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Algebra Cheat Sheet Logarithms and Log Properties

Definition Logarithm Properties


y = log b x is equivalent to x = b y log b b = 1 log b 1 = 0
Basic Properties & Facts
Arithmetic Operations Properties of Inequalities log b b x = x b logb x = x
If a < b then a + c < b + c and a - c < b - c Example
ab + ac = a ( b + c )
æ b ö ab
aç ÷ = log b ( x r
) = r log x
a b log 5 125 = 3 because 53 = 125 b
ècø c If a < b and c > 0 then ac < bc and < log b ( xy ) = log b x + logb y
æaö c c
ç ÷ a a b Special Logarithms æxö
èbø = a ac If a < b and c < 0 then ac > bc and > log b ç ÷ = log b x - logb y
= ln x = log e x natural log
c bc æbö b c c è yø
çc÷ log x = log 10 x common log
è ø
Properties of Absolute Value where e = 2.718281828K The domain of log b x is x > 0
a c ad + bc a c ad - bc ìa if a ³ 0
+ = - = a =í Factoring and Solving
b d bd b d bd î-a if a < 0 Factoring Formulas Quadratic Formula
a-b b-a a+b a b a ³0 -a = a x 2 - a 2 = ( x + a )( x - a ) Solve ax 2 + bx + c = 0 , a ¹ 0
= = +
c-d d -c c c c a a x 2 + 2ax + a 2 = ( x + a )
2 -b ± b 2 - 4 ac
ab = a b = x=
æaö b b 2a
x 2 - 2 ax + a 2 = ( x - a )
2
ab + ac ç b ÷ ad
è ø= a +b £ a + b If b 2 - 4ac > 0 - Two real unequal solns.
= b + c, a ¹ 0 Triangle Inequality
a æ c ö bc x 2 + ( a + b ) x + ab = ( x + a )( x + b ) If b 2 - 4ac = 0 - Repeated real solution.
çd ÷
è ø Distance Formula x3 + 3ax 2 + 3a 2 x + a 3 = ( x + a )
3 If b 2 - 4ac < 0 - Two complex solutions.
Exponent Properties If P1 = ( x1, y1 ) and P2 = ( x2 , y2 ) are two
x3 - 3ax2 + 3a 2 x - a 3 = ( x - a )
3
an 1 Square Root Property
a na m = a n+ m = a n -m = m -n points the distance between them is
am a x3 + a 3 = ( x + a ) ( x2 - ax + a 2 ) If x2 = p then x = ± p

(a ) n m
= a nm a 0 = 1, a ¹ 0 d ( P1 , P2 ) = ( x2 - x1 )
2
+ ( y2 - y1 )
2
x3 - a 3 = ( x - a ) ( x2 + ax + a 2 ) Absolute Value Equations/Inequalities
x 2 n - a 2 n = ( x n - a n )( x n + a n ) If b is a positive number
n n
æaö a
( ab )
n
=a b n n
ç ÷ = n Complex Numbers p =b Þ p = - b or p = b
èbø b If n is odd then,
a -n 1
= n
1
=a n x n - a n = ( x - a ) ( x n-1 + ax n -2 + L + a n -1 ) p <b Þ -b < p < b
i = -1 i = -1
2
-a = i a, a ³ 0
a a-n p >b Þ p < - b or p>b
-n n ( a + bi ) + ( c + di ) = a + c + ( b + d ) i xn + an
æaö æbö bn
( ) = (a )
n 1

= ( x + a)( x )
n 1
=ç ÷ = n a = a n
-L + a
m
n -1 n -2 2 n -3 n -1
ç ÷ ( a + bi ) - ( c + di ) = a - c + ( b - d ) i - ax +a x
m m

èbø è aø a
( a + bi )( c + di ) = ac - bd + ( ad + bc ) i Completing the Square
Properties of Radicals Solve 2 x 2 - 6 x - 10 = 0 (4) Factor the left side
( a + bi )( a - bi ) = a 2 + b2 æ 3ö 29
2

n
a =a
1
n
ab = a b
n n
a + bi = a + b 2 2
Complex Modulus (1) Divide by the coefficient of the x 2 çx- ÷ =
n
è 2ø 4
x 2 - 3x - 5 = 0 (5) Use Square Root Property
m n
a = nm a n
a na
= ( a + bi ) = a - bi Complex Conjugate (2) Move the constant to the other side.
b nb 3 29 29
( a + bi )( a + bi ) = a + bi
2
x 2 - 3x = 5 x- =± =±
2 4 2
n
a n = a , if n is odd (3) Take half the coefficient of x, square
(6) Solve for x
it and add it to both sides
n
a n = a , if n is even 2 2 3 29
æ 3ö æ 3ö 9 29 x= ±
x 2 - 3x + ç - ÷ = 5 + ç - ÷ = 5 + = 2 2
è 2ø è 2ø 4 4

