_____________
65)_____________

66)Theatrioventricular(AV)nodeisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
67)Thecoronaryveinsemptybloodfromthemyocardiumintoalargeveinontheposterior
sideoftheheartknownasthe__________.

68)Inflammationofvaricoseveinscanresultinaclotinthatvessel;thisconditionis
referredtoas__________.

69)Aheartrateover100beatsperminuteisreferredtoas__________.

70)Thetermthatmeansheartcontractionis__________.

71)Theviscerallayeroftheserouspericardiumisactuallythesamelayerasthe__________.

72)Adecreaseintheelasticityofbloodvessels(i.e.,increaseinrigidity)causesarterial
bloodpressureto__________.

73)Theaverageheartbeatsabout__________timesperminute.

74)Cardiacoutputistheproductof__________and__________.

66)_____________

67)_____________

68)_____________

69)_____________
70)_____________
71)_____________
72)_____________

73)_____________
74)_____________

Figure11.1

UsingFigure11.1,identifythefollowing:
75)ThespecificchamberoftheheartthatisindicatedbyletterAiscalledthe__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
76)Thebicuspidvalveisalsoreferredtoasthe__________valve.

75)_____________

76)_____________

Figure11.1

UsingFigure11.1,identifythefollowing:
77)ThelayeroftheheartwallthatreceivesthestimulusfromletterEiscalledthe
__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
78)Thepointedtipoftheheartthatisdirectedtowardthelefthipiscalledthe__________.

79)Thebloodvesselthatistheimmediateinferiorcontinuationoftheexternaliliacarteryis
the__________.

80)Largerbloodvesselsthatcarrybloodawayfromtheheartarecalled__________.

81)The__________veinsjointoformthesuperiorvenacavabeforeemptyingintotheright
atrium.

82)Thevalveslocatedbetweentheatriaandventriclesareknownasthe__________valves.

83)Thenarrowingofbloodvesselsisknownas__________.

84)Thetwosuperiorreceivingchambersoftheheartareknownasthe__________,while
thetwoinferiordischargingchambersoftheheartareknownasthe__________.

85)Theelectrocardiogram(ECG)wavethatresultsfromdepolarizationoftheatriaisthe
__________.

86)Theinnermostbloodvesselwallthatlinesthelumenandconsistsofcellsthatfitclosely
togethertoformaslicksurfacethatdecreasesfrictionandallowsbloodtoflowsmoothly
isthe__________.

87)Theamountoffrictionbloodencountersasitflowsthroughthebloodvesselsisknown
as__________.

77)_____________

78)_____________
79)_____________

80)_____________
81)_____________

82)_____________
83)_____________
84)_____________

85)_____________

86)_____________

87)_____________

88)Whenventricles__________,theAVvalvesareclosed.

88)_____________

Figure11.1

UsingFigure11.1,identifythefollowing:
89)Thepartitionwherethebundlebranchesarelocatediscalledthe__________.
89)_____________

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
90)Thesinoatrialnode,locatedintherightatriumoftheheart,isoftencalledthe
90)_____________
__________.

91)Crushingchestpaincausedbyoxygendeprivationofthemyocardiumiscalled
91)_____________
__________.

92)Thesmallestbloodvesselsknownas__________connectarteriolesandvenules.
92)_____________

TRUE/FALSE.WriteTifthestatementistrueandFifthestatementisfalse.
93)Thepacemakeroftheheartundernormalcircumstancesiscalledthesinoatrial(SA)node.
93)______

94)ThecircleofWillisinvolvesbloodflowthroughtheliver.
94)______

95)Themajorvesselsinvolvedinhepaticportalcirculationaretheinferiorandsuperiormesenteric
95)______
arteries,thesplenicartery,andtheleftgastricartery.

96)Cardiacmuscleisenclosedbyadoublesacofserousmembraneknownastheperitoneum.
96)______

97)Exchangesbetweenbloodandtissuecellsoccurincapillarybeds.
97)______

98)Reductionsinvenousreturncausereductionsinbothstrokevolumeandcardiacoutput.
98)______

99)Systolemeanscontractionoftheventricles.
99)______

100)Anincreasedfiringoftheparasympatheticnervoussystemcausesincreasedcardiacoutput.
100)_____

101)Coldtemperatureshaveavasoconstrictingeffectonbloodvessels.

102)Hypotensionisdiastolicbloodpressurebelow100mmHg.

103)Thechordaetendineaeanchorthesemilunarvalvestothewallsoftheventricles.

104)Veinsdrainingtheheadandarmsemptyintotheinferiorvenacava.

105)Cardiacoutputiscalculatedbymultiplyingthestrokevolumetimesthesystolicbloodpressure.

106)Infetalcirculation,bloodtravelsdirectlyfromtherightatriumtotheleftatriumthroughthe
foramenovale.

107)Smoothmuscleandelastictissueinabloodvesselwallisfoundprimarilyinthetunicamedia.

108)Thecoronarysinusonthebacksideoftheheartdrainsdeoxygenatedbloodfromthewallofthe
heartintotheleftatrium.

109)Thesemilunarvalvespreventthebackflowofbloodintotheatriawhentheventriclesare
contracting.

110)Theportionoftheaortaintheabdominopelviccavityisknownasthethoracicaorta.

111)Thecoronarysulcusisalsoknownastheatrioventriculargroove.

112)Thepartoftheintrinsicconductionsystemoftheheartthatdirectlysuppliesthewallsofthe
ventriclesisthePurkinjefibers.

113)Whenprecapillarysphinctersareclosed,bloodflowsthroughtheshuntsandbypassesthetissue
cells.

114)Thethreebranchesoftheaorticarcharethebrachiocephalictrunk,leftcommoncarotidartery,
andtheleftsubclavianartery.

115)Theumbilicalveincarriesbloodrichinnutrientsandoxygentothefetus.

116)Thecommoniliacveindrainsbloodintotheinferiorvenacava.

117)Thesuperiorandinferiormesentericarteriesdrainbloodfromtheintestines.

118)Thegreatsaphenousvein,thelongestveininthebody,drainsdeoxygenatedbloodfromthe
dorsalvenousarchinthefootwhichthenemptiesintothefemoralvein.

119)Thetricuspidvalveislocatedontherightsideoftheheartbetweentherightatriumandright
ventricle.

120)Arteriesalwayscarrybloodawayfromtheheart.

121)Diastolicbloodpressureisthepressureinthearteriesatthepeakofventricularcontraction.

122)Thepulmonaryarteriescarrydeoxygenatedbloodtothelungs.

101)_____
102)_____
103)_____
104)_____
105)_____
106)_____

107)_____
108)_____

109)_____

110)_____
111)_____
112)_____

113)_____

114)_____

115)_____
116)_____
117)_____
118)_____

119)_____

120)_____
121)_____
122)_____

123)Duringventriculardiastole,thebicuspidandtricuspidvalvesareclosed.

124)Thelargerarteriescontainvalvestopreventthebackflowofblood.

125)Anincreaseinbloodvesseldiametercausesarterialbloodpressuretodecrease.

MATCHING.Choosetheitemincolumn2thatbestmatcheseachitemincolumn1.
Matchthefollowing:
126)Thesevesselscarrybloodawayfrom
A)arteries
theheart

Matchthefollowing:
127)Partofthecardiaccyclewhenthe
A)ventricularsystole
bicuspidandtricuspidvalvesare
open
B)
ventriculardiastole

Matchthefollowing:
128)Aldosteronecausesbloodvolumeto
A)increase

Matchthefollowing:
129)Heartchamberwiththethickestwall
A)leftventricle

Matchthefollowing:
130)Someoftheselargervesselshave
A)capillaries
valvestopreventbackflow

B)veins
131)Venulesdrainthesetinyvessels

132)Bloodpressureinthesevesselsislow

133)Thesevesselsreturnbloodtothe
heart

134)Nutrientandgasexchangeoccurin
thesevessels

135)Thesevesselshavethinnerwallsand
A)veins
transportoxygen-poorblood

B)arteries
136)Superiorandinferiorvenacavaare

classifiedasthesetypesofvessels

137)Thesevesseslshavethickerwallsand
aheaviertunicamedia

Matchthefollowing:
138)Anincreaseinvagusnervefiring
caus esheartrateto

123)_____
124)_____
125)_____

126)_____

127)_____

128)_____

129)_____

130)_____

131)_____
132)_____
133)_____

134)_____

135)_____

136)_____

137)_____

A)
decrea

se

138)

____
_

Matchthefollowing:
139)Partofthecardiaccyclewhenbothof
thesemilunarvalvesareclosed

140)Partofthecardiaccyclewhenthe
coronarysystemisemptyingofblood

Matchthefollowing:
141)Heartchamberthatpumpsbloodto
thepulmonarytrunk

A)ventriculardiastole

139)_____

B)ventricularsystole

140)_____

A)rightventricle

141)_____

Matchthefollowing:
142)Adecreaseinperipheralresistance
causesarterialbloodpressureto

A)decrease

142)_____

Matchthefollowing:
143)Thischambersendsbloodintothe
aorta

A)leftventricle

143)_____

144)Superiordischargingchamberonthe
leftsideoftheheart

145)Roofofthischambercontainsthe
bicuspidvalve

Matchthefollowing:
146)Epinephrineandthyroxinecause
bothheartrateandcardiacoutputto

144)_____

145)_____

A)increase

146)_____

Matchthefollowing:
147)Heartchamberthatcontainsthe
sinoatrialnode

A)rightatrium

147)_____

Matchthefollowing:
148)Anincreaseinsympatheticnervous
systemfiringcausescardiacoutputto

A)increase

148)_____

Matchthefollowing:
149)Theaortaisclassifiedasoneofthese
vessels

A)arteries

149)_____


Matchthefollowing:
150)Saltcausesbothbloodvolumeand
arterialbloodpressureto

A)increase

150)_____

151)Anincreaseinthedepositionof
saturatedfatsintheliningofblood
vesselscausesarterialbloodpressure
to

Matchthefollowing:
152)Thefourpulmonaryveinsreturn
oxygenatedbloodtothischamber

151)_____

A)rightatrium

B)leftatrium

152)_____

153)Thecoronarysinusemptiesblood
153)_____
fromcardiaccirculationintothis
chamber

ESSAY.Writeyouranswerinthespaceprovidedoronaseparatesheetofpaper.
154)Traceadropofbloodfromtheaortatothestomach.

155)Explainhowpulmonarycirculationdiffersfromsystemiccirculation.

156)Discusstheeventsthataretakingplaceinthecardiaccycleduringtheleftventricularsystole.Indicate
whethertheotherheartchambersareinsystoleordiastoleandwhethertheyarefillingoremptyingof
blood.Iftheyareemptying,statewherethebloodisgoing.Iftheyarefillingwithblood,statewherethe
bloodiscomingfrom.Includeanexplanationofwhichvalvesareopenandwhichvalvesareclosed,in
additiontowhetherthecoronarysystemisfillingoremptyingofblood.

157)Identifythefivemajorpartsoftheintrinsicconductionsystemoftheheartintheirnormalorder,beginning
withthepacemaker.

158)Defineperipheralresistance.Explainseveralfactorsthatcauseittoincreaseanditseffectonarterialblood
pressure.

159)Explaintheroleofvalvesinheartfunctioning.

160)Tracethepathofadropofblood,startingattherightatriumandreturningtotherightatrium,throughthe
pulmonaryandsystemiccircuitsofthecardiovascularsystem.Identifythechambers,valves,andvessels
(exceptspecificsystemicbloodvesselsthatarenotdirectlyassociatedwiththeheart),andindicatewhether
thebloodisoxygenatedordeoxygenatedineacharea.


1)E
2)B
3)C
4)A
5)C
6)A
7)C
8)E
9)B
10)D
11)A
12)E
13)B
14)C
15)C
16)A
17)E
18)D
19)B
20)B
21)A
22)B
23)E
24)A
25)B
26)D
27)C
28)B
29)A
30)C
31)D
32)A
33)C
34)D
35)D
36)D
37)E
38)A
39)C
40)D
41)C
42)C
43)C
44)B
45)E
46)circleofWillisorcerebralarterialcircle
47)inferiorvenacava
48)microcirculation
49)A
50)foramenovale
51)low

52)Heartmurmurs
53)bloodpressure;osmoticpressure
54)valves
55)hepaticportalvein
56)chordaetendineae
57)E
58)bloodpressure
59)hypotension
60)vein
61)ischemia
62)D
63)pulmonary
64)cardiacoutput
65)increase
66)B
67)coronarysinus
68)thrombophlebitis
69)tachycardia
70)systole
71)epicardium
72)increase
73)75
74)heartrate(HR);strokevolume(SR)
75)rightatrium
76)mitral
77)myocardium
78)apex
79)femoralartery
80)arteries
81)brachiocephalic
82)atrioventricular(orAV)
83)vasoconstriction
84)atria;ventricles
85)Pwave
86)tunicaintima
87)peripheralresistance
88)contract
89)interventricularseptum
90)pacemaker
91)anginapectoris
92)capillaries
93)TRUE
94)FALSE
95)FALSE
96)FALSE
97)TRUE
98)TRUE
99)TRUE
100)FALSE
101)TRUE
102)FALSE
103)FALSE

104)FALSE
105)FALSE
106)TRUE
107)TRUE
108)FALSE
109)FALSE
110)FALSE
111)TRUE
112)TRUE
113)TRUE
114)TRUE
115)TRUE
116)TRUE
117)FALSE
118)TRUE
119)TRUE
120)TRUE
121)FALSE
122)TRUE
123)FALSE
124)FALSE
125)TRUE
126)A
127)B
128)A
129)A
130)B
131)A
132)B
133)B
134)A
135)B
136)B
137)C
138)A
139)A
140)B
141)A
142)A
143)A
144)A
145)A
146)A
147)A
148)A
149)A
150)A
151)A
152)B
153)A
154)Bloodleavestheaorta(theaortabecomestheaorticarch,thoracicaorta,thentheabdominalaorta).Ittravelstothe
celiactrunk,thefirstbranchoftheabdominalaorta.Thebloodtravelsviatheleftgastricarterytothestomach.

155)1.
Therightsideoftheheartdealswithpulmonarycirculation.Therightatriumreceivesoxygen-poorblood
fromsystemicveinsandsendsittotherightventricle.Therightventriclesendsthisbloodoutthroughthe
pulmonarytrunk.Thepulmonarytrunkbranchesintopulmonaryarteries,whichcarrybloodtothelungs.Inthe
lungs,oxygenisloadedintothebloodstreamwhilecarbondioxideisunloaded.Theoxygen-richbloodreturnsto
theleftatriumoftheheartviathepulmonaryveins,completingpulmonarycirculation.
2.
Theleftventriclesendsoxygenatedbloodouttothebodyviatheaortatobeginsystemiccirculation.This
bloodtravelsinarteries,whichbranchintoarterioles.Arteriolesfeedthecapillarybedswherenutrientandgas
exchangeoccurs.Theoxygen-poorblooddrainsintothevenules,whichemptybloodintotheveins.Veinsfinally
emptyintothesuperiorvenacavaandinferiorvenacava,whichreturnbloodintotherightatriumoftheheartfrom
systemiccirculation.
156)Whentheleftventricleisinsystole,oxygenatedbloodisleavingtheleftventricleandenteringtheaorta.Atthat
time,theaorticsemilunarvalveisopenandthebicuspidvalveisclosed.Therightventricleisalsoinsystoleand
deoxygenatedbloodisleavingtherightventricleandenteringthepulmonarytrunk.Atthattime,thepulmonary
semilunarvalveisopenandthetricuspidvalveisclosed.Whentheventriclesareinsystole,boththerightandleft
atriaareindiastole.Therightatriumisfillingwithdeoxygenatedblood,whichisreturningtothischamberviathe
coronarysinusandthesuperiorandinferiorvenacava.Theleftatriumisfillingwithoxygenatedbloodthatis
returningtotheheartfromthelungsviathepulmonaryveins.Finally,duringventricularsystole,bloodisleaving
thecoronarysystemandenteringtherightsideoftheheartviathecoronarysinus.
157)Sinoatrial(SA)nodeintherightatrium,atrioventricular(AV)nodeatthejunctionoftheatriaandventricles,
atrioventricular(AV)bundleorbundleofHisintheinterventricularseptum,rightandleftbundlebranchesinthe
interventricularseptum,Purkinjefibersinthemuscleoftheventriclewalls.
158)Peripheralresistanceistheamountoffrictionencounteredbybloodasitflowsthroughthebloodvessels.Probably
themostimportantfactorthatincreasesperipheralresistanceisthenarrowingofthediameterofabloodvessel
(mainlybyarterioles),whichiscalledvasoconstriction.Vasoconstrictionoccursnormallyduetoanincreasein
sympatheticnervoussystemfiring.Itcanalsooccurabnormallyinatherosclerosis.Anotherfactorthatcausesan
increaseinperipheralresistanceisincreasedvolumeofbloodinthevascularsystemorincreasedviscosity
(thickness)oftheblood.Regardlessofthecauseofthisincreaseinperipheralresistance,theresultisanincreasein
arterialbloodpressure.
159)Valvesallowbloodtoflowinonedirectionthroughtheheartchambers(fromatriatoventricles)andoutthetwo
arteriesleavingtheheart.
Therearetwotypesofvalvesfoundintheheart:
1.
Theatrioventricular,orAV,valvesarelocatedbetweentheatriumandventricleoneachsideoftheheart.
Thesevalvespreventthebackflowofbloodintotheatriawhentheheartcontracts.Insummary,theseAVvalves
areopenduringheartrelaxationandclosedduringheartcontraction.
2.
Thesemilunarvalvesguardthebaseofthetwolargearteries,aortaandpulmonarytrunk,leavingtheheart
viathetwoventricles.Thesevalvescloseafterbloodhaspassedthroughthearteriesonitswayoutoftheheart.
Theypreventthebackflowofbloodintotheventriclesfromthearteries.Insummary,thesevalvesareclosedduring
heartrelaxationandopenduringheartcontraction.
160)Deoxygenatedbloodintherightatrium,deoxygenatedbloodthroughthepulmonarytricuspidvalve,
deoxygenatedbloodintherightventricle,deoxygenatedbloodthroughthepulmonarysemilunarvalve,
deoxygenatedbloodinthepulmonarytrunk,deoxygenatedbloodintherightandleftpulmonaryarteries,
deoxygenatedbloodinthepulmonarycapillariesinthelungs,oxygenatedbloodinthepulmonaryveins,
oxygenatedbloodintheleftatrium,oxygenatedbloodthroughthebicuspid(mitral)valve,oxygenatedbloodinthe
leftventricle,oxygenatedbloodthroughtheaorticsemilunarvalve,oxygenatedbloodintheaorta,oxygenated
bloodinthesystemicarteries,oxygenatedbloodinthesystemicarterioles,oxygenatedbloodinthesystemic
capillaries,deoxygenatedbloodinthesystemicvenules,deoxygenatedbloodinthesystemicveins,deoxygenated
bloodinthesuperiorandinferiorvenacava,deoxygenatedbloodintherightatrium.

