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Cyclordia

OF

RATERJ>IITIES

i'wIP

PtSo

THE

CYCLOMDIA OF FRATERNITIES
A COMPILATION OF
EXISTING AUTHENTIC INFORMATION AND THE RESULTS OF ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION AS TO THE ORIGIN, DERIVATION, FOUNDERS, DEVELOPMENT, AIMS, EMBLEMS, CHARACTER, AND PERSONNEL OF

MORE THAN

SIX

HUNDRED SECRET

SOCIETIES IN THE UNITED STATES


SUPPLEMENTED BY

FAMILY TREES OF GROUPS OF SOCIETIES, COMPARATIVE STATISTICS OF MEMBERSHIP, CHARTS, PLATES, MAPS, AND

THE NAMES OF MANY

represe:n^tative members.

COMPILED AXD EDITED BY

ALBERT
V

C.

STEVENS

ASSOCIATE EDITOR OF THE STANTIARI) DICTIOXARY AND FORMER EDITOR OF " BRADSTREET'S

ASSISTED BY

MORE TIIAX ONE THOUSAND MEMBERS OF LIVING SECRET SOCIETIES

NEW YORK
PATERSON,

CITY:
N. J.:

HAMILTON PRINTING AND PUBLISHING COMPANY


1899.

w^

f.fXS^

Entered according to Act of Congress in the year

1896,

by

Albert

C.

Stevens, in the OflBce of the Librarian of Congress

iirw-Jf.

THIS BOOK

IS

DEDICATED

TO

THAT UNIVERSAL BROTHERHOOD,


TO WHICH, IN TRUTH, BELONG THE GOOD

MEN

ANT>

TRUE OF

ALL FRATERNITIES.

THE AUTHOR.

Dicitis omnis in imbecilitate est et graiia, et caritas.

Cicero.
to

Reason,

it

is certain,

would

oTjluje

every

man

inirsue

the general liamnness as the

means

to

procure and establish his


were not a

own ; and

yet, if, besides this consideration, there


to desire the

natural instinct 'promiAing men

welfare

and

satis-

faction of others, self-love, in defiance of the


reason, would quichly

admonitions of

rtm

all
1,

things into a state of


1714.

war and

confusion.

The

Spectator, Sept.

PREFACE
Ix the Cyclop^i::dia of Fraternities all previously acquired information on the subject. So much that is not true has first attempt is made, so far as known, to trace, from a sociological point of view, been written about secret societies by their the development of Secret Societies in the friends, as well as enemies, and so much
the

United States. that is of doubtful authenticity regarding Freemasonry, of course, is shown to be them appears in what have been considered the mother fraternity in fact, as well as standard works, that an analytical supplein name; but particular interest will attach mentary treatise becomes a necessity. ]\Iore than half the secret societies in the to details connecting many of the more important fraternities with Freemasonry. United States pay death, sick, accident, disBroader, and fully as interesting{is the fact ability, funeral, or other benefits. They are that in free and democratic America there an outgrowth of the old English friendly are more secret societies and a larger ag- societies and of Masonic influences, and are gregate membership among such organiza- generally described as beneficiary and chartions than in all other civilized countries!^ itable organizations, sometimes as fraternal The probable extent of the influence of orders. Their total membership is enorThe movesecret society life may be inferred from the mous and is growing rapidly. fact that more than 6,000,000 Americans ment represents a system of cooperative inare members of 300 such organizations, surance, usually characterized as "protecwhich confer about 1,000 degrees on 300,000 tion," and is attracting the attention of not novitiates annually, aided, in instances, by only old line insurance companies, but of a Avealth of paraphernalia and dramatic cere- legislatures as well. monial which rivals modern stage eflPects. So important has this branch of secret More than 30,000 members are annually society life become, that it has been given added to the rolls of Masonic Lodges in the extended treatment under " National FraUnited States; quite as many join the Odd ternal Congress," which chapter is contribFellows, and one-half as many the Knights uted by Major N. S. Boynton of Port Huof Pythias; more than 100,000 join other ron, Mich. Returns as to the nature of the secret societies, the lodges, chapters, or protection or benefits given, and methods of councils of which dot the country almost collecting the same, with costs per capita coincidently with the erection of churches at various periods, have been furnished by and schoolhouses. nearly all the large beneficiary societies, C^It is rarely that one in ten of the active and are published in full. The accompanymembers of secret societies is familiar with ing analysis and comparison are by Mr. the origin and growth of his own fraternity, Frank Greene, managing editor of Bradand not one in a hundred has a fair con- street's. This feature should prove of exceptional interest to members of beneficiary and orders. evolution of leading organizations which One of the revelations of the book is found form the secret society world-J For this in the reference to secret sisterhoods atreason not only the 200,000 new members tached to beneficiary fraternities, as well of such societies each year, but older breth- as separate societies of women, relatives of ren as well, should find in the Cyclop.-edia members of brotherhoods, numbering altoOF Fraternities a valuable supplement to gether about half a million women. Among

ception of the relation of his

own

organiza-

tion to like societies, or of the origin

PREFACE
the larger are the Daughters of Eebekah, the Order of the Eastern Star, Ladies of the

Modern Occult Societies are nominally more numerous than their following would Nearly all have been Maccabees, the Eatlibone Sisters, Pythian seem to warrant, Masonic degrees or legends. upon Liberty, the based of Daughters Sisterhood, the noteworthy survivor is the TheoThe only others. In adand America, of Daughters Mrs. Annie Besant, sucdition, there are many beneficiary societies sophical Society, cessor to Madame Helen P. Blavatsky, which admit both men and women.
of an examination of standard Freemasonry, condensed for the Cyclopaedia of Fkaternities, ignore un-

The results

writes interestingly regarding this Society


for

histories of

the

Cyclopaedia
several points

of

Fraternities,
will attract the

making

which
those

corroborated

traditions

as

to

origin

and

attention of Masonic students.

growth, but embody the conclusions of the Suppleablest modern Masonic historians.

As very few among

who have

here-

tofore treated of events during the period

mentary chapters on Freemasonry contain

much
In

that

is

published for the


is

first

time.

anti-Masonic agitation

1827 to 1845 have appreciated the part the pla3'-ed in peopling


called the secret society world,

all of

them the view-point

that of the

what may be

Too inquiring Freemason, young or old. much is left nowadays for the newly-made
Master Mason to find out by studying the thousand and one books, good, bad, and indifferent, truthful and traditional, with

this interesting topic is quite fully discussed

under the heads, "Anti-Masonry," "College Fraternities," " Patriotic Orders," and

"Independent Order of Odd Fellows." The extent to which the Eoman Catholic which the shelves of Masonic libraries are Church has antagonized secret societies in The results of prolonged investi- America is referred to, in part, under filled. gation are embodied in special chapters "Anti-Masonry;" bnt its later attitude, on "Freemasonry among Negroes," includ- looking without disfavor on the formation ing the English, American, and Scottish of private beneficiary and charitable organEites; " Freemasonry among the Mormons," izations, does not appear to have received
containing original matter contributed by brethren familiar with the work of the Mor-

treatment elsewhere.
nificant in that
it

The movement

is sig-

constitutes the revival of

at Nauvoo, 111., fifty years ago; "a little Freemasonry" wholly within the and " Freemasonry among the Chinese/' Church. Among the original charts, maps, family which phrase acquires a new meaning. Masonic Eites, their origin, growth, and dis- trees, and other diagrams, prepared for tribution of membership throughout the the Cyclopaedia of Fraternities are the

mon Lodge

world, their present condition, relationship, and modes of government, are presented

following
1,

Secret Society

Membership Map

of the

more clearly, perhaps, than ever before. Scottish Eite Freemasonry, the discussion
of

2, 3,

which includes a
all

list of

the

names and
dealt with

addresses of

thirty-third
States,

degree Freeis

masons in the United


so as to

4,

United States; Masonic Map of the World; Spread of Freemasonry from England throughout the World Number of Freemasons in Various
Countries;

stood.

make plain much that is misunderThe work involved in preparing this


that

5,

Number

chapter necessitated retracing the steps of

many who had gone


ter

Masons

will find the story a brief

clear

exposition

of

Masand what has often been


before.

way

6,

Masons in each of Eites; Masonic the Leading American, English, the of Eelationship and Scottish Eites of Freemasonry;
of Master

7,

Legitimate

and

Illegitimate

Scottish

befogged.

Eite Masonic Bodies;

GENEALOGICAL OR FAMILY TREE OP SECRET SOCIETIES.


FREEMASONRY.

PREFACE
8.

Odd

Fellowship,

its

Branches

and
Fel-

Bates,

John

L.,

United Order of Pilgrim

Schisms;
9.

Fathers, Boston, Mass.

Orders of White and of Negro lows and their Branches;


Foresters

Odd

Bayley, J., Independent Order of Foresters, Toronto, Ont.

10.

Origin and Relationship of Orders of


Patriotic

11.

and Political Societies, 1TG5 (Sons of Liberty) to date (American


Protective Association);
their

A. F. and A. M., DeMich. Bellamy, Marsdeu, Knights of Honor, Wilmington, N. C.

Beck, Charles F.,


troit,

Bernstein, Paul, American Star Order,

New

12.

American College Fraternities and


Extension;

York.
Besant, Mrs. Annie, Theosophical Society,

13.

Relationship of Temperance Secret Societies;

London, England.

14.

Hebrew
tions;

Secret,

Charitable

Organiza-

15. Railroad
16.

Employes' Brotherhoods, and Labor Organizations.

Stndents of the curious will be interested


in the discussions of anti-Roman Catholic
secret
silver
societies,

New York. Order of the Golden Rod, Detroit, Mich. Bigelow, Joseph Hill, College Fraternities, College City New York. Biggs, D. S., American Legion of Honor,
Bien, Julius, B'nai B'rith,
C.

Bierce,

A.,

Boston, Mass.
Bloss, J. M., Equitable
ville.

societies

which

favor

Aid LTnion, Titusof

monetary standard, mystical organiof recreation,

Pa.

zations to teach economics, for the encour-

Bolton,

DeWitt C, Knights

Pythias,

agement
signs, for

enforcing law and

Paterson, N. J.

out revolutionary deindulging in eccentricity, and for subverting law and order. The list is not a long one, but is interesting as a sociological record.

order, for carrying

Boughton, J. S., Order of Select Friends, Lawrence, Kan.


Bowles, G. F.,

The Universal Brotherhood,

Natchez, Miss.

The

labor

entailed

in

compiling

the

Cyclopaedia of Fkaternities has been lightened by the cooperation of members of the societies named and for much that is meritorious herein, particular credit is in
;

Boyd, W. T., A. F. and A. M., Cleveland, 0. Brown, F. L., Improved Order of Heptasophs. Scran ton, Pa. Buchanan, James Isaac, A. F. and A. M.,
Pittsburg, Pa.

part due to those whose

names are appended, S. A., Cincinnati, 0. to whom the warmest acknowledgments are Burmester, Charles E., Adjutant-General, extended G. A. R., Omaha, Neb. Adelubehagen, Paul, A. F. and A. M., Burnett, D. Z., Knights of Pythias, WashHamburg, Netherlands. ington, D. C. Allan, F. W., A. F. and A. M., Glasgow, Burton, Alonzo J., Order of the Eastern
Scotland.

Bundy, U.

William

E.,

Sons

of

Veterans,

Arthur, P. M., Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, Cleveland, 0. Backus, Rev. J. E., Independent Order of Good Templars, Rome, N. Y. Bangs, Algernon S., United Order of the

Star, New York, N. Y. Burton, John R., Modern Order of Craftsmen, Detroit, Mich. Campfield, George A., Independent Order

of Foresters, Detroit, Mich.

Carlos,

James

J., St. Patrick's Alliance of

Golden Cross, Augusta, Me. Baskett, S. R., A. F. and A. M., Evershot, Dorchester, England.

America, Newark, N. J. Carnahan, Major-General James R., Knights


of Pythias, Indianapolis, Ind.

PREFACE
Carson, E. T,, A. F. and A. M., Cincinnati, 0.

IX

Donnelly,

T. M., Woodchoppers' Associa-

Carter,

John M., A. more, Md.


ville,

F.

and A. M.,

Balti-

Chase, Ira J., Tribe of


Ind.
Orleans, La.

Ben

Ilur, Crawfords-

N. J. Dore, John P., Massachusetts Catholic Order of Foresters, Boston, Mass. Dorf, Samuel, B'rith Abraham, New York.
tion, Jersey City,

Doris, T.

C, Ancient Order

of the Sanhe-

Churchill, C. Kobert, College Fraternities,

drim, Richmond, Va.


R. R., Good Samaritans and Daughters of Samaria, Stamford, Conn. Douglicrty, John, Switchmen's Union, N. A., Kansas City, Mo. Eavenson, Marvin M., Sons of Temperance,

New

Dorwell,

Clancy, J. J., Ancient Order of Hibernians,

Trenton, N. J.
Clare,

Ealph B., Knights

of

the

Mystic

Chain, Philadel^ihia, Pa.


Clark, E. E., Order of Kailway Conductors,

Philadelphia, Pa.
Edelstein, John,
City,

Cedar Rapids, la. Clark, Miss F. M., New England Order of


Protection, Boston, Mass.

A. F. and A. M., Jersey

N.

J.

Edmunds,
111.

G., A. F.

and A. M., Carthage,

Clarkson, Thaddeus S., G. A. R., Omaha,

Neb. Clendenen, G. W., Mystic Order of the World, Fulton, 111. Clift, J. Augustus, A. F. and A. M., .St.
Johns, N. F.
Coffin,

Eidson,

W.

R.,

sociation, St. Louis,

American Benevolent AsMo.

Ellinger, M., B'nai B'rith,

New

York.

Engelhardt, August, Benevolent Order of Buffaloes, New York.


Everett,
D.,

Selden J., College Fraternities, La-

Brotherhood of Locomotive
F.,

fayette College, Easton, Pa.

Engineers, Cleveland, 0.
Failey,

Colby,

Arthur

W., College

Fraternities,

James

Order of Iron Hall, InPaterson,


(negro),

Cleveland, 0.

dianapolis, Ind.
Farrell, J. H.,

Congdon, Joseph W., A. F. and A. M., Paterson, N. J. Cotter, Frank G., Actors' Order of Friendship, New York. Cowen, Thomas B., College Fraternities,
Williamstown, Mass.
Cruett,

Royal Arcanum,
A. F. and A. M.

N.
Fields,
St.

J.

M.

F.,

Louis, Mo.
Detroit, Mich.

Fowler, George W., Ancient Order of United

Workmen,
of

Hep- Frantzen, C. J., Royal Benefit Society, New tasophs, Baltimore, ^Id. York. Culbertson, William, Knights of the Golden Frost, D. M., Knights of Reciprocity, Garden City, Kan. Eagle, Philadelphia, Pa. Cummings, Thomas H., Catholic Knights Galami, M., A. F. and A. M., Athens, Greece. of Columbus, Boston, Mass.

John

AV.,

Improved Order

Daniels, William P., Order of Railway Conductors, Cedar Rapids, la.

Gans, William A., B'nai B'rith,

New

York,

Dase, William H., Knights of the Red Cross,


Springfield, 0.

N. Y. Garwood, S.

S.,

Order of

Home

Builders,

Philadelphia, Pa.

I., United Order of the Gaston, Frederick, The Grand Fraternity, Philadelphia, Pa. Golden Cross. Lewiston, Me. De Leon, Daniel D., Knights of Labor, New Gerard, D. W., Tribe of Ben Hur, Craw-

Day, Fessenden

York. Devo, John H., A. F. and A. M. (negro), " Albany, N. Y.

fordsville, Ind.

Gildersleevc, Charles E., Order of

United

Americans,

New

York.

PREFACE
Glenn, G. W., Independent Order of Recliabites, Sykes, Va. Goodule, H. G., A. F. and A. M., Jamaica,
Hitt,

George

C, Order

of Iron Hall, In-

dianapolis, Ind.

Holden, S. F., Knights and Ladies of America, New York. Queens Co., N. Y. Gorman, Artliur P., A. F. and A. M., Bal- Holman, Oliver D., Order of United Friends, New York. timore, Md. Graham, Rev. George S., Order of Iron Holmes, M. B., Ancient Order of Hibernians, New York. Hall, Philadelphia, Pa. Gretzinger, William C, College Fraternities, Hopkins, A. W., International Order of Twelve, Leavenworth, Kan. Lowisburg, Pa. Benefit Hucless, Robert, A. F. and A. M. (negro), States The United C, Griest, W. New York, Fraternity, Baltimore, Md. Griffin, Martin I. J., Irish Catholic Benev- Hughes, James L., The Loyal Orange Association, Toronto, Ont. olent Union, Philadelphia, Pa. Gross, F. W., United Brothers in Friend- Irving, E. B., A. F. and A. M. (negro), Albany, N. Y. ship, Victoria, Tex. Gwinnell, John M., American Legion of Jackson, Thornton A., A. F. and A. M. (negro), Washington, D. C. Honor, Newark, N. J. Hahne, Irvin A., Independent Order of Jones, C. C, Adjutant-General, G. A. R.,
Mechanics, Philadelphia, Pa. Hamilton, W. R., A. F. and A. M., Carthage,
111.

Rockford,

111.

Jones, Charles R.,


dianapolis, Ind.

Order of Equity, In-

Hammer, H.

H., Adjutant General, Sons

Johnston, John G., Order of Rente, Philadelphia, Pa.

of Veterans, U. S. A., Reading, Pa.

Harburger, Julius, Independent Order, Free Sons of Israel, New York. Harper, G. S., Order of the World, Wheeling,

Johnston,
Keliher,

Thomas

E., Order of Knights of

Friendship, Philadelphia, Pa.

W. Va.

Harrison, H. Leslie, Knights of St.

American Railway Sylvester, Union, Chicago, 111. John Kimptou, Carl W., Order of Unity, Philadelphia, Pa.

and Malta,

New

York.

Harte, H. M., Knights of Honor,

King, Charles M., Benevolent and Protecof Patriotic Order, Sons tive Oi'der of Elks, Paterson, N. J. Hassewell, J. N., Kittrell, L. A., Knights of Pythias (neAmerica, Scranton, Pa. gro), Macon, Ga. Hayes, John W., Knights of Labor, PhilaKrape, William W., Knights of the Globe, delphia, Pa. Freeport, 111. Heller, S. M., Home Palladium, Kansas Kuhn, John R., Catholic Benevolent LeCity, Mo. gion, Brooklyn, N. Y. Hennessy, J. C, National Reserve AssociaLamb, E. F., Order of United Friends of tion, Kansas City, Mo. Michigan, Flint, Mich. Henry, William, Order of Amaranth, DeLander, W. F., Knights and Ladies of troit, Mich. Azar, Chicago, 111. Herman, L., Ahavas Israel, New York. Herriford, Joseph E., International Order Laurence, R. D., A. F. and A. M., Springfield, 111. of Twelve, Chillicothe, Mo. Hibben, E. H., Northern Fraternal Insur- Lawler, Thomas G., G. A. R., Rockford,
ance Association, Marshalltown,
la.
111.

New York.

Hinckley, George

C,
I.

College Fraternities,

Providence, R.

Lawrence, G. ^., National Farmers' Alliance, Marion, 0.

PREFACE
Leahy, John P., Union Fraternal Alliance, Boston, Mass. Leahy, Thomas, A. F. and A. M., Rochester, N. Y.
Lee, J. P., St. Patrick's Alliance of Anierica.

XI
IL, Independent Order

Mann, Dr. D.
Tcnii)lars,

Good

Brooklyn, N. Y.

Orange, N. J.

Leisersohn, Leonard, B'rith

Abraham, New
of

York,
Lenbert,
J.

G.,

Grand United Order


(negro),

Markey, D. P., Knights of the Maccabees, Port Huron, Mich. Mason, E. C, Royal Tribe of Joseph, 8edalia, Mo. Mason, Joseph, Foresters of America, Paterson, N. J. Mason, J, J., A. F. and A. M., Hamilton,
Ont.

Odd Fellows
Lerch,

New

York.

George L., College Fraternities, Clinton, N. Y. Levy, Ferdinand, Sons of Benjamin, New York. Levy, Magnus, Independent Order of American Israelites, New York. Lockard, L. B., Knights and Ladies of Honor, Bradford, Pa. Loewenstein, E., A. F. and A. M., New York. Lunstedt, Henry, Native Sons of the Golden West, San Francisco, Cal. Lnthin, Otto L. F., Royal Society of Good
Fellows, Boston, Mass.

Mason,

J.

W.,

Protected

Home

Circle,

Sharon, Pa.

Maulsby, D. L., College Fraternities, Tufts


College, Massachusetts.

May, William H., Jr., A. F. and A. M., Washington, D. C. Mendenhall, B., A. F. and A. M., Dallas
City,
111.

Mills, A. G., Military

gion,

New

Miner,

S.

Order of Loyal LcYork. L., National Fraternal Union,


W., Knights of the Golden

Cincinnati, 0.
Mitchell,
C.

Eagle, Mansfield, 0.

Lyon, D. Murray, A. F. and A. M., Edin- Monahan, James, Irish National Order of burgh, Scotland. Foresters, New York. McCarroll, F. Liberty, Shepherds of Beth- Moore, E. T., College Fraternities, Swathlehem, Newark, N. J. more College, Swathmore, Pa. McClenachan, Charles T., A. F. and A. M., Moore, R. B., A. F. and A. M., Elizabeth, New York. N. J. McClintock, E. S., Ancient Order of the Moorman, Gen. George, United ConfedPyramids, Topeka, Kan. erate Veterans, New Orleans, La. McClurg, John, Jr., Templars of Liberty Morse, H. H., Order of Chosen Friends, of America, New York. New York. McLaughlin, James J., Massachusetts Mott, J. Lawrence, Workmen's Benefit SoCatliolic Order of Foresters, Boston. ciety, Boston, Mass. McLean, Alexander, Illinois Order of Mu- Mott, Dr. Valentine, A. F. and A. M., New tual Aid, Macomb, 111. York. Mackery, L., A. F. and A. M., Edinburgh, Mulford, John M., American Insurance Scotland. L'nion, Columbus, 0. Magill, Joseph R., Grand United Order of Mull, George F., College Fraternities, Odd Fellows (negro), New York. Franklin and Marshall, Lancaster, Pa. Mahoney, John R., Independent Order of Mulligan, John, Knights of Honor, YonRechabites, Washington, D. C. kers, N. Y. Malcolm, Samuel L., Order of United Mulligan, Ralph R., Knights of Honor, Friends, New York. Yonkers, N. Y. Mallard, Rev. Robert Q., College Fraterni- Mundie, P. J., National Union of Iron and ties, New Orleans, La. Steel Workers, Youngstown, 0.

PREFACE
Muiiger,
lief,

Frank

E.,

Empire Knights

of Ee-

Pearson, A. L., Union Veterans' Legion,


Pittsburg, Pa.

Buffalo, N. Y.

Myers, Allen 0., Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, Cincinnati, 0. Myrick, Herbert, Patrons of Industry,
Springfield, Mass.

Peckinpaugh, Thomas E., Improved Order


of
Pellin,

Red Men, Cleveland, 0.


J.

F., A. F.

and A. M., Havana,


Hall,

Cuba.
Perkins,

Nason, Edwin H., Shield of Honor, Philadelphia, Pa.

E.

C,

Iron

Baltimore,

Keedham. James
of

F.,

Md. Grand United Order Perry, John A., A. F. and A. M., Philadelphia, Pa.

Odd

Fellows (negro), Philadelphia.

Nichols, John, Templars of Liberty,

New

York.
Nicholson, General John P., Military Order of Loyal Legion, Philadelphia, Pa.

Nicholson, James B., Independent Order of

C, A. F. and A. M. (negro), Newark, N. J. Petter, Frank S., Loyal Additional Benefit Association, Jersey City, N. J. Phillips, Rev. E. S., Ancient Order of HiPeters, A.

Odd

Fellows, Philadelphia, Pa.

bernians, Plains, Pa.

Nielsen, Eennus, A. F. and A. M., Copen-

Popper, H., Independent Order Free Sons


of Judah,

hagen, Denmark.
Nisbet, Michael, A. F. and A. M., Philadelphia, Pa.

New

York.

Porter, E. H., College Fraternities, Beloit,

Wis.

Noeckel,

A.

G.,

The Columbus Mutual

Post, August, National Farmers' Alliance,

Benefit Association, Philadelphia, Pa.

Moulton,

la.

Northcott, William A., Modern


of America, Greenville,
111.

Woodmen
of

Powell, J. B. R.,

Modern Knights

Fidelity

Oakes, Henry W.,


Protection,

New England Order Auburn, Me.

League, Kansas City, Kan. Powell, M. v.. Order of Railway Telegraphers, Vinton, la.

O'Connell, James, International Association of Machinists, Richmond, Va. O'Connor, P. J., Ancient Order of Hibernians, Savannah, Ga.

Presson, G. S., A. F. and A. M., Berne,

Switzerland.

Ramsey, Walter M., College Fraternities,


Lafayette, Ind.

Oddi, J.
Oliver,

S.,

A. F. and A. M., Alexandria,


of St. George,

Ray, Peter
Reeve,
S.

S.,

M.D., A.

F.

and A. M.

Egypt.

(negro), Brooklyn, N. Y.

Edward, Order of Sons San Francisco, Cal.

Lansing, D.D., American Patriotic

Oronhyatekha, Dr., Independent Order of Foresters, Toronto, Ont. O'Rourke, William, Catholic Knights of
America, Fort Wayne, Ind. Palmer, Alanson, Eclectic Assembly, Bradford, Pa.

League, Brooklyn, N. Y. Reynolds, Walter D., Sexennial


Philadelphia, Pa.
Ridings, C.
ica,

League,

C,

Patriarchal Circle of
111.

Amer-

Morris,

Riesenberger, A., College Fraternities, Ste-

Palmer, George W., Templars of Liberty, Brooklyn, N. Y. Pancoast, E. H., Shield of Honor, Philadelphia, Pa.

vens Institute, Hoboken, N. J. Robinson, Charles H., Order of ^gis, Baltimore,

Md.

Robinson,

W.

A.,

College

Fraternities,

Parker, B. F., Independent Order of Templars, Milwaukee, Wis.

Good
Red

Paton,

Andrew H., Improved Order Men, Dan vers, Mass.

of

Bethlehem, Pa. Rodrigues, Francesco de P., A. F. and A. M., Havana, Colon. Ronemus, Frank L., Brotherhood of Railway Carmen, Cedar Rapids, la.

PREFACE
Roose, F. F., Fraternal Union of America,

Xiii

Denver, Colo.
Root,
C.
J.,

Woodmen

of

the

World.

Oniaha, Neb.
B., Independent Order Free Sons of Judah, New York. Improved Henry, Order, Rosenthal, Knights of Pythias. Evansville, Ind.

Simons, W. N., Order of United American Mechanics, Xorwalk, Conn. Slattery, M. J., Ancient Order of Ilibernians, Albany, N. Y.
Smalley, Frank, College Fraternities, Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. Smith, Adon, Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm, New York.

Rosenthal,
'

Rosenthal,

Morris,

Kesiier

Shel

Barzel,

New
Ross,

York.

Smith, D. P., Order of United Friends of Michigan, Detroit, Mich. Smith, George K., Concatenated Order of Hoo-lloo, St. Louis, Mo. Smith, General John C, A. F. and A. }>[.,
Chicago,
111.

James C, Knights of Pythias (negro). Savannah, Ga. Ross, Theodore A., Independent Order of

Odd
Rousell,

Fellows, Baltimore, Md.

Edward, Fraternal Aid Associa- Smith, T. J., Knights of the Golden Rule, tion, Lawrence, Kan. Cincinnati, 0. Rugh, W. J., Ancient and Illustrious Order Smitli, AV. J., American Glass Makers' Knights of Malta, Pittsburg, Pa. Union, Pittsburg, Pa. Russell. William T.,A. F. and A. M., Bal- Speelman, H. V., Adjutant-General, Sons timore, Md. of A'eterans, L^. S. A., Cincinnati, 0. Sanders, James P., Independent Order of Speth, G. W., A. F. and A. M., Bromley, Odd Fellows, Yonkers, N. Y. Kent, England. Sanderson, Percy, Order of Sons of St. Spooner, W. R., Royal Society of Good FelGeorge,

New

York.
111.

lows.

New

York.

Sargent, F. P., Brotherhood of Locomotive

Stead, T. Ballan, Ancient Order of Foresters,

Firemen, Peoria,
Saunders,
Schaale,

England.

T.

W., Independent Order


111.

of

Stearns,

John

B., College Fraternities, Bur-

Foresters of Illinois, Chicago,

lington, Vt.

Charles F., Patriotic Order of America, St. Louis, Mo. Schord, Louis G., United Ancient Order of Druids, San Francisco, Cal. George, A. F. and A. M., New York, Scott, George A., National Protective Legion, Waverly, N. Y. Scottron, S. R., A. F. and A. M. (negro), Brooklyn, N. Y. Sears, John M., Independent and International Order of Owls, Nashville, Tenn.
Scott,

Stebbins,

John W., Independent Order


Fellows, Rochester, N. Y.

of

Odd
ica,

Stees, F. E., Patriotic

Order Sons of Amer-

Philadelphia, Pa.

Stephenson, Mary H., G. A. R., Petersburg.


111.

Stevens, D. E., Order of the Fraternal Mystic Circle,

Philadelphia, Pa.

Stevenson, A. E., Independent


Foresters, Chicago,
111.

Order

of

Steward,
Stewart,

C.

C, Grand United Order


F.,

of

Galilean Fishermen, Bristol, Tenn.

Sendersen,

W. C.

College

Fraternities,

James

Indian

Republican

Gambier, 0. Server, John, Order of United American Mechanics, Philadelphia, Pa.


Shipp, J. F., United Confederate Veterans, Chattanooga, Tenn.
Shirrefs,

League, Paterson, N. J. St. George, Archibald. A. F. and A. ^L, Dublin, Ireland. Stolts, William A., L^nited Order of Foresters,

Chicago.

111.

R. A., A. F.

and A. M.,

Eliza-

Stowell, C. L., A. F.

and A. M., Rochester,

beth, N. J.

N. Y.

PREFACE
Stringhain,

LeRoy M., Templars of Honor and Temperance, Ripley, N. Y.


J.,

Wallace, Colonel E. Bruce, Union Veterans*

Stubbs, T.

College

Fraternities,

Wil-

Legion, Philadelphia, Pa. Watkins, James S., Improved


Ileptasophs, Baltimore,

Order of

liamsburg, Va.
Suleb, M., A. F. and A. M., Cairo, Egypt.

Md.

Weatherbee,

J.,

Order of Railway TelegPitts-

Sullavon, Emanuel, A. F. and A.


gro),

M.

(ne-

raphers, Vinton, la.

New

Bedford, Mass.
Del.

Weeks, Joseph D., A. F. and A. M.,


burg, Pa.

Sullivan,

B. Frank, Order of Heptasoplis,

or S.

W. M., Wilmington,

Sullivan, Timothy F., Catholic Knights of Columbus, Boston, Mass. Taylor, Harold, Order of Iron Hall, Indianapolis, Ind.

Taylor,W. E., Molly Maguires, Pittsburg, Pa. Terrell, George, College Fraternities, Middletown, Conn.
Thiele, Theodore B., Catholic Order of Foresters,

Weihe, William, Amalgamated Association, Iron and Steel Workers, Pittsburg, Pa. Wende, Ernest, M.D., Order of the Iroquois, Buffalo, N. Y. White, R. L. C, Kniglits of Pythias, Nashville, Tenn. W^ilson, J. W^., National Farmers' Alliance,
Chicago,
111.

Wilson,

W.

IL, Knights of Birmingham,

Chicago,
J.

111.

Philadelphia, Pa.

Thompson,

W., Knights of Pythias, Wilson, W. Warne, Columbian League, Detroit, Mich. Washington, D. C. Wood, C. B., Knights of the Golden Eagle, Order of United AmeriTipper, F. S., Jr., Philadelphia, Pa. can Mechanics, Stamford, Conn. Titcomb, Virginia C, Patriotic League of Wood, E. 0., Knights of the Loyal Guard,
the Revolution, Brooklyn.
Flint, Mich.

Todd, Quinton, Knights of Birmingham,


Philadelphia, Pa.

Tompkins, Uriah W., Home Circle, New York. Toomey, D. P., Catholic Knights of Columbus, Boston, Mass.

Woodruff, C. S., Templars of Honor and Temperance, Newark, N. J. Woodward, Rev. C. S., Temple of Honor,

Newark, N.

J.

Woolsey, George F., L^nited Order of Foresters, St. Paul,

Minn.

Trimble,

John, Patrons Washington, D. C.


Charles
E.,

of

Husbandry,

Wright, George W., Order of Heptasophs, or S. W. M., Norfolk, Va.

Troutman,

Union Veterans' Wright,


American

William

B.,

Modern American
111.

Legion, Washington, D. C.
Tyler, C. W., Jr., Order United

Fraternal Order, Effingham,

Mechanics, Richmond, Va.


Underbill, C. F., Royal Fraternity, Minneapolis,

Young, James, Knights Eagle, Baltimore, Md.

of

the

Golden

Minn.

Where
Md.

the origin of so

many

fraternities

Unverzagt, C. H., National Fraternal Alliance, Baltimore,

has been largely or in part obscured through the want of voluntary chroniclers, and some-

Upson, Irving S., College Fraternities, times by reason of the emphasis placed on the legendary accounts of their beginnings, New Brunswick, N. J. Verticau, F. W., Patrons of Industry, Port it has often been difficult to arrive at all the The search for truth, however, has facts. Huron, Mich. Waite, G. Harry, Knights of the Mystic been conducted without bias, in an honest Chain, Port Dickinson, N. Y. endeavor to collate as much as possible of Walkinshaw, L. C, College Fraternities, that which may be known concerning this
Lewisburg, Pa.
interesting phase of social
life.

IlSTTRODUCTIOlSr
Very
of

nearly

few among the six million members three hundred secret societies,

intelligent idea of the relationship of

the

fraternities,

and sisterhoods in the United


history,

States are familiar with the origin,

or function of these organizations.

This

has been noted by the eminent English ]Masonic historian, Eobert F. Gould^ who, on page 157, vol. ii., of his "History of Freemasonry," says: "The members of a secret society are rarely conversant with its origin

hundreds of secret societies which have left an impress upon American sociological development in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, may be numbered on the lingers of one hand, if indeed there are as many as that; and it is in order to remedy this, to
place
it

member
ize

within the reach of practically every of every secret society to familiar-

himself with these important particulars,

and history."

Many have

a fair knowledge

that the task of compiling the

Cyclopaedia

of the extent, membership,

immediate objects of
origin

and the more the societies to which

OF Fraternities was begun. The im))ortance of such a work may hardly be overestimated, including, as
original investigation of
it

they belong; but the real histories of the

does, prolonged
of tradi-

and development of many of the older


on mythical
inci-

hundreds
the best

organizations have so often been enveloped


in myster}^ or founded

tions

and chronicles
official

of

many

organizations;

the examination of

all of

and many
least,

dents, or traditions, that the average


ber, unless i)articularly interested

memwill-

other

or authoritative historical and


last,

and

other publications; and

but not

ing to devote time and study to the task,

the enlistment of the cooperation of hun-

and some extinct secret may be a conspicuous and honored repre- societies, to the end that little if anything sentative. may. remain undone to present, in projier Lengthy and exhaustive histories of some perspective, a panoramic view of the secret of the older and larger secret societies in society world in America, which will prethe United States have been published, but serve the sequence and relationship of such most of them are expensive and require organizations. time and study to enable the reader to be"When it is known that more than 200,000 come familiar with the details of their con- candidates for membership are initiated tents. In the rush of our latter-day civili- every year into American secret fraternization, the busy citizen finds little time to ties and sisterhoods, 30,000 alone into the pore over the wealth of incident with which Masonic Fraternity, and as many more into such works properly abound. It has, there- the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, of fore, remained for the few to know of that whom, as a rule, 60 per cent, become more which the many have been struggling to or less active members, the need for a comaccomplish, to learn whence they came and prehensive work Avhich Avill present the imnearly
all

seldom becomes a trustworthy source of information as to the fraternity of Avhich he

dreds of

the

best-informed

members

of

existing

whither travelling.

portant facts concerning


apparent.

all secret

societies

Few who
will

are well informed on the subject


is

from a universal point of view becomes


Notwithstanding the century's extraordinary development in agriculture, commerce, manufactures, in tlie arts, in the dissemination of intelligence, in the machinery of

deny that the Masonic Fraternity


all

directly or indirectly the parent organiza-

tion of

modern

secret societies, good,


still

bad, and indifferent; but fewer


to explain

are able

why or how.

Those who have an

INTRODUCTION
finance,

in the older

Freemasons in the in good government, interest twenty-five hundred and better types of secret soci- United States, perhaps five liundred memeties has grown with even greater rapidity, bers of the St. Tammany (patriotic) secret societies, and the few scattered members if one may judge from the increase in memThis may come in of Phi Beta Kapjia at Yale, Harvard, and be rsliii) and prosperity. Dartmouth Colleges. The Cyclop.-edia of tlie nature of a surprise to many who know the of traces more than six hunimportance Fraternities little of the extent or intergathers in the United States dred secret societies and it world, secret society it that mankind in of which more than three hunsince 1797, of student every est for suggests an inquiry into the cause of this dred and fifty survive, with a membership attraction, and raises the question whether amounting to 40 per cent, of the present the mystical side to our natures has not ex- male population of the country who are panded relatively more rapidly than that twenty-one years of age, in contrast with

and

less than one-quarter of 1 per cent, of the which looks mainly to material comfort. Daring the seventeenth century the specu- adult male 2)opulation who were members lative successors to the ancient English of secret fraternities one himdred years ago. operative Freemasons added to their symbolMASONIC BODIES. ism, drawn from the workingmen's guilds

of the middle ages,


istics of

many

of the character-

American Rite: Lodges,


Conimanderies.
Scottish Rite
cils,
cils.
:

ChaiJters, Councils,

and

the older religious and mystical

Thus, there may be found in modern Freemasonry traces of the Egyptian, Eleusinian, Mithraic, Adoniac, Cabisocieties.
ric,

Grand Lodges

of Perfection, Coun-

Chapters, Consistories, and

Supreme Counof

Concordant

Orders

Koyal Order

Scotland

Knights of the Red Cross of Constantine. and Druidic Mysteries, all of which, Bodies to which only Freemasons are Non-3Iasonic immortality, when undefiled, taught jnirity, Eligible Modern Society of Rosicrucians Sovtrue ever-living and an and the existence of Degrees
:
;

ereign College of Allied Masonic


cient

An-

Their ceremonials were divided into degrees in which were conferred secret means of recognition, and each had a

God.

legend which, by dramatic representation, impressed upon the novitiate the lesson that

Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mystic Mystic Order, Veiled Prophets of the Slirine Enchanted Realm Independent, International Order of Owls, and the "side degree,"' Tall
; ;

Cedars of Lebanon.

by death. Masonic symbolism and ceremonials show also the influthe Avay to
life is

Dead or Dormant : Rite of Memphis Oriental Rite Rite of Swedenborg of Memphis and Misraim
; ;

ence of the teachings of the Gnostics, the Kabbalists, Pythagoreans, Druses, Mani-

and the earlier Rosicrucians. It was between 1723 and 1740 that the parent modern secret society spread from England throughout Europe and into the British After the American AVar of the colonies. Revolution it became, with one or two political secret societies founded by Freecheans,

Order of Martinists. Irregular or Spurious Masonic Bodies : 1. American and "Scottish Rite" bodies among negroes 2. Cerneau and Seymour-Cerneau " Scottish Rite" bodies. Also, Clandestine Masonic Lodges Society of the Freemasonry Illuminati and the Covenant among the Early Mormons Chinese Freema; ;

masons, the direct or indirect source of


secret
societies

all

formed in America since With time. a few excej^tions, the like that is true concerning secret societies in Europe

Freemasonry among AmerNegroes Anti-Masonry at Home and Abroad; Statistics of Freemasonry, and a list of Distinguished Americans who are or were Freemasons.
sonry in America
ican
;

secret

Various American Military Orders and societies, followed by Colonial and


take
their

formed since 1740. One hundred years ago there were about

Ancestral Orders,

inspiration

from the Society of the Cincinnati, founded

FREEMASONS.
/-^

/ '4^y

GOOD Tem PLab s.


GRAND UNITED
ORDER

0/>

000

%
%,
/,

'<^.

^.^^

%. .\> y^ 0/>
'^< 'Oa

\^a

^&

\A
'<s.

^<

CHART SHOWING RELATIVE SIZE OF VARIOUS INTERNATIONAL SECRET SOCIETIES.

xvm
in 1783 by

INTRODUCTION
prominent American
were Freemasons.
oflBcers of
if

The

Crescent.

the
all

War of of whom

the Revolution, nearly

not

National Order of Videttes. Order of Red, White, and Blue.

MILITARY ORDERS AND SOCIETIES.


Society of the Cincinnati

Loyal Men of American Liberty. Sons of the Soil.


* American Protestant Association.

(War

of Revolution).

Military Order of the Loyal Legion.

Grand Army

of the Republic.

Sons of Veterans. Union Veteran Legion.

* Junior American Protestant Association. Loyal Knights of America. Order of American Freemen. Benevolent Order of Bereans.

Women's
Ladies of

Relief Corps.
tlie

Guards
of the Republic.

of Liberty.

Grand Army

Aid Society

of the Sons of Veterans. Auxiliary to the Union Veteran Legion.

* American Protective Association (A. P. A.). * Women's Historical Society.


* Junior American Protective Association. * Constitutional Reform Club.

Loyal Ladies' League. Soldiers' and Sailors' League. Advance Guard of America, or Grand
Progress,

Army

of

and
of

United Confederate Veterans.

* National Assembly, Patriotic League. * Order Little Red School House. * American Patriotic League. * Daughters of Columbia.
* Order of American Union.

The Sons
of

Liberty,

composed largely
by Freemasons,

and generally

officered

Order of American Shield. * United Order of Deputies.

appeared before the War of the Revolution, and was succeeded by the Sons of St.

Tamina and
Men.

St.

Tammany

Societies,

and

the latter in 1813 by the Society of

Red

The Improved Order

of

Red Men

(1834) was a further outgrowth, but with charitable and benevolent rather than political features.

Minute Men of 1890. Knights of Reciprocity. * American Knights of Protection. * Templars of Liberty. * Patriots of America. * Daughters of the Republic. * Silver Knights of America, and
*

PATRIOTIC AND POLITICAL ORDERS.


Sons of Liberty. Sons of St. Tamina.
*

* Silver Ladies of America. * Patriotic League of the Revolution. Indian Republican League. Sons of Liberty (3d). * Loyal Women of American Liberty. Freemen's Protective Silver Federation.

Tammany
Society of

Society, or

Columbian Order.

Minute Men
Ladies of

of '96.

Red Men.

Abraham

Lincoln.

* Order United American Mechanics. * Junior Order United American Mechanics. Sons of '76 Order Star Spangled Banner (Know;

*Lady True

Blues of the World (Orange). * Protestant Knights of America.

Nothing Party). * Patriotic Order Sons of America. * Patriotic Daughters of America.


Order of True Americans.
* Daughters of Liberty. * Daughters of America.

* Loyal Orange Institution. * Women's Loyal Orange Association. * Royal Black Knights of the Camp of * National Farmers' Alliance.

Israel.

* Order of the Mystic Brotherhood. * American Order United Catholics

(anti-A. P. A.).

The germ
litical

of

American
societies

patriotic

and po-

United Sons of America. * Junior Sons of America.


* Brotherhood of the Union.

secret

may
latter

be traced to

the Loyal Orange Institution, founded in


Ireland in 1795.
antecedents,

Patriotic Order of

True Americans.

The
for

American Knights.
Order United Americans. Templars. Order of American Star. Free and Accepted Americans. Order Native Americans.

and

few

had Masonic years had


is,

the cooperation of individual Freemasons.


Its cardinal principle was,

and

loyalty
still

* Societies marked with an asterisk are


existence.

in

"

INTRODUCTION
to the occupants of the British throne

XIX

and

opposition to the
It did

Roman

Catholic Church.

not appear in the United States as an


earlier

^-\Kappa Alpha (Union). -VSignia Phi (Union). Delta Phi (Union).


I.

'
'

K; A. (Trinity).

organization until 1870, but Orangeism did,

-\-A-lpha Delta Phi (Hamilton).


.

and the members of


otic secret societies

American

patri-

Skull and Bones (local, Yale).

nounced

**'

(1840-1855) were proNative Americans^' and anti-

'"\i*si

Upsilon (Union).
Pi (Miami).

^* " Mystical 7 " (Wcsleyan).

Roman

Catholic.

The Orders

of United

H^eta Theta
Scroll

American Mechanics (Senior and Junior),


Sons of America, Brotherhood of the Union,

yC^'hi Psi (Union).

and Key

(local, Yale).

*"The Rainbow"

(Univ. Mississippi),

American Protestant Association, the Know- .^^^elta Kappa Epsilon (Yale). Nothing party (Order of the Star Spangled ^^ta Psi (Univ. New York). Delta Psi (Columbia). Banner), and others, were conspicuous dur\;>^eta Delta Chi (Union). ing the period referred to, and all, except
the

"^

Know-Nothing

'><I|*hi

Gamma

Delta (Wash, and Jefferson).


(Univ. Pennsylvania).

party, exist to-day, with

Phi Delta Theta (Miami).


>Plii

others
tective

spreading into the American ProAssociation movement, which has

Kappa Sigma

Phi Kappa Psi (JelT., Pennsylvania). Phi (Princeton). been conspicuous in American politics. >-Sigma Chi (Miami). American college secret societies, better 5-^igma Alpha Epsilon (Univ. Alabama). known as Greek letter fraternities, have an ^..Chi Phi (Univ. Nortli Carolina). indirect connection with the high grades of-"^hi Phi (Hobart). Freemasonry which were elaborated in the ^"^Delta Tail Delta (Bethany). '^

)^i

Alpha Tau Omega (Virginia Mil. Inst.). Kappa Alpha, Southern (Washington-Lee). from the parent Kappa Sigma (Univ. Virginia). They constitute a social and secret society. Pi Kappa Alpha (Univ. Virginia). There are nearly thirty literary aristocracy. ->Si_gma Nu (Virginia Mil. Inst.).' important ones, and twice as many more of ' Wolf's Head (Yale). Nearly all have Greek letter Local Greek Letter, and other College consequence. Societies: titles, usually the initials of a motto. Phi Kappa Kappa Phi Nu Theta (Wesleyan) Beta Kappa, the oldest, was founded at the Kajipa (Dartmouth) Delta Psi (2d) (Univ. Vt.) Alpha Sigma Pi (Univ. Vt.); Alpha College of William and Mary, Virginia, in Sigma Phi (Marietta) He Boule (Soph. Soc. 1776, whence it was taken to Yale and Eta Phi (Soph. Soc. Yale) Yale) Lambda Harvard, and thence to other colleges. Rival Iota (Univ. Vt.). Greek letter fraternities did not begin to Professional: Alpha Chi Omega (music); Phi appear until 1825, since which time they Alpha Sigma (medicine) Phi Delta Phi (law) have multiplied rapidly. Rivahy between Phi Sigma Kappa (medicine) Nu Sigma Nu them is keen, and college social life is char(medicine) Q. T. V. (agriculture). eighteenth century, and in some instances a
'

more

direct

inspiration

acterized according as a student is a

mem])rolife,

Scientific: Berzelius

Yale)
;

Phi Zeta

Mu

(Dart-

ber of one or another,

or of none of them.

mouth); Theta XI
^Yomen's Societies
:

Sigma Delta Chi


;

(Yale).
;

Many
may

of the best-known

fessions, in literature

names in the and in political

"Xappa Alpha Theta


"Gamnnj^ Phi Beta
Delta
: ;

Alpha Beta Tau Alpha Phi Beta Sigma Oraicron


;

be found in the

lists of college

alumni,

Delta

Gamma;
;

Delta Delta
P.

members

of these fraternities.

COLLEGE GREEK LETTER AND OTHER


FRATERNITIES.
Phi Beta Kappa (founded at William and
Chi Delta Theta (Yale).

Kappa Kappa (Jamma Sigma Kappa ^i Beta Phi.


;

E.

0.

\ Jlotiorary

Sigma Chi

(local, Cornell)

Mary)

* Extinct.
t

Chi Phi (Princeton).

Also Chi Delta Theta

(local, Yale),

previously

named.

INTRODUCTION
Delta Beta Xi Extinct : Alpha Sigma Theta Delta Kappa (freshman) Kappa Sigma Epsilon Kappa Sigma Phi (sophomore) (freshman) Phi Theta Psi, all local Yale societies.
; ; ;

Knights of Pythias of North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa (negro).
* Total Abstinence Friendly Societies
;

Non-Secret

Delta Upsilon (Williams)

Gamma Nu

(local, Yale, extinct).

The
1739
1780,
;

earlier offspring of the

Masonic Fra-

: Independent Order of Rechabites Sons of Temperance Independent Order of Good Templars Royal Templars of Temperance Independent Order of Good Samaritans (negro), and others.
;
;

ternity included the

Odd Fellows (England),

1761; and the Foresters, "friendly" societies, with Masonic

Druids,

thumbmarks on
ceremonials,

their rituals

and

in

The Ancient Order of United Workmen, founded in Pennsylvania by a Freemason just after the Civil War, is the original their mutual assessment beneficiary (protection in

but differing in that their the nature of insurance) secret society, and primary purposes were to pay to members has had many successful imitators. The
specified sick, disability, funeral,
benefits.

and other total membership of these organizations is They are conspicuous among hun- about 2,000,000, the aggregate protection
in-

dreds of other English friendly societies,

and are the forerunners of the American

surance or secret beneficiary societies, which there are more than one hundred and
fifty.

fully $4,000,000,000, and the approximate annual sum paid relatives of deceased memof bers is about $30,000,000. The Knights
is

of

Pythias,

The Odd Fellows were introduced combines the


all

formed after the Civil War, features of both friendly and


Nearly

into the
ers in

United States in 1819, the Forest1834 (later in 1864), and the Druids about 1839. The Improved Order of Eed

the assessment beneficiary societies.

the

twenty-five secret labor organiza-

tions, all of which have some of the features Men, already referred to, is the oldest of friendly society and other assessment The beneficiary plans, were formed within a few friendly society of American origin. relief so- years after the organization of the Knights or friendly Hebrew B'nai B'rith, a ciety, was formed at New York city in 1843, of Labor, in 1868, but the older Total and has several followers. Abstinence secret societies, out of a dozen

BENEVOLENT OR "FRIENDLY"
SOCIETIES.
Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Improved Order of Red Men. Ancient Order of Foresters. Foresters of America. Knights of Pythias. Grand United Order of Odd Fellows (negro). United Ancient Order of Druids. Ancient Order of Hibernians. Irish National Order of Foresters. Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks.
.

in that group, appeared about sixty years

ago.

MUTUAL ASSESSMENT FRATERNITIES.


Ancient Order United Workmen. Knights of the Mystic Chain. Knights of Honor. Knights of the Golden Eagle. Legion of the Red Cross. Knights of Birmingham. Order of the Golden Cross. Knights and Ladies of Honor.
Royal Arcanum. Shield of Honor. American Legion of Honor. Order of Chosen Friends. Order of Sparta. Order of the Red Cross. United Order Pilgrim Fathers. Iowa Legion of Honor.

Sons of Herman. German Order of Harugari. Ancient and Illustrious Order, Knights of Malta. Actors Order of Friendship. Concatenated Order of Hoo Hoo. Artisans' Mutual Order of Protection. Order of St. George. Order of Scottish Clans. Order of the World. Order of Sanhedrim. Ancient Essenic Order.

Home

Circle.

*In some
features.

instances with assessment beneficiary

INTRODUCTION
Modern Woodmen of America. Modern Woodmen of the World.
National Fraternal Union.
Fraternal Mystic Circle.

ZZl

Home Forum

Benevolent Order.

American Benefit

Society.

Loyal Knights and Ladies. Order of United Friends. National Union. United States Benefit Fraternity.
Protected

Home

Circle.

Order of Star of Bethlehem. Knights and Ladies of the Golden Precept. Western Knights Protective Association. Light of the Ages. Order United Commercial Travelers.
Fraternal Union of America.

Royal Society of Good Fellows. Knights of the Maccabees. Knights of the Golden Chain. Independent Order of Chosen Friends. Knights of the Golden Rule. Royal League. Northwestern Legion of Honor.

Grand Fraternity. New England Order

Ancient Order of Freesmiths. Improved Order Knights of Pythias. Patriarchal Circle of America. Knights of the Loyal Guard. Native Sons of the Golden West. Royal Standard of America. Ancient Order of Pyramids.

of Protection.

Hebrew

United Fraternal League. Order of Unity. Empire Knights of Relief. United Friends of Michigan.
Fraternal Aid Association.

IndeIndependent Order B'nai B'rith : Order of pendent Order Free Sons of Israel Independent Order Sons B'rith Abraham Kesher Shel Barzel Improved of Benjamin Independent Order Sons Order B'nai B'rith Ahavas Free Sons of Judah of Abraham
;

National Protective League. Modern Knights Fidelity League.

Israel
ites,

Independent Order of American

Israel-

and American Star Order.


;

Mystic Workers of the World. Knights and Ladies of Security. Canadian Order of Chosen Friends.
National Fraternity. Tribe of Ben Hur.

Roman

Columbus League.
Order of Iroquois. Prudent Patricians of Pompeii. Home Palladium. Golden Star Fraternity. Independent Order of Foresters. Independent Order of Foresters of Illinois. Canadian Order of Foresters. United Order of Foresters of Minnesota. Pennsylvania Order of Foresters. Order of Heptasophs, or S. W. M. Improved Order of Heptasophs. Order of Continental Union. American Insurance Union. Independent Order Chosen Friends of Illinois. Chosen Friends of Canada. League of American German Friends. Order of Select Friends. Knights and Ladies of the Golden Star. Loyal Additional Benefit Association. Knights and Ladies of the Fireside. Knights of the Globe. Knights of Sobriety, Fidelity, and Integrity. Independent Order of Mechanics. National Reserve Association. Royal Tribe of Joseph. Order of Mutual Protection.

Catholic : Catholic Benevolent Legion Knights of Columbus Catholic Knights of IlliKnights of Catholic Order of Foresters nois Irish Catholic Benevolent Father Mathew Union Catholic Mutual Benevolent Union Catholic Women's Benevolent Legion St. Patrick's Alliance of America, and others.
; ; ; ; ;

Negro

United Brethren of Friendship and Sisters International Order Ten of Twelve, Knights and Daughters of Tabor Grand United Order Galilean Fishermen.
:

of the Mysterious

SHORT TERM ASSESSMENT


Progressive

SOCIETIES.

Endowment

Guild.

Sexennial League.
Eclectic Assembly.

Royal Benefit Society. Order of Pente. Order of Algi^. Order of Iron Hall, Baltimore City. Modern Order of Craftsmen.
International Fraternal Alliance.

Order of

Home

Builders.

Columbus Mutual Benefit Association.


Order of Equity.
National Dotare.

The assessment
and sisterhoods have
as a practical basis.

beneficiary

fraternities

a sentimental as well

In smaller

cities

they

INTRODUCTION
usurp the club, and, where men and women are admitted, form centres from which emanates a vital social influence. Beginning about 1840, after the subsidence of the anti-Masouic agitation. Freemasonry in the United States, as in England and many
other countries, has grown and prospered
" The Brotherhood." Amalgamated Association

of

Iron

and

Steel

Workers.

American Flint Glass Workers' Union.


International Association of Machinists. National Union of Iron and Steel Workers.

Knights of St. Crispin. Order of Commercial Telegraphers.


Railtvay

beyond precedent, leaving

in its

wake more

than thirty occult, hermetic, theosophic, or religious brotherhoods or societies. The


transplanted English friendly society finds

Brotherhoods : Locomotive Engineers ; Conductors Firemen Telegraphers Train; ; ;

men Switchmen way Union.


;

Carmen

American Rail-

congenial
of

soil here,

but

is

outnumbered by

COOPERATIVE AND EDUCATIONAL.


The Wheel.
Patrons of Husbandry. Patrons of Industry. Sovereigns of Husbandry. Sovereigns of Industry. Brotherhood of the Cooperative Commonwealth.

the assessment beneficiary fraternities,

many

latter variety of the

The modern secret society has commercialized the mechanism of older


by carrying on a system of
cooperative insurance in brotherhoods designed, in

which admit both men and women.

fraternities

some

instances, to advance social

SOCIALISTIC.
Universal Republic of the Earth.

or political objects, total abstinence, cooperative

buying and

New

Order of Builders.

selling,

the cultivation
of partisan
it

of patriotism, the protection of the interests

of labor,

and the propagation

Crowned ReiDublic. Commonwealth of Jesus. Order of the Grand Orient.

political views.

On

the whole,

has en-

SOCIAL

AND RECREATIVE.

couraged

development of j^ractical cooperation more, j)erhaps, than any other one influence.
the

MYSTICAL AND THEOSOPHIC AL.