For a complete set of online Algebra notes visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu. © 2005 Paul Dawkins For a complete set of online Algebra notes visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu. © 2005 Paul Dawkins
Functions and Graphs Common Algebraic Errors
Constant Function Parabola/Quadratic Function Error Reason/Correct/Justification/Example
y = a or f ( x) = a x = ay2 + by + c g ( y ) = ay2 + by + c 2 2
¹ 0 and ¹ 2 Division by zero is undefined!
Graph is a horizontal line passing 0 0
through the point ( 0, a ) . ( -3)
2
The graph is a parabola that opens right -32 ¹ 9 -32 = -9 , = 9 Watch parenthesis!
if a > 0 or left if a < 0 and has a vertex
Line/Linear Function æ æ b ö b ö (x )
2 3
¹ x5 (x )
2 3
= x2 x2 x 2 = x6
at ç g ç - ÷ , - ÷ .
y = mx + b or f ( x ) = mx + b è è 2a ø 2a ø a a a
¹ +
1
=
1 1 1
¹ + =2
b+c b c 2 1+ 1 1 1
Graph is a line with point ( 0,b ) and
Circle 1 A more complex version of the previous
slope m. ¹ x -2 + x-3
( x - h) + ( y - k ) = r2 x2 + x3 error.
2 2

Graph is a circle with radius r and center a + bx a bx bx


Slope a + bx = + =1+
¹ 1 + bx
Slope of the line containing the two ( h, k ) . a
a a a a
points ( x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 ) is Beware of incorrect canceling!
- a ( x - 1) = - ax + a
y2 - y1 rise Ellipse - a ( x - 1) ¹ - ax - a
m= = Make sure you distribute the “-“!
( x - h) ( y - k)
2 2
x2 - x1 run
+ =1 ( x + a)
2
¹ x2 + a 2 ( x + a)
2
= ( x + a )( x + a ) = x 2 + 2 ax + a 2
Slope – intercept form a2 b2
The equation of the line with slope m Graph is an ellipse with center ( h, k ) x2 + a2 ¹ x + a 5 = 25 = 3 2 + 4 2 ¹ 3 2 + 4 2 = 3 + 4 = 7
and y-intercept ( 0,b ) is with vertices a units right/left from the x+a ¹ x+ a See previous error.
y = mx + b center and vertices b units up/down from More general versions of previous three
( x + a)
n
Point – Slope form the center. ¹ x n + a n and n
x+a ¹ n
x+n a
errors.
The equation of the line with slope m
2 ( x + 1) = 2 ( x2 + 2 x + 1) = 2 x 2 + 4 x + 2
2

and passing through the point ( x1 , y1 ) is Hyperbola


2 ( x + 1) ¹ ( 2 x + 2 )
2 2
( x - h) ( y - k) ( 2x + 2)
2 2 2
= 4 x2 + 8x + 4
y = y1 + m ( x - x1 ) - =1
2 2
a b Square first then distribute!
Graph is a hyperbola that opens left and See the previous example. You can not
Parabola/Quadratic Function
right, has a center at ( h, k ) , vertices a ( 2x + 2) ¹ 2 ( x + 1)
2 2
factor out a constant if there is a power on
y = a ( x - h) + k f ( x) = a ( x - h) + k
2 2

units left/right of center and asymptotes the parethesis!


1

The graph is a parabola that opens up if that pass through center with slope ± .
b - x2 + a2 = ( - x2 + a2 )2
a - x2 + a2 ¹ - x2 + a2
a > 0 or down if a < 0 and has a vertex Now see the previous error.
Hyperbola
at ( h, k ) . æaö
(y -k) ( x - h) = 1
2 2
a ab ç1÷
- ¹ a æ a ö æ c ö ac
b2 a2 æbö c = è ø = ç ÷ç ÷ =
Parabola/Quadratic Function çc÷ æ b ö æ b ö è 1 øè b ø b
y = ax 2 + bx + c f ( x ) = ax 2 + bx + c Graph is a hyperbola that opens up and è ø ç ÷ ç ÷
ècø ècø
down, has a center at ( h, k ) , vertices b
æaö æaö
The graph is a parabola that opens up if units up/down from the center and æaö ç ÷ ç ÷
asymptotes that pass through center with ç ÷ ac è b ø = è b ø = æ a öæ 1 ö = a
a > 0 or down if a < 0 and has a vertex èbø ¹ ç ÷ç ÷
b c æ c ö è b ø è c ø bc
æ b æ b öö slope ± . c b ç ÷
at ç - , f ç - ÷ ÷ . a è ø
1
è 2a è 2a ø ø

For a complete set of online Algebra notes visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu. © 2005 Paul Dawkins For a complete set of online Algebra notes visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu. © 2005 Paul Dawkins