Exam
Name___________________________________

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
1)Thespecificforeignsubstancesthatanindividualsimmunesystemhastheabilitytorecognize
1)_______
andresistisdeterminedby:
A)thetotalnumberoflymphocytespresentatagiventime
B)individualexposuretothespecificforeignsubstance
C)thetotalnumberofmacrophagesatagiventime
D)individualgeneticmakeup
E)thetotalnumberofself-antigensatagiventime

2)Thebodysfirstlineofdefenseagainsttheinvasionofdisease-causingmicroorganismsis:
2)_______
A)phagocytes
B)skinandmucousmembranes
C)naturalkillercells
D)fever
E)inflammatoryresponse

3)Whichoftheselymphoidorgansisfoundalongtheleftsideoftheabdominalcavity:
3)_______
A)Peyerspatches
B)axillarylymphnodes
C)tonsils
D)thymusgland
E)spleen

4)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTanautoimmunedisease:
4)_______
A)AIDS
B)rheumatoidarthritis
C)typeIdiabetesmellitus
D)Gravesdisease
E)multiplesclerosis

5)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTtrueofmacrophages:
5)_______
A)theyareconsideredthebigeatersoftheimmunesystem
B)theyengulfforeignparticles
C)theycirculatecontinuouslythroughoutthebody
D)theysecretemonokines
E)theyactasantigenpresenters

6)Lymphflows:
6)_______
A)towardtheheartonly
B)inacircularpatternwithinthetissues
C)awayfromtheheartonly
D)bothtowardandawayfromtheheart
E)intothecapillaries

7)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOToneofthefourmostcommonindicatorsoftheinflammatory 7)_______
response:
A)redness
B)heat
C)swelling
D)pain
E)fever

8)RegardlessofwhetheritmaturesintoaBcelloraTcell,alymphocytethatiscapableof
res ponding

toa
8)
specific
antigen
by
binding
toitis
saidto
be:
A)immunocompetent
B)immune
C)incompetent
D)complemented
E)clonal

9)Allergiccontactdermatitisfollowingskincontactwithpoisonivywouldnormallyleadto:
A)immediatehypersensitivity
B)anaphylacticshock
C)immunodeficiency
D)delayedhypersensitivity
E)acutehypersensitivity

10)Thespecifictypeofacquiredimmunitythatafetusobtainsfrommaternalantibodiesthatcross
theplacentaiscalled:
A)naturallyacquiredactiveimmunity
B)artificiallyacquiredpassiveimmunity
C)naturallyacquiredpassiveimmunity
D)artificiallyacquiredactiveimmunity
E)artificiallyacquirednaturalimmunity

11)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTamechanismthataidslymphreturn:
A)smoothmusclecontractionswithinthelymphaticvessels
B)milkingactionofskeletalmuscles
C)pressurechangeswithinthethorax
D)thepumpingactionoftheheart
E)presenceofvalveswithinthelargerlymphvessels

12)Thebodystemperature-regulatingthermostatthatcanberesetupwardinresponseto
pyrogensislocatedinthe:
A)medullaoblongata
B)thalamus
C)cerebellum
D)pinealgland
E)hypothalamus

13)Thespecificantibodyclassthathastheabilitytocrosstheplacentalbarrierandprovide
immunitytothefetusis:
A)IgG
B)IgM
C)IgD
D)IgE
E)IgA

14)Theinflammatoryprocessbeginswithreleaseofchemicals,whichdoallofthefollowing
EXCEPT:
A)attractphagocytestothearea
B)causecapillariestobecomeleaky

__
__
__
_

9)_______

10)______

11)______

12)______

13)______

14)______

C)activatepainreceptors
D)dilatebloodvessels
E)stimulatereleaseoflysozyme

15)Comparedtothenonspecificchemicalsthatcoverbodysurfacesandmucousmembranes,the
specificbodydefensesystemis:
A)sometimesfasterandsometimesslower
B)slower
C)thesamespeed
D)faster
E)notcomparableinspeed

16)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTtrueofbasicantibodystructure:
A)theyconsistoffouraminoacidchains
B)theheavychainsareidentical
C)theheavychainsareabout400aminoacidslong
D)theyarelinkedtogetherbydisulfidebonds
E)thelightchainsareoftenofdifferinglengths

17)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTatypeofimmunosuppressivetherapygivenaftersurgeryto
preventrejectionofagraft:
A)antiproliferativedrugs
B)gammaglobulin
C)immunosuppressivedrugs
D)radiation
E)corticosteroids

18)VaccinesareNOTfor:
A)snakebites
B)polio
C)measles
D)pneumonia
E)tetanus

19)Bcellsdevelopimmunocompetenceinthe:
A)spleen
B)bonemarrow
C)lymphnodes
D)thyroidgland
E)thymusgland

20)WhichoneofthefollowingCANNOTbesaidaboutthehistoryofimmunity:
A)scientistsofthe1800sdemonstratedthatimmuneserumcouldprotectanotheranimalfrom
disease
B)scientistsofthemid-1900sdiscoveredthatinjectionofserumcontainingantibodiesdid
NOTalwaysprotectarecipientfromdisease
C)scientistsofthemid-1900sdiscoveredtheviraloriginofAIDS
D)scientistsofthe1800sdiscoveredfactorsnowcalledantibodies
E)theancientGreeksknewsomethingexistedwithinthebodytoprotectitfrominfectious
disease

21)Therelativelycommonautoimmunediseaseinwhichthethyroidglandproducesexcessive

15)______

16)______

17)______

18)______

19)______

20)______

am ounts

of
21)
thyroxin
eis
called:
A)Gravesdisease
B)myastheniagravis
C)multiplesclerosis
D)systemiclupuserythematosis
E)glomerulonephritis

22)Antigenpresentationisessentialfortheactivationandclonalselectionof:
A)antibodies
B)Bcells
C)plasmacell
D)antigen-presentingcells
E)Tcells

23)WhichofthefollowingsubstancesisNOTtypicallyperceivedasanantigen:
A)pollengrains
B)virusparticles
C)fungi
D)self-antigens
E)bacteria

24)Musoca-associatedlymphatictissue(MALT)includes:
A)spleen
B)tonsilsandPeyerspatches
C)tonsilsonly
D)thymusgland
E)tonsilsandspleen

25)Lymphfromtheleftarmwouldreturntotheheartthroughthe:
A)thoracicduct
B)aorta
C)leftsubclavianartery
D)rightlymphaticduct
E)inferiorvenacava

26)Theprocessbywhichneutrophilsaresqueezedthroughthecapillarywallsduringthe
inflammatoryprocessiscalled:
A)coagulation
B)diapedesis
C)agglutination
D)chemotaxis
E)antibodyproduction

27)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTamethodbywhichantibodiesinactivateantigens:
A)agglutination
B)chemotaxis
C)precipitation
D)neutralization
E)complementfixation

___
___

22)______

23)______

24)______

25)______

26)______

27)______


28)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTatypeoflymphoidorgan:
A)spleen
B)thymusgland
C)Peyerspatches
D)appendix
E)tonsils

29)ImmuneseraareusedforallofthefollowingEXCEPT:
A)tuberculosis
B)botulism
C)snakebites
D)rabies
E)tetanus

30)Theprocessbywhichantibodiesbindtospecificsitesonbacterialexotoxins(toxicchemicals
secretedbybacteria)toblocktheirharmfuleffectsiscalled:
A)chemotaxis
B)precipitation
C)agglutination
D)neutralization
E)complementfixation

31)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTtrueoflymphnodes:
A)theycontainmacrophages
B)theyactasfiltersalongthelymphaticvessels
C)theyremoveforeignmaterialsfromthelymphfluid
D)theyhavevalvessimilartothosefoundinveins
E)theycontainlymphocytes

32)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOToneoftheantibodyclasses:
A)IgG
B)IgD
C)IgB
D)IgA
E)IgE

33)ThelymphorganthatprogramsTcellsandfunctionsatpeaklevelsonlyduringyouthisthe:
A)spleen
B)thymus
C)Peyerspatches
D)appendix
E)tonsils

34)Anisograftisatissuegraftdonatedby:
A)anunrelatedperson
B)anidenticaltwin
C)adifferentanimalspecies
D)aparent
E)thesameperson

35)Thefluidthatisforcedoutofthecapillarybedsbyhydrostaticandosmoticpressuresandinto
thetissuespacesiscalled:
A)venousblood
B)arterialblood
C)interstitialfluid

28)______

29)______

30)______

31)______

32)______

33)______

34)______

35)______

D)plasma
E)lymph

36)Whichlymphoidtissuestrapandremovebacteriaenteringthethroat:
A)cervicallymphnodes
B)tonsils
C)axillarylymphnodes
D)Peyerspatches
E)thymusgland

37)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOToneofthenonspecificbodydefenses:
A)antibodyproduction
B)naturalkillercells
C)theinflammatoryresponse
D)intactskin
E)fever

38)IgA:
A)ispassedfrommothertofetusduringpregnancy
B)isinvolvedinallergies
C)isthemostabundantantibodyinbloodplasma
D)canfixcomplement
E)ismainlyfoundinmucusandsecretionssuchastearsandsaliva

39)FeverhastheeffectofdoingallofthefollowingEXCEPT:
A)denaturing(scrambling)proteins
B)stimulatingtheliverandspleentogatherupironandzinc
C)stimulatingcomplementfixation
D)speedinguprepairprocesses
E)increasingmetabolicrateoftissuecells

40)Themigrationofphagocytesandwhitebloodcellstoaninflamedareaalongachemicalgradient
iscalled:
A)diapedesis
B)perforins
C)complementfixation
D)immunity
E)chemotaxis

41)Tissuesinvadedbyviruses,whichattempttoreplicatethemselvesbytakingovercellular
machinery,secretesmallproteinscalled__________toprotectnearbycellsandhinderfurther
multiplicationoftheviruses.
A)kinins
B)histamine
C)interleukins
D)pyrogens
E)interferon

42)Whatspecifictypeofacquiredimmunitydovaccinesprovide:
A)naturallyacquiredartificialimmunity
B)naturallyacquiredpassiveimmunity
C)artificiallyacquiredpassiveimmunity

36)______

37)______

38)______

39)______

40)______

41)______

42)______

D)artificiallyacquiredactiveimmunity
E)naturallyacquiredactiveimmunity

43)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTtrueoftheconstant(C)regionsofantibodies:
43)______
A)theyarethesameornearlythesame
B)theyformthestemofanantibody
C)theydeterminehowanantibodyclasswillcarryoutitsimmunerole
D)theyformanantigen-bindingsite
E)theydeterminethespecifictypeofantibodyclassformed

44)Withimmediatehypersensitivy,theantibodyclassthatbindstomastcellsandbasophilsthat
44)______
triggerthereleaseofhistamineandotherchemicalsis:
A)IgE
B)IgD
C)IgG
D)IgM
E)IgA

45)Thestudyofimmunityiscalled:
45)______
A)histology
B)anatomy
C)immunology
D)pathology
E)microbiology

46)Thelymphtissuesfoundwithinthewallsofthesmallintestinearecalled:
46)______
A)Peyerspatches
B)tonsils
C)appendix
D)thymustissues
E)intestinalnodes

47)Whichlymphaticorgansmajorjobistodestroyworn-outredbloodcellsandreturnsomeofthe 47)______
productstotheliver:
A)tonsils
B)Peyerspatches
C)thymusgland
D)tonsils
E)spleen

SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
48)Antibodiesconstituteanimportantpartofbloodproteinsandarealsoreferredtoas
48)_____________
__________.

49)Antigensthatproduceabnormallyvigorousimmuneresponseswherebytheimmune
49)_____________
systemcausestissuedamageasitfightsoffaperceivedthreatthatwouldotherwisebe
harmlessarecalled__________.

50)Systemic(bodywide)acuteallergicresponsecausedbyallergensthatdirectlyenterthe
50)_____________
blood,aswithcertainbeestingsorspiderbites,iscalled__________.

51)Cellsstuddedwithproteinmoleculesfoundonourowncellsthatdonottriggeran
51)_____________
immuneresponsewithinus(butmaywithinothers)arecalled__________.

52)Thefibrouscapsuleoflymphnodescontainsstrandscalled__________thatdividethe
no deinto

compart 52)
ments.

___
___
___
___
_

Figure12.2

UsingFigure12.2,identifythefollowing:
53)ThePeyerspatchesareindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
54)Troublesomesmallmoleculesorincompleteantigensthatmaymountanattackthatis
harmfulratherthanprotectivearecalled__________.

55)Peyerspatchesandthetonsilsarepartofthecollectionofsmalllymphoidtissuesthat
protecttheupperrespiratoryanddigestivetractsfrominfectionandarereferredtoas
__________.

53)_____________

54)_____________

55)_____________


Figure12.1

UsingFigure12.1,identifythefollowing:
56)Thelymphductisindicatedbylettter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
57)Theroleofthe__________inthelymphaticsystemistoremoveworn-outbloodcells
andreturnsomeoftheproductstotheliver.

58)TheprocessbywhichWBCsandphagocytesmigratetoanareaexperiencingacute
inflammationiscalled__________.

56)_____________

57)_____________

58)_____________


Figure12.1

UsingFigure12.1,identifythefollowing:
59)Alymphcapillaryisindicatedbyletter__________.

59)_____________


Figure12.2

UsingFigure12.2,identifythefollowing:
60)Thethymusglandisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
61)KillerTcells,whichkillvirus-invadedbodycells,arealsocalled__________.

62)WhenanantigenbindstoBcellsurfacereceptors,itbecomessensitized(activated)and
undergoes__________.

60)_____________

61)_____________
62)_____________


Figure12.1

UsingFigure12.1,identifythefollowing:
63)Bloodcapillariesareindicatedbyletter__________.

63)_____________


Figure12.2

UsingFigure12.2,identifythefollowing:
64)Thelymphoidorganthatdestroysworn-outbloodcellsisindicatedbyletter
__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
65)Thebindingofcomplementproteinstocertainsugarorproteinsonaforeigncells
surfaceiscalled__________.

64)_____________

65)_____________


Figure12.2

UsingFigure12.2,identifythefollowing:
66)Thetonsilsareindicatedbyletter__________.
66)_____________

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
67)Excessaccumulationsoffluid,whichimpairtheexchangeofmaterialswithinthetissues, 67)_____________
iscalled__________.

68)WhenBcellsencounterantigensandproduceantibodiesagainstthem,weexhibit
68)_____________
__________.


Figure12.1

UsingFigure12.1,identifythefollowing:
69)Alymphnodeisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
70)Lymphfluidandsomeplasmaproteinsoriginate(escape)fromthe__________.

71)Thefivemajorimmunoglobulinclassesare__________.

72)Theprocessbywhichneutrophilssqueezethroughcapillarywallsiscalled__________.

73)Thebindingofantibodiestospecificsitesonbacterialexotoxinsorvirusesiscalled
__________.

69)_____________

70)_____________
71)_____________
72)_____________
73)_____________


Figure12.1

UsingFigure12.1,identifythefollowing:
74)Lymphaticcollectingvesselsareindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
75)Harmfulordisease-causingmicroorganismsfromwhichnonspecificdefensesprotect
thebodyarecalled__________.

76)Lymphexitsthelymphnodeviathe__________vessels.

77)AIDScripplestheimmunesystembyinterferingwiththeactivityofcellscalled
__________.

74)_____________

75)_____________

76)_____________
77)_____________


Figure12.2

UsingFigure12.2,identifythefollowing:
78)Thelymphoidtissuesthattrapandremovebacteriathatenterthethroatareindicatedby
letter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
79)Oneeffectofcomplementfixationthatcausesthecellmembranesofforeigncellsto
becomestickysothattheyareeasiertophagocytizeiscalled__________.

80)Atropicaldiseasethatresultswhenparasiticwormsclogthelymphaticvesselsiscalled
__________.

81)Theclumpingofforeigncells,atypeofantigen-antibodyreaction,iscalled__________.

78)_____________

79)_____________

80)_____________

81)_____________


Figure12.2

UsingFigure12.2,identifythefollowing:
82)Thespleenisindicatedbyletter__________.
82)_____________

TRUE/FALSE.WriteTifthestatementistrueandFifthestatementisfalse.
83)Thefinaldisposalofcelldebrisasinflammationsubsidesisperformedbyneutrophils.
83)______

84)Thethymusgland,foundaroundthetrachea,programscertainlymphocytes.
84)______

85)MemorycellsaredescendantsofanactivatedBorTcell.
85)______

86)Thenonspecificdefensebywhichcomplementproteinsattachtosugarsorproteinsonthe
86)______
surfaceofforeigncellsiscalledcomplementfixation.

87)Lymphintherightarmisreturnedtotheheartviatherightlymphaticduct.
87)______

88)Feverisasystemicresponsetriggeredbypyrogens.
88)______

89)Allograftsaretissuegraftstakenfromanunrelatedperson.
89)______

90)Likeallbloodcells,lymphocytesoriginatefromhemocytoblastscontainedwithinredbone
90)______
marrow.

91)Theprocessthatoccurswhenantibodiesclumpforeigncellsiscalledagglutination.

92)Antibodiesarealsoreferredtoasimmunoglobulins.

93)Ourimmunesystemcanbeaffectedbyseverestress.

94)Artificiallyacquiredpassiveimmunityisconferredwhenonereceivesimmuneserumfor
poisonoussnakebites.

95)Extremelyweakenedpathogensthatarestillaliveareattenuated.

96)Thetonsils,spleen,thymusgland,andPeyerspatchesarereferredtoasmucosa-associated
lymphatictissue(MALT).

97)TheantibodyamotherpassestoherfetusisIgM.

98)Chemicalssecretedbywhitebloodcellsandmacrophagesexposedtoforeignsubstancesthat
canincreasebodytemperaturearecalledpyrogens.

99)Tissuegraftsharvestedfromanunrelatedpersonarecalledxenografts.

100)Anantibodyisasubstancecapableofprovokinganimmuneresponse.

101)Allergies,orhypersensitivities,arenormalimmuneresponses.

102)Autoimmunediseasesoccurwhentheimmunesystemlosesitsabilitytotolerateself-antigens
whilestillrecognizingandattachingforeignantigens.

103)ThedaughtercellsofBcells,calledplasmacells,releaseantibodies.

104)Naturalkillersareuniquephagocyticdefensecellsthatcankillcancercellsandvirus-infected
bodycellswellbeforetheimmunesystemisactivated.

105)Theflaplikeminivalvesofthelymphcapillariesactlikeone-wayswingingdoorsthatallow
lymphfluidtoenterthelymphcapillariesbutnotexit.

106)Macrophagesarisefrommonoctyesformedwithinthebonemarrow.

107)Somepathologistsconsiderlimitationofjointmovementtobeanadditionalfifthcardinalsignof
inflammation.

108)Therearethreemajorimmunoglobulinclasses:IgM,IgA,andIgD.

MATCHING.Choosetheitemincolumn2thatbestmatcheseachitemincolumn1.
Matchthefollowingprotectivemechanismwithitsassociatedelement:
109)Propelsdebris-ladenmucusaway
A)gastricjuice
fromlowerrespiratorypassages

B)lacrimalsecretions
110)Containslysozyme

C)nasalhairs
111)Inhibitsgrowthofbacteriaandfungi
infemalereproductivetract

91)______
92)______
93)______
94)______

95)______
96)______

97)______
98)______

99)______
100)_____
101)_____
102)_____

103)_____
104)_____

105)_____

106)_____
107)_____

108)_____

109)_____

110)_____

111)

_____
112)
Trapsmicroorganismsinrespiratory
anddigestivetracts

D)keratin

E)acidmantle

F)
cilia

G)mucus

Matchthefollowingbiologicalfunctionwithitsantibodyclass:
113)Firstimmunoglobulinclassreleased
A)IgM
toplasmabyplasmacellsduring
primaryresponse

Matchthefollowingdescriptionswiththeappropriatelymphoidorganortissue:
114)Locatedoverlyingtheheart
A)thymusgland

115)Trapandremovebacteriaand
B)tonsils
pathogensenteringthethroat

Matchthefollowingbiologicalfunctionwithitsantibodyclass:
116)Potentagglutinatingagent
A)IgD

117)Believedtobecellsurfacereceptorof
B)IgM
immunocompetentBcell

Matchthefollowingdescriptionswiththeappropriatelymphoidorganortissue:
118)Locatedinthepharynx(throat)
A)spleen

119)Locatedontheleftsideofthe
B)tonsils
abdominalcavity

120)Filtersandcleansesthebloodof
bacteria,viruses,andotherdebris

Matchthefollowingprotectivemechanismwithitsassociatedelement:
121)Filtersandtrapsmicroorganisms
A)mucus
withininhaledair

B)nasalhairs

Matchthefollowingbiologicalfunctionwithitsantibodyclass:
122)Crossesplacentaandprovides
A)IgA
passiveimmunitytofetus

B)IgG

112)_____

113)_____

114)_____
115)_____

116)_____
117)_____

118)_____
119)_____

120)_____

121)_____

122)_____

123)Bathesandprotectsmucosalsurfaces

123)_____
fromattachmentofpathogens

Matchthefollowingprotectivemechanismwithitsassociatedelement:
124)Containsconcentratedhydrochloric
A)acidmantle
124)_____
acidandprotein-digestedenzymes
thatdestroypathogenswithinthe
stomach
B)
gastricjuice

Matchthefollowingdescriptionswiththeappropriatelymphoidorganortissue:
125)Locatedinthewallofthesmall
A)Peyerspatches
125)_____
intestines

Matchthefollowingbiologicalfunctionwithitsantibodyclass:
126)Mainantibodyofprimaryand
A)IgG
126)_____
secondaryresponses

Matchthefollowingprotectivemechanismwithitsassociatedelement:
127)Providesresistanceagainstacids,
A)gastricjuice
127)_____
alkalis,andbacterialenzymes

B)keratin

Matchthefollowingbiologicalfunctionwithitsantibodyclass:
128)Triggersthereleaseofhistamine
A)IgE
128)_____

ESSAY.Writeyouranswerinthespaceprovidedoronaseparatesheetofpaper.
129)Describeseveraloftheprotectivechemicalsproducedbytheskinandmucousmembranes.

130)Describethefourmajortypesoftransplantgrafts.

131)Explainthreecurrenttheoriesthatattempttoexplainwhyself-tolerancebreaksdowninautoimmune
disorders.

132)Describethemethodsthebodyusestohelpreturnlymphtotheheart.

133)Listanddescribethecellsandchemicalsthebodyusesasitssecondlineofdefense.

134)Explaintheoriginandpathwayoflymph.

135)Identifythefourmostcommonindicatorsandmajorsymptomsofanacuteinflammatoryresponseand
explaintheirorigins.