Order of the

Omah Language.

Sons of Malta (extinct). Oriental Order of Humility. Sons of Adam (extinct). Loyal Order of Moose. Independent Order of Old Men. Sons of Idle Rest.

Temple

of

Isis.

The

Orientals.

Society of Eleusis.

Brotherhood of the West Gate. Order of the Magi. Hei'inetic Brothers of Luxor. Order of the S. S. S. and Brotherhood of

Order of Woodchoppers. Independent Order of Gophers.

The
Z. Z.

several

laAv

and

order,

Irish

and

other revolutionary societies, and various

R. R. Z. Z. Order of the Suii. Brotherhood of the New Life. Ancient Order of Osiris. Esoterists of the West. Rochester Brotherhood. Order of S. E. K. Fifth Order of Melchizedek and Egyptian Sphinx. Order of the Wliite Shrine of Jerusalem. Genii of Nations, Knowledge, and Religions. Altruistic Order of Mysteries.

which have been prominent for brief periods within the century, do not require extended discussion.
lawless secret associations

REVOLUTIONARY
Knights of the Golden Circle. Ku Klux Klan. Union League of America. Fenian Brotherhood.
Clau-na-Gael.

SOCIETIES.

LABOR ORGANIZATIONS.
"

The

International."

Knights of Labor. "Triangle Club."

Knights of the Inner Circle. Brotherhood of United Irishmen. United Brotherhood. Irish Republican Brotherhood.
Industrial

Army.


INTRODUCTION
Iron Brotherhood.

bers of an organization
suffering, to inculcate
to country,

Order of Reubens (Patriot War). League of National Armenian Race.

OTHERS.
Order of Mules.

Tramp

"Fraternities."

The Mafia. White Caps,


Molly Maguires.

and to whether such an order of merit is not as honorable as one created by prince or potentate

founded to alleviate good morals, loyalty do good unto others

who

links

The Camorra.

or wreath ?

Iiis name with ribbon, cross, The former are the outgiv-

ings of armies which meet in private, but

Here,
ribbon
Cross
;

in democratic

America,
of
well

we can
or Iron

boast no Order of the Bath or Garter, no


of

are

whose purposes of benevolence and peace known of all, mighty influences for the

the Legion

Honor

spread of true fraternity.

They

are often

but there

may

bo reason for

hardly

less

resplendent than

decorations

asking whether decorations of merit created

conferred by royalty, but are often more


worthily bestowed.

by 100,000 or 500,000 or 1,000,000 mem-

^a
X

l-H

P4 di

m
O Q

QQ

o
<1
;?;

<1

ANCIENT ARABIC ORDER OF NOBLES OF THE MYSTIC SHRINE

MASOlSriC,

MYSTICAL, OCCULT,
oently organized at the Soutli.

AND THEOSOPHICAL
KeUntraced.
to liim a

SOCIETIES.
them when he (FlorThe inference is

Altrurian Order of Mysteries.

the laws and ritual of the Order, gave

day or two

later,

Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of


Shrine. A social and benevolent society with a ritual and history linked to Arabic traditions, in which Oriental mysticism, names, legends, and titles are freely employed. It also has a secret purpose, made

ence) sailed for Algiers.

the

]>Iystic

known
Shrine.

only to those

who encircle the ]\Iystic None except Masonic Knights

Templars or those Avho have attained the


thirty-second degree. Ancient and Accepted
Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, are eligible
to membership.
It is

not a Masonic Order


is

that the Ancient Arabic Order abroad must have been lax in its regulations twenty-five or thirty years ago, if it permitted distinguished gentlemen who were not members of the Order to visit its Shrines, and presented them with copies of its ritual and laws when they went away. Be that as it may, Mr. Florence went on to Algiers, where, he says, he visited the Shrine of the Mogribins and found another company of Ara]}s, bankers, merchants, learned Mo-

and forms no part


is

of Freemasonry,

in-

hammedans, and others "who

are passion-

dependent in origin and government, and


it

ately fond of perpetuating ancient customs

associated with the Craft only because which increase their social pleasures." As was established by eminent Freemasons he gives no account of being initiated into and because none but Freemasons of high the Ancient Arabic Order, and intimates degree may become acquainted with its that his being a Freemason was sufficient mysteries. Dr. Walter M. Fleming, 33, to gain admission to Bokhara Shrine at and William J. Florence, 32, both of Xew Marseilles, the letter leaves much to be deYork, are responsible for the existence of sired. Other accounts of the Order add
*'

The Shrine,"
called.

as the organization

is

fa-

that Florence returned to the United States


in 1871, and suggested to Dr. Walter M. Fleming that they establish ''the Shrine" at New York. The latter had already " received detached and mutilated sections of a translation of the ritual," whicli had been " brought to America by a member," * together with some vague history and ritu*

miliarly

In a letter Avritten by

Mr. Florence in 1882, he explains that he was introduced into a meeting of the Order at Marseilles, France, in 1S70, b}-a banker's clerk who " knew him to be a Mason " and could vouch for him as such, where he found many distinguished visitors

learning

and members who seemed absorbed in ''how the French of Marseilles


in getting possession of such

The

ritual

now

in use is stated to be

"a

trans-

had succeeded

interesting secrets."

Then

follows a refer-

ence to the ceremonies of the evening, the costumes, paraphernalia, and scenic effects,

and the explanation that Yusef Bey, tlie Illustrious Potentate of Bokhara Shrine, at
Marseilles,

on being begged for a

coj^y of

from the original Arabic" found "in the aifhivos of the Order, at Aleppo," whence it was brought in 1860 to London by Rizk Allah Ilassoon EfFcndee, and later placed in the possession of Dr. Fleming, to whom jurisdiction over the Order for America was given by the Arabic scholar named. In Arabia this ritual is known as the "Pillar of Society," and called the " Unwritten Law," in distinction from the Koran, or "Written Law."
lation

ANCIENT ARABIC ORDER OF NOBLES OF THE MYSTIC SHRINE


alistic sections bronglit

wood C. Campbell of
the Florence ritual
"'

Xew

from Cairo by SherYork. But as came from Oriental

33; George
riarty,.33;

W. Millar, 33; Albert P. MoDaniel Sickels, 33; John W.

Simons, 33; Sherwood C. Cami^bell, 32;

Europe" and "was marked with certain who, together with Albert L. Rawson, 32, sections of the Koran for notes and allu- "Arabic translator," September 26, ] 872,
sions
"'

Avhich facilitated revision for use in

instituted ^lecca Temple, A. A. 0. X.

America, Dr. Fleming. Avith the assistance of Professor A. L. Rawson, comj)iled the work which became the foundation of the Order in America. Dr. Fleming recounts the incidents connected with organizing the
Shrine in the United States, as follows
31 r.
:

the

first

or parent

Temple

in the

States.

As

"'the next session''

M. S., United was held

Florence was
lie at this

entertained as a

Mason

at

Marseilles, in
tash.

Bokhara Temple of the Arabic Bektime simply witnessed the open-

January 12, 1874, it may be seen that the Order did, not grow rapidly in the first few years. On January 4, 1875, Damascus Temj)le, Rochester, N. Y., was organized, which gave soiue impetus to the Order, and Dr. Fleming, Potentate of Mecca from 1871
until 1886, invested

the following thirty-

ing session of the exoteric ceremonials which characterize the politico-religious order of

third degree Freemasons with the prerogatives of Past Potentates, to enable

Bektash of

Oriental Euroj\e.

monitorial, historic, and ex-

them

to

planatory manuscript "lie i,l'^T received there. It did not embrace the esoteric Inner Twnple exemplifica-

cooperate actively in establishing subordinate Temples: OrrinWelch, Syracuse, X.Y. John D. Williams, Elmira, X. Y. Charles H. Thomson, Corning, X. Y. Townsend Fondey, John S. Dickerman, and Robert H. Waterman, Albany, X. Y. John F. Collins, Xew York, X. Y. John L. Stet;
;

Law,"which is never imparted to anyone except from mouth to Shortly afterward ]Mr. Florence was similarly ear. favored in Algiers and Aleppo. Through letters and
conunendations he finally secured the manuscript monitor, history and descriptive matter from Avhich

tion or obligation, nor the " Unwritten

sprang the Order in this country. It was in Algiers and Aleppo that he was received into the Inner Temple luider the domain of the Crescent and first became possessor of the esoteric work, the " Unwritten Law " and the Shayk's obligation. Subsequently he visited Cairo, Egypt, and was admitted, and collected more of Oriental history and the manuscript of " Memorial Ceremonials." But ]\Ir. Florence was
never fully recognized or possessed of authority until long after his return to America. All he possessed was a disconnected series of sheets in Arabic and

tinius,

Cincinnati,

0.; Vincent L. Hurl;

burt,

Samuel H. Harper, George Scott, PaterIn June, 1876, an Imj^erial son, X. J. (governing) Council was organized at Xew
Chicago,
111.

Pittsburg, Pa.; and

York
cials
:

City, with the following list of

offi-

Walter M. Fleming, Xew York, Imperial Potentate; George F. Loder, Rochester,

Deputy Potentate

Philip F. Lenhart,.

French, with some marginal memoranda made by himself from verbal elucidation in Aleppo. Through Professor Albert L. Rawson these, with others received afterward through correspondence abroad,

Brooklyn, Chief Rabban ; EdAvard M. L. Elder s, Xew York, Assistant Rabban


AVilliam
Priest
;

H. Whiting, Rochester, High Samuel R. Carter, Rochester, Oriencomprised the translations from which the Order tal Guide Aaron L. Xorthrop, Xew York, Mr. Florence and myself receiA'ed started here. Treasurer William S. Paterson, Xew York, authority to introduce the Order here. Recorder Albert P. Moriarty, Xew York, On June IG, 1871, at Masonic Hall, Xo. Financial Secretary John L. Stettinius, 114 East Thirteenth Street, Xew York City, Cincinnati, First Ceremonial Master BenMessrs. Fleming and Florence conferred son Sherwood, Xew York, Second CereSamuel Harper, Pittsburg, the "new Order" upon the following Scot- monial Master tish Rite Freemasons Edward Eddy, 33; Marshal Frank H. Bascom, Montpelier, Oswald Merle d'Aubigne, 32; James S. Captain of the Guard and George Scott,
;
;

Chappell, 32;

John

A." Moore, 32; Charles


S.

Paterson, Outer Guard.

Meetings of the

T. McClenachan, 33; William

Paterson,

Imperial Council have been held annually.

ANCIENT ARABIC ORDER OF NOBLES OF THE MYSTIC SHRINE


and
officers

elected

fifth session of

triennially. At the all States, each with a distinctive Arabic or Mecca Temple, January 16, other Oriental name and form, rallying

1877, there was a large increase in


bership,

mem-

points not only for prominent Freemasons

and

it

was announced that the


its ''ritual,

who

reside at

those

cities,

but veritable

Imperial Council had perfected


statutes,

Meccas of

hospitality,

good

fellowshii),

and

history, diplomas,

dispensations,

true brotherhood

for all visiting Nobles.

and charters ;'' that "members, Temples, deputies, and representatives now extend from the extreme east to the west, and from the north to the south of our jurisdiction,^' and tliat the Order was destined to become, what has proved to be the case, "a most popular and powerful one in America." In that year there were four Temples represented at the Imperial Council, and dispensations were granted to form In 1879 Mecca Temple took on others. new life, largely through the efforts of Augustus W. Peters, Charles H. Ileyzer, and Joseph B. Eakins, who laid the foundations for the elaborate ceremonial, gorgeous

Not the
ages by

least characteristic

among

agree-

able features of the Order are the pilgrimof one or more Temples Temples, or to distant points of general interest, which, with sight-seeing,
to sister

members

and the extension and reception


hospitality, usually

of Shrine

provide enjoyable exall

cursions of a week or a fortnight's duration.

Pilgrimages from

over the country

to sessions of the Imperial Council,


cial trains

by spe-

bearing Nobles decorated with

fezzes

and crescent tiger-claws, constitute


if

invasions of objective points which the in-

habitants thereof seldom,


It
is

ever,

forget.

likewise an amiable custom to organize

scenic effects,

and

realistic

dramatic rendithe end of 1879


since

-tions of the ritual of

the Order, Avhich have

since distinguished

it.

By

family theatre parties at least once eacli In some instances the Nobles, who are decorated with fezzes and claws, and are
year.

there were reported thirteen Temjjles, with


a total

membership

of 4:38 Nobles,

accompanied by wives and families, require the entire seating capacity of theatres, and
it

which time the progress of the Order has been one of uninterrupted prosperity. At a
public installation ceremony at

is

not infrequent that one or more of

those behind the footlights on such occasions are entitled to,

and do wear, the mystic symbols of the Order. These entertainso great was the interest that ladies' receji- ments are supplemented annually by carnitions have since been a feature among vals, at which only children of the Masonic entertainments for which the Shrine is "nobility" are admitted, to be entertained noted. To give them permanence they by members of the Order. With the annual have been invested with a ceremonial, and public receptions and carnivals, where the
ple in 1884,

Mecca Tem-

many

ladies

were present, and

gatherings of this character are


as

now known

Courts of the Daughters of Isis. This organization was formed October 30, 1888, to cultivate social relations between ladies of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. Its government is independent, under the jurisdiction of Mecca Court, from which
other Temples
abling

decorations include scenes from Arab life and a wealth of Oriental ornamentation, the
general public at larger cities
It
is

is

familiar.

difficult to

analyze and reconcile the

somewhat fragmentary accounts of the origin and development of the Arabic Order
of

wiiich

the Shrine

is

said

to

be a de-

may

receive charters

en-

them

to establish Courts. of the Mystic Shrine dur-

The extension
ing the

past ten

years

has exceeded

all

precedent

among

like societies.

Temples

have been established at leadinsr centres ui

doubted whether such a task can be successfully performed. The "Origin and History of the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine," compiled and collated bv Dr. Walter M. Fleming and William S.
it

scendant,

and

may

well

be

"

ANCIENT ARABIC ORDER OF NOBLES OF THE MYSTIC SHRINE


Paterson, copyright, 1894, by

Andrew H.
it

was instituted by Kalif Alee, "^cousin-german and son-in-law " of Mohammed, in the year 644 A.D., at Mecca, Arabia, ''as an InquiKellogg,
City, states that
sition or Vigilance

New York

have explained why the Society abroad had long been carried within the Masonic bod}^,

and

justice

Committee to dispense upon criminals who escajied their honor.


also to

have given it, had they so desired, a Masonic alliance. Some of the recognized Orders appendent to Freemasonry have had less right to claim that
to

distinctly

just deserts through the tardiness of the


courts,

and

promote religious

tolera;

tion

among

cultured
degree.

men

of all nations

But as membership in the Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine in America is confined to Freemasons, its founders here may be regarded as having builded with discretion, ingenuity,

evidently- a sort of Arabic Vehmgerichte, or

and Avisdom.
is

twenty-first

The ceremonial

in

The
erally

jewel of the Order

a crescent, gen-

this organization

was crude, membership

made

of the claws of the

Bengal

tiger,

being acquired on taking the


It

"Arab

oath/'

united at the bases with a gold setting.

is declared to have had a continuous existence in Oriental countries, and " now

The sphinx is engraved on one side, and a pyramid, urn and star on the other. The emblem may
also

gathers arouiid

its

Shrines the best educated

bear the date of

the

and most cultivated classes among Mohammedans, Hebrews, and Christians." Dr. Fleming writes that ''it is derived from a politico-religious order of the Arabic Mohammedans which extends all over Europe, termed the Bektash ;" but in the " Origin and History " it is stated that the Bektash are merely among the " most honored patrons of the Nobles,"

Order and an Arabic motto, " Kuwat wa Ghadab " or in Latin, "Eobur et Furor ;" and in English, " Strength and Fury." The crescent is usually suspended from a scimitar, and holds a star pendent between its drooping
owner's initiation into the
;

horns.

The
is

crescent has been a religious

emblem

in all ages in the East,

and in some

The ancient The Bektash Greeks used the crescent as "an emblem are said to number several hundred thou- of the universal Mother of all living things." sand, and to have headquarters at Cairo, The Shrine for esoteric reasons employs
it

whom

protected

countries

a political ensign.

''in a time of great peril."

Damascus, Jerusalem, Smyrna, Constantinople, Adrianople, Teheran, Benares, Tangier, Oran, Mecca, and at other cities in the
far East.

the crescent with the

its

horns pointing downof the old faith at

ward: " The setting

moon

moment

of the rising sun of the

new

The

chief of these dervishes at

faith in the brotherhood of all

mankind."

Mecca

is

declared to be the principal officer


It will justly

of the Arabic Mystic Shrine.

The origin of the universal among Moslems, whence, of


to

use of the fez


course, Shrine
:

surprise
of All

many students of " Secret Societies members get it, is Ages" to learn that Adam WeisWhen pilgrimages

told as follows

Mecca were interrupted by


980, the

haupt, the founder of the Illuminati in Bavaria, in 1776, is claimed " among the

the Crusades, about a.d.


rocco, as to a holy city.

Mohammedans
the flourishing

west of the Nile journeyed to Fez (or Fas), in Mo-

modern promoters of the principles of the Order" of the Mystic Shrine in Europe, as
well
as

Among

Frederick the

manufactures of the city was a head-covering called tarboosh, now known as a fez, which was dyed scarlet,

G-reat,

Mirabeau,

for the students in a great school at that city.

Groethe,

Spinoza, Kant, Lord Bacon, Ca-

vour, Mazzini, Garibaldi, Victor Emanuel,

and others, most of whom are known to have been Freemasons. It would seem as if this discovery would have been sufficient to enable the founders of the American Order to

and it became a mark of learning, gradually displaced other forms and colors of hats. It was carried in all directions by caravans, and
In that way
thus became the distinguishing head-dress of Moslems in every part of the empire.

During

the past eight years the Order

ANCIENT ARABIC ORDER OF NOBLES OF THE MYSTIC SHRINE


in the of

United States
4,000
1,

fully

January

lias grown at the rate $26,000, in which none of the secret relief On extended to sick or distressed Nobles is inmembers annually. One of the most important and 1899, its total membership was cluded.

about 50,000, distributed


nine Temples at as

among seventymany cities.* Its Christ-

characteristic features of the Order


in its

is

found

generous donations to Freemasons in

mas donations
institutions

to the poor

recently

and to benevolent need of assistance, which is done so secretly amounted to over that the world never hears of it, and few

* Temples of the Mystic Shrine.

Alabama
:

Bir-

Temple, First Wednesday, Arizona Phoenix, El March, June, September. Zaribah Temple, First Monday, November, DecemArkansas ber, January, February, March, April. Pine Bluff, Saliara Temple, First Wednesday. CalLos Angeles, Al jMaluikah Temple, Third ifornia San Francisco, Islam Temple, Second Friday Wednesday. Colorado Denver, El Jebel Temple, March, June, September, December. Connecticut Bridgeport, Pyramid Temple, Second Wednesday, Hartford. Sphinx Temexcept July and August District of Columbia ple, Second Thursday. Washington, Almas Temple, Call of Potentate. Florida Jacksonville, Morocco Temple, First Friday after Third Tuesday. Georgia Atlanta, YaaSavannah, Alee rab Temple, Third Wednesday Temple. Call of Potentate. Idaho Boise City, El Korah Temple, Second Thursday. Illinois: ChiPeoria, Mocago, Medinali Temple, Monthly hammed Temple, Second Tuesday Rockford, Tebala Temple, Fourth Wednesday. Indiana IndiIowa anapolis, Murat Temjjle, Fourth Friday. Cedar Rapids, El Kahir Temple, on call Davenport, Kaaba Temple, First Tuesday. Kansas Leavenworth, Abdallah Temple, First and Third Friday Salina, Isis Temple, Third Tuesday. Kentucky Louisville, Kosair Temple, Second Monday. Louisiana New Orleans, Jerusalem Temple, Quarterly. Maine Lewiston, Kora Temple, Fourth Thursday, January, i\Iay, September, Novembei', December. Maryland Baltimore, Boumi Temple, 29th, 30th, or 31st. Massachusetts Boston, Aleppo Temple, Call of Potentate Springfield, Melha Temple, Fourth Thursday, except July and August. Michigan Grand Rapids, Saladin Temple, Detroit, Moslem Temple, First Call of Potentate Marquette, Tuesday Alimed Temple, First Wednesday. Minnesota ^Minneapolis, Zuhrah Temple, Fourth Friday St. Paul, Osman Temple, May 2ith, October 20th, January 19th. Mississippi Meridian, Ilamasa Temple, Fourth ThursMissouri day. Kansas City, Ararat Temple, First Wednesday St. Joseph, Moila Temple, Fourth Wednesday St. Louis, Moolah Temple, Third Wednesday. Montana Helena, Algeria Temple, Second Tliursdav. Nebraska Lincoln, Sesostris

mingham, Zaraora

Temple, Second Saturday Omaha, Tangier TemNew Mexico Albuquerque, ple, Fourth Friday. New Ballut Abyad Temple, Second Monday. York Albany, Cyprus Temple, subject to call Brooklyn, Kismet Temple, on call Buffalo, IsNew York, Mecca Temple, mailia Temple, 29th Rochester, Damascus Temple, Call of Potentate four times a year Troy, Oriental Temple, Third Friday Utica, Ziyara Temple, First Wednesday Watertown, Media Temple, Second Monday. North Carolina Charlotte, Oasis Temple, no stated time. North Dakota Fargo, El Zagal Temple, every Thursday. Ohio Cincinnati, Syrian Temple, Call Cleveland, Al Koran Temple, Pleasof Potentate Columbus, Aladdin Temple, ure of Potentate Second Thursday Dayton, Antioch Temple, unOklahoma, India Temjile, certain. Oklahoma Oregon Portland, Al Kader Third Thursday. Ontario, Canada Temple, Fourth Wednesday. Toronto, Rameses Temple, August, November, April. Pennsylvania Erie, Zem Zeni Temple, Call Philadelphia, Lu Lu Temple, First of Potentate Wednesday Pittsburg, Syria Temple, Call of PoReading, Rajah Temple, Fourth Wednestentate Wilkesbarre, Irem day, except July and August Temple, Third Wednesday. Rhode Island Providence, Palestine Temple, Fourth jMonday, December, March, June, October. South Dakota Deadwood, Nuja Temple, First Saturday, March, June, Septendier Sioux Falls, El Riad Temple. Third Wednesday. Tennessee Chattanooga, Alliambra Temple, Third Friday Mempliis, AlChymia TemTexas Austin, Ben ple, December and March. Ilur Temple, Friday after appearance of Crescent Dallas, Ilella Temple, Third Thursin the West Salt Lake City, El Kalah Temple, day. Utah Third Wednesday. Vermont Montpelier, Mount Sinai Temple, Second Friday, March, June, SepVirginia Richmond, Acca tember, December. Temple, Fourth Thursday, except June, July, AuWashington Spokane, El Katif Temple, gust. Tacoma, Afifi Temple, Third First Wednesday West Virginia Charleston, Bcni Wednesday. Kedem Temple, Second Thursday Wheeling. OsiWisconris Temple, Second and Fourth Friday. sin Milwaukee,Tripoli Temple, Second Wednesday. Wyoming Rawlins, Korein Temple, Last Friday.
; : :

ANCIENT ARABIC ORDER,


iu

ETC.,

OF NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA

beyond those

immediate interest ever


is

New

Orleans
P.

S. S. Scott,

Pueblo,

Col.

know

of

it.

Mohammedanism

not advo-

Thomas

Mahomet, Omaha; Joseph

S.

tlie American Order, Custis, New York; J. D. Scott, Fort Worth, but the same respect is inculcated for Deity Tex., and John Coleman, Water Valley, Miss. At the same meeting it was planned as in Arabia and elsewhere. Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of to organize a women's auxiliary, to be known

cated by the ritual of

the Mystic Slirine of North and South as the Daughters of the Pyramid. There America. This is a social and fraternal were twenty-three Temples represented and organization of negroes, which seeks to more were to be instituted. Ancient Order of Freesmiths (Der jiarallel the Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. (See the latter.) As Alte Orden der Freischmiede). According the A. A. 0. N. M. S. admits only Freemasons to old charters which are alleged to be who are Knights Templars or have received still in existence in the Supreme body this the thirty-second degree. Ancient and Ac- in Germany, German secret socepted Scottish Kite, so the A. A. 0. N. M.' ciety carries its organization back more S. of North and South America receives years than almost any other similar body. only those who have taken the higher de- The extreme secrecy with which its progrees conferred in negro Masonic bodies. ceedings and traditions are surrounded The renders it somewhat difficult to obtain de(See Freemasonry among Negroes.) Grand Council of the A. A. 0. N. M. S. tailed information concerning it. Various of North and South America was insti- 23ublislied accounts profess to trace its orituted at Chicago, June 10, 1893, by John gin as far back as the eighth century, to G. Jones and others. It is declared that Mr. Westphalia, which, at that time, included Jones is the first negro in the United States the region between the Elbe and the Rhine, to receive the Shrine degree, and that it was and the present Republic of Switzerland. conferred upon him by several members It will interest Scottish Rite Freemasons, of the Grand Council of Arabia" who were as well as other students of the subject of

'^^

in Chicago

''in attendance at the World's

Jones and associate negro Nobles received their Shrine ritual in the same manner as the negro Knights Templars obtained theirs. In 1895 a meeting of the Grand Council of the A. A. 0. N. M. S. of North and South America Avas held at Chicago. Its officials were some of the more active negro Freemasons in the United States. The list is as follows
Fair."
It is likely that
:

Middle Ages, to is said to have originated in the Vehmic Courts, and that
secret
societies

in

the

learn that this brotherhood

the claim
tion, the

is

made

that this secret organiza-

Freesmiths of to-day, has had a continuous existence ever since. Whether


it

lias

or

not,

it

presumes,
secret

like

some

other and better

known

societies,

to supply the links

between the time of

the Vehmgerichte and to-day.

The Amer-

John G. Jones, Chicago,


;

Avho
;

presided

ican branch of the society declares that the

Joseph H. Sbreve, Chicago D. W. Dempsey, Chicago Robert II. Ilucless, New York J. W. Dunmore, Chicago W. W. Madden, Baltimore W. P. Floyd, Indianapolis ; D. F. Seville, Washington, D, C. Thomas W. Logan, Kansas City, Mo. B. M. Shook, Cleveland Eev. Dr. J. B. Stansberry. New York James H. Lewis, New York M. L. Hunter, New York J. F.
;
;

Vehmgerichte flourished from the reign of Charlemagne, mostly iu Germany, where it exercised a considerable influence between the twelfth and sixteenth centuries, in putting down the lawlessness and disregard for authority which prevailed there. It
constituted courts for the protection of the

innocent
easily
est.

Scott,

Chatham, Ont.

E. A. Williams,

and oppressed, which were as approached by the humblest as highThe Vehmgerichte became an immense

ANCIENT ORDER OF FREESMITHS


civil suits and otiiers of trivial cliaracter, from the while the latter took charge of crimes of The accused in the point of view of the present time, it was a more serious nature. lawless organization, it was, as a matter of procedure of these courts was cited by havfact, a society, of the most law-abiding of ing the summons nailed over his door at that time, designed to bring to justice the night, or, if it was not known where he evil-doer of whatever rank in society, and lived, by fastening four copies at a crossXone to see that punishment was meted out. road near his sujjposed residence. The Freesmiths, while claiming direct de- but the initiated was admitted during the scent from these Vehmic courts, carry their sessions of the secret court, and any one existence far enough back to date froin the found present who was not a mem])er was

power, not only tlirougliout Westphalia, but

elsewliere in

Germany; and

while,

period

when the

courts were used for the


as they afterwards did,

init

to

instant death.

The only punishsecret

execution of justice, ignoring the period

ment
death
;

inflicted

by the

court

was

when they became,

and

in

case the convicted accused

in the hands of the nobility, instruments for was not present, the first of tlie initiated to unworthy purposes. One of the latest of meet him was bound to put him to death the Vehmic courts was that held at Celle, and leave the knife with the cabalistic letin Hanover, in 1568, although it has been ters beside the body, to show the deed was With the revival of law heard of at later dates. It is related that not a murder. Jerome Bonaparte in 1811 abolished one of and order and legal procedure, Der Alte the later forms of the Vehmgerichte in Aus- Orden der Freischmiede is declared to have tria, at which time it was known as Der taken the place of the Vehmgerichte, with But the some of the more deadly characteristics of Alte Orden der Freischmiede. Order was in existence in other portions of the latter left out, and some of the benevoGermany at the time, where it is still con- lent features of more modern secret societinued, and had a large membershiji. A ties incorporated. The first Lodge of the Freischmiede in candidate for initiation into the Order was required to be a Christian, never to have the United States was organized in Balbeen excommunicated or outlawed, and not timore in 1865, and a second one was After a party to any trial before the Vehme. He formed in Washington iu 1866. was required to take a solemn oath to sup- the organization of the third Lodge in port the Holy Vehm, to conceal its pro- this country, which was in Philadelphia in ceedings ''from wife and child, father and 1867, the Order took on a rapid growth. mother, sister and brother, fire and wind, There are thousands of members of the sofrom all that the sun shines on and the ciety in this "country to-day, but compararain wets, and from every being between tively little is kno\Vn about the institution, heaven and earth, and to bring before the and members thereof appear chary about tribunal everything within his knowledge giving information. It apparently avoids that fell under its jurisdiction." He was publicity, not only regarding its affairs, but then invested with the signs by which the regarding its membership and location. members recognized each other, and pre- Lodges are believed to be established in alsented Avith a rope and a knife, upon the most every State in the Union, which are latter of which were the letters S. S. G. G., governed by State or Grand Lodges, and the supposed to mean Strick, Stein, Gras, Grein, latter are controlled by the Supi'eme Lodge or Rope, Stone, Grass, Grain. One variety of the United States, which is said to meet of

Vehmic court held

its

meetings openly,
jurisdiction in

regularly
year."
ies,

while the proceedings of the other were


secret.

"on the first hour The Lodge rooms are


represent
the

of every leap
called Smith-

The former took

and

firmament,

the

ANCIENT ORDER OF OSIRIS


;

William Drexler of Paterson, N. J. Grand Moon, and the third, etc., re^)- Counsellor, Jacob Himmelsbach of New resenting other phmets or lieavenly bodies. York Grand Secretary, William Mertz of The ritual of the Order has no religions Paterson, N. J. and Grand Treasurer, characteristics, a recognition of a higher Emil Baumgarten of Paterson, N. J. power being the only requisite from those It is only fair to state that there are no seeking admission. The objects of the reasons for believing that the Ancient Order society are intellectual development, the of Freesmiths have had any more direct extension of wisdom and toleration, sick connection with the Yehmgerichte of the benefits and life insurance. The lower body Middle Ages than have any of the haute in the organization is entitled the Free Mas- grades of the Ancient and Accepted Scotters and contains six degrees. The regalia tish Rite of Freemasonry, and there are is composed of a red sash with three stars. several external evidences that the foundAfter an honorable career in the Order for ers of the Freesmiths have patterned after a year, the degree of Grand Marshal is some of the emblems and ceremonials of the conferred, with a black sash and seven Bite Ecossais. There are, however, reastars. After that comes the Grand Master sons for crediting the inspiration of the Freedegree, with the blue sash and seven stars, smiths to some of the earlier workingmen's when the member is entitled to wear his guilds in Germany. sword. The highest degree bestowed is enAncient Order of Osiris. In the histitled Cavalier, and is conferred after three tory, objects, and aims of this modern years and an examination in astronomy and American Order, published in 1887, no Only a Cavalier may become mention is made of its headquarters. It is the sciences. President of a Supreme Lodge, the emblem governed by a Supreme Tribunal, and deals of which degree is the Cross of the Knights, in Lesser and Greater Mysteries, all of a sasii of red, black, and blue with all the which are declared to have been instituted stars, and a sword and a dagger. These in virtue, with the noblest objects in view. officials exercise somewhat the same pre- Its watchwords are Truth, Justice, and rogatives as Sovereign Grand luspectors Equity, and it seeks to clothe the naked, General of the thirty-third and last degree feed the hungry, educate the orphan, and of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of '*to know each other and ourselves." Freemasonry, having access to all the bodies Anti-Masonry. Organized opposition and their archives, and being entitled to to Freemasonry has shown itself in three special honors at all visits. Like so many forms since the revival in 1717, when the younger secret societies, this one possesses four London Lodges united to form a Grand a motto in three words Truth, Fidelity, Lodge. The first came and still emanates and Secrecy (Wahrheit, Treue, the unde from the Roman Catholic Church Schwiegen). The obligations of the Order second, from one or more offshoots of the recpiire every member to assist unfortunate Scotch Presbyterian Church and the third or distressed brethren. Lodges pay five was conspicuous in the United States for dollars weekly in case of sickness of mem- a decade after the disappearance of William bers, 1125 in case of the death of a member's Morgan of Batavia, N, Y., who, it was said, wife, and 1500 to the heirs of a member in was about to disclose the secrets of the FraA recently published list ternity. Almost all political antagonism to case of his death, of officials of the Supreme Lodge of the Freemasonry in Europe may be traced to the United States included the followins: influence of the Roman Catholic Church. Grand Honorary President, William During the seven years from 1717 to 1724 Schlumpf of New York Grand Marshal, the Fraternity attracted the attention of
presiding officer being the Sun, the second in

command

tlie

ANTI-MASONRY

many Englislimen

of learning cand

title,

when, on September 3, 1724, the London '' Daily Post" announced tiie appearance in
that city of a secret society described as
tlie

and confiscation of property, without hope of mercy, being the penalty. De Cormenin,
in his

" History

''l^leiad of

of the Popes," refers to the philosophers" which had ranged

Ancient and Noble, or, the August and itself around Voltaire, ''battling in the Noble Order of Gonnogons. It was declared breach against the civil and religious auto be of Chinese origin, founded " thousands thority of popes, bishops and priests," Monof years" prior to Adam, and the printed tesquieu, Rousseau, Diderot, d'Alembert, account set forth that a Chapter would be and others compelling " tlie third estate, held at Castle Tavern, Fleet Street, where the nobility, and even a great part of the " no Mason " would be received as a member French clergy to march in their progressive " till he had renounced " his " novel Order " route to the conquest of a new order of and been '^ properly degraded." Six weeks things." The political movement, he delater the same paper stated that ''many clared, "though less apparent than the reeminent Freemasons" had "degraded" ligious, was not the less real. Secret associthemselves (renounced their Fraternity and ations were everywhere organized to labor burned their gloves and aprons) and joined for the overthrow of kings and priests," and " Rome was so moved " by this revolutionthe Gormogons. Several theories have been advanced to ary tendency that " Clement XII. declared account for the existence of the Gormogons, war on secret societies and fulminated a The first, that it was a creation of the Cheva- terrible bull against the Freemasons who lier Ramsey, an ardent Freemason and a had established Lodges in England, ScotRoman Catholic, and another, that it was land, France, Germany, and Italy." the beginning of what took shape as the These statements indicate that Clement schismatic branch of English Freemasonry was unable to distinguisli between a secret, about the middle of the last century, are pacific, non-political, benevolent brotherboth regarded as unworthy of consideration. hood and secret political associations. De The third theory, that it was a " Jesuitic," Cormenin relates that Pope Clement's bull that is, Roman Catholic, invention, designed against Freemasonry prohibited "his subto offset the growing j^opularity of Freema- jects" from affiliating with or being present sonry, was, and still is, believed to be the true at Masonic assemblies, from inducing anyexplanation, particularly as the Society of one to join the Fraternity, and from "ren-

Gormogons disappeared in 1738, the year in which Pope Clement XII. issued his famous bull against Freemasonry. It was on April 28, 1738, that Pope Clement XIT. published his bull, entitled In Eminent i Apostolatus Specula, containing the following words
:

dering aid, succor, counsel, or a retreat" to Freemason "under penalty of death;"

For which reason the temporal and


coininnnities

spiritual

are enjoined,

in

the

name

of

holy

which, in part, refers, probably, to the supplementary bull of 1739, applying to the " These proscriptions," De Papal States. Cormenin says, gave Freemasonry an "extraordinary lustre, and Europe was soon covered by a prodigious Jiumber of Lodges."

obedience,

neither to enter the society of Freeits principles,

The reasons
a long
list

for issuing this, the first of


bulls against Freemasonry,

masons, to disseminate

to defend

it,

of

nor to admit nor conceal it within their houses or palaces or elsewhere, under pain of excommunication ipso facto for all acting in contradiction of this,

are thus set forth in the

document

itself

and from which only the Pope can absolve the dying.

On January

We have learned, and public rumor docs not permit us to doubt the truth of the report, that a certain society has been formed under the name of
Freemasons into whicli persons
all sects

14, 1739, a still

more stringent

of all religions

edict was issued for the Papal States, death

are indiscriminately admitted,

and and whose

10

ANTI-MASONRY
established certain laws which bind

noted by Gould, in his ''History of Freemasonry," Pius VII. spoke to the same effect lar, compel their members, under the severest in 1829, Gregory XVI. in 1832, and Pius IX. penalties, by virtue of an oath taken on the Holy in 1846, 1864, and at other dates. Leo XIII. Scriptures, to preserve an inviolable secrecy in reagain confirmed these decrees of his predelation to everything tliat passes in their meetings. cessors in 1884, and extended the o^iposition
themselves to each other, and which, in particu-

members have

The
eties

bull further declares tliat these socisiispected of being hurtful

of the

Eoman Church

to the

Odd

Fellows,

had become

the Knights of Pythias, and the Sons of

to the tranquility of

the state and to the


if

safety of the soul

that

the actions of

Freemasons were irreproachable they would not so carefully conceal them from the
light;

About ten years ago the Cardinal at Quebec took steps to prevent Eoman Catholics in his jurisdiction from
Temperance.

joining the Knights of Labor, a secret labor and all bishops, superiors, and ordina- and socialist society, founded by a Freeries were enjoined to punish the Freemasons mason, which has some of the outward forms " with the penalties which they deserve, as and c^iaracteristics of Freemasonry. But so people greatly suspected of heresy, having much opposition was excited that, on an aprecourse, if necessar}^, to the secular arm." peal to Eorae, the action was not sustained. Three years before this, in Amsterdam A reply to an inquiry directed to Cardinal (1735), a Masonic Lodge room was forcibly Gibbons states that the Fenian Brotherhood entered and its furniture destroyed by "a and its successor, the Clan-na-gael, are not crowd of fanatics''' whose zeal had been approved by the Church, in reference to kindled by " some of the clergy." Although which no explanation is necessary. On Clement's bull did not meet Avith a favor- January 6, 1895, the Eoman Catholic Archable reception in France, in Italy many sus- bishop of Cincinnati, on the authority of the pected of being Freemasons were arrested Holy See, announced the position of that and i^laced in dungeons, as well as some ac- Church with respect to the Odd Fellows, cused of having furnished an asylum to the Knights of Pythias, the Sons of TemMasonic Lodges. Like measures to crush perance, and, incidentally, Freemasonry, in the Fraternity were resorted to in Spain and part as follows in Portugal, and in 1745 Masonic assemblies All the ordinaries of the various dioceses of the
:

were prohibited throughout Switzerland United States must use their exertions to keep the under the severest penalties. In 1748 a faithful away from all and each of the three socieMasonic Lodge at Constantinople was de- ties called the Odd Fellows, the Knights of Pythias, and the Sons of Temperance. And the faithful molished and its members were arrested, themselves must be admonished of this and if, but ultimately discharged through the inafter the admonition, they still adhere to these so;

terposition

of

the

British

Minister.

In

Scotland, in 1757, the Synod of Stirling de-

barred

adhering Freemasons from the ordinances of religion, whence, possibly, may be found the origin of some of the opposition
all

to the Fraternity in one or of the Scotch Church.

more branches
bull of

The Papal

1738 was confirmed and renewed by Benedict XIV. in 1751, and by Pius VII. in 1821. Leo XII., in his Apostolic Edict, Quo Graviora, 1826, included the acts and decrees of the earlier popes on this subject, and ordered them to be ratified forever. As

and will not leave them effectually, they must not be admitted to the Sacraments. First, these societies seem to have a decided influence to lead Catholics toward Freemasonry, and Freemasonry is under the absolute condemnation and excommunication of the Church. I will not stop to consider the reasons for this, except to draw your attention to the declared and implacable hatred of Masons against the Church and against all religious interests. This is openly and angrily avowed by the leading Masons of Eui'ope, and manifested by their satanic warfare against everything ChrisIn our tian, particularly in Italy and France. yet country this spirit does not seem to prevail there has been no action by the Masons of this
cieties,
. .
.

ANTI-MASONRY
country sufficient to satisfy the Church that they are secured agjiinst the infusion of the spirit of their
brethren.
.

11

in."

"mysteries which he may hereafter be instructed lie has no guarantee as to the character of

Now,

it

is

often seen that the

active promoters of these societies,

now condemned,
if

are

also

zealous

Masons; and
is

a Calliolic

is

drawn

into one of them, he

in

continual and
their senti-

Tiiey may Ix; blusphemies against God, or treason against his country, or injustice against his neighbor. Of course, he hopes it will not be so, and the members nuiy say it will not be.
these mysteries.

familiar association with the admirers of Masonry,

and imuiediatcly exposed


positively
to

to

imbibe

ments, consciously or unconsciously.

Again, more
societies

But how can a man conscientiously put himself under such an oath and such penalties, with no other protection but their saying ? His oath is on
record.

and more strongly do these

tend

Their saying

is

a passing word.

weaken a Catholic's regard for the doctrines of the Church and for her Sacraments and other administrations. They do not, I believe, expressly antagonize the Church's teachings and and Catholics who are in them may practices probably say very honestly that they have not seen or heard anything opposed to the Church. But these societies do profess to inculcate morality with.

Such obligations of

bliiul

obedience are contrary to

the natural conscience of

man.

The formation

of a Post of the

Grand

Army

of the Kepublic at

Xotre Dame, In-

189T, tlie membership of which "was composed wholly of Iloman Catholic priests," shows striking contrasts out the help of the Church. They intentionally or in the views of that Church concerning unintentionally dispose a man to believe that if he Archbishop Ryan, practises the natural virtues of honesty, truthful- various secret societies. ness, sobriety, philanthropy, etc. then he is all in replying to a vote of thanks from a and also to believe that Philadelphia Post, Grand Army of the Rethat a man ought to be

diana, in July,

he can practise these virtues quite sufficiently by that he does not need the force of his own will the special helps which our Lord furnishes through His Church. This is called natin-al religion that
; ;

l^ublic,

in

1896, was quoted in the daily


follows
:

papers in

jiart as

such knowledge of God and such practice of a good life as a man can reach by his own natural
is,

I do not believe there was ever any general condemnation of your Order by the Church, although

individual bishops
constitution.
I

may have

misinterpreted your

reason and strength.


ligion
;

It leaves out

revealed re-

It
is

has no objectionable features that


universally acknowledged

that

is,

the other truths which

God has
Apostles.

can

see,

and

revealed to
It leaves

man through

the sacred Scriptures,


Ilis

Churcli at large in the country to-day.


is

by the Your Order

through our Lord Jesus Christ and

out the necessity of grace, our redemption from sin through the life and death of the Son of God nuide man. It leaves out the means
of grace given us

and

founded on charitable and fraternal fellowship patriotism. Patriotism is from God, and the Catholic Church should, therefore, be the first to
nurture
it.

by God

in His Sacraments, the

Holy

Sacrifice of tlie Mass,

and the other ministrait

One

significance of this lies in the fact

tions of the Church.

In a word,

leaves out the

that the

Grand Army was organized


is
'*
;

b}'

supernatural end of

man and

the

supernatural

Fellows and Freemasons and

largely

Odd made

means given him


dispose
ity.

to reach that end.

Of

course,
is

up

of

them

like

them,

it is

founded on

the natural tendency of such an association

to

charitable and fraternal fellowship and patriotism,''

men And it

to think less earnestly about Christianhas, too, been observed, that Catholics

frequenting

these societies

gradually cool

in their

obligations,

and is secret, has grips, passwords, and an initiatory ceremony.

love for the Church,

becoming indifferent
tendency, but too
tlieir

to her

The

refusal of the

Church
is,

of

Rome

to con-

doctrines and careless of observing her precepts.

demn

the Knights of Labor and the


of the Republic

Grand

Some may
to
it.

resist this

many

yield

Army

therefore, an ap-

And

the very fact of

seeing nothing in
all
.
.

Lodge to disturb their religion makes them the more liable to drift down unconsciously.
the
.

parent triumph of diplomacy.


gress

A Roman

Catholic Anti-Masonic International Con-

Keferring to
ties,

tlie

nature of the alleged

obligation of one of the

condemned
:

socie-

the Archbishop continued


oath

This

and

these

penalties

apply

to

all

was held at Trient, Austria, in September, 1896, ''to make known to everybody the immense moral and material evil done by Freemasonry to the Church and to society, and to seek remedy by way

12
of

ANTI-MASONRY
a

permanent,

international

organiza-

Christlike

and the Christian, especially the minister

tion against the Craft."


letter to the clergy

In a published
tliat

of Christ,

approving

meeting,
at

out of place in such surroundings.* Organized secrecy invites suspicion. Organized seis is

crecy

a menace to society.

It

naturally leads to

the coadjutor to Cardinal Taschereau


fernal

Quebec denounced Freemasonry as an ''insect " and a " diabolical organization."

ends and means and invites persons that need concealment. Whoever calls any man " Grand Master "

makes himself a grand


only lord
it

slave.

Secret orders not

The London "Times"

said of the

over their

own members, but undertake


Let everyone who enters

Congress that about eight hundred persons attended it, of whom six hundred were
;

to dictate on terms of death the conduct of those

outside their organization.

a secret society

know

that he parts with his liberty,

clergymen and that, Avhile the speeches puts his neck under a yoke, and fetters his feet. He were moderate, Freemasonry was "attacked virtually says " I am your beast, drive me I am I yield my own will and as being opposed to the divine law and the your slave, command me
:

Whatever objection the Churcli of Rome may have to Freemasonry in France or elsewhere on the Continent, where the Bible has been removed from Masonic altars, or where Freemasons have been acCliurcli."

judgment

to others."

Organized

opposition

to

Freemasonry

among

Protestant religious bodies has not

been of sufficient importance to attract public attention during the past fifty years,
being largely confined to a few of the minor,

cused of conspiring against the Pope,

it is

When delegates from schismatic sects. Freemasonry in 1738 (renewed and con- several of these bodies meet to fulminate firmed by all his successors) is feebly en- against the Craft, they sometimes call themevident that Pope Clement's bull against
forced to-day,
Tlie consequences of an atselves a

United States and the United Kingdom to have it carried out literally would suggest a problem in which a resistible body meets an immovable body. The Pennsylvania Christian Reform Con-

tempt

in tlie

nominational,

"Christian Association, InterdeAnti-Secret Convention." Such a gathering was held at Minneaj)olis,


:

November, 1895, and resolved

That, in our opinion, secret societies are con-

vention, o])posed to secret societies, held at

the

First

United

Presbyterian

Cliurch,

Philadelphia, February, 1894, declared Free-

demned by the example and the word of Jesus Christ that such societies must injure men who compose them, uniting in fraternal fellowship believers and non-believers, and thus tending to separate them
from the Saviour of men
tile to
;

that such orders are hos-

masonry, so-called, the Society 6i Jesuits, and all societies which impose an oath on members to obey unknown laws, unscriptural, un-Christian and un-American, and membership in them degrading, and implored the State and Nation to declare members of all such societies outlaws.

the

home

life,

depriving wife and children of

the companionship and help of husband and father, and tending to destroy the confidence and sympathy which should be the foundation of home life that
;

the churches of Jesus Christ are the God-aiDjJointed

At

a session

of the

formed

Presbyterian

Synod Church,

of the Rein

Phila-

agency for the redemption of the world, and that secret societies tend to destroy them by rivalry and and that the Lodge oaths are inconsubstitution sistent with good citizenship, and that good citizens should withstand and oppose them.
;

delphia, in June, 1894, a report was adopted

Though

political

persecution of Free-

condemning

secret societies as being "or-

masons and opposition to Freemasonry in


* In 1891 the total
in the State of

ganized on the principle of secrecy and for


the purpose of concealment without previous knowledge of the things to be concealed.
.
.

number
:

of ordained ministers

New York who


;

were

affiliated
;

Free-

."
contrai'y to the spirit

masons was
146
;

as follows

Methodist, 288
;

Episcopal,

Baptist, 112

Presbyterian, 59
21
;

LTniversalist,
;

Such a society is

and

letter of

31

Congregational,
;

Dutch Reformed, 13
;

the religion of Jesus Christ.

The

grip, the pass-

Christian, 13
1
;

Lutheran, 11
1
;

Jew, 7; Unitarian,

word, the darkened window, the guarded door are not

Reformed Jew,

total, 703.

ANTI-MASONRY
Europe, South America, and elsewhere abroad have generally been due to Roman Catholic influence, there is an exception in the prohibition of meetings of the society
sides

13
in

that

New

York,

New

England,

Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Miciiigan political


parties,

church congregations, families, and friends were divided on the issue. The Masonic Fraternity repudiated the acts of in Russia. Anti-Masonic individual States an Freemasons accused of MorIn the United political party made its appearance in gan's abduction, and cooperated with the 1827, and was active in some or all of authorities in an effort to bring the guilty but a whirlwind of public the Middle and New England States ones to justice It was the out- condemnation was aimed at the Craft in for the next ten years. growth of what was known as the " Morgan general, and would not be stayed. Tiie re]\[orgau William of Batavia, sult was, that during the next few years iiffair." Oenesee County, N. Y., who claimed to be hundreds of Masonic Lodge warrants were but is not known to have been, a Free- surrendered. The insistence by Weed and mason, had a book in press which was said others that the body found in October, to reveal the secrets of the Masonic Fra- 1827, was that of Morgan (supposed to ternity. He was arrested on September have been drowned in September, 1826), 11, 182G, on a charge of petit larceny, and helped to fan the political flame which reput in Jail at Canandaigua, N. Y. The sulted in the formation of the Anti-Masonic story goes that he was released on the party, in which Weed, Seward, and their night of September r2tli on the jaayment of friends were leaders. When Weed was
;

the amount of the execution to the


wife, the jailer being absent, and,

jailer's

guarded by

confronted with the inconsistency of his claim that the body was Morgan's, he is
:

men, was taken in a closed carriage credibly reported to have replied " It's a to Fort Niagara, on Niagara River, where all good enough Morgan until after election," trace of him was lost, so far as liis relatives which has become a stock political phrase and the public were concerned. More than to tills day. Morgan was never seen, dead
several

a year afterwards, in October, 1827, a

much

decomposed body of anuxn was found on the sliore of Lake Ontario, not far from the mouth of Niagara River. Morgan's wife, Thurlow AVeed, and others wlio knew Morgan, declared that the body was Morgan's, notwithstanding the family of Timothy Munroe, a Canadian fisherman who was drowned a few months before, were positive that the body was Munroe's. Thurlow Weed, it will be recalled, first rose into political prominence through his connection with the Morgan affair. Both he and William H. Seward, members of the
National Republican party,

were

keenly

power through a political party to be created out of the storm to which Morgan's disajipearance gave rise. The Masonic Fraternity suffered severely from the outcry against it, and so fierce was the sentiment on both
alive to the opportunity to ride into

In Weed's autobiography he says that John Whitney, one of Morgan's abductors, confessed to him at Albany, in 1831, that Morgan was carried to Fort Niagara with the understanding that Canadian Freemasons would furnish him a retreat in the Dominion, but that they refused to do so, whereupon Morgan was thrown overboard from a rowboat in Niagara River. Weed says he promised the secret would not be divulged while any of the abductors lived. In 1809 Weed says he wrote Whitney, asking for a written account of the affair for pu1)lication after Whitney's death, when he learned that Whitney had just died. Weed's account of this did not appear until 1883. Several persons were apprehended for the abduction of Morgan, but none were convicted. The Anti-Masonic party appeared in western New York early in

or alive, after his abductors left him.

14

ANTI-MASONRY
character of the society, does not call for extended reference, except with respect to such publications as have had sufficient

1827; and in 1828, aided in part by the

"good enough Morgan


tion," polled
of

until

after

elec-

33,305
State,

votes

for

Governor
a
total

New York
;

out of

of
St.

276,583

and, as Charles M.

Harvey,

Louis, states, ''two years later it made such inroads on the New York State National Eepublican organization that the
latter virtually

vanished," and the AntiMasonic party became, for the time being,
the

weight to attract general attention. Perhaps the earliest of these was " The Natural History of Staffordshire," by Robert Plot, published at Oxford, England, in 1686, which admitted that ''persons of the most eminent quality did not disdain to be of the fellowship." " Masonry Dissected," by
in 1730,

the only oj^ponent of


that State.
it

Democracy

in

In Vermont and Pennsylvania also displaced the National Republican


it

organization, and

secured a strong foota few

Samuel Prichard, was irablished at London and replied to in "A Defence of Masonry," by James Anderson, London, in 1738. Between 1762 and 1768 there was a

hold in Ohio, Massachusetts, and


other
States.

flood of books attacking the Fraternity, nota-

The Anti-Masons

entered

bly

the national field for the Presidential canvass of 1832,


of

or the

by nominating William AVirt Maryland for President, and Amos year last named a sermon, also published at Ellmaker of Pennsylvania for Vice-Presi- London, entitled " Masonry the Way to dent, by national convention, as early as Hell, Wherein is Clearly Proved September, 1831, the first national Presi- both from Reason and Scripture that all
.

"Jachin and Boaz " (1762), "Hiram, Grand Master Key" (1766), "The Three Distinct Knocks" (1768), and in the

dential convention in our history.

Thir-

who

Profess the Mysteries are in a State of

teen States,

all

northern, except Delaware

Damnation."

The

final

English work of
a century ago, in

Maryland, were represented. They early, to compel the National Republicans to withhold the candidacy from Henry Clay, who was a Freemason. The National Republicans nominated Clay, however, who was badly beaten by Andrew Jackson, who was also a Freemason. Only one State, Vermont, was carried by the Anti-Masons. As a distinct party the Anti-Masons never took part in another Presidential campaign, being absorbed by the AVhigs, which succeeded the National Repnblican party in 1834. In State can-

and met

this character apjieared

1797, written by

John Robison, Professor


and Secretary of the It was enall

of Natural Philosophy,

Royal Society of Edinburgh.


titled

"Proofs of a Conspiracy against

the Religions and Governments of Europe


carried

on

in the Secret

Meetings of Free-

masons, Illuminati, and Reading Societies," and owes preservation solely to the perma-

nency of the institution

it

sought to destroy.
publication
in

The

earliest

antagonistic

vasses in Vermont and Pennsylvania the Anti-Masons remained a factor for several years, electing Joseph Ritner Governor of Pennsylvania in 1835. Some of the or-

ganizations

known

as

'^'

American parties"

in the past twenty

years have had anti-

their

Masonic planks in their platforms, but votes have been too few to be
Individual prejudice against or objection
to Freemasonry, merely because of the secret

counted.

France was "La Grande Lumiere," the author of which had several imitators, the best known of whom was the Abbe Barruel, who wrote " Memoires pour servir a I'histoire du Jacobinism." Barruel was a priest and a royalist, and was so affected by the results of the French Revolution that he insisted the consequences of that movement were the outcome of the machinations of the Freemasons or Jacobin clubs. But where Robison was calm and dispassionate, Barruel became abusive. Anti-Masonic publications in Spain and Italy have been confined

ANTI-MASONRY
principally to the
bulls of the popes

15
Avri tings,

and

Masonic

In defence of the edict of the Council of Dautzic against the Fraternity, a book appeared in 1764 with the
edicts of the Iiuiiiisitiou.

murder

of ^Morgan

on " the oath " and " the " a victim of the mis-

representations of the Masonic Fraternity.