1)D
2)B
3)E
4)A
5)C
6)A
7)E
8)A
9)D
10)C
11)D
12)E
13)A
14)E
15)B
16)E
17)B
18)A
19)B
20)C
21)A
22)E
23)D
24)B
25)A
26)B
27)B
28)D
29)A
30)D
31)D
32)C
33)B
34)B
35)E
36)B
37)A
38)E
39)C
40)E
41)E
42)D
43)D
44)A
45)C
46)A
47)E
48)immunoglobulins
49)allergensorhypersensitivities
50)anaphylacticshock
51)self-antigens(autoantigens)

52)trabeculae
53)D
54)haptens
55)MALT(mucosa-associatedlymphatictissue)
56)A
57)spleen
58)chemotaxis
59)D
60)B
61)cytotoxicTcells
62)clonalselection
63)E
64)C
65)complementfixation
66)A
67)edema
68)activeimmunity
69)B
70)bloodplasma
71)IgM,IgA,IdD,IgG,IgE
72)diapedesis
73)neutralization
74)C
75)pathogens
76)efferentlymphatic
77)helperTcells
78)A
79)opsonization
80)elephantiasis
81)agglutination
82)C
83)FALSE
84)FALSE
85)TRUE
86)TRUE
87)TRUE
88)TRUE
89)TRUE
90)TRUE
91)TRUE
92)TRUE
93)TRUE
94)TRUE
95)TRUE
96)FALSE
97)FALSE
98)TRUE
99)FALSE
100)FALSE
101)FALSE
102)TRUE
103)TRUE

104)FALSE
105)TRUE
106)TRUE
107)TRUE
108)FALSE
109)F
110)B
111)E
112)G
113)A
114)A
115)B
116)B
117)A
118)B
119)A
120)A
121)B
122)B
123)A
124)B
125)A
126)A
127)B
128)A
129)Skinproducesacidsecretionsthatinhibitbacterialgrowth,andsebumcontainschemicalsthataretoxictobacteria.
Vaginalsecretionsarehighlyacidic.Thestomachmucosasecreteshydrochloricacidandprotein-digesting
enzymes,bothofwhichcankillpathogens.Salivaandtearscontainlysozyme,anenzymethatdestroysbacteria.
Mucusisastickymucousmembranesecretionthattrapsmicroorganisms.
130)Autograftsaretissuegraftstransplantedfromonesitetoanotherwithinthesameperson.Isograftsaretissuegrafts
harvestedfromageneticallyidenticalperson(identicaltwin).Allograftsaretissuegraftsharvestedfroman
unrelatedperson.Xenograftsaretissuegraftsharvestedfromdifferentanimalspecies.
131)Inefficientlymphocyteprogrammingisonetheorythatsuggestsself-reactiveBorTcellsescapetotherestofthe
body.Anothertheoryisthatself-proteinsappearwithinthecirculationthatwerenotpreviouslyexposedtothe
immunesystem,thusinitiatinganimmuneresponse.Thesehiddenantigensarefoundinspermcells,theeyelens,
andthyroidproteins.Anothertheoryisthatantibodiesproducedagainstforeignantigenscross-reactwithselfantigenssuchaswhenstreptococcalbacteriacross-reactwithheartantigenscausingrheumaticfever.
132)Thereturnoflymphtotheheartisaidedby:1.themilkingactionoftheskeletalmuscles,2.pressurechangesinthe
thoraxduringbreathing,3.smoothmusclesinthewallsofthelargerlymphaticscontractrhythmically.
133)1.
Phagocytes,suchasneutrophilsormacrophages,engulfforeignparticles.Thesecellsareinnearlyevery
bodyorganandconfrontpathogensthatmakeitthroughthesurfacemembranebarriers.
2.
Naturalkillercells,foundinbloodandlymph,arelymphocytes.Theycanlyseandkillcancercellsand
virus-infectedbodycells.
3.
Theinflammatoryresponseisanonspecificresponsethatoccurswhenbodytissuesareinjured.
134)Lymphfluidarisesfrombloodplasmathathasbeenforcedoutofthecapillarybedsbyosmoticandhydrostatic
pressures.Thefluidleftbehindiscalledinterstitialfluid.Theinterstitialfluidisthenpickedupbylymph
capillaries,afterwhichitiscalledlymph.Lymphisroutedupthelymphaticvesselsuntilitisfinallyreturnedtothe
venoussystemthrougheithertherightlymphaticductorthethoracicduct.
135)Thefourmostcommonindicatorsoftheinflammatoryresponseareredness,heat,swelling,andpain.Rednessand
heatarearesultofdilationofbloodvesselsthatincreasebloodflowtotheinjuredarea.Swellingoccurswhen
increasedpermeabilityofthecapillariesallowsplasmatoleakfromthebloodstreamintothetissuespaces.The
excessfluid,oredema,triggerstheactivationofpainreceptorsinthearea,accountingforthepainassociatedwith

an
injur
y.

Exam
Name___________________________________

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
1)Theserousmembranecoveringthesurfaceofthelungsiscalledthe:
1)_______
A)pleurisy
B)mediastinum
C)visceralpleura
D)parietalpleura
E)main(primary)bronchi

2)Thebluishcastthatresultsfrominadequateoxygenationoftheskinandmucosaiscalled:
2)_______
A)albinism
B)xanthosis
C)melanosis
D)cyanosis
E)erythema

3)Thelipidmoleculecriticaltolungfunctionthatcoatsthegas-exposedalveolarsurfacesiscalled: 3)_______
A)renin
B)interferon
C)lecithin
D)kinin
E)surfactant

4)Ciliaofthetracheathatbeatcontinuallypropelcontaminatedmucus:
4)_______
A)towardtheglottistobehiccuppedout
B)towardthelungstobeencapsulated
C)towardthenosetobesneezedout
D)towardtheepiglottistobecoughedout
E)towardthethroattobeswallowedorspatout

5)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTafunctionoftheparanasalsinuses:
5)_______
A)theyareolfactoryreceptorsforsmell
B)theyproducemucus
C)theylightentheskull
D)theyactasresonancechambersforspeech
E)theyhelptomoistenair

6)TherespiratoryconductingpassagewaysperformallofthefollowingfunctionsEXCEPT:
6)_______
A)purifyair
B)warmincomingair
C)humidifyair
D)exchangegases
E)allowairtoreachthelungs

7)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTafactorinfluencingrespiratoryrateanddepth:
7)_______
A)levelsofoxygenandcarbondioxide
B)volition
C)physicalexercise
D)enzymaticfactors
E)emotionalfactors

8)Themostimportantchemicalstimulileadingtoincreasedrateanddepthofbreathingis:
8)_______
A)decreasedcarbondioxideintheblood
B)increasedbloodpH
C)increasedhydrogenionintheblood
D)increasedcarbondioxideintheblood
E)decreasedoxygenlevelintheblood

9)Whatistheroleofmucusinthenasalcavity:
A)trapincomingbacteriaandotherforeigndebris
B)lightentheskull
C)actasaresonancechamberforspeech
D)increasetheairturbulenceinthenasalcavity
E)separatetheoralfromthenasalcavity

10)Thehomeostaticimbalanceassociatedwiththedeathofmanyfull-termnewborninfantsis
called:
A)CTRL
B)COPD
C)CF
D)SIDS
E)IRDS

11)Whichoneofthefollowingtermsdoesnotapplytothenose:
A)nasalseptum
B)nasalcavity
C)externalnares
D)nasopharynx
E)nostrils

12)Thegasexchangethatoccursbetweenbloodandtissuecellsatsystemiccapillariesiscalled:
A)pulmonaryventilation
B)internalrespiration
C)expiration
D)externalrespiration
E)respiratorygastransport

13)WhichoneofthefollowingbonesdoesNOTcontainparanasalsinuses:
A)ethmoid
B)frontal
C)maxilla
D)mandible
E)sphenoid

14)Averydeepinspirationthatventilatesallalveoliis:
A)crying
B)sneezing
C)hiccupping
D)coughing
E)yawning

15)Whichofthefollowingarecurrentlythemostdamaginganddisablingrespiratorydiseasesin
theU.S.:
A)lungcancerandasthma
B)COPDandlungcancer
C)tuberculosisandpneumonia
D)tuberculosisandCOPD
E)asthmaandtuberculosis

16)Hypoventilationdramaticallyincreasescarbonicacidconcentrationandinvolves:
A)extremelyslowbreathing
B)extremelyfastbreathing
C)extremelydeepbreathing
D)intermittentbreathing
E)irregularbreathing

17)Theflapofelasticcartilagethatprotectsfoodfromenteringthelarynxwhenswallowingisthe:
A)thyroidcartilage

9)_______

10)______

11)______

12)______

13)______

14)______

15)______

16)______

17)______

B)Adamsapple
C)epiglottis
D)glottis
E)trachea

18)Therespiratoryrateinadultsis:
A)20-25respirationsperminute
B)over40respirationsperminute
C)12-18respirationsperminute
D)30respirationsperminute
E)5-10respirationsperminute

19)Airmovinginandoutofthelungsiscalled:
A)externalrespiration
B)expiration
C)inspiration
D)internalrespiration
E)pulmonaryventilation

20)Inordertoinspire:
A)theexternalintercostalmusclesrelax
B)theintrapulmonaryvolumemustdecrease
C)theintrapulmonaryvolumemustincrease
D)thediaphragmrelaxes
E)gaspressureinthelungsmustincrease

21)EmphysemaresultsinallofthefollowingEXCEPT:
A)expandedbarrelchest
B)moonface
C)decreasedlungelasticity
D)enlargedalveoli
E)lungfibrosis

22)Vibrationduetoexhaledairthatresultsinspeechisafunctionofthe:
A)completevoicebox
B)truevocalcords
C)glottis
D)epiglottis
E)falsevocalcords

23)Whenoxygenenterstherespiratorysystem,whatisthenextstructuretowhichittravels
immediatelyuponleavingthetrachea:
A)tertiarybronchi
B)main(primary)bronchi
C)bronchioles
D)pleura
E)alveoli

24)Therespiratorymovementrepresentingthetotalamountofexchangeableairisthe:
A)inspiratoryreservevolume
B)expiratoryreservevolume
C)vitalcapacity

18)______

19)______

20)______

21)______

22)______

23)______

24)______

D)deadspacevolume
E)tidalvolume

25)Followingtheremovalofthelarynx,apersonwouldbeunableto:
A)sneeze
B)hear
C)eat
D)speak
E)breathe

26)Cessationofbreathingiscalled:
A)tachypnea
B)apnea
C)eupnea
D)hyperpnea
E)dyspnea

27)Oxygenbindswithhemoglobininthebloodtoform:
A)plasma
B)carbondioxide
C)oxyhemoglobin
D)carbonicacid
E)bicarbonateion

28)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTtrueofthelungs:
A)thenarrowerportionofeachlungiscalledtheapex
B)thebasesrestonthediaphragm
C)therightlunghasthreelobes
D)bothlungshavetwolobes
E)theleftlunghastwolobes

29)Exchangeofbothoxygenandcarbondioxidethroughtherespiratorymembraneoccursby:
A)activetransport
B)simplediffusion
C)facilitateddiffusion
D)passivetransport
E)osmosis

30)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTtrueoflungcancer:
A)itisgenerallymoreprevalentinmalesthanfemales
B)itaccountsforone-thirdofallcancerdeathsintheU.S.
C)mosttypesoflungcancerareveryaggressive
D)lungcancersoftenmetastasizerapidlyandwidely
E)itsincidenceiscurrentlyincreasing

31)HyperventilationleadstoallofthefollowingEXCEPT:
A)dizziness
B)buildupofcarbondioxideintheblood
C)cyanosis
D)briefperiodsofapnea
E)fainting

32)Anemotionally-inducedresponseduringwhichairmovementissimilartocryingis:
A)laughing
B)sneezing
C)hiccupping

25)______

26)______

27)______

28)______

29)______

30)______

31)______

32)______

D)yawning
E)coughing

33)Surfactantisusuallypresentinfetallungsinadequatequantitiesby:
A)20-22weeksofpregnancy
B)28-30weeksofpregnancy
C)22-24weeksofpregnancy
D)26-28weeksofpregnancy
E)24-26weeksofpregnancy

34)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTtrueofcysticfibrosis:
A)itcausesoversecretionofthickmucusthatclogstherespiratorypassages
B)itisthemostcommonlethalgeneticdiseaseintheU.S.
C)itcausessweatglandstoproduceanextremelysaltyperspiration
D)itimpairsfooddigestion
E)itisrarelyfatal

35)Theamountofairexchangedduringnormalquietbreathingisabout:
A)1200mL
B)2100mL
C)6000mL
D)500mL

36)Theopeningbetweenthevocalcordsiscalledthe:
A)larynx
B)epiglottis
C)glottis
D)thyroidcartilage
E)esophagus

37)Thenasalcavityisseparatedfromtheoralcavityby:
A)thenasalconchae
B)boththehardandsoftpalate
C)thehardpalate
D)boththenasalconchaeandhardpalate
E)thesoftpalate

38)Obstructionofthetracheabyapieceoffoodcanleadto:
A)pleurisy
B)aspirationpneumonia
C)pulmonarytamponade
D)hemothorax
E)pneumothorax

39)WhichoneofthefollowingstructuresisNOTpartoftherespiratoryzone:
A)alveoli
B)respiratorybronchioles
C)primarybronchi
D)alveolarsacs
E)alveolarducts

40)Thewallsofthealveoliarecomposedlargelyof:
A)stratifiedcuboidalepithelium
B)simplecuboidalepithelium
C)stratifiedsquamousepithelium

33)______

34)______

35)______
E)4800mL
36)______

37)______

38)______

39)______

40)______

D)pseudostratifiedepithelium
E)simplesquamousepithelium

41)Thepharynogotympanictubes,whichdrainthemiddleear,openintothe:
A)nasopharynx
B)laryngopharynx
C)palatopharynx
D)oropharynx
E)tracheopharynx

42)Theconductingpassagewaysoftherespiratorysystemincludeallofthefollowingstructures
EXCEPT:
A)nose
B)larynx
C)alveoli
D)trachea
E)pharynx

43)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTafeatureofCOPD:
A)mostpatientshaveageneticpredispositiontoCOPD
B)mostCOPDvictimsarehypoxic
C)dyspneabecomesprogressivelymoresevere
D)frequentpulmonaryinfectionsarecommon
E)mostpatientshaveahistoryofsmoking

44)TheabbreviationIRDSstandsfor:
A)intermittentrespiratorydistressstate
B)infantrespiratorydiseasesyndrome
C)intermittentrespiratorydiseasesyndrome
D)infantrespiratorydiseasestate
E)infantrespiratorydistresssyndrome

45)Tonsilsthatlieatthebaseofthetonguearecalled:
A)pharyngotympanictonsils
B)lingualtonsils
C)pharyngealtonsils
D)palatinetonsils
E)adenoids

46)Themoleculethatpreventslungcollapsebyloweringthesurfacetensionofthewaterfilmlining
eachalveolarsaciscalled:
A)fibrosin
B)renin
C)surfactant
D)lecithin
E)resorbin

47)Theamountofairthatcanbeforciblyexhaledafteratidalexpirationisabout:
A)6000mL
B)2100mL
C)500mL
D)4800mL
E)1200mL

48)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTtrueofinspiration:
A)relaxationoftheexternalintercostalmuscleshelpsincreasethesizeofthethoraciccavity
B)thedecreasedgaspressureproducesapartialvacuumthatforciblysucksairin
C)increasedintrapulmonaryvolumecausesinhaledgasestospreadout
D)contractionofthediaphragmmusclehelpsincreasethesizeofthethoraciccavity
E)aircontinuestomoveintothelungsuntilintrapulmonarypressureequalsatmospheric
pressure

49)Airfromthenasalcavityentersthesuperiorportionofthepharynxcalledthe:
A)oropharynx

41)______

42)______

43)______

44)______

45)______

46)______

47)______

48)______

49)______

B)palatopharynx
C)nasopharynx
D)tracheopharynx
E)laryngopharynx

50)Mostcarbondioxideistransportedwithinbloodplasmaas:
50)______
A)oxyhemoglobin
B)carbonicacid
C)bicarbonateion
D)hydrogenion
E)carbohemoglobin

SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
51)Thelargeshield-shapedthyroidcartilagethatprotrudesanteriorlyiscommonlycalled
51)_____________
the__________.

52)Normalquietbreathingmovesabout__________mLofairintoandoutofthelungs
52)_____________
witheachbreath.

53)Airthatremainsintheconductingzonepassagewaysandneverreachesthealveoliis
53)_____________
calledthe__________.

54)Mostcarbondioxideisdissolvedinbloodplasmaandtransportedas__________.
54)_____________

Figure13.1

UsingFigure13.1,identifythefollowing:
55)Thetracheaisindicatedbyletter__________.

56)Thepharynxisindicatedbyletter__________.

57)Theoralcavityisindicatedbyletter__________.

58)Themostimportantstimulusforbreathinginahealthypersonisthebodysneedtorid

55)_____________
56)_____________
57)_____________
itse lfoftheblood

gas
58)
called
________
__.

___
___
___
___
_

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
59)Thepresenceofairintheintrapleuralspaceisknownas__________.

60)Enlargementofthealveoliandchronicinflammationofthelungsarecharacteristicsofa
respiratorydiseasecalled__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
61)Themucosa-linedwindpipethatextendsfromthelarynxtothelevelofthefifththoracic
vertebraiscalledthe__________.

62)Theprocessofmovingairintoandoutofthelungsiscommonlycalledbreathingor
__________.

59)_____________
60)_____________

61)_____________

62)_____________

Figure13.1

UsingFigure13.1,identifythefollowing:
63)Thenostrilsareindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
64)Theanteriorportionofthepalatethatissupportedbyboneiscalledthe__________.

65)Amechanismthatclearstheupperrespiratorypassages,whichissimilartoacough
exceptthattheexpelledairisdirectedthroughthenasalcavitiesinsteadoftheoral
cavity,iscalleda__________.

66)Chronicallyinflamed,hypersensitivebronchialpassagesthatcanbeirritatedbydust
miteandcockroachdroppingsareindicativeof__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:

63)_____________

64)_____________
65)_____________

66)_____________

67)Aprocedureinwhichairwithinthelungsisusedtoforciblyexpelanobstructingpiece
offoodtoavoidsuffocationiscalledthe__________.

67)_____________

Figure13.1

UsingFigure13.1,identifythefollowing:
68)Thelarynxisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
69)Dustcellsthatwanderinandoutofthealveoli,pickingupbacteria,carbonparticles,
andotherdebris,areactually__________.

68)_____________

69)_____________

Figure13.1

UsingFigure13.1,identifythefollowing:
70)Thediaphragmmuscleisindicatedbyletter__________.

70)_____________

71)Therightprimarybronchusisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
72)Duringinternalrespiration,thebloodgas__________isloadedintothebloodstream.

73)Anormalrespiratoryrateofabout12-15breathsperminuteiscalled__________.

74)Thethreemucosa-coveredprojectionsintothenasalcavitythatgreatlyincreasesurface
areaofmucosaexposedtoairarecalled__________.

71)_____________

72)_____________
73)_____________
74)_____________

Figure13.1

UsingFigure13.1,identifythefollowing:
75)Thenasalcavityisindicatedbytheletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
76)Thetonsilsfoundinthenasopharynxarecalled__________or__________.

77)Theinspiratorymusclesthatcontractsowecaninspireairarethe__________and
__________.

78)Gasexchangebetweenthebloodandtissuecellsiscalled__________.

79)Thesmallestconductingpassagewaysofthelungsarecalled__________.

80)Theairsacsofthelungsarecalled__________.

81)Anabnormalbubblingsoundcausedbydiseasedrespiratorytissue,mucus,orpusis
called__________.

82)Inflammationofthesinusesthatcancausemarkedchangesinvoicequalityiscalled
__________.

83)OxygenboundtohemoglobinmoleculesonRBCsiscalled__________.

75)_____________

76)_____________
77)_____________

78)_____________
79)_____________
80)_____________
81)_____________

82)_____________

83)_____________

84)Respiratorycapacitiesaremeasuredwitha__________.

85)Theflapofelasticcartilagethatprotectstheopeningofthelarynxiscalledthe
__________.

84)_____________
85)_____________

Figure13.1

UsingFigure13.1,identifythefollowing:
86)Theapexoftherightlungisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
87)Thecentralareabetweenthetwolungsthathousestheheart,greatbloodvessels,
bronchi,andesophagusiscalledthe__________.

88)TheC-shapedringsthatreinforcethetracheaareconstructedof__________cartilage.

89)Thethroatisalsoknownasthe__________.

90)Theopeningbetweenthevocalfoldsiscalledthe__________.

91)Inadequateoxygendeliverytobodytissuesiscalled__________.

86)_____________

87)_____________

88)_____________
89)_____________
90)_____________
91)_____________


Figure13.1

UsingFigure13.1,identifythefollowing:
92)Thebaseoftherightlungisindicatedbyletter__________.
92)_____________

TRUE/FALSE.WriteTifthestatementistrueandFifthestatementisfalse.
93)Suddeninspirationsresultingfromspasmsofthediaphragmarehiccups.
93)______

94)Inspirationbythediaphragmmuscleisregulatedbythephrenicnerves.
94)______

95)Theprocessofbreathingisknownaspulmonaryventilation.
95)______

96)Therespiratorymembraneistheair-bloodbarrier,wheregasesareexchanged.
96)______

97)Therespiratoryzoneincludestherespiratorybronchioles,alveolarducts,alveolarsacs,and
97)______
alveoli.

98)Thelarynxroutesairandfoodintotheirproperchannelandplaysanimportantroleinspeech
98)______
production.

99)Accordingtothelawsofdiffusion,movementofarespiratorygasoccurstowardtheareaof
99)______
higherconcentrationofthatparticularrespiratorygas.

100)Thelungsofthefetusarefilledwithairlateinpregnancy.
100)_____

101)ThefaultygeneassociatedwithcysticfibrosiscodesfortheCFTRprotein,whichcontrolsthe
101)_____
flowofchlorideinandoutofcells.

102)Thetotalamountofexchangeableairinahealthyyoungmaleistypicallyaround4800mL.
102)_____

103)Thegeneraltermforinadequateoxygendeliverytobodytissuesregardlessofthecauseiscalled 103)_____
hypoxia.

104)Theamountofairthatcanbeforciblyexhaledafteranormaltidalexpirationistheresidual
104)_____
volume.


105)Venousbloodinsystemiccirculationispoorerinoxygenandricherincarbondioxide.

106)Thereareonlythreeparanasalsinuseslocatedinthefrontal,sphenoid,andparietalbones.

107)Inspirationresultswhenthediaphragmandexternalintercostalmusclesrelax.

108)Theemergencysurgicalopeningofthetracheaiscalledatracheostomy.

109)Thepharyngealtonsilsarealsoknownastheadenoids.

110)Thesuperiorportionofthelungiscalledthebase.

111)Inflammationofthenasalmucosabycoldvirusesandvariousantigensiscalledrhinitis.

112)Theciliatedcellsofthenasalmucosapropelcontaminatedmucusposteriorlytowardthe
pharynx.

113)Thelarynxservesasapassagewayforbothfoodandair.

114)Inflammationofthepleuraisoftencausedbydecreasedsecretionofpleuralfluidcalled
pleurisy.

115)Theguardianoftheairwaysthatpreventsfoodfromenteringthesuperioropeningofthe
larynxisthethyroidcartilage.

116)Expirationoccurswhenthethoracicandintrapulmonaryvolumesdecreaseandthe
intrapulmonarypressureincreases.

117)Theamountofairthatcanbeforciblyinhaledoverthetidalvolumeisabout2100to3200mL.

118)Thebronchiolesarethesmallestoftheconductingpassagewaysinthelungs.

119)Thenasalcavityisseparatedfromtheoralcavitybythenasalconchae.

120)Wheezingisawhistlingsoundassociatedwithdiseasedrespiratorytissue,mucus,orpus.

121)TheC-shapedringsofcartilagethatreinforcethetracheaaremadeofelasticcartilage.

MATCHING.Choosetheitemincolumn2thatbestmatcheseachitemincolumn1.
Matchthefollowingdefinitionswiththeirassociatedrespiratoryvolumeorcapacity:
122)Airthatremainsinthelungseven
A)vitalcapacity
afterthemoststrenuousexpiration

B)totallungcapacity
123)Amountofairthatcanbeforcibly

exhaledafteranormaltidal
expiration
C)deadspacevolume
124)

Sumtotaloftidalvolume,inspiratory
r
servevolume
reservevolume,andexpiratory
e

105)_____
106)_____
107)_____
108)_____
109)_____
110)_____
111)_____
112)_____

113)_____
114)_____

115)_____

116)_____

117)_____
118)_____
119)_____
120)_____
121)_____

122)_____

123)_____

D)
expira
tory

reservevolume

124) _____
E)

residualvolume

Matchthefollowingmechanismwithitsassociatednonrespiratorymovement:
125)Blastofupwardrushingairthat
A)coughing
clearsthelowerrespiratory
passageways

B)throat-clearing

Matchthefollowingdefinitionswiththeirassociatedrespiratoryvolumeorcapacity:
126)Airthatenterstherespiratorytract
A)residualvolume
andremainswithintheconducting
zonepassageways
B)
conductingzonevolume
127)

Amountofairthatcanbeinhaled
C)deadspacevolume
forciblyoverthetidalvolume

D)
inspiratoryreservevolume

Matchthefollowingstructurewithitsdescription:
128)Thetracheabranchesintothesetubes
A)main(primary)bronchi

129)Tubeposteriortothetrachea
B)esophagus

Matchthefollowingdefinitionswiththeirassociatedrespiratoryvolumeorcapacity:
130)Totalamountofexchangeableair
A)tidalvolume

B)
vitalcapacity

Matchthefollowingstructurewithitsdescription:
131)Voicebox
A)larynx

Matchthefollowingmechanismwithitsassociatednonrespiratorymovement:
132)Involvesusingtheuvulatoclosethe
A)sneezing
oralcavityofffromthepharynxin
ordertocleartheupperrespiratory
passages
B)
coughing

Matchthefollowingstructurewithitsdescription:
133)Windpipe
A)trachea

Matchthefollowingdefinitionswiththeirassociatedrespiratoryvolumeorcapacity:
134)Normal,quietbreathingwhich
A)vitalcapacity
movesapproximately500mLofair
perbreath
B)

125)_____

126)_____

127)_____

128)_____
129)_____

130)_____

131)_____

132)_____

133)_____

134)_____

tidalvolume

Matchthefollowingmechanismwithitsassociatednonrespiratorymovement:
135)Primarilyanemotionallyinduced
A)yawning
mechanismthatinvolvesreleaseof
airinanumberofshortbreaths,
similartolaughing
B)
hiccupping

C)
136)Averydeepinspirationformerly
crying
believedtobetriggeredbylow
oxygen

Matchthefollowingstructurewithitsdescription:
137)Openingtothelarynx

138)Smallestconductingpassagewaysin
thelungs

A)pharynx

B)glottis

C)alveoli

D)bronchioles

135)_____

136)_____

137)_____
138)_____

139)Airsacswithinthelungs
139)_____

140)Throat
140)_____

Matchthefollowingmechanismwithitsassociatednonrespiratorymovement:
141)Suddeninspirationsresultingfrom
A)coughing
141)_____
spasmsofthediaphragm

B)yawning
142)Anemotionallyinducedresponse

142)_____
thatproducesairmovementssimilar
tocrying
C)hiccupping

D)
laughing

ESSAY.Writeyouranswerinthespaceprovidedoronaseparatesheetofpaper.
143)Describesomeofthemajorandminoreffectsofsmokingonthehumanbody.

144)Explainthestructureandfunctionoftherespiratorymembrane.

145)Explaintherolesofmucusandciliaintherespiratorysystem.

146)Identifyanddescribethefourdistincteventsthatarecollectivelycalledrespiration.

147)Listthethreeregionsofthepharynxandidentifytheirrelativesuperiorandinferiorendpointsinthe
respiratorypassageway.

148)Describehowoxygenandcarbondioxidearetransportedintheblood.


149)Explaintheroleoftheepiglottisintherespiratorysystem.

150)Identifythetwopleuralmembranesanddescribethemundernormalanddiseaseconditions.


1)C
2)D
3)E
4)E
5)A
6)D
7)D
8)D
9)A
10)D
11)D
12)B
13)D
14)E
15)B
16)A
17)C
18)C
19)E
20)C
21)B
22)B
23)B
24)C
25)D
26)B
27)C
28)D
29)B
30)A
31)B
32)A
33)B
34)E
35)D
36)C
37)B
38)B
39)C
40)E
41)A
42)C
43)A
44)E
45)B
46)C
47)E
48)A
49)C
50)C
51)Adamsapple

52)500
53)deadspacevolume
54)bicarbonateion
55)I
56)J
57)C
58)carbondioxide
59)pneumothorax
60)emphysema
61)trachea
62)pulmonaryventilation
63)B
64)hardpalate
65)sneeze
66)asthma
67)Heimlichmaneuver
68)D
69)macrophages
70)G
71)H
72)carbondioxide
73)eupnea
74)conchae
75)A
76)pharyngealtonsils;adenoids
77)diaphragm;externalintercostals
78)internalrespiration
79)bronchioles
80)alveoli
81)crackle
82)sinusitis
83)oxyhemoglobin
84)spirometer
85)epiglottis
86)E
87)mediastinum
88)hyaline
89)pharynx
90)glottis
91)hypoxia
92)F
93)TRUE
94)TRUE
95)TRUE
96)TRUE
97)TRUE
98)TRUE
99)FALSE
100)FALSE
101)TRUE
102)TRUE
103)TRUE

104)FALSE
105)TRUE
106)FALSE
107)FALSE
108)TRUE
109)TRUE
110)FALSE
111)TRUE
112)TRUE
113)FALSE
114)TRUE
115)FALSE
116)TRUE
117)TRUE
118)TRUE
119)FALSE
120)TRUE
121)FALSE
122)E
123)D
124)A
125)A
126)C
127)D
128)A
129)B
130)B
131)A
132)A
133)A
134)B
135)C
136)A
137)B
138)D
139)C
140)A
141)C
142)D
143)Answerswillvarydependingonwhateffectswerediscussedinclass,sincesmokinghasnumerouseffectsonthe
body.Respiratoryeffectsincludeairwayobstruction,dyspnea,coughing,frequentinfections,breakdownofelastin
intheconnectivetissueinthelungs,continualbronchialirritationandinflammation,hypoxia,respiratoryacidosis,
andrespiratoryfailure.Othereffectsincludeclubbingofthefingersduetohypoxia,impotence,andimpairmentof
theimmunesystem.
144)Therespiratorymembrane,alsoknownastheair-bloodbarrier,iscomprisedofthefusedbasementmembranesof
thealveolarandcapillarywalls.Ithasgasflowingpastononesideandbloodflowingpastontheother.Gas
exchangesoccurbysimplediffusionthroughtherespiratorymembrane.Oxygenpassesfromthealveolarairinto
thecapillarybloodandcarbondioxideleavesthebloodtoenterthegas-filledalveoli.
145)Respiratorymucosalinesthenasalcavitywhichproducesstickymucus.Thismucusmoistenstheairandtraps
incomingbacteriaandotherforeigndebrisenteringthenasalcavity.Theciliatedcellsofthenasalmucosamove
thiscontaminatedmucusposteriorlytowardthepharynxwhereitcanbeswallowed.Thetracheaisalsolinedwith
ciliatedmucosa.Theseciliamovecontaminatedmucustowardthethroatwhereiteithercanbeswallowedorspat

out.
146)Pulmonaryventilationiscommonlycalledbreathingandinvolvesthemovementofairintoandoutofthelungs.
Externalrespirationistheexchangeofgasesbetweenthepulmonarybloodandthealveoli.Respiratorygas
transportisthetransportofoxygenandcarbondioxidetoandfromthelungsandtissuecellsofthebodyviathe
bloodstream.Internalrespirationistheexchangeofgasesbetweenthebloodandtissuecells.
147)Thethreeportionsofthepharynxarethenasopharynx,theoropharynx,andthelaryngopharynx.Thenasopharynx
isthesuperiorportionthatextendsfromthenasalcavitytothesoftpalate.Theoropharynxisthecentralportion
thatliesbetweenthesoftpalateandtheupperepiglottis.Thelaryngopharynxisthemostinferiorportionandisthe
connectingpointtothelarynxbelow.
148)Oxygenistransportedintwoways:

1.
MostoxygenattachestohemoglobinmoleculesontheRBCstoformoxyhemoglobin.

2.
Asmallamountofoxygendissolvesintheplasmafortransport.
Carbondioxideisalsotransportedintwoways:

1.
Mostcarbondioxidedissolvesintheplasmaasthebicarbonateion.

2.
AsmallamountofcarbondioxideiscarriedinsidetheRBCsboundtohemoglobin(boundtoa
differentsitefromoxygen).
149)Theepiglottisisapartofthelarynx.Thisstructureismadeofelasticcartilage.Theepiglottisprotectsthesuperior
opening(glottis)ofthetrachea.Whenweswallowfoodsorfluids,thelarynxispulledupwardandtheepiglottis
tipstoformalidovertheopeningofthelarynx.Foodandfluidsarethenforcedintotheposteriortubecalledthe
esophagus.
150)Thepleuralmembranes,thevisceralpleuraandtheparietalpleura,produceaslipperyseroussecretionthatallows
thelungstoglideeasilyoverthethoraxwallduringbreathing.Thisserousfluidcausesthetwopleurallayersto
clingtogether.Theycanslideeasilyfromsidetosideacrossoneanother,buttheycannoteasilybepulledapart.As
surfacetensionofwaterholdsthemtightlytoeachother,thelungsareheldtightlytothethoraxwall.Thepleural
spaceismoreofapotentialspacethananactualspace,anditisonlyduringillnessorinjurythatthisspacebecomes
apparent,suchaswithapneumothoraxthatcanleadtoatelectasis.

Exam
Name___________________________________

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
1)Adenosinetriphosphate(ATP)isproducedingreatestquantityduring:
1)_______
A)fatmetabolism
B)glycolysis
C)proteinmetabolism
D)theKrebscycle
E)theelectrontransportchain

2)Whichofthefollowinginfluencethereleaseofpancreaticjuiceandbile:
2)_______
A)cholecystokininandsecretin
B)secretinandgastrin
C)cholecystokininandgastrin
D)renninandcholecystokinin
E)gastrinandrennin

3)Theprocessbywhichlargermoleculesorstructuresarebuiltupfromsmalleronesiscalled:
3)_______
A)carbolysis
B)catabolism
C)metabolism
D)anabolism
E)glycolysis

4)Whichoneofthefollowingalimentarysegmentshasnodigestivefunction:
4)_______
A)ascendingcolon
B)stomach
C)esophagus
D)duodenum
E)ileum

5)Thereleaseoffoodfromthestomachintothesmallintestineisregulatedbythe:
5)_______
A)cardioesophagealsphincter
B)hepatopancreaticampulla
C)ileocecalvalve
D)pyloricsphincter(valve)
E)internalanalsphincter

6)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTabsorbedbythehumanlargeintestine:
6)_______
A)vitaminK
B)water
C)ions
D)someoftheBvitamins
E)protein

7)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTtrueofcholesterol:
7)_______
A)onlyabout15percentcomesfromthediet
B)itprovidesenergyfuelformusclecontraction
C)itservesasthestructuralbasisofvitaminD
D)itisamajorbuildingblockofplasmamembranes
E)itservesasthestructuralbasisofsteroidhormones


8)Thejourneyofchymethroughthesmallintestinetakes:
A)10-12hours
B)8-10hours
C)6-8hours
D)2-4hours
E)3-6hours

9)TransportofdigestedendproductsfromthelumenGItractintothebloodstreamorlymphatic
fluidiscalled:
A)ingestion
B)defecation
C)propulsion
D)digestion
E)absorption

10)Theprimaryfunctionofthesmallintestineis:
A)absorptionofnutrients
B)mineralsecretion
C)vitaminconversion
D)wastesecretion
E)absorptionofwater

11)Thesubmucosalandmyentericnerveplexusesthathelpregulatethemobilityandsecretory
activityoftheGItractorgansarebothpartofthe:
A)fight-or-flightmechanism
B)somaticnervoussystem
C)centralnervoussystem
D)autonomicnervoussystem
E)sympatheticnervoussystem

12)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTtrueofthesensorsinvolvedindigestivereflexes:
A)theyrespondtostretchoftheorganbythevolumeoffoodwithinitslumen
B)theyrespondtotherelativepHcontentwithinthatparticulardigestiveorgan
C)theystartreflexesthateitheractivateorinhibitdigestiveglands
D)theyactivateorinhibitlactealabsorption
E)theyrespondtothepresenceofbreakdownproductsofdigestion

13)Theenergyvalueoffoodscommonlycountedbydietersismeasuredinunitscalled:
A)ATP
B)kilocalories
C)coenzymes
D)calories
E)carbunits

14)Buildupofbilewithintheliverleadingtobilepigmentscirculatingthroughthebodycould
causetissuestoturnyellowandaconditioncalled:
A)hepatitis
B)jaundice
C)cyanosis
D)cirrhosis
E)erythematosis

8)_______

9)_______

10)______

11)______

12)______

13)______

14)______


15)Digestionisprimarilycontrolledbythe:
A)parasympatheticdivisionoftheautonomicnervoussystem
B)enterogastricreflex
C)sympatheticdivisionoftheautonomicnervoussystem
D)somaticnervoussystem
E)medullaoblongata

16)Theprocessofswallowingisalsoknownas:
A)mastication
B)defecation
C)absorption
D)segmentation
E)deglutition

17)Theopeningofthelargeintestineiscalledthe:
A)cecum
B)sigmoidcolon
C)anus
D)ileum
E)rectum

18)Thehereditaryinabilityoftissuecellstometabolizetheaminoacidphenylalanine,whichcan
resultinbraindamageandretardationunlessaspecialdietlowinphenylalanineisfollowed,is
called:
A)tracheoesophagealfistula
B)cysticfibrosis
C)cleftlip
D)phenylketonuria
E)cleftpalate

19)Enzyme-richpancreaticjuicecontainsallthefollowingEXCEPT:
A)lipase
B)nuclease
C)amylase
D)pancreatase
E)trypsin

20)Whichoneofthefollowingisthemiddlesectionofthesmallintestine:
A)ileum
B)descendingcolon
C)duodenum
D)ascendingcolon
E)jejunum

21)Nutrientsdetourthroughtheliverviathe:
A)electrontransportchain
B)hepaticportalcirculation
C)Bowmanscapsule
D)circleofWillis
E)glycogenesis

15)______

16)______

17)______

18)______

19)______

20)______

21)______

22)Theanteriorchisel-shapedteeththatareadaptedforcuttingarecalled:
A)canines
B)incisors
C)premolars
D)wisdomteeth
E)molars

23)Theprocessbywhichfoodwithinthesmallintestineismixedwithdigestivejuicesbybackward
andforwardmovementacrosstheinternalwalloftheorganiscalled:
A)chemicaldigestion
B)segmentation
C)absorption
D)defecation
E)peristalsis

24)Whichoneofthefollowingrepresentsthecorrectorderthroughwhichfoodpassesinthe
alimentarycanal:
A)mouth,pharynx,esophagus,stomach,largeintestine,smallintestine
B)pharynx,mouth,esophagus,stomach,largeintestine,smallintestine
C)mouth,pharynx,esophagus,smallintestine,stomach,largeintestine
D)mouth,esophagus,pharynx,stomach,smallintestine,largeintestine
E)mouth,pharynx,esophagus,stomach,smallintestine,largeintestine

25)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTasubdivisionofthelargeintestine:
A)appendix
B)colon
C)cecum
D)duodenum
E)rectum

26)Theenzymeresponsibleforconvertingmilkproteininthestomachtoasubstancethatlookslike
sourmilkininfantsis:
A)salivaryamylase
B)rennin
C)bile
D)pancreaticamylase
E)pepsin

27)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTinvolvedintheswallowingreflex:
A)pharynx
B)tongue
C)softpalate
D)larynx
E)esophagus

28)Theaccesorydigestiveorganthatproducesenzymesthatbreakdownallfoodgroupsisthe:
A)gallbladder
B)liverandgallbladder
C)pancreas
D)liver
E)salivaryglands

22)______

23)______

24)______

25)______

26)______

27)______

28)______

29)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOToneofthecarbohydratesthatthehumandigestivesystemis
abletobreakdowntosimplesugars:
A)maltose
B)cellulose
C)lactose
D)sucrose
E)starch

30)Theorganresponsiblefordryingoutindigestiblefoodresiduethroughwaterabsorptionandthe
eliminationoffecesisthe:
A)smallintestine
B)largeintestine
C)stomach
D)lever
E)pancreas

31)Thenumberofpermanentteethwithinafullsetofadultteethis:
A)36
B)20
C)28
D)32
E)24

32)Enzymesandbilearecarriedbythepancreaticductandbileductintothe:
A)ileum
B)ileocecalvalve
C)largeintestine
D)duodenum
E)jejunum

33)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTamainroleoftheliver:
A)toaddammoniatotheblood
B)toprocessnutrientsduringdigestion
C)todetoxifydrugsandalcohol
D)tomakecholesterol
E)todegradehormones

34)Theamountofgastricjuiceproducedeverydaybyanaverage-sizedadultis:
A)1-2liters
B)2-3liters
C)3-4liters
D)2-3gallons
E)1-2gallons

35)Thesmallintestineextendsfromthe:
A)pyloricsphinctertotheileocecalvalve
B)ileocecalvalvetotheappendix
C)cardioesophagealsphinctertoileocecalvalve
D)appendixtothesigmoidcolon
E)cardioesophagealsphinctertothepyloricsphincter

36)Proteinsaredigestedtotheirbuildingblockswhicharecalled:
A)polypeptides
B)fattyacids
C)peptides
D)aminoacids
E)glycerol

37)Thestructurethatformstheanteriorroofofthemouthisthe:
A)teeth

29)______

30)______

31)______

32)______

33)______

34)______

35)______

36)______

37)______

B)uvula
C)hardpalate
D)cheek
E)softpalate

38)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTalayerofthealimentarycanal:
A)mucosa
B)muscularisinterna
C)submucosa
D)serosa
E)muscularisexterna

39)Whenfull,theaverageadultstomachcanholdapproximately:
A)2gallonsoffood
B)2litersoffood
C)4litersoffood
D)3litersoffood
E)1literoffood

40)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTamodification(whichisdesignedtoincreasesurfaceareafor
absorption)withinthesmallintestine:
A)circularfolds
B)plicaecirculares
C)microvilli
D)villi
E)Peyerspatches

41)Thefoldofmucousmembranethatsecuresthetonguetothefloorofthemouthandlimitsits
posteriormovementsiscalledthe:
A)mandibularfrenulum
B)lingualfrenulum
C)styloidbone
D)palatalfrenulum
E)hyoidbone

42)Bileisproducedbythe__________butstoredinthe__________.
A)gallbladder;pancreas
B)smallintestine;pancreas
C)liver;pancreas
D)gallbladder;liver
E)liver;gallbladder

43)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTanorganofthealimentarycanal:
A)pharynx
B)teeth
C)mouth
D)esophagus
E)stomach

44)Inorganicsubstancesnecessarytobodyfunctioningthatmustbeingestedthroughthedietare:
A)carbon
B)vitamins

38)______

39)______

40)______

41)______

42)______

43)______

44)______

C)completeproteins
D)coenzymes
E)minerals

45)Intrinsicfactorindigestionisastomachsecretionneededforabsorptionof__________fromthe
smallintestine.
A)vitaminK
B)vitaminB12
C)vitaminC
D)vitaminA
E)vitaminD

46)Thereflexthathelpsaninfantholdontothenippleandswallowiscalledthe:
A)suckingreflex
B)fetalreflex
C)peristalticreflex
D)rootingreflex
E)nursingreflex

47)Amylaseisanenzymethatisonlyabletodigest:
A)starch
B)minerals
C)vitamins
D)fat
E)protein

48)Thehormoneresponsibleforcausingthestomachtoreleasepepsinogens,mucus,and
hydrochloricacidis:
A)bile
B)amylase
C)rennin
D)gastrin
E)pepsin

49)ThelivermetabolizesfatsforallofthefollowingreasonsEXCEPT:
A)synthesisoflipoproteins
B)synthesisofvitaminK
C)ATPproduction
D)synthesisofthromboplastin
E)synthesisofcholesterol

50)Acidosis(ketoacidosis)occurswhen__________isdigested.
A)glycogen
B)glycogenorglucose
C)protein
D)fat
E)glucose

51)Whichoneofthefollowingiscontinuouswiththeesophagus:
A)linguopharynx
B)nasopharynx
C)oropharynx
D)laryngopharynx
E)esophagopharynx

52)Proteindigestionbeginsinthe:
A)smallintestine
B)largeintestine
C)stomach
D)mouth

45)______

46)______

47)______

48)______

49)______

50)______

51)______

52)______

E)esophagus

53)Thepropulsiveprocessthatmovesfoodfromoneorgantothenextiscalled:
53)______
A)mastication
B)chemicaldigestion
C)ingestion
D)absorption
E)peristalsis

54)Thefirstnutrienttobechemicallydigestedis:
54)______
A)vitamins
B)fat
C)starch
D)protein
E)minerals

55)Thesequenceofstepsbywhichlargefoodmoleculesarebrokendownintotheirrespective
55)______
buildingblocksbycatalyticenzymeswithinhydrolysisreactionsiscalled:
A)mechanicaldigestion
B)propulsion
C)ingestion
D)absorption
E)chemicaldigestion

SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.