It is hardly necessary to

more than

refer to

name, "Proofs that the Society of Freemasons in every Country is not only Useless, but, if )iot Restricted, Dangerous, and Subsequent ought to be Interdicted." anti-Musonic German publications Merc mostly pamphlets. In the United States like literature began with Morgan's book in 1828, a paraphrase of similar early English books, and was followed by many others with no special claim to attention. An exception is found in ** Letters on Masonry and Anti-Masonry addressed to lion. John Quincy Adams," by AVilliani L. Stone, Xew York, 1832, a Freemason, during a period
of intense political excitement, uiul desigiied
solely to

the compilations of anti-Masonic documents published by James C. Odiorne and by

Henry Gassett
respectively.

at Boston, in 1830

and 1831,

The recovery of the Masonic Fraternity from the shock of the inquisition instituted by the Anti-Masonic party Avas sIoav. So
violent was the persecution of adhering Free-

masons that many

Avere driven to

renounce

the society in order to live in peace. Itinerant lecturers found a neAv source of revenue l)y pretending to give j-jublic representations of Masonic ceremonies; almanac

makers

filled

their publications with

cor-

roborative details as to the essential Avick;

advance the interests of the Anti- edness of Freemasonry and jiretended revMasonic party. The Anti-Masonic party elations of the secrets of Lodge, Chapter, had declared that the jMasonic Institution Conimandery, and of some of the Scottish was subversive of good government, and in- Kite bodies Avere ])eddled about the country tended for the political aggrandizement of by thrifty Anti-Masons. This was from 1830 its leaders yet Stone had the fairness to to 1835, Avhen to confess sympathy or conadmit that " the fact is not to be disguised nection Avith Freemasonry meant social, ])ocontradicted it cannot be'' that anti- litical, and often religious ostracism. It is Masonry had become so thoroughly political of exceptional interest to note (as may be that "its spirit Avas vindictive toward the seen by reference to articles under those Freemasons withoiit distinction as to guilt titles) that during this period the Indepenor innocence." Mackey has pointed out dent Order of Odd Fellows Avas practically that Stone condemned Freemasonry because reorganized and began a more active career; of the acts of the abductors of Morgan, that the Ancient Order of Druids and the whereas, "as well might the vices of the Ancient Order of Hibernians Avere introChristians of Corinth have suggested to a duced into the United States from Engcontemporary of St. Paul the propriety of land and Ireland, res])ectively that the Imsuppressing Christianity." "Letters on l^roved Order of Red ^len Avas organized the Masonic Institution," by John Quincy and reestablished as at present constituted; Adams, ex-President, which appeared in that the college fraternities Kapjm Alpha. the public journals between 1831 and 1833, Sigma Phi, and Delta Phi, founded at Avere collected and published in book form Union College, Schenectady, X. Y., a few in 1847. The severest competent Masonic years before, took on rather more convencriticism of Adams may be found in ]\Iac- tional secret society forms; that Alpha Delta key's "Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry" that Phi was founded at Hamilton College, Clinhe Avas "a man of strong points a7id weak ton, X. Y., in 1832, and Psi Upsilon at ones, of vast reading and wonderful mem- Union College, in 1833, all leading Ameriory, of great credulity and strong pre- can college secret societies. In 1831, the year judice " dAvelling continually, ia his anti- that Thurlow Weed, "William II. Seward,
;


16

LIFE

BROTHERHOOD OF THE XEW


as delegates to

and Thaddeus Stevens went


the Anti-Masonic, the
dential
first

professional,

and military

life; as

President

national Presi-

or the humblest office-holder; the executive

convention,

John Quincy Adams,


were
so

Edward
leading

Everett, Joseph Story, and other

head of a continental system of railways, or signalman in the bishop, priest, clergyman,


;

Harvard

representatives

lawyer, editor, and physician or the ordinary

overcome with the anti-secret society feeling, wayfaring man of commerce, whether proprithat they indnced members of the Harvard etor or clerk; as admiral or marine, as genChapter of Phi Beta Kappa to violate their eral or private. Freemasons constitute a pledges of secrecy as to the '' mysteries " of dominant seventh as well as an influence
the mother of American college fraternities,
in all other reputable secret societies in the

and make that organization There is food for thought in the fact that none of the members of the two dozen imitators or offspring of the secret society Phi Beta Kappa ever imitated it by formally revealing their secrets on the college campus, and in the further fact that the two college fraternities, founded respectively in 1832 and 1833, one year and two years after the Harvard Phi Beta Kappa affair, were established as secret societies, and remain among the strongest and best of like organizations
non-secret.
to this day.

United
to

States.

The

total

membership

of all

of them, allowing for a proportion belonging

several organizations, cannot be fewer than six million, one-third the total adult

population of the country.


portions have

To such

pro-

Freemasonry and like societies grown, that were a tithe of the allegations true which are made against the parent organization by its detractors, society at large would be reaping a whirlwind. Brotherhood of the New Life.

mystical,

religious,

communal

society

From 1832

to 1845, or during

the period of greatest excitement due to the

anti-Masonic agitation, and for half a dozen


years thereafter, the college secret societies

continued to multiply and to establish new


Chapters, from which an inference
as to the probable origin of the
is

fair

Masonic cast given the earlier rituals of some of them all of those named, and afterward the " MysLate in the thirties and tical Seven." early in the following decade Freemasons began to gather and Lodges to open and do work. The recovery was not rapid, but was steady, and during the ten years prior to the outbreak of the Civil War the Craft regained what it had lost between 1828 and 1840.
Since the Civil

War

the progress of the Fra-

ternity has been so great that all opportunity


for successful opposition based

on bigotry,

ignorance, or prejudice has been removed.

One-half the Freemasons in the world are Americans; one man in every thirteen in the country is a member of the Fraternity, and its membership, as a whole, includes rejDreThey are sentatives of all ranks of society. found in general business and in political,

founded by Thomas Lake Harris, at MounIt disbanded in tain Cove, N, C, in 1851. He 1853, owing to internal dissensions. formed a second community, in 1858, at Amenia, Dutchess County, N. Y., which shortly after removed to Brockton, Chautauqua County, in the same State. Croups of three or four persons were formed in the Brotherhood, but if affection resulted, the group was broken up. Parents were separated from children, and husbands from wives. Harris was born in England in 1824, but most of his early life was passed at or near He was evidently impressed L'"tica, N. Y. by the Mormon movement, which began at Palmyra, and by the Fox Sisters' phenomena He became a Sweat Kochester, N. Y. denborgian and a spiritualist. He declared that his journey to North Carolina and the founding of the Brotherhood were direct results of communications from the Lord, and
that
it

was as the direct representative of


titles to

the latter that he remained at the head of

the movement, and held


in trust for the discif)les
nity.

property

and the commu-

His followers lived in separate houses

FREEMASONRY
and dressed
as did

17

people generally, but

in the

more than 25,000 Lodges which,


civilization

ex-

they Avore their hair long, observed the fifth day of the week as a day of rest, opposed marriage, and advocated Platonic love.

cept in Austria and Russia,


of

mark the paths


throughout the

commerce and

Avorld.

None of the critics of the Brotherhood has Harris's charged them with immorality. most distinguished disciple was Lawrence Oliphant, over whom, from 1867 to nearly the time of the latter's death in 1881, he
exercised a remarkable influence.

The student of the history of the Craft may be glad to know that Benjamin Franklin, who was a Freemason, wrote of the
Fraternity as follows
It
:

In 1875

Harris and
lished the

many

of his followers reestab-

Brotherhood at Santa Kosa, CaliThere he is said to have overcome fornia. his asceticism, and in 1891 was declared to have announced that he had discovered the In 1892 he left secret of perpetual youth.
his luxurious

what do and toiccns, wiiich serve as testimonials of character and qualifications, which are only conferred after a due course of instruction and examination. These are
lias

secrets peculiar to itself; but of

those principally consist?

They consist

of signs

of no small value; they speak a universal language,

and act as a passport


not be lost so long as
the possessor of

to the attention
the,

of the initiated in all parts of

world.

and su[)port They canpower. Let

memory retains

its

home

New York
ported to

City,

came to married, and settled down.


in California,

them be expatriated, shipwrecked, or imprisoned; let him be stripped of everything he


has got in the world;
still

Some members
Nebraska.

of the Brotherhood are rein California

these credentials remain

still live

and some

in

Brotherhood of the West Gate.

and are available for use as circumstances require. The great effects which they have produced are established by the most incontestable facts of history. They have stayed the uplifted hand of the
destroyer; they have softened the asperities of the
tyrant;
tivity;

brotherhood seeking to solve '"the esoteric mysteries of the microcosm," the restoration of ''inner

they have mitigated the horrors of capthey have subdued the rancor of malevopolitical

harmony," in the which " wealth, fame, and power


.

face of
.

sink

lence,

and broken down the barriers of

into nothingness."
cle

It publishes

''

The Ora-

animosity and sectarian alienation.


in the

On

the field of

"

battle, in the solitude of the uncultivated forests, or

at Bridgeton, Maine.

of the West. Little is learned of this brotherhood beyond its name, its excessively secret character, and the explanation that the word " west " refers to the Americas. The division of the word " Esoterists " in the title evidently has some particE-soter-ists
ular significance.

busy haunts of the crowded city, they have of the most hostile feelings, and most distant religions, and the most diversified condi-

made men

tions, rush to the aid of

each other, and

feel social

joy

and

satisfaction that they have

been able to

afford relief to a Ijrother Mason.


"^rhe

Fraternity as

now

organized dates

from 1717, wljen the four old Lodges in LonFreemasonry. The Ancient and Hon- don met and formed a Grand Lodge. The orable Society of Free and Accepted Masons, most ancient Freemasons referred to in trustusually referred to as Ancient, Free, and worthy historical records were the operaAccepted Masons, sometimes as Free and tive stone masons or builders of the ^Middle Accepted Masons (A, F. & A. !M. or F. & Ages, referred to in England as far back as A. M.), is a secret fraternity, founded upon the eighth century. About three hundred man's religious aspirations, which, by forms, years ago the operative Craft in England, ceremonies, and elaborate symbolism, seeks France, and Germany began to disintegrate.

to create a universal brotherhood, to relieve


suffering, cultivate the virtues,

This

Avas

the natural consequence of not

and join

in

only the Reformation and the Thirty Years'


AVar, but of the completion of the churches and cathedrals upon which the stone masons' guilds had been engaged for several

the endless search for truth.

It is

the oldest

and most widely distributed secret society, having an active membership of 1,400,000
2

18

FREEMASONRY
is no reference to the Hiramic legend in Freemasonry until after the formation of the Grand Lodge at London in 1717, more than sixty years after the French Companionage had reached the

centuries, originally with the assistance of

ter builder, for there

bands of traveling builders held a general assembly at Strasburg in 1275, and another nearly one hundred years later, at whicli laws were framed and a fraternity formed. Guilds were composed of apprentices, craftsmen, and masters, had an initiatory ceremony and a sign. Traveling from city to city throughout Central and Western Europe, they constituted the first, or operative Free Masons, so-called because they enjoyed privileges granted by the Church and civil authorities, OAving to
the

Church.

These

height of

its career.

Among
of

various theories as to the origin

their skill in
ter of

modern Freemasonry, the following have had many advocates: (1) That which carries it back through the mediaeval stone masons to the Ancient Mysteries, or to King Solomon's Temple; (2) not satisfied with the foregoing, that which traces it to Noah, architecture and the charac- to Enoch, and to Adam; (3) the theory that

the edifices they built.

When

the

the cradle of Freemasonry

is

to be

found in

churches and cathedrals were completed, the


guilds began to disappear.
guilds,

the

Eoman

Colleges of Artificers of the ear-

In France the which were more directly the out-

lier centuries of
it

the Christian era; (4) that

come
trv,

of the

Eoman

occupation of the coun-

and of the colleges of artificers which accompanied the Eoman legions, were abolished

was brought into Europe ,by the returning Crusaders; (5) that it was an emanation from the Templars after the sujipression of the Order in 1312; (G) that it formed a virtual continuation of the Eosicrucians; (7)

about 153G-39.
arose

Upon
of

their

ruins

workingmen's that it grew out of the secret society creaguilds known as the Companionage. By tions of the partisans of the Stuarts in their 1655 this had spread throughout France, efforts to regain the throne of England; (8) 'divided into three separate fraternities com- that it was derived from the Essenes, and posed of various trades, or, as we would say, (9) from the Culdees. Whatever may have been believed as to unions, the oldest being known as the Sons The other two sprang from Freemasonry being traceable to any of the of Solomon. the Sons of Solomon, and were bitter rivals. foregoing, the results of the investigations One was known as the Sous of Maitre of E. F. Gould, W. J. Ilughan, and Eev. Jacques. Its traditions carried the society A. F. A. Woodford of England, D. Murback to King Solomon's Temple, and in the ray Lyon of Scotland, Albert Pike, G. F. untimely death of Maitre Jacques is found Fort, Albert G. Mackey, Charles T. McClena striking parallel to the story of Hiram. achan, E. T. Carson, T. S. Parvin, Josiah The Sons of Soubise, an offshoot of the Sons H. Drummond, and others in the United of Maitre Jacques, possessed many of the States, '' Masonic authors of repute and dilicharacteristics of the latter. No description gent students of Masonic records,'' make it of the Companionage was made public until j)lain that while the rites and symbols of 1841, nearly one hundred and twelve years Freemasonry have great antiquity, specuafter the introduction of Freemasonry into lative Freemasonry, as an organization, is France from England, notwithstanding the modern, probably not over three hundred
there
a
story of the

new type

building of

King Solomon's

years old.

The Essenes, the only one of the three formed a part of the legends of the Companionage. ancient Jewish sects mentioned in the Bible The foregoing, as pointed out in Gould's which was not referred to unfavorably, has "History of Freemasonry," appears to be been regarded by some as the cradle of anIt had existed "from the earliest account of the death of the mas- cient Freemasonry.
Temple and the death
of Iliram

FREEMASONRY
time immemorial," but disappeared about 400 A.D. The Essenes are said to have perfected the Jewish Kabbala, to have believed
in miraculous cures, to have regarded
etc.)

19

Gould (R. F. ) thinks Freemasonry


been tinged with Rosicrucianism
the

may have
through

influence of Ashmole and them- others, but points to there being no real selves as temples of the Holy Ghost, and to evidence of it aside from the fact that Freehave been '"forerunners of the ^reesiah." masonry presents the double and single triThey had secret means of recognition, and angles, the hexagon, the point within a cirtaught that all things were not for all men, cle, a magical aljjhabet, and a searcli for but there has been no more connection sliown light. The ignorance and superstition of between the ancient Essenes and modern the mass of the people in the seventeenth Freemasonry than that Masonic scholars and century led them to regard the brethren of ritualists may have found something in al- the Rosy Cross, who were theosophists first, leged Essenic rites worthy of assimilation and Kabbalistsand alchemists afterwards, as in latter-day mysteries. The Culdees were dealers in magic and in league with the Those who have favored the theory Apostolic Christians, monks of Eastern ori- devil. They were encountered in Ireland that modern Freemasonry was the outgrowth gin. about the fifth century, and later in Scot- of Rosicrucianism have added that so much They were opposed by 8t. Augus- were the i)ublic inflamed against the Rosiland. tine, and virtually disappeared in the four- crucians that the latter were obliged to shelteenth century. They were teachers of civ- ter themselves under the cloak of Fi-eeilization, church architects and builders, masonry, when they gave to the latter a and it has been claimed they were connected Christian interpretation. By the end of with early Scotch and Irish operative Free- the seventeenth century Europe Avas covered masons. The partisans of tlie Stuarts were with pretended Rosicrucians offering to comThe theory active, and some were prominent Freema- municate the occult for money. sons but while they contributed something that Freemasonry appeared in Europe upon to the rituals of so-called higher degrees, the return of the Crusaders has long been they had no permanent influence upon the abandoned, but its successor was a French institution. The real Rosicrucians were Templar theory of the origin of the institumystics who flourished in Germany, France, tion, and in some portions of Europe it still and England in the latter portion of the finds advocates. It I'ests on a legend that seventeenth century. Contrary to views the Knights Templars, at the destruction of Avhich have been held, it Avas not a society, the Order and the burning of Jacques de and was not concerned merely in an efi^ort Molay, fled to Scotland, Avhere they became The to transform baser metals into gold and to Freemasons and propagated the rite. discover the secret of perpetual youth, which French Ordre du Temple is based upon a synibolized a search for divine truth and modification of this theory, as were the immortal life. The IJosicrucians were un- Strict Observance in Germany, and other doubtedly in advance of their time, but not rites. There is, however, nothing in this too much so to borrow freely from the sym- except the legend, for Freemasonry a.s it bolism of the ancient mysteries and of the existed in England in 1717 has been shown Gnostics. A number of eminent Rosicru- to be the result of the evolution of guilds of cijins were Freemasons, notably Elias Ashoperative stone masons, who, it is needless mole, the antiquary. What Freemasonry to add, could never have derived their rites owes to the Rosicrucians may never be and formuhe from the original Knights The known, although something may be inferred Templars, who were men of rank. by students who are familiar with both story that the Fraternity was founded at the societies. (See Freemasonry, Rosicrucians, building of King Solomon's Temple, and
;

20

FREEMASONRY

has enjoyed an uninterrupted existence ever


since, is

century speculative Freemasonry as distinct one of the myths of the organiza- from the operative Craft, that which intion which has been innocently believed by dulged only in the symbolism of the work many, but which does not merit serious at- jierformed by the earlier Free Masons, was The mystical meanings of Masonic confined to Great Britain alone. Nowhere ten tion references to King Solomon's Temple, not else iu the world was it to be found, and only in the symbolic degrees, but also in the whether the association of learned men with haute grades, have not always been under- the earlier English operative Free Masons The was due to an effort on the part of the latstood, even by members of the Craft. carrying back of the Fraternity to the ante- ter to interest others than those of the Craft diluvian age has been due to an inability to to secure immunity at the hands of the noSo- bility or not, it remains true that profesdistinguish between an idea and a fact. cieties have existed in all ages of the world sional and literary Englishmen, some learned for the propagation of truth, morality, and in astrology, alchemy, and Kabbalistic lore,
.

the practice of that which


universal brotherhood;
ished,

is

involved in a
flour-

theoretic geometricians,
sons,

and architect ma-

have risen,

identified

themselves from time to


declining operative frater-

and

died.

Others have been born,

time

with

the

have borrowed from those which went be- nity. A notable instance was the initiation But he of Elias Ashmole, the antiquary, in 1746, fore, and they in turn have died. and it is not a mere inference that his joinis bold, indeed, who professes to trace an uninterrupted succession or an identity of ing the society was not the only instance of The earlier Eng- the kind. This class of membership was organization for them all. lish associations of operative builders, who honorary at first, whence the term Free and were first called Free Masons in the four- "Accepted" Masons. In 1703 a formal teenth and fifteenth centuries, because of effort was made to change the organization the freedom granted them to work and to from an operative to a speculative fraternity, sell the products of their labor, may or may as the old English lodges were dying out,
not have been the offspring of German stone masons' guilds who built the churches and The cathedrals erected in the Middle Ages.
only seven surviving the eighteenth century
in the city of
sire

London. The professed dewas to found a brotherhood which would

Roman

Colleges of Artificers

who accompa-

build spiritual instead of material temples,


to

nied the imperial armies on their excursions

throughout Europe naturally had an influence on not only the English guilds at the

become Freemasons as distinct from Free Masons who were workmen or ordinary laborers. When a Grand Lodge was formed

time of the Roman occupation of Britain, at London in 1717, there was, so far as but upon the French and German guilds as known, only a single ceremonial or degree But the Freemason knows of that but within six or seven years, or by 1724, well. which could not well have been derived from the three symbolic degrees, Entered Apprenthe medigeval guilds, or from the Roman tice, Fellowcraft, and Master Mason, had
;

and naturally inquires as to its made their appearance. The craft guilds the sixteenth century the had contributed the square and compasses During source. German and French fraternities of travel- their patron saint, St. John the Baptist a The reference to King Solomon's Temple the ing builders virtually disappeared. French Compaiiionage (trades unions) was two famous pillars the mystical numbers founded upon the ruins of the latter, but five, seven, and nine words and grips and had no known connection with the forma- a long and honorable record as builders of tion of speculative Freemasonry, so that in English churches and cathedrals under codes the seventeenth and early in the eighteenth of laws for their government, which oral and
Colleges,
;
;

FREEMASONRY
manuscript tradition carried back prior to the teuth century, when, in 93G, it was said that ii generul assembly of Masons was held at York under the patronage of Edwin, brother of Athelstan, where a code of laws
sequent English craft constitutions.

21
its

death of nature in winter, and


spring.

birth in
in the

They

Avere

popular in

Home

earlier centuries of the Christian era,

are said to have

was adopted which became the basis of subNotwithstanding allegations that general Mathereafter,

and had an influence on the Roman Colleges of Artificers, by Avhom they may have been disseminated. The Adoniac
Avhicli

or Syrian mysteries Avere similar, those in

Venus, Adonis, and Proserpine

fig-

sonic assemblies Avere periodically held at

ured, in Avhich Adonis Avas killed, but revived

York

Gould says there

stantial reason for believing that

The Cabiric is no subto point to life through death. more than mysteries (1000 li.c), Avhich disappeared
shortly after the Christian era, Avere practised

one general assembly (the prototype of the Grand Lodge) was held at York prior to The English operative Free Masons 1717.

on the island of Samothrace.


Avas killed

'J'

he

Cabiri Avere gods, and, in the ceremonial,

may

be admitted to have preserved traces of

Atys the Sun


stored to
of one
life.

by his brothers the

the influence of the teachings of the Druids


see) the Culdees, who also claimed have been granted a charter by Edwin; of the Roman Colleges, and of the English Church, with the Holy Bible and altar lights;

Seasons, and at the vernal equinox was reSo, also, the Druids taught

(which

to

God and

the lesson of the procession

of the seasons,

and conducted the

initiate

but details of the introdiTction of the Hiramic legend will probably forever remain a
mystery.
it
is

Y"et, Avith

the foregoing in mind,

evident

that

Freemasonry includes

much
old

that Avas not in possession of the four

through the valley of death to everlasting life. The Gnostics are supposed to have included some of the earlier Christians, for their doctrines contain a mixture of ChrisThey tianity and the Persian religion. taught by means of symbols, many of wliich,

London Lodges in 1717. including a secret reference to Deity, the The oldest of the ancient mysteries, those double triangle, the lion, serpent, etc., are practised at Memphis in Egypt, centred familiar to Freemasons. Avill be seen It
about
lesson
Isis,

Serapis,
Avas

and
that

Osiris,

and the

that the Rosier ucians Avere indebted to the

taught through death.

of

regeneration

Gnostics even as they were to the Kabbalists.

Like those Avhich followed,

The

latter

taught a mystical inter-

they presented a dialogue, ritual, and contrasts betAA^een liglit

pretation of the Scriptures, a secret


of treating sacred subjects
bols,

and darkness,

death

method by means of symof the

and regeneration. The candidates had to undergo purification, trial, failure, and even death before being regenerated amid
rejoicings.

and a

peciiliar use of letters of Avords

based upon their A'alues. ancient mysteries,


prior
to
all

The student
all of

or nearly

which
purity,

The

Grecian

or

Eleusinian

their

perversion

taught
fail

mysteries (1800 B.C.) represented Demeter (Ceres) and Persephone, and depicted the

morality, immortality,

and the existence of


to perceive,

a Supreme Being, cannot


if

death of Dionysus

Avith

remonial
death into

Avhicli
life

led

an elaborate cethe neophyte from


Initiates

in a position to judge, that as

Freemasonry and best


in

stands

the

successor or repository of

and immortality.

much
them,

of that Avhich Avas noblest


liut

were taught the existence of a Supreme

Being and invested Avith the signs of and membership in a fraternity. The Mithraic
or Persian mysteries celebrated the eclipse
of the

he also knows of much Avhich this theory does not account for, to explain which one must go to Pythagoras and his
celebrated
school
at

Crotona,

in

Greece,

sun god, introduced the signs of the


of the seasons,

founded a.d. 58G.


initiated into the

Pythagoras, after being

zodiac, the procession

the

Egyptian and Eleusinian

22
mysteries, formed a

FREEMASONRY

secret society of his If a like legend among the French trades own, with three degrees, in wliich, among guilds, or Companionage, for sixty-five years other things, he taught geometry, me- prior to 1717, does not explain where the tempsychosis, and the mystical power of Freemasons of 1717-24 got it, it must be renumbers. From these the Rosicrucians bor- garded as a most extraordinary coincidence. rowed, and from the forms and symbolism Within ten years after the formation of of the Kabbalists, Gnostics, and Pythago- the Grand Lodge of England at London, in reans as perfected by the Rosicrucians, from 1717, Freemasonry had spread throughout the Greek, Egyptian, and Oriental philoso- the United Kingdom and the Continent of phy of the Alexandrian school of Neoplato- Europe, to many of the British colonies, nism, and from the ancient mysteries. Free- and by 1730 to those in America. With the masonry has taken enough to mark it with ap2:)ointment of the Duke of Montagu as the leading characteristics of all ancient and Grand Master, in 1720, the impetus given mystical schools of religion and philosophy the growth of the institution became procircumambulation, the use of aprons, the nounced, and, as one author points out, the forty-seventh problem of Euclid, a cipher, Fraternity almost lost its breath in the race and the lesson taught by the story of the for popularity. Many men distinguished illustrious Tyrian substituted for legends of in the professions, in politics, and as repreOsiris, Adonis, Atys, and Dionysus. That sentatives of the nobility, not only in the Masonic enthusiasts, antiquarians, and rit- United Kingdom, but on the Continent of ualists superimposed these relics npon Free- Europe, became members of the Fraternity, masonry as it had existed for about one hun- and not a few of them were conspicuous dred years prior to 1717, there can be little as its officers. With prosperity there natudoubt. The Fraternity, therefore, presents rally came antagonisms, for some of which three classes of symbols Pagan, derived from see Anti-Masonry. As early as 1724 the the same source as Christianity obtained Grand Lodge of England granted a charter them; those contributed by the operative for a subordinate Lodge at the ancient city Masons, and the exclusively Christian sym- of York, which is presumed to have antagbols. It also shows traces of the Vehmge- onized a Lodge of Freemasons which had richte, or secret society of Free Judges, which existed there since 1705, as shown by its was prominent in Germany in the thirteenth records, and with little doubt for a period century. The latter was formed to pro- ranging far back into the seventeenth centect the innocent from injustice, held its tury. The ancient Lodge thereupon consticourts in the forest at night, and executed tuted itself a "Grand Lodge of all Engits judgments without fear or favor. It land " (1725), but does not appear to have granted audience alike to noble and peas- instituted more than one or two subordinate ant, and few were bold enough to ignore Lodges prior to 1740, when it became dorits summons or treat its judgments with dismant, and remained so for twenty years or Traces of the society in a modified more. respect. But it does not appear to have acform were found as late as the present cen- tively opposed the Grand Lodge of England tury. (See Ancient Order of Freesmiths.) at London, which had been and was still Its oath was of a most solemn character, engaged in chartering subordinate Lodges binding the initiate to "conceal, hold, and at home and abroad. In 1761 the Grand not reveal,"' etc. Its chief symbol was the Lodge of all England, at York, became acarrow, and for a violation of the vow the tive again, and chartered a number of subpenalty was death. The introduction into ordinate Lodges in two counties in England. the ritual of Freemasonry, about 1825, of Ten years before, in 1751, nine subordinate the story of Hiram was a master stroke. Lodges holding allegiance to the Grand

FREEMASONRY
Lodge of England seceded from that body, on the ground that the latter suffered subordinate Lodges of its jurisdiction to depart from the ancient landmarks and practise that which had previously been unknown in The seceders organized a Freemasonry. " Grand Lodge of England, According to
old Institutions," describing themselves as

23

all

After the revival of the Grand Lodge of England, at York, in 1701, it continued

neutral to the

Grand Lodge

of

England and
death of

that of the seceding body, the Ancients.

Late in the
its

last century, after the

inal

" Ancients," and the members of the origGrand Lodge of England as " Mod-

erns."

The animating
its

spirit of the seced-

ing (Ancient) Grand Lodge was Laurence


Secretary, Avho was an and executive, but an Dermott compiled audacious antagonist. the '* Ahiman Rezon," or Book of Constitutions of the Ancients, in 1756, which he copied from the Constitutions of the original or so-called Modern Grand Lodge, and addressed it to "the Ancient York Masons The rivalry between the two in England."' London Grand Lodges, Ancient and ModThe ern, was keen, and at times bitter.

Dermott,

Grand

able administrator

seceders granted

many

warrants to army

Lodges, which bore good fruit by making Ancient Masons in many parts of the world

where the English army was stationed during the latter half of the eighteenth century.

Dermott was made a Freemason in Dublin about 1740, and testified to his appreciation of the Lodge wherein he was raised by copying its by-laws and using them as the bylaws of the Ancients.

Grand England was discontinued. In 1779 an expelled faction of the Lodge of Antiquity at London (one of the four Lodges which united to form the Grand Lodge of England in 1717), together with a deputation from the Grand Lodge of all England at York, formed another Grand Body under the title, ''Grand Lodge of England south But in 1789 the expelled of the Trent." members of the Lodge of Antiquity apologized to the Grand Lodge of England, and, upon petition, were restored to good standing, whereupon the Grand Lodge of EngWith this land south of the Trent died. and the final disappearance of the Grand Lodge of all England, the way was clear for the concentration of efforts of members of the original and of the seceding Grand Lodges looking to reunion. Negotiations to that end were continued over a series of years, and resulted, in 1813, as pointed out, in a United Grand Lodge of England, since which time the Craft in the United Kingseveral subordinate Lodges, of all

the

Lodge

dom
to

has been undisturbed by schism


It is

or

other serious dissension.


expression

of interest

He

received

the

Koyal Arch degree in Ireland before coming to Loudon, then an unsystematized degree, borrowed presumably from the French,

and afterwards utilized it in the Grand Lodge of Ancients. The Moderns likewise suffered from the mania for higher or more degrees which characterized the latter half of the eighteenth century, and thus it was that at the reunion of the Ancients under the Grand
Mastership of the

Duke

of Sussex with the

Moderns under the Duke of Kent, Ancient Freemasonry was declared to consist of the
three symbolic degrees. Entered Apprentice,
Fellowcraft, and Master Mason,

American Freemasons to note that the "York Rite Masons " has little or no basis; that it is, in fact, a misnomer. There was and is no York Masonic rite, and the symbolic Freemasonry which the world knows did not come from the Grand Lodge of all England, founded at Yoi'k in 1725, but from the Grand Lodge of England, founded at London in 1717. The York Grand Lodge outlived its several subordinate Lodges, and died twenty years before the union of the two great English Grand Lodges from which the world received Ancient Craft Masonry. The expression '* Ancient

York Masons"

is

probably derived

the Holy Royal Arch."

" including from Laurence Dermott's " Ahiman Rezon," which was addressed to " the Ancient

lod. Ter-y

8. Africa.

.i^^__
Explanatory.

B&ham&s.
Greece.
Straits Settlements.

The first Masouic Lodge in France had an English warrant, as did the first Lodge
in Ireland, in Scotland, Spain,
etc. The charter of the Sweden came from France,
first

Germany, Lodge in
first
first

So, Australia.

that of the

Japan.
Liberia.

in

New

in Florida,

South Wales, from Ireland, from Spain, etc.

Borneo.

and others.

GRAPHIC CHART, SHOWING THE SPREAD OF FREEMASONRY, BEGINNING IN 1725, FROM ENGLAND TO SOME OF THE MORE IMPORTANT
COUNTRIES, STATES, COLONIES, AND PROVINCES THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.

FREEMASONRY
The FreeYork Masons in England." masonry of the English schismatics, or Ancients, was more firmly established in Pennsylvania than in any other of the American
colonies,
FIRST MASONIC LODGES.
749 Rhode Island 750 Connecticut Marj;land
7.53
7.")4

25
LOCATION. New|)ort

CHARTERED FROM.
Massachusetts. Massachusetts. MassachuBetta. England.
lingland.

New Haven
Baltimore

V^irginia

York town

New York
North Carolina French (iuiana Curayoa
Virgin Islands

New York
Wilmington Cayenne
Presburg

England.
F'raiice.

where that

7.'>5

jieculiar type

remains

7.")7

Holland.

without change or elaboration, a curiosity to In Pennsylvania, naturvisiting brethren.


ally,

7W
701

Hungary Bermudas

New
762

Jersey

Newark
Mosiiiiito Shore St (Jeorge's (^uay

England. (Jermany. England. New York.


Massachusetts.
Massacliusette. Englan(i.
.

much was

formerly heard of
vogue.

''

Ancient

Dominion of Canada. Quebec Maine Porilaiul


Fort Royal Bencoolen
Cantwell's Bridge
.

York Masons," and


pression

for that reason the ex-

763 Nicaragua

acquired

English Free-

masonry, consisting of the three symbolic degrees, " including the Holy Royal Arch," forms the English, not the Y^ork rite. The

Honduras 764 Grenada 765 Sumatra Delaware 7(!() Guadeloupe 7ii7 China
7i;8

England. Engl. & France, England. Pennsylvania.


France.

China

Florida 769 Java

Grand Lodge of all England (Y^ork), like the rival London Grand Lodges, conferred not only the Royal Arch degree, but that of Knight Templar, as well as detached ceremonials.

Dutch Guiana Ceylon Guiana 772 South Africa


771

British

773 781 783

Dominica

Vermont
Ohio
. .

District Columbia 784 St. Lucia


78.5

Bahamas
Kentucky
St.

With English commerce and the British army, navy, and diplomatic service furnishing currents of communication between England and almost every civilized community, it was not strange, when the jiopularity of Freemasonry in England between 1823 and 1840 is considered, that the Fraternity spread rapidly to almost every quarter of the world. The dates, locations, and origin of first Masonic Lodges in more important countries, states,

Trinidad 800 St. Martin


801 Mississippi

788 792 793 794 796 797 798

Thomas

Louisiana

Michigan

Ten nessee St. Bartholomew

Canton, Hong KongEngland. Cochin France. St. Augustine Scotland. Batavia Holland. Paramaibo Holland. Colombo Holland. (ieorgetown England. Cape Town England. Roseau England. Springfield Massachusetts. Marietta A N. Y. Army L. .Alexandria Pennsylvania. France. England. Lexington Virginia. Pennsylvania. New Orleans Detroit Canada. Nashville North Carolina.

Sweden.
Port D'Espagne
Natcliez
. .

.Pennsylvania. France.

8
802 804 805 806 807

Kentucky.
Spain. France. Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania.
Ireland.

Venezuela
EgyiJt

Caracas Alexandria

Cuba
Illinois St. Vincent

Havana
Kaskaskia
St.

Missouri Indiana Peru


Straits Settlements.

(ienevieve

Vincennes

Lima
Corfu .Penang
City of Mexico
.
.

809 Grei'ce
810 Mexico
811

and provinces, given


one to trace
its

in chrono-

Pennsylvania. Kentucky. France. England. England. Spain.


.

Alabama
.

logical order, enable

extension.

815 Brazil 816 New South Wales. 823 824 825 832
8.33

FIRST MASONIC LODOKS. LOCATION'. 172.T France Paris


17'.iG

CHARTEllED PROM.
Eni;laiul.

Irt'latid

1727 Scotland 1728 Spain 1730 (iermany Pfnns.vlvania India 1731 Notherlands
Hus.><ia

Cork Edinburgh Madrid


Ilambuig..
Pliiladclpliia

Calcutta

Uaguc
St. Poteri-burg.
.

England. England. England. England. England. England. England.


.
.

Arkansas Tasmania Mexico (revival) Wisconsin Argentine Republic Uruguay


Algeria U. S. Colombia

Iluntsville Kentucky. Rio de Janeiro France. .Sydney Ireland. Post of Arkansas. Pennsylvania.
.

Ilobart City of

Town
Mexico

Ireland.

Pennsylvania.

Green Bay .Buenos Ayres Montevideo


Algiers Cartha<'ena

New

York.

Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania. France.


Spain.

iMigland.

1733 Ma.ssachusetts 1735 Ncw^llampghire Portugal


Italy

Boston
Portsnioutli

England.
Massachusetts.

834 South Australia Society Islands 835 Texas 840 Chili 841 Victoria 842 West Australia

Adelaide
Tahiti Brazoria

England.
France. Louisiana. France.

Valparaiso Mell)ourne Perth

England. England.
Illinois.

Lisbon

Norway and Sweden. Stockholm

Rome
Savannah
Charleston (Jcneva

Georgia South Carolina 1736 Switzerland


I'oland 1737 .Moiitserrat
17:^8

England. France. England. England. England. England.


ICngland.

Iowa
843 New Zealand 848 California 849 Minnesota 850 Oregon Sandwich Islands
851

Montrose

Akaroa
Sacramento
St.

France.
Dist.

Columbia.

Paul
."

Ohio.
California.

Oregon City
.

. .

llonoUihi

France and Cal.


France. Missouri.

Warsaw
Kingston

Martinique

1739

Jamaica Antigua
St.

Christopher 1740 Prussia Malta Barl)adoe8 1742 Austria


1743 Denmark 1747 St. Eustatius Transviuil 1748 Turkey 1749 Hayti

England. France. England. England. England.


(ierniany.
.'.

Marquesas New Mexico 8.52 Washington 8.54 Kansas 855 Nebraska


Indian Territory.
8."7
.

Nukahiva
Santa V6 (Jlympia

Oregon.
Missouri.
Illinois.

Wyandotte
."

.Muscogee
(iuavaquil

Arkansas.
Peru. France.

Charlottenburg
Valetta

Ecuador

Vienna Copenhagen
Pretoria

Constantinople

Sau DoiuiDgo

Enghuul. England. England. (rermany. Prance. England. England. France.

859

Roumania
Queensland Tunis Colorado

Bucharest
Brisl)ane

860 Porto Rico


8()1

Mayaguez
Tunis
(Jolden City Carson City

England. Cuba.
France.

Nebraska.
California.

Nevada Dakota 1863 Montana


862

Yankton Baunock

Iowa. Nebraska.

26
FIBST MASOKIC LODGES.
1863 Idaho

FREEMASONRY
LOCATION. Idaho City

CHABTERED PROM.
Oregon.
Sep. f r. Va. France.

Lodge

of Ireland

is

responsible for the

first

Lodges in New South Wales, St. Vincent, Noumea 1864 New Caleaonia Yeddo England. and Tasmania, but has chartered many 1866 Japan Salt Lake City Nevada. I'tiUi other Lodges in foreign lauds and in BritPrescott Arizona California. Tanojiers France. 1867 .Morocco ish colonics, where some other Grand Body Monrovia Lilieria England. San Jose Costa Kica Spain. had preceded them and the like is true of Wyoming Cheyenne Colorado. 1868 Levuka Scotland. 1875 Fiji Islands Grand Lodges of England, France, Spain, Bolivia Peru. 187- Servia Italy. Belgrade Ilolland, and Pennsylvania. A dispute as Spain. 1880 Philippine Islands ..Manila Asuncion 1881 I'araguay Brazil. to whether the first Masonic Lodge in what Uaatemala Carthagena U. S. Colombia. Costa Rica. 1882 San Sal vator is now the United States was opened at Macassar Ilolland. 188:J Celebes Islands Elopuro England. 1885 Borneo^ Philadelphia or at Boston continued for An accompanying chart makes plain the many years, but the weight of evidence is importance of the work done by the earlier declared, by those who are considered English Grand Lodges and by the United authorities, to favor Philadelphia. The Grand Lodge of England in propagating first Lodge at Philadelphia, 1730-31, is Freemasonry. The English Kite was car- believed to have been a voluntary one, as ried to France in 1725, where it became there is no record of its having been charquite as popular as in England to Ireland tered until a year or two later. It was in in 1726, and to Scotland in 1727. In 1727 it the same year, 1730, that Daniel Coxe of was also taken to Spain to Germany, Penn- New Jersey was appointed Provincial Grand sylvania, and to India in 1730 to the Neth- Master of New York, New Jersey, and Pennerlands and to Russia in 1731 to Massa- sylvania, but he is not known to have ever chusetts in 1733 and to Portugal, Nor- exercised his authority as such. The first way, Sweden, Italy, and Georgia in 1735 so Philadel^jhia Lodge assumed the prerogathat within ten years Masonic Lodges had tives of a Provincial Grand Lodge of Pennbeen established throughout the United sylvania in 1732, and in 1734 Benjamin Kingdom, at nearly all the larger conti- Franklin was elected Provincial Grand Masnental cities, at Calcutta, India, and at ter, to which office he was also appointed in Philadelphia, Boston, Charleston, Wil- 1849 by Thomas Oxnard of Boston, Provinmington, N.C., and at Savannah, in the cial Grand Master of all North America. American colonies. All this was the result In 17G4 the Grand Lodge of Ancients, in of the activity of the Grand Lodoe of Enaf- London, chartered a Lodge in Philadelphia land, with_ the exception of the Lodge at and organized a rival Grand Lodge, which Stockholm, which was instituted by French was evidently possessed of more active Freemasons. Eeference to the chart shows members than the older Pennsylvania Grand that next to English Grand Lodges, body, which discontinued its labors about French Grand bodies were most active in 1793. The Provincial Grand Lodge of creating Lodges abroad after which, in Pennsylvania, formed by the Ancients, was the order named, rank parent bodies in responsible for the activity shown by FreePennsylvania, Massachusetts, Virginia, Ire- masons of that colony in establishing land, Spain, the Netherlands, and Ger- Lodges, not only in the colonies (later the many. Prior to the present century, the United States), but in other parts of the American Masonic doctrine of exclusive world, and continues the governing body of territorial jurisdiction was practically un- the Craft in Pennsylvania to this day. In known and while an accompanying chart 1786, following like action in Massachuindicates the sources of only the first Ma- setts, it declared itself an independent and sonic Lodges, subsequent Lodges were fre- sovereign Grand Lodge. At Boston, in quently of another allegiance. The Grand 1733, Henry Price, claiming authority from
West Virginia
;

FREEMASONRY
the Grand Lodge of England, as Provincial

27

mington, N. C. A schismatic Grand Lodge Grand Master of New England, opened a of New York ap^ieared in Albany in 1823, Provincial Grand Lodge, and, witii the aid the outgrowth of opposition to holding the of ten brethren, initiated eight candidates. Grand Lodge exclusively at New York city. This Lodge and the Philadelpliia Lodge, Four years later, in 1827, the city and which initiated Benjamin Franklin in 1734 country Grand Lodges compromised their and subsequently met as a Grand Lodge, differences and united. H. C. Atwood and became the Mother Grand Lodges of others were expelled by the Grand Lodge America. The Price, or St. John's, Grand of New York in 1837, for violation of reguLodge had smooth sailing until 1752, when lations regarding public parades, which several brethren in Boston instituted St. led to the formation of a St. John's Grand Andrew's Lodge, according to the old Lodge, all the members of which were This was op- declared clandestine, and remained so usage, without a warrant. posed b}' St. John's Grand Lodge, and re- until the union of 1850. A number of
sulted in a schism which lasted forty years.

Andrew's received a charter from the Grand Lodge of Scotland, which widened the breach. In 1769 it united with several Ancient military Lodges in forming ^Massachusetts Grand Lodge, with Joseph Warren as ''Grand Master of Masons in Boston, New England, and Within One Hundred Miles of the Same." Li 1773 Joseph Warren was appointed, by the Grand Master of Scotland, Grand Master of Masons for the Continent of America. The death of Warren, at Bunker Hill, resulted in the Massachusetts Grand Lodge declaring its independence and sovereignty, thus becoming the first independent Grand Lodge of Masons in America. In 1792 the Grand Lodge for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts was formed by the union of St. John's and the Massachusetts Grand Lodges, since which time the history of the Craft in that State has not been marked by dissension. (See Freemasonry among the Negroes.) Successors to Daniel Coxe, as Provincial Grand Master for New York and New Jersey, did nothLi 1760
St.

seceded from the regular Grand Lodge of New York in 1849, and formed a third, known as the Phillip's Grand Lodge. This schism was the outcome of a disj)ute as to the right of Past Masters to membership in the Grand

other Lodges

Lodge.
of

in 1858, since

The matter was amicably adjusted which time the Grand Lodge New York has not suffered from dissen-

South Carolina, like Pennsylvania, from the rivalry between the Grand Lodges at London, when, in 1787, an Ancient Grand Lodge was established at
sion.

suffered

Charleston.
1808,

The breach continued


the

until

ing

in

an

official

capacity,

so

far

as

has been

learned, except to induct their

successors into office, until 1754, or 1757,

when
in

a subordinate
city.

Lodge was established


Tliis

New York

was about twenty

opposing bodies united, only to separate again in 1809. It was not until 1817, four years after the reunion of the Ancients and Moderns in England, that the warring South Caroliiui bodies finally healed their differences. In Georgia, where Freemasonry was also introduced direct from England, there were rival Grand Lodges between 1827 and 1839, owing to a controversy growing out of t4ie change of the capital of the State. Russia is the only country in tbe world in which Masonic Lodges are suppressed. Austrian prohibition of Masonic gatherings is not enforced in Hungary and only moderately in Vienna. Spanish opposition to the Craft has long since ceased to be active.
Representatives of the reigning family, or
of

when

of England had granted petitions for liodges at Savannah, Ga., Charleston, S. C, and at Wil-

years after the

Grand Lodge

the government, in every European country exce])t Russia, Austria, Belgium,

28

FREEMASONRY
Council of Emperors of the East and West was organized at Paris, with a system
of

and Turkey are members of the Fraternity. The removal of the name of Deity from its lectures by the Grand Orient of France more than twenty years ago, and of the Holy Bible from its altars, was followed by the refusal of English-speaking and other Grand Lodges to recognize members of Lodges chartered by the Grand Orient of
France.

twenty-five degrees, and, as stated by

in some way became possessed " of the Rite of Perfection, Chapter

McClenachan, "

of Clermont,

"and became

its

successor/'

In 1761 the Council of Emperors of the East and West granted a patent to Stephen

France, therefore,

is

outside of the

Morin

to introduce this rite (of twenty-five

^lasonic family.

degrees) into the

West

Indies, after which,

In

the

United

Kingdom, during the

in 1772,

known as the " Old Grand Lodge," which in Master Mason but factional Grand Lodge died four months Templar, and Mark France, very soon after Freemasonry was later. In 1779, or seven years later, the introduced there, many new degrees and Grand Orient officially declared its j)ower rites made their appearance, in peddling limited to the three symbolic degrees, and which their inventors did a thriving busi- that it had no official knowledge of soBetween 1725 and 1775 hundreds of called high grades. In 1786 the Grand ness. what were called higher Masonic degrees Orient organized and promulgated the were evolved and hawked over the Conti- French rite of seven degrees, adding to nent. Some were meritorious, but many the three symbolic degrees four from the soon fell into obscurity, while a few still abundant material floating about the ConThe importance of this is to show exist in collections of curious outgrowths tinent. In 1754, at Paris, the that long prior to the French Revolution of that character. Chevalier Bonneville brought together and the Grand Orient of France neither 230Ssystematized twenty-five of the older and sessed nor claimed to control the Rite of better productions among these high Perfection of twenty-five degrees which grades, as the Rite of Perfection, under appeared in 1754 as a system under the title the title, '^ ChaiJter of Clermont." Some " Chapter of Clermont," and disappeared of them were called Scottish because their with the death of the factional or *''01d legends traced their origin to Scotland. Grand Lodge." In the Rite of Perfection, It would have risked exposure to attribute Chapter of Clermont, one finds the origin them to English ingenuity. They might of the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite, have been given an Irish origin, because thirty-three degrees, which was created their authors had to go as far as possible and first ajDpeared at Charleston, South
;

adoption of century, the higher '' or additional Masonic degrees was limited to the Royal Arch, Knight
eighteenth
''

united with a faction of the Grand Orient (which controlled the first
it

three degrees of Freemasonry in France),

from England and France.


evidently did
so

the

But Ireland not suit the purpose, and degrees were called Ecossais or

Carolina,

in

1801.

Of

this

(F. R.), in his '^History of


(vol. iii.,
:

have been conferred for many years in the north of Scotland. This, too, accounts for the alleged connection of the partisans of the Stuarts with earlier Ecossais Freemasonry,

Scotch, and were declared to

page 273), says Masonic rites, it is at this day (1886) the most j^opular and the most extensively diffused. Supreme Councils or governing bodies of the rite are to be found in almost every civilized country
of the youngest of the
of the world,

rite, Gould Freemasonry" " Although one

some

of its traditions stating that they introduced the degrees into France or were

and
of

in

many

of

only Masonic obedience."


bolic

them it is the The three symFreemasonry

responsible for their creation.

In 1758 a

degrees

ancient

FREEMASONRY
underlie
all

29

Masonic systems or
fact
is

rites,

and

the

reunion of the two

English Grand

upon that
universality
lish Rite

based the claim of the

of

Freemasonry.
itself

The Engto the three

Lodges, the change involving a modification of the degree of Master Mason.

alone confines

Entered Apprentice, Fellowcraft, and Master Mason, "'including the Holy Eoyal Arch," but upon it have been erected the many Masonic systems or rites which daring the past one hundred and sixty years have attracted the interest of
degrees of
the Craft.

The Rite of the Grand Lodge of 1777. Three Globes is practised by more than two hundred German Lodges. It consists of the three symbolic degrees and seven others, which are modifications of the Gernum Strict Observance Templar and various
Scottish Rite grades.

Students will find extended

lists

of the

more important Masonic

rites or

systems of

degrees, living and dead,

in the

works of

but nowhere, so far as learned, has there been given a brief, chronological account of them and their
historians
;

many Masonic

under the patronage of royalty. It is a mixture of the English and French Rites, of the Templarism of the Rite of Strict Observance, and of
it is

The Swedish Rite 1777. Norway and Sweden, Avhere

exists

only in

Rosicrucianism.
1783.
in

The
a

Rite of Swedenborg

is

preIt
is

characteristics so as to enable the

young served

few French Lodges.

craftsman to distinguish between those which have passed away and those which are still practised. There are ten Masonic Two of them, the Engrites in use to-day.
lish,

founded on Peruetty's Rite of Avignon, which appeared in France in 1769. It involves, like Pernetty's system,

much

of the

bolic degrees,

which includes the first three or symand together with the Royal

mysticism of Swedenborg, who, by the way, was not a Freemason.


1786.

The French,

or

Modern

Rite, as

Arch forms the basis of all systems or rites, and the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite of
thirty-three degrees, are ranked as universal.

exi:)lained, consists

of the English system,

The American
and
is

Rite

is

next in impor-

tance,

j^ractised in the

and the Dominion


to be

of

United States Canada, where are

upon which are superimposed four degrees formed from some of the many unsystematized ceremonials practised on the Continent of Europe in the latter half of tlie last century.

found three-fourths of all the Freemasons in the world. The Rite of the Grand Lodge of the Three Globes, Germany, is third in importance, after which follow the French Rite, the Swedish Rite,
or Rite of Zinnendorf,

1801. Schroder's Rite

is

still

cultivated
at

by a few German Lodges, notably


burg.
It is

Ham-

confined to the three ancient

craft degrees

of Master

and a Select Historical Union Masons for the study of the iihi-'
Scottish

Schroder's Rite (in


the French

losophy of Freemasonry.
1801.

use by a few

German Lodges),

The Ancient, Accepted

Order of the Temple, the Rite of Memphis (in Roumania, Spain, and Egypt), and the Rite of Swedenborg.
1724.

Rite, referred to elsewhere.

1810.
as
it

exists to-day,
first

The American Rite, may be said

substantially
to date

from

The

English, erroneously called

the

the
of

York Rite, is composed of the degrees Entered Apprentice, Fellowcraft, and Master Mason, the three ancient, symbolic degrees which were practically perfected and conferred as a system about 1724, or shortly after, to which was formally appended the Royal Arch degree, in 1813, at

decade of the present century. It is referred to under a separate liead. 1839. The Rite of Memphis, youngest of living Masonic systems, is described under
that
title.

There are more than 1,400,000 active Freemasons in the world, all of whom, of
course, are
practically familiar with

the

30

FREEMASONRY
Of the

three degrees of the English Kite.


total,

Knight
of

of the Sun,

now

the twenty-eighth

probably 125,000 are in possession of the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite, and 118,000 of the American Rite us conferred
manderies.

and ComThere are 27,000 members of the French Rite, 4,000 of the Swedish Rite, 20,000 of the Rite of the Grand Lodge of the Three Globes at Berlin, but only a very few who practise Schroder's Rite, the Rite of Swedenborg, or the French Order of the Temple. The more important among extinct Masonic Rites are twenty-two in number, thirteen of which appeared in France, six in Germany, and one each in England, Belgium, and Italy. 1748. Rite of Vielle Bru, France, an inin Lodges, Chapters (Councils),

Accepted Scottish Rite. His Rite of Avignon had great influence on several which followed it. 1770. Rite of Martinism, France, a combination of Scottish degrees with the specuthe Ancient,
lations of the mystics.

1772.

Reformed

Rite, a

German

modifica-

tion of the Rite of Strict Observance.

1773. Rite of Philalethes, France, based

on the Rite of Martinism. twenty years.


1775.

It lived

about
Rite,

The

Philosophic

Scotch

France, was a revival of Pernetty's Rite of Avignon, combined with Rosicrucianism

vention
killed

of

the adherents of the Stuarts

while in exile.
it

The Grand Orient


it

of

France

by refusing
to.

recognition.

1754. Rite of Perfection, Paris, France;

already referred
1754.

Von Hund's

Rite of Strict Observ-

ance,

Germany, was based on the Templar

theory of the origin of Freemasonry, the legend of which taught that every Free-

Knight Templar. This Rite, drawn from the earlier French sophers. After a career of monumental Scottish Templar degrees, which ultimately effronter}^ decej^tion, and dishonesty, he were formed into the Rite of Perfection, was sentenced to death in 1789 at Rome by into which Von Hund was received in the Holy Inquisition, and his manuscript, Paris, exercised considerable influence over "Maconnerie Egyptienne," was publicly succeeding systems. burned. The Pope commuted his sentence 1758. Emperors of the East and West to imprisonment for life. He died in prison

mason

is

and suggestions from the Pythagoreans. 1776. The Rite of the Elect of Truth, France, was jihilosophical. 1777. The Egyptian Rite, of Cagliostro, was the work of that prince of adventurers and impostors. Cagliostro was made a Freemason in London in 1776, and immediately set to work to form a '' Masonic '' system of his own, into which he introduced the search for the philosopher's stone, and physical and moral regeneration. He traveled through Europe, establishing Lodges and selling degrees, often to princes, prelates, and philo-

whicli was

already referred
1765.

to.

in 1795. of

The

Rite

Elected

Cohens
at

1780.

The Primitive

Rite of Philadelphes

was based on the mysticism of the Jewish Kabbala.


(Priests), France,

(Primitive Rite of Narbonne) was founded

1766.

The Rite

of the Blazing Star re-

vived the legends and ceremonials of chivalry.

1767. Rite

of Chastenier, France, theo-

sophical and mystical, was introduced into

England, but did not

live long.

Narbonne, France, by pretended " Supethe Order of Free and Accejjted Masons." Its degrees were divided into three classes, in which were treated the occult sciences and the rehabilitation and reintegration of man in his primitive rank and prerogatives.
riors of

1769. Pernetty's Rite of Avignon, France,

1780.

The Rite

of Brothers of Asia, Ger-

was a revel in mysticism. Pernetty is said to have been the author of the degree of the

man, was composed of a mixture of religious faiths, science, and the reveries of the mystics.

,x\

THE AREA OF THE


CP^

ENTIRE CIRCLE REP"/>


o5^E>.

Yr^ \<^^ ^"-1^.

'^'>"^^.

RESENTS

THE

1.400.000

ANCIEHT
AFFILIATED

MASTER

MA-

ACCEPTED

SCOTTISH RITE
J25.000.

SONS

IN

THE WORLD, MEMOF THIS

BERS OF THE ENGLISH

(OR "YORK") RITE.

TOTAL ONLY

128^000

HAVE RECEIVED THE SCOTTISH


RITE, 27.000

RITE, 118.0OO

THE AMERICAN
RITE.

THE

FRENCH

AND ABOUT
RITES.

lO.OOO

OTHER

CHART SHOWING THE RELATIVE MEMBERSHIP OF LEADING LIVING MASONIC

RITES.

32 1T82.

FREEMASONRY
The
Beneficent

Knights

of

the

Holy City, France, included some of the mystical speculations for which the last century was noted, and the early Scottish degree of Templarism.
1783. Fessler's Eite,
of nine degrees, based

judged from the point of view of the FreeThe Orange Institution of that day. appeared at the close of the last century, an open imitator of the Masonic Fraternity so far as some of its forms and ceremonies are

mason

on the Golden Eose Croix, the Eite of Strict Observance, and


It professed to

American Germany, consisted concerned. Lodges after the close


be

Provincial
of the

Grand
of the

War

the Eite of Perfection.


abstrusely learned.
1784.

Eevolution declared their independence of English mother Grand Lodges, and at the

The

Eeformed Helvetic Eite, Ger-

many, was a modification of the Eeformed Eite of 1772, and was used in Poland. 1787. The Eite of African Architects was the successor of a rite with a similar name, It appeared in Germany and was 1767.
patronized by Frederick
II.

Its

objects

were to rescue Freemasonry from innovation and to study philosophy.


1805.

The

Eite of Mizraim

is

referred to

elsewhere.
degrees, Belgium, was based

1818. Primitive Scottish Eite, thirty-three on the Eites of

end of the century an effort was made to form a Supreme Grand Lodge of the United States with Washington as Supreme Grand Master. Washington's death prevented the success of the plan, and when the subject was brought up again in 1822, it was reBetween 1827 and ceived with less favor. 1840 the Craft suffered from political persecution and unreasoning warfare which but grew out of the " Morgan excitement beginning in 1843, it grew and prospered beyond all previous records until its growth was checked by the Civil War. Since 1865 its popularity and prosperity in the United
; '''

Perfection and Strict Observance, and fol-

lowed the Adonhiramite theory as to the principal officers at the building of King

colonies,

Canada, Great Britain, the British and elsewhere throughout the world have been beyond all precedent.
States,
Tlie

Solomon's Temple, which characterized so

American

Eite.