Figure14.1

UsingFigure14.1,identifythefollowing:

56)Theesophagusisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
57)Theenamel-coveredcrownofthetoothisexposedjustabovethe__________.

56)_____________

57)_____________

Figure14.1

UsingFigure14.1,identifythefollowing:
58)Thepancreasisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
59)Thepolysaccharide,glycogen,isformedfromthecombinationofthousandsofglucose
moleculesduringaprocesscalled__________.

58)_____________

59)_____________

Figure14.1

UsingFigure14.1,identifythefollowing:
60)Thesalivaryglandsareindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
61)Thechemicalresponsibleforabouthalfofproteindigestionandalloffatdigestionis
__________.

62)Theemetic(vomiting)centerinthebrainiscalledthe__________.

60)_____________

61)_____________

62)_____________

Figure14.1

UsingFigure14.1,identifythefollowing:
63)Thesmallintestineisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
64)Thevoluntaryprocessofplacingfoodintothemouthisreferredtoas__________.

65)Thesphincterthatpreventsfoodfromleavingthestomachisthe__________sphincter.

63)_____________

64)_____________
65)_____________

Figure14.1

UsingFigure14.1,identifythefollowing:
66)Thestomachisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
67)Thesphincterfoundatthedistalendoftheesophagusisthe__________sphincter.

68)Thelipoproteinthattransportscholesterolandotherlipidstobodycellsiscalled
__________.

69)Largewrinklelikefoldsinthestomachlining,presentwhenthestomachisempty,that
allowforexpansionwhenthestomachisfillingarecalled__________.

70)Achemicalreactioninwhichsubstancesarebrokendownintosimplersubstancesis
referredtoas__________.

71)Bileisformedbythe__________.

72)Twoitemsabsorbedthroughthestomachwallsare__________and__________.

66)_____________

67)_____________
68)_____________

69)_____________

70)_____________

71)_____________
72)_____________

Figure14.1

UsingFigure14.1,identifythefollowing:
73)Thepharynxisindicatedbyletter__________.

74)Themouth(oralcavity)isindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
75)Thehormoneresponsibleforpromotingthereleaseofpepsinogens,mucus,and
hydrochloricacidinthestomachiscalled__________.

76)Segmentationisatypeofmechanicaldigestionthatoccursonlyinthe__________.

77)Theenergyvalueoffoodsismeasuredinunitscalled__________.

78)Therichcapillarybedandmodifiedlymphaticcapillaryfoundwithineachvillusis
calleda__________.

73)_____________
74)_____________

75)_____________

76)_____________
77)_____________
78)_____________

Figure14.1

UsingFigure14.1,identifythefollowing:
79)Thetongueisindicatedbyletter__________.

80)Theliverisindicatedbyletter__________.

81)Thespleenisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
82)Whenfecesareforcedintotherectumbymassmovementsandthewalloftherectum
becomesstretched,the__________isinitiated.

83)Aminoacidsthatcannotbemadebyhumanbodycellsandthereforemustbeingested
inthedietaresaidtobe__________.

84)TheprocessofeliminatingindigestibleresiduesfromtheGItractiscalled__________.

85)Thematerialontheoutermostsurfaceoftherootthatattachesatoothtotheperiodontal
membrane(ligament)iscalled__________.

86)Bilebreakslargefatglobulesintosmalleronestoprovidemoresurfaceareaforfatdigestingenzymestooperateinaprocessknownas__________.

79)_____________
80)_____________
81)_____________

82)_____________

83)_____________

84)_____________
85)_____________

86)_____________

87)Theorganthatconnectsthepharynxtothestomachisthe__________.

88)InorderforfatstobeusedforATPsynthesis,theymustbebrokendowntoform
__________.

89)Thespecificmetabolicpathwayofcellularrespirationinwhichvirtuallyallcarbon
dioxideismadeisthe__________.

90)Theupper,expandedpartofthestomachlateraltothecardiacregioniscalledthe
__________.

87)_____________
88)_____________

89)_____________

90)_____________

Figure14.1

UsingFigure14.1,identifythefollowing:
91)Theappendixisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
92)Theserosalmembraneliningtheabdominopelviccavitybywayofthemesenteryis
calledthe__________.

93)Foodthatresemblesheavycreamafterbeingprocessedinthestomachiscalled
__________.

91)_____________

92)_____________

93)_____________

Figure14.1

UsingFigure14.1,identifythefollowing:
94)Thegallbladderisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
95)Thetotalamountofkilocaloriesthebodymustconsumetofuelallongoingactivities,
whichincreasesdramaticallyduringphysicalexertion,iscalledthe__________.

94)_____________

95)_____________

Figure14.1

UsingFigure14.1,identifythefollowing:
96)Therectumisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
97)Theopeningontheterminalendofthelargeintestineiscalledthe__________.

98)Milkteeththatbegintoeruptataroundsixmonthsarealsocalledthe__________.

99)Chemicalsubstancesreleasedbymacrophagesandwhitebloodcellsthatcausean
upwardresettingofthebodysthermostatarecalled__________.

100)ThemajorfuelformakingATPinmostcellsofthebodyisatypeofcarbohydrate
knownas__________.

96)_____________

97)_____________
98)_____________
99)_____________

100)____________

Figure14.1

UsingFigure14.1,identifythefollowing:
101)Thelargeintestineisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
102)Cellsabundantwithinthelargeintestinethatproducelargeamountsoflubricating
mucustoaidinthepassageoffecestotheendofthedigestivetractarecalled
__________.

103)Thelastsubdivisionofthesmallintestineiscalledthe__________.

104)Theinnermostlayerofthealimentarycanalisreferredtoasthe__________.

101)____________

102)____________

103)____________
104)____________

Figure14.1

UsingFigure14.1,identifythefollowing:
105)Theanusisindicatedbyletter__________.
105)____________

TRUE/FALSE.WriteTifthestatementistrueandFifthestatementisfalse.
106)Theascendingcolonisfoundontheleftsideoftheabdominalcavity.
106)_____

107)Bileenterstheduodenumofthesmallintestinethroughthepancreaticduct.
107)_____

108)Thechiefcellsproducehydrochloricacid,whichactivatesstomachenzymes.
108)_____

109)Waterystoolsthatresultwhenfoodresidueisrushedthroughthelargeintestinebefore
109)_____
sufficientwaterhasbeenreabsorbed,causingdehydrationandelectrolyteimbalance,iscalled
constipation.

110)Theinnermostlayeroftheserosaiscalledtheparietalperitoneum.
110)_____

111)OptimalhealthoftissuesisachievedwhenHDLandLDLarepresentinequalamountswithin
111)_____
thebloodstream.

112)Thelacyapronoftheperitoneumthatcoverstheabdominalorgansiscalledthelesseromentum. 112)_____

113)Thebodysthermostat,whichconstantlyregulatesbodytemperature,islocatedwithinthe
hypo thala

mus.

113)

114)Anothernameforthealimentarycanalisthegastrointestinal(GI)tract.

115)Secretinandcholecystokinininfluencethereleaseofbothpancreaticjuiceandbile.

116)Fatmetabolismcanresultinacidosis(ketoacidosis).

117)Massmovementsareslow-movingcontractilewavesthatmoveoverlargeareasofthecolon
threeorfourtimeseachday.

118)Foodwithinthelumenofthealimentarycanalisconsideredtobeoutsidethebody.

119)Theenamelfoundonteethisheavilymineralizedwithcalciumsaltsandcomprisesthehardest
substancewithintheentirebody.

120)Theprocessofmasticationissimplyknownaschewing.

121)Bileisproducedbytheliverbutstoredinthegallbladder.

122)Anabolismistheprocessinwhichlargermoleculesarebuiltfromsmallerones.

123)Diverticulosisoccurswhenmucosabecomeinflamedandprotrudethroughthewallofthesmall
intestine.

124)Sugarsandstarchesareclassifiedaslipids.

125)Villiareprojectionsofthemucosaofthestomach.

126)Theinvoluntaryphaseofswallowingiscalledthebuccalphase.

127)Pancreaticenzymesarereleasedintothestomachtobreakdownallcategoriesofdigestible
foods.

128)Thesegmentofthecolontowhichtheappendixisattachedisthececum.

129)Smallpocketlikesacswithinthelargeintestinethatmostoftenarepartiallycontractedarecalled
haustra.

130)Thesmallintestinerunsfromthepyloricsphinctertotheileocecalvalve.

131)Thebicuspidsarealsocalledwisdomteeth.

132)Absenceofeitherbileorpancreaticjuiceindicatesthatnofatdigestionorabsorptionis
occurring.Thiscanleadtoblood-clottingproblemsbecausetheliverneedsvitaminKtomake
prothrombin.

133)Therhythmic,wavelikepropellingmechanismofthealimentarycanaliscalledperistalsis.

134)Fatsareabsorbedbyactivetransportinthesmallintestine.

____
_
114)_____
115)_____
116)_____
117)_____

118)_____
119)_____

120)_____
121)_____
122)_____
123)_____

124)_____
125)_____
126)_____
127)_____

128)_____
129)_____

130)_____
131)_____
132)_____

133)_____
134)_____

135)Thefirstportionofthesmallintestineisthejejunum.

136)Enzymesofthemicrovilliarecalledbrushborderenzymes.

137)Theanalcanalhasavoluntarysphincterformedbysmoothmuscleonly.

MATCHING.Choosetheitemincolumn2thatbestmatcheseachitemincolumn1.
Identifythedigestiveorganthatisprimarilyassociatedwiththefollowingdigestivefunction:
138)Sitewherepancreaticenzymesand
A)ileum
bileenterthealimentarycanal

B)duodenum

Matchthefollowingtermsorphraseswiththeappropriatenutrient:
139)Glucoseandglycogen
A)carbohydrates

Identifythedigestiveorganthatisprimarilyassociatedwiththefollowingdigestivefunction:
140)Tubethroughwhichfoodis
A)anus
propelledbutnodigestiontakes
place

B)esophagus
141)Siteofinitiationofthedefecation

reflex
C)smallintestine

D)rectum

Matchthefollowingnutrientswiththeirassociateddigestiveenzymes:
142)Proteins
A)hydrochloricacid

B)
pepsinogens

Matchthefollowingtermsorphraseswiththeappropriatenutrient:
143)Aminoacids
A)proteins

Matchthefollowingnutrientswiththeirassociateddigestiveenzymes:
144)Nucleicacids
A)nuclease

B)
lipase

Identifythedigestiveorganthatisprimarilyassociatedwiththefollowingdigestivefunction:
145)Sitewherethebeginningofprotein
A)smallintestine
digestionoccurs

B)stomach

Matchthefollowingtermsorphraseswiththeappropriatenutrient:
146)Coenzymes
A)vitamins

Identifythedigestiveorganthatisprimarilyassociatedwiththefollowingdigestivefunction:
147)SiteofvitaminKsynthesisby
bacte ria

135)_____
136)_____
137)_____

138)_____

139)_____

140)_____

141)_____

142)_____

143)_____

144)_____

145)_____

146)_____

A)
mouth

147)

_____

148)Sitewherestarchdigestionbegins

B)largeintestine
148)_____
C)
smallintestine

D)stomach

Matchthefollowingtermsorphraseswiththeappropriatenutrient:
149)Triglycerides
A)lipids
149)_____

Matchthefollowingnutrientswiththeirassociateddigestiveenzymes:
150)Lactose
A)amylase
150)_____

151)Fat
B)bile
151)_____

152)Starch
C)pepsinogen
152)_____

D)
lactase

E)lipase

Matchthefollowingtermsorphraseswiththeappropriatenutrient:
153)Fiber
A)carbohydrates
153)_____

Identifythedigestiveorganthatisprimarilyassociatedwiththefollowingdigestivefunction:
154)Primarysiteofwaterabsorption
A)largeintestine
154)_____

B)
smallintestine

Matchthefollowingtermsorphraseswiththeappropriatenutrient:
155)Calcium,phosphorus,potassium
A)minerals
155)_____

ESSAY.Writeyouranswerinthespaceprovidedoronaseparatesheetofpaper.
156)Explainwhatvitaminsandmineralsareandidentifytheirimportancetothebody.

157)DescribethefourlayersoftheGItract.

158)Explainthevariousprocessesoffoodpropulsion.

159)Discusstheanaerobicandaerobicmechanismsbywhichbodycellsgenerateadenosinetriphosphate(ATP).

160)Identifyanddescribethesixmajorprocessesinvolvedingastrointestinalactivity.

161)Explaintheroleofthehormonescholecystokininandsecretininregulatingthereleaseofbileandpancreatic
juices.

162)Explainwhythereisreallynosuchthingasgoodorbadlipoproteincholesterol.


1)E
2)A
3)D
4)C
5)D
6)E
7)B
8)E
9)E
10)A
11)D
12)D
13)B
14)B
15)A
16)E
17)C
18)D
19)D
20)E
21)B
22)B
23)B
24)E
25)D
26)B
27)D
28)C
29)B
30)B
31)D
32)D
33)A
34)B
35)A
36)D
37)C
38)B
39)C
40)E
41)B
42)E
43)B
44)E
45)B
46)A
47)A
48)D
49)B
50)D
51)D

52)C
53)E
54)C
55)E
56)C
57)gingiva(orgum)
58)L
59)glycogenesis
60)O
61)pancreaticjuice
62)medulla
63)F
64)ingestion
65)pyloric
66)M
67)cardioesophageal
68)low-densitylipoprotein(LDL)
69)rugae
70)catabolism
71)liver
72)alcohol;aspirin
73)N
74)A
75)gastrin
76)smallintestine
77)kilocalories(kcal)
78)lacteal
79)B
80)D
81)K
82)defecationreflex
83)essential
84)defecation
85)cementum
86)emulsification
87)esophagus
88)aceticacid
89)Krebscycle
90)fundus
91)H
92)parietalperitoneum
93)chyme
94)E
95)totalmetabolicrate
96)I
97)anus
98)deciduousteeth
99)pyrogens
100)glucose
101)J
102)gobletcells
103)ileum

104)mucosa
105)G
106)FALSE
107)FALSE
108)FALSE
109)FALSE
110)FALSE
111)FALSE
112)FALSE
113)TRUE
114)TRUE
115)TRUE
116)TRUE
117)TRUE
118)TRUE
119)TRUE
120)TRUE
121)TRUE
122)TRUE
123)FALSE
124)FALSE
125)FALSE
126)FALSE
127)FALSE
128)TRUE
129)TRUE
130)TRUE
131)FALSE
132)TRUE
133)TRUE
134)FALSE
135)FALSE
136)TRUE
137)FALSE
138)B
139)A
140)B
141)D
142)B
143)A
144)A
145)B
146)A
147)B
148)A
149)A
150)A
151)B
152)A
153)A
154)A
155)A

156)Vitaminsarewater-soluble,fat-soluble,ororganicnutrientsthatthebodyrequiresinsmallamounts.Most
functionascoenzymesthatenableanenzymetoaccomplishaparticulartypeofcatalysis.Vitaminsarefoundinall
majorfoodgroups,andabalanceddietisthebestwaytoensureafullvitamincomplement.Mineralsareinorganic
substances,suchascalcium,potassium,andsodium,thatthebodyalsorequiresinadequatesupply.Thefoods
highestinmineralcontentarevegetables,legumes,milk,andsomemeats.
157)1.Mucosaisthemoistinnermostlayer;itlinesthecavityoftheorgan.
2.Thesubmucosaisfoundbeneaththemucosalayer.Itcontainsbloodvessels,nerveendings,lymphnodules,and
lymphaticvessels.
3.Themuscularexternisisthenextlayer,whichistypicallymadeupofacircularandalongitudinallayerof
smoothmuscle.
4.Theoutermostlayeristheserosa,whichconsistsoftwosinglelayersofcells.Theinnermostserosaisthevisceral
peritoneumwhiletheoutermostlayeristheparietalperitoneum.Betweentheselayersisserousfluid.
158)Deglutition(swallowing)includestwophases,onevoluntaryandoneinvoluntary.Thevoluntaryphaseiscalled
thebuccalphase,anditinvolvesmovementofthefoodbolusbythetongueintothepharynx.Theinvoluntary
phaseiscalledthepharyngeal-esophagealphase,anditinvolvesblockageofallroutesexcepttheesophagealroute
whilethebolusismovedthroughthepharynxandintotheesophagus.Thisreflexisregulatedbythe
parasympatheticnervoussystem.Peristalsisistherhythmic,wavelikemotionofthestomachandintestines.It
involveswavesofcontractionthatmovechymealong,followedbywavesofrelaxation.Anothermechanismof
foodpropulsionissegmentationofthesmallintestine.Althoughitschieffunctionismixingchymewithdigestive
juices,italsoassistsinpropulsion.Massmovementsareanothermechanismbywhichfoodismovedthroughthe
GItract,whichoccurthreetofourtimesaday,typicallyjustaftereating.Theyarepowerfulcontractionsthatmove
overthecolonandforcecontentstowardtherectumtobestoreduntildefecation.Thepresenceoffecesinthe
rectuminitiatesthedefecationreflex,whichcausesthewallsofthesigmoidcolonandrectumtocontractwhile
relaxingtheanalsphincters.
159)Cellularrespirationincludesalloftheoxygen-dependentprocessesbywhichenergyfromthebreakdownof
glucoseiscapturedwithinchemicalbondswhichuniteadenosinediphosphate(ADP)andinorganicphosphateinto
thebodyspreferredmetabolicfuel,adenosinetriphosphate(ATP).Oneprocess,glycolysis,energizeseachglucose
moleculesothatitcanbesplitintotwopyruvicacidmoleculestoyieldATP.TheKrebscycle,locatedwithinthe
mitochondria,producesallthecarbondioxideandwaterthatresultsduringcellularrespiration,andityieldsa
smallamountofATPaswell.Theelectrontransportchain,alsolocatedwithinthemitochondria,istheprimary
producerofATP.HydrogenatomsremovedduringglycolysisandtheKrebscyclearedeliveredtotheprotein
carriersoftheelectrontransportchain,whichformpartofthemitochondrialcristaemembranes.Therethe
hydrogenatomsaresplitintotheirpositiveionsandnegativeelectrons.Theelectronsthentravelfromcarrierto
carrierinaseriesofstepsthatenablephosphatetoattachtoADPtoformATP.
160)Ingestionistheactive,voluntaryprocessofplacingfoodintothemouth.Propulsioninvolvesalloftheactions
involvedinmovingfoodalongthealimentarycanalfromthemouthtotheanus,includingswallowing,peristalsis,
segmentation,andmassmovements.Mechanicaldigestioninvolvesalloftheactivitiesthatbreakfooddowninto
smallerpiecestopreparethemforfurtherdegradationbyenzymes.Chemicaldigesting,thenextstepoffood
breakdown,involvesthesequenceofstepsbywhichlargefoodmoleculesarebrokendowntotheirbuildingblocks
byenzymes.AbsorptionisthemechanismbywhichdigestedendproductsaremovedfromthelumenoftheGI
tractintothebloodorlymph.Thefinalprocessisdefecation,whichistheeliminationofindigestiblesubstances
fromthebodyviatheanusasfeces.
161)Whenchymeentersthesmallintestine,itstimulatesthemucosacellstoproducethehormonescholecystokininand
secretin.Thesehormonestravelinthebloodstreamtotheirtargetorgans:thepancreas,liver,andgallbladder.The
pancreasrespondstocholecystokininbyreleasingenzyme-richpancreaticjuiceandsecretincausesthesecretionof
bicarbonate-richpancreaticjuice.Theliverrespondstosecretinbyreleasingbilewhilecholecystokininstimulates
thegallbladdertoreleasestoredbile.
162)Lipoproteinstransportcholesterolandfattyacids.Low-densitylipoproteins(LDLs)transportcholesterolandother
lipidstobodycellsforuseinavarietyofways.IftherearelargeamountsofcirculatingLDLs,somefatty
substancesmaybedepositedonarterialwalls,whichisthereasontheyareassociatedwithheartdiseaseriskand
havesometimesbeenlabeledbad.However,theyareanecessarytransportsubstance,sothekeyistohaveLDLs
intheacceptablerange.High-densitylipoproteins(HDLs)transportcholesterolfromthetissuecellsorarteriesto

the LDLs,sothatwhateverexcesscholesterolismovedinbytheLDLscanbemovedoutagainbytheHDLs.Itistheir
liver relativeratiothatisimportant.Botharenecessary,andneithershouldbeconsideredgoodnorbad.
for
disp
osal
in
bile.
Beca
use
they
trans
port
chole
stero
l
away
from
the
arteri
es,
they
have
some
time
s
been
label
ed
goo
d.
Agai
n,
they
area
nece
ssary
trans
port
subst
ance,
and
the
key
isto
have
HDL
sin
the
prop
er
ratio
with

Exam
Name___________________________________

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
1)Incontrastingurineandfiltratebythetimeitreachesthecollectingducts,itcouldbesaidthat:
1)_______
A)filtratecontainsalmosteverythingthatbloodplasmadoes
B)theycontainessentiallythesameconcentrationofnutrients
C)urinecontainsalmosteverythingthatbloodplasmadoes
D)filtratecontainsmoreunnecessarysubstancesthanurinedoes
E)theycontainessentiallythesameamountofwater

2)ThemostpotentofallmechanismsandsubstancesthatthebodyusestoregulatebloodpHare:
2)_______
A)therespiratorysystemcontrols
B)thebuffersystem
C)hormones
D)thekidneys
E)enzymes

3)Whichoneofthefollowingtermsdescribesthelocationofthekidneys:
3)_______
A)retroperineal
B)suprarenal
C)intraperitoneal
D)retroperitoneal
E)adrenal

4)Thechemicalbuffersystemthatincludescarbonicacidanditssalt,whichtiesuptheH+released 4)_______
bystrongacids,iscalledthe:
A)ionicbuffersystem
B)carbonicbuffersystem
C)proteinbuffersystem
D)phosphatebuffersystem
E)bicarbonatebuffersystem

5)Functionalkidneysdevelopwithinthewombbythethirdmonthafterconceptionfromthe
5)_______
__________setoftubulesystems.
A)fourth
B)second
C)fifth
D)third
E)first

6)Thedegenerativeconditioninwhichblisterlikesacs(cysts)containingurineformonthekidneys 6)_______
andobstructurinedrainageiscalled:
A)hypospadias
B)polycystickidney
C)cystitis
D)dysuria
E)epispadias

7)Theenlarged,cup-shapedclosedendoftherenaltubulethatcompletelysurroundsthe
7)_______
glomerulusiscalledthe:
A)Bowmanscapsule
B)distalconvolutedtubule
C)proximalconvolutedtubule
D)collectingduct
E)loopofHenle


8)Ofthecapillarybedsassociatedwitheachnephron,theonethatisbothfedanddrainedby
arteriolesisthe:
A)glomerulus
B)Henlecapillaries
C)pyramidalcapillaries
D)Bowmanscapillaries
E)peritubularcapillaries

9)Enlargementoftheprostatethatsurroundstheneckofthebladderinadultmeniscalled
__________,whichmaycausevoidingdifficulty.
A)eutrophy
B)dystrophy
C)hypoplasia
D)atrophy
E)hyperplasia

10)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTasubstancetypicallyreabsorbedbythetubulesunder
normalhealthyconditions:
A)sodium
B)water
C)urea
D)glucose
E)aminoacids

11)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTtrueofurineundernormalhealthyconditions:
A)itissterile
B)ittypicallycontainsammonia
C)itisslightlyaromatic
D)itisslightlyalkaline
E)itismoredensethanwater

12)Whichoneofthefollowingsubstancesisnormallyfoundinurine:
A)creatinine
B)redbloodcells
C)bloodproteins
D)hemoglobin
E)whitebloodcells

13)Inone24-hourperiod,thekidneysofanaverage-sizedhealthyadultfilterapproximately
__________throughtheirglomeruliintothetubules.
A)50-75litersofbloodplasma
B)10-15litersofbloodplasma
C)100-125litersofbloodplasma
D)200-240litersofbloodplasma
E)150-180litersofbloodplasma

14)Antidiuretichormonepreventsexcessivewaterlossbypromotingwaterreabsorptioninthe:
A)distalconvolutedtubule
B)collectingduct
C)glomerulus
D)proximalconvolutedtubule

8)_______

9)_______

10)______

11)______

12)______

13)______

14)______

E)bladder

15)Urineistransportedfromthebladdertotheoutsideofthebodybythe:
A)prostategland
B)ureter
C)urethra
D)trigone
E)collectingduct

16)Thetriangularregionsofthekidneysthatarestripedinappearanceandseparatedbytherenal
columnsarethe:
A)renalpyramids
B)calyces
C)renalcortex
D)renalmedulla
E)renalpelvis

17)Thenoninvasivetreatmentforkidneystonesthatusesultrasoundwavestoshattercalculiis
called:
A)lithotomy
B)lithotripsy
C)lithiasis
D)lithoscopy
E)lithectomy

18)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOToneofthemajorrolesofthekidneysinnormalhealthy
adults:
A)excretionofnitrogen-containingwastes
B)ensuringproperbloodpH
C)maintenanceofwaterbalanceoftheblood
D)maintenanceofelectrolytebalanceoftheblood
E)conversionofammoniatobicarbonateion

19)Thepercentageoffiltrateeventuallyreabsorbedintothebloodstreamisclosestto:
A)50%
B)99%
C)10%
D)80%
E)25%

20)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOToneofthefunctionsofthekidneys:
A)producehormonesthatassistindigestion
B)manufactureurine
C)disposeofmetabolicwasteproducts
D)convertvitaminDfromitsinactivetoitsactiveform
E)regulatebloodvolume

21)Thebladderisabletoexpandasurineaccumulateswithinitduetothepresenceof:
A)segmentation
B)transitionalepithelium
C)sphincters
D)pseudostratifiedepithelium
E)rugae

22)Theportionoftherenaltubulethatcompletelysurroundstheglomerulusisthe:
A)proximalconvolutedtubule(PCT)

15)______

16)______

17)______

18)______

19)______

20)______

21)______

22)______

B)loopofHenle
C)distalconvolutedtubule(DCT)
D)collectingduct
E)glomerular(Bowmans)capsule

23)Controlofthevoluntaryurethralsphincterinnormalchildrenisrelatedto:
A)hormoneregulation
B)nervoussystemdevelopment
C)enzymaticregulation
D)musculardevelopment
E)intelligence

24)Uricacid,anitrogenouswasteproduct,resultsfromthemetabolismof:
A)aminoacids
B)proteins
C)nucleicacids
D)creatinine
E)salt

25)WhenbloodpHbeginstorise,therespiratorycontrolcentersinthebrainare:
A)controlledbythekidneys
B)noteffected
C)shutoff
D)depressed
E)accelerated

26)Asimpleruleconcerningwaterandelectrolyteregulationis:
A)saltactivelyfollowswater
B)waterpassivelyfollowssalt
C)saltpassivelyfollowswater
D)wateractivelyfollowssalt
E)potassiumpassivelyfollowssodium

27)Theperitubularcapillariesarisefromthe__________,whichdrainstheglomerulus.
A)loopofHenle
B)Bowmanscapsule
C)afferentarteriole
D)efferentarteriole
E)glomerulus

28)Thenonselective,passiveprocessperformedbytheglomerulusthatformsbloodplasmawithout
bloodproteinsiscalled:
A)filtration
B)glomerularreabsorption
C)tubularreabsorption
D)secretion
E)absorption

29)Hypospadiasisaconditionofmalechildrenthatinvolves:
A)atrophiedprostate
B)openingoftheurethraontheventralsurfaceofthepenis
C)inflammationoftheglomerulus

23)______

24)______

25)______

26)______

27)______

28)______

29)______

D)closingoftheforeskinovertheendofthepenis
E)cystsonthekidneys

30)Theaverageadultbladderismoderatelyfullwith__________ofurinewithinit.
A)2liters
B)1gallon
C)1liter
D)100mL
E)500mL

31)Eachkidneycontainsabout:
A)100,000nephrons
B)2millionnephrons
C)500,000nephrons
D)1millionnephrons
E)3millionnephrons

32)Thechemicallybufferedcombinationofstrongacidsthatdissociatecompletelyinwaterwith
weakbasessuchashydroxidesleadstoa:
A)weakacidandastrongbase
B)weakacidandasalt
C)weakbaseandsalt
D)strongbaseandasalt
E)weakbaseandwater

33)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTtrueofincontinence:
A)itisnormalinolderchildrenwhosleepsoundly
B)itoccurswhenweareunabletovoluntarilycontroltheexternalsphincter
C)itisnormalinchildren2yearsoldoryounger
D)itcanresultfrompressureonthebladder
E)itisneverconsiderednormal

34)Themainhormonethatactsonthekidneystoregulatesodiumionconcentrationofthe
extracellullarfluid(ECF)is:
A)epinephrine
B)secretin
C)renin
D)aldosterone
E)ADH

35)ExtracellularfluidisfoundeverywhereinthebodyEXCEPT:
A)bloodplasma
B)humorsoftheeyeandlymph
C)cerebrospinalfluid
D)withinlivingcells
E)interstitialfluid

36)Theprocessofemptyingthebladderisreferredtoasvoidingor:
A)tubularsecretion
B)micturition
C)filtration
D)incontinence
E)tubularreabsorption

37)TheproperpHforthebloodis:
A)6.8-6.9
B)7.0-7.35
C)7.35-7.45
D)7.5-8.0
E)6.5-8.0

30)______

31)______

32)______

33)______

34)______

35)______

36)______

37)______


38)WhichofthefollowingisNOTanorganfoundintheurinarysystem:
A)ureter
B)urethra
C)pancreas
D)kidney
E)urinarybladder

39)Theresultsoftherenin-angiotensinmechanismmediatedbythejuxtaglomerularapparatusof
therenaltubulesincludeallofthefollowingEXCEPT:
A)increasedperipheralresistance
B)bloodpressureincrease
C)bloodvolumeincrease
D)suppressionofaldosterone
E)vasoconstriction

40)Whencarbondioxideentersthebloodfromtissuecells,itisconvertedto__________for
transportwithinbloodplasma.
A)sodiumbicarbonate
B)bicarbonateion
C)carbonicanhydrase
D)sodiumhydroxide
E)ammonia

41)Thetubeconnectingtherenalhilusofthekidneytothebladderisthe:
A)collectingduct
B)urethra
C)distalconvolutedtubule
D)ureter
E)proximalconvolutedtubule

42)Thepresenceofpusinurineiscalled:
A)pyuria
B)bilirubinuria
C)glycosuria
D)hematuria
E)proteinuria

43)Fromchildhoodthroughlatemiddleage,oneofthemostcommonbacteriatoinfectandinflame
theurinarytractandcauseurethritisandcystitisis:
A)streptococcus
B)Clostridiumbotulinum
C)Escherichiacoli
D)staphylococcus
E)Mycobacteriumtuberculosis

44)Thekidneysareaidedintheexcretionoffluidsbythe:
A)skin
B)skinandhair
C)lungsandskin
D)hair
E)lungs

38)______

39)______

40)______

41)______

42)______

43)______

44)______


45)Mostnephronsarelocatedwithintherenal:
45)______
A)pyramids
B)medulla
C)calyces
D)pelvis
E)cortex

46)Inahealthyyoungadultfemale,wateraccountsfor:
46)______
A)lessthanone-halfofbodyweight
B)99%ofbodyweight
C)approximatelyone-halfofbodyweight
D)three-quartersofbodyweight
E)one-quarterofbodyweight

47)Thevoluntarilycontrolledsphincterfashionedbyskeletalmuscleatthepointwheretheurethra 47)______
passesthroughthepelvicflooriscalledthe:
A)trigone
B)internalanalsphincter
C)externalurethralsphincter
D)detrusorsphincter
E)internalurethralsphincter

48)Diluteurinewouldhaveaspecificgravityclosestto:
48)______
A)1.010
B)1.020
C)1.001
D)0.005
E)1.030

49)Startingfromtheglomerularcapsule,thecorrectorderoftherenaltubuleregionsis:
49)______
A)proximalconvolutedtubule,loopofHenle,distalconvolutedtubule
B)distalconvolutedtubule,loopofHenle,proximalconvolutedtubule
C)distalconvolutedtubule,proximalconvolutedtubule,loopofHenle
D)loopofHenle,proximalconvolutedtubule,distalconvolutedtubule
E)proximalconvolutedtubule,distalconvolutedtubule,loopofHenle

50)Theaverageoutputofurineforanormalhealthyadultis:
50)______
A)1500mL/day
B)2500mL/day
C)500mL/day
D)2000mL/day
E)1000mL/day

51)Asvenousbloodisdrainedfromthekidney,whichpathdoesitfollow:
51)______
A)corticalradiateveins,arcuateveins,interlobarveins,renalvein
B)arcuateveins,corticalradiateveins,interlobarveins,renalvein
C)renalvein,segmentalveins,interlobarveins,arcuateveins,corticalradiateveins
D)renalvein,interlobarveins,segmentalveins,arcuateveins
E)corticalradiateveins,arcuateveins,interlobarveins,segmentalveins,renalvein

SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
52)Voiding,urination,and__________aretermsthatindicatethepassageofurinefromthe 52)_____________
bladder.

Figure15.1

UsingFigure15.1,identifythefollowing:
53)Theureterisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
54)Theneedtourinatefrequentlyatnight,whichplaguesover50%oftheelderly,iscalled
__________.

55)TheabnormalconditionthatresultsfromthelackofADHrelease,causinghuge
amountsofverydiluteurinetobevoided,iscalled__________.

56)Anothertermforkidneystones,whichformwhenurinebecomesextremely
concentrated,is__________.

57)Afeelingthatitisnecessarytovoid,whichisexperiencedmoreregularlyintheelderly,
isknownas__________.

53)_____________

54)_____________

55)_____________

56)_____________

57)_____________


Figure15.2

UsingFigure15.2,identifythefollowing:
58)Thearcuateveinisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
59)Theconditionthatresultswhenredbloodcellsareabnormallypresentinurineiscalled
__________.

60)Eachkidneyissurroundedandheldinplaceagainstthemusclesofthetrunkwallbyits
__________.

61)Astrongacidwilldissociateandliberatemore__________ionsinwaterthanaweak
acid.

58)_____________

59)_____________

60)_____________

61)_____________


Figure15.2

UsingFigure15.2,identifythefollowing:
62)Theglomerulusisindicatedbyletter__________.

63)Theglomerularcapsule(Bowmanscapsule)isindicatedbyletter__________.

62)_____________
63)_____________

Figure15.1

UsingFigure15.1,identifythefollowing:
64)Therenalpyramidisindicatedbyletter__________.

64)_____________


Figure15.2

UsingFigure15.2,identifythefollowing:
65)Theproximalconvolutedtubuleisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
66)ArterialbloodpHbetween7.35and7.0iscalled__________.

67)Theprocessoffiltrationoccursinaspecificstructureinthenephroncalledthe
__________.

68)Therearethreeregionsofthekidney;theoutermostregionisknownasthe__________.

69)Untreatedstreptococcalinfectionsinchildhoodthatcanleadtothekidneyinfection
characterizedbyantigen-antibodycomplexescloggingtheglomerularfiltersisknown
as__________.

70)Highlysensitivecellswithinthehypothalamusthatreacttochangesinblood
compositionandcausethereleaseofantidiuretichormone(ADH)whenappropriateare
called__________.

65)_____________

66)_____________
67)_____________

68)_____________
69)_____________

70)_____________

71)Specificgravityisthetermusedtocomparehowmuchheavierurineisthan__________. 71)_____________

Figure15.1

UsingFigure15.1,identifythefollowing:
72)Thefibrouscapsuleisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
73)Avegetariandietissaidtobea(n)__________dietbecauseitmakesurineextremely
alkalineasthekidneysexcreteexcessbases.

74)Theinabilitytovoluntarilycontroltheexternalurethralsphincterisknownas
__________.

75)Abouttwo-thirdsofbodyfluidisfoundwithinlivingcells;thisfluidiscalledthe
__________.

76)Thesmoothtriangularregionofthebladderbasethatisoutlinedbytheopeningsofthe
twouretersandtheurethraiscalledthe__________.

77)Asbloodflowstowardthekidney,ittravelsfromtherenalarteryintovesselscalledthe
__________.

78)Contrasttherolesoftheuretersandurethraintheurinarysystem.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
79)Renalpyramidsareseparatedbyextensionsofcortex-liketissuecalledthe__________.

80)Theinvoluntarysphincterthatkeepstheurethraclosedwhenurineisnotbeingpassed

72)_____________

73)_____________

74)_____________

75)_____________

76)_____________

77)_____________

78)_____________

79)_____________
is calledthe

________ 80)
__.

___
___
___
___
_

Figure15.2

UsingFigure15.2,identifythefollowing:
81)Thecollectingductisindicatedbyletter__________.

82)TheloopofHenleisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
83)Thepigmentresultingfromthedestructionofhemoglobinthatgivesfreshly-voided
urineitspaleyellowcoloriscalled__________.

84)ThekidneyscanhelpmaintainarisingbloodpHbyexcreting__________ionsand
reabsorbing__________ionsbythetubulecells.

81)_____________
82)_____________

83)_____________

84)_____________


Figure15.2

UsingFigure15.2,identifythefollowing:
85)Theafferentarterioleisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
86)Urinarybladderinflammationoftencausedbybacterialinfectioniscalled__________.

87)Aurinaryoutputoflessthan100mLperdayiscalled__________.

88)Sodiumioncontentoftheextracellularfluid(ECF)islargelyregulatedbyanadrenal
cortexhormonecalled__________.

85)_____________

86)_____________
87)_____________
88)_____________

Figure15.1

UsingFigure15.1,identifythefollowing:
89)Therenalcolumnisindicatedbyletter__________.
89)_____________

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
90)TheprimaryurinarysymptomofAddisonsdisease(hypoaldosteronism)iscalled
90)_____________
__________.

TRUE/FALSE.WriteTifthestatementistrueandFifthestatementisfalse.
91)Sexuallytransmitteddiseases(STDs)areprimarilyinfectionsofthereproductivetractsbutmay
91)______
alsocauseurinarytractinfections.

92)Thelumensurfacesofthetubulecellswithintheproximalconvolutedtubulearecoveredwith
92)______
microvilli.

93)Incontinenceisoftenthefinaloutcomeoftheurinarysystemduringtheagingprocess.
93)______

94)Followingthemicturitionreflex,itisimpossibletopostponebladderemptying.
94)______

95)Nitrogenouswasteproductssuchasurea,uricacid,andcreatinineareexcretedfromthebodyin 95)______
urineratherthanreabsorbed.

96)Thefluidstoredinsidecellsisreferredtoasextracellularfluid(ECF).
96)______

97)Antidiuretichormone(ADH)causesincreasedwaterlossthroughtheurine.
97)______

98)Thespecificgravityofurineistypicallylowerthanthespecificgravityofpurewater.
98)______

99)ApersonwitharterialbloodpHabove7.45issaidtohaveacidosis.

100)Themedialindentationofthekidneywhereseveralstructuressuchastheureters,renalblood
vessels,andnervesenterandexitthekidneyiscalledthehilus.

101)Urinemovesdowntheuretersintothebladderduetogravitationalpullalone.

102)Thetinyfilteringstructuresofthekidneysarecallednephrons.

103)WhenbloodpHbecomestooacidic,thetubulecellsofthekidneysexcretebicarbonateionsand
retainhydrogenions.

104)Bloodproteinsandbloodcellsaretoolargetopassthroughthefiltrationmembraneandshould
notbefoundinfiltrate.

105)Themovementofwaterfromonefluidcompartmenttoanotherhasnoeffectonbloodvolume
andbloodpressure.

106)Theurethra,whichcarriesurineexitingthebladderbyperistalsis,istypicallyshorterinfemales
thaninmales.

107)Theregionoftherenaltubuleclosesttotheglomerularcapsuleisthedistalconvolutedtubule.