Practised
adds
to

only in

many

of the Continental rites in the latter

the L^nited States of America and the Do-

still has an insome of the minor living rites. It never Avent beyond the city of its birth. Freemasonry in the eighteenth century was characterized by its rapid spread from England throughout the world, by the avidity with which able and learned men inter-

part of the last century, and


fluence in

minion of Canada.

It

the three

symbolic degrees of the English Eite, first, the degrees of Mark Master, Past Master,
son,

Most Excellent Master, and Eoyal Arch Mawhich are conferred in Eoyal Arch Chapters federated into Grand Chapters, and a General Grand Chapter of tlie United ested themselves in it, in many instances States of America; second, the degrees of only to extend, elaborate, or embroider its Eoyal Master, Select Master, and of Superand ceremonials, and by the schism Excellent Master, conferred in Councils of England which lasted from 1751 to 1813. Eoyal and Select Masters, which have a sysIt met with the antagonism of pope and tem of state and general government similar pamphleteer, and the exiled Stuarts vainly to that of Eoyal Arch Chapters; and, third. sought to use it in an effort to regain the Companion of the Illustrious Order of the English throne. The Order of Odd Fel- Eed Cross, Knight Templar, and Knight of lows' made its appearance in London be- St. John and Malta, under the authority of fore 1740, a variety of democratized Free- chartered Commanderies of Knights Temmasonry, and was followed by the Druids plars. There are no very marked differin 1760 and by the Foresters in 1780, types ences between the Entered Apprentice and
ritual

in

of

the

sincerest

form

of

flattery,

when

Fellowcraft degrees

as

conferred

in

the

FREEMASONRY
United States and in England; but while
the peculiarity which marks the third degree
is met w'itli in every Masonic Lodge, American Lodges have taken marked liber-

33

Several so-called essentials are ties with it. omitted altogether, and the one which should be universal, if any ])ortion of the degree is to be, is totally unlike anything communicated under that name in many

where Freemasonry was introduced prior to 1751, visiting American and English Freemasons find a singular and, to some, inexplicable reversal of what they were taught. The honorary degree of Past Master is conferred only on Master Masons who have been regularly elected and installed Masters of Lodges. It did not take the form of a degree until early in the present century in
the

foreign Lodges.

American Lodges tend

to

United

States.

It

emphasize the dramatic possibilities of the Master Mason degree, while in England and on the Continent the greater portion of the
characteristic part of the degree
is

actual Masters of Lodges


ters early in the last

was conferred on and on Past Mascentury, merely as a

ceremonial, and in 1744 began to be referred


to
Its place in as "passing the chair." Royal Arch Chapters in the L^nited States

commu-

nicated.

The claim
rests

of universality for the


its

English Rite

on

substance rather

is

referred to hereafter.

than form; for certain "accompanying" words, the letter G, and a most important Where sign are far from being universal.

Chapters of Royal Arch Masons in the United States confer the capitular degrees of Mark Master, (virtual) Past JMaster, Most this rite exists, it is recognized by Supreme Excellent Master, and Royal Arch Mason Councils of the Ancient, Accepted Scottish upon such Master Masons as apply for and This system, Eite, which thereupon begin their labors are elected to receive them.* In countries Avhere culminating in the Royal Arch, is a purely with the fourth degree. the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite pre- American arrangement, and is found only ceded the English Rite, the former presents in the United States, the Dominion of Canthe three symbolic degrees of a genuinely ada, and in the relatively few Chapters in universal type. In Germany and elsewhere Mexico and elsewhere abroad chartered on the Continent the work in the third de- from the United States. The Royal Arch gree has, in some systems or localities, been degree in England was originally conferred, abused by the infusion of the Adonhiramite probably as early as 1740, in some of the theory which made Adoniram rather than seceding Lodges of 1739 wdiich united in Hiram the conspicuous figure. The growth 1751 and formed the Ancient Grand Lodge; of this heresy in the eighteenth century was for, even in 1740, twenty-three years after due to a confusion of philological and his- the formation of the Grand Lodge of Engtorical data and to the ignorance of those land in 1717, several rebellious Lodges responsible for it. But this alteration, like claimed to have secrets in reference to the American changes in the English Rite, has Master's degree which were unknown in become a part of the tree on which it Lodges loyal to the mother Grand Lodge. was grafted, and constitutes something in It must, therefore, have been in Lodges The arrangement which in 1751 formed the schismatic Grand the nature of local color. of the Words in the first and second degrees Lodge that the Master's degree was mutiwas reversed by the Ancient, or schismatic, lated to form the Royal Arch, because as early Grand Lodge of England, in order to de- as 1735 all of the original essentials of the tect visitors from the rival obedience. The Master's degree remained intact. While gendominance of the Ancient Grand Lodge in erally conferred in Lodges as a supplement the American colonies naturally brought the * The exception is in Pennsylvania, where the variation into Lodges here; but in Germany, Grand Chapter rejects the Mark and Most Excellent France, Norway, and some other countries Masters' degrees.

34
to the

FREEMASONRY
Master's degree
for

several

years

Arch Chapters ultimately came into existence, and afterward The Ana Supreme lioyal Arch Chapter. cients announced the existence of the Royal Arch degree in its " Ahiman Rezon," or
after the schism, Royal

and utilized, as otherwise related, and historical records. The degree is traced to Dunham, England, 1774, when it was conferred in symbolic Lodges as
their work,
in legendary

a side or unsystematized ceremonial.

It be-

book of constitutions, in 1750, but as late as 1758 the Moderns denied all knowledge of it. Dunckerly, the celebrated ritualist, introduced the Royal Arch degree to the Moderns, or mother organization of modern Freemasonry, in 1770, by which it was adopted
in 1779, together with a system of subordi-

came popular and spread throughout the Kingdom, but the United Grand Lodges of England (1813) refused to recognize it. Gradually it separated from symbolic Lodges
andAvas conferred in Mark Lodges. In 1856 the English Grand Lodge of Mark Master

nate Chapters afterward governed by a Supreme Royal Arch Chapter. At the union of the rival English Grand Lodges in 1813 the Royal Arch of the Ancients was made soon after appeared as a detached degree supplementary to the degree of Master Ma- in other American Lodges. The Past Master's degree, as such, which son, and in 1817 the rival Supreme Chapters united. From that day to this the English is of American origin and forms the fifth Rite has conferred the Royal Arch on Mas- degree of the American Rite, did not apter Masons elected to receive it, in contrast pear until the second decade of the present with the American system, which requires century. Prior to that time Past Masters a Master Mason to first receive the degrees were those who had actually presided over of Mark Master, (virtual) Past Master, and Lodges or who had received dispensations Most Excellent Master, prior to being '^ ex- from Grand Masters permitting them to Before the Moderns adopted the assume the title to render them eligible to alted." Royal Arch degree the Ancients had been the Royal Arch degree. The advisability

Masons was formed, which maintains correlations with American Grand Royal Arch Chapters. In 1792-93 St. Andrew's Royal Arch Lodge, Boston, incorporated the Mark Master's degree, and the latter
dial

conferring

it

only on Masters of Lodges; but

of the introduction of the degree into the

American capitular system has often been and still is seriously questioned. latter portion of the eighteenth century, not The Most Excellent Master's, or sixth deonly actual Past Masters, but those made so gree of the American Rite, an American inby dispensation of a Grand Master for that vention, is supposed to have first appeared at purpose. This practice was brought to the Albany, N. Y., in 1795 to have been the American colonies by British army Lodges invention of John Hanmer, an accomplished and explains the existence in the American Masonic, ritualist of England then visiting Royal Arch Chapter of the degree of virtual the Craft, and to have been elaborated by Past Master. Thomas Smith Webb, Past Grand Master The Mark Master's, or fourth degree of of Rhode Island, the well-known Amerithe American Rite, is of undoubted English can Masonic ritualist, who left so deep an origin, and while conferred only on Master impress on the formation of what has beMasons, forms a graceful appendage to the come the American Rite of Freemasonry. degree of Fellowcraft. It is based on the It celebrates the completion and dedication practice of ancient operative Freemasons of the first Temple, and so supplies a link of selecting particular marks which they between the Master JNIason and the Royal could no more alter or change than they Arch degree, of Avhich it is the immediate could their names, with which they marked predecessor.
popularize the degree, admitted during the
;

both the Moderns and Ancients, in order to

FREEMASONRY
essentials of the original Master Maare believed to have appeared in degree son new form, in tliat which became the Royal

35

The

Freemasonry.
ish

Gould presumes the

refer-

ence to Kilwinning was a rhetorical flour-

due

to his Scotch origin

and familiarity

whether or not a compliment to the distinguished has been shown in many ways, notably company he was addressing, was only a theThis address in an old French print illustrating an im- ory, for it had no foundation. portant ceremony in the third degree, in had unlooked-for and somewhat remarkable The origin of results. Its first effect was to furnish an which a Name appears. the Royal Arch has often been erroneously alleged authority for the legends of many attributed to the Chevalier Ramsay, one of the Scottish degrees Avhich appeared in of the learned Freemasons of the first half France within the next few years, for the of the eighteenth century and an alleged cultivation of the Templar theory of the The only rea- origin of Freemasonry which they presented, partisan of the exiled Stuart. son for believing that Ramsay had anything and for their supposititious Scottish origin. to do with it was the fact that he had the A second result was the charge that Ramsa}' ability to construct such a ceremonial, and was himself the inventor of Scottish degrees, Avas for a brief period associated with the owing to his friendship for the young Preyoung Pretender. Beginning about 1738-40 tender, and that the ulterior purpose of French Masonic ritualists and others began those degrees was to draw adherents to, and
delicate

Arch, in France, between 1838 and 1840. That the Master's degree prior thereto contained something which gives the Eoyal Arch its distinctive connection with it,

with Scotland, for the statement requires no His theory as to the chivalric refutation.
origin of Freemasonry,

the construction of additional degrees called


Scottish,

gain

money

which

they superimposed upon

throne.

for, the claimant of the British This was almost universally be-

the three symbolic degrees.

The Chevalier

lieved by otherwise well-informed students


of the origin of the Scottish degrees of 173950, until Gould, in a careful examination of the subject a dozen years ago,

Ramsay, born at Ayr, Scotland, in 1786, was made a Freemason at London about He was a tutor to the sons of the 1728. Pretender in Rome for fifteen months, between 1725 and 1727, after which he returned to England, and was prominent among London Freemasons and literary men until 1737, when he went to Paris. In the same year he delivered his now famous speech on Freemasonry, in which he merely elaborated Anderson traditions as to the oriNowhere did he gin of the Fraternity. speak of Templary, but he did advance a theory that some of the Crusaders under Prince Edward, son of Edward IIL, who had become Knights of St. John in the Holy Land (not St. John of Malta), returned to England, and, under the patronage of the Prince, took the name of Freemasons. He declared that a Lodge was established at
Kilwinning, in Scotland, in 1286, but that it afterward declined, and that it was the English Masonic Crusaders who perpetuated

showed

its

absurdity.

Ramsay was

a liberal Catholic,
Jesuits,

and was antagonized by the


of

who
is

were connected with the earlier fabrication

some

of the Scottish degrees.

There
is

absolutely no proof that


that he did not.

Ramsay sympa-

thized with the Stuarts, and there

much

That he ever invented any Masonic degree has never been shown. That his speech was used by French degreemakers between 1740 and 1750 to give a status to tlieir creations, and that his name was used for the same purpose, require no argument. After writing two letters to Cardinal Fleury, the French Prime ^[inister, ^larch 20 and 22, 1737 (see Gould's " History of Freemasonry,"
338),
ui-ging
official

vol.

ill.,

pp. 337,
of

protection

Freeall

masonry, which might well be read, in


sincerity,

by Pope Leo XIII., Ramsay returned to London and was not heard of

36

FREEMASONRY
The mit and
in

again publicly until his death in 1743.


early Scottish degrees

perfection of symbolic Freemasonry.

which appeared

It is conferred

on no more or

less

than three

France, fabulously attributed to Scotland, though dissimilar in one respect, had a

persons at the same time, and treats of the


destruction of the first Temj)le at Jerusalem and the building of the second Temple, together with important discoveries made on the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity. Prior to 1795, the Mark, Most Excellent, and Eoyal Arch ceremonials were conferred in America as detached degrees, generally in Lodges, that last named sometimes in Chapters held under cover of Lodge warrants. The Eoyal Arch Chapter was convened at Philadelphia in 1795 by James Molau, in which the four capitular degrees were for the first time conferred as at j)resent,

legend in

common

that of the discovery of

a long lost and Ineffable AVord in a secret

In this is vault by Scottish Crusaders. found the germ of the Eoyal Arch degree, not only that of Enoch, the earlier Scottish
degree sublimated into the thirteenth of theAncient, Accepted Scottish Eite of to-day, but of the English or Royal Arch of Zerubbabel.

These (French) Scottish degrees,

with the vault and Arch, one or more of

them, were carried into England, and first heard of at York, in the independent Grand Lodge at that city, Avhence Kilwinning
Lodge, Dublin, received
it

in regular order,

Mark Master, Past

hands of Master, Most Excellent Master, and Eoyal In 1798 delegates from nine a visiting brother prior to 1744. Laurence Arch Mason. Dermott was made a Freemason at Dublin Eoyal Arch Chapters, six from New Engin 1744, and received the Eoyal Arch degree land, and three from New York State, met He modified and introduced at Hartford, Conn., and formed a Grand there in 1746. at London. The re- Eoyal Arch Chapter of the Northern States Lodges seceding it into sult was the English or Eoyal Arch of Zerub- of America, which, in 1806, became the babel in distinction from the Eoyal Arch of General Grand Chapter of Eoyal Arch MaEnoch, now the thirteenth degree of the sons for the United States of America, Ancient, Accepted Scottish Eite, into which which meets triennially to this day, and is the Eoyal Arch became incorporated through the governing body of American Grand having been absorbed into the French Eite Eoyal Arch Chapters, except Grand Chapof Perfection in 1754, and by the Emperors ters in Pennsylvania, where the Grand Chapof the East and West in 1758, from which ter is subordinate to the Grand Lodge; in we get the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Eite Virginia, founded in 1808, and in West VirBritish army Lodges, most of ginia (1871), where they remain indepenof 1801. from the schismatic Grand dent. In Virginia and West Virginia what hailing them
at the

Lodge, brought this degree, as well as the

are

known

as the Council degrees, elsewhere

Mark,
that

to the

American

colonies.

The

first

the eighth and ninth of the American Eite


ferred in Eoyal

Eoyal Arch Chapter held here was under title, " No. 3," at Philadelphia, but the
degree was
first

(Eoyal Master and Select Master), are conArch Chapters. The hon-

conferred in St. Andrew's

orary Order of

High Priesthood,
is

first

heard

Eoyal Arch Lodge, Boston, afterward St. Andrew's Eoyal Arch Chapter, in 1769, and soon after it was found in Xew York city and at various points in Xew England. The first Eoyal Arch Chapter in New York
city

of in Pennsjdvania in 1825,

conferred by

High Priests on Eoyal Arch Masons who have been regularly elected to preside over Eoyal Arch Chapters. The eighth, ninth, and tenth, the Cryptic
Past

vincial

degrees of the American Eite, are the Eoyal Grand Master George Harrison in Master, Select Master, and Super-Excellent The Eoyal Arch degree, the seventh Master respectively, and are so called be1757. of the American Eite, constitutes the sum- cause the first two treat of a secret vault.

(independent) was chartered by Pro-

FREEMASONRY
They
are conferred in Councils of Eoyal and
native.
It

37

has no connection with the two

it, and is an elaboration of Grand Councils and a General Council of tliat portion of the Royal Arch which reWith few lates to the destruction of the first Temple the United States of America. exceptions, Grand Commanderies of Knights by Nebuzaradan. There liave been various theories as to 'I'emphxrs do not require the possession of the Cryptic degrees by candidates for Orders the origin of Masonic Knights Templars, conferred in Commanderies. The Cryptic and it is surprising that only within the last degrees are also worked in Enghxnd andt thirty years have Knights Templars themCanada, where they were taken from the selves made the necessary investigation to United States, and form interesting supple- learn that they never had any connection ments to the Master's and tlie IWal Arch with the Ancient Military and Religious The Koyal and the Select Masters' Order of the Temple. The like is true, degrees. degrees, formerly unattached, honorary, also, with reference to the Masonic Order of Scottish Rite degrees, were introduced into Knights of St. John and Malta. Among America, probably at Albany, in 1767, by the theories to explain a direct connection Francken (see Ancient, Accepted Scottish between modern Knights Templars and the

Select

Masters which

are

federated

into

which precede

Kite);

into Charleston in 1783 by Scottish

ancient order, the oldest

is

that having ref-

Masons who received them from Francken into Georgia in 1796 and into Xew York in 1808, where in 1810 a Grand Council was formed. They were originally conferred at will upon Royal Arch IVIasons by those empowered to do so, and after 1820 gradually found their way into separate bodies called Councils, convened by Royal and Select Masters for that purpose, althougli the Supreme Council, Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Masonic Jurisdiction, United States of America, claimed
Rite
; ;

erence to the Charter of Larmenius.

When

JacquQS de ]\Iolay, Grand Master of the Templars, was in prison, he is said to have
sent for Larmenius just prior to his death,

and

to

have given him a charter ajipointing

him own

his successor with

power

to

name

his

successor and so perpetuate the Order.

In 1682, three hundred and sixty-four, years


afterward, a society was organized at Paris,
called
Its

La Petite Resurrection des Templiers. members were bo/i vivants among the

without exercising
the degrees, until

much jurisdiction over 1870, when it relinquished

younger element at the French court, and the organization became so luuch more conspicuous for the cultivation of licentiousness

authority over them to Grand Councils of

than the knightly virtues, that


pressed by
the

it

Royal and Select Masters, which had grown

king.
its

In

1705,

was supperhaps
twelve
intro-

up

inucli the

same

as did the earlier

Crand

twenty years after

suppression,

Chapters of Royal Arch Masons.

In \\r-

years before the revival of Freemasonry in

ginia and Maryland both degrees are conferred in Chapters prior to the Royal
degree.

England, and twenty years before

its

Arch
repre-

duction into France, the society was revived

by Philip, Duke of Orleans, as a secret political organization, and declared a direct ram, prior to the tragedy of the third de- continuation of the Order of the Temple gree, for that which was to be the reward which was overtlirown and dispersed by of faithful craftsmen. In the following Pope Clement V. and Philip the Fair in degree the deposit is made by the master 1314. The authority for this was the charbuilder which was brought to light at the ter of Larmenius, then first nuide public, Avith building of the second Temple. The origin a list of signatures following the name of Larof the honorary degree of Super-Excellent menius, as alleged succeeding Grand MasMaster is unknown, but is believed to be ters. The Duke tried to obtain recognition

The Royal Master's degree

sents the search

by the Fellowcraft Adoni-

38
for his Order

FREEMASONRY
and for the charter from the
legends which have been repeated so often

defeat at Culloden, although it has been so Order under the new title. often stated that he was elected Grand MasFailing in this, the Orleans-Larmenius Order ter of the Order of the Temple in Scotland It was in 1745, that the story has been looked upon of the Temple fell into obscurity. English modern Templary is said last heard of as the Societe d'Aloyau (Beef- as true. The Revolution is to have been derived from Baldwyn Encampsteak Club) about 1789. supposed to have finished it. In 1804-5 ment at Bristol, which had existed "from several clever, learned, but unscrupulous time immemorial," or from one or more anmen came into the possession of the cha^rter cient Encampments at London, York, Bath, of Larmenius through having purchased a and Salisbury, where refugee Knights of the jDiece of antique furniture in which it had ancient Order made their headquarters; but been secreted. It was an easy matter to in the light of modern historical evidence it bring the charter down to date, by adding would be difficult to show that these English names of alleged Grand Masters, after which centres of ancient Templarism shielded any the Order of the Temple was again revived genuine Knights Templars four hundred (or created), and exists to this day, claiming years after the death of De Molay; that the to be the only true continuation of the orig- haughty survivors of the ancient Order in Its progress was not rapid England united ^vitli the operative Freeinal Templars. in the first quarter of the century, and with masons of the sixteenth and seventeenth the introduction of Freemasonry into France centuries, or that either as Knights or Freethese French Templars incorporated the masons they survived until after the middle three symbolic degrees as the foundation of the eighteenth century, when Masonic The German Rite of the Templar degrees began to make their apof their rite. Strict Observance obtained its Templar Or- pearance from France. The earliest recorded Temple degree at der, as stated in its own legend, through Peter Aumont, one of De Molay's associates Baldwyn Encampment is not traced beyond who fled to Scotland. This statement and 1779 or 1780, ten years after some sort of the fact that Von Hund, who founded the Templai'y had appeared in the United States English Masonic Templary, rite, had received the earlier (French) Scot- from Ireland.
to continue their
tish degrees in Paris, prior to establishing

Portuguese Order of Christ, said to have been formed by a number of De Molay's followers wlio escai')ed to Portugal and secured the protection of the king, with permission

There was no Knight Templary in Scotland when the young Pretender went there prior to his
as to finally gain credence.

including the degree of Knight of


of Rhodes, Palestine, of

St.

John

his rite, are sufficient to

show the fabulous character of the Aumont story. The Swedish Rite attributes its Order of the Temple to Count Beaujeu, a nephew of De Molay, who, it declares, became a member of the Order of Christ in Portugal, went to Sweden, and there revived the true Order of the Temple. This story also is its own authority.

and Malta (the union

which Orders legend-makers have ex-

plained as due to the association of the early

Templars and Knights of Malta in Scotland),


took sliape in 1791, six years prior to the formed in the first Grand Encampment

The Scotch claim

that the

modern

Scotch Templars descended from Knights


of the ancient
after the death of

Order who fled to Scotland De Molay, and joined the ancient Masonic Lodge of working Freema- K. D. S. H. of St. John of Jerusalem, Palsons at Stirling. This also is one of those estine, Rhodes, etc." This reference to

United States, a General Conclave having been organized in that year by Dunckerly, In 1809 the well-known English ritualist. the title was *' The Royal, Exalted, Religious, and Military Order of H. R. D. M., Grand Elected Masonic Knights Templars,

FREEMASONRY
Heroclem and to Kadosch points quite conclusively to the absorption of earlier (French)
ciation, the first being
ritual,

39

from the Dunckerly

the second that imported from the

Scottish

degrees.

At

that

period,

too,

" Lodges of Craft ^Easons and Chapters of the Koyal Arch," it was declared by authority of the Eoyal Grand Patron, " pretend, by
virtue of their respective Charters of Con-

French Order of the Temple, and the third from Russia. In 1846 the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite having finally been introduced into England, the Rose Croix and

admit Knights of the several Orders mentioned, and to confer the Degrees of RosEe Crucis to the said Orders annexed and thereon dependent; " and, says Hughan, '"means were taken to prevent such irregularity." The clash between the English Supreme Body, which chose to absorb the chivalric degrees, and Lodges and Chajjters which, as admitted, had long been conferring them without special authority, would seem to further show that these high grades were derived from the early Scottish degrees and their successors (from which it is admitted English Lodges received the germ of their Royal Arch), and not from surviving ancient Templary in England or Scotland. The Duke of Sussex became Grand Master of the exalted Orders in 1812, and constitution,
to

Kadosch degrees were " gradually restored " rite. The English Religious and Military Order of the Temple spread throughout the Kingdom, and in 1873 the
to that of the

Prince of Wales was installed frraud Master Convent General (founded in 1872),

since

composed of the Great Priories of Engf raters

land and AVales, Ireland, and Canada.


Scottish

declined to join the

The new orand

ganization.
still insists it

Canada withdrew

in 1883,

represents a continuation of

the ancient Templars.


It

was in the early (French) Scottish de-

grees of 1739-50, which multiplied and be-

came popular, that a second series of liigher grades appeared, those in which Templar
and
Malta degrees were revived. The (French) Scottish Masters assumed prerogatives not possessed by ordinary ^Master Masymbolic Lodges,

sons, such as to sit covered in Lodges, to control elections of officers of

tinued to act until his decease in 1843, Colonel Kemeys-Tynte succeeding him in
1840.

The Duke

satisfied

of Sussex was evidently not with what he received in the way of

Masonic Templary from Dunckerly, for he asked for and obtained the ritual of the French Order of the Temple, which he used,
as ^lackey says, only once. to

He

also applied

Alexander

II. of

Russia, nominal head of

a surviving remnant of the ancient Knights of Malta in Russia, and obtained authority to create Knights of that rank in England,

which constitutes the nearest approach the English body can claim to any connection with the ancient Knights of Malta. The revival of the English Language of the ancient Knights of St. Jolin, Malta, etc., in England, in 1831, where it had been extinct for nearly three hundred years, brought to life an aristocratic social institution representing the fourth inroad of Maltaism into the modern English Temple and ]\[alta asso-

and even to usurp the functions of a Grand Lodge; and with the fabrication of a ^lasouic Knight Temjilary, in which the novitiate was told that the Ancient Templars fled to Scotland in 1314 and there became Freemasons, was introduced another field of exploration for those who had already delved dee]) into the arcana of symbolic and Scottish degrees. As Gould says: '"Some of these Scots Lodges would appear to have very early manufactured new degrees connecting these very distinguislied Scots Masons with the Knights Templars, and thus
giving
rise to

plarism."
France.
plars,

the subsequent flood of TemThe Kadosch (Templar) degree


;is

was invented as early

1741 at Lyons,

It typified the revenge of the


it

TemAc-

and a modification of

constitutes the

thirtieth degree of the existing Ancient,

cepted Rite.

By 1745 Masonic Templary


finally

had spread over Europe,

securing

40

FREEMASONRY

next thirty years it is traced to Charleston, England. Philadelphia, New York city, and to other It is to this source, then, rather than to points in the United States, generally being Larmenius, Aumont, Beaujeu, or survivors conferred under Lodge, sometimes Chapter Prior to 1797, there were no of ancient Templars who fled to England warrants. and Scotland that one must look for the American Knight Templar associations Masonic Order of the Temple as we have authorized to grant warrants for Encampments, as Commanderies were called prior it in the United Kingdom and the United The Order appeared in Ire- to 1856, so that nearly all earlier Templar States to-daj. land prior to 1779, but just how long before bodies here were self -created. There were cannot be stated. It was only natural that Knights Templars in New Y'ork city as it should be popular in the Catholic city of early as 1785, and in Philadelphia in 1794. Dublin, when one considers the evolution Temple and Malta rituals, as used in Amerof symbolic Freemasonry, originally Chris- ican Commanderies, are purely American, tian, into a unitarian and cosmopolitan and show something more than a trace of The definition of Masonic the Eose Croix (eighteenth), the Knight of institution. Knighthood, by T. S. Parvin, in the Ameri- the Brazen Serpent (twenty-fifth). Comcan aj^iiendix to Gould's " History of Free- mander of the Temple (twenty-sixth), and masonry " (vol. iv., p. 557), is as follows: It the Knight Kadosch (thirtieth) degrees of " is a society eminently Christian, purged the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Eite, to

recognition in both the York, independent,


of

and the Ancient Grand Lodges

heathen rites and tradi- which the American Temple and Malta and to which none are admitted but rituals virtually owe their origin. American records of the Eed Cross demembers of a Masonic body, and such only as profess themselves to be Trinitarian gree, now the eleventh, and the Knight of Hugh McCurdy, Past Grand Malta, the thirteenth and last of the AmerChristians." Master of the Grand Encampment of ican Eite, are few and far between, jDrior to Knights Templars, United States of Amer- the present century, but both are known to ica, in an address at the Triennial Conclave have existed at Charleston as early as 1783. The Eed Cross is a fabrication by chiefs of at Boston, in 1895, said: Modern Templary is a Christian association of the Scottish Eite of an earlier period from Freemasons adhering sacredly to the traditions of what are now the fifteenth and sixteenth the military Orders of the Crusades, strictly follow- grades of that rite. It was formerly pracing, so far as possible, their principles and customs, tised under the title ''Babylonish Pass,'' has yielding obedience to their teachings, and accepting a Jewish and Persian legend, and supplelaneonditionally their Trinitarian doctrine. The ments the Eoyal Arch. It has no place in teachings are founded upon the Bible, and a Tempany Templar system and should not have lar must be a Christian; for, it is said, the practice of Christian virtues is their avowed purj^ose of affilia- been incorjDorated in one. tion. Non noiis, Dotnine," is their motto, and The Malta degree is out of place in any " In 7ioc signo vinces" is still their legend. The Ancient Knights secret organization. In Kilwinning Lodge, Dublin, the degree of Malta did not constitute a secret society was conferred on Eoyal Arch Masons under and Avere bitter rivals of Knights Templars. the title "High Knights Templars," whence In 1856 the Grand Encampment of Knights Templars of the United States declared that it went to Scotland, and, strangely, long before 1779, the earliest record of it in Dublin, the incorporation of the Order of Malta with to America, through an Irisli military Lodge. that of Knights Templars, and the making
of all the leaven of
tions,
^'

The

earliest

known record

of conferring this

Masonic Order anywhere is dated 1769, in St. Andrew's Chapter, Boston. During the

the one person the possessor of both degrees, was a violation of historic accuracy, and the

Malta de2:ree was discarded; but in 1862

it

FREEMASONRY
was restored,
to be

41

body produce an Order of Malta is evident from the fact that in 1720 the "History of plar. The earliest notice of a Malta degree or the Knights of Malta," by De Vertot, was ceremony in Scotland is that on ^two old published in Paris and that from 1495 to brass plates, said to have been in possession 1735 there were no less than thirty publicaof Stirling Ancient Lodge, but now lost. tions treating of the statutes, ordinances, One related to the first two degrees of Free- and ceremonies of the Hospitaller Order of masonry ; the other displayed Master's em- St. John of Malta. The dramas of the day blems on one side, and on the reverse, at the also characterized the ceremonies of the

communicated

after the

able this independent Scotch-Orange


to

candidate luid been created a Knight

Tem-

top, the

Red Cross

or ark

a series of concentric rings

at the bottom which suggested


;

Order,

and
of

"Knight

a rainbow, except for a keystone, indicating

at initiation

in Beaumont and Fletcher's Malta" (1646), the ceremonies and degradation are illustrated

an arch the sepulclire, Knight of Malta, and Knight Templar. The plates could scarcely have dated back farther than the middle of the eighteenth century, judging from reference to the Red Cross. Scotch Masonic Lodges became acquainted with Templar and Malta ceremonies through Irish brethren who belonged to regiments serving in Scotland about the close of the These degrees were then last century. known as "Black Masonry," and were propagated through charters issued by the High Knights Templars of Kilwinning Lodge, in Dublin. From Dublin Kilwinning arose the early encampments of L'c;

and exemplified. Masonic Knight Templary, tlien, is connected with the ancient Templars only in name, and tlirough its use of Temi)lar emblems and the names of ancient Grand Masters of the Templars, and of sites rendered historical by them as titles for Commanderies. The American Templar ceremonial is exclusively Masonic in method and arrangement, repi'esenting the second,
or Christian, in cratrast with the
first,

or

Jewish, dispensation.

It docs

not incorpo-

rate the ritual of the ancient or of English It is doubtful whether there was much of any ceremonial in American

Templars.

and subsequently tlie early Grand Encampment, which chartered Lodges in Scotland and England. The refusal of Baldwyn Encampment, England, to confer the Temple and Malta Orders on any but Royal Arch Masons, which rule obtains in
land,
like

Templar bodies
of

until in the second decade

the present century.


are

Early American
to have

Encampments
else

known

had

little

than distinctive uniforms, emblems, and an obligation. Bi\t in 1814 the Sovereign Grand Consistory of the ancient Scottish Rite of

Masonic bodies

to this day, has

been

declared to have given rise to the formation


of

York
more

city in

Ilerodem, established at Xew 1807 by Joseph Ccrneau, a

Encampments

in Ireland separate

from

spurious Scottish Rite body, whicli had no


to

the influence of the Masonic

Fraternity.

do with the independent Templar

These Encampments became identified with the Orange bodies early in this century, and subsequently extended their influence to America, through an "Imperial Parent, Grand Black Encampment" of Scotland, u "Grand Lodge," organized about 1844, claiming supreme jurisdiction over a religious and military Order of Malta. (See Non-Masonic Orders of Malta. That there was abundant material to en-

Encampments of that day than with the New York Chamber of Conjmerce, presumed to, and actually did, constitute a Grand Encampment of Knights Tem]>lars and Appendent Orders for tlie State of New York. It was the early Ccrneau Masons who. without authority, constituted a Grand

Encampment of Knights Temjdars, a body of which they officially knew nothing, and who
filclied

from four Scottish Rite

dcirrecs that

42

FREEMASONRY
of Canada, as well as EncampKnights Templars, but no Councils of Royal and Select Masters, unless the bodies in New Brunswick are active. There are a few Councils of Royal and Select Masters in the United Kingdom, where the Order of the Temple is also found, with a total membership of about 4,000, as comjjared with nearly 113,000 in the United States. Out of 768,511 Master Masons in the United States in 1897, 193,639, or 25 per cent., were Royal Arch Masons and of the latter, 43,478, 5.6 per cent, of the total number of Master Masons and 22.5 per cent, of the Royal Arch Masons, were Royal and Select Mas-

sive

which, with modifications, gives an impresand sacred character to the American

Dominion
of

ments

Temple and Malta ceremonials.

Grand

Encampment

of Pennsylvania

was formed

in 1794, twenty years before that in New York, and a second one in 1797, in which

Grand Chapter, as well as Grand Commaudery, recognizes a higher authority iu the Grand Lodge. The United States Grand Encampment, that of Massachusetts and Ehode Island, was formed in 1805. In
State the
1816, two years after the formation of the

Grand Encampment

of the State of

New

York, which was not even recognized by

Encampments
(five

in that State for five or six

years, a convention of eight

Encampments

England, and three from ters. The latter degrees are not generally New York State) was held at Hartford, made essential to gain admission to the Conn., and the Grand Encampment of Templar Order, which explains their comKnights Templars, U. S. A., was organized. paratively small membership. Six AmerThere were also in existence at that time ican Royal Arch Masons out of ten, however, six other Encampments, which did not take are Knights Temj^lars, and one Master

from

New

part in the organization of what finally be-

Mason out

of seven.

The

strongest

Grand

came the Supreme Ameftcan Templar body,


one each at Philadelphia, Pittsburg, New York, Wilmington, Del., Baltimore, and Prior to 1865 the growth of Charleston. the Order in America was slow, but since

Lodges numerically are those of


including about one-eighth of
;

New York,

all the MasMasons in the country Illinois, onefifteenth and Pennsylvania, one-twentieth in all, 23 per cent, of the members of the the Civil War the organization has been Fraternity in the United States and TerriNew York also reports the largest very popular, numbering forty-three Grand tories. Commanderies and 115,770 members in 1898, number of Royal Arch Masons, about oneout of about 120,000 in the United States, tenth of the grand total Pennsylvania being United Kingdom, and in Canada. Eighty second, with one-twelfth and Illinois third, The years ago there were probably not more with nearly as large a |)roportion. than 500 Knights Templars in the fourteen Cryptic Rite, including the degrees of Royal Encampments in existence iu the United and Select Masters, is most popular in States, when the Grand Encampment of Massachusetts, where one-eighth of all who have those degrees are to be found. Ohio the United States of America was formed. An accompanying table of total mem- ranks next, with one-tenth; Michigan third, bership of the American Eite, members with nearly as large a total, and New York The Grand Commandery of Lodges, Koyal Arch Chapters, Councils fourth in order. of Royal and Select Masters, and Command- of Massachusetts and Rhode Island reports eries of Knights Templars, is presented more than one-tenth of the total number of so as to show comparative statistics for Knights Templars in the United States, countries, provinces, etc. The American Pennsylvania about one-tenth, and New

ter

Rite

exists

in

its

entirety

only in the

York

a slightly smaller proportion, after

United

There are Royal Arch which rank Illinois and Ohio, with about Chapters on the American system in the one-twelfth and one-fifteenth, respectively.
States.

FREEMASONRY
TOTAL ACTIVE MEMBERSHIP OF THE AMERICAN RITE OF FREE AND ACCEPTED
MASONS.

43

Total Active Membership,


1897.

32
o o

as

Maine

5,89
S,9(i3
9,(i94

New

Hiimpsliire

3,335
2.t!50

Vermont
Massacluisctts Rlioile Island

3r,4G0 4,890
lfi,813

Connecticut

New York New Jersey


Pennsylvania

90,874
1(>,094
49,.')89

13,944 2,347 5,433 19,400 3,234


15,95'
59,

2,189 1,416 1,056 5.294 1,215 3.212 3,932

3,153 2,060 1,499


11,789
2,363 11,037 1,779 11,218
8,071
3,.526

Ancient, Accepted Scottuh Rite, 33. Mackey, in his " EncjclopEedia of Freemasonry (p. G97), says of the Rite " Although one of the youngest of the Masonic rites, having been esta])lished not earlier than the year 1801, it is at this day the most popular Supreme and most extensively diffused. Councils or governing bodies of the Rite are to be found in almost every civilized country of the world, and in many of them it is the only Masonic obedience." It was con''
:

structed at Charleston, S.

C,

in 1801, out of

413
1,815

the twenty-five degrees of the Rite of Per-

Delaware Ohio
Indiana
Illinois

2,077 40,839
~>8.430
.')-2,,-iU9

Missouri

Michigan Kansas Kentucky Colorado Wisconsin Minnesota

30,(i06 .38,608 19,.595

18.367 7 2i
16',4b8
l.-),428

Iowa Nebraska South Dakota North Dakota Montana

26,890
11,8;!6

13,373 6,479 10.414 6,681 12,077 5,057 2,826 2,456 1.077 4,615 7:046 3,042
1,.529

2,828 704 4,006


79'
7.52

9,518 4,237
5,.52;i

Chapter of Clermont, Paris, 1754, which were absorbed by the Emperors of the East and West, 1758, which body granted a patent in 1761 to Stephen Morin
fection,

3,234 2,020 1,667 2,902 2,448 4,343 1,769

to introduce the Rite of Perfection, twenty-

4,213
2..5;i,-)

2,()20

765 663
1,602 2,407 1,115

Wyoming
Maryland
Virginia West Virginia North Carolina South Carolina

1.023 7,310 12,052


.5,867
10,8:3!)

750 426 34S 319


1,132
1,481

818
591 3,266

Georgia
Florida

.5,72 17,31'
...

Alabanui
^Mississippi

Louisiana.

Texas
Tennessee.
.
.'

Arkansas
California

District of

Columbia.

Oregon Nevada Washington


Idaho...

4.393 11,113 9,110 5,363 30,567 17,082 13,204 5,118 18.208 4,874

675
1,007
1,:

951 347 89 133 t... '7i9 514 72


' "

Amerand progress of the fabrication of so-called higher Masonic degrees in France and elsewhere on the European Continent may be found in the outline of Masonic rites and the discussion of the origin of the Royal Arch and Knight Templar degrees. McClenachan declares *
five degrees, into
ica.

the West Indies and


rise

Reference to the

':i82

434
20'

441

that Morin's patent was probably the

first

1,005
.5,681

320
2,115
1,091

2,755
1.89'

2,192
.5.178

1,238

901 189

122 1,534 3.033

415 626
122 123

948
4,991 1,152

228
1,141

Masonic document of the kind ever issued. The best informed Masonic students admit Accordthat such a document was issued. ing to the existing copy, it empo^-ered Morin to confer the twenty-five degrees and appoint Inspectors of the Rite of Perfection. Morin was an Inspector and a Sovereign

Arizona Indian Territory New Mexico

569
2,908 894
7(i3

179 581

Utah

Oklahoma
+ Attached
to

1.085

Prince Mason (then the twenty-fifth,


963
1,562
112,891

now
In-

General

Grand Bodies
Totals, I'nited States
768,511
23,351 3,519 1.774 3.351

the thirty-second degree).

The

title

43,478

spector referred to an office and not a degree.

Ontario

Dorm 'I
None

The Morin patent was signed by


tives of

representa-

Ouebec New Brunswick

No etat.
None

Nova Scotia Prince Kdward Newfoundland


Manitoba
N.

Island.

515
2.413
1,272

East

the Council of Emperors of the and West and by officials of the

W.

Territory

British

Columbia

Totals, Canada.

36,195

6,538

1,548
79;

National Grand Lodge of France who were members of the Council of Emperors. In 1772 the Council of Emperors united with
a

England and Wales


Ireland

See

None

Another
Exhibitt

None

Scotland
Victoria, Australia.,

2.366 968 525 76

faction of the

Grand Lodge

of France,

and died a few months later. The Grand Lodge of France declared, in 1779, that it
* American

Grand Total

1,324,000

200,16;

44,275

118,374

Appendix

to Gould's History of Free-

t Attached to (inmil Encami)nient.

masonry,

vol. iv., p. 626.

"

44

FREEMASONRY
quet an Inspector in 1798. From the latter, Potet received the Rite in 1799, and Du
Potet

knew nothing of ''high degrees/' and in 1786 formed the French Rite by adding modifications of four borrowed Scottish Rite degrees to the three symbolic degrees, which The imporsystem it practises to this day.
tance of this,

Du

made Joseph Cerneau Deputy Inspec-

tor, 25, at

Baracoa (1806), "for the northern part of the Island of Cuba.'' In 1783
a third Grand Lodge of Perfection was estab-

which

is

except partisan chroniclers


to grind, or are in

admitted by all who have axes


lies in

lished at Charleston by Isaac

Da Costa, who

had been made Deputy Inspector by Hayes, fact tliat existing spurious Scottish Rite and in 1792 a fourth like body was formed In 1788 bodies in America claim authority for using at Baltimore by Henry Williams. the Rite of Perfection from the Grand Ori- a Council of Princes of Jerusalem (fifteenth Morin landed in San Do- and sixteenth degrees) was instituted at ent of France. mingo in 1762 or 1763, and in the same year Charleston by Joseph Myers, Deputy Inestablished a Council of Princes of the Royal spector with authority from Hayes, and Secret, 25, and created Henry Andrew in 1799 the first Grand Council of Princes Francken Deputy Inspector for North of the Royal Secret, 25, was formed at America, 25, who, in 1767, organized a Charleston by Hyman Long and others, Lodge of Perfection at Albany, N. Y., thus acting under authority of the chiefs of the introducing the Rite of Perfection on the Rite at Kingston, Jamaica, which action American Continent. This Lodge was dor- was approved by the latter in the same mant from 1774 until 1821, w4ien it was year. In 1797 Huet La Chelle, Du Potet, revived, and is still in existence, the oldest and others opened " La Trij^le Union high-grade Masonic organization in the Sovereign Chapter Rose Croix of H. R. The next body to confer Sublime or D. M., of Kilwinning, Scotland, at New world. This was not the Rose Croix Scottish degrees in this country was a Lodge York city.
need of dupes,
the
of Perfection at Philadelphia in 1781.

The

(eighteenth degree) of the Rite of Perfection,

work
of

of creating Inspectors, 25, of the Rite

which

is

now

the eighteenth degree of

Perfection, progressed

rapidly,

and by

the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite, but the second degree of the Royal Order of

the end of the century, in addition to nu-

American chiefs of Scotland. La Chelle came to New York the Rite, introduced here by Morin through from San Domingo and is not known to Francken, there were some who were merely have had any authority to establish a Kilpeddlers of degrees, who traveled about winning Rose Croix Chapter, except by the country making twenty-fifth degree virtue of some old ritual which may have Freemasons " at sight,"'' for a price. Ref- fallen into his hands.
merous representative
erence to

an accompanying

chart shows

that the filiation of powers over the Rite


of twenty-five degrees

coming from Morin,

took

two

courses in the Western world.

At Charleston, S. C, May 31, 1801, John Mitchell and Frederick Dalcho, as General, Inspectors Grand Sovereign opened a Supreme Council of the thirtythird

the one hand it descended through Francken to Hayes (1767-1770), with power covering North America, and thence to Spitzeras Deputy Inspector (1781), to Cohen (1781), Jacobs (1790), Long and Mitchell (in 1795), and to De Grasse Tilly in 179G. On the other, Prevost, who was created Deputy Inspector by Francken (1774), conferred the office on Du Plessis (1790), who made Hac-

On

degree

for

the

United

States

of

America.
five

The

Rite of Perfection, twenty-

degrees, was used as a basis for the new, the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite, The twentyeight degrees being added.

third degree in the old Rite,

Knight

of the

Sun, became tlie twenty-eighth in the new one the twenty-fourth. Knight Kadosch,
;

became the

thirtieth

and the twenty-fifth.

FREEMASONRY
Prince
the
of

45

the Royal

Secret,

became the
in

ton, established a

Lodge

of Perfection.

In

thirty-second.

The added
Avere

degrees (except
part
as

thirty-third)

selected

from existing material, and now rank


the twenty-third,
fifth,

February, 1802, Count A. F. A. De Grasse Tilly was granted a patent by tlie Supreme Council A. A. S. E., 33 (mother Council
of the world), to constitute, establish, direct,

twenty-fourth,

twentyof the

twenty-sixth, twenty-seventh, twenty-

and inspect Masonic bodies


spheres.

in

two hemiin San beyond

ninth,

and
of

thirty-first.

Members

Under
in 1802

this

he organized a SuS.

thirty-third aud last degree constitute the


chiefs

preme Council A. A.

E., 33,
live

the Eite.

The new Supreme Domingo


1804.

(which did not


Tilly

Council recognized Morin's patent and created Morin a Sovereign Grand Inspector,
33.
It also

1803), and another, the third, at Paris, in

The De Grasse

recognized the Grand Consti-

Council continues

to this

French Supreme day the governing

body of the A. A. S. E., 33, in France. warded to Morin after he left France, a copy It carried back to France the new rite of of which Morin gave Francken, and was left thirty-three degrees, founded on the old by the latter in Albany in 1767 and the Scottish (French) Eite of Perfection, twentySecret Constitutions of May 1, 1786, by five degrees, as something entirely new and which Frederick the Great was made the distinct, a Masonic Eite, as such, of which founder of the Aucient,Accepted Eite, 33, France had no previous knowledge. De supreme power descending from the Em- Grasse Tilly, on his arrival in Paris, found peror of Prussia to nine brethren of each Germain Hacquet, 25 (see chart of powers nation to act as Grand Commanders or Sov- of filiation), who had established the Scotereigns of Masonry. By these constitu- tish Eite of Herodem, an offshoot of the tions it was provided that there should be unauthorized Kilwinning Rose Croix of one Supreme Council, 33, for each state or Herodem, founded in New York by La kingdom in Europe, one for the West Indies, Chelle and others in 1797, a degree of the one also for the French West Indies, and Eoyal Order of Scotland, having no connectwo for (the United States of) North tion with the Eite of Perfection, and, of America. In this one finds the origin course, none with the A. A. S. E. of 1801. of the power in the rite possessed by active To the founding of the new French Supreme thirty-third degree Freemasons. The Secret Council, Hacquet and his Eose Croix proConstitutions have frequently been at- ject offered an obstacle and were promptly
;

tutions of 1762, supposed to have been for-

tributed to the Charleston creators of the

absorbed.

The

old

Eite

of

Perfection

and good reasons have to show that Frederick of heard of them, although Pike argument in favor of their
rite,

had been forgotten in France, and came Prussia never back with eight more degrees an absolute makes a strong stranger. The right of Mitchell, Dalcho, royal origin in and others to organize a new rite of thirtybeen adduced

Prussia.

AVhatever the facts,

the

legend

three degrees
tion.

may

hardly be called in ques-

continues as virile and yet as innocuous as


that which attributes so

The

old Eite of Perfection had no

much

to

our ancient

Grand Master, Solomon, King of Israel, in symbolic and Eoyal Arch degrees. By the end of 1801 the full number of Sovereign Grand Inspectors General was completed, but the new rite was not formally announced
to the

body, had been forgotten in Europe, and a new rite had been created aud carried to France, where the Grand Orient, governing a French system of seven degrees,

governing

world until 1803.

In 1801

a Council of Princes of Jerusalem, subordi-

nate to the

new Supreme Council

at Charles-

was the only Grand Body in existence. The Grand Orient, alarmed at the prestige of and the prospects for success of the new rite of thirty-three degrees, a system containing more degrees than had ever been constructed

46
before,
larly as

FREEMASONRY
made
it

overtures for harmony, particuutilized in its

under the authority of a Supreme Council


created by the Charleston mother

had

own

system,

Supreme

without warrant, a modification of the old Kite of Perfection Kose Croix degree, the eighteenth in both that and the A. A. S. R.
It certainly could

Council, and his

New York

Consistory was

afterwards
body.

made

regular by the Charleston

In 1807 Joseph Cerneaii, a French

have no claim to
oflBcially,

all

of
it

immigrant, who had received the twentyfive

the thirty-three degrees, seven of which

degrees of the Rite of Perfection from

and one, nothing about whatever. The result was a concordat, December 5, 1804, by which the Grand Orient was to have the right to confer the first eighteen degrees but in 1805 the Grand Orient broke the agreement
;

knew nothing about

Mathieu du Potet
1806,

Cuba, in at Baracoa, organized a " Grand Consistory of


of the

Sublime Princes
''Scottish

Royal Secret'" of the

utilized the

Cerneau Rose Croix Chapter '"'La Triple Union " of 1797, which was not a Scottish
Rite
of

Herodem."

Rite body, in building up his Consistory. and a long Reference to an accompanying chart, and to quarrel followed. In 1814, the Supi-eme Cerneau's patent, shows that he had only Council being weakened by the loss of many the twenty-five degrees of the Rite of Permembers (Bonapartists), the fection when he did this. For that matter, influential Grand Orient, by a coup d'etat, usurped he did not, at that time, claim to have the control of the thirty-three degrees, where- thirty-three degrees of the Ancient, Accepted upon the Supreme Council retaliated by Rite. In 1808 the Bideaud body issued to resuming control of all the degrees from J. G. Tardy a patent as Illustrious Commander, etc., under the statutes, etc., of the the fourth to the eighteenth, inclusive. Political conditions in France resulted in Supreme Tribunal of Sovereign Grand Inthe Supreme Council becoming dormant spectors General, which, while Bideaud was between 1814 and 1821, during which in- not authorized to do so, is important as showterval and subsequent thereto the Grand ing that the sublime degrees, as created by Orient claimed to control thirty-three de- the A. A. S. R. Supreme Council at Charlesgrees, until 1862, when peace was restored ton, were being conferred in New York and the Grand Orient retired to its proper city at that date. In 1812 Joseph Cerneau The action of the Grand Orient organized at New York a Supreme Council sphere. between 1814 and 1862 may be likened to of Sovereign Grand Inspectors General, an attemjit by the Grand Lodge of New 33, for the United States of America, its York State to confer the degrees controlled Territories and Dependencies, with himself by the Grand Chapter or by the Grand as Most Puissant Sovereign Grand ComCommaudery. mander, and from this assumption on his In 1806 Antoine Bideaud, 33, created part grew the dissension in Scottish Rite a Sovereign Grand Inspector General in Masonry in the United States which marked Even a tyro at the Supreme Council instituted by Count many succeeding years. De Grasse Tilly at San Domingo, in 1803 controversy might well ask where did the (but without authority to act on the man of the twenty-five degrees of the Rite of continent of North America), organized a Perfection get his title, " Sovereign Grand Sovereign Grand Consistory, S. P. E. S. Inspector General," and his ''thirty-third 32", at New York city, of which notice degi'ee" ? As a matter of fact, he assumed was sent to the mother Supreme Coun- them with the same effrontery that Caglicil at Charleston. Bideaud had no right ostro, after receiving the three symbolic to organize a Masonic body in New York, degrees, invented his "ancient" Egyptian but he was a thirty-third degree Mason Rite, with the sole difference that the Italian

and claimed the right degrees. This was

to control thirty-three

resisted,

FREEMASONRY
impostoi'

47
Consistory,

bad the decency

to create

some-

The Cerneau body, a Sovereign


at first produced its

thing instead of pretending to possess degrees which did not belong to him and which
he did not have. Ccrneaii dupes, and others,

ment

in 1812.

It

Supreme Council attachwas more active than the

have declared
Morin,'' who,
recalled by the

that

Cerneau received his

patent from one Martin,

"a

successor of

they allege, had his patent

Emperors

of the

East and
itself
is

West

in

176G.

Cerneau's patent

sufficient refutation,

but just what advanif

Motta body. It naturally ignored the Charleston Supreme body, and corresponded with the Grand Orient of France at a period when that body was most anxious to recognize a claimant of any Masonic rite, as it was engaged in an effort to disrupt the Su])reme Council of France and so monopolize the
la

De

tage would have been gained by Cerneau


it

latter's

system of thirty-three degrees.

The

Martin is unknown to the Masonic world other than to purveyors of Cerneau gold bricks. Cerneau received his patent as Inspector, 25, from Du Potet, and Du Potet his from Du Plcssis. Du Plcssis was made a thirty-third
so, is

had been

not clear.

body of 1814 is illustrated by its presuming to organize the Grand Encam])ment of Knights Templars of New York. Notwithstanding neither the Supreme Council, Northern Jurisdiction, or the Cerneau body made much effort
character of the Cerneau
to popularize the rite prior to 18C0, the latter

degree Freemason

b}"

Du

Grasse Tilly, in

1802, three years after he had created


fore

Du

skilfully advertised itself,

going so far as to
into accepting of-

Potet an Inspector, and fully four years bedid

deceive
fice,

De Witt Clinton
filling it

Du Potet gave Cerneau his patent. Why Du Plessis feel it necessary to get an?

a position which he held several years

other patent in order to secure the thirtythird degree of the A. A. S. R.


Plessis

Yet Du

was

the

Masonic grandfather of

Cerneau.
body,
J.

The chiefs of the Bideaud (New York) among others, were J. G. Tardy, J. J.

explains that Clinton "unwittingly complicated" with the spurious (Cerneau) "Consistory," and states how, but "took no active part "in it, and soon " withdrew from all connection with it." A chronological synopsis of the

without ever at a meeting.

or ever being present

Mackey

became

Gourgas, and J. B. Desdoity, to whom Bideaud gave the thirty-second degree ; yet they soon found they Avere not regular, because of Bideaud's lack of authority in

more important events Supreme Councils prior


follows
:

in

the careers of
is

to 1863

given as

New
A. A. S.

York, and were healed at Philadelphia, in 1807 and 1808, by Du Plessis, who received the thirty-third degree in 1802, from De Grasse Tilly. It was in 1813 that Emanuel De la Motta, a Sovereign Grand Inspector General of the mother Supreme Council,
A. A.
in
S. R., 33, at

R.U.

S.

A.

IRREGULAR SCOTTISH
RITE BODIES.

Southern Jmisdiction
1801.

Charleston, S. C, Supreme Council of the I'uited States, foriiK'd by Count A. F. A.

De (irasso Tilly, John Mitchell, K. I)elaho>ru(', and Frederick I)alcho Mitchell, Grand
J.
;

Charleston, S.

C,

arrived

Commander.
1802.

New York with full power from the mother Supreme Council, when, with the aid of those who had been connected with the Bideaud body, he organized the Supreme
Council, A. A. S. R., 33 (the second in the

Tableau that year showB nine Sovereign Grand Inspectors General.


1807.

Seven Sovereign Grand Inspectors General.


1811.

Northern Jurisdiction, with Daniel D. Tompkins, afterward Vice-President of the United States, in the
States), for the

United

Orleans. Grand Consistory P. K. S. ;2, oreanizc<l hy^ regular Supremo Council at

New

Grand

East.

Kingston, preceding Cerneau invasion of the South.

48
A. A. S. R.-U.
S.

FREEMASONRY
A.

IRREGULAR SCOTTISH
RITE BODIES.
1813-55.

A. A. S.

R.-U.
1811.

S.

A.

SCOTTISH RITE OF HERO-

Southei'n Jurisdiction.
.

Noi'thern Jurisdiction.

DEM U.

S.

A.

1813.

Commissioned Emanuel De Motia to organize a Supreme Council at New York


la

city for

Northern Jurisdiction,

wHicli

was done.
1822.

New Orleans. A Cerneau Scottish Kite body appc:ucd in 1813 (two years after the Kingston Rose Croix Chapter). After a fight of forty years (during
which, in 1830,

New

Orleans.

Chapter of

Rose Croix, established by authority from the Supreme


Council at Kingston.
1812.

Corresponded with Northern


Council through Supreme Bouse and Holbrook. Committee on Correepomlence.
1823-24.

became independent), in which it antagonized the Grand Lodge of Louisiana by assuming to warrant Lodges and confer the
"it

Supreme Council, Sovereign Grand Inspectors Gteneral, 33,


for United States of America, their Territories and Dependencies, formed two years before hearing from the Grand

sistory at

Frederick

Dalcho,

Grand

Commander.
1825.

symbolic degrees, it three united with the regular ConNew Orleans, formed by the Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction, at Charleston.
1813.

Orient of France, from which Cerneau, after 1814, claimed to have received the thirty-third
degree.

New York

city.

Bideaud

G. F. Yates created a Sovereign Grand Inspector General.


1827.

Acknowledged receipt of documents from Northern Supreme Council and partitioned


ITnited States
cil.

Consistory organized into the SuJurisdiction Northern premeCouncil Sovereign Grand 33, by auGeneral, Inspectors thority of Charleston Supreme Council.
1822.

between

itself

and Northern Supreme Coun1828-32.

Letter received from Committee on Correspondence of Southern Supreme Council by

D. D. Tompkins of Northern

Corresponded with Grand Orient of France until 1832.

Supreme Council.
1825.
J. J. J. Gourgas, actineMost PuissantSovereign GrandCommander.
1826.

(Dormant 1832

to 1844.)

1844.

Alexander McDonald, Grand

Commander.
18.%.

Northern Supreme Council

John Henry Honour, Grand Commander.


1856.

received oaths of fealty

Camague,
others.

Lawrence,
1827.

from and
1827.

Orleans. Poulhouze'e spurious Consistory formed


short-lived.
1859.

New

Southern Supreme Council acknowledged receipt of documents from Nortliern Supreme


Council.
1827.

Cerneau body became dormant and was allowed to die.

Albert

Pike,

Grand Com-

mander.
1892.

Southern Supreme Council recognized States north of Mason and Dixon line and cast of the Mississippi River ae territory of the Northern Supreme Council.
1'828.

James C. Batchelor, Grand Commander.


1893.

Philip

C.

Tucker,
1897.

Grand

Commander.

Northern Supreme Council

Thomas H. Commander.

Caswell,

Grand

received oath of fealty from G. P. Yates of Southern Supreme Council.

A. A. S. R.U. S. A. Northern Jurisdiction.


1806.

SCOTTISH RITE OF HERO-

DEMU.

S.

A.

Alliance between the Grand Orient of France and the Northern and Southern Supreme Councils.
1830.

Cerneau.

New York
sistory,

city.

Grand Con-

P.

R. S. (by A. Bi-

deaud of San Domingo Supreme Council, established by

Cerneau's name struck from the Tableau of the Grand Orient of France.
1832.

De Grasse Tilly of

the Charleston Supreme Council), afterwards regularized by Southern Supreme Council.


1807.
city. Joseph Cerneau opened a Sovereign Grand

New York

Revived by A. Laurent of France as United Supreme Council, etc., for the Western Hemisphere, and confederated with Supreme Council of Brazil. Elias Hicks, Most Puissant
Sovereign Grand Commander.
1836.

Consistory, P. R. S., 25, which claimed to revive a preexisting Rose Croix Chapter, Royal Order Scotland.
1844.
city. Council, Jerusalem, estabPrinces lished by Abraham Jacobs. New York city. Aurora Grata

Alleged confederation with

Supreme Council of France.


Northern Supreme Council revived ; J. J. J. Gourgas, Most Grand Sovereign Puissant Commander. (Met annually
thereafter.)

New York
of

Grand Lodge of

Perfection.

FREEMASONRY
U. S. A. A. A. 8. Northern Jurisdiction.
1845.

49
A. A. S. R. Northern A. A. S. H. Southern
.Masonic
Jurisfliction.

SCOTTISH RITE OF HERO-

DEM-U.

8.

A.

"Scottish CekneauRite, Rites" AMONG "Scottish." Negroes.

Masonic
Jurisdiction.

Northern Supreme Council


issued charter for a Council for England.

Supreme
1846.

New York. (Without auUnited Supreme Council dissolved went otit of existence, and divided funds among four out of the Ave remaining members. (Genuine Cerneau bodies
;

Charleston, S. C.
1801
(created).

thority.) 1806.

New

York.

(Authorized.)
1813.

terminate here.)
1860. 1850.

Gourgas resigned and

ap-

pointecf Giles Fonda Yates Most Puissant Sovereign Grand Commander.

C. Atvvood (an expelled Master Mason, who claimed to have receiveil thirty-third degree patent from a traveling Scottish Kite lecturer *) organized a Supreme Council, etc., for the United States of America, Territories, and Dependencies, without cooperation of any member of the Hicks
IT.

body.
1851.
1851.

G. F. Yates resigned and appointed E. A. Raymond Most Puissant Sovereign Grand Commander. The Grand East

Cross
self

J. L. of Southern Supreme Council, who soon found him-

Atwood succeeded by

o "
o

ME
1-1 *:;

misplaced and withdrew.


1852.

was removed from


city to Boston.

New York
Atwood succeeded Cross and changed the name to Supreme
Council, etc., for the Sovereign, Free, and Independent State of New York.
1854.
f5

oO

Name

again changed to Suetc.,

preme Council,
1857.

for

the

United States of America, Territories, and Dependencies.

Northern Supreme Council recognized the Supreme Council of V'enezuela.


1858.

Schism.
ISfiO.

for the fifth time, to Supreme Council, etc., for Western Hemisphere.
1860. 1860.

Name changed

186.3.

18.3.

o
Boston. Northern Supreme Council (owing to dissensions) declared closed sine die by
E. B. Hays, by appointment of Atwood, succeeds latter at his death.

=
Rcor^ani- =

i
Seymour's Spurious Cerneau Rite,
N.Y.City, 1879.

zatioii,
186*;.

3
=

Raymond, August
Boston.

25Jd.

Consolidation.
1867.

Raymond

(with

RobiuMon) rcorgiinizcs a Northern Siiprcnie Council.


1861.

Hopkins
Thomj)son Bodv,
NY'.,i881.

Rjiyinoiid deposed as Sovereign Grand Coniniander by the Provisional Supreme Conricil.


1862.

Van
Grand

Rensselaer, Lieutenant Commander, elected

Sovereign Grand Commander, vice Raymond deposed.


* William Sewall (Jardner, *}", Massachusetts, in appendix to the Proceedings of the Northern Jurisdiction, on spurious Supreme Councils in the Northern Jurisdiction, says that H. C. Atwood (as well as K. B. Folger) went to Trenton, jjiior to 1840, among a p.'irty, all of whom paid ten dollars and got the thirty third degree from Abraham .Jacobs (e.xpt'lled), who had spent nearly forty years peddling Scottish Hile degrees il-

They went to Trenton, because Jacobs had agreed with the Cerneau i>eoi)le for a price not to peddle his desrrees within sixty miles of New York. Atwood is said to have'- inherited " Jacobs' trunk of rituals. Here, then, is the probable origin of the Cerneau Kite of 18f)0-180)i, for Atwood started it as Its comniaiKler, without an officer of any preceding Cerneau body to legitimatize him.
legally.

Neuro

"Cekneai'"

"Scottish "Scoltisli Rite "Bodies. Rite" Bodies. (Irregular.) (Unauthorized.)

Anc. .\ccepted Scottish Rite. Northern Southern Jurisdictions, U. 8. A.

White and Negro Spurious


Bodies, recognized nowhere.

Regular Bodies, universally


recognized.

Stephek Mohim,

25,

Inspector for America, Rite 1 of Perfection, Paris, 1761.


1761 1761

Hekbt
1762

a.

Franceen,

25',

Jackmel, Jamaica, 1762.

Dep. Inspector (or

North America.

M. M. Hays, 25\ Boston, 1767-70, Dep. Ids. for North America.

Aug. Prevost, 25, Dep. Jamaica. 1774.

Ins.,

1774

1781

B. Spftzer, 25', Dep. for Georgia,


Pliila. I

1781.

'

M. Cohen, S5,'Phlla., 1781.

P.

Le

B. Du Plessis, 25, Dep. Ins PUlla. 1790.

Abr. Jacobs, 25, Jamaica," 1790.

1790

Hym.
John Mitchell,
25, Dep. for S. C. Charleston, 1795.

I.

Long, 25, Phila., 1795.

1796

A. F. A. 1798

De Grasse TiUy,

25,

Chwleston
1796

Germain Hacquet, 25
Phila.
1798.

1799

Mathieu Du Potet, 25
Port Republic, 1799.
Fred'k Dalcho, 33, S. Q. CharlestoB, 1801.
I.

1801

A. F. A.

De Grasse

Tilly. 33: S. G.

G. Charleston, 1801.
I.

" ^-

^"

^"^"''^Z'/Charleston, ^2,, 1801.


Le
B.

,^-

Antolne Bideaud. 33,


1808

S.

G.

I.

G.

P.

Du

Jamaica

1802,

PhUa.

Plessis, 38 S. G. 1 1802.

I.

G.

1803

n.
Joseph Cerneau,
1806
25,

O.

Tardt, GouRGAS, and

'Tardv, Gooroab, and Desdoity,

J. J. J.

Baracoa, July, 1806.


J. B.

NewYork
1806.

1807-8.

Desijoity, 32.
,

Deo. Insp.,
1808

New York

M.

L.

M. PeUotto,

82.

N.

Y., 1806.

1808

CHART SHOWING THE SUCCESSION OF AUTHORITY AMONG THE ORIGINAL. CHIEFS OF "SCOTTISH" FREEMASONRY IN THE UNITED STATES, AND AMONG THE EARLIER POSSESSORS OF THE 33d DEGREE, ANCIENT ACCEPTED SCOTTISH RITE.

FREEMASONRY
In 1862 there were four Supreme Councils in

51

the United States

that of the SouthRaymond


;

ern Jurisdiction, at Charleston, the originator of the rite of thirty-tiiree degrees;

Supreme Councils were then held ad vitam, and that at the union those oflBces were vacated and refilled, after which the incumbents were duly installed.
plete

No more comcould

the

Van

Rensselaer and the

rival

chiiming to be the Supreme Council for the Northern Jurisdiction and,


bodies, each

have been taken to emphasize the fact that the union Supreme Council of 1863 was a newly
regarded
its

or perfect action

fourth, the Cerneau

Supreme Council, "for formed body.


its

the United States of America,

Territories

Whether its members then authority as based on Cerneau's

and Dependencies."

The

first

three held

assumption of power in 1806, or on


at

De

la

fraternal relations with like bodies in

Eng- Motta's action

New York

in 1813, is

im-

material. By 1865 the Civil War had and South American coun- ended, and the rival Supreme Councils at tries. An active warfare was in progress the North the Van Rensselaer and the between the Van Rensselaer and Raymond united Cerneau-Raymond bodies were anxCouncils, with the former apparently the ious for recognition from the mother more successful in creating subordinate Supreme Council at Charleston if for no bodies and obtaining new members. On other reason, to secure regularity and exApril 2, 1862, the Cerneau body made clusive territorial jurisdiction. It was in overtures to the Raymond Supreme Coun- this year, too, that Harry J. Seymour was cil looking to union, though some chrondefeated for office in the Cerneau-Raymond iclers (Cerneau members) say the Raymond Supreme Council and afterward expelled In any event, for cause. people made the advances. Following this, two committees each side appointed a conference committee, were appointed, one to visit the Supreme which committees met and reported in favor Council at Charleston, witli a view to securof union, whereupon the committees were ing recognition, and the other to consider continued with full power to act. On the advisability of changing the name of the April 13, 1863, complete union was effected body from "for the United States of Amerunder the title by which the Cerneau body ica,*' etc., to Northern Jurisdiction, for it was had been known. Supreme Council for the realized that no overtures to the Supreme United States of America, etc., with E. Council, Southern Jurisdiction, would be reB. Hays, who had been at the head of ceived from a body claiming jurisdiction the Cerneau body, as the Grand Com- throughout the country. On October 22, mander of the union Council. The contin- 1865, the latter committee reported in favor uation of the name Supreme Council for of that change in name, and the rejjort was the United States of America, etc., with unanimously adopted. Hopkins Thompson, Hays at the head of the new Supreme who, in 1881, led a revolt over this very Council, should not be regarded as an evi- point, was present. That the action was dence that the Cerneau organization swal- taken in order to secure recognition from lowed the Raymond body. This is plainly the Southern Supreme Council, and thus shown by all the members of both the unit- pave the way to self-preservation, is shown ing bodies taking an oath of fealty, and all by the united Supreme Council at its next the subordinate organizations of the Cer- session receiving and welcoming a visineau and of the Raymond Councils sur- tor from the Southern Supreme Council. rendering their old charters to, and takLate in the same year the committee to ing out new charters from the new, or visit the Cluirleston Supreme Council reunited Supreme Council. More than this, ported that the latter declined to recognize

land, Scotland, Ireland, France, Belgium,


in Central

and

it

will be recalled that offices of

both the

Hays,

who

represented an illegal (the Cer-

52
iieau) boch',

FREEMASONRY
The reorganized CerneauRaymond Council thus honestly acquired
and deception. what
it

and that it did not regard the union of 18G3 as legal, because Eaymond (who had died in 18G4) had been illegally deposed as the Sovereign Grand Commander of the only legal Northern Supreme Council (by the Van Eensselaer body in 1861), and that Kobinson alone (Lieutenant Grand

the year before, the


diction,"
in
its

had unanimously resolved to secure title "Northern Jurisplace of

"United

States

of

America,

Territories and Dependencies,"


at

That the action

Boston in 1866 was not


in order or Ray-

Raymond body), now regarded by those present as a coiqj, Lieutenant Grand Commander of the united to merely revive the old Northern,the old

Commander of

Cerneau-Raymond body, could succeed Raymond. Hays thereupon resigned his office, and was succeeded by Robinson in the presence of a majority of all the officers and members of the Supreme Council. But this was not to suffice. The Van Rensselaer schism was in existence and prosperous, numbering among its officers several former ad vitam officials of the Raymond Supreme Council of 1860, the only Supreme Council the Southern body could recognize. Complete union

mond, Supreme Council and swallow the Cerneau-Raymond Council, is shown by the
fact that all the officers of the latter were reelected,

and that no oaths

of fealty were re-

quired.
to a

Overtures were then made looking

was therefore necessary, and


it,

to

accomplish

reorganization of the Cerneaunecessary.

Raymond body was


special

Robinson,

therefore, as successor of Raj^mond, called a

meeting of the old Raymond Council

at Boston,
officers of

December

11, 1860.

]\rostof the

Van

of the Rensselaer Council, and naturally de-

the latter were

members

clined to be present, where ajDon Robinson,


in strict accord with his prerogative, filled

union with the Van Rensselaer Supreme Committees to consider the project were appointed by each body, which met at Boston in 1867, just prior to the annual session of the Van Rensselaer Supreme Council. After prolonged conference, during which it seemed at times as if the outcome could only be failure, a treaty of union was agreed to, which Avas ratified by both Supreme Councils and approved by all the honorary members. After rescinding acts of expulsion based on former differences, the two Supreme Councils ratified each other's acts, and Josiah H. Drummond of Maine was elected Most Puissant Sovereign Grand
Council.

Commander of the (consolidated) Supreme among the twelve active Council, Northern Jurisdiction, by concurand ten honorary members of the united rent vote of the two bodies, which came toCerneau-Raymond Supreme Council who gether as one. The oath of fealty was then were present. Men of whom the Avorld at taken to the consolidated Supreme Council large has never heard, to whom self rather by eighty members present. The career of than fraternity has been a creed, who have this Sujireme Council ever since has been hankered for Masonic office and the oppor- one of harmony and prosperity, and it is
the vacancies from
tunity to peddle degrees and titles rather

to-day the largest body of the kind in the world, numbering more than 25,000 thirty-

than for the union and prosperity of the Craft, have held that this action of Robinson at Boston amounted merely to the dissolution of the

second degree members, about one-fifth of


the total

number of Scottish Rite Freemasons

Cerneau-Raymond Council.
it

in the world.

Among

Sovereign Princes of

As

a matter of fact,
it,

was not only a


to

disso-

the Royal Secret, 32, and Sovereign Grand


Inspectors General, 33, of the Northern and
Jurisdictions,

lution of

but a reorganization of the

Cerneau-Raymond body in order

make Southern

the latter regular under the statutes and


regulations, the recognition of honesty in
fraternity politics as opposed to assumption

Abierica, are to be found


illustrious of those

many

United States of of the most

fessions, the

who re2)resent the proarmy and navy, and financial.

FREEMASONRY
The two life. Supreme Councils who now divide between them the United States of America, its territories and dependencies, hold amicable relations with Supreme Councils of the A.
commercial, and industrial
British Freemasons.
fect,
is

53

The Grand Elect, Perand Sublime Mason, fourteenth degree,


of the East

eligible to receive the historical degrees,

Knight

of Jerusalem, tlie fifteenth

A.

S.

R. for England, Scotland, Ireland,

and Sword, and Prince and sixteenth, respectively, of the system. These relate to
the rebuilding of the second holy

France,

Belgium,

Spain,

Portugal,

Italy,

Temple

at

Argentine Republic, Uruguay, Peru, United States of Colombia, Chili, Central America, Cuba, Mexico, the Dominion of Canada, Egypt,
Greece,. Switzerland, Brazil,

Jerusalem under the authority of King From Cyrus and Darius his successor. them the modern framers of the ritual of
the degree of Companion of the Red Cross,
conferred in Commanderies of Knights

and Tunis.

Tem-

The degrees
Scottish Eite,

of

the

Ancient, Accepted
to the thirty-

plars,

have borrowed

freely.

from the fourth

second, inclusive, are conferred in the North-

Rite,

ern Masonic Jurisdiction, United States of

The philosophical degrees of the Scottish Knight of the East and West, and Knight of the Eagle and Pelican, or Rose
Croix, the seventeenth and eighteenth, are

America, in four bodies, and make of the Master Mason a Sublime Prince of the Royal Grand Lodges of Perfection, not Secret.

conferred in Chapters of Rose Croix and

"

relate to the building of the third

Temple,

Grand Lodges

in the ordinary sense of the

words, induct candidates into the mysteries


of eleven ineffable degrees, fourth to four-

'one not made with hands,' within the heart of man." In the Rose Croix degree,
Scottish Rite Freemasonry reaches its summit as a teacher of the sublime truths of Christianity, and it is from this degree, as well as others of the Rite, that the American Templar ritual draws some of its more The degrees from impressive ceremonials.

teenth, inclusive, of

which the

first

nine are

additions to and explanations and elaborations of the second section of the Master's

degree, so familiar to

all

Freemasons.

The

names of the thirty-three degrees of Scottish Rite Freemasonry are given in full in an accompanying chart of the English, Scottish, and American Rites. The thirteenth and
fourteenth degrees of the Scottish Rite, form-

the nineteenth to the thirty-second, inclusive, historical

and philosophical, are con-

ferred under the sanction of a Consistory or

ing the summit of work

jierformed in

Grand

Lodges of Perfection, correspond to, but are in no sense identical with, the English Royal Arch degree as worked in Royal Arch Chapters in the American Rite. They are founded historically on the royal arch of

Knights of Kadosch. and last degree of Ancient, Accepted Scottish Masonry is conferred upon thirty-second degree Freemasons who
Areopagus
of

The

thirty-third

have rendered long or distinguished service


to the

Craft.

It is executive in its func-

Enoch
babel,

instead of

tiie

royal arch of Zerubbasis of the English

being members of the Supreme Council, or governing body, of the


tion, recipients

which forms the

royal arch degree.

Many among

those com-

In the Southern Jurisdiction in the L^nited States there is an intermediate grade


Rite.

petent to judge favor the theory elsewhere


outlined,
tliat

the English royal arch of


earlier,

Zerubbabel was an outgrowth of the


continental royal arch of
1740, and that

Enoch

of about

much

to

Laurence Dermott had as do with the changes made as he


this ampli-

had with the introduction of

fication of the old Master's degree

among

between the thirty-second and thirty-third degrees, known as the Court of Honor, composed of (a) Masters of the Royal Secret, and (b) Inspectors General (thirty-third emeriti, and honorary. active, degree), There is also the rank of Knight of the Court of Honor, consisting of two grades, Knight Commander and Grand Cro^?s of

54

FREEMASONRY
spurious Supreme Councils
in

eral,

Honor. Sovereign Grand Inspectors Genby which title members of Supreme Councils of the Kite are known throughout
the world, are classed, practically, as active,
emeriti,

"A. A.

S.

R."

and honorary.

Only those

in the

first class

are permitted to be present at ex-

ecutive sessions of

Supreme Councils, and

''actives'' alone create thirty-third degree

United States, one of which is founded on fraud and the other on misrepresentation and personal pique. Neither numbers many adherents, and each is only nominally or locally active. Both claim the name, authority of, and regular descent from Cerneau, and the founders of both
the

members. The total number of active thirty-

know
tion.

that their claims are without founda-

members is very small, probably not exceeding one hundred in North America, and not exceeding three hundred in all
third degree

The

older calls itself

"the Supreme

Council of the thirty-third and last degree of A. A. S. R. Masonry, organized by T. I.

There are fewer than fifty in Northern Jurisdiction in the United States north of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi Rivers and still fewer in the remaining States. The list of emeriti Sovercountries.

Joseph Cerneau, M. P.
27, 1807, for the

S.

G.

C,

October

the

U.

S. A., its Territories

eign

Grand Inspectors General


title implies,

is

very short,

and, as the

includes the few

from the labors honors and advancing years. The custom of creating honorary Sovereign Grand Inspectors- General is one which has grown up within a generation, as a means of advancing and rewarding enthusiastic and active Sublime
retired
of the governing

" actives " who have

body

full of

and Dependencies." Its real founder was Harry J. Seymour, who was expelled from the Cerneau-Raymond Council in 1865, for reasons which should have caused his name to be struck from the list of acquaintances Seyof every self-respecting Master Mason. mour was once well-to-do, but afterward felt
compelled to follow in the footsteps of Abraham Jacobs, whose name is on the chart of
filiated powers accompanying this sketch.* Jacobs was a notorious peddler of degrees, who was expelled for illegal assumption of

Princes of the Royal Secret one step nearer


the goal which, of course,
all

Masonic authority.
into the Rite of

may

not reach.
of hon-

Seymour was initiated Memphis in Paris in 1862,


from the Scottish

There are nearly

six

hundred names

and

after being expelled

orary "thirty-thirds" in the Nortlieru and nearly four hundred in the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States.

Rite in the United States in 1865, started

out for himself by organizing alleged Scottish

full list of

Rite bodies in

New York

city,

into

which well-meaning Master Masons were and honorary Sovereign Grand Inspectors inducted, at so much apiece, by himself as General, 33, in the United States, January hierophant and purveyor of regalia and paraSome 1, 1898, may be found in an accompany- phernalia at cent-per-cent prices. ing Masonic Directory. Official position in who were duped by him, who have since a Supreme Council was formerly for life, joined regular Scottish Rite bodies, vouch and in nearly all, except the Northern Ju- for this statement, and for the fact that at risdiction, where the term is three years, it one time he used a condensation of the Rite
the
of residence of active

names and places

continues

so. But even in the Supreme Council of the Northern Jurisdiction fitness

of

Memphis

as his

"Cerneau Rite."

In

1879 he organized a Supreme Council, claiming to have been constituted the head of the

for the position insures continued reelection


at

every triennial meeting, so that where

nothing transpires to make a change desirable, the kingly prerogative of life tenure in
office is still in force.

member

Cerneau Rite by Hays, who died in 1874 of the consolidated Northern Su* See footnote to chronological events
in

the

career of the Southern,

Northern, and Cerneau

It

remains to be related that there are two

Supreme Councils.

"

FREEMASONRY
preme Council. So transparent a fraud would seem to have been apparent to an)^
sane
ber on

55

whom

the

consolidated

Northern

Supreme Council had refused


thirty-third degree, eleven in

to confer the
all.

man

over

Cagliostro found his victims,

twenty-one years of age. Jacobs his,


several of his

When
to

the full proceedings of the action of the

and Seymour evidently had


own.

Cerneau-Raymond Council leading up


1881,
all of

The descent is precipitant but manifest. Enough material in the way of new members has been secured by Peckham,
Gorgas, Hibbs, and other successors of Sey-

the consolidation of 1807 were published in

which had been known

at the
dis-

time, these

men

claimed to have just

when Robinson dissolved the mour to enable them to go through the mo- Cerneau-Raymond Council at Boston in tions of maintaining so-called Consistories 18G6, and reorganized it under the name in New York city and Jersey City, and, in Northern Jurisdiction, that they were therecovered that

former years, at a few other cities, and to report having held annual sessions of a Su-

preme Council.

The only

regret

is

that a

few hundred innocent and honest Master Masons have been taken advantage of and induced to part with their money and interest for nothing. This Seymour-Cerneau organization is repudiated by Supreme Councils throughout the world, and its adherents must place themselves in the category with

those

who

find themselves deceived becaiise

they failed to examine before buying.


large precentage of the

Grand Masters of Grand Lodges, Grand High Priests of Grand Chapters, Very Eminent Commanders of Grand Coramanderies of Knights Templars, Supreme Councils in the Avorld. Its total their asoociate officers, past and present, active membership does not number more and thousands of other members of the Craft than a few hundred. Many who have joined throughout the United States are members it have discovered they were deceived and
of Scottish Rite bodies holding obedience to

by absolved from their oaths of fealty to the union Council of 1863. They, therefore, with Hopkins Thompson as the alleged successor of Cerneau, et ah, claimed to revive the old Cerneau body, that which united with the Raymond Supreme Council in 1863. Their oaths of fealty to the consolidated Supreme Council of 1867 Avere repudiated because, as alleged, they were obtained by keeping them in ignorance of all the facts. Their antagonism to the Seymour organization is bitter. Naturally the Thompson party repiidiates the Southern as well as the Northern Supreme Councils, and continues an existence on jiaper, isolated from all other

have
at

retired.

Its
city,

centres of activity are

Supreme Councils, the Northern and Southern Jurisdictions. The uninformed Master Mason has only to inquire to
the legitimate
learn.

Columbus, 0., Washington, D. C, and ]\Iiuneapolis, Minn. In


Massachusetts, Pennsylvania,

New York

Ohio,

Iowa,

was the second existing "A. A. S. R. formed, fourteen years after the union of 18f)T. It was organized at New York by Hopkins Thompson (an emeritus thirtythird of the Northern Supreme Council, who was not ji resent at Boston when Robuntil 1881

Not

spurious Supreme Council

and Nebraska, Master Masons render themselves liable to suspension by joining Cerneau Scottish Rite bodies, and the Grand Lodge in Ohio has been sustained by the courts in its position on this point.

MASONIC DIRECTOllY.
Secretaries of Sovereign

inson

Cerneau-Raymond Council, but who was present at and swore


reorganized
the aided by a few

Grand Lodges of Free and Accepted Masons in the Uiiited States.


H. C. Armstrong. .Montgomery. .Tucson. G. J. Roskruge
.

fealty to the consolidated Council in 1867).

Alabama
Arizona Arkansas
California

honorary thirtythird, and one thirty-second degree mem-

He was

F.

Hempstead .Little Rock. Sau Francisco. G. Johnson


II.

. . .

. . . . . . . .

56
Colorado
(Connecticut

FREEMASONRY
Ed, C. Parraalee. Denver.
Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite.

John
B. F.

II.

Barlow.. Hartford.
. .

Delaware
District of

Bartram

Golum. W. R. Singleton

Wilmington. Washington.
Jacksonville.

Supreme Council, Sovereign Grand Inspectors General, 33, Southern Jurisdiction (south of Mason and Dixon line and west of the Mississippi River),
U.
S.

Florida

W.

P.

Webster

A.

Georgia Idaho
Illinois

.Macon. A. M. Wolihin. Theop.W. Randall .Boise City.


.

Thomas H. Caswell, 33, Most Puissant Sovereign Grand Commander, San Francisco, Cal.
Frederick Webber, Illustrious Grand Secretary General, 33, No. 433 North 3d Street, Washington, D. C.

J. H. C. Dill W. H. Smythe. Indiana Indian Territory. J. S. Murrow T. S. Parvin Iowa Albert K. Wilson. Kansas
. .

Bloomington.
Indianapolis.

Atoka.

Cedar Rapids. Topeka.


Louisville.

The complete list of active thirty-third degree members of the Supreme Council, Sovereign Grand
Inspectors General, Southern Jurisdiction, 1897,
as follows
:

Kentucky
Louisiana

H. B. Grant
R. Lambert

New
. .

is

Orleans.

Maine Maryland
Massachusetts
.
.

Michigan Minnesota
Mississippi

Stephen Berry J. H. Medairy S. D. Nickerson J. S. Conover


.

Portland.

Baltimore.
Boston.

Adams, Samuel E Carr, Erasmus T


Caswell,

Minneapolis, Minn.
Miles City, Mont.

Coldwater.
. .

Thomas

San Francisco,
Galveston, Tex.
St. Louis,

Cal.

T.
J. J.

Montgomery L. Power
D. Vincil

St.

Paul.

Jackson.
St. Louis.
.

Chamberlain, Austin B Collins, Martin Cortland, J. Wakefield


Fellows,

Mo.

Missouri

Asheville, N. C.

Montana
Nebraska

Cornelius Hedges

Helena.

John

Q.

A
L

New

Orleans, La.

W.
.

R.

Bowen
Noteware.
.

Omaha.
Carson City.

Fitzgerald, Adolphus

Nevada New Hampshire

C. N.

Fleming, Rufus
Foote,

Eureka, Nev. Fargo, N. D.

G. P. Cleaves.... Concord.

New Jersey New Mexico New York


North Carolina North Dakota
. . .

Redway Trenton. .Albuquerque. A. A. Keen


T. H. R. E.

Frank M Hayden, James R Henry, James A


Levin, Nathaniel

Evanston, Wyo.
Seattle,

Wash.
S. C.

Little Rock, Ark.

M. L. Ehlers. New York. John C. Drewry... .Raleigh.

Charleston,
Charleston,

F. J.
J.

Thompson
Hunt

Fargo.
Cincinnati.
Stillwater.

Ohio

H. Bromwell.

Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania.
.

J. S.

Rhode

Island.

James F. Robinson .Eugene City. William A. Sinn Philadelphia. E. Baker Providence.


.

South Carolina South Dakota. Tennessee Texas

C. Inglesby

Charleston.

Long, Odel S McLean, William A Mayer, John F Meredith, Gilmor Moore, George F Nun, Richard J Parvin, Theodore S Pierce, William F
Pratt, Irving

W. Va.

Jacksonville, Fla.

Richmond, Va. Baltimore, Md. Montgomery, Ala.


:

Savannah, Ga. .Cedar Rapids,


Oakland, Cal.
Portland, Ore.

la.

G. A. Pettigrew.

Flandreau.

W
D

Utah Vermont
Virginia

John B. Garrett. Nashville. John Watson .... Houston. C. Diehl Salt Lake City.

Richardson, James

Murfreesboro, Tenn.

Sherman, Buren
Teller,

Vinton,

la.

W.
G.

G. Reynolds.. Burlington.

Henry M Todd, Samuel M


Webber, Frederick

Central City, Colo.

New
is

Orleans, La.

W.
W.

Carrington Richmond.

Washington, D. C.
a complete
list

Washington West Virginia


Wisconsin

T. M.
. .

Reed
Laflin

Olympia.

The following
cil,

of

honorary

G.
J.

Atkinson.. Wheeling.

thirty-third degree

members

of the

Supreme Coun-

W.

Milwaukee.

A. A.

S. R.,

Southern Jurisdiction of the United


:

Wyoming

W.

L. Kuykendall Saratoga.

States, for 1897


Billing,

Alabama.

Fay McC

Montgomery.

General Grand Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, U. S. A., General Grand Secretary, Christopher G. Fox, Buffalo, N. Y. General Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters, U. S. A., General Grand Recorder, Henry W. Mordhurst, Fort Wayne, Ind. General Encampment of Knights Templars, U. S. A., Grand Recorder, Wm. H. Mayo, St.
Louis, Mo.

Arkansas. Kramer, Frederick Little Rock. Rosenbaum, Charles E Little Rock. Little Rock. Rickon, Frederick J. H
Arizona.

Freeman, Merrill P Kales, Martin Roskruge, George J

Tucson. Phoenix. Tucson.

FREEMASONRY
California.

57

Baldwin, Aaron

Hobe, George J

Goodman,

'J'heodore II

San Francisco. San Francisco.


Oakland. Oakland. Oakland. Eureka.
Marysville.

Woodman, Francis J
Goldsmith, Louis
Naylor, Allison, Jr
Ball,

Sherman, Edwin A Spaulding, Nathan Daugherty, Charles Buck, Silas M


Stone, Charles
Merritt,
Gillctt,

W
M

Robert

Willis,

Edward

M
Florida.

Washington. Washington. Washnigton. Washington. Washington. Washington.

James B
Charles

Petrie, Williain

M
A

Davies. William

Oakland. Oakland. Sacramento. San Francisco.

Perry, Robert J

Key West.
Georgia.

Blackshear, James

Wolihin,

Andrew

M
C

Savannah. Macon.
Atlanta.

Waterhouse, Columbus

De Clairmont, Ralph Rosenstock, Samuel Lloyd, Reuben H Levy, Samuel

San San San San San

Francisco.

Stockdell, Ileniy

Francisco.

Cavanaugh, John

Savannah.
Islands.

Francisco.
Francisco.
Francisco.

Hawaiian Williams, Henry II


West, Gideon

Honolulu.

Patterson, George

Oakland.

Crocker, Charles
Daniell,
Cline,

William

Henry A Rader, Frank Lee, James G. C Fletcher, LeRoy D


Pallon, Charles Davis, Jacob

San Francisco. Northampton, Mass. San F'rancisco. Los Angeles. San Francisco.
Oakland.

Lidian Territory.
Hill.

Robert

Muscogee.

Pierce, Charles L. J.

San Francisco.
Oakland.

Ashton, George Cotton, Aylett R Parker, George

W W

Iowa.
Lyons.

San Francisco,
Lyons.

Cal.

Wagner, Charles W. A. Lask, Harry J


Jones, Florin

San Francisco. San Francisco. San Francisco.


Pasadena.

Van

Morton, James Deventer, James

Cedar Rapids. Knoxville, Tenn.


Clinton.

Lamb, Artemus
Bever, George
Ellis,

W
F

Cedar Rapids.
Lyons.

Lyman A
Wilbur F

Fidlar,

Langdon, Frederick S
Colorado.
Greenleaf, Lawrence

Los Angeles.

Davenport.
Clinton.
Clinton.

Curtis, Charles

Woodward, Benjamin S
Denver.
Denver.
Blakely, Frederick

Parmalce. Edward C Pomeroy, Richard A

Gardiner, Silas Wright

Lyons. Lyons.
.Clinton.

New

Iberia, La.

Orahood, Harper Gove, Aaron


Hill,

Denver. Denver.

Frank B

Denver.
District of Columbia.

Ingle, Christopher

Washington.

Brown, Joseph T Bennett, Clement Singleton. William


^lacGrotty,
Somerville,

New

Roehelle, N. Y.

Wadleigh, Leroy B Watson, William P Macy, John C Percival, Frederick Park, William A Head, Albert Gage, Elbridge F Ray, Frank G
Parvin,

Vinton.

Des Moines. Des Moines. Des Moines. Des Moines. Cedar Rapids.
Vinton.

W
R

Edwin B

Washington. Washington. Washington.


Wa.shington.

Newton R

Cedar Rapids.
Council Bluffs.

Lacey,

Thomas B
Japan.

Schmid, John E. C

Thomas C

Langfelt, August
Keil, Oscar

Roome, William Oscar


Taylor, Joseph

Roose, William S

Loockerman, Thomas Lansburgh. James


Duiicanson, Charles Taylor, Leroy

Balloch, George

No yes,

Isaac

Washington. Washington. Washington. Washington. Georgetown. Washington. Washington. Washington. Washington. Washington.

Yokohama. Yokohama.
Kansas.

Sherman, Adrian C Freeling, Peter J


Miller,

Rossville.

Matthew

M
C

Carpenter, John

Langdon, Burton E Emmons, Alonzo C


Davis.

Evan

Leavenworth. Topcka. Leavenworth. Louisville, Ky. Leavenworth. Lawrence.

58
Kansas. Jeremiah S Smith, Jeremiah G Cunningham, Harper S
Cole,
Seilz,

FREEMASONRY

Continued.
Freeport,
111.

Wiesenfeld, David

Baltimore.
Baltimore.

Shryock,

Thomas

Wichita.

Larrabee, Henry

Baltimore.
3Iinnesota.

Oklahoma, Okl.
Salina.

John G. Liepman, Joseph H McDermott, Fcnton

Fort Scott. Fort Scott.


Wichita.

Hayden, Francis
Nash, Charles
Hotchkiss,

W W

Chicago,
St.

111.

Paul.

Jones, Charles

M
D

Edward

Minneapolis.
Minneapolis.

Goldberg, Edward Loomis, Henry C

Wichita.
Winfield.

Williams, James

M
H

Whitman, Ozias
Merrill, Giles

Red Wing.
St.

Norton, Jonathan
Passon, David
Hass, James

Topeka. Lawrence. Topeka.

Paul. Paul. Paul.

Thompson, Joseph Ferry, John C


Metcalf, George

Minneapolis.
St. St. St.

Kentucky.

Gray, Henry Freeman, Ambrose Reinecke, William


Hall,

Louisville.

Wright, William H. S Hugo, Trevanion

Paul.

Duluth.
Minneapolis.
St.

St. Louis,

Mo.

Schlener,

John

A
P

Louisville.

Jewett, William
Metcalf, Oscar

Paul.

Edwin G

West

Side, Cal.

Levering, Anthony Z

Minneapolis.
St. Paul.

Ryan, William
Levi Smith, Kilbourn Vogt, Charles C
Sloss,

Louisville. Louisville.

M
H
E E

Powell, Milton

Louisville.
Louisville.

Dobbin,

E Joseph L

Redwood

Falls.

Minneapolis.

Randall, John

Minneapolis.
Minneapolis.
Minneapolis.

Fisk, Charles
Miller,

H
T

Covington.
Covington.
Louisville.

Higbee, Albert

Robert

Kilvington, Samuel S

Dudley, Thomas U Johnson, Frank H

Richardson, William

Duluth.

Louisville.
3Iisso%iri.
.

Thomas, Warren La Rue.


Livezey,

.Maysville.

Thomas E

Covington.
Louisville.
Louisville.

Loker, William
Garrett,

N
D

St. Louis.

Wilson, David

H
R

Thomas E

St. Louis.

Johnson, William Kopmeier, George


Staton, James
Pruett,

Thacher, Stejjhen Parsons, John R

Kansas

City.

St. Louis.

Louisville.

John

W
G

Brooksville.

Frankfort.

Witt, Bernard

Ranshaw, Henry Robinson, Eugene

Henderson. Covington.

Maysville.

Louisiana.
Craig,

Morrow, Thomas R Altheimer, Benjamin Stowe, James G Harvey, William Stewart, Alphonse C Mayo, William H Nelson, Benjamin F

Kansas
Kansas Kansas

City.

St. Louis.

City.

City.

St. Louis. St. Louis.


St.

Louis.

Emmett

Isaacson,

DeW Alfred H
G

Brice, Albert

Soule, George

Hero, Andrew, Jr Kells, Charles Edmund

New New New New New

Orleans.
Orleans.
Orleans.

Mississipjii.

Speed, Frederic

Vicksburg.

Orleans.
Orleans.

Montana.
Hedges, Cornelius Major, John C
Guthrie,

Helena.

Helena.
Helena.
Butte.

Norwood. Abel J
Quayle, Mark Buck, Charles

Lambert, Richard Schneiden. Paul Pinckard, George J Collins, William J

Coulter,

Henry

Pratts, Jose

Alaban y

New Orleans. New Orleans. New Orleans. New Orleans. New Orleans. New Orleans. New Orleans. New Orleans.
.

Henry H Frank, Henry L Fowler, William C


Hitman, Cyrus

Genesee, Ida.

Livingston.

Lashorn, Millard

Livingston.

Nebraska.
Furnas, Robert

W
Jr

Brownsville.

George C Deuel, Harry P


Betts,

New

Jersey.

Maryland.
Jenkins, Benjamin
Cisco, Charles

Monell, John
Fulleys,

J.,

W .....

.Baltimore.

Baltimore.

James A Oaklev. Roland H

Omaha. Omaha. Red Cloud.


Lincoln.

FREEMASONRY
Nebraska.
Rawalt, Benjamin

59

Continued.
Dubois, Colo.

Young, Frank II. Duke, Elbert T Warren, Edwin F Cleburne, William


Sewell,

Broken Bow.

South Dakota. William Yankton. Huntington, Eugene Webster.


Blatt,

Omaha.
Nebraska City.

Cummingg, Daniel
Leroy, Lewis

Dead wood. Webster.


Deadwood.

Omaha.
Lincoln.

Maloney, Richard

Thomas

Huntington, Charles S Webster, Edward C Akin, Henry C France, George B


Mercer, John J

Omaha.
Hastings.

South Carolina.

Omaha.

John S Ficken, John F


Buist,

Charleston.
Charleston.

Mordecai,

Thomas

Charleston.
Charleston. Charleston.
Tennessee.

Sudborough, Thomas K Kenyon, William J. C Anderson, Leverett Wheeler, Daniel H Korty, Lewis H

Newell, Henry
Hall,

Omaha. Omaha. Omaha. Omaha. Omaha. Omaha. Omaha.


Lincoln.

Buist,

Samuel S

Pankin, Charles

Frank

M
McL
Nevada.

Eastman, Charles H Plumacher, Eugene H Wright, Pitkin C Sears, John McK Weller, John J
Texas.

Nashville.

Maracaibo, Venez'la.

Memphis. Memphis. Memphis.

Keene, Louis

Freemont.

Laughton, Charles
Buttlar, Charles J.

Carson City.

Harmon, Fletcher
Hall. David

R H

Torre, Giovanni

Oakland, Cal. Eureka. Eureka. Eureka.

Gunner, Rudolph Openheimer, Louis Morst, Charles S Ashby, Joseph K Martin, Sidney
Hotchkiss, Charles

Dallas.

Austin.
Corsicana.

Fort Worth. Fort Worth.

Dallas.

North Dakota.

Andrew H Paxton, Thomas C


Burke,

Duluth, Minn.
Minneapolis, Minn.

Hamilton, Benjamin Gelbough, Frederick Hunter, Craig

Galveston.

Galveston.

Temple.

Thompson, Frank J Twamley, James


Darrow, Edward McL Plumley, Horatio C
Kneisley, Charles
Guptil, Albert

Fargo.

United States Army.

Grand Forks.
Fargo.

Head, John

F
I

Bailey, Elisha

Washington, D. C. San Francisco, Cal.

Fargo.
Davenport,
la.

Wood, Marshall
Hall, Robert 11

Boise Barracks, Ida.

Schwellenbach, Ernest J

Jamestown.
Fargo.

B B

Dudley, Edgar S. Woodruff, Carle A


Page, Charles
Lee, James G.

Columbus, 0. Fort Warren, Mass.


Baltimore, Md.

Knowlton, Roswell
Nash, Francis
Scott, William

W
Oregon.

Fargo.

Fargo. Fargo.

C
M.

San Francisco,
Alliance, O.

Cal.

Rockefeller, Charles

Sanno, James M. J McConihe, Samuel


Portland.
Portland.

Ft. Snelling, Minn.


Ft.

Leavenw'th.Kan.

Dolph, Joseph
Foster,

N N

John R Shurtliff, Ferdinand


Pope, Seth
Roberts,

Virginia.

Olney, Uervey
Craighill,

A A

Tilbury, Can.

Portland.
Portland. Portland.

Edward

Lynchburg.
Norfolk.

Andrew
..

Greenwood, Frederick
Turner, Daniel J., Jr Nesbitt, Charles A

Portsmouth.

Malcolm, Philip S Whitehouse, Benjamin G. Withington, George E Clark, Louis G Tuthill, David S Mayer, Jacob Chance, George H. Hoyt, Henry L
cook, James

Portland.
.Portland.

Richmond.
Riciiniond.

Ryan, William
Carmichael, Hartley
Williams, Richard

Portland.

Riclimond.

Portland. Portland.
Portland.
Portland.

Montgomery, Ala.

Washirigton.
O'Brien, Rossell

Portland.

Reed.

Thomas

Portland.

Zeigler, Louis

Olympia. Olympia. Spokane.

60

FREEMASONRY
Washington.

Continued.
Spokane. Olympia,

Paige, Clinton

Bingham ton, N. Y.
Milwaukee, Wis.

Rundle, Nathan

B
J.

Gowey, John F Thompson, Walter


Hare, Edward
Snodgrass,

Palmer, Henry L Patterson, Robert


Perkins,

Philadelphia, Pa.

Tacoma.
Tacouia.

Marsh

Windsor, Vt.
Chicago,
111.

(Deputy.)

Pettibone,

Furman E

Spokane.

Quinby,
Shirrefs,

Amos Henry B

Lakeport, N. H.
Indianapolis, Ind.

West Virginia. Fairmount. Walker, Kephart D Wellsburg. Applegate, William J Wheeling. ^Morris, John Wheeling. Parrah, Thomas Wheeling. Birch, John Wheeling. McCahon, James

Ruckle, Nicholas
Siekels, Daniel

R Robert A

Elizabeth, N. J. ^Deputy.)

Brooklyn, N. Y.
Toledo, 0.

Smith, Barton Smith, John Corson Smith, Joseph


Stettinius,

Chicago,

111.

(Deputy.)

W
L

Indianapolis, Ind.
Cincinnati, 0.

John

Stevens, Walter

Chicago,

111.

Wyoming.
Knight, Jesse
Dickinson,

Tracy, David
Tyler, George

Detroit, Mich.

.Evanston.

Burlington, Vt.

Edward
Council,

Laramie.
Sovereign Grand Inspectors

Ward,

J.

H. Hobart

Brooklyn, N. Y.
Boston, Mass.

Supreme

Wells, Samuel

General, 33, Northern Jurisdiction (north of Mason and Dixon line and east of the Mississippi River):

Woodbury, Charles Levi.. Boston, Mass. (Deceased.)

The following

is

Henry L. Palmer, 33, Most Puissant Sovereign Grand Commander, Milwaukee, Wis. Clinton F. Paige, 33, Illustrious Grand Secretary General, Stewart Building,

thirty-third degree

a complete list of honorary members, Sovereign Grand In-

spectors General of the


R.,

Supreme Council A. A.

S.

New

Northern Jurisdiction of the United


:

States, for

York.

1898
of
is

The

list

of active thirty-third degree

members

3Iaine.

the Supi'eme Council, Northern Jui'isdietion,


follows:

as

Locke, Joseph Waite,

A H
B

Portland.

Almon C

Portland. Portland.

Arnold, Newton
Balding,

D D

Providence, R.
Cleveland, 0.

I.

Hinkley, Ruf us

Babcock, Brenton
Barnard, Gilbert Bentley, George

Thomas E

Milwaukee, Wis.
Chicago,
111.

W W
I

Marston, Arlington Berry, Stephen


Russell,

Bangor. Portland.
Portland.

John S

Brooklyn N. Y.
Pittsburgh, Pa. (Deputy.)
Saco, Me. Indianapolis, Ind.
Cincinnati, 0.

Chase, Albro

Portland.
Portland.
Portland.

Buchanan, James

Shaw, George
Mallet,

R
Jr

Burnham, Edward Caven, John Carson, Enoch T


Carter, Charles

Bearce, Samuel

F Edmund B.,

Preeport.

(Deputy.)

W
W
M
.

Farnham, Augustus
Penley, Albert

Bangor.

Codding, James H Cottrill, Charles Currier, George Daine, Charles C


Frazee,

Drummond, JosiahH. Andrew B

Norwich, Conn. (Deputy.) Towanda, Penn. Milwaukee, Wis. (Deputy.) Nashua, N. H. (Deputy.) Newburyport, Mass. .Portland, Me. Camden, N. J.
Pittsburg, Pa.

Auburn.
Lewiston. Portland.

Burnham, William J Merrill, Jonathan A Hastings, Moses M


Mason,

Wm.

Castein

Harris, Herbert

Guthrie, George

W
M

Day, Fessenden I Heath, Elbridge G


Hicks, Millard

Bangor. Bangor. East Machias Lewiston.

Auburn.
Portland.

.Dixon. 111. Hawley, James H. Higby, William R Bridgeport, Conn. Highly, Francis Philadelphia, Penn. New York City, N. Y. Homan, William Hutchinson, Charles C. ..Lowell, Mass. Ide, Charles E Syracuse, N. Y. (Deputy.) Kenyon, George H Providence,R.I. (Deputy.) King, INIarquis F Portland, Me. (Deputy.) Kinsman, David N Columbus, 0. Lawrence, Samuel C Boston, Mass. McCurdy, Hugh Corunna, Mich. (Deputy.) Metcalf, A. T Kalamazoo, j\Iich.
.

Raymond, George E Burr, Thomas

Portland.

Treby, Johnson

Bangor. Augusta.

Atherton, Henry
Fellows, Joseph

New B

Hampshire.
Nashua. Manchester. Concord. Concord. Nashua. Nashua.

Cleaves, George P Webster, John F Shattuck, Joseph Webster, Charles H

FREEMASONRY
New Hampshire, Contitmed.
Danforth, Charles
Perkins,

61

Henry P

Lowell.

Concord.

Smith, Henry

Sanders, Frank

B L Hunt, Nathan P

Nashua.
Concord. Manchester.
Greenland.
Lancaster.
Littleton.

Hatch, John Kent, Henry Hatch, Oscar C


Clark, John

Welch, Charles A Weld, Otis E Alger, William R Walbridge, Frederick Wright, Edwin

Boston. Boston.
Boston.

Boston.
Boston.

Waterman, Thomas
Smith, Albert

Boston.

Boston.
Springfield. Springfield.

H
N

Towle, Charles

Hayes, Charles C Marsh, Henry A


Fletcher,

Thomas

Wait, Albert S

Nashua. Concord. Manchester. Nashua. Alder Brook. Newport.


Vermont.
Burlington.

Spellman, Charles C
Spooner, Samuel

Stevens, William J

Carpenter, George S
Doolittle, Erastus

Kingston, N. H. Boston.
Boston.

Young, E. Bentley
Seward, Josiah L Lakin, John II Buckingham, George
Rowell, Benjamin

Boston.
Lowell. Boston.

Underwood, Levi
Paine, Milton

Windsor.

Worcester.
Boston. Boston.
Boston.
.

Heaton, Charles Johnson, IMiron


Hill,

W
G

Montpelier.

W
H
II

Burlington.

Savage, Mi not J

Howard F

Fisher, Frederick S

Nichols, Albro

Concord, N. H. Deposit, N. Y. St. Johnsbury.


Burlington. Burlington.
Barre.
St.

Work, Joseph

W
H
E
C

Richardson, Albert L. .....


Spring, Frederick

.Boston.

Boston. Boston.

Reynolds, Warren
Kinsley, George

Richards, Eugene
Allen, George

Lynn.
Lowell.
Pittsfield.

Jackson,

J.

Henry
Silas

Livingston, William
Cutting, Walter

Cummings,

W
W
A

Albans.
Albans.

Nichols, Sayles

Burlington.
St.

Hersey, Freeman
Stickney, Horace

Salem.
Boston. Boston.
Boston.

Hall Alfred A Wing, George Whitcomb, Charles Wright, Robert J

W
H H
P

Montpelier.

Young, James

Cavendish.

Collamore,'\Iohn

Newport.
Burlington.

Emmons, Theodore
Kendrick, Edmund Welch, Albion F

Boston.
Springfield.

Nicholson, Daniel

Calderwood, Charles

Thompson, Jesse E Whipple, John H


Taf t, Elihu B Babbitt, George

Johnsbury, Rutland. Manchester.


St.

Hubbard, Samuel F Temple, Thomas F


Fitts,

Danvers. Boston.
Boston.
Haverhill'.

Burlington.

Edward A

Bellows Falls.
Brattleboro.

Pollard, Arthur

Lowell.

Webster, Daniel P

Gates, Albert

Worcester.

Holton, Eugene
Massachusetts.

Boston.

Hathaway, Nicholas Lawrence, Daniel


Marshall,
P'reeland,

Fall River.

W
. .

Medford.
Boston.

Wyzeman

Kelsey, Albert
Hall,

H
H
A A

James John K

.North Cambridge. Boston.


Boston.

Thomas Plummer, j\Ioses C Holmes, Edwin B Nichols, Edward W. L


Kellough,

East Boston.
Boston. Boston. Boston.

Smith, William
Fo.x,

Worcester.

Lawrence, William B Bowen, Seranus Raymond, John M


Trefry, William D.

Medford. Roxbury.
Salem.

Richardson, William

Washington, D.
Boston.

Marblehead.
jMalden.

C.

James

A
L

Flanders,

Dana J
S.

Bush, John
Gleason,

Everett, Percival

Boston. Boston.

Boston.

Niekerson, Sereno
^Nfullikcn,

D
A

James

Boston.
Boston. Boston.

M
L

Henry

Carpenter, George

Rhodes. George H Thorndike, Samuel

Taunton. Cambridge.
Lowell.

Gould, Benjamin
Endicott,

Young,

Cliarles

Henry

Cambridge. Cambridgeport.

Rhode Island.
Chaffee, Albert II
Bra>-ton,

Chessman, William Guild, William H

Boston.
Boston.

Worcester, Mass.

James B

Newport.

62

FREEMASONRY
Rhode Island. Eugene D

Continued.
Providence.
Providence.
Providence.

Robinson, John C
Bartlett,

Binghamton.
Buffalo.

Burt,

John S

White, Stillman
Earle, Josepli

Cook, Abel G Ten Eyck, James


Gilbert, George
Telfair,

Syracuse.

Albany.

Underwood, William J
Shepley, George
Field,

Newport.
Providence. Providence.

New New New

York.

Jacob

R
L

Staten Island.

Henry C

Ehlers,

Edward M. L

York.

White, Hunter C Ilusband, William

Providence.

Sage, William

Boston, Mass.

Providence.
Providence. Providence.
Pi-ovidenee.

Paterson, William S

Eddy, Andrew

B
C

Macomb, John
Russ,

Newhall, Charles
Vincent, Walter

Peters, Augustus

Mumford, Charles C

Herman

H
B

Providence. Providence.
Providence.

Torrey, Charles

W
H

York. Lawrence, Kan. New York. Albany.


Staten Island.

Burnham, George H Studley, J. Edward

Eakins, Joseph

Heyzer, Charles

New New

York. York.

Connecticut.

Allen, Marciis

Wood, Austin C Steele, Samuel C


Clark, Charles

Syracuse.

Rochester.
Syracuse.

Bridgeport.

Parker, Henry

Gould, Baldwin, Nathan A Billings, Charles E


Skiff, Charles

L James L

Norwich.
Bridgeport.
Milford.

P
.*

Thacher, John Boyd


Berry,

Albany.

Hiram B.

Warwick,
Corning.

Fuller, George

Hartford.

W
A

W
.

Kirker, James.

Waldron, Frederick Seeley, William E Bronson, Samuel M Brewer, Arthur H


Bronson, Horatio
Quintard, Eli S

Danbury. Norwich. New Haven.


Bridgeport.

Pearce, Willard

Hartford.

Norwich.

Simmons, J. Edward Flagler, Benjamin Brodie, William A Millar, George Lawless, William J

New New

York. York.

Suspension Bridge.
Geneseo.

New New

York. York.

G D

New Haven. New Haven.


Bridgeport.

Becker, Albert, Jr
Ely, Foster

Syracuse.
Ridgefield, Conn.

Button, Alpheus
Sevin,

Nathan

Norwich.

Knowlton, Julius
Lines, H.

W
L

Trask. Wayland Ward, Charles S Richardson, John


Abel, Joseph

Brooklyn.

New

York.

Bridgeport.

Wales

Meriden.

Brooklyn. Brooklyn.
Syracuse.

Hubbard, Charles Root, John G

Norwich.
Hartford.
JMiddletown.

Parker, Richard

Lawrence, Frank

Woodward, Henry
Spencer, Frederick
Porter, George

Waterbury.
Bridgeport.

L
Jr

Plumb, Hiram Ferguson, James F Fitch, William E

H R

New

York.

Syracuse.

Central Valley.

Chapman,

Silas,

Hartford.

McGown, George
McDowell, Simon
Thrall,

Albany. Palmyra.
Rochester.

Lippitt, Costello

Norwich.

Edwin

A
F

Brooklyn.

Neiv York. Brooklyn. Jennings, Joseph J Brooklyn. Vining, Harrison S Brooklyn.

Woodhara, Alfred

Walker, Sidney McGee, James


Clarke, Geoi'ge

Brooklyn.

Brooklyn.

Rochester.

Hubbard, Warren C
Jones,

Rochester.

Cole, Otis

Rochester.

Edward F
Byron S

Binghamton.
LTtica.

Anderson, John R Gardner, George J

Le Roy.
Syracuse.
Syracuse.

Frisbie,

Seymour Loomis, Edwin Williams, John


Stone,

H
J

Benson, Frederic A MacLellan, Daniel M


Shafer,

Norwich.
Elmira.

John F Lombard, Thomas

Binghamton. York. Menands, Albany.

New

Fleming, Walter Northrup, Aaron


Sage, John

M
L

New New

York. York.

Lorillard, Pierre

Rochester. Troy.
Skaneateles.

Anthony, Jesse B Stiles, Benjamin F

Knowles, Edwin MacArthur, Arthur Story, William Affleck, Stephen D

York. York. Brooklyn.


.

New New

Troy.

New

Albany. York.

FREEMASONRY
New
Griffith,

63

York.

Continued.
York. York. York. Hoosick Falls.
Buffalo.

Potter,

Henry C

New York.
T
Brooklyn.

Charles

Moore, Thomas

Washburne, Pldwin
Lambert, J. Leavitt Day, David F Sherer, William
Tallcott,

New New New

Dunwell, Charles

Dumary, T. Henry Ward, Francis G


Prescott, Joel H., Jr

Albany.
Buffalo. Buffalo.

Brooklyn.
Syracuse.

Edwin

Hinc, Omar A Wright. Alfred G White, William II Van Buskirk, George


Ellison, Saruni

Canton.
Rochester.

Anderson, Jolin Johnson, David Sisson, William Hand, Walter M


Sickels, f 'harles

W
E
E

Binghamton. Binghamton. Binghamton. Binghamton. Brooklyn


Brooklyn.

Duncan, W^illiam J
Burdgc, Dwight Rowell, George A

Edward Brown, Elon G


Quantin,

11

York. .New York. New York. New York. Brooklyn. Brooklyn, Brooklyn.
Utica.

New

Luscomb,

(^harles II

Demarest, William Barker, George T


Eaton, Calvin

New

York.

Brooklyn.

W
E
T

Albany.
Buffalo.

Hayes, Charles
Newell, John
Curtis, Dexter

Ogdensburg,
Elmira.
Rochester,

Brooke,
Stowell,

Thomas
Henry

Duncan, John II Sutherland, William A Sturtevant, Stephen Y


Crawford, Charles

Syracuse.

Troy.

Rochester.

West Troy.

New
II

York.

Armatage, Charles
Goble, Frank

Neiv Jersey. Edwards, George B Jersey City, Goodwin, William Camden,

Albany.
Rochester.
Buffalo.

Bechtel, Charles

Trenton.
Jersey City.
Paterson.

Cushman, Charles Edwards, Amos S


Williams, Robert
Stewart, John

W
D

Syracuse.

Albany.

Wood, George
Matthews, William J Stiles, Robert B
Hall,

New York. New York. New York.


Lansingburg.
Syracuse.

Higginbotham, Marcus Scott, George Borden, Jerome B Steed, George

Somerset, Mass,

Mills,

Edward

Camden. Camden.
Paterson.

Winfield, Albert
Tice, Josiah

D
F

New

Brunswick.

Edwin C

Stone, Horace

G
C

Smith, Stephen Watson, Thomas

Jersey City. Jersey City.

Syracuse.

Griimniond, Fred

Binghamton.
Corning.
Corning.
Buffalo.

Moore, Joseph
Kendall,
Brothers,

Roome, Henry C Schoder, Anthony


Stevens, Albert

Jersey City.

Woodbridge.
Pater.son.

Hugh
John

H
L

C
II

Noble, Horace

A
C

Durand, James
Tillou,

Railway.
Elizabeth.
Jerst>y City,

Edward L

Buffalo. Buffalo.
Buffalo.

Brown, George L
Titus, Robert

Tilden, Thonuis

Pennsylvania.
Vallerchamj), John

Newell, George
Vick, Frank
Sisson,

A
F

^Medina.

Harrisburg.

Rochester.

Knapp, Christian F
Lutz, Isaac
Ilunn,

Bloomsburg.
Harrisburg.

Beatty, Claudius

John

W
K

Stevens, T. Jefferson Sloan, Augustus

Weaver, William II Smith, J. Hungerford Hatch, Edward

York. York. Brooklyn. Brooklyn. Albany.


Rochester,
Buffalo.

New New

Townsend S

Earley. Charles

R R

York. Ridgeway.
Ilarri.'^burg.

New

Egle, William II

Muckle, Mark
Patton,
Sartain,

Phihulelphia,

Thomas
John

Philadelphia,
Philadoljjhia.

Woodward, Clarence L Delavan, Erastus C


Pritchard,

Syracuse.

Binghamton,
Corning.
Troy.
Gloversville.

Wyckoff, Edward S Hopkins, James H


Barber, James S
Carroll, De\Vitt

Philadelphia.

Washington. D. C.
Philadelphia.
Pittsburg.

Truman S
II

Lloyd, James

McKee, J. Frank Bingham, Charles D Greenwood, Marvin I

Garrigues, Franklin

Philadelphia.
Pittsburg.
Pittsburg.

Watertown. Newark.

Balmain, George P Eichbaum, Joseph

64
Pennsylvania.
Meredith, William
Clapp, John Lyte, Eliphalct
Francis, Charles

FREEMASONRY

Continued.
Kittanning.
Tidioute.
Millersville.

Buechner, William L Gordon, Theodore P

Youngstown. Columbus.
Cincinnati. Cincinnati.
Garretsville.

Ncmbach, Andrew
Sage, George
Fasold, Eli
Caldwell, John

R
D

K
N

Philadelphia.

Whitaker, Ej)hraim S

Ciimniiugs. Charles 11

Maiieh Chunk.
Pha^iixville.

Dayton.
.

Vosburgh Lyte, Joshna L Wray, Samuel


Shaffer,

Lancaster.
Philadelphia.

W
H

........ Patton, Alexander G Houck, Martin J


Chambei'lin, John

.Cincinnati.

Columbus. Dayton.
Tiflfin.

Henderson, Matthias
Slack, William

New

Castle.

W
McK
C

Allegheny City.
Pittsburg.

Kerr, James, Jr

Yance, Alexander F., Jr Hauipson, Robert Y


Halladay, Calvin

Urbana.
Salem.

Arnold, John

Aurora,
Erie.

111.

Lima.
Athens.
Cincinnati.

Eaby, Joel S

Lancaster.

Kennedy, Samuel B Thompson, Caleb C Smith, Lee S Himrod, William


Gary, Charles

Goodspeed, Josei^h Melish, William B


Briggs,

Warren.
Pittsburg.
Erie.

Sam

Cleveland.

Wiiiegarner, David

Shepard, William
Cutler,

Newark. Columbus.
Cleveland.

Philadelphia.

Dunnell, Henry
Bates, Stockton

N
. .

Scranton.
.Philadelphia.

Page,

Eben J Edward D

Cleveland.
Cincinnati.

Kendrick, George W., Jr.


Sprenkel, Peter

Gwyini, Robert
Pelton, Frederick

Philadelphia.

Cleveland. Cleveland.

K
Y

Harrisburg.
Pittsburg.

Akers, W^illiam J

Holmes, Americus

Kuhn, Henry
Steffe,

H
B

Somerset.

McClees, Levi

Germantown,

Phila.

King, David L Brown, Huntington Moore, Sidney

Akron.
Mansfield.

Delaware.

Christian

Reading.
Philadelphia.
Pittsburg.

Linden, Robert J Wigley, Arthur B


Stevenson, David

Dunn, Joseph H Harris, John T

Columbus. Columbus.

Pittsburg.
Erie.

Barkey, Peter
Hall,

Amos H

Philadelphia.
Philadeljihia.

Chamberlain, Charles Matthews, Edward Armstrong, Clax'ence E Stipp, Joseph A

.Dayton.

Cambridge.
Toledo.
Toledo.
Cincinnati. Cincinnati.

Smith, Edgar
Gilroy,

Flach, Charles

H H

John J McKillip, Harvey


Williams,
J.

Philadelphia.

Michie, William

A
C

Bloomsburg.
Philadelphia.

Tucker, Charles

Cleveland.

H A

Williams, Samuel S

Newark.
Gallon.
Springfield.

Johnstone, George

Allegheny.
Philadelphia.

Hays, Otho
Jeffers,

Sweigard, Isaac

Parsons, John

W
B

Boone, Edwin

Reading.

Allen

Brown, James
Hale, George

W
Ohio.

Pittsburg.

Senter, Orestes A.
Collins,

Dayton. Columbus.
Cincinnati.

Bishop, Alfred S

Pittsburg.

^ames

Philadelphia.

Morse, Fred A Lyttle, La Fayette


Bell,

Cleveland.
Toledo.

John

N
R

Dayton.
Cincinnati.

Cunningham, William M.
Hoadley, George

.Newark.
Cincinnati.

Goodale, Levi C

Lemmon, Reuben C
Avery, William Rickley, R. R
Spencer, Joseph

Toledo.
Cincinnati.

Woodward, Charles A Keifer, Charles C Totten, James S Ross, ApoUos M


Huston, Alexander Urner, Henry C Mack, Max J
Parsons,
Sickels,
J.

Cleveland.

Urbana. Lebanon.
Cincinnati.

Columbus.

Toledo.
Cincinnati.

Walden, John
Morris,

Cincinnati.

Cincinnati. Cincinnati.

Melish,

Evan Thomas J

Girrard.
Cincinnati.

Andrews, Allen
Baldwin, Charles
Burdick, Leander
Sands, Stephen

Cleveland.

Hamilton. Mt. Yernon.


Toledo.
Cincinnati.

Sheldon

Cleveland.

Collins, Charles

Akron.

FREEMASONRY
Ohio.
Perkins,

65
Detroit.

Continued.
Akron.
Cincinnati.
Cincinnati.

Davis,

James E
James

Henry

Livingstone, William, Jr
Findlater,

Detroit.
Detroit.

Cotterall, Joseph W., Jr Buchwalter, ^Morris L

Smith, George
Fifield,

Butler, Charles

R
P

Cleveland.

Eugene

Muskegon. Bay City.


Detroit.
Detroit.

Squire,

Andrew

Cleveland.

May worm, Joseph


Fowle, George Meigs, Alfred E

Mcintosh, Henry
Blyth. John

Cleveland.

Bucyrus.

Detroit.

Boone, William

Schaus, Lewis
Pfafflin,

Lima. Newark.
Cincinnati.

Herman C

Henry Duncan, John Gerow, John A


Bolton,

Alj)ena.

Calumet.
Detroit.

Horace A Jackson, Mervin Stull. John M Bromwell, Jacob


Irvin,

Dayton.
Toledo.

Williams,
Stiles,

Thomas

Jackson.
JacLson.
Crystal Falls.

Albert

Warren.

H
A

Cincinnati.

McGee, Michael B. Munroe, Thomas


Winsor, Lou

Keiniedy, Henry
Sater,

Canton.

Muskegon. Reed City.

John E McCune, John P


King,

Edmund B
J.

Columbus. Columbus. Sandusky.


Dayton.
Springfield.

Montross, Richard
Jewott, William

Galien.

Adrian.

Heald, Charles
Harris, L.

Johnston,

Russell

Grand Rapids. Grand Rapids.


Kalamazoo.
Indiana.

Bushnell, Asa S

Osborn, James

Lewis, Charles
Bates, William

T L

Toledo.

Dayton.
Cincinnati.

Kite,

Thomas

Hess, .James
Fish, George

W
H
F

Indianapolis.

Michigan.

Bonsall. Nathaniel

New York City. New Albany.


Plymouth.
Indianapolis.

Brown, Charles H Tabor, Augustus B Kellogg, Andrew J


Bury, Richard
Hills, Charles

Grand Rapids.
Detroit.
Detroit.

Thayer, Henry
Davis, Gilbert

W
W W

Rice, Martin II

Indianapolis.
Evansville.
Indianapolis.

A
T

Adrian.

Muskegon.

Douglas, Sydney Smith, Jacob


Vail,

Shipman. Ozias Fox, Perrin V Haxton, Benjamin

W
F

Detroit.

Walter

Michigan City.
Vincennes.

Grand Rapids.
Detroit. Detroit.

Thorp, Darius D Baxter, William H Striker, Daniel Henderson, Frank Pomeroy, Charles H Swart out, Richard D
Corljss,

Detroit.

Hastings.

Kalannizoo. East Saginaw.

Grand Rapids.
Detroit.
Detroit.
. .

John

John L Robie William J Brown. Austin II Elliott, Byron K Brush, John T Adams, Henry C McKinley, Thomas S Sweet, Samuel B Smythe, William H
Butler,
,

Richmond.
Indianapolis.
Indianapolis.
Indianajwlis.

Indianapolis.

Terre Haute.
Fort Wayne.
Indianapolis.

Coulson, Nicholas Chamberlain, M. Howard.


Gilbert,

Cole, Cyrill

Seymour.
Terre Haute.

.Detroit.

Cruft,

John

W
L

Frank

Bay City.

Smith, Joseph
Safford,

Richmond.
Craflou, Pa.
Indianapolis.

Moore, Francis Sharp, Edgar M


Steerc, Joseph

Marquette.

James B

Bay

City.

Maybury. William C

Detroit.

Sault Ste. Marie.


P^ast

Emery, Temple

Tawas.

Dunham, William Ellis, Waring H


Conover, Jefferson H Hudson, William G
Wlieeler,

Grand Rapids.
Detroit.

Coldwater.

Ludington.
Manistee.
Detroit.

Palmer,

Edward D Thomas

Hawkins, Roscoc Nye, Mortimer Long, Thomas B Moycr, Henry A Manning, Jo.seph A Pixley, George Geake, William Farrington, George Leighty, Jacob D

La

Porte.

Terre Haute.

Kendall ville.
^lichigan City.

Fort Wayne.

Fort Wayne. Terre Haute.


St. Joe.

Ilutciiinson, Charles

Indianapolis.

Stephenson, Samuel
5

Menominee.

White, Ahira

Indianapolis.

66 Jndiana.

FREEMASONRY

CotiHnued.
Indianapolis.

McKee, William J Niblack, Mason J


Butler, ]\Ijih]on

Vincennes.
Indianapolis.
Lafayette.
Indianapolis.

McLellan, Archibald Works, Charles A Walshe, Robert J Lorimer, George C


Wiltse,

Chicago.

Rockford.
Chicago.
Boston, Mass.

Lancaster, Ilcnrv
Sciiinidt,

Hiram L

Chicago.

W.

II

Spring, Sylvester

Peoria.

Sloan, George

White

Indianapolis.

Smith, Robert

Chicago.

Ilulliday, J. 11

Indianapolis.

Nathan Kelley James P Bass, John H Wood, Julius C Nichols, Alonzo S Gillett, Simeon P
Elliott,

Terre Haute.

Coulter,

Aurora.

Fort Wayne. Muncie.


JMiehigan City.
Evansville.

May, John A Norton, John E Blocki, William F Knight, William M McFatrich, James B
Drake, Chester

Chicago, Chicago.
Chicago.
Chicago.

Chicago.

Chicago. Chicago.
Centralia.

Mordhurst,
Marshall,

II.

W.

Fort Wayne.

Thomas

R
Illinois.

Columbia City.

Turner, William Ranney, Ilenry C


Gale, William

Chicago. Chicago. Chicago.


Boston, Mass.
Freeport.

Goddard, Leroy A Rhodes, Henry L Rankin, Charles S Roundy, Frank C Ramsay, Frederic Montgomery, Isaac S

Chicago.
Chicago.
Chicago.

Rockford.
Peoria.

Haskins, Seth

Patrick, Benjamin F Munn, Loyal L Myers, Eugene B

Wisconsin.

Chicago.
Chicago.

Egan, Wiley Purdy, Warren


Pond, Ilenry
Cregier,

M
G
11

Youngs, Melvin L Palmer, William T Greeley, Samuel F


Wilkinson, Francis

Milwaukee. Milwaukee.
Chicago,
111.

Chicago. Chicago.
Chicago. Chicago.

Getty, Ilenry PI

DeWitt C

Skinkle, Jacob
O'Neil,

Chicago.
Chicago. Chicago.

John Brad well, James B Clarke, Haswell C McLaren, John


Russell, Alfred

Kankakee.
Chicago.

Chicago.

Church, James

Chicago.
Peoria.

Milwaukee. Haisler, Michael J Milwaukee. Suessmilch, Frederick L. von Delavan. Rogers, Charles D Milwaukee. Milwaukee. Bracken, Henry S Milwaukee. Benzenberg, George H Brazier, William H Milwaukee. Libbey, Oliver Green Bay. Milwaukee. Crosby, Francis J Milwaukee. Watrous, Jerome A Milwaukee. Cole, Sidney H
Stark,

Bannister, James

Edwards J

Johnson, Robert
Pace,

M
E

Chicago.
Chicago.
Ashley.

Jackson, E. Gilbert
Fifield, Samuel S Bingham, Joel Storke, Eugene F Laflin, John Golley, Frank B

Poulson, W^illiam

Edward Coleman

Pearson, John Mills


Miller,

Godfrey.
Chicago.

Hitchcock, Charles Freeman. .Peoria.

De Laskie
.

Milwaukee. Oshkosh. Ashland. Milwaukee. Milwaukee. .Milwaukee. Milwaukee.

Milligan, William

Lee Roy. .Ottawa.


Chicago. Chicago.
Peoria.

Miller, Daniel

McL

Oconomowoc.
Milwaukee. Milwaukee. Milwaukee.
Milwaidcee.

Moulton, George Bliss, Eliakim R Edwards, Isaac C Warvelle, George Herrick. Charles Gunther, Charles F MuUiner, Edward S Stoskopf, Michael

Caufy, Luther
Daniels,

L Norman C T

Leuzarder, Benjamin

Chicago.

Chicago.
Chicago.

Wagner, Adolph H Hooley, George T


Wechselberg, Julius
Littlejohn,

Milwaiikee.

Quincy.
Freeport.
Centralia.

Newton Whitney, LeRoy C


Kenny, William

Stoker,
Spies,

Eugene Le C

P
C.

Milwaukee. Whitewater. Milwaukee. Milwaukee.

Joseph Curtis, George McLean, Alexander

Chicago.
Peoria.

Non-resident Honorary Ilembers.

Wadsworth, James
Filmer, William
Stevens,

Macomb.
Chicago.

San Francisco, Cal. San Francisco, CaL


Southport, N. C.

Luce, Frank

Enoch B

FREEMASONRY" AMONG THE CHINESE


Millard, Alden

67
S. R., U. S. A.,

Iiulej)oiulcnce,

Mo.

Supreme Council, A. A.

North-

Wheeler, Frederick

A D

Baltimore, Md.

ivestern Jurisdiction (Xegro).

M.

F. Fields,

Grand

Brown, Edward H Richardson, Lloyd

Grass Valley, Cal. Hot Springs, Ark.

Commander,

Concordant Orders.
Provincial Grand Order of Scotland. Lodge, U. S. A., W. Oscar Roome, Washington,

Mo. Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine of North and South America (Xegro). AdJohn G. Jones, dress Robert Hncless, Xew York
St. Louis,
;

Royal

Chicago.

" Freemasonry " among the Chinese. is no such thing as Freema.sonry Knights of the Red Cross of Constantine. Chapamong the Chinese, although there are ChiSecretary General, Chas. K. ter General, U. S. A. nese secret societies in the United States Francis, 425 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. Knights of the Red Cross of Rome and Constan- which have been described as organizations Registrar General, of Chinese " Freemasons." This is because tine, Sovereign Grand Council Thomas Leahy, Rochester, N. Y. the word Freemasonry has been associated so many years in the minds of the public with Non-Masonic Bodies to which only Freemasons a particular secret society that it has become ARE Eligible.
D. C.

There

Thomas J. of Rosicrucians. Shryock, Treasurer General, Baltimore, Md. Ancient Arabic Order of Xohles of the Mystic
Modern
Socieli/

almost generic or descriptive of all things !Mauy terms and regarded as similar.
j^hrases

have crept out of Masonic Lodges


of

Shrine.

Imperial Recorder, Benj.

W.

Rowell, 28

and into the American vernacular,

which
illusitself
is

School Street, Boston, ^lass. Sovereign College Allied Manonic Degrees. Grand Recorder General, Charles A. Xesbitt,Richmond, Va.

"On
"

the square,"

"A

square

man," and

On

the level," are perhaps the best

Mystic Order, Veiled Projihets of the KncJianted Realm. Grand Secretary, Sydney D. Smith, Hamilton, X. Y. Independent International Order of Owls. Address John M. Sears, Xashville, Tenn.

trations.

Even the word Freemasonry

has acquired a specialized meaning, and

frequentl}^ iised to characterize associations

private

Irregular or Spurious Masonic Bodies.


Various Grand and Subordinate Lodges, "Ancient and Honorable Order, Free and Accepted Masons''; Grand and Subordinate Chapters of Royal Arch Masons, and Grand and Subordinate (See FreeEncampments of Knights Templars. masonry among Xegroes.) Enoch R. Spaulding, Most Worshipful Grand Master, Oswego, X. Y. Edward B. Irving, Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the State of Xew York, and John H. Deyo, Grand Secretary, Albany. Supreme Council, A. A. S. R.. ^^ Northern Jurisdiction," U. S. A. (Xegro).
S. C. Scottron,

which are secret, members of which have means of making themselves known to each other, and to explain why those engaged in a similar work or profession, or
those having like training or sympathetic

temperaments, are so quick to recognize the Thus it is that whether referring to a fact. Russian, Hottentot, or Arabic secret society

one finds the average essayist describing them There are Masonic Lodges in as Masonic. China, but they Avork under foreign warrants, and are made up almost exclusively, of others than Chinese. if not entirely, Grand There is, however, a shadow of an excuse
for referring to

Commander, Brooklyn, X. Y. Supreme Council, A. A. S. R., for the U. S. A., its Territories and Dependencies (Seymour-Cerneau Charles II. Benson, Grand Commander, rite).
Jersey City, X. J.

some Chinese

secret societies

as Chinese "Freemasonry," owing to the striking resemblances between their rites

Supreme Council, A. A. S. R., U. S. A., its TerJ. ritories and Dependencies (Thompson-Cerneau). G. Barker, Grand Secretary General, 63 Bleeeker
Street,

Xew

and ceremonies and those of the FreemaThis is the more remarkable when sons. one recalls the antiquity of both, and the lack of opportunity for either to have patterned after the other.
pire
is

York.

Supreme Council, A. A. S. R., U. S. A., Southern Thornton A. and Western Jurisdiction (Xegro). Jackson, Grand Commander. Washington, D. C.

The Chinese Emsecret societies,

honeycombed with
all

nearlv

of

which are revolutionarv. hav-

"

"

68

FREEMASONRY " AMONG THE CHINESE


offspring, the Kolao Hui, meet in remote and heavily wooded mountain districts. On

asty, a

iag in view the downfall of the T'sing dynmost efficient incentive to secrecy.

There

is

generally present a nominally ben-

evolent or philanthropic object, veiling the


political

ends of these organizations, the

names

of the best

known

of

which are the

members proceed to the first, or Heaven-screen Pass, next to the Earth-net, and thence to the Sun-moon Pass, after which they cross a bridge to the Hall of
entering,
Fidelity

Hung

League, from which came the Kolao

and Loyalty,

to the shrines of the

on the right a council room "Do Nothing" Association; the Society of and on the left a court. This account, conHeaven, Earth, and Man the Triad Soci- densed from the one "discovered by Proety ; the Yellow Caps and the Golden Lily fessor Schlegel," adds that from the court Hui, which are arranged in military form extends a long road, between mountain and under four flags, whence they have come to sea, leading to the Moss Pass, or Pavilion of be known as the "White Flags, " "Black the Black River, and thirteen Chinese miles farther is the Golden Sparrow frontier, Flags," "' Eed Flags," and " Yellow Flags. It was due to the action of the Hung League where there are four buildings, the last of that the Mongol dynasty of Genjhiz Khan which is " the Lodge," or " city of willows.
Hui, the White Lily, or White Lotns, or
five ancestors,
;

present or

was overthrown, and without British aid the Manchu dynasty would probably

Recruits, sometimes secured under threats


to kill for refusal to join the society, are

have come to an end at the time of the strugThe most powerful of these societies is the Kolao Hui, which
gle with the T'ai Pings.

received into the

Lodge by "passing the

bridge," marching under an arch, or bridge,

formed by the swords of the brethren, when numbers more than 1,000,000 members, as they are addressed as to the objects of the related by a writer in " Blackwood's Maga- association and listen to a lengthy catechism, zine " in 1896, recruited from the dregs of in Avhich they are supposed to make the reThe questions and answers are sigsociety, " time expired soldiers," unem- plies.
ployed
thieves.

laboring

people, and professional This accounts for the disorder,


it

nificant of the aims of the society,

abound-

ing in acrostics and Kabbalistic meanings

crime, and violence for which

is

noted.

which are employed

as

passwords.

The

The
rites

sect

known

as the Vegetarians,

with

candidates wash their faces, and after being


divested of their ordinary clothing are attired in

and
is

ceremonies

"some
ity,"

early

showing traces of and debased form of ChristianIt

white robes.

Then

follows a long

responsible for several massacres of

Christian missionaries.

was after being

hard jsressed by the authorities that it endeavored to sink its identity under the name The Kolao of the "Do-Nothing Party."

Hui

ingly inscribes

governed by three chiefs, and mockthe words "Faith" and " Eighteousness " upon its banners. The religious claims of this and like societies have induced the Chinese Government from time to time to proscribe as dangerous organizations all religious sects (except Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism), notably the Roman Catholics, by the Emperor Yung Ch'eng. Lodges of the Hung League and of its
is

which are invoked Father Heaven, Mother Earth, the three lights sun, moon, and stars the gods, saints, genii, Buddhas, and all the star jirinces, to keep and perform which the candidates bind themselves under a series of "dire pains and penalThe oath is confirmed by drinking ties." tea and wine from a bowl in which are mixed a few drops of blood pricked from The the middle fingers of the candidates. oath is registered by burning a copy of it
oath, in

that the

testimony.

smoke may ascend to the gods as Each newly-made member re-

ceives a cryptographical certificate of


bershiiJ

mem-

which is held to possess talismanic powers, and is enjoined to " learn the secret

"FREEMASONRY" AMONG THE CHINESE


signs

69

and mystic sayings by whicli the breth-

an

ren are

known

to one another

how to

intelligible idea of secret societies of Chi-

lift

nese in the United States,

members

of

which

his tea-ciip witli tliree fingers, place his feet


in certain positions, liow to

wind his hand-

have been refen-ed to as Chinese Freemasons. An Associated Press despatch from

kerchief round the end of his umbrella, to

San Francisco, November


part as follows

14, 1894, read in

ask and answer mysterious catch questions,


to

speak of the government as " the enof

emy,"
of

government

soldiers as

" a storm,"

The

police have obtained evidence of the exis-

tence of a lawless and strongly organized band of

men

as

objects in

"horses," and of other common Hui slang. The Triad Society

Chinese Highbinders, said to be 3,000 in number, in this city. This society is not only an organization of blackmailers, murderers,

be the oldest existing Chinese secret organization, dating " back to 16G4
claims to

and

thieved,

but

also has for its purpose the overthrow of the present

A.D,"

It Avas the cause of the T'ai

Ping

Tartar dynasty.

rebellion,

which was suppressed by Li

Hung
Its

Chang aided by ''Chinese" Gordon.

This suggests what is well known to many on the Pacific Coast, that whether the Highbinders, as they are called, are

secret ceremonies are similar to those of the

members

of

League, and among the penalties for treason, one is to have the ears lopped ofE,

Hung

the Kolao

Hui

or of the Triad Societies or

and another the head cut off. Members always halt on entering a house, and then
proceed with the
their heels apart.
left foot first.

not^ they are gradtiates of the same school, and many members of the Triad Society and Kolao Hui are evidently associated with the

When

sit-

Highbinders.

The

different associations of

and it is said They also recognize one that some reputable Chinese belong to them another by the way they place their tea- in order to secure protection from " levies " cups on the table and the manner in which by rival Tongs. Business disputes and jealting, they place their toes together

and spread

the latter are knoAvn as Tongs,

they hitch their trousers.

Their motto
Societies

is,

ousy lead to fights between Tongs, in which


(never nickeled) 44-caliber Colt revolvers, carried in the

"Drive out the Tartar."

The "Black- blued


in

wood"

article

on

"Secret

ample

sleeves of the

China," reprinted in the St. Louis "Globe Democrat," .January 17, 1897, says further:
It is impossible to study these rites and ceremonies without recognizing a strong resembhmce between them and some of those of the Freemasons. " The Bridge of Swords " is common to both societies, as are also the formation of Lodges and their Orientation. In both societies the members are entitled brothers, and confirm their oatli with During the ceremony of affiliation the blood. recruits, both among the Freemasons and the Hung League, attire themselves in white garments and go through the form of purification l)y washing. In the Cliinese Lodges the triangle is a favorite emblem, and lamj)s, steelyards, and scales form part of the

Highbinders, are the almost universal weapons.

Evidence

to convict those guilty of


is

assaults or

murder

not easy to obtain, and

when
is

cases do get into the courts, perjury

the rule and difficult to detect.

One

of

the bitterest feuds between these organizations in

San Francisco

is

that which has

raged for years between the Suey Sing

Tong

ordinary paraphernalia.
also, that the three

It is

curious to observe,
find their

and the Suey on Tong, causing much bloodshed and work for the courts. The Spokane " Peview," August 21, 1897, outlined an imitation ceremony at a Chinese " Masonic " Lodge in that city, at which it was said four white men. Freemasons, were present by invitation.

degrees of Apprentice, Fellow-

The
re-

craft,

and Master among the Freemasons

ceremonies seemed to parallel those of the

analogues in the Sworn-Brother, Adopted-Brother, and Righteous L^ncle in use in the Chinese Society.

Hung League and Kolao


ferred to, from which
it

Hui, already

nuiy be inferred the

AVith the foregoing outline of secret societies in

China,

it

becomes

easier to arrive at

Spokane Chinese Lodge represents a benevolent branch of the Kolao Hui, of which less

70
is

FREEMASONRY AMONG THE MORMONS


heard in China than of the main or revoAvere
J. H. C. Dill, Bloomington, IlliGrand Secretary of the Grand Lodge, "the immortal F. and A. M., of Illinois, May 11, 1806
nois,
:

From

hitionary and violent section of that society.

There

references to

three," circumambulation, four stations at Avhich questions were asked and answers
returned, kneeling on crossed swords, tea-

" drinking, burning incense, a " traditional


;

season of refreshment, and signs in which the head and hands Avere used yet the " occidental
tect

unable to deanything that resembled the Masonry

Masons present

Avere

have no way of telling whether or not any of Mormon apostles were members of the (Masonic) Lodge at Nauvoo. Possibly returns were made, but this office has twice been burned out, and all records destroyed. I can give the names and addresses of two old and prominent Masons who know a great deal about the Mormon troubles, and were present when " old Joe Smith " was killed: B. Mendenhall, Dallas City, and William R. HamilI

the twelve

with Avhich they Avere familiar."

ton, Carthage,

111.

Chinese secret

societies

in

the

United

From Theodore
A. M., of Iowa,
I

S. Parvin,

Cedar Kapids,

States originated in one or

more

of those in

Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge, F. and

China, and are found at almost all American centres of jiopulation Avliere there are a
considerable

May

6,

1896

personally and officially

know that

the Mormons

number of Chinese, more par- had a (Masonic) Lodge at Nauvoo (Illinois) in the ticularly at NcAV York city and at cities on years 1840 to the period they removed from Illinois Bluffs, la., and later to Salt ISTearly all of them east to Kanesville, Council the Pacific Coast. Lake City. I know, further, that the Grand Lodge of the Eocky Mountains are rather more of Illinois revoked the charter of that Lodge, but reputable than the Tongs of San Francisco, the Mormons refused to surrender it and but none of them is Masonic in character or took it with them, and worked a Lodge in Salt Lake
.
.

has any affiliation Avith Masonic bodies.

Freemasonry among the Mormons. Whether the so-called t\velve Mormon apostles

City under that charter.

know very
. .
.

well, also,

were Freemasons or not, and Avhether

or not the

Mormon

hierarchy utilized vari-

from attendance upon the Grand Lodge, that it was that Jodistinctly stated then and there seph Smith was a Mason and I have no doubt, also, that Brigham Young was a member of the same Lodge.
;

ous Masonic forms in their endowment house ceremonies at Salt Lake City, have long been matters of controversy; but the
following extracts from replies to letters of inquiry on these points leave them no longer

From William
of

E. Hamilton, Past Master


?fo. 20, F.

Hancock Lodge,
111.,

and A. M.,

Carthage,

May

26, 1896

At the time of the Mormon era in this county I was but a boy of eleven years, and could only know in doubt. about Masonry by hearing men that I knew to be From Christopher Diehl, Salt Lake City, Masons talk about it. It was claimed and believed Utah, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge, that spurious Masons were being made (at Nauvoo) about 1842-43, and the Lodge at this place ceased to A. F. and A. M., of Utah, May 4, 1896: Brother Edmunds work on that account. I have been a resident of this city since 186G, and and, in resided at Nauvoo for many years, In the early days a Mason since 1868. the only man in this county who much was said about Mormon Masonry in Nauvoo all probability, is was a Mason at that time. (Illinois), but whether there was any such thing, I
. . .

...

could never

tell.

We never

our Lodges in those days. reported that there were Masons


especially B.

...

admitted Mormons to It was, however,

among them, more


alive,

Young, who was then

and
.

I
.

From G. Edmunds, attorney, Carthage, 111., to W. K. Hamilton of the same place. May 25, 1896
:

doubt not he was, but could not swear to it. In the early days I made a study of Mormon Masonry, and wrote considerably about it in my reports on correspondence, because the stand of Utah Masons was attacked for refusing Mormons admission
.

The charter of what was known as the Mormon Masonic Lodge at Nauvoo had been surrendered before I settled there, in 1845, and I only know
from hearsay and talk with members of that Lodge, who afterwards became members of Reclamation Lodge, No. 54 (where I was made a Mason), who

to our Lodges.

FREEMASONRY AMONG THE MORMONS


were members of the original Lodge at Nauvoo. Dr. John P. Weld, a member of Reclamation Lodge, No. 54, informed me he was a member of the original Nauvoo Lodge; also that Brigham Young, Orson Hyde, Wilford WoodruiT, IleberC. Kimball, William Smith, and others of the " Twelve Apostles" were members of the said original (Nauvoo) Masonic Lodge, as were also Joseph the There prophet, and Iliram Smitli, his brother. was no connection between the IMormon endowment house and Masonry, none whatever.

71

who were

notorious outlaws or

men

of bail ri'puto.

After expulsion the Nauvoo Lodge continued to hold clandestine meetings and to make innovations
to

conform

to

Mormon

teachings.

Temple was mostly finished at Nauvoo, the Mormons instituted the endowment ceremonies and incorporated tlierein some of tlie ritual of Ma.sonry. To-day, at Salt Lake City, they still practise these eeremoi\ies. A visitor to the old town of Nauvoo to-day will see a three-story brick buildthe

When

ing standing on the low land adjoining the sliores


of the Mississippi River.
It is a quaint, old-style

Contributed by B. Mendenbiill, Dallas City, 111. (District Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge, F. and A. M., of Illinois
in 1882),
In

May

23, 1896

the year 1839-40 the

Mormons began

to

gather at Nauvoo, 111., and build a town, or, as they religiously called it, the "Zion." Among so
large a there were
ally

number of men from all parts of the world, some who were Freemasons, and naturthey conceived the idea of instituting a Lodge
Accordingly,
they
applied
to

end to the east and a representation of the All-Seeing Eye painted on the eastern end. The foundation, which is of stone, is graced by a square-cut stone, aljout three feet each way, in which is cut, in well-defined letters, the words, "Grand Master A, Helm, 1843." It is at the northeast corner. The building, which was always known as the Masonic Temple, is fast falling
building, with the gable
into ruins.

The witnesses

to the

"Book

of

Mormon"

were

at

Nauvoo.

the

three, to-wit: P. P. Pratt, or Parley P.

Pratt, an
;

Grand Master for a dispensation to form and work a Lodge to be called Nauvoo Lodge, U. D. On the
loth day of October, 1841, a petition signed by
the requisite

Englishman by birth, and one of the twelve Martin Harris, afterwards an apostate, and Oliver Cowdery, also one of the twelve. The first or
original twelve

was sent

to

number of Master Masons Grand Master A. Jonas,

at

Nauvoo

apostles of the

Mormon Church
president
;

residing at

were: Sidney Rigden,

who was

Parley

Quincy, for a dispensation to form a lodge at Nauvoo. The prayer of the petition was granted, and the dispensation was duly forwarded to the
brethren.

They went

to

work during the winter


Li Octo-

following and did a wholesale business.


ber, 1842,
tee

when

the

Grand Lodge met, the Commit-

on Lodges, U. D., reported that the returns of as required, but it was thought best to continue the dispensation for another year. At the meeting of the Grand Lodge in 1843, the committee found many complaints against the Lodge at Nauvoo. As no returns had been sent in, the Grand Master sent a committee to Nauvoo to examine into the work and doings of the Lodge. Grand Master Meradith Helm wascr officio chairman of the committee, and went to Nauvcxj and attempted to make an investigation, but both he and the committee were treated with contempt by the Mormons and their leaders. Why the Grand Master did not take the dispensation away with him has been a matter of comment ever since. When the Grand Lodge met in October, 1844, it ex-

Nauvoo Lodge were not

John Taylor, William Richards, Amasa Lyman, Daniel Wells, Hyrum Smith, William Smitli, Brigham Young, Orson Pratt, and David A. Wyman. After the death of Joe Smith the propiu't, Brigham Young succeeded as Chief of the Twelve Apostles, and finally to the head of the Churcli at Salt Lake City. All the leaders of the Mormon Church were
P. Pratt, Oliver Cowdery, Orson Hyde,

Masons,

that

is,

according to their

own

peculiar

views, which, of course,

meant under the control

and direction of the Mormon Church. It seems that Masonry was not to flourisli in Nauvoo, for when another Lodge was chartered by our Grand Lodge, in 1848, founded on the ruins of the

Nauvoo Lodge, Reclamation, No. 54, althougli appearing prosperous at first, and doing a fair amount
of the

pelled all the

members

of

Nauvoo Lodge,

decla'red

the

Lodge

irregular

the dispensation.

and clandestine, and annulled No charter was ever granted

and associations to it and the writer hereof, in the year 1882. being then Deputy Grand Master of the district, was ordered by the Grand Master to take up its charter for unmasonic conduct. That was done, and tliere has been no Masonic Lodge at Nauvoo since. Tlie Grand Lodge of Utah of A. F. and A. M. never would admit Mormons to membership in any of the Lodges in its
of work, yet the reputation
first

Nauvoo Lodge clung

them.

Some

territory.

of the irregularities were in voting

on eight or ten candidates at one ballot, holding clandestine meetings, and initiating candidates

Kevelations of the inuer religious cere-

monial

life

of

the

Mormons,

jniblished

72

FREEMASONRY AMONG NEGROES

years ago, stated that the

Mormon
in their

leaders

age, was

were violently anti-Mason

preach-

made a Freemason at Boston, in an English army Lodge connected with Gen-

eral Gage's command, and on March 6th, which may be explained the same year, fourteen other Boston negroes by the fact that the sect was founded not were made Freemasons in the same Lodge, only during the period of anti-Masonic at Castle William, Boston Harbor, now Fort excitement, but in the very region from Independence. Each is declared to have Avhich Morgan, the apostate Freemason, paid a fee of twenty-five guineas for the disappeared. When the Mormons went three degrees. The motive of the members West, it is singular, but perhaps not signifi- of the army Lodge in initiating, passing, cant, that Morgan's wife (widow?) went with and raising these fifteen negroes may best them; and in an interview between the first be conjectured. If it was to secure the wife of Orson Pratt and Kate Fields, pub- cooperation of negroes in the prospective lished in the St. Louis " Globe Democrat," struggle with the colonists, it failed so far as

ings and teachings prior to their hegira from

New York

State,

December

4,

1892, Mrs. Pratt tells of the


111.,

Prince Hall

presence at Nauvoo,

18-40-46, of

the

is concerned; for the latter sided with the colonists, shouldered a musket, and

widow of Morgan, where she had married a remained a useful and prominent citizen of Mormon. From what has been made pub- Massachusetts until his death in 1807. lic concerning Mormon endowment house At the annual session of the (white) ceremonies by such apostate Mormons as Grand Lodge of Freemasons of Ohio, in
Mrs. Pratt, and others, there would appear
to be

1875,

the following conclusions were re-

no Freemasonry in them. Those who l^orted by a committee of eminent members invented them drew heavily on "Paradise (among them Enoch T. Carson) on that Lost'' and the Old Testament for a ritual, portion of the address of the Grand Master and, by paralleling certain forms and situa- which referred to ''colored Masonry": tions in Craft Masonry, succeeded in conYour Committee deem it sufficient to say that they structing what proved to most of their are satisfied beyond all question that colored Freefollowers to be an impressive, if not in- masonry had a legitimate begimiing in this country, as much so as any other Freemasonry in fact, spired, ceremonial.
;

Freemasonry

among

Negroes.

it

Among more

than 1,300,000 affiliated and unaffiliated white Freemasons in the United


States, comparatively

came from the same source. Your Committee have the most

satisfactory

and

conclusive evidence that these colored Freemasons

few have familiarized


to

themselves with the details of the history


of the Fraternity,

and

such

it

will j)rove

same rites and ceremonies and have substantially the same esoteric or secret modes of recognition as are practised by ourselves and by the universal family of Freemasons throughout the
practise the very

in the nature of a surprise to learn that there

world.

are probably 60,000 negro

Freemasons

in

the country, whose Freemasonry comes from

the same source

as their own, the Grand Lodge of England. The average white Freemason knows there are so-called negro

Freemasons,
their

but has generally regarded Freemasonry as a spurious variety,


possessors, at best, as clandestine.
first

and the

As
as

to the
to the

inference he

is

mistaken, and

second he might substitute the word irregular. Early in 1775 Prince Hall,

Prince Hall and his brother (negro) Freemasons continued to meet socially and otherAvise, and (as declared and not disproved) as a Lodge, although they did no Masonic work, until some time between 1781 and 1783, when they applied to the MassachuThe resetts Grand Lodge for a warrant. Application for a warquest was refused. rant was made to the Grand Lodge of England, March 7, 1784, and on September 29,

1784 (shortly after the close of the

War

of

an educated negro, twenty-seven years of

the Eevolution), the Grand Lodge of

Eng-

FREEMASONRY AMONG NEGROES


land issued a warrant to Prince Hall and his
fourteen associates at Boston, constituting
initiated

73

between 1807 and 1826.

In 1808

delegates from the negro Lodges at Boston,

African Lodge, No. 454, of Free and Accepted Masons. But it was not until 1787
that the fee for the warrant was received
in

Providence, and Philadelphia met at Bos-

ton and formed African (frequently called " Prince Hall ") (J rand Lodge (referred to

by Pike in a preceding quotation), which body is the source of all .Masonic authority among negro Freemasons in the United In 1827 African Lodge deStates to-day. clared itself indepemlent of the Grand In 1847 there were exclusive territorial jurisdiction was not rec- Lodge of England. ognized abroad at that time, and was not three negro (J rand Lodges: one in Massabeing enforced here. African Lodge con- chusetts, and two in Pennsylvania, delegates tinued a regular, working Lodge of the from which met at Boston that year and orCirand Lodge of England as late as ]797, ganized the " National Grand Lodge of the
England, the Avarrant delivered, and
tlie

Lodge name entered on the roll of Lodges holding obedience to the Grand Lodge of England. Tt will be borne in mind tli,at the present American Masonic doctrine of

United States of North America," to be Grand the Supreme Masonic power in the United Lodge of England, as required by its war- States. Grand Lodges were formed in New rant. That it was really active is shown York, New Jersey, Maryland, and the Disby its establishing a Lodge at Philadelphia trict of Columbia in 1848, in Ohio and in 1797, and one at Providence, concerning Delaware in 1849, in Indiana, Ehodc Island, Avhicli the late Albert Pike wrote, September and the Province of Ontario in 1850, in 13, 1875, to the Grand Secretary of the Louisiana in 1863, and Liberia in 1867. Louisiana refused allegiance to the National (white) Grand Lodge of Ohio: Grand Lodge, and three years later Ohio Prince Hall Lodge was as regular a Lodge as any Lodge created by a competent aulhoilty, and had a Avithdrew from it, followed by the Grand By perfect right (as other Lodges in Eiu'opc did) to es- Lodge of the District of Columbia. tablish other Lodges, making itself a mother Lodge. 1880 all the Grand Lodges except MissisThat's the way tlie Berlin Lodges, Three Globes and sippi had withdrawn, and not long after the Itoyal York became Grand Lodges. National Grand Lodge practically ceased to As to the question of the strict Masonic exist. In 1890 there were Sovereign Grand legality of all that African Lodge and some Lodges of Free and Accepted negro Maof its successors did, T. S. Parvin, Grand sons in thirty-two States, and one each in Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Iowa wrote the District of Columbia, the Province of to the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge Ontario, and in Liberia.

making anuual

or other returns, with con-

tributions to the charity fund of the

of Ohio

The negroes can make as good a show for the legality of their Grand Lodges as the whites can.
It's

S. R. Scottron, Brooklyn, writes, July 27, 1897, that the National (irand Lodge " still

only a matter of taste, not laws.


all

am

satisfied

that

the world outside the United States will,

Lodges '*in sevwhether this doubtful but it is eral States," is anything more than an attempt of former
exists," with subordinate
officials to

ere long, recognize them.

revive

it.

One

of the best

known

Upon

the union of the Grand Lodges of


in 1813, African
list,

and National Grand blaster of The ignored this treatment, for its records are negro Freemasons for many years. declared to show that eighty candidates were "negro question" in American Masonic
tion period,

Lodge was reand has iicver been recognized by the Grand Lodge of England since. African Lodge, however, must have
England,

negroes formerly connected with the National Grand Lodge is Richard Gleaves,
of

moved from the

Washington, D.

C,

Lieutenant-Governor
reconstruc-

of South

Carolina during the

74

FREEMASONRY AMONG NEGROES


naturally

Grand Lodges has

been promi-

nent during the latter half of the century. In New Jersey it took a crucial form when Alpha Lodge, No. 16, at Newark, made a number of negroes Freemasons. The result, for a time, was no inconsiderable dissatisfaction among the Craft, but the Lodge continues to this day on the roll of the

Lodges in America, and, while he seems to have demolished those of his adversaries

upon the American Masonic doc" exclusive territorial jurisdiction," he appears to rely too much upon proving irregularity on the part of early white Grand
rely

who

trine of

bodies,

to excuse the irregularity of like negro organizations, overlooking the fact

the former was His argument is, of Masonic Lodge of negroes attached to a course, that the faults of the early grand and In 1875 the white subordinate negro bodies could be healed by white Grand Lodge. Grand Lodge of Ohio became interested competent Masonic authority with quite as in the subject of the universality of Free- much propriety; the only reply to which is masonry, and an eifort was made to recog- that it has not been done. Yet, when all nize the negro Grand Lodge of that State. else is said, the quoted comment by the late The matter was referred to a committee, Albert Pike cannot be ignored, that the first and a report was made in favor of the African Grand Lodge, formed by representWhen it came to voting on the atives of three subordinate Lodges, two of project. adoption of the report, a point of order was which Lodges were created by the first, was raised, which the Grand Master decided not no more irregular than were the Berlin On appeal, the Grand Master's Grand bodies, the Three Globes, and the well taken. decision was reversed by a vote of 390 to 332, Royal York, which were formed in a similar and so the whole matter came to naught. manner. In 1898 the Grand Lodge of the State E. B. Irving, Grand Master of "the Most "Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Most -An- of Washington took an advanced view of cient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and this subject, going so far as to suggest the Accepted (negro) Masons, State of New propriety of the recognition of the legitiYork," writes from Albany, March 16, macy of colored Freemasons, the origin of 1896, that "the Prince Hall Grand Lodge the charters of whose Lodges is found, of of Massachusetts, from which all negro course, in the charter granted to African Grand Lodges obtain their authority, is in Lodge of Boston by the Grand Lodge of As a consefraternal relations with white Grand Lodges England, in the last century. in Germany and Hungary," and that "in quence the Grand Lodge of Kentucky has foreign countries colored Masons are received adopted a resolution declaring non-interand accorded all the rights of a brother in course with Washington the Grand Lodges Masonic Lodges, although (even though ?) of Arkansas, New Jersey, and South Carohe may hail from the United States," and lina have also severed relations with Washthat he has "yet to learn of one who has ingbon, and the Grand Master of New York been refused." S. W. Clark, Grand Mas- has requested the Grand Eepresentative ter of (negro) Free Masons in Ohio in 1886, of Washington to resign his commission. whose pamphlet, "The Negro Mason in Maryland and Rhode Island contented themEquity," is well worth careful reading, adds selves by expressing the hope that Washthat in France, Italy, Germany, Hungary, ington will reconsider its action. Peru, and Dominica "our representatives" There are, therefore, two streams of Freeare "received, and accredited as such." masonry coursing through the United Mr. Clark makes an able plea for the recog- States. Each started from the same source nition of the regularity of negro Masonic and both are running in the same direction.of

Grand Lodge

New

Jersey, the only in-

that the irregularity

of

stance in the United

States of

a regular

subsequently healed.

FREEMASONRY AMONG NECJROES


One forms
is

75

only a brook.

mighty torrent, while the other and Knights Templars who were responsiBut their routes to the ble for these acts may never be known. In
fact,

great sea of universal brotherhood are parallel,

this

explanation

of

the

origin

of

divided only by the

embankment of

con-

Capitular and Templar Freemasonry

among

ditions

and race prejudice. Negro Freemasons in America have and ceremonials by imitating or

flat-

negroes seems to rest on the declarations of the men named. Negro Knights Templars

were not known out of Pennsylvania for many years, when they appeared in Baltileling all of them. Thus we find among more and Washington. The first negro Enthe negroes symbolic Lodges, Koyal Arch campment in New York was organized, acChapters, and Commanderies of Knights cording to Macoy, as late as 1872, and the Templars, corresponding to the American Grand Encampment there in 1875. The system, as well as five or more so-called Su- writer is informed by those who should preme Councils of a "thirty-third degree know that there were nineteen negro Ancient, Accepted Scottish Eite," each Grand Encampments in the L'nited States claiming exclusive jurisdiction and the ab- in 1895, with nearly 3,000 Sir Knights. African Supreme Council, " Ancient, Acsolute lack of authority on the part of rival
tered white possessors of various jMasonic
rites

paral-

cepted Scottish Rite for the American Supreme Councils. The Most Puissant Sovereign Grand Com- Continent," is declared to have been estabmander of the Philadelphia Negro Supreme lished at Philadelphia in 1820 by authority Council, George W. Koper, wrote John H. of the Grand Orient of France, whicli body, Deyo, Grand Master of negro Freemasons Masonic students will recall, did not, and

New York, in 1895, that the first negro Chapter of Royal Arch Masons was organized at Philadelphia in 1819 or 1830, by the aid of the white Koyal Arch Chapter of the
in

does not, authorize the working of degrees


of that rite.
It is of interest to note,

ever, that while negro Royal

howArch Masons

State of Pennsylvania, and

that the

first

negro Grand Royal Arch Chapter was formed Little in Pennsylvania in or about 1826. more was done in this direction until long after the anti-Masonic agitation died out (1836), and it was not until 1879, according
to Macoy, that a Grand Royal Arch Chapter was organized in New York. Statistics regarding ' Chapter Masonry "among negroes

are

difficult

to obtain, but

from inquiry
it

among

number

of those best informed

seems probable that negro Royal Arch Chapters number more than 5,000 members. The statement is also made that the first Commandery of negro Knights Templars was formed at Philadelphia (some time, but not long after the first Royal Arch Cha])ter) by the white Grand Encampment of Knights Templars of Pennsylvania (1816Whether it was the Grand Chajiter 25).

and Knights Templars claim that the first negro Chapter and Encampment were formed at Philadelphia by members of the Pennsylvania white Grand Chapter and Grand Encampment, respectively, their traditions as to the founding of the first negro Supreme Council (Scottish Rite) attribute supreme body strangely it to a foreign enough, to the one of the two French Masonic supreme bodies which, in 1820, recognized only the French Rite of seven degrees. African Supreme Council is not known to have done much more than to exist on paper until 1850, when it was succeeded by the soThe called David Leary Supreme Council.

latter did not exhibit

much

activity until

after the Civil

War, and when questioned

as

to tbe warrant for its authority, presented a

document purporting

and the Grand Encampment


vania, or merely white Royal

of

Pennsyl-

to have been issued by the (Jrand Orient of France, in 1850, to David Leary of Philadelphia, through its Deputy, one Larine, and signed by certain

Arch Masons persons

as officers.

On comparing the names

76

FREEMASONRY AMONG NEGROES


down
in the aunual calenits bulle-

with those laid


tins,
it

authority on

"a

charter for a Council of

dars of the Grand Orient and in held


office at

Princes of Jerusalem, purporting to have

was found that no such men had that or any other time, nor did the name of Larine appear in its tableau of membership, nor was the seal appended T^liis thereto the seal of the Grand Orient. warrant, when examined by representatives of a rival negro Supreme Council, was found to be sealed with the letters "A. Y. M." and '' a Good Templar's Seal." It may be

been issued by the African Council," Philadelphia, and is in affiliation with the Philadelphia consolidated (Northern) Supreme Council, and the " Supreme Council for the Northwestern Jurisdiction of the United States," with its "Grand East" at St. Louis, an organization of schismatic origin. The Washington Supreme Council (Southern Jurisdiction) was formed in 1869, and well to explain that the Scottish Rite de- soon became dormant, but was revived in There are, therefore, four negro Sugrees in France are conferred exclusively 1879.

by the authority of the Supreme Council, a preme Councils professing to confer Scottish body having no connection with the Grand Rite degrees in the United States. They The latter, although j)ossessing are spasmodically active, usually dormant, Orient.
these degrees, discountenances their use, as
it

exhibitions of

life,

being usually confined to

does the rites of Misraim, Memphis, and

a gathering of officers to reelect each other,


or to

other products of Masonic degree-makers of


the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

make

a few "thirty-seconds"

and

outgrowth of the revival of this soFreemasonry at Philadelphia was the formation of a rival known as King David Supreme Council. It claimed of courtesy, conld be called authority for direct descent from African Supreme Coun- existence. The Washington Supreme CounThere was also cil's existence rests, it is declared, on a charcil, which died in 1850. a King Frederick Supreme Council there, ter for a Council of Princes of Jerusalem
called Scottish Rite

An

Louis Supreme Council, which claims Northwestern Jurisdiction, has about 150 members, but nothing in the nature of what, by even a stretch
"thirty-thirds."
St.

The

twenty years ago, established by the founder (a subordinate Scottish Rite body), granted of the Baltimore Supreme Council, who by African Supreme Council years before Its claimed to have authority for that purpose the Washington organization appeared. from the negro Supreme Council for the own claim to a warrant from the Grand United States, its Territories and Dependen- Orient of France refers, probably, to the bare cies, established at New York city in 1864 by allegation that the African Supreme CounBaron Auguste Hugo de Bulow, a member cil was chartered by the Grand Orient, a As that statement which is its own refutation. The of the Supreme Council of France. New York Supreme Council repudiated the spurious character of the warrant of the placing of Supreme Councils at Baltimore Philadelphia Supreme Council has been reand at Philadelphia, little remains to be said ferred to. This leaves only the New York in reference to them. So far as learned, the Supreme Council to deal with that of only existing negro Supreme Councils are Avhich Peter W. Ray, M.D., and S. R. ScotThe the David Leary of Philadelphia, with which tron of Brooklyn, N. Y., are leaders. the King Frederick Supreme Council united Baron de Bulow, 33, a member of the in 1881 under the title S. C, etc.. Northern Supreme Council of France, came to New

Jurisdiction,

U.

S.

A.; that referred to at

York

in 1862, accredited as a Representa-

" Supreme Council for the Southern Jurisdiction of the TJ. S. A.," with headquarters at Washington, Thornton A. Jackson, M. P. S. G. C, which bases its

New York

city; the

tive to the

Supreme Council of the United Northern Jurisdiction (white) as related by negro Freemasons, members of the negro Supreme Council of New York,
States,

FREEMASONRY AMONG NEGROES


and, as also admitted, he returned to France b}- the (white) Supreme Council

77

accredited

He showed his sincerity what he did by creating his son and ten named, as Representative to the Supreme negroes "thirty-third degree Masons," who Council of France the body controlling with himself nine black and two white
law unto himself.
in

Scottish Eite grades or degrees in France.

men

were

the

original

members

of

the

On

a second

visit to this

country, in 18G4,
here, declared the

negro Sujireme Council


States, its

the Baron, finding no Scottish Kite Masonry

"for the United Territories and Dependencies."

All the negro Supreme Councils menand by his claimed tioned are, for reasons given, irregular; prerogative, as Sovereign Grand Inspector some of them spurious, and none of tliem General of the Supreme Council of France, has ever been accorded recognition by any he organized a Supreme Council of negroes regular Supreme Council in the world. who had been created thirty-third degree Their total membership is about 1,000, Freemasons by himself for that purpose. of which about 600 belong to the PhiladelThe first to receive the degree was Patrick phia and Washington bodies, and 250 H. Reason, then Most Worshipful Grand to the New York Supreme Council. An Master of the negro Grand Lodge of Free- effort was made, in 1881, to unite the masons of the State of New York. De negro Supreme Councils, but, with the Bulow never returned to France, but re- exception noted, it failed, and the strife mained until his death, in the endeavor to for office, for decorations, and for recogfirmly establish Scottish Rite Freemasonry nition of the regularity of one over another among colored men. In vieAV of the Baron's is likely to keep them apart. action, it is proper to jioint out that by Little remains to be added in a brief the law of all recognized Supreme Coun- historical sketch of Freemasonry among cils of the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite negroes, except that a schismatic Scot(of which the Sujoreme Council of France is tish Rite body existed for a brief period one), no Inspector General is permitted to at New York, a few years ago, known establish a Supreme Council of the rite in as the "Joe Smith " Supreme Council, and any country where such a body already ex- that nearly twenty-five years ago one Robert ists, except by special patent issued for the Cowes (negro) claimed to have received the 2)urpose. The question, then, is, did De ritual of the Rite of Memphis from the Bulow know of the existence of a Supreme Grand Orient of France for propagation Council in the United States at the time he among negroes in the LTnited States. It is
(that
?)

among negro Freemasons


territory vacant,

recognized by the SuFrance ? The answer is, of course, that as he had visited such a Council here that for the Northern Jurisdiction and had beeii appointed by it a Representative to the Supreme Council of France; one, therefore, did exist, and unless he had a special patent from France empowering him to do what he did in 18G4 which he never had or claimed to have his action in establishing a negro Supreme Council was, Masonically, illegal and void. De Bulow was evidently a visionary, undoubtedly a philanthropist, and on what he conceived to be the ethics of a situation, a

took this step

one
of

not
to

known
that.

that he ever received authority

preme Council

do

On

the contrary, there

is

good

reason to believe that the Grand Orient of

France did nothing of the kind. (See Freemasonry, Rite of Memphis.) In any event no bodies of that rite exist here. About twenty years ago there was a negro Supreme
Council established at Baltimore (not the one already referred to) by Charles P. Daly of Ocala, Fla., who claimed authority from some body in the British West Indies. The first negro Su])reme Council at Baltimore was
established by

Lemuel G.

Griffin, as stated,

an Inspector General of the

New York

Su-

preme Council, who afterward organized

78

FREEMASONRY

RITE OF MEMPHIS, ANCIENT

AND PRIMITIVE
1835, entitled "

King Frederick Supreme Council at Phila- Bedarride in Nothing is known of these organi- Misraim." delphia.
zations to-day.

The Order

of

Jacques Etienne Marconis was initiated


:

Freemasonry Rite of Memphis, Ancient and Primitive. No account of this


Masonic rite would be complete which ignored its parent, the Rite of Misraim. The
was founded at
j\rilan in

into the Rite of Misraim in April, 1833, and

expelled therefrom in

June following.

In

1839, in association with Moullet and others,

he founded the Rite of Memphis at Paris, Prom- and soon after established Lodges at Marinent among its members were Lechangeur, seilles and Brussels. It consisted of ninetyLechangeur, on being one degrees, later of ninety-two degrees, and Joly, and Bedarride. refused admission into the Supreme Council afterward of ninety-six degrees, with a of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, ninety-seventli degree for the official head compiled and organized the Rite of Misraim of the Rite. It should require little special
latter

1805.

in opposition to the former. of eighty-seven

It consisted
first,

degrees

at

later

of

information to properly infer that this rite was based on that of Misraim. It appropriated bodily degrees of the Ancient and

ninety degrees, which included nearly all the numerous Scottish Rite degrees in existence

degrees borrowed from


It

other

rites,

from

floating material, or invented for the

purpose.

was introduced into France in

1814, where recognition was refused it by In 1817 the Supreme the Grand Orient.

Council of the Rite of Misraim was disLodges continued to exist, and finally, in 1822, the Rite became dormant,
solved, but

although

has been practised by a few European Lodges at intervals almost ever since. The ninety degrees were conferred (most
it

of

them, probably, communicated)

in four

Accepted Scottish Rite, those peculiar to the Rite of Misraim, and supplemented them with inventions. Gould states that Marconis, who had been expelled in 1833, established a Lodge of the Rite of Misraim in 1836, and in 1838 was again expelled. Then he fabricated the Rite of Memphis, the first Lodge of which was formed at Paris in 1838. In 1840 the Paris Lodges of the Rite were closed by the police, but were revived in The Rite was unrecognized by the 1849. Grand Orient of France during all that period, and, therefore, was irregular. Late
in the fifties
states that in
it

series

and seventeen

classes;

the

first

being

became dormant.

Mackey

entitled Symbolic, the second Philosophic,

the third Mystical, and the fourth KabbalisThis Rite claimed the privilege of contic.
trolling all other

Masonic

rites,

which, aside

1862 Marconis applied to the Grand Orienr of France for recognition for the Rite of Memphis, and got it by divesting himself of all authority over it and placing
it

being very complicated, was enough Some of its degrees were to condemn it. based on the ancient Egyptian mysteries, hence Misraim, an ancient name for Egypt.

from

its

entirely in the

Orient,

which
it

absorbed

hands of the Grand and shelved it,


is

where, so far as the Grand Orient


cerned,

con-

It differs

from

ail

other Masonic rites in

that
gree,

it

abolished the legend of the third de-

and introduced the story of the death Lamech, who was killed by three An attempt to revive the rite in ruffians. France in 1856 failed, and Gould, in his " History of Freemasonry," says that for several years after its few Lodges continued A ponderous aca precarious existence. count of the Rite was published by Mark
of a son of

remains to-day. As this rite utilized the third degree of Craft Masonry, several of its Lodges were revived after 1862, but worked only the symbolic degrees. In 1873 one Carence, with Marconis, conferred the Rose Croix (Memphis) degree on

Freemasons who were officially informed that no power or authority permitted such an act, as Marconis had divested himself of all claim to the rite in May, 1862, and again, formally, in 1863, 1864, 1865, and
several

FREEMASONRY: RITE OF MEMPHIS, ANCIENT AND PRIMITIVE


tlie SuAncient and Accepted Scottish Rite of England, in 1872, the Grand

79

18G6.

In reply to an inquiry from


of the

preme Council

Secretary of the

Grand Orient

of France ex-

plained the foregoing, and stated that at the

time the treaty was negotiated with Marconis,


city

ceded anything to the Grand Orient of Robert Morris, in the " Freemasons' Almanac," January 1, 18G5, says that the Rite of Memphis has a beautiful and impressive ritual; that it was introduced here November 9, 185G, by Marconis, who estabFrance.
lished a
Avith

Supreme Council, ninety degrees, John Mitchel at its head, and a Sovereign Grand Council, ninety-four degrees, Rite of Memphis, although, owing to the with David McLellan as Grand blaster. bad faith of ^larconis, the latter pretended But for some reason the system did not he had ceded the rite to the Grand Orient flourish, not even after Seymour was infor France alone. Seymour assumed the vested with the highest degree in Paris in title of Grand Master of the Rite of Mem1862, and Avith authority to establish a Sovphis for America, and founded a Sovereign ereign Grand Sanctuary of Conservators
18G2, II. J.
of

Seymour

New York

was at Paris; but that he, the latter, received no power to confer degrees of the

Sanctuary in New York, Avhich, strangely enough, in 18G7 appeared on the Calendar of the Grand Orient of France for that year.

General of the Order in America.

Sov-

ereign Council General was established in

New

England, but that and the various

The Grand Secretary of the latter body adds State organizations made slow headway, and that after learning Seymour was conferring had only a few hundred working members. more than the three symbolic degrees, the Seymour, who had a pyrotechnical, but unGrand Orient "' broke off all connection with enviable, career in several Masonic rites, is this power and personally with Brother Sey- declared by members of a so-called Scottish mour," who never had ''either a char- Rite among negroes in the United States ter or power from the Grand Orient of to have received the ritual of the Rite of France." Memphis from Robert Cowes, a negro, to

On the other hand, Gould says that in 1850 and 1854 a Chapter and a Council of
the Rite of
in

whom

it

was committed by the proper au-

among his race, Memphis had been established and to have used it for his (Seymour's) New York city, and that in 1860 Mar- benefit. This is probably an error, due to
thorities for propagation

conis went to

Grand Lodge
at Troy.

of

America and established a " Discij^les of Memphis"

In 1857 the rite was known in York, and in 18G2 a Sovereign Sanc- eral years the chief secretarial ofticer of the tuary v.as chartered. It was taken from Rite of Memphis in America, adds that SeyAmerica to England in 1872, where the mour did not condense the Rite of Memphis number of degrees was reduced from ninety- to form his Cerneau Rite. Mr. Goodale five tp thirty-three. The same authority wrote, in 1895, that the Rite of Memphis explains that in 1862 Marconis, in response still existed, but that it was " very inacto a circular sent out by the Grand Orient tive," practically dormant, "waiting for

nicknamed " De Negre," owing to his dark complexion. H. C. Goodale of Jamaica, L. I., for sevMarconis's having been

New

demanded recognition for "'one dormant French Lodges," which was granted; that his symbolic Lodges then became a part of the Grand Orient, and his Avhole system was supposed to have come under the supervision of that Grand body. According to this, the rite had been established in the United States before ^larconis
of France,

better times."

In addition to the Sover-

of his

eign Sanctuary established in 1862, there

had been formed six Mystic Temples, twelve Councils, S. M. G. W., twenty-three Senates of n. P.. and forty-one Chapters of R. C, with a membership in 1895, which, while not large, was scattered through many States. The roll of Grand Conservators was

80

FREEMASONRY: KNIGHTS OF ROME AND RED CROSS OF CONSTANTINE

something in New York, which he told the initiates were regular Masonic bodies in ters The official organ of the Rite, '' The Lybic which they could get all the degrees at low Chain/' was published at New York in rates. His operations extended to Philadel1883, and continued to appear for a num- phia and Chicago, where he found many He was deS. C. Gould, Manchester, dupes at so much per capita. ber of years. N. H., states that a body was organized at nounced by regular Masonic authorities, and TJtica, N".Y., in 1880, under the title, " The soon found himself under arrest, after which Antient and Primitive Oriental Rite of Mis- the bodies created by him died out. It was raim," but Goodale says the Rite of Misraim the old story of a clever degree-peddler preyThe was represented at l^^ew York city in 1895 ing upon credulity and ignorance. by about twenty-five members of the Rite Ochs Rite of " Memj^his and Misraim " Avas

declared to include "

many

Past Grand Masin

and high

dignitaries

Masonry."

of

Memphis, who "thought

of obtaining

not the Marconis Rite, which became dor-

a charter and continuing the work." Evidently .the '' Oriental Rite " of Misraim was

mant here about

1895, and in which a

num-

ber of prominent Masons were interested for

The death of the latter was a brief period. something else. There was also an Egyptian Masonic Rite due to structural weakness and dry rot. of Memphis for the Cosmos in Boston, in Seymour, who was something of a degree1881, which was not long-lived, and there peddler himself, induced many acquaintances to join the Rite under the impression a,re records of an Antient and Primitive (Spanish) Oriental Rite of "Memphis and they were uniting with the Ancient and Misraim " at New York, Philadelphia, and Accej^ted Scottish Rite, and, so long as he Chicago in recent years, which had no con- could sell them paraphernalia, costumes, nection with the Ancient and Primitive etc., he was willing to let the members rule Rite of Memphis established here by ]\Iar- and govern the Rite, although he himself NotwithstandSovereign Sanctuaries of the origi- was the Grand Hierophant. conis. nal Rite of Memphis have been established ing this, which is learned from those to in America (now dead). Great Britain (at whom it was a matter of personal experi"Withiugham, Manchester, address .John ence, a number of prominent Freemasons beYarker, editor of the official organ, "The came identified with the Ancient and PrimKnepli "), Italy, Roumania, Egypt, and (it itive Rite of Memphis, only to lose interest is said) in India. and drop out. This Rite is a masqueradSpanish and Roumanian branches have ing Rite of Misraim, originally founded as been a source of trouble to American Free- a rival degree-shoj), and was very properly masons, by granting permission to irrespon- smothered by the Grand Orient of France sible or other persons to propagate the so- in 1SG2, Avhich body, it would seem, was called Oriental Rite of " Memphis and Mis- deceived into believing the founder had raim " in the United States, a hodge-podge delivered up all authority over it. It went of those Rites and of the vagaries of those from the L'nited States to England and disseminating them. elsewhere abroad, where it was apparently Jacques Ochs, a Roumanian, claimed au- dressed up or down, so that not even Marthority, between 1890 and 189G, from the conis, its own father, would know it under National Grand Lodge of Roumania to es- such a title as an " Oriental, Scottish Rite
,

tablish Masonic

Lodges in the United States. His authority was revoked, and he then apOrient of Spain for the Rite of
"'

of

Memphis and Misraim."

the Rites of Misraim and of


erly belong in a library of
:

The rituals of Memphis propcurios.

peared as a Representative of the Grand

Masonic

Memphis

and Misraim," and

established Lodges of

Freemasonry Order of Knights of Rome and of the Red Cross of Con-

FREEMASONRY: KNIGHTS OF ROME AND RED CROSS OF COXSTANTINK


stantine.* Sometimes called the Order of the Red Cross of Constantine, said to be the oldest Order of Knighthood conferred in
connection with Freemasonr}'.

SI

from the position of a despised and proscribed heresy to that of a


legally recog-

nized and honored religion."


first

One

of the

Knights of the of the Order is attributed to Constantine the Red Cross of Constantine was to replace Great, who, just before the battle of Saxa the heathen vsymbols on the public buildRubra, October 28, a.d., 312, beheld a ings in Rome with representations of the In 326 Emperor Constantine vision of the Passion Cross in the heavens, Red Cross. with the inscription (usually given in instituted the Order of Knight of the "Hoc Vince " (Conquer by This), Grand Cross, to be conferred only on Greek) " In Hoc Signo Knights of the Red Cross who had become rendered genera,lly Vinces," whereupon he vowed that, if suc- distinguished in the sciences, the learned The number cessful against the enemy and his life was professions, or in the army. Order of of Knights of the Grand Cross created by spared, he would create an Knighthood to champion the Christian Emperor Constantine was fifty, and in 1119, his victory. at a Grand Assembly of Knights of the religion and commemorate This he is declared to have done at Rome, Order at Rome, it was made a statute of December 25, a.d. 312. Constantine, at the Order that only fifty Knights of the the time of the vision, was not a believer Grand Cross should be created in any kingAfter the in the Christian religion, and he and his dom or independent country. friends believed that the Cross in the death of Constantine, in 337, the Popes of heavens was a divine omen. To emphasize Rome claimed and exercised sovereign his conversion to Christianity, Constantine authority over the Order for many years. caused each of his officers who had em- It is related that in 765 the Order had braced tiie Christian religion and received among its members emperors, kings, and at his hands the new Order of Christian princes, when the first jiilgrimage was made Knighthood to wear a Red Cross on the to the Holy Sepulchre under its banners. breast or on the right arm, and on the This was in accord with the obligations of Roman Imperial standards he placed golden its members, for in 314, when Constantine wreaths, and within them monograms com- instituted the Order of Knights of the Holy posed of the Greek letters " Chi " {X) and Sepulchre at the prayer of his mother, ''Rho" (P), the first of the two letters of Helena, they were especially commissioned Constantine, the first to protect the Holy Sepulchre from the the name Christ. Christian Roman Emperor, was further attacks of enemies of the Christian faith. identified with the cause of Christianity During the Crusades, the Order of Knights through his mother, Helena, who, in the of Rome and of the Red Cross of ConstanIn 1119 Emyear 32C, discovered and brought out of the tine were widely known. Hoh' Land the remains of the true Cross, peror ^Michael Angelos Com menus was and by reason of his having convened the elected Sovereign Grand Master of the Council of Nice in 325, where Constantine Order, and that title was retained in his was received by Bishop Eusebius with a family until 1699. The Order was revived panegyrical oration. Thus it is that a recent in England in 1688 by the Venetian amwriter describes the Order as commemo- bassador at the Court of St. James, Lonrating "the first elevation of Christianity don, and in 1692 the Abbe Giustiniani, a
origin
acts of the Original
:
:

The

* This Christian Order is not to be confoinuk'il with the Jewish and Persian degree, known as the Order of the Red Cross, conferred in American

learned Italian priest, conferred the Orders

Commanderies
6

of Knights Templars,

Knights of the Red Cross of Constantine, Holy Sepulchre, and of St. John the Evangelist on several members of the English
of

82

FREEMASONRY: KNIGHTS OF ROME AND RED CROSS OF CONSTANTINE


(Conclave) conferred the Orders of Christian

Knighthood on a class of "^ eight and it was prominent high Freemasons,"' in the presfrom the hitter that Walter Rod well Wright, ence of several Knights of the Grand Members of both the Provisional Grand Sovereign of the Order Cross of the Order. in England in 1804, doubtless gained ma- so-called Ancient and the Modern English terial for the preparation of the modern Grand Lodges of Freemasons, who were Baron Huude, in his " History members of the Constantine Orders, took ritual.
tions,

It is to the Abbe that the Order is Court. indebted for the preservation of its tradi-

hmdmarks, and

rituals,

Templar System of Strict Observ- active part in the negotiations which led to " The great and rapid the union of the two Grand Masonic Lodges progress of Freemasonry on the European in 1813, when the Duke of Sussex was Continent is largely due to the efforts of elected Grand Master of the United Grand the Knights of Eome and of the Red Cross Lodge of England, and also Sovereign The claim is made that Grand Master of the Grand Imperial Counof Constantine." the Order was conferred in England as a cil of England of the Order ol Knights of Masonic degree as early as 1783, and that Rome and of the Red Cross of Constantine. in 1788 it was conferred upon a number of During the period 1813-43 the Order again English Freemasons, among others, officers became notable as " the first Order of
of
tlie

ance,'*'

1750, states

of both of the

Grand Lodges of England. Chivalry in Europe," some of its chroniThomas clers adding that the Grand Cross of the Freemason, well-known That Dunckerly, was created a Knight of Rome Order was considered as great an honor **as and of the Red Cross of Constantine in the Order of the Garter." In 1862 the 1790, and was afterwards Sovereign Grand Knights of the Grand Cross did much to Master of the Order in England, and at attract attention to the Order through a the head of the Order of the Temple at the ceremonial commemorative of the establishThree succeeding heads of ment of the Grand Imperial Council more same period. the Order of Knights of Constantine were than fifty years before, in which the Sir likewise Grand Masters of the Order of the Knights taking part included members of Temple. Hughan, the Masonic historian, the royal family and many other gentlestates that while the Orders of the Red men of high rank, cabinet officers, members Cross of Constantine and of the Temple of Parliament, and representatives of the were for many years " worked " harmo- army and navy. From that period the English Grand Imniously, side by side, they " were kept strictly separate,"' and the fact that the perial Council began to extend the Order, Constantine Orders of Knighthood have beginning in 1866, by reviving it in Gerbeen conferred only upon Freemasons ever many, France, Italy, and in many of the since the middle of the eighteenth century English colonies. In 1869 it was introduced In into the Dominion of Canada, and on May is probably due to that association. 1807 there was quite a revival of the Order 19, 1870, into the United States, at PhilaIn 1871 Conclaves were instituted in Europe and in the English colonies, delphia. Massachusetts, Kentucky, KnightYork, Christian in New of this and the Orders Maine, New Jersey, Vermont, many FreemaIndiana, upon conferred were hood The Michigan, Virginia, Delaware, and Marysons among the English nobility. Grand Imperial Council of England was land, in the order named. The Indepenorganized at London in 1808, and in the dent Grand Council of Pennsylvania was following year it claimed and exercised sov- organized in 1872, the Grand Council of
ereignty
world.

over the

Order throughout the

New York

and

In 1809 the

London Encampment

of Illinois, Massachusetts,

Grand Imperial Councils and Rhode Island

FREEMASONRY KNIGHTS OF ROME AXD RED CROSS OF COXSTANTINE


:

83

in 1872

the

Imperial

Grand Council

of

This statement had not been made prior to 1895,

Michigan in 1874; of Kentucky, Indiana, and was never thought of until we had taken action to abolish the State Grand bodies in the interVermont, Maine, andof New Jersey in 1875; est of the general good of the Order. The first and of the Dominion of Canada in 187G. In Article of the Constitution, Section 1, as presented 1875, according to the " Memorabilia," etc., by the Chairman of the Committee on Revision of prepared, in 1895, by Thomas Leahy of the Constitution. Charles K. Francis (now the Kochester, N. Y., Grand Registrar General leader of the opponents to the Sovereign Grand
of

the

Sovereign

United States, of the United States was organized at New York city, by representatives of all the then existing State Grand and Imperial Councils of the Order, all of which gave i)ledges of "fealty and allegiance" to the new Sovereign Grand Council, and each State Grand body surrendered ''all sovereignty within its territory." On this point George W. Warvelle of Chicago, representing the Imperial

Grand Council of the the Sovereign Grand Council

Council),

is

in conflict with
It

Illinois people.

reads

the statement by the " Sec. 1. The Supreme

United States of the Red etc., shall be styled, etc." Is this section intended to imply a confederation? It recognizes a "Supreme Governing
in tlie

Governing Body

Cross of Con.stantine, Knights,

Body

"

and that of the Sovereign Grand Council.


this lies in tlie fact that Pennsylvania, Massachusetts,

The importance of
the
Illinois,

Vermont, and Maine Grand Councils continue to maintain independent sovereignties

Grand Council

of

Illinois,

declares

and deny the right of the Sovereign Grand Council, United States of America,

" no such record exists.'' The "Statement," published by the Imperial Grand
that

to claim or exercise sole, sovereign jurisdiction for tlie Constantine Orders of Knighthood in this country. The independent Grand Councils explain that a i)rimary object of the confederation of State Councils

Council of Illinois in 1895, describes the Sovereign Grand body of 1875 as merely
a "confederation'' of State Grand Councils

formed to "curb the pretensions of the mother Grand Council of England, who, thi'ough her Intendent General, was assuming powers which were deemed inimical to the American bodies." In support of this it quotes from Section 6 of the Constitution of the Sovereign Grand Council, United States of America, in part as follows: **Ifc (the latter body) can exercise no doubtful powers nor any powers by implication tiiat all powers not exmerely;" pressly delegated "are reserved to the Grand Councils and subordinate Con.
.

was to acquire jurisdiction over the "unoccupied" portions of the United States then claimed by the Grand Council of England, and that the right of the Sovereign Grand Council, United States of America, to occupy American territory not under the jurisdiction of State Grand bodies was practically all that was made over to the Sovereign body. The " Memorabilia " sets forth that the Imperial Grand Council of England waived its right of sovereignty over any portion of the United States in 1877, and entered into "a treaty of amity" it should have jurisdiction with the Sovereign Grand Council, United claves," etc. over "all Conclaves established by itself," States of America, in which it recognized the "where there is no Grand Council sovereign authority of the latter throughout established;". but "no power of dis- this country. "The Statement" replies cipline," etc., "over the State Grand that when the Sovereign Grand Council of Councils," "nor any authority to the United States was organized in 1875, suspend the proceedings of any State Grand " it was repudiated by tlie Grand Imperial Council," etc. Council of England," but that in 1877 two Thomas Leahy, Registrar General of the men, the Sovereign Grand Master of the Sovereign Grand Council of the United Sovereign Grand Council, United States of States, writes America, and the Chief Intendent General
.

84
for the

FREEMASONRY: KNIGHTS OF ROME AND RED CROSS OF CONSTANTINE

United States, for England, con- Council changed its rules in 1897 so that cluded a treaty with the English (mother) Master Masons may become members, thus Grand Council, "to unite into one Sui)renie apparently seeking to popularize the Order. Grand body all Grand and subordinate The view taken by the independent Grand bodies in the United States." It is further Councils seems to be that there are enough declared in "The Statement" that within popular Masonic Orders, and that this one
a year the treaty was " repudiated " by the English Grand Council, notwithstanding

should constitute " a purely branch of Freemasonry


. .

intellectual
.

which the Sovereign Grand Council, United


States of America, continues to point to the treaty as the basis and justification of
existence.
its

devoted wholly to the cultivation of the higher fac-

ulties," rather than to gaining recruits.

Four

Orders

are

conferred

by Grand

In reply to this, officials of the Sovereign Grand Council deny that the The records of treaty has been repudiated. the Sovereign Grand Council, United States
of America, seem to confirm

Councils of Knights of the Red Cross of

Rome and

"The

State-

Constantine the first, the one having that title ; the second, the Order of Knights of the Holy Sepulchre ; the third, the Order of Knights of St. John the Evangelist,

ment"
when,
N".

in

its

charge that the body was


in

and, finally, as a

mark

of

especial

practically

dormant between 1880 and 1891,

as explained

"The

Statement,"
Eochester,
a Sovereign

"several

members" met at Y., and "assumed to open

Grand Council and transact business." One year later it held a Conclave at Bloomsburg, Pa., and claimed exclusive
authority

over the Constantine Orders throughout the United States, basing the The Soverclaim on the treaty of 1877. After the reeign Grand Council has continued to hold for constituting chaplains. organization of the Chivalric Orders it besince, but Imperial sessions ever annual Grand Councils in Pennsylvania, Illinois, came an appendant to the Order of ConThe "seven steps of chivalry" Vermont, Maine, and elsewhere refuse to stantine. are classified in " Masonry in Europe," by recognize it. All of the State Grand Councils named, Witter, Berlin, 1832, as follows: "1st, and the Sovereign body as well, declare that Knights of Rome and of the Red Cross of they have cordial relations with the English Constantine and Knight of the Grand Cross, Grand Council. The total membership of the oldest Order of Chivalry 2d, Knights 4th, the Sovereign Grand Council, it is claimed, Templars ; 3d, Knights of Malta Including the five indepen- Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, appended exceeds 1,600. dent Imperial Grand Councils and those in to which is the Order of Knights of St. Canada and the United Kingdom, it is esti- John of Palestine, or St. John the Evangelmated there are 5,000 American and foreign ist 5th, Rose Croix 6th, Templar PriestKnights of Rome and of the Red Cross of hood and 7th, Commander Elect, Knight Constantine. On the introduction of the of Kadosch. No one American Masonic
; ;
;

honor for high Masonic ofiicials or for zeal in Masonic work, the Order of Knight of the Grand Cross, membership in which is limited to fifty in each country. In addition to these, the Order of Holy Wisdom, or Knight Templar Priest, is conferred by some Grand Councils. It is said to have been instituted in 1686, and when conferred in "old Encampments which practised the seven steps of chivalry " was the ceremony

Order into the United States, Knights Temand thirty-second degree Scottish Rite Freemasons alone were admitted to it, but some years later Royal Arch Masons were rendered eligible. The Sovereign Grand
plars

body confers all of these Orders. The second and third are under the jurisdiction of the Grand Encampment of Knights Temthe fifth and plars of the United States seventh are controlled by the Supreme Coun;

FREEMASONRY: KNIGHTS OF ROME AND RED CROSS OF CONSTANTINE


the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite Freemasonry for the Southern and Northern Masonic Jurisdictions, United States of America, respectively; the fourth and sixtli by Imperial Grand Councils and by the Sovereign Grand Council of Knights of Rome and of the Red Cross of Constantino and the first by the Supreme Grand Chapter of the Grand Cross of Constantino, United States of America, composed of representatives of the independent Sovereign Grand Councils, and also by the Sovereign Grand Council, United States of America. The Supreme Grand Chapter of the Grand Cross of Constantino, of which Charles K. Francis, Philadelphia, is Registrar General, is the highest body of the Order in the country recognized by the independent Sovereign Grand Councils. It was organized June 21, 1877, under aucils of

85

of

(Grand Secretary of the Grand Bodies in Illinois); Marquis F. King, 33, of Maine (Past Grand Master of Masons); Hugh McCurdy, 33, of Miciiigan (Past Grand Master of Masons, Past Grand High Priest of Royal Arch Masons, Past Grand Master of the Grand Encampment of Knights Templars); Abraliam T. Metcalf, 33, of Michigan (Past Grand Master of Masons); Francis
33, of
Illinois

various Masonic

A. Blades, 33,D. Burnham Tracy, 33, and Nicholas Coulson, 33", of Miciiigan; Marsh
0.
of

Perkins, 33, of

Vermont (Past Grand

Master of Masons); George 0. Tyler, 33,

Vermont

Knights Templars);
33, of
of

Grand Commander of Silas W. Cummings, Vermont (Past Grand Commander


(Past
;

thority granted the late Colonel

W.

J. B.

McLeod Moore, 33, Grand Prior of Knights Templars of Canada, who established the Order of Coustantine in America by authority received from the Earl of Bective, then
Grand Sovereign
of

Knights Templars); D. N.Nicholson, 33^, Vermont Millard F. Hicks, 33, and Edward P. Burnham, 33, of Maine Seranus Bowen, 33, of Massachusetts (Grand Secretary of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons); Benjamin W. Rowell, 33, of Massachusetts (Grand Recorder of Grand Commandery of Knigiits Templars);
of
;

the

The Supreme Grand Council of England. Chapter is to the independent State Imperial Councils

Grand Imperial Caleb Saunders, 33, Massachusetts (Past Grand Commander of Knights Templars);
Frederick Webber, 33, Washington, D. C. (Grand Secretary General of Supreme
Council, 33, A. A. S. R., Southern Jurisdiction);

what the Supreme Council,


is

Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite


bodies

to

the

holding allegiance to

it,

retaining

Edward

T. Schultz

of

Maryland

exclusive right to confer the Order of the

Grand
officers

Cross, as does the latter the right to

confer the thirty-third degree.

Among

the

(Masonic Historian, Past Grand High Priest of Royal Arcii Masons, Past Grand Commander of Knights Templars); Thomas R.

and members of the Supreme Grand Patton, 33, of Pennsylvania (Grand TreasChapter of the Grand Cross of Constantino urer of Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter); are John Corson Smith, 33, of Illinois, Charles Cary, 33^, of Pennsylvania (Grand Secretary of Grand Chapter of Royal Arch its Grand Sovereign (Past Grand Master of Higli of Royal Masons and Grand Master of Royal aiul Priest Masons. Past Grand Arch Masons, Past Grand Commander of Select Masters); John Sartaiu, 33, PennKnights Templars); Josiah H. Drummond, sylvania Edward S. Wyckofif, 33, PennEdward B. S])cncer. Pennsylvania 33, of Maine, its Grand Viceroy (Past sylvania Grand Master of Masons, Past General (Grand Scribe of Grand Ciiapter of Royal Grand High Priest of the General Grand Arch Masons and Past Grand Commander Andrew J. KaufifChai^tcr, Past Grand Commander of Knights of Knights Temi)lar8) Tem])lars, Past Sovereign Grand Commander man, Pennsylvania (Past Grand Commander of the Supreme Council, 33, A. A. S. R., of Knights Templars); Harvey A. McKillip, Northern Jurisdiction); Gilbert "W. Barnard, 33, Pennsylvania (Past Grand Master of
:

'

86

FREEMASONRY: SOCIETY OF MODERN ROSICRUCIANS


and
Select

Eoyal

Masters);

Charles K.
(Past

Francis,

33,

Pennsylvania

Grand

icrucians.
years ago,

Freemasonry: Society of Modern RosFounded more than a score of

Master of Royal and Select Masters). Charles F. Matier is Grand Representative of the Supreme Grand Chapter of the Grand Cross, United States of America, near the Grand Imperial Council of England, and Lord Saltsun is Grand Representative near the Grand Imperial Council of Scotland. At the meeting of the Supreme Grand Chapter at Boston, September 21, 1897, apjDropriate tributes were paid the memories of deceased members, Charles T. 33, Masonic Historian McClenachan,
of

according to the account pub-

lished by the

High Council

of the Societatis

Rosicruciana^, United States of America, by

Robert Wentworth Little, of England, upon " the remains of an old German association which had come under his observation during some of his researches."
society, to collect
' "

The Angli-

cized organization was created as a literary

archgeological

torical subjects pertaining to

and hisFreemasonry
'

and

secret societies in general; to stimulate

search for historical truth, particularly with


reference to Freemasonry; and to revive interest in the

the

Grand
E.

Lodge

of 33,

New York
Pennsylvania

Anthony (Past Grand Commander


Stocker,
plars);

work

of certain scientists
effort

and

of

Knights Tem-

scholars.

In this

Mr.

Little, a dis-

and Daniel Spry, 33, Grand Repre- tinguished Freemason, was assisted by such Grand Imperial Council well-known members of the Craft as William and the Registrar General read Robert Woodman, Thomas B. Whytehead, of Canada the following letter from the Masonic His- AYilliam James Hughan, and Cuthbert E. torian, W. J. Hughan, Torquay, England, Peck in England, the Earl of Kintore and Robert Smith Brown in Scotland, Prince himself a Knight of the Grand Cross Your invitation to attend the Supreme Grand Rhodokanakis and Professor Emmanuel Chapter of the United States of America j ust at hand. Gellanis in Greece; and Colonel W. J. B. I cannot attend, but wish it were possible, so as to grip Moore in the Dominion of Canada. Rosiyou by the hand, and others of my valued brethren. crucian societies were promptly established These personal references would seem to in England, Scotland, Greece, and, later, Like orindicate that many of the more distinguished in the Dominion of Canada. ganizations also be found in Ireland, may Freemasons in the country oppose the claim of the Sovereign Grand Council to India, China, and in Tunis. In 1879 the
sentative near the
;
:

exclusive jurisdiction over the Constantine

High

Council of

Scotland
at

established

Orders in the United States.

In reply to

Rosicrucian

Society

Philadelphia, and

an inquiry as to the status of the Order of

Rome and

in 1880 one each at New York, Boston, and Baltimore, representatives from which Red the United States, C. F. Matier, Registrar met at Boston on September 21 the same General of the English (mother) Imperial year, and established a High Council for the Grand Council, wrote as follows, September United States, to hold jurisdiction within the same and regulate the relations of the 15, 1897

the

Cross of Constantine in

am

directed and have the honor to say that a

society here with other independent jurisdictions.

conference of the Imperial Grand Councils of Eng-

The

constitution adopted provides

land and Scotland will be held in Edinburgh in April, 1898, and that the whole question of the
position of the bodies claiming to be the

that no aspirants shall be admitted except

supreme

telligent,

Master Masons of good moral character, in'' free from prejudice, and anxious

governing bodies in America will be fully considered.

As

for instruction."

Every

f rater is

required
to be ap-

it

is

believed that

representatives

from the U. S. A. will be present, it is sincerely hoped that the conference will settle the cause of disagreement in the Order forever.

to choose a Latin motto,

which

is

pended

to his signature in all

tions to the Society,

communicawhich shall be registered

FREEMASONRY: ROYAL ORDER OF SCOTLAND


and never be changed, and no two fraters The are permitted to have the same motto.
Society, wliich
is

87

Germany
"

shortly after the appearance of the

religious, mystical,

and philosophic works,

secret in form, confers four


first

Fama

Fraternis," '"Chemical Nuptials,"

and other books by John Valentine Andrae, which he recounted the adventures of the third order, in High Council only. The "Christian Eosenkreuz," a fictitious pergrades are as follows: First, Zelator; sec- sonage, whom he makes the founder of the
grades composing the
tlie

order, and three

in

second, in colleges; and two grades in

in

ond, Theoricus;
Philosophus;

third,

Practicus;

fourth,

pretended

Society

of

Eosicrucians.

It

is

Adeptus Junior; sixth, pointed out by Mackey that so great was Adeptus Senior; seventh, Adeptus Exemp- the effect of these publications that a secret tus; eighth, Magister Templi (official); and, philosophic sect of Eosicrucians was formed, ninth, Chief Adept, held by appointment. many members of which were found in GerColleges are limited to seventy-two active many, France, and England in the sevenmembers. In the publication referred to, teenth century. The publication by the Charles E. Meyer of Philadelphia is named American Eosicrucian Society refers the Albert G, Goodale, origin of its ancient prototype to the thiras Supreme Magus New York, Senior Substitute Magus; Al- teenth century, which is manifestly an error. fred F. Chapman, Boston, Junior Substitute No association by the name has been traced Magus; Thomas J. Shryock, Baltimore, back of Andrae's account of a fictitious soIt was not strange that Treasurer General; and Charles T. McClena- ciety of that title. These the general public of the seventeenth cenchan. New York, Secretary General. gentlemen, some of whom are dead, may be tury and later should have attributed sorregarded as the founders of the Modern cery, alchemy, and other occult gifts to the Eosicrucians, but at this day the names of Eosicrucian Society in the United States. The work and purposes of modern Eosi- such Eosicrucians as John Baptist von Ilelcrucian Societies only faintly resemble an- mont, physician; Eobert Fludd, i)hysician cient Eosicrucianism, as the latter is often and philosopher, who died in 1637, and understood. Neither, so far as learned, do Elias Ashmole, the English antiquary, they claim any connection with the latter among many others who were j)i"ominent, beyond what may be inferred from the state- would suggest that they were leaders among ment that the English Society was founded mystical and iihilosophic thinkers two hunon the ""remains of an old German asso- dred and fifty years ago. Freemasonry Royal Order of Scotciation." The Eosicrucian Society of the seven- land. A ]\Iasonic Order of Knighthood It teenth century was supposed to be in some conferred upon Eoyal Arch ]\rasons. way related to Freemasonry, Avhich was prob- consists of two degrees or orders, the Eoyal ably an error, as the former embodied a sys- Orders of Herodem and of the Eosy Cross. tem of hermetic philosophy, while the Free- The Eoyal Order of Ilerodem of Kilwinning, masons at that time were nearly all operative Scotland, which by its own legend is said masons and builders. There is no relation to have taken its rise in the time of David
fifth,
;
:

whatever between the rose and the cross of


the Eosicrucians and like

I.,

King

of Scotland, presents the sacrifice

emblems

in the

of the Messiah,

whereupon the candidate


was

is

Masonic degree of the Eose Croix, which was invented about the middle of the eighteenth century. The Eosicrucians employed a number of so-called Masonic emblems, but they interpreted them differently. The
ancient philosophic sect took
its

sent into the world to search for the lost

word.

Its traditions state that it

estab-

lished at Icomkill.

Scotland, afterward at

Kilwinning, where Eobert Bruce, King of Scotland, presided in person, and in 1314
"reinstated the Order," admitting into
it

rise

in

88

FREEMASONRY: ROYAL ORDER OF SCOTLAND


as

such Knights Temphirs


plars

had

fled

to

Scotland after the dissolution of the

Tem- than almost any


Its

and under

his protection

had taken
verse.

part in

the battle of Bannockburn.

genuine Order of Knighthood other conferred in connection with Freemasonry, and in it is found the intimate connection between the sword
to being a

ritual is in antiquated

Anglo-Saxon

and the trowel which


eral others.

is

referred to in sev-

The Order
afterward

of St.

Andrew

of the Thistle,

Its ritual is distinctly Chris-

amalgamated Avith the Royal tian. As in the Order of Herodem, the Order of Ilerodem, was instituted by Robert office of Grand Master is vested in the King Bruce, King of Scotland, on July 2-4, 1314, of Scotland (now of Great Britain), and in to be conferred, it is said, upon Scottish his absence a seat is always kept vacant for Freemasons who fought with him, among him in whatever country a Chajiter is held. thirty thousand others, at the battle of Owing to the similarity between names, the Bannockburn, against an English army of Order of the Rosy Cross and that of the one hundred thousand men. "^At aboiit that Rose Croix of the Ancient and Accepted
is based upon the This appeared to be true, because The Order of both claimed to have had their seats of govthe title of Grand Master." Herodem is said to have been introduced ernment at Kilwinning, near the Irish Sea, into Kilwinning at about the time that in Scotland, because both gave a Christian Freemasonry appeared in Scotland, and interpretation to the three symbolic degrees

time/' says Thor}^ ''he formed the Royal Grand Lodge of the Order of Herodem, re-

Scottish Rite, the belief has prevailed that

the latter, in some way,

serving to himself and his successors forever

former.

of Freemasonry, and because the names of it probable that the Order was designed to make plain the rites and both bear a striking resemblance. As a symbols used by the Christian builders in a matter of fact, there is no further similarity Their ceretruly catholic manner, adapted to all who and no connection whatever. acknowledge one Supreme God, whether monials and essentials are entirely different. Provincial Grand Lodges of the Royal OrJew or Gentile.

Mackey regards

Order of der of Scotland, one of tlie oldest continuous appendent Orders of Freemasonry, are is an Order of Civil Knighthood, which, it is now held in Glasgow and Aberdeenshire, stated, was founded by Robert Bruce after Scotland; Yorkshire, Northumberland, DurCumberland, Lancashire, Cheshire, the' battle of Bannockburn, and conferred ham, Western India upon certain Freemasons who had assisted and London, England It may only be conferred by the China; New Brunswick, Prince Edward Ishim. Grand Master, his Deputy, or a Provincial land, Ontario, and Quebec; Natal, Cape Grand Master. The number who may re- Colony, Switzerland, and the United States, Formerly it was sixty- where chairs are always kept vacant for the ceive it is limited.

The second degree

of the Royal

Scotland, the Order of the Rosy Cross,

who were to be Scotchmen, but the number has since been increased, and disthree,

hereditary Grand Master.

tinguished Freemasons in almost

The Royal Order of Scotland was introduced into the United States at Washingnow receive it uj'ion being ton, D. C, May 4, 1878, in the rooms of tries may 'adopted" as Scottish (not Scottish Rite) the Supreme Council of the Ancient, AcIt has also been claimed that cepted Scottish Rite for the Southern MaFreemasons. the Order of the Rosy Cross was practically sonic Jurisdiction, United States of Amermade up of the ancient Order of the This- ica, when the Provincial Grand Lodge for the United States was instituted by virtue tle, and that the ceremonial of initiation In of a charter issued by the Grand Lodge at into the latter was borrowed bodily. any event, the Rosy Cross comes more nearly Edinburgh, Scotland, in which Sir Albert
all

coun-

Ya

90

FREEMASONRY: STATISTICS OF MEMBERSHIP


is

named as the Provincial Grand Mas- Stephen Berry and Josiah H. Drummond, Hayden Drummond, Maine, Portland, Me. the late Charles T. McClenaDeputy Provincial Grand Master; Albert chan of New York; to the Grand SecretaGallatin Mackey, then of the District of ries of Grand Lodges and other Masonic Columbia, Senior Provincial Grand War- Grand bodies throughout the United States den; Samuel Crocker Lawrence, Massachu- and British North America; to Grand SecPike
ter;

Josiab

Junior Provincial Grand "Warden; William Morton Ireland, of the District of Columbia, Provincial Grand Secretary; Eobert McCoskry Graham, New York, ProvinJohn Robin Mccial Grand Treasurer Daniel, Virginia, Provincial Grand SwordBearer Vincent Lombard Hurlbut, Illinois, Provincial Grand Banner-Bearer; Enoch
setts,
; ;

retaries of nearly every foreign Grand Lodge; and many others distinguished as Masonic

students or historians, with

whom

corre-

spondence
recognition
or
of the

has been
is

conducted.

Similar

due to Secretaries of Supreme


representatiA'^es

Grand bodies and other

Terry Carson, Ohio, Provincial Grand Marischal; Henry L. Palmer, Wisconsin, Deputy

Grand Marischal; Charles Roome, York, Senior Provincial Grand Steward, and James Cunningham Batchelor, The Louisiana, Provincial Grand Steward. meetings of the Provinpial Grand Lodge are held annually, at the same time and place
Provincial

New

as the

Supreme Councils

of the Scottish Rite

for the Southern and the Northern Jurisdic-

tion of the United States alternately.

The
Josiah

present Provincial Grand Master

is

Hayden Drummond
succeeded to that
the records,
files,

of Portland,

office

Albert Pike in 1891.


of the Scottish Rite,

]\[e., who upon the death of The secretariat, with

etc.,

is

at the Cathedral

Xo. 1007

Street,

N.

W., Washington, D, C.
bership of
the United States
is
:

The present memthe Provincial Grand Lodge of


284.

Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Ancient Order of Foresters, Independent Order of Good Templars, Grand United Order of Odd Fellows (membership of which in the United States is composed of negroes). Independent Order of Rechabites, Ancient Order of Hibernians, Sons of Temperance, United Ancient Order of Druids, B'nai B'rith, and the Loyal Orange Institution. The Freemasons are shown to be the most numerous and by far the most Avidely disIf non-aftributed throughout the world. filiated Freemasons were counted, the total membershijD of the Masonic Fraternity would undoubtedly amount to about 2,000,000, because those able to judge estimate that out of the whole number of living members of the Craft, about 40 per cent, are non-affiliates. The total of 11,000 Freemasons in Cuba refers to the period just before the outbreak
of

the revolution

prior

to

the Spanishnon-affiliates.

American War, and includes


list

Freemasonry
sliip.
eties,

Statistics of

Among the

long

of

Meinber- No one of the ten fraternities, statistics of secret soci- membership of which are compared with
those of the Freemasons,
tributed over the globe.
is

the names of which are familiar to

newspaper readers, there are eleven Avhich

very widely disIn contrast with

may

membership
separate

be classed as international, statistics of of which are presented in a

an exhibit which

jioints to

Masonic Lodges

in almost every civilized part of the Avorld

exhibit. These data, the most comprehensive of the kind ever prepared, have been compiled through the cooi:)eration of representatives of each of them. Unusually full particulars concerning the number of Freemasons in various countries, states, and provinces throughout the

except Russia, Austria, and part of Asia Minor, accompanying comparative statistics

show only three

other, out of ten interna-

tional secret societies, with anything like a

cosmopolitan character
of Foresters,

the Ancient Order Independent Order of Good Templars, and the Independent Order of

world are to be credited

to the researches of

Odd

Fellows.

The stronghold

of the

An-

FREEMASONRY: STATISTICS OF MEMBERSHIP

91

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF MEMBERSHIP OF ELEVEN INTERNATIONAL SECRET SOCIETIES.

Mbmbkrship
1895-1896.

92

FREEMASONRY: STATISTICS OF MEMBERSHIP

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF MEMBERSHIP OP ELEVEN INTERNATIONAL SECRET SOCIETIES. Continued.

Membership
1895-1896.

UNITED STATES
OOM.CANADA

UNITED
iR^ji.

-^c^^^y/^j

KINGDOM
AND

IRELAND.
GRAPHIC CHART SHOWING THE RELATIVE MASONIC MEMBERSHIP IN VARIOUS
COUNTRIES.

94

FREEMASONS: DISTINGUISHED AMERICANS


Australia aud
of the

ill

New

Zealand.
of

per cent,

members

the

About 40 Grand

fraternities

one organization, these eleven international number probably 3,500,000 adult

United Order of Odd Fellows (the parent male members, in 100,000 Lodges, scattered English Order of Odd Fellows) are mem- along the paths of commerce and civilization. bers of English, Scotch, and Irish Lodges; While the sun never sets upon the Britnearly 50 per cent, (negroes) are in the ish flag, it is also true that somewhere east United States; about 8 per cent, in Aus- of the horizon of daylight there is always tralia and New Zealand, and the remainder a Masonic Lodge at labor, and, in Englishwidely scattered, totals for South Africa, speaking countries in particular. Lodges of India, West Indies, and Central and South other international fraternities at work to More than relieve the wants of the suffering and disAmerica being very small. two-thirds of the members of the Ancient tressed and to cultivate the ties of brotnerOrder of Druids are found in the land of its hood. Freemasons Distinguished Ameribirth, the United Kingdom; about one-sixth Within a few years after the formain Australia and New Zealand, and nearly cans. The Inde- tion of a Masonic Grand Lodge at London, as many in the United States. pendent Order of Eechabites reports that in 1717, many members of the nobility, 2 per cent, of its membership is in the representatives of the professions and other United States, and the rest in the United learned men became members of the Craft, Kingdom. The total membership of the and between 1725 and 1735 Lodges of EngUnited Ancient Order of Hibernians, in the lish origin were established in many of the United States and in the United Kingdom, larger cities of Continental Europe, where, but the figures given, for a few years, they were composed almost is difficult to obtain best obtainable estimates of representative exclusively of men of rank and learning. members, show that nearly 80 per cent, of The growth of the Fraternity, as is well the Order is in the United States. The known, has long been along the lines of uniB'nai B'rith, smallest of international secret versal brotherhood, and even two hundred societies in the list, numbers only about and fifty years ago its" membership included 38,000 members altogether, of which 35,000 distinguished men in various stations of life. are in the United States, 700 in Asia Minor In almost all European countries the Craft and elsewhere in the far East, and 300 in to this day continues to enjoy the patronage The surprisingly large number of and cooperation of the reigning families and Africa. members of the Loyal Orange Institution is of the nobility, notably in Great Britain, given on the authority of a prominent mem- Holland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and ber, high in official rank. A total of 100,- Germany. The like was true in France 000 in the United States does not look large, under the Bourbons, in the Napoleonic but it is difficult to believe there are 383,- regimes, and under the Eepublic. Free000 Orangemen in British North America, masonry also continues to enjoy great jaopand it is still more unexpected to learn ularity among the followers of those who In England the there are as many as 760,000 in the United created a united Italy. Kingdom, and 200,000 in British posses- Fraternity is presided over by the Prince of sions "not specified." Wales, and in Sweden and Norway by King These eleven societies are seen to have Oscar. In Denmark the Crown Prince is aggregated nominally 5,859,023 members in at the head of the Grand Orient. The late 1895-96, or (omitting honorary and women Emperor Frederick was Grand Master of members of some of them) about 5,060,000. German Freemasons from 1855 until his The Emperor William, although Allowing for those counted twice or more death. times, owing to membership in more than a Freemason, has not attended Lodge
:

FREEMASONS: DISTINGUISHED AMERICANS


meetings since he became Emperor.
Austria, Freemasonry
is

95

In

not patronized by
in

General Jose[)h AVarren and Paul Revere. Joseph Brant (Thayendanegea), a Mohawk

the aristocracy or
in Eussia or

tlie

reigning family, nor

Indian chief in the British service during


the
lievolutionary
chief of the

Belgium; but

Holland the
of the Craft.

nobility are nearly all

members
of

War, and Tecumseh, Shawnee Indians, an ally of the

list

of the

names
or

who have been

are

eminent foreigners Freemasons would

British in the

War

of 1812,

who attempted

to incite the Indians against the whites, were

include hundreds of other notables besides

both Freemasons.
the close of the

In the period between

and the end of the century are found the names of F. A. Muhlenburg, Speaker of the Napoleon's generals, and the late King House of Representatives in 1789; William Kalakaua of the Hawaiian Islands, and it R. Cox, Secretary of the Senate in 1796; will interest students of the progress of the Robert R. Livingston of New York; and Craft in the United States to read the names Peyton Randolph, who was Grand Master of some of the more distinguished Ameri- of Masons of Virginia. Only eight Freecans who are credibly reported to be or to masons have been elected President of the have been Freemasons. L^nited States, out of twenty-four men who The character of those whose names follow have had that honor: Washington, Jacksufficiently attests the extent to which Free- son, Polk, Fillmore (who recanted during masonry has been linked witli the careers the anti-Masonic excitement), Buchanan, of prominent Americans, notwithstanding Johnson, Garfield, and McKinley. A corit is not true, as has often been stated, that " one-half the Presidents of the United

Richard Steele, Lord Byron, Robert Burns, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Garibaldi, Victor Emmanuel, Wellington, Bliicher, many of

War

of

the

Revolution

responding
six

list

of Vice-Presidents includes

names: Aaron Burr, D. D. Tompkins, States," and that " all but four of the sign- Richard M. Johnson, George M. Dallas, ers of the Declaration of Independence were John C. Breckenridge, and G. A. Hobart; Freemasons." Following the identification and among defeated candidates for the of Benjamin Franklin with the Craft early Presidency, John Hancock, John Marshall, in the last century are the names of Jeremy Henry Clay, Lewis Cass, John Bell, Stephen Gridley, Attorney-General of the Province of A. Douglas, W. S. Hancock, and George Massachusetts, Grand Master of St. John's B. McClellan were Freemasons, as were Provincial Grand Lodge in 1755; and James William II. English and Arthur W. Sewall Otis, Master for the Crown in the Prov- among defeated candidates for the Viceince of Massachusetts, who argued against Presidency. Names of other prominent the famous Avrits of assistance in ITGl, when xVmericans who were or are Freemasons " Independence was born. " The only sign- are grouped as follows: Cabinet Officers: ers of the Declaration of Independence who James Guthrie, Kentucky (Secretary of the were Freemasons, so far as Grand Lodge Treasury); Jacob Thompson, Mississippi records show, were Benjamin Franklin, (Interior); Howell Cobb, Georgia (TreasJohn Hancock, William Hooper, Philip ury); Zachariah Chandler, ^lichigan (InLivingston, and Thomas Xelson, Jr., five in terior); Edwin M. Stanton, Pennsylvania all. Not only Washington, but nearly all (AVar); Nathan Goff, West Virginia (Navy); of his generals were Freemasons; such, at Hoke Smith, Georgia (Interior); Benjamin least, was the case with respect to Generals F. Tracy, New York (Navy), and General Nathanael Greene, Richard Henry Lee, R. A. Alger, ^fichigan (War). Ministers Israel Putnam, Francis Marion, Baron Steu- Abroad: William Richardson Davie to ben, Baron De Kalb, and the Marquis de France (Grand Master of Masons in North
Lafayette, with

whom

should be included

Carolina at the close of the last century);

96

FIFTH ORDER OF MELCHIZEDEK AND EGYPTIAN SPHINX


E. Peary and Samuel Bowles (1st), George D. Prentice, George W. Childs, Henry AY. Grady, and Colonel John M. Financiers: J, Edward SimCockerill. mons, Henry W. Cannon, John W. Mackey, AVashington E. Connor, and William Sherer, Manager of the Clearing House, New York; Joseph Smith and Brigham Young of the Mormon Church; General Albert Pike of the Confederate Army; Stephen Girard, philanthropist; Josiah Quincy (President of Harvard College, 1829-40, during the
E.

Anson Burlingame, Massachusetts, to China;


MarshallJewell, Connecticut, to Russia; and
Caleb Cushing, Massachusetts, to Spain. Governors of States: Richard W. Caswell, Xorth Carolina; Edmund Randolph, Virginia;

Kane and Lieutenants

A.

W.

Greely.

Editors:

DeWitt Clinton, New York; Leon

anti-Masonic agitation); Jacob Quantrell, Rufus Choate, Massachusetts; Thomas H. guerrilla leader in the Civil War; Richard Benton, Missouri; John Rowan, Kentucky; Vaux of Philadelphia; Rt. Rev. Bishop General John A. Logan, Illinois; Oliver P. H. C. Potter of New York; Rt. Rev. WilMorton, Indiana; Leland Stanford, Call- liam Stevens Perry of Iowa; Rev. Stephen fornia; Marion Butler, North Carolina; H. Tyng; Rev. Robert Collyer, New York; F. T. Du Bois, Idaho; J. N. Dolph, Ore- Chauncey M. Depew, 0. H. P. Belmont, gon; George F. Edmunds, Vermont; C. J. Samuel M. Gompers, Joseph D. Weeks, Faulkner, West Virginia; Arthur P. Gor- Marshall P. AYilder, John Brougham, Edman, Maryland; H. C. Hansbrough, North win Forrest, William J. Florence, and EdDakota; 0. H. Piatt, Connecticut; M. S. win Booth. The fact that nearly all the names are Quay, Pennsylvania; G. L. Shoup, Idaho; Henry M. Teller, Colorado; John M. Thurs- of men who have become distinguished in ton, Nebraska; Daniel W. Voorhees, In- politics, war, or the professions was to have diana; Z. B. Vance, North Carolina; John been expected. It is less often that one J. Ingalls, Kansas; John T. Morgan, Ala- acquires a national or international repubama; Charles T. Manderson, Nebraska; tation in commercial, manufacturing, or John M. Palmer, Illinois; William A. Pef- agricultural pursuits, and it is among folfer, Kansas; Thomas C. Piatt and Warner lowers of the latter, of course, that by far Miller, New York. Congressmen: David the larger proportion of the nearly 1,400,000 Wilmot, Pennsylvania; Robert Toombs, affiliated and unaffiliated American FreeGeorgia; Thomas Corwin, Ohio; AVilliam masons are to be found. D. Kelley, Pennsylvania; R. P. Bland, Fifth Order of Melcliizedek and Missouri; Samuel J. Randall, Pennsyl- Egji>tiaii Sphinx. This secret organizavania; William S. Holman, Indiana; James tioaof men and women, the last known public D. Richardson, Tennessee, and Jeremiah appearance of which was at Boston in 1894, E. Simpson, Kansas. Judiciary: John was also known as the '' Solar Spiritual ProMarshall, of Virginia, Chief Justice of the gressive Order of the Silver Head and Golden Supreme Court of the United States; George Star." The Order claimed to have been M. Bibb, Chief Justice of Kentucky; Rob- founded several thousand years "A. M.," ert Trimble, Kentucky, Chief Justice of the which may signify either ante-Melchizedek Supreme Court of the United States; and or after Melchizedek. John M. Harlan, Kentucky, Associate JusGenii of Nations, Knowledges, and tice of the United States Supreme Court. Religions. A mystical association which Among Arctic Explorers: Dr. Elisha K. seeks to conduct its neophytes from the

Lucius Fairchild, WisFlower, New York; James B. Gordon, Georgia; J. M. Rusk, Wisconsin; Thomas M. Waller, Connecticut; General Benjamin F. Butler, Massachusetts; J. B. McCreary, Kentucky; D. H. Hastings, Pennsylvania; and George W. Peck, Wisconsin. United States Senators:
Abbett,
cousin;

New Jersey;
Roswell

P.