108)Theinternalurethralsphincterisinvoluntary.

109)Tubularsecretion,whichseemstobeimportantforremovalofsubstancesnotalreadyinthe
filtrate,isessentiallyreabsorptioninreverse.

110)Thepigmentthatgivesurineitscharacteristicyellowcolorisurochrome.

111)Theperitubularcapillarybedarisesfromtheafferentarteriole.

112)Themostimportanttriggerforaldosteronereleaseistherenin-angiotensinmechanism,
mediatedbytherenaltubules.

113)Thekidneyshelpmaintainacid-basebalanceofthebloodbyexcretingbicarbonateions.

114)Tubularreabsorptionbeginsintheglomerulus.

MATCHING.Choosetheitemincolumn2thatbestmatcheseachitemincolumn1.
Identifytheseorgansoftheurinarysystemwiththeirassociateddescriptions:
115)Transportsurineandsperminmales
A)urethra

116)Containsanareacalledthetrigone
B)bladder
formedbytheopeningsoftheureters
andurethra

Identifythesubstanceswithintheurineandtheirpossiblecauseswiththenameoftheassociatedcondition:
117)Hemoglobinintheurinedueto
react
A)
hemolyticanemiaoratransfusion
ion

99)______
100)_____

101)_____
102)_____
103)_____

104)_____

105)_____

106)_____

107)_____
108)_____
109)_____

110)_____
111)_____
112)_____

113)_____
114)_____

115)_____
116)_____

hem a
aturi

117)

_____

B)
hemoglobinuria

Identifytheseorgansoftheurinarysystemwiththeirassociateddescriptions:
118)Muscularsacsuitablefortemporary
A)bladder
urinestorage

Identifytheurinarystructurewithitsassociateddescription:
119)Vesselssupplyingeachkidneywith
A)renalcortex
bloodtobefiltered

B)renalvein
120)Outer,lighterregionofthekidney

C)renalmedulla

D)renalartery

Identifythesubstanceswithintheurineandtheirpossiblecauseswiththenameoftheassociatedcondition:
121)Glucoseintheurineduetodiabetes
A)glycosuria
mellitus

B)dysuria

Identifytheseorgansoftheurinarysystemwiththeirassociateddescriptions:
122)Tubethatdrainsurinefromthe
A)ureter
kidneytothebladder

Identifytheurinarystructurewithitsassociateddescription:
123)Cortex-likeextensionsthatseparate
A)renalcortex
thepyramids

B)renalmedulla
124)Flat,basinlikecavitymedialtothe

hilusofthekidney
C)renalpelvis
125)

Darker,reddish-browninternalarea
D)renalcolumns
ofthekidney

Identifythesubstanceswithintheurineandtheirpossiblecauseswiththenameoftheassociatedcondition:
126)Proteinsintheurinedueto
A)anuria
pregnancyorexcessiveexercise

B)proteinuria

Identifytheurinarystructurewithitsassociateddescription:
127)Cup-shapedextensionsofthepelvis
A)pyramids

128)Triangularregionswithastriped
appe arance

118)_____

119)_____

120)_____

121)_____

122)_____

123)_____

124)_____

125)_____

126)_____

127)_____
B)
renal

pyramid 128)
s

____
_

C)calyces

Identifythesubstanceswithintheurineandtheirpossiblecauseswiththenameoftheassociatedcondition:
129)RBCsintheurineduetotraumaor
A)pyuria
infection

B)hematuria
130)Bilepigmentintheurinedueto

hepatitis
C)uremia

D)bilirubinuria

Identifytheseorgansoftheurinarysystemwiththeirassociateddescriptions:
131)Inmales,thisorganissurroundedby
A)bladder
theprostate

Identifythesubstanceswithintheurineandtheirpossiblecauseswiththenameoftheassociatedcondition:
132)PuscontainingWBCsandbacteriain
A)uremia
theurineduetourinarytract
infection

B)pyuria

Identifytheseorgansoftheurinarysystemwiththeirassociateddescriptions:
133)Inflammationofthisorganiscalled
A)bladder
cystitis

ESSAY.Writeyouranswerinthespaceprovidedoronaseparatesheetofpaper.
134)Identifyanddescribethethreemajorprocessesinvolvedinurineformation.

135)Describethenormalcharacteristicsoffreshly-voidedurineinahealthyadult.

136)Explaintherenin-angiotensinmechanism.

137)Describeandexplainurethralcontrolandconceptsrelatedtoincontinence.

138)DescribethebicarbonatebuffersystemandexplainitsimportanceinregulatingpHchanges.

129)_____

130)_____

131)_____

132)_____

133)_____


1)A
2)D
3)D
4)E
5)D
6)B
7)A
8)A
9)E
10)C
11)D
12)A
13)E
14)B
15)C
16)A
17)B
18)E
19)B
20)A
21)B
22)E
23)B
24)C
25)D
26)B
27)D
28)A
29)B
30)E
31)D
32)B
33)E
34)D
35)D
36)B
37)C
38)C
39)D
40)B
41)D
42)A
43)C
44)C
45)E
46)C
47)C
48)C
49)A
50)A
51)A

52)micturition
53)B
54)nocturia
55)diabetesinsipidus
56)renalcalculi
57)urgency
58)G
59)hematuria
60)renalfascia
61)hydrogen( )
62)O
63)A
64)D
65)M
66)physiologicalacidosis
67)glomerulus
68)renalcortex
69)glomerulonephritis
70)osmoreceptors
71)distilledwater
72)F
73)alkaline-ash
74)incontinence
75)intracellularfluid(ICF)
76)trigone
77)segmentalarteries
78)Theuretersaretubesthatconnectthekidneystothebladder.Eachuretertransportsurinetothebladder.Both
gravityandperistalsisaidinthemovementofurine.
Theurethraisatubethattransportsurinefromthebladdertotheoutsideofthebody.Thepassageofurinefrom
thebladderintotheurethraiscontrolledbytwosphincters:theinternal,involuntarysphincterandtheexternal,
voluntarysphincter.
79)renalcolumns
80)internalurethralsphincter
81)K
82)J
83)urochrome
84)bicarbonate;hydrogen
85)B
86)cystitis
87)anuria
88)aldosterone
89)C
90)polyuria
91)TRUE
92)TRUE
93)TRUE
94)FALSE
95)TRUE
96)FALSE
97)FALSE
98)FALSE
99)FALSE

100)TRUE
101)FALSE
102)TRUE
103)FALSE
104)TRUE
105)FALSE
106)TRUE
107)FALSE
108)TRUE
109)TRUE
110)TRUE
111)FALSE
112)TRUE
113)TRUE
114)FALSE
115)A
116)B
117)B
118)A
119)D
120)A
121)A
122)A
123)D
124)C
125)B
126)B
127)C
128)B
129)B
130)D
131)A
132)B
133)A
134)Filtrationisanonselective,passiveprocesswiththeglomerulusactingasthefilter.Thefiltrateformedisessentially
bloodplasmawithoutbloodproteins,whicharetoolargetopassthroughthefiltrationmembraneintotherenal
tubule.Reabsorptionistheprocessbywhichthebodyreclaimssubstanceswithinthefiltratethatitwantstokeep.
Mostreabsorptionisanactiveprocessusingmembranecarriers.Substancesthataretypicallyreabsorbedinclude
aminoacids,glucose,andions.Mostreabsorptionoccursintheproximalconvolutedtubules.Secretionisthe
oppositeprocess.Withsecretion,substancessuchashydrogenions,potassiumions,andcreatinineareremoved
fromtheperitubularcapillariesintothetubulestobeeliminatedinurine.
135)Urineisapale,straw-coloredliquidthatprogressivelybecomesadarkeryellowcolorasitbecomesmore
concentrated.Theyellowcolorisaresultofthepresenceofurochromepigment,aby-productofhemoglobin
breakdown.Urineismoredensethanwaterwithaspecificgravityof1.001tol.035.Urineissterileandslightly
aromaticandhasanacidicpHofaround6.Urinenormallycontainssodiumandpotassiumions,urea,uricacid,
creatinine,ammonia,andbicarbonateions,aswellasotherionsthebodyneedstodisposeof.
136)Therenin-angiotensinmechanismisthemostimportanttriggerforthereleaseofaldosterone.Itismediatedbythe
juxtaglomerular(JG)apparatusoftherenaltubules.TheJGapparatusconsistsofmodifiedsmoothmusclecellsthat
arestimulatedbylowbloodpressurewithintheafferentarterioleorchangesinsolutecontentofthefiltrate.TheJG
cellsrespondtothesechangesbyreleasingreninintotheblood.RenincatalyzesreactionsthatleadtoangiotensinII
production,whichthenactsdirectlyonthebloodvesselstocausevasoconstrictionaswellasaldosteronerelease.
Aldosteronethencausesthereabsorptionofsodiumandwater,leadingtoincreasedbloodvolumeandblood

press ure.
137)Theurethracontainstwosphincters.Theinternalurethralsphincterisinvoluntaryandisformedfromathickening
ofsmoothmuscleatthebladder-urethrajunction.Thesecondsphincteristheexternalurethralsphincter,made
fromskeletalmuscleandundervoluntarycontrol.Controloftheexternalurethralsphincteroftendevelopsat
around2yearsofage.Priortothattime,thechildissimplynotabletocontrolurinationandisincontinent.Other
causesforincontinenceincludeemotionalproblems,pressureonthebladder,suchaswithpregnancy,stroke,
spinalcordinjury,andtheagingprocess.
138)Thebicarbonatebuffersystemisoneofthreemajorchemicalbuffersystemsinnormalhumans.Thebuffersystems
eachhelptomaintainpHwithinthebodysfluidcompartments,andsincetheyactwithinafractionofasecond,
theyarethefirstlineofdefenseinresistingabnormalpHchanges.Thebicarbonatebuffersystemisamixtureof
carbonicacidandsodiumbicarbonate.Carbonicacidisaweakacidwhichremainsrelativelyintactinthepresence
ofastrongacid.Itssalt,sodiumbicarbonate,actsasaweakbaseinthepresenceofastrongacid,suchas
hydrochloricacid,tyingupthe releasedandformingcarbonicacid.Becausethestrongacidischangedtoa
weakacid,thepHofthesolutionisloweredslightly.Ifastrongbaselikesodiumhydroxideisaddedtoasolution
containingthebicarbonatebuffersystem,sodiumbicarbonatewillnotdissociatefurther,butcarbonicacidwill.
Morehydrogenionswillbereleasedtobindwiththehydroxylions,withthenetresultbeingthereplacementofa
strongbasebyaweakone.ThepHofthesolutionwillthenriseslightly.

Exam
Name___________________________________

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
1)Theprimarygermlayerthatgivesrisetothemucosaeandassociatedglandsisthe:
1)_______
A)blastocyst
B)morula
C)endoderm
D)ectoderm
E)mesoderm

2)Androgenssuchastestosteroneareproducedbythe:
2)_______
A)prostate
B)interstitialcells
C)bulbourethralglands
D)seminiferoustubules
E)epididymis

3)Pregnancyisgenerallyimprobablewithaspermcount:
3)_______
A)under5millionpermilliliter
B)under1millionpermilliliter
C)under20millionpermilliliter
D)under20,000permilliliter
E)under100millionpermilliliter

4)Manyhomepregnancytestsassayfor__________withinawomansurine.
4)_______
A)luteinizinghormone
B)testosterone
C)estrogen
D)humanchorionicgonadotropin
E)progesterone

5)Theexternalfemalestructurethatcorrespondstothemalepenisisthe:
5)_______
A)labiamajora
B)vagina
C)perineum
D)clitoris
E)cervix

6)Thehormoneresponsibleforovulationis:
6)_______
A)progesterone
B)adrenocorticotropichormone
C)luteinizinghormone
D)follicle-stimulatinghormone
E)estrogen

7)Thetinyballof16cellsfoundfreelyfloatingintheuterinecavityiscalleda:
7)_______
A)zygote
B)placenta
C)trophoblast
D)morula
E)blastocyte

8)Theenlargedtipofthepenisisreferredtoasthe:
8)_______
A)scrotum
B)glanspenis

C)shaft
D)prepuce
E)spongyurethra

9)Thesuperiorroundedregionoftheuterusabovetheentranceoftheuterinetubesiscalledthe:
A)fundus
B)monspubis
C)cervix
D)body
E)corpus

10)Menopause,whichendschildbirthability,isconsideredtohaveoccurredwhenawoman:
A)hashadahysterectomy
B)missestwoperiodsinarow
C)hasgoneayearwithoutmenstruation
D)missesherfirstperiod
E)turns50

11)Theinnermucosallayeroftheuterusthatissloughedoffapproximatelyevery28daysiscalled
the:
A)endometrium
B)hypometrium
C)epimetrium
D)perimetrium
E)myometrium

12)Theprimitivestemcellofspermatogenesis,whichisfoundontheperipheryofeach
seminiferoustubule,iscalled:
A)primaryspermatocyte
B)secondaryspermatocyte
C)spermatid
D)sperm
E)spermatogonia

13)Themalegonadshavebothsperm-producingandtestosterone-producingfunctionsandare
called:
A)ovaries
B)gametes
C)testes
D)ovum
E)sperm

14)Thick,clearmucusthatcleansestheurethraofacidicurineisproducedbythe:
A)prostate
B)bulbourethralglands
C)epididymis
D)seminalvesicles
E)testes

15)Alltheorgansystemsarelaiddown,atleastinrudimentaryform,andtheembryolooks
distinctlyhumanbythe__________ofembryonicdevelopment.
A)firstweek
B)secondweek
C)fourthweek
D)eighthweek
E)twelfthweek

9)_______

10)______

11)______

12)______

13)______

14)______

15)______


16)Thecorpusluteumisaspecialglandularstructureoftheovariesthatprimarilyproduces:
A)estrogen
B)testosterone
C)luteinizinghormone
D)interstitialcell-stimulatinghormone
E)progesterone

17)Thefinaloutcomeofmeiosiswithinboththetesticlesandtheovariesis:
A)twogametes
B)theformationoftwoidenticaldaughtercells
C)fourgametes
D)threegametes
E)onegamete

18)Theclustersofspecificglandsthatproducemilkwhenawomanislactatingarecalled:
A)alveolarglands
B)lactiferousducts
C)areolarglands
D)mammaryglands
E)lactatingglands

19)Laborisinitiatedbyprostaglandinsand__________.
A)progesterone
B)relaxin
C)renin
D)oxytocin
E)humanchorionicgonadotropin

20)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTtrueoftheproliferativestateofthemenstrualcycle:
A)itisstimulatedbyrisingestrogenlevels
B)thebasallayeroftheendometriumregenerates
C)endometrialbloodsupplyisincreased
D)theendometriumbecomesthinandshinyinappearance
E)glandsareformedintheendometrium

21)Thenormalperiodofhumangestationiscalculatedas__________fromthelastmenstrual
period.
A)280days
B)9calendarmonths
C)265days
D)295days
E)9lunarmonths

22)Thefirstmenstrualperiod,whichusuallyoccursatapproximatelyage13,iscalled:
A)menstruation
B)menses
C)menogen
D)menarche
E)menopause

23)Thehormoneproducedbytheplacentathatcausesthepelvicligamentsandpubicsymphysisto

16)______

17)______

18)______

19)______

20)______

21)______

22)______

rela x,

widen, 23)
and
become
more
flexible
toease
birth
passage
iscalled:
A)gonadotropin
B)relaxin
C)renin
D)progesterone
E)chorion

24)NormalhealthysemenhasanapproximatepHlevelof:
A)8.5-9.0
B)7.2-7.6
C)3.5-4
D)4.0-5.7
E)6.0-7.0

25)Foraspermcelltofertilizeanovum,sexualintercoursemustoccurnomorethan__________
hoursbeforeovulation.
A)72
B)24
C)12
D)90
E)48

26)Fertilizationusuallyoccursinthe:
A)uterine(fallopian)tubes
B)uterus
C)ovary
D)vagina
E)Graafianfollicle

27)Afertilizedeggisknownasa:
A)morula
B)zygote
C)secondaryoocyte
D)blastocyte
E)primaryoocyte

28)Milky-coloredfluidsecretedfromtheprostate:
A)areendocrineonly
B)nourishsperm
C)cleansetheurethra
D)activatesperm
E)neutralizeurine

29)Theexocrinefunctionofthemaletestesis:
A)embryonutrition
B)testosteroneproduction
C)spermproduction
D)ovumfertilization
E)estrogenproduction

30)Forwomenaged40-49,theAmericanCancerSocietyrecommendsmammographyevery
__________todetectbreastcancertoosmalltofeel.

___
___

24)______

25)______

26)______

27)______

28)______

29)______

30)______

A)fouryears
B)fiveyears
C)threeyears
D)twoyears
E)year

31)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTanoptionforprostateproblems:
A)incinerationofexcessprostatetissuebyradiation
B)microwavestoshrinktheprostate
C)drugssuchasfinasteride
D)coitusinterruptus
E)surgery

32)Thestageoflaborthatinvolvesthedeliveryoftheinfantisthe:
A)secretoryphase
B)postpartumstage
C)expulsionstage
D)placentalstage
E)dilationstage

33)Theprocessinwhichspermarestreamlinedintoahead,midpiece,andtailiscalled:
A)oogenesis
B)ovulation
C)acrosomalreaction
D)spermiogenesis
E)spermatogenesis

34)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOToneofthesecondarysexcharacteristicsinyoungwomen:
A)wideningandlighteningofthepelvis
B)appearanceofaxillaryandpubichair
C)enlargementoftheaccessoryorgansofreproduction
D)decreasedfatdepositsbeneaththeskin
E)breastdevelopment

35)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOToneofthesecondarysexcharacteristicstypicalofmales:
A)thickeningofbones
B)increasedgrowthofbodyhair
C)deepeningvoice
D)enlargementofskeletalmusclemass
E)increasedsexdrive

36)Themiddlepartofthemaleurethrathatextendsfromtheprostatetothepenisiscalledthe:
A)spongyurethra
B)prostaticurethra
C)membranousurethra
D)bulbourethra
E)penileurethra

37)Eachspermatidandovumhave:
A)46pairsofchromosomes
B)23pairsofchromosomes
C)46chromosomes

31)______

32)______

33)______

34)______

35)______

36)______

37)______

D)23chromosomes
E)2nchromosomes

38)Spermatogenesisbegins:
A)duringpuberty
B)duringoldage
C)atbirth
D)duringadulthood
E)priortobirth

39)Thefibrousconnectivetissueenclosingeachtestisisthe:
A)seminiferoustubule
B)tunicaalbuginea
C)interstitialcells
D)spermaticcord
E)ductusdeferens

40)Maturingspermgaintheirabilitytoswimwhileinthe:
A)epididymis
B)seminiferoustubules
C)ductusdeferens
D)ejaculatoryduct
E)urethra

41)Thenarrowoutletoftheuterusthatprojectsintothevaginaiscalledthe:
A)body
B)fundus
C)cervix
D)vagina
E)myometrium

42)Parturitionisanothertermfor:
A)menstruation
B)menses
C)menopause
D)childbirth
E)fertilization

43)Thecorrectdescendingorderofthemaleductsystem(frominsidetooutside)is:
A)ejaculatoryduct,epididymis,ductusdeferens,urethra
B)epididymis,ductusdeferens,urethra,ejaculatoryduct
C)ductusdeferens,epididymis,ejaculatoryduct,urethra
D)ejaculatoryduct,ductusdeferens,epididymis,urethra
E)epididymis,ductusdeferens,ejaculatoryduct,urethra

44)Theentireprocessofspermatogenesistakesapproximately:
A)64-72days
B)120days
C)25-50days
D)15years
E)1year

38)______

39)______

40)______

41)______

42)______

43)______

44)______

45)Thejourneyoftheoocytethroughtheuterinetubestotheuterusfollowingovulationnormally
takes:
A)24hours
B)10days
C)3-4days
D)1week
E)1hour

46)IrregularuterinecontractionscalledBraxtonHicks:
A)areasymptomofplacentaprevia
B)signalimpendinglabor
C)arealsoknownasfalselabor
D)areasymptomofabruptioplacenta
E)areasymptomoftoxemia

47)Theplacentaisusuallyfunctioningtodelivernutrientsandoxygento,andremovewastefrom,
theembryonicbloodbythe__________ofpregnancy.
A)firstweek
B)secondweek
C)thirdweek
D)fourthweek
E)fifthweek

48)Theprocessbywhichamatureeggisejectedfromtheovaryiscalled:
A)erection
B)menses
C)fertilization
D)ovulation
E)ejaculation

49)Themenstrualcycleis:
A)28dayslong
B)40dayslong
C)60dayslong
D)14dayslong
E)7dayslong

50)Malesexchromosomesarerepresentedby:
A)YY
B)XO
C)XZ
D)XX
E)XY

51)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTacomponentofsemen:
A)seminalfluid
B)epididymalfluid
C)prostaticfluid
D)sperm
E)bulbourethralfluid

52)Duringoogenesis,anoogoniumdirectlygivesriseto:
A)aprimaryoocyte
B)asecondaryoocyte
C)anovum
D)afirstpolarbody
E)asecondpolarbody

53)Themammaryglandsare:
A)modifiedlacrimalglands

45)______

46)______

47)______

48)______

49)______

50)______

51)______

52)______

53)______

B)modifiedsweatglandsinfemalesonly
C)modifiedsebaceousglands
D)modifiedsweatglandsinbothmalesandfemales
E)modifiedceruminousglands

54)WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTtrueofthespermaticcord:
54)______
A)itcontainsnerves
B)itcontainsbloodvessels
C)itenclosestheepididymis
D)itisaconnectivetissuesheath
E)itenclosestheductusdeferens

55)Days15-28ofthemenstrualcycleareknownas:
55)______
A)implantation
B)menses
C)thesecretoryphase
D)themenstrualphase
E)secretoryphase

56)Theactualsperm-formingfactoriesofthemalereproductivesystemthatemptyspermintothe 56)______
retetestesarecalledthe:
A)interstitialcells
B)ductusdeferens
C)epididymis
D)seminiferoustubules
E)bulbourethralglands

57)Whichoneofthefollowingisamethodofbirthcontrolavailabletomenonly:
57)______
A)

B)diaphragm
C)vasectomy
D)condoms
E)IUD

SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
58)Theentireprocessofspermatogenesistakes__________days.
58)_____________

59)Thetypeofsugarthatisfoundinsemenandprovidesessentiallyalltheenergyfuelfor
59)_____________
spermiscalled__________.