ORDER OF AMARANTH
Seen to the Unseen, a sort of esoteric
lege, familiarly
col-

97

known

to its

members

as the

Masonic Order, and no sense a Masonic degree." The Hieroiihant is reported to reside in Ap- It is further announced tliat, as in addition to the abstruse and comi)licated teachings plegate, Cal. Hermetic. Brothers of Luxor. Said of Freemasonry which go to make up a to be ancient, mystical, and of Oriental ori- part of life, we also " need sunshine," so The head of tlie Exterior Circle in these Freemasons have built up a new gin.
in itself this is not a
is

K. E. It was organized at Boston in 1888, and contains three branches, the Laws of the Ens, Movens, and Om, " inG.
N".

(Masonic) Lodge," and "although in many government may be guided by Masonic usage as the most perfect system extant, it is to be strictly understood that
cases the

cluding the secrets connected therewith."

the degree

in

"Veiled," because no eternal spirit will each complete its own human heart stands all revealed ; and in * cycle of It is sometimes re- an ''Enchanted Realm," because "duties necessity.'" wear" and "sorrows burden in any unenferred to as " Isis Unveiled." Intlependent Iuteriational Order of chanted realm." The cornerstones of the Owls. Organized by William Richardson, Order, therefore, as may be inferred, are G. A. Meacham, and others. Freemasons, sociability and goodfellowship. The first at St. Louis, Mo., in 1890, a secret society Grotto was formed at Clinton, N. Y., wliere
scintillations of

America recently resided teaches "that the divine

in

Illinois.

It

Order, Avhich
sons, as in its

is

" Mystic "


;

in its subtle les-

form

having sociability and recreation for its objects. Only Freemasons (Master Masons) The presiding are eligible to membership.
officers of

Hamilton College
zation

is

situated.

The

organi-

spread

rapidly,
five

there

being

ten

Grottos in existence

years later, with

ent Screechers, and instead of Lodges, places

two thousand members. Like the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, the of meeting are called Xests, the governing Mystic Order, Veiled Prophets of the Enbody being the Supreme Nest of the World. chanted Realm establishes only one Grotto, The or subordinate body, in any one city. The Order numbers about 2,500 members. Mystic Order, Veiled Prophets of the total number of Grottos in 1897 was ten, Enchanted Realm. Founded by Hon. the principal ones being at New York, Thomas L. James, ex-Postmaster-General Rochester, and Buffalo, and the total memThe head covering of of the United States, who was the first bership about 2,000. Grand Monarch of the organization ; Pro- a Veiled Prophet is a turban with a silver fessors Oren Eoot of Hamilton College, tissue veil, the color of which is selected by Clinton, N. Y. and J. F. MacGregory of each Grotto, with the exception that purple Madison University, Madison, N. Y. Gen- veils are reserved for members of the Sueral William M. Nest and LeRoy Fairchild, premo Council, or governing body. Order of Amaranth. OrigiiuiUy inboth of Hamilton, N. Y.; with Rt. Wor. George H. Raymond, Grand Lecturer of the tended as higher degree in the Order of the Grand Lodge of Freemasons of the State Eastern Star, to form the third of a series of New York ; Lieutenaut W. C. Eaton, of which the Eastern Star degree and the U. S. N. and many others, all Freemasons, Queen of the South should be respectively x\s Chapters of the Oras a social and recreative secret society. the first and second. The Order announces that in order to con- der of the Eastern Star did not approve that serve its own interests and secure the most plan, the Amaranth remains a distinct Order, desirable material none but Master Masons to which only Master Masons in good standsubordinate bodies are called
SajDi-

are

made
7

eligible

for

membership.

One ing and women who

are

members

of the Or-

of its objects "is to benefit

the symbolic

der of the Eastern Star are eligible.

The

98
ritual

ORDER OF MARTINISTS

upon which its present work is students of Esotericism, Egyptology, and fouuded is said to have been written nearly Symbolism. Membership is limited. The forty years ago by J. B. Taylor of Newark, Order is known to exist in Massachusetts. Order of the Eastern Star. A chariN. J. This, Robert Macoy of New York is said to have amplified and improved, until table and benevolent society to which only Master Masons, their wives, widows, sisters, it had substantially the form used to-day. The institution of Courts of the Order of and daughters are eligible. Its teachings Amaranth began about five or six years ago, are founded on the Holy Bible. Chapters of but the growth of this Order has not been the Order exist in nearly all/ if not quite rapid, total membership to-day not exceed- all, of the States of the Union, in the ProvThe ritual is based on ince of Ontario and elsewhere in the Doing five hundred. incidents in the lives of several characters minion of Canada, Scotland, and at one In the beginning time in Mexico, Central America, and in in the New Testament. Its total membership is a mu- South America. to incorporate made was attempt an

-r^cu^

tual assessment beneficiary feature, but

it

nearly

200,000,
States,

about

160,000

in

the

was abandoned soon after. The objects are (See Order largely benevolent and social.
of the Eastern Star.)

and very small elsewhere, the majority being women. Its symbolism centres about the five-pointed star and the
United
pentagon, or signet of Solomon.
It is re-

Order of Martinists.
merous

One

-of

the nu-

Masonic rites which made its lated that, originally, the first point of the appearance in France about the middle of star suggested Obedience; the second. AtIt is also called the Eite tachment; and so on but the modern ritual the last century. It appeared at Lyons in teaches that the first point represents the of Martinism. 1767, with ten degrees, fathered by Louis binding force of a vow, illustrated by Claude de St. Martin, a disciple of Martinez Jephthah's daughter the second, devotion
;

Paschalis.

The

latter's rite of

nine degrees

to religious principles, as exemplified in the


;

formed the
St.

basis of the ''rectified rite" of

Martin,

who was

a deeply religious
of

a student of

Eosicrucianism,
of the
filled

the third, fidelity to character of Euth man, kindred and friends, as personified by EsSweden- ther the fourth, faith in the power and
;

borg, and of the teachings of the Kabbalists

merits of a Eedeemer,

as

manifested by

and hermetic doctors His rite was naturally

middle ages. with what has

been described as "reveries of the mystics."

The Order was jiopular for a time, and spread into Oermany and Eussia, where it had a brief career. The only excuse for
this reference is the statement by S. 0. Gould, in his " Arcane Fraternities," Man-

chester, N. H., 1896, that the Order, ''re-

duced to three essential and four accessory degrees," was introduced into America in 1887, where it is "being conferred by established and recognized Masonic authorities." may prove themselves relatives of FreeHe adds that its chief officer for the United masons, except to Freemasons who are States "resides in Missouri," and that its members of the Order of the Eastern Star. disciples " are residents of more or less of The Order is quite popular in the West, where almost every city and town has one the States." Order of the S. E. K. Composed of or more Chapters. Its membership is also

Martha; and the fifth. Charity, illustrated by Electa. There is also a symbolism expressed through the signet, and there are other emblems, shown within the star. The society has the customary sign language found It is proper to in kindred organizations. explain that this Order is not Freemasonry, and is in no way connected with it. It was created by Freemasons, and only members of the Masonic Fraternity and women relaIt affords no tives of the latter may join it. especial means by which women members

ORDER OF THE EASTERN STAR


largo at the East and
instances,
in
is

99

addition

growing. In mauy to performing its


it

function, that of inculcating various moral

and
for

religious

principles,

operates

in

practice as a social club,

or rallying point
families of Freeif

women members

of

masons, their husbands, and,


masons,
their brothers
it

also Free-

and

fathers.

Not

was generally supposed the Order was originated in 1850 or 1851 by Robert Morris, the well-known poet and Freemason. Through the courtesy of Alonzo J. Burton of New York, the writer has been shown a printed ritual of an '^ Ancient
yours ago

many

them and the Freemasonry of one hundred and forty years ago, although rather more than that which exists between the Order of the Eastern Star and Freemasonry to-day, for there is no such thing in the United States as even an " adoption of an Eastern Star Chapter by a Masonic Lodge, or even the recognition of the existence of a body known as the Order of the Eastern Star by The rituals of the a Masonic Grand Body.
''

and Honorable Order of the Eastern Star,'' together with an account of its proceedings and women) novitiates who invariably took at a session in Boston, Mass., May 18, part in them Avith the moral lessons which Some of these 1793, which explains that the Society per- it was sought to inculcate. formed a most cflBcient work of charity relatively ancient, appendant orders for during the wars of tlic Revolution and 1812. Freemasons and women relatives of FreeThe idea of what has been called an Adop- masons exist on the European Continent tive or an Androgenous rite goes back, of to-day, though they have long ceased to atcourse, even farther tlian that.
to the writings of
ers,

Ordre des Felicitaires, the Wood Cutters, and others of like character, are quite dissimilar from Masonic rituals, tending rather to poetic, scenic effects, and dramatic performances calculated to impress the (men

A reference
the in-

tract the

number
for

of candidates or class of

Mackey, Oliver, and othafter

members
noted.

which

they were

formerly

indicates

that shortly

troduction of Freemasonry from England


to the Continent of Europe (one account " says as early as 1830), so-called ''Masonic

Freemasonry was introduced into the American colonies nearly one hundred and seventy years ago, and in the latter half of

Lodges for women made their appearance. the last century (population of the country To the mere statement of Mackey that there and the lack of facilities for communication considered), had an extensive and, as hisis a trace of these as early as 1649, nothing But in 1843 we find a tory informs us, distinguished membershij). can be added. French society of this variety, entitled There are fragmentary printed memoranda "Ordre des Felicitaires " in 1847, the indicating that some of the continental a degrees conferred in " Lodges of Adoption," *' Order of Wood Cutters;" and, later, number of others. These were formed in or other men and women's Orders to which Germany, Poland, Russia, and, notably, in only Freemasons and women relatives were Franco, during the middle of the last cen- eligible, were introduced into this country Whether any of these tury, where, for the next twenty-five years, as early as 1778. they flourished and were popular among the took the form of an Order of the Eastern
;

nobility
society.

and otliers in the higher ranks of Star, w^hich the published report referred " Lodges of Adoption " appeared in to, may never be known. One may only France in 1750, to which only Master Masons admit its likelihood. With the brief stateand women relatives wore eligible, and were ment in the Proceedings of the Ancient and so called from their being taken under the Honorable Order of the Eastern Star, re" published in New York in 1850, that that nominal protection of or being '' adopted society was conspicuous for deeds of charity there was But Lodges. regular Masonic by no further connection than that between in the War of the Revolution and in the

100

ORDER OF THE EASTERN STAR


of 1812, one
is

success. When Morris sailed for the Holy and costumed Land, in 1866, he turned over all his rights Morris was to the Order of the Eastern Star to Robert his Order of the Eastern Star. born at Boston in 1818, was made a Free- Macoy of New York. In 1866 a church mason at Oxford, Miss., March 5, 1846, and stood at the corner of Grand and Crosby in 1847, with his wife, received the so-called Streets, in New York, the property of the *'side^' or unsystematized Masonic degree, Freemasons of the State of New York, and the "Heroine of Jericho.'' This is said to in December of that year a fair was held have greatly interested him, and in Febru- there for the benefit of the proposed Masonic At its conclusion the ary, 1850, when confined to his bed with Hall and Home. rheumatism, he is described as having de- ladies who had presided over the tables were

War

forced to rest content,

until Kobert Morris invented

vised the Order of the Eastern Star.


writes
of
his

He

loath to break their i^leasant associations,

having "hesitated for a theme " on which to build such an Order, having " dallied over a name " and pondered
long over the selection of the five-pointed
star

and a ball was given a month or two later, and a thousand dollars more realized for the
fund.

On

January, 17, 1867, eighteen of


it

the ladies organized a society and called

and jjentagon as its chief emblems. the Alpha Chapter of the Order of the This would indicate originality on his part, Eastern Star. They met occasionally and and suggests that his calling it the Order of performed works of charity, but, lacking a About the Eastern Star was merely a coincidence. ritual, the society did not prosper. of year later one the ladies met Morris a Robert unable learn that writer is to The ever heard of the Eastern Star of 1793. Macoy, an eminent Freemason, and told This, then, is the slender thread upon him that if the society had a ritual she which hangs the claim of antiquity for the thought it would be successful. Mr. Macoy modern Order. Morris wanted this society set to work rearranging the old ritual, and to become a branch of Freemasonry, so as on October 15, 1868, in the presence of the to permit women members to prove them- eighteen ladies referred to, conferred the selves relatives of Freemasons to members degree, with his own wife as the candidate. of the Masonic Fraternity anywhere, and to Macoy simplified the work of the Constelenable them to share in the charitable work lations and amplified that of the Families His plan excited great by a dramatic rearrangement which was at of that Fraternity. opposition, and failed. In 1853 he con- once successful. From that time the Order ferred the Order on a number of acquaint- began to increase, and New York State ances, and in 1855 instituted Constellation to-day has 125 Chapters and about 10,000 No. 1, Purity, at Lodge, Fulton County, members. The Grand Chapter of New Kentucky. The headquarters were at Lex- York was organized November 3, 1870. In 1866 Albert Pike printed^ a version ington, Ky., and Morris, of course, was the Grand Luminary, About two hundred of the French ritual of an Order of the Constellations were formed throughout the Eastern Star of a century ago, using the United States, one being in New York city, forms intact, but augmenting the parts. somewhere on Spring Street. This arrange- The ritual is composed of three degrees, ment of the Eastern Star ritual met with Apprentice, Companion, and Mistress. The The dedisfavor from Freemasons, and as the work is now exceedingly scarce. ceremony was "too complicated," Morris grees are so complicated that it would be revised it in 1859, calling the bodies " Fam- impracticable for the ordinary assembly to
ilies

of the Eastern Star."

number

of

work them, and there


were
ever

is

no record that they


in
this

Families Avere instituted, but the revised


ritual evidently did not possess elements of

exemplified

country.

Whether

either Morris or

Macov ever saw

ORDER OF THE PALLADIUM


work or the original is not known. Macoy, as Supreme Head of the Order, began chartering chapters and issuing new warrants to such Families as existed, and 1869, 1870, 1871, and 1872 witnessed the extension of the Order into nearly every State in the Union, Cuba, Mexico, Central and South America, superseding a species of ** Adoptive Freemasonry'^ which had grown up in Michigan and in New York in AVhat was called the 1867 and 1868. Supreme Council of the Adoptive Rite of the World was instituted at New York
this
city,

101

Order

in that its

teachings are imparted by


so-called

means of " secret machinery." Its " religion " is referred to as that
stars."

of

" the
its

No

one but members profess to


its

know the cause of underlying principles.

existence

or

Order of the Mystic

Star.

Founded

about 1872 or 1873, at New York city, by A. J. Duganne and others. It was designed
to rival the then rapidly

the Eastern

Star,

and, like

growing Order of it, was open


It did

only to Master Masons, their wives, widows, mothers, daughters, and


live long.
sisters.

not

June

14,

1873,

at

time when a

meeting of the General Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters (American Rite of Freemasonry) was held at that city. Morris presided, and Macoy was elected Supreme Patron Mrs, Frances E. Johnson, Supreme Matron Andrew Cassard, AssoLaura L. Burton, ciate Supreme Patron Deputy Supreme Matron; Robert Morris, Supreme Recorder William A. Prall, Suand P. M. Savary, preme Treasurer Supreme Inspector. This was not longThe General Grand Chapter of the lived. Order was formed in 1876 at Chicago, and
; ;
; ;

Order of the Oinali Laiij^uage. Founded at Washington, D. C; year not


given.
It describes the original universal

language, the root, as the the primal language

Omah
allied

tongue,

" which

man

to

has jurisdiction over the entire Order, except in Vermont, Connecticut, New York,

and

New

Jersey, reporting 27

Grand Chap-

ters in all.

In 187-4 Alonzo J. Burton of

New York

originated a floral ceremony to supplement the general work of the SociAt the ety, which is in quite general use.

Grand Chapter, held in New June, 1895, the Order of the Sisterhood was exemplified by a selected corps from Utica, N. Y., and the degree was adopted as an auxiliary. It was comsession of the

York

city,

posed in the latter part of 1878, and is founded on the Biblical account of Jacob's
ladder and a history of
the

the life of Mary mother of the Saviour. (See Order of Amaranth.) Order of the Majji. A mystical Chicago Society, the practices and preachings of which are ''open to all who can appreciate them,'' but which is in reality a secret

through confusion of sounds much that was known to man is lost that the Omah language revealed to man the secrets of material life and tliat ''this language now' upon this planet has once more reached the identical point from which it was diffused," so that " men daily pronounce the magic words, having no conception of their occult power and meaning." S. C. Gould, in his "Resume Arcane Associations," adds that "a word to the wise is sufficient;" from which some may infer that the Order thinks it has much it could teach, even to the most erudite students of high grade Masonry. Order of the Palladium. Said by S. C. Gould, in his "Resume of Arcane Associations," to have been "instituted in 1730," and "introduced into the United States at Charleston, S. C," where it remained dormant until 1884, when it was revived in 1886, as the new and reformed Palladium, " to impart new force to the traditions of high grade Masonry." It admits men and women, the former to the grades of Adelphos and Companion of Ulysses, and the latter to that of Penelope. As its Councils are " held
alleges tliat
; ;

Yahveh," and

incognito,"

its

proceedings never printed,


is

and

its

membership

greatly

restricted.

102
little
is

ORDER OF THE

S. S. S.

AND BROTHERHOOD OF THE


Illuminati
the latter)

Z. Z. R. R. Z. Z.

bers.

by others than mem"Free and Eegenerated Palladium,*' by Avhicli title it is now known. Order of the S. S. S. and Biotlierliood of the Z. Z. R. R. Z. Z. Headquarters ''for this country" at Boston. *'A11 things come from Its motto is: within." Its seal is a circle, formed of three cobras " separated by three swastikas, encircling two interlaced triangles," which, in turn, enclose "the crux ansata," from which its theosophic temperament and

kuown

of

it

(Avignon,

1760),

into

which
of

It publishes the

the reveries of both

Boehme (founder

and of Swedenborg (who was It not a Freemason) were incorporated. has been presumed to have long been exbut tinct outside of a few Swedish Lodges S. C. Gould, in "Arcane Fraternities," Manchester, N. H.,1896, says that the Eite flourished in a Lodge in New York from 1859 until 1863, and that it is still practised
;

as

distinct

rite

in

the

Dominion

of

mystical tendencies
declares

may
with

be inferred.

It

Canada. Society of Eleusis. Commemorative of its prototype, it is founded on a portion of

that Love

Wisdom

is

the

the ceremonies of the latter, and occasion-

ally holds a grand festival with appropriate by the Oil of Love. Among its relics exercises. It dates its birth 1356 B.C., and has for its motto. Quod hoc sibi vuU f Comis said to be a " large cube of cream-white Its duodecennial celebration stone," of great antiquity, j^resented by " a mune bonum. Mexican chief." Membership is small. was held at Boston in 1884. Order of the Siifis. Philosophical and Society of the Illuminati. A secedtheosophical, based on the Unitarian doc- ing Mormon, religious secret society for The word Sufi men, with which was associated another trines of the Persians. refers to the Arabic word Suf, wool, and organization, The Covenant, a secret soalludes to the dress of the Dervishes who ciety for Mormon men and women, which originally taught the princij)les the Order existed on Beaver Island, in Northern Lake seeks to elucidate, which are alleged to Michigan, off the Grand Traverse regions, When the Morreconcile jihilosophy with revealed religion between 1850 and 1856. by means of mystical interpretations of doc- mons, under Brigham Young, left Council trine. The candidate for its mysteries Bluffs for Utah, James J. Strang, at the represents a traveler in search of Truth, head of a party of seceders (New York "a hidden treasure," and passes through " Sun " Grand Rapids correspondence, eight stages or grades. Worship, Love, Se- January 21, 1895, published January 27), clusion, Knowledge, Ecstasy, Truth, Union, journeyed to Beaver Island, founded the and Extinction, or absorption into the village of St. James, " naming it after himLight. self," erected a tabernacle, and, with the S. C. Gould, of Manchester, N. H., that representatives of the Order restates assistance of " a dozen young men as ajaosBy side in New York and Missouri. tles," conducted religious services. Order of the White Shrine of Jerusa- 1850 St. James had a population of about

secret of Life,
is

and that the Torch of Life

fed

lem. Founded at Chicago a few years ago by Charles D. Magee, Supreme Chancellor. Men and women are eligible to membership.

600.

" an angel

In 1850 Strang had a revelation from of the Lord," directing him to be

crowned "King of the Mormons," and enhim and his jieojile the isractice Queen of the South. See Order of of polygamy. He was accordingly crowned Amaranth. king in what might be described as "ample Rite of Swedenborg-. A mystical, form," and took unto himself a number theosophical Masonic rite, consisting of six of wives. The account referred to adds degrees, which grew out of the Rite of the that "in the Church" were two secret
joining upon

SOVEREIGN COLLEGE OF ALLIED MASONIC AND CHRISTIAN DEGREES FOR AMERICA


societies,

103

Society of the of America William James Hughan, the and the other for well-known English Masonic historian D. both men and women, called " The Cove- Murray Lyon, the Scottish Masonic hisnant," from which it is easy to perceive he torian the Earl of Euston and Prince paralleled the work of Young, Kimball, Demetrius Rhodocanakis of Greece. The Hyde, Pratt, and other Mormon leaders, Sovereign College is in amity with the then in Utah, where the secret "work'' of Royal Ark Council of England, the Grand
tlie
;

one called

Illuminati, for

men

only,

the

Mormon

Cluirch centred largely in the


(Sec Free-

Conclave

of

Secret

Monitors for

Great

and Dependencies of It is fur- the British Crown, and the Grand Council Covenant of the Allied Masonic Degrees for England, iron-clad oaths were taken to defend tlie Wales, and the Colonies and Dependencies Church, even to the shedding of blood, and of the British Crown, at which the Earl of to stand by one another through thick and Euston is the representative of the Sovereign thin." The "secret obligations and work College in America. The allied Masonic of the Illuminati were never made i)ublic." and Christian degrees conferred by the SovStrang's career was brief. In 1856 he ereign College are the Ark Planner, corwas shot by one of his followers who had responding to the English Royal Ark MariBritain, the Colonies

endowment house ceremonials. masonry among the Mormons.) ther explained that "in The

been iiublicly

whipped,

by order of

the

ner

Secret Monitor, Babylonish Pass, Great


Priest,
St.

Holy and Tdesscd Order of Wisdom, and Trinitarian Knight of St. John -of PatStrang's death, neighboring fishermen in- mos. In recently published announcements vaded the island, razed the tabernacle, and the Babylonish Pass and Great High Priestdispersed the piratical Mormon population, hood are omitted. The Ark Mariner degree who fled to Chicago, Milwaukee, and else- is popular in England, where the candidate where. must have taken the Mark Master Mason Sovereign College of Allied Masonic degree in order to be eligible to receive it. and Christian Degrees for America. It is conferred upon Master Masons here. "Grand body," founded by Hartley Car- The language of the degi-ee is peculiar. The " michacl, 33, William Eyan, 33% and C. A. Su]>reme body is called a " Grand Ark
nople,

"king" for refusing to compel his wife to wear " bloomers " in compliance with an "edict" that all women in the kingdom

Higii

Lawrence the Martyr,

Tylers of Solomon, Knight of Constanti-

should dress in that manner.

Learning of

Xesbitt, 33, at Eic]imond,Yirginia,in 1890,

subordinate bodies are "Vessels."

All

its

having rituals of some so-Citlled "side" or references are nautical, and allude to the unsystematized degrees, which are conferred Deluge and the Ark of Noah. Members only upon Freemasons, and several aca- profess to be followers of Noah, and theredemic degrees which are conferred upon fore call themselves Noachidae, or Sous of distinguished Freemasons, hoyioris causa, Noah. The degree, which was invented in or to members of the Fraternity "who have England about the close of the last century, passed satisfactory examinations and jxiid sheds no light upon Freemasonry. Tlie the necessary fees." Its highest academic degree of Secret Monitor, conferred upon degree is entitled "Doctor of Universal Ark Mariners, is thought to have been deMasonry," and only five Freemasons are rived from a Masonic society which was said to have received it Josiah H. Drum- formed in Holland, about 1778, to teach mond, of Maine, Past Most Puissant Sover- the meaning of Brotherly Love. The latter eign Grand Commander of the Ancient and was called the Order of David and Jonathan, Accepted Scottish Rite for the Nortiiern and inculcated unfaltering friendship even Masonic Jurisdiction of the United States in the presence of the most appalling danger.

104

TALL CEDARS OF LEBANON


handed down
is

The degrees of Tylers of Solomon, St. Lawrence the Martyr, and Knight of Constantinople are conferred only upon those who have
taken the two preceding degrees, and that last named upon those only who are willing to
repeat and sign the Apostles' Creed.
says of the degree of

to be passed along.

Its finale

Mackey

Knight

of Constanti-

nople, that

it has no connection with Freemasonry, teaches an excellent lesson in humility, and that it was probably instituted by some Masonic lecturer. The Babylonish Pass used to be conferred in Scotland in Eoyal Arch Chapters. It jjossesses something in common with the Masonic Order

sometimes a banquet. Temple of Isis. Situated at Chicago. Lectures are delivered before its members monthly, on such subjects as the Mysteries, the Sphinx, the Pyramids, and Hermetic Teachings. Its symbol is a four-winged kneph surrounded by a cobra. Dr. W. P. Phelon is named as the founder of the Society, in which much is made of the Tetragrammaton, or combination of Hebrew letters representing the great and sacred name

of Deity.

Tlieosopliical

Society.

(Contributed

of the of

Red Cross conferred

in

Commanderies by Mrs. Annie Besant.)

The Theosophical

Knights Templars. It is thought that the Holy and Blessed Order of Wisdom is allied to one of a similar name referred to under the sketch of the Order of Knights of the Red Cross of Rome and Constantine (which see), particularly as the candidate must be either a Knight Templar or a thirtysecond degree Freemason of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. The Trinitarian Degree of Knight of St. John of Patmos is conferred only upon Freemasons of mark and learning who have received the thirty-second degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. It is Christian and Trinitarian, and its possessors declare it equivalent to a patent of Masonic nobility. The ritual refers to the banishment of St.

Society is an international brotherhood, the formation of which was suggested on September 7, 1875, in the rooms of Madame H. P. Blavatsky, 46 Irving Place, New York

U. S. A., and the definite organization which was completed on November 17th of the same year. On that day the duly
city,

of

elected

President,

Colonel

Henr}^

Steele

Olcott, delivered the inaugural address,

and

the

official

year of the Society


17, 1875.
interest.

is

reckoned

from November

The

first officers

have an historical
coast

President,

Henry

Panand G. H. Felt; Corresponding Secretary, Helena Petrovna Blavatsky; Recording Secretary, John Storer Cobb; Treasurer, H. J. Newton Librarian, Charles Sotheran John. It is believed to be allied to the Councillors, Rev. J. H. Wiggin, R. B. WestOrder of Knights of St. John the Evan- brook, Emma Hardinge Britten, Dr. C. E. conferred in Grand Councils of Simmons, H. D. Monachesi; Counsel to the gelist, Knights of the Red Cross of Rome and Society, W. Q. Judge. Of all these, but
Steele Olcott; Vice-Presidents, Dr. S.
;

Constantine.
situated at

The Sovereign

College
its

is still

Richmond, Va., and

three

founders continue
ficers.

among

its

principal of-

one remains to-day, the President-Founder, H. S. Olcott, who, after twenty-two years of loyal service as President, remains still at
the head of the Society, the symbol of
its

Total

2,100, of
States.

whom

about about 560 are in the United


allied

membership

Tall Cedars of Lebanon. The name Masonic '^ side degree." The ceremony is said to be amusing. The deof a so-called

unbroken traditions. The rest are all swept away by death or desertion, the death of H. P. Blavatsky, the co-founder, having occurred in 1891.
unity and the custodian of
its

Organization.
Society
is

The

organization of the

gree has no

oflBcial

standing, and there

is

copied from that of the United

no regular or authorized method of conferring it, beyond the fact that it has been

States, so far as federal

and

local govern-

ments are concerned.

It has a president.

THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY

105

elected for a term of seven years (the Presi- as soon as circumstances permit of their dent-Founder holds his office for life, the being organized under local governments seven years' term applying only to his suc- they are encouraged to thus group themcessors). He appoints a vice-president, but selves. Any seven members of the Society may the appointment must be ratified by the Society; and he appoints a recording secretary apply to be chartered as a Branch, all charand treasurer. There are no other officers ters deriving their authority from tlie Presibelonging to the Society as a whole. The dent. Every Branch, or Lodge, of tlie Sogeneral control and administration of the ciety elects its own officers and makes its Society is vested in a General Council, con- own by-laws, subject to the provision that
sisting of the President, the Vice-President, such by-laws must not conflict with the genand the General Secretaries of the Sections eral rules of the Society. Any seven or into which the Society is divided. Its head- more chartered Branches can be formed by quarters are at Adyar, Madras, India, and the President, on their application, into a consist of a lai'ge and beautiful building, Section, and this Section enjoys local autoncontaining a spacious hall for meetings, a omy; it elects a General Secretary, who is fine library, the offices of the Society, and a ex-officio a member of the General Council, number of living apartments; this building the governing body of the whole Society, and who is the official channel of communiis surrounded by extensive grounds, picturesquely planted, and has several smaller cation between the President and the Secbungalows connected with it for the work tion. Each General Secretar}'^ sends an-

of the Society and the reception of visitors.

nually to the President a report of the year's

was opened in 188G by a remarkable ceremony in which Hindu, Buddhist, Mohammedan, and Zoroastrian
library, Avhich

The

priests officiated, contains a valuable collec-

work of his Section, and these are summarby the President in his annual report, and are preserved as part of the records of There are at present the Society at Adyar.
ized

tion of
scripts

some 10,000 Eastern palm-leaf manuand printed literature, some of the

(1897) seven Sections of the Theosophical


Society: the

American Section, chartered in

former being exceedingly rare. It bids fair to grow into an institution of very great
importance, and plans are on foot to
it

188G, General Secretary, Alexander Fullerton, 5 University Place,

New York
is

city; it
I'ap-

make
Its

contains 40 Branches and


idly;

growing

a great teaching centre and a resort for


all

the European Section, chartered as


1890, General Secretary, G.

students from
beauty,

parts of the world.

the British Section in 1888, and extended


to

and quiet while only seven miles distant from the city of ^ladras combine to render it an ideal spot for the
seclusion,

Europe
S.

in

P.

^lead,

10

Avenue Koad, Regent's

Park, London, England, with 79 Branches

student.

The anniversary meetings

of the

and Centres (groups not yet chartered); the


Indian Section, chartered in 1890, General Secretaries, Bertram Keightley and L''penIndia,

Theosophical Society are held at Adyar at


the end of each December, and on that occasion a vast gathering assembles of

members dranath Basu, Benares,

with

181
in-

and friends from


other lands;

all

parts of India and from

Branches and Centres, of which 47 are


in

the

twenty-first anniversary

active; the Australasiaii Section, chartered

was celebrated there on December 27, 28, 29, and 30, 1896. Branches of the Society not belonging to any Section, and members unattached to any Branch or Section, are connected directly with the headquarters at Adyar; but

1894, General Secretary, J. Scott, 42 Margaret Street, Sydney, N. S. W., with 12 Branches; the Xew Zealand Section,

chartered in 1895, General Secretary, Lilian

Edger, Mutual Life Buildings, Auckland, with 8 Branches; the Scandinavian Section,


106

THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY
a gracious friendliness
learn.

chartered in 1895, General Secretary, A. Zet-

and willingness
leading

to

Stockholm, Sweden, with 13 Branches; the Netherlands Section, chartered in 1897, General Secretary, W. B. Fricke, 76 Amsteldijk, Amsterdam, Holtersten, ISTybrogatan 30,

Doctrines
are

Studied.

The
;

doc-

trines studied in the Theosophical Society


:

the unity of existence

the three Logoi;

land, with 7 Branches.

the nature of the universe and of man, as

Ceylon has 22 Branches, bnt they are not


organized into a Section; the chief work of the Society in Ceylon has been that of education.

macrocosm and microcosm, evolving in a sevenfold order; the One Self as the root of Being, its infoldment in matter and the un-

Under the inspiring energy of the foldment of its powers therein; the inherent President-Founder the Sinhalese Buddhists divinity in man, his constitution and powhave built and now maintain 100 schools ers; his evolution by reincarnation, treading and two large colleges, educating between in turn the physical, astral, and mental These worlds, time after time, under the law of 3,000 and 9,000 Buddhist children. 22 Sinhalese Branches and four others are causation, or karma, until perfection is
the only Branches outside the Sections.
Objects.

gained; the quickening of evolution by the

The objects of the Theosophical


number:
1.

study and practice of the science of the


soul; the present existence of

Society are three in

To form
of

nucleus of the Universal Brotherhood of

attained perfection,

and

men who have who remain on


of their

Humanity,

without

distinction
2.

race,

earth to help
less

onward the evolution

creed, sex, caste, or color.

To encourage

the study of comparative religion, j)hiloso-

phy, and science.


in

3.

To

investigate unex-

plained laws of nature and the powers latent

Only the first of these objects is all members, and the Society embraces members of all faiths, demanding no assent to any formula of belief as a qualification of membership. Its members are connected by an ethical rather than by an intellectual bond, and their unity rests on a sublime spiritual ideal, not on a formulated creed. The Society has no dogmas, insists on no beliefs, indorses no church, supports no party, takes no sides in the endless quarrels that rend society and embitter national, social, and personal life. It seeks to draw no man away from his faith, but helps him
binding on
to find in the depths of his
spiritual

man.

advanced brethren; the presence of such men in all ages, as custodians of a body of knowledge respecting God, the universe, man, and their relations to each other, leading to a knowledge of the Self, the divine wisdom; the existence and continual activspiritual and others ity of Intelligences engaged in carrying on and directing all the processes of nature, with whom man can come into contact by virtue of the spiritual

intelligence

latent

within himself.
of

It

is

asserted that these doctrines are


all

common

to

religions,

and that where any

them
it is

have become overlaid by efflux of time,

necessary, in order to preserve the religion,

Their jDresthat they should be restored. ence in the various religions can be proven by the common language of symbolism, in

own

religion the

which they are expressed, the leading symbols of great religions being identical.

nourishment he needs. That each should show to the religion of others the respect he claims for his own is understood as an honorable obligation in the Society, and perfect mutual courtesy on these matters is expected from members. More and

The

study of symbolism

is

carefully pursued in

the Branches of the Society.

Inner
everyone

Grades

mid

Teachings.Mhile

who

recognizes the universal brothis

erhood of

man

welcomed within the Theoits

more

this leads to cooperation in the search

sophical Society,

inner grades, comprised


to those

for truth, to softening of prejudices, to lib-

witliin the Eastern School, or Esoteric Section, are

eralizing of minds,

and

to the

growth of

open only

members

of not

THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY
than a year's standing, who have made have become convinced of the truth of the fundamental theosophical doctrines, and who, already striving to lead a pure and unselfish life, desire to adless

107

Some think
for a great

that the Society

is

being shaped

sufficient jsrogress to

work

in the future,

and that the


to time sifted

unfit are therefore out.

from time

vance more rapidly in the evolution of the inner nature. Such members, on approval, enter the Eastern School, and commence a
regular course of study and jH'actice, de-

Two figures stand prominently out as the Founders of the Society, Colonel Henry Steele Olcott and Madame Helena Petrovna
Blavatsky.

Colonel Henry Steele Olcott

is

a native-

signed to prepare them for admission into


successive stages of the path which leads
to definite discipleship

up

born American, and obtained his colonelcy during the great Civil War between Xorth

and South. He received high praise from his government for his services, and was well todians of the divine wisdom, and who are known, in addition, as a scientific agriculever ready to welcome the neophyte who turalist; but his cravings after knowledge proves himself worthy of accei)tance. This of the invisible worlds drove him into inSchool opens up once more, in the sight of vestigations that led him far away from offithe modern Avorld, the ancient pathway to cialism and agriculture, and when he met Initiation, the function performed in an- Madame H. P. Blavatsky at the Eddy farmcient Greece by the Schools of Pythagoras, house, whither he had gone to investigate between which and the TheosoiJhical Society the spiritualistic manifestations tlirough the there is an occult tie. Its lowest grades Eddy brothers, he was drawn to her by her correspond to the classes of Pythagorean obvious occult knowledge, and a bond was scholars who were learning to practise in formed between them which united them in family and social life the lower classes of a common work on the physical plane till According to virtues, and its higher ones, in ascending her passing away in 1891. order, lead the earnest aspirant to the very her belief and his the bond remains ungateway of the great Initiations. This res- broken on the higher planes of existence, toration to the modern world of the cher- and tliey are still co-workers, though not in Together they founded ished privilege of antiquity the knowledge the physical body. where the beginning of the pathway can be the Theosophical Society, and traveled found that leads from the life of the world through the world to organize it. Helena Petrovna Blavatsky was a Kusto that of the Adept, or the perfected Man, to earnest and aspiring souls, sian of noble family related to the imperial is perhaps, She was married in exthe greatest boon bestowed by the Theo- house of Russia.
under one of the
great Masters, or Adepts,

who

are the cus-

sophical Society.

History.

The history of

the Theosophi-

cal Society is

one of struggle against apparit

ently insurmountable obstacles, of crushing

treme youth to his Excellency General Xicephore Blavatsky, governor of a district in the Caucasus, but left him ere their married life had well begun, driven by an insatiable
knowledge, and traveling, on means provided by her father, through Egypt and various Eastern lands, in search of a Teacher whom she knew to exist, but knew not where to find. At last she succeeded in the object of her search, and bethirst for occult

attacks and betrayals from which

has ever
of tem-

emerged the stronger and the purer,


It is as

porary reverses followed by swifter progress.

though it were watched over by a Power which subjects it to the rudest trials,
it

in order to shake out of

every

member

who
and

is

not strong enough to stand alone,

enough to discern the right pathway amid bewildering cross-roads.


intuitional

came the pupil of a great Hindu sage, receiving from him the knowledge with which
she returned to the Western world.

She

108

THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY
wa}^ to

made her

America, where she was

changed

its

name

in 1883
''

directed to begin her teaching work,

met

ish Theosophical Society

from the "Britto the " London


It

Colonel Olcott, and accepted

him

as the col-

Lodge
still

of the

Theosophical Society.*'

Sinnett, the well-known writer, as its Presitwo large volumes, " Isis Unveiled,'' a work dent. It is the premier Lodge of the Soshowing a vast range of occult knowledge, ciety, as holding the oldest charter. The Pounders left England for India on but a collection of notes for a book rather January 19, 1879, and landed in Bombay than the complete book itself. These two remarkable persons were the on February 16th. There the Indian defounders and the sustainers of the Theo- partment of the Society was founded, and sophical Society: Colonel Olcott the execu- branch after branch rapidly sprang up. tive officer, the organizer, presiding over all The movement spread to Ceylon in 1880, nine branches being formed there. In Euits otiter activities; and Madame Blavatsky the teacher, the expounder of occult mys- rope, the Ionian Branch was founded in teries and the wielder of occult forces. They Corfu in 1882, followed by the formation of were the twin suns round which the whole branches in France in 1883, and in Scotland and Germany in 1884. system revolved. In America the movement languished. The Society did not flourish in America Little interest was An apparently abortive attempt to form a after its foundation. aroused by its teachings. Spiritualism being Branch at Los Angeles, Cal., was made in then in the ascendant, and it appeared as April, 1879, and under date April 30, 1881, though the Society were fated to perish still- Mr. Judge writes of the one group in New born. But its organization was just kept York city that it is "suspended," and going by its founders, and the great spirit- " ought to remain torpid for some time But General Donbleday and Dr. ual forces behind it ensured its continuance yet." through these early days. On July 16, J. D. Buck were elected among the Vice1877, at a meeting of the Society, the Presi- Presidents of the whole Society in April, dent was authorized to form branches of the 1880, and Mr. Judge was elected as a reSociety in Great Britain, India, and else- cording secretary in 1879, and reelected in where at his discretion, to transfer the So- 1880. In January, 1882, a slight renewal ciety's headquarters to any country in which of life appeared at Eochester, and a Branch he might himself be established, and to tem- was chartered, followed on May 5, 1883, by On December 4, porarily appoint anyone he might select to a Branch at St. Louis.

league she Avas seeking, and announced herself to the world through the publication of

bears this name, and has Mr. A. P.

1883, the original New York group, long These arrangements suspended, dissolved itself, and the "New were made in view of the approaching de- York Branch of the Theosophical Society " parture of the Founders for India; the New was formed under the name of the " Aryan York headquarters were broken uji on their Theosophical Society," with Mr. Judge as sailing for Liverpool on December 17, 1878, President. A " Board of Control " for the but a nucleus appointed by the President re- movement in America was chartered by the mained to carry on the life of the organiza- President-Founder on May 13, 1884. It tion in America General Abner Donbleday, lasted until October 30, 1886, when it was David A. Curtis, G. V. Maynard, and W. Q. dissolved by the order of the President, and Judge. the nine Branches of the Theosophical SoThe first offshoot of the Theosophical So- ciety then existing in America were formed ciety appeared in Great Britain, and was into the first territorial Section of the Sochartered on June 27, 1878. This Branch ciety. This Section was definitely organized
an}^ executive office necessary for the trans-

action

of

business.

THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETV

109

J.

ou October 30, 188G, at the residence of Dr. ciety seemed to be inspired with fresh life Mr. AV. Q. and energy. Mr. Judge, returning from D. Buck, Cincinnati, 0. Judge was unanimously elected General Sec- India, threw himself into the work in AmerThe retar}' and Treasurer, and from that time ica with the results already noted. forward he devoted himself to the work of President succeeded in obtaining from Lord building up the Section with indomitable Derby, then the head of the Colonial Office, So well various alterations in the government polcourage, perseverance, and energy. he wrought that in nine years he had estab- icy in Ceylon, thus benefiting the Buddhist lished a Section of nearly one hundred population of that island, while the governBranches, and though at the end he de- ment in India at last withdrew from the serted the Society and struck at it a fratri- official persecution by police esi)ionage which cidal blow, the errors of his later years may it had carried on against the two Founders, be forgotten in the lustre of his earlier ser- under the pretence that they were engaged ^ladame Blavatsky vices, when the schism he caused is healed in j^olitical intrigues. settled in Europe, at first in Germany and time. hand of by the gentle The American revival followed close ou then in London, where she gathered round the heels of one of the most ruthless attacks her a number of pupils, since well known Two employes in the movement, Bertram and Arcliibald ever made on the Society. of the Society, accused of wrong-doing, Keightley, G. K. S. Mead, C. F. Wright, tlie concerted Avith certain missionaries in Mad- Countess "Wachtmeister, Mrs. Isabel Cooper ras an elaborate accusation against Madame Oakley, Mrs. Annie Besant, all members of Blavatsky, when she and the President were the powerful London group called the Blaabsent in Europe, charging her with fraud vatsky Lodge, while she was also in the close in connection with abnormal manifesta- neighborhood of her old pupils, A. P. Sin]\Iadame Blavatsky nett and C. AV. Leadbeater, two of the most tions produced by her. promptly resigned her position in the Soci- widely knoAvn writers on Theosophy. (All ety, in order that it might not be compro- these, except Dr. Archibald Keightley and mised in the eyes of the public, and de- Mr. AA'right, remained loyal to the Society in manded an investigation into the charges. the great crisis of 1894-95.) The European A large and important committee was movement grew rapidly under the impulse formed to look into the matter, and cleared given by ^Madame Blavatsky's presence and her from the charges made, conclusively writings, and her London pupils have reproving that they were based entirely on mained the leading writers of theosophical false and slanderous statements made by literature, forming the literary heart of the enemies of the Society with the view of de- Society. At the close of 1888 Madame Blastroying
it.

Madame

Blavatsky's resigna-

vatsky, with her colleague's cordial assent,

tion was refused,


its full

and the Society declared

formed her personal pupils into the Esoteric


Section, that she later

confidence in her integrity, so that


in the hearts of its

named

the Eastern

the attempt to ruin her only enthroned her

School, thus publicly reo])ening the ancient

more securely

members.

As with King Solomon's judgment, which dom.


proved the true mother of the dispiited child by her readiness to surrender it as hers in
order that
it

pathway to the obtaining of the divine wisIn 1891, on May 8th, she passed out
of the body, bidding her pupils to expect

her reappearance ere long in India, in an might live, so did H. P. Bla- Indian body chosen by her Master as the She left vatsky's prompt and entire self-abnegation vehicle for her next incarnation. prove her motherly devotion to the Society the carrying on of her special department of work in the hands of her pupil, Mrs. to which she had given birth. From this time (1884-85) onward the So- Annie Besant, in whose charge she also

110

THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY
seceding from the original association. couple of hundred
Society continued to spread in
all

placed the whole of her unpublished manuscripts.

members followed

their

The

parts of the world, but in 1892

and 1893

example in Europe, under the leadership of Dr. Archibald Keightley, and about a score

many complaints were circulated accusing followed suit in Australasia. The fratricidal Mr. \\. Q. Judge who had been made blow did not succeed in slaying the great Vice-President of the whole Society of international Society. Even in America a

remnant stood firm and remained as the from the Masters. The scandal grew so American Section, and the fourteen Branches great that it became necessary to investigate to which it was reduced had increased to it, and Mrs. Annie Besant early in 1894 forty in July, 1897. In Europe the Society presented a formal request to the President has grown rapidly in importance, and there to appoint a committee for the investigation are now three Sections in Europe instead of The committee met in Lon- one, while in Australasia New Zealand has of the charges. don in the July of the same year, but was become a separate Section, the Theosophical foiled in its purpose by the legal ingenuity Society thus possessing seven Sections scatof the accused, who pleaded that it had no tered over the world. The whole Society is The abortive at- the stronger and the purer for the lesson jurisdiction to try him. tempt to put things right only increased the that no position in it, however high, no serscandal, and at the Convention of the In- vices, however great, can be held to condone dian Section in the following December a deviations from the path of probity and truth resolution was passed calling on the Presi- in the Society's work. dent to obtain from Mr. Judge a vindication Bibliography. The leading magazines in of his character within six months, or fail- the Society are " The Theosophist," founded ing that to expel him from the Society. by H. P. Blavatsky and Colonel H. S. 01The Australian Section followed suit, and cott, edited by the latter, and published at the European called on Mrs. Besant to pub- Adyar, Madras, India; " Lucifer," founded lisli the evidence. At that time the Society by H. P. Blavatsky, edited by Annie Besant cousisted only of four Sections, and three of and G. E. S. Mead, and published in Lonthese were resolute that Mr. Judge should don, England; " Mercury," edited by J. "W. clear his character or leave the Society. Walters, published in San Francisco, Cal., Meanwhile Mr. Judge had been planning a U. S. A.; " Theosophy in Australasia," coup de theatre. He had circulated pri- published in Sydney, N. S. W., Australia; vately documents denouncing Mrs. Besant, " Theosophia," published in Amsterdam, and claiming the right to remove her from Holland; " Le Lotus Bleu," edited by Dr. the position as teacher she had been given Pascal, and published in Paris; " Teosofisk by Madame Blavatsky. His American col- Tidokrift," published in Stockholm, Sweleagues supported him, and he induced den; "Sophia," published in Madrid, Spain. them, at the Convention of the American Besides these, there are many smaller jourSection at Boston, in April, 1895, to declare nals in various languages, issued in Europe the American Society independent, with and in India,suitable to local work and needs. himself as President for life. He was supThe chief works issued are By H. P. ported by 90 votes to 10, and the American Blavatsky: " The Secret Doctrine," 3 vols. Section was reduced to fourteen Branches, "The Key to Theosophy; " "' Isis Un'

forging messages which purported to come

the remainder constituting themselves into a separate Society, leaving the international

veiled," 2 vols.;

"The

Voice of the

Si-

body, and, while retaining


off

its

lence;" "' Panarion, or a Collection of name, casting Fugitive Papers;" "The Caves and Jungles of

their

allesfiance

to

its

President and

Hindostan;" "Nightmare Tales,"

THE ROCHESTER BROTHERHOOD


a collection of extraordinarily weird, occult
stories.

111

some

of the ordinary secret society elements


it;

By H.

S.

Olcott:

"Old Diary

of secrecy in

i.e.,

Leaves," a history of the Theosophical Society; " Theosophy, lieligion, and Occult

words, and a grip."


that these "are
still

"certain signs, pass^Irs. Besant writes


universally used
in
for-

Science;" " Posthumous Iluinanity," translated from the French; " A Buddhist Catechism; "
'"

India," where every

new member
invested

is

mally received and

with

them.

Kinship between Hinduism and

By A. P. Sinnett: "The Buddhism." "Esoteric Buddhism;" Section or Eastern School is a secret society. World;" Occult " The Growth of the Soul; " " The Ration- H. P. Blavatsky was often asked by Masons ale of Mesmerism;" "Karma," a novel. to give them the lost knowledge, and would By Annie Besaut: Five of the series of sometimes surprise them by giving them " Theosojihical Manuals," expositions of their own grips. She had some pupils Theosophical doctrines; "' The Ancient Wis- among them, but I am not aware that she dom," an outline of Theosophy; "The offered them that which, as a body, they Building of the Kosmos; " "The Self and seek." The emblems selected by the TheoSheaths;" "The Birth and Evolution Soul;" "In the Outer Court;" " The Path of Discipleship; " " Four Great Religions," expositions of Hinduism, Zoroastriauism. Buddhism, and Christianity; "The Three Paths to Union;" a translation from the Sanskrit of " The Bhagavad Gita." By G. R. S. Mead: "Plotinus;" " Orpheus; " "' The World Mystery; " " Simon Magus;" a translation of the " Pistis Sophia; " a translation from the Sanskrit,
its

" In the West," she adds, " tiiey have been dropped a mistake, I think. The Esoteric

sophical Society are familiar to

all

students

of

the

of symbolism, particularly to those

who have

attained the haut grades of Scottish Rite

Freemasonr3^

They

consist of

an Egyptian

tau in the centre of two interlaced equilateral triangles encircled

by a serpent holding
Fj'om

aloft the swastika, or Phusnician tau.

the point of view of the Theosophical Society


it is

explained that "the serpent sym-

bolizes, as a serpent,

wisdom, and

as a ring,

eternity;

also the manifested universe de-

"The Upanishads," 2 vols. By C. W. Lead beater: Two of the series of "Theosophical

scribed by the eternal wisdom.


tika
is

The

swas-

the divine power in creative activity,

Manuals;"

"Dreams."
C.
"'
:

Scott-Elliot:

"The
By M.

Story of Atlantis,"

with maps.

By W. by its motion producing or generating all. The tau is the symbol of the same power in Light on the its lower aspect, when in the Egyptian form

By Franz Hartmann: "Magic, the interlaced triangles are spirit and matWhite and Black;" "The Secret Symbols ter, life and form, fire and water, indivisible By Dr. Pascal: during manifestation, and within these the of the Rosicrucians." "L"A. B. C. de la Theosophie; " " Les tau works." Editor.] Brotlierliood. Roehestor Tlie Sept Principes de I'llomme." By Alexan" Founded at Rochester, N. Y., in 1887, a "' Wilkesbarre The Letters; Fullerton: der "The Indianapolis Letters." By Walter religious, mystical society, which seeks to By W. show that "the Perfect Man is the anthroR. Old: "What is Theosophy?" Kingsland: "The Esoteric Basis of Chris- pomorphic God.'' Its symbol is a triangle
Path."

tianity."

Finer Forces."
courses on the

By Rama Prasad: "Nature's By T. Subba Row: "Dis-

with R. B. in the centre.


arc placed at the

The
i)oint,

letters

LL

upper

Bhagavad Gita; " " Esoteric left, K D at the right point, Writings." There is a very large pamphlet spectively " Live the Life," " Search the Scriptures," and "Know the Doctrine."* literature. [The Theosophical Society has also had Its membership is small.

S S at the meaning re-

112

FRATERNAL ORDERS

II

MUTUAL ASSESSMENT
Fraternal
Orders.

BEJ^TEFIOIAET EEATEEISTITIES
(GENEKAL)

Within
come

dozen

to

promote good fellowship and

relief dur-

years this expression has


cial reference to
eties,

to have spe-

ing sickness, and burial at death.


existence to this day,

Some of

the beneficiary secret soci-

those societies have maintained a continued

those which pay death, sick, funeral,

disability, or other benefits,

and which have


are the natural
societies.

dred years.

more than one hunThe cutting down of the taxes


showed the

become

so popular.
tlie

They

for the relief of the poor in 1819

outgrowth of

English friendly

appreciation of the British Government of


the work done by the friendly societies in encouraging self-relief. The friendly societies act was entirely reconstructed in 1829, so as to take cognizance of the intentions and requirements of such societies. The act was further amended in 1834, 1846, 1850, 1855, and in 1875 and 1876. By 1855, when friendly societies, notably the English Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Manchester Unity, and the Ancient Order
of Foresters, had become firmly established and extremely jDopular throughout the Kingdom, there were 21,875 such organizations Under the act as amended in registered.

English friendly societies act was passed in 1793. It designated them as Their origin societies of good fellowship.
first

The

seems by

common

consent to be the burial

club of the ancient Chinese, the Grrecks, and, after them, the Eomans, by whom the idea

was transmitted to the Teutons, whence the Teutonic Guilds. There appears to be some doubt whether the earliest English friendly societies were of Eoman or Teutonic origin. Investigators declare that both the Greeks and the early English guilds followed burial relief with a system of mutual assistNaturally, in ance in sickness and distress. the beginning, guilds were largely made up
of neighbors, those living in
locality,

1876, British friendly societies were divided


into thirteen classes
ties,
:

a particular

1.

Affiliated

Socie-

from which

it

is

but a step to

or Orders, such as

Odd

Fellows, For-

guilds
trade,

made up of members of the same esters, Rechabites, Druids, and the like, whence the early trades unions, or which have lodges, courts, tents, or diviAfter the suppression of the re- sions 2. General Societies 3. County Soguilds. 4. Local Town Societies 5. Local ligious guilds in England in the sixteenth cieties 6. Particular Trade Socentury, a system of organized relief was Village Societies 7. Dividing Societies 8. Deposit substituted, by means of the poor law of cieties 9. Collecting Societies Elizabeth, after which followed the earlier Friendly Societies 11. Female Sociof the present type of what in England are 10. Annuity Societies The earliest of eties, such as the Female Foresters, Odd called friendly societies. the known English friendly societies Avere Sisters, Loyal Orangewomen, Comforting formed in 1634, but authorities agree that Sisters, etc.; 12. Workingmen's Clubs, for no connection has been shown between those in search of employment, or relief them and the last of the medigeval guilds from special ailment and 13. Cattle Insur;
;

in 1628.

After the
it
is

first

friendly societies

ance Societies.
of their

By

act was passed,


of clubs

stated that thousands


societies,

1875 these Societies

the amended make annual

act

of

reports

formed friendly

designed

condition and operations, and at

. .

FRATERNAL ORDERS
five-year intervals statements of assets, liabilities, risks,

113

Forty-eight of the larger and more successful Orders, those

and contributions.

English friendly societies of third of the total number of like societies had been introduced into the still in existence, yet they report fourUnited States prior to the Civil War, up fifths of the total membership of all beneto which period native efforts to make ficiary secret societies, about 1,600,000 out Their outstanding ccrsecret societies had been confined largely of 2,000,000.* Exceptions were tificates represent about $4,000,000,000 of to political organizations. the college fraternities and the Improved "protection,'' and during the last thirty Order of Red Men, a veritable friendly years they, have disbursed nearly $150,000,It is not known that writers on cosociety. At the close of the war tlie Knights 000. of Pythias appeared, likewise a friendly operation, in the United States have had society, and a few years later the Ancient their attention called to the progress made Order of United Workmen, the pioneer by cooperative or mutual assessment life secret order founded to make practicable a insurance, beside which, cooperative buying system of cooperative life insurance. This among consumers, cooperative stores, and industrial cooperation, in this countiy, hide it did, and has had several hundred imitaExcei)t in their diminished heads. tors, of which many survive. that these Fraternal Orders, by means of * The following statistics of membership of mutual assessments, pay benefits to relatives of deceased members, they practically par- various fraternal orders are furnished by Mr. Adam Warnock, Boston, Supreme Secretary of the Ameriallel the English friendly societies named. can Legion of Honor The Mutual Underwriter Chart of Fraternal Organizations shows that at the beginMem- Auioiiiit Claims bership, Name of Order. ning of 1896 there were 1,833,304 members Paid,
all

The Odd and Druids,


the

Fellows, Foresters, Recliabites,

Fraternal

Congress, are fewer

forming the National than one-

first class,

1897.

belonging to the fraternal organizations reporting to various insurance departments.

1897.

At the beginning