60)Thehormonetestosteroneisproducedbythe__________cellsofthetestes.
60)_____________

61)Mammaryglandsaremodified__________glands.
61)_____________


Figure16.1

UsingFigure16.1,identifythefollowing:
62)Theprepuceisindicatedbyletter__________.

62)_____________

Figure16.2

UsingFigure16.2,identifythefollowing:

63)Theuterine(fallopian)tubeisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
64)Days1-5ofthemenstrualcyclearethefirstphaseknownasthe__________phase.

63)_____________

64)_____________

Figure16.1

UsingFigure16.1,identifythefollowing:
65)Theseminalvesicleisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
66)Burrowingofthefertilizedeggintotheendometriumliningoftheuterusiscalled
__________.

67)TheGraafian(vesicular)follicle,whichisrupturedfollowingovulation,iscalledthe
__________.

65)_____________

66)_____________

67)_____________


Figure16.2

UsingFigure16.2,identifythefollowing:
68)Theroundligamentisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
69)Theovumhas__________chromosomes.

70)Thehormonethatcausespelvicligamentsandthepubicsymphysistorelax,widen,and
becomemoreflexibleiscalled__________.

71)Tinysaclikestructureswithintheovariesinwhichoocytesarefoundarecalled
__________.

72)Theenlargedtipofthepenisiscalledthe__________.

73)Thehelmet-likeregionofthespermthatissimilartoalargelysosomeandassists
penetrationoftheeggiscalledthe__________.

74)Thehormonethatpromotesasmallnumberofprimaryfollicleswithintheovaryto
growandmatureeachmonthis__________.

68)_____________

69)_____________
70)_____________

71)_____________

72)_____________
73)_____________

74)_____________


Figure16.1

UsingFigure16.1,identifythefollowing:
75)Theductus(vas)deferensisindicatedbyletter__________.

75)_____________

Figure16.2

UsingFigure16.2,identifythefollowing:

76)Theclitorisisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
77)Theearlystageofembryonicdevelopmentduringwhichrapidmitoticcelldivisions
occurasthezygotetravelsdowntheuterinetubeiscalled__________.

76)_____________

77)_____________

Figure16.1

UsingFigure16.1,identifythefollowing:
78)Thetestisisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
79)Thefollicle-cellcapsulesurroundinganovulatedsecondaryoocyteiscalledthe
__________.

80)Thecessationofovulationandmensesforanentireyeariscalled__________.

81)Theligamentthatanchorstheanteriorportionoftheuterusiscalledthe__________.

82)Afertilizedegg,whichrepresentsthefirstcellofanewindividual,iscalleda
__________.

83)Thefirststageoflaborisknownasthe__________stage.

84)Anothertermfortheforeskinthatissurgicallyremovedduringcircumcisionisthe
__________.

85)Theprocessofcreatingfemalegametesiscalled__________.

86)Thefibrouswhitecoatconnectivetissuecapsulesurroundingeachtestisiscalledthe

78)_____________

79)_____________

80)_____________
81)_____________
82)_____________

83)_____________
84)_____________

85)_____________
___ _______.

86)

_____________

87)Themalesterilizationbirthcontrolprocedurethatinvolvescauterizationoftheductus
deferensiscalled__________.

87)_____________

Figure16.1

UsingFigure16.1,identifythefollowing:
88)Theurethraisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
89)Amatureovarianfolliclethatisreadytobeejectedfromanovaryiscalleda__________.

90)Theinnermostlayeroftheuterusisamucosalayercalledthe__________.

91)Thefinger-likeprojectionsthatpartiallysurroundtheovaryatthedistalendofeach
uterinetubeiscalled__________.

92)Thelabiamajoraenclosetheregionknownasthe__________,whichcontainsthe
externalopeningoftheurethra.

93)Thehormoneproducedbythecorpusluteumthathelpsmaintainpregnancyiscalled
__________.

94)Theglandsthatproduceathick,yellowishsecretionwhichnourishesandactivates
spermarethe__________.

88)_____________

89)_____________
90)_____________
91)_____________

92)_____________

93)_____________

94)_____________


Figure16.2

UsingFigure16.2,identifythefollowing:
95)Theovaryisindicatedbyletter__________.

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
96)Theprimarygermlayerthatgivesrisetothenervoussystemandepidermisoftheskin
iscalledthe__________.

97)Theseriesofeventsthatexpeltheinfantfromtheuterusarereferredtocollectivelyas
__________.

98)Individualswhopossessbothovarianandtesticulartissuesarecalled__________.

95)_____________

96)_____________

97)_____________

98)_____________


Figure16.2

UsingFigure16.2,identifythefollowing:
99)Thefimbriaeareindicatedbyletter__________.
99)_____________

Fillintheblankorprovideashortanswer:
100)Thebacteriafromgonorrheaandotherinfectionscanspreadtotheperitonealcavity.
100)____________
Unlesstreatedpromptly,theinfectionconditioncancause__________,whichisamajor
causeoffemaleinfertility.

101)Thethinfoldofmucosathatpartiallyclosesthedistalendofthevaginabeforethefirst
101)____________
experienceofsexualintercourseiscalledthe__________.

102)Theplacentaanditsattachedfetalmembranes,expelledfromtheuterusduringthe
102)____________
placentalstageoflabor,arecollectivelyreferredtoasthe__________.

103)Theprocessbywhichtheacrosomemembranesofspermbreakdownisknownasthe
103)____________
__________.

TRUE/FALSE.WriteTifthestatementistrueandFifthestatementisfalse.
104)FalselaboriscausedbyBraxtonHickscontractions.
104)_____

105)Theacrosomehelpsaspermpenetratethefolliclecellsthatsurroundtheegg.
105)_____

106)Therapidmitoticcelldivisionthatoccursafterthefertilizationofaneggisknownascleavage.
106)_____

107)Afterovulation,theeggistransformedintoacorpusluteum.
107)_____

108)Thecervixtypicallydilatestoabout10cmduringthedilationstageoflabor.
108)_____

109)Spermatidshave46chromosomes.
109)_____


110)Menopausegenerallyoccursbetweenages10and15infemales.

111)Theplacentaanditsattachedfetalmembranes,deliveredduringtheplacentalstageoflabor,are
calledtheafterbirth.

112)Penetrationofthesecondaryoocytebyaspermstimulatesitsnucleustoundergothesecond
meioticdivision.

113)Thecyclicchangesthatoccurmonthlyintheovaryconstitutetheovariancycle.

114)Whenawomanisnotpregnant,theendometrialliningoftheuterusissloughedoffaboutevery
28days.

115)BreastcancerisaleadingcauseofdeathinAmericanwomen,withself-examinationand
mammographybeingthebestformsofearlydetection.

116)Theportionofthemaleurethrathatissurroundedbytheprostateiscalledthemembranous
urethra.

117)Viablespermcannotbeproducedatbelowbodytemperature.

118)Oocytesarecarriedtowardtheuterusbybothciliaandperistalsis.

119)Thesmoothmusclewallsoftheductusdeferens(alsocalledvasdeferens)createperistaltic
wavesthatrapidlysqueezethespermforward.

120)DetectionofuterinecancerisbestaccomplishedbyayearlyPapsmear.

121)Thediamond-shapedregionofafemalesexternalgenitaliafoundbetweentheanteriorendof
thelabialfolds,theanusposteriorly,andtheischialtuberositiesiscalledtheperineum.

122)Spermswimfasterinanalkalineenvironmentandaremoresluggishinanacidicenvironment.

123)Urineandspermareabletopassthroughtheurethraatthesametime.

124)Ovariesarethesizeandshapeofalmondsandcontainmanytinysaclikestructurescalled
ovarianfollicles,eachofwhichconsistsofanimmatureeggsurroundedbyoneormorelayersof
folliclecells.

125)Ovulationusuallyoccursonoraboutday14ofthemenstrualcycle.

126)Thetwofunctionalareasoftheblastocystarethemorulaandthetrophoblast.

127)Oneprimaryspermatocytewillundergomeiosistoultimatelyformfoursperm.

128)Theendodermgivesrisetothenervoussystemandtheepidermisoftheskin.

129)Thetripthroughthecoiled20-foot(6meter)longepididymistakesabout20days.

130)Thebulbourethralglandsarelocatedinferiortotheprostateglandandproduceaclearmucous
secretionthataidslubricationduringsexualintercourse.

110)_____
111)_____

112)_____

113)_____
114)_____

115)_____

116)_____

117)_____
118)_____
119)_____

120)_____
121)_____

122)_____
123)_____
124)_____

125)_____
126)_____
127)_____
128)_____
129)_____
130)_____


131)Ovulationoccursduringthesecretoryphaseofthemenstrualcycle.

132)Aprimaryoocyteundergoesmeiosisandproducesasecondaryoocyteandapolarbody.

133)Theretetestisconnectstheepididymistotheductusdeferens.

134)Beginningattheninthweekofdevelopment,theembryoisreferredtoasafetus.

135)Thehormonethatcausessecondarysexcharacteristicsinmalesisprogesterone.

136)Theinnermostlayeroftheuterusiscalledthemyometrium.

137)Prostaticcanceristhecommonreasonmenconsultaurologistbecauseitistheleadingtypeof
cancerinadultmen.

138)Theexternalgenitaliaofafemaleisalsocalledthevulva.

139)Anerectionresultsfrombloodfillingthespongyerectiletissuesofthepenis.

140)Estrogenscausetheappearanceofsecondarysexcharacteristicsinfemales.

MATCHING.Choosetheitemincolumn2thatbestmatcheseachitemincolumn1.
Matcheachdescriptionwiththeappropriatefemalereproductivestructure:
141)Organthatisthetypicalsiteof
A)vagina
implantationofafertilizedegg

B)uterus
142)Birthcanal

C)ovary
143)Organthatproduceseggs

D)labiaminora

Matcheachdescriptionwiththeappropriatemalereproductivestructure:
144)Organthatproducestestosterone
A)testis

B)
penis

Matcheachdescriptionwiththeappropriatefemalereproductivestructure:
145)Structurethatcorrespondstothe
A)clitoris
malepenis

Identifythetimeperiodatwhichfetaldevelopmentchangesoraccomplishmentsoccur:
146)Quickening(motherfeels
A)8weeks
spontaneousmuscularactivityof
fetus)occurs

B)17-20weeks
147)Fingernailsandtoenailsarepresent

andskiniswrinkledandred
C)21-30weeks

131)_____
132)_____
133)_____
134)_____
135)_____
136)_____
137)_____

138)_____
139)_____
140)_____

141)_____

142)_____
143)_____

144)_____

145)_____

146)_____

147)_____

148)

Allbodysystemsarepresentinat
leastrudimentaryform

Matcheachdescriptionwiththeappropriatemalereproductivestructure:
149)Tubethattransportseitherurineor
A)prostate
spermtotheexteriorofthebody

B)urethra

Identifythetimeperiodatwhichfetaldevelopmentchangesoraccomplishmentsoccur:
150)Fetalpositionisassumedbecauseof
A)17-20weeks
spacerestrictions

B)21-30weeks
151)Generalsensoryorgansarepresent

andblinkingmotionofeyesoccur
C)4weeks
152)

Heartisactivelypumpingblood
D)13-16weeks
153)

Eyesareopenandmyelinationof
spinalcordbegins

Matcheachdescriptionwiththeappropriatefemalereproductivestructure:
154)Ductthattransportsafertilizedegg
A)uterine(fallopian)tube

Identifythetimeperiodatwhichfetaldevelopmentchangesoraccomplishmentsoccur:
155)Limbsarepresenteventhoughthey
A)8weeks
mightstillbewebbed

Matcheachdescriptionwiththeappropriatemalereproductivestructure:
156)Ductconnectingepididymisto
A)ductus(vas)deferens
ejaculatoryduct

B)ejaculatoryduct

Identifythetimeperiodatwhichfetaldevelopmentchangesoraccomplishmentsoccur:
157)Sexisreadilydetectedfromthe
A)17-20weeks
genitals

B)21-30weeks
158)Facialfeaturesarepresentincrude

form
C)16weeks
159)

Headisnearlyaslargeasbodyand
D)12weeks
majorbrainregionsarepresent

E)
160)Vernixcaseosacoversbodyand
9-12weeks
lanugocoversskin

148)_____

149)_____

150)_____

151)_____

152)_____
153)_____

154)_____

155)_____

156)_____

157)_____

158)_____

159)_____

160)_____

Matcheachdescriptionwiththeappropriatemalereproductivestructure:
161)Glandthatproducesathick,
A)seminalvesicles
161)_____
yellowishsecretion

Matcheachdescriptionwiththeappropriatefemalereproductivestructure:
162)Fatty,roundedareaoverlyingthe
A)monspubis
162)_____
pubicsymphysis

Matcheachdescriptionwiththeappropriatemalereproductivestructure:
163)Sacofskinfoundhangingoutsidethe
A)scrotum
163)_____
abdominalcavity

ESSAY.Writeyouranswerinthespaceprovidedoronaseparatesheetofpaper.
164)Describetheprocessofspermatogenesis.

165)Describetheeventsofembryonicdevelopmentfromconceptionuntilthefetalstage,includingdevelopment
oftheprimarygermlayers.

166)Listanddescribethethreestagesoflabor.

167)Explainthemaleductsystembynamingeachorgananddescribingtheroleofeachorganinvolved.

168)Listthethreemaleaccessoryglandsanddescribetheircontributionstotheformationofsemen.

169)Listanddescribethethreemajorstagesofthemenstrualcycle.


1)C
2)B
3)C
4)D
5)D
6)C
7)D
8)B
9)A
10)C
11)A
12)E
13)C
14)B
15)D
16)E
17)C
18)A
19)D
20)D
21)A
22)D
23)B
24)B
25)E
26)A
27)B
28)D
29)C
30)D
31)D
32)C
33)D
34)D
35)E
36)C
37)D
38)A
39)B
40)A
41)C
42)D
43)E
44)A
45)C
46)C
47)C
48)D
49)A
50)E
51)B

52)A
53)D
54)C
55)C
56)D
57)C
58)64to72
59)fructose
60)interstitial
61)sweat
62)E
63)E
64)menstrual
65)F
66)implantation
67)corpusluteum
68)F
69)23
70)relaxin
71)ovarianfollicles
72)glanspenis
73)acrosome
74)follicle-stimulatinghormone(FSH)
75)B
76)H
77)cleavage
78)K
79)coronaradiata
80)menopause
81)roundligament
82)zygote
83)dilation
84)prepuce
85)oogenesis
86)tunicaalbuginea
87)vasectomy
88)C
89)Graafian(orvesicular)follicle
90)endometrium
91)fimbriae
92)vestibule
93)progesterone
94)seminalvesicles
95)B
96)ectoderm
97)labor
98)hermaphrodites
99)A
100)pelvicinflammatorydisease
101)hymen
102)afterbirth
103)acrosomalreaction

104)TRUE
105)TRUE
106)TRUE
107)FALSE
108)TRUE
109)FALSE
110)FALSE
111)TRUE
112)TRUE
113)TRUE
114)TRUE
115)TRUE
116)FALSE
117)FALSE
118)TRUE
119)TRUE
120)FALSE
121)TRUE
122)TRUE
123)FALSE
124)TRUE
125)TRUE
126)FALSE
127)TRUE
128)FALSE
129)TRUE
130)TRUE
131)FALSE
132)TRUE
133)FALSE
134)TRUE
135)FALSE
136)FALSE
137)FALSE
138)TRUE
139)TRUE
140)TRUE
141)B
142)A
143)C
144)A
145)A
146)B
147)C
148)A
149)B
150)A
151)C
152)B
153)A
154)A
155)A

156)A
157)D
158)E
159)B
160)A
161)A
162)A
163)A
164)Spermatogenesisisspermproductionthatbeginsduringpubertyandcontinuesthroughoutlife.Theprocessis
begunbyprimitivestemcellscalledspermatogonia.Frombirthuntilpuberty,spermatogoniaundergomitotic
divisiontoincreasethenumberofstemcells.Duringpuberty,FSHcauseseachdivisionofspermatogoniuminto
onestemcell(typeAcell)andonetypeBcellthatbecomesaprimaryspermatocyte.Theprimaryspermatocytes
thenundergomeiosistosecondaryspermatocytes,whichthenformfourspermatids.Thespermatidsstreamline
andatailisformedduringspermiogenesis,afterwhichtheyarematureenoughtofertilizeanovumandarecalled
sperm.
165)Afertilizedegg(zygote)undergoesrapidmitoticcelldivisioninastagecalledcleavage.Cleavageprovidesthe
buildingblocksforconstructingtheembryo,whichdevelopsuntilithasabout100cellsandthenhollowsoutto
formablastocyst.Theblastocysthastwoareas:thetrophoblastandtheinnercellmass.Theinnercellmassforms
theprimarygermlayers,whicharetheectoderm,theendoderm,andthemesoderm.Theectodermgivesrisetothe
nervoussystem,theepidermis,andtheskin.Theendodermformsthemucosaeandassociatedglands.The
mesodermgivesrisetoeverythingelse.Thetrophoblastdevelopsprojectionscalledchorionicvilliwhichformthe
placentaalongwithtissuesfromthemothersuterus.Bytheeighthweek,alltheorgansystemshavebeenlaid
downandtheembryolooksdistinctlyhuman.Beginningintheninthweek,theembryoisreferredtoasafetus.
166)Stage1isthedilationstage,whichextendsfromtheappearanceoftruecontractionsuntilfulldilationofthecervix
(dilationtoabout10cmindiameter).Usuallytheamnionrupturesduringthisstage,whichisthelongestpartof
laborandlastsfor6to12hours.Stage2istheexpulsionstage.Itextendsfromfulldilationtodeliveryoftheinfant.
Inthisstage,theinfantpassesthroughthecervixandvaginatotheoutsideofthebody.Thisstagetakes20minutes
to2hours.Stage3istheplacentalstage,whichusuallylastsabout15minutes,culminatingindeliveryofthe
placenta.
167)Thefirstpartoftheductsystemistheepididymiswhichconnectstotheretetestisofthetestesononeendandthe
ductusdeferensontheother.Spermaretemporarilystoredwithintheepididymis,wheretheymatureandgainthe
abilitytoswim.Thenextpartoftheductsystemistheductusdeferens,alsoknownasthevasdeferens.Theductus
deferenspropelslivespermfromtheirstoragesiteintheepididymisintotheurethrabymeansofperistalsis.The
endoftheductusdeferensiscalledtheejaculatoryduct.Itpassesthroughtheprostateglandandconnectswiththe
urethra.Theurethracarriesspermtothebodyexterior.
168)1.Theseminalvesiclesproducefluidthatcontributesabout60%ofthefluidvolumeofsemen.Thesecretionis
thick,yellowish,andisrichinsugar,vitaminC,prostaglandins,andothersubstancesthatnourishandactivatethe
spermpassingthroughthemalesreproductivetract.
2.Theprostateproducesamilkysecretionthatalsoactiviatesthesperm.
3.Thebulbourethralglandsproduceathick,clearmucusthatdrainsintothepenileurethratocleanseitofacidic
urine.Thissecretionisthefirsttobereleasedduringsexualexcitementandservesasalubricantduringsexual
intercourse.
169)Mensesoccursduringdays1through5ofthemenstrualcycle.Duringthisstage,theendometrialliningdetaches
fromtheuterinewallandsloughsoff.Days6through14aretheproliferativestagewhereinrisingestrogenlevels
causetheendometrialliningtoregenerate.Itbecomesthickandvelvetyagainandishighlyvascularized.Ovulation
occursonapproximatelythelastdayofthisstageinresponsetoanLHsurge.Thesecretorystageisfromdays15
through28.Duringthisstage,thecorpusluteumproducesprogesterone,whichincreasestheendometrialblood
supplyandcausestheendometrialglandstoincreaseinsizeandbeginsecretingnutrientsintotheuterinecavity.If
fertilizationoccurs,thesenutrientswillhelpsustaintheembryountilimplantation.Iffertilizationdoesnotoccur,
thehormonelevelsdeclineandtheendometriumspasms,settingthestageformensestobeginagainonday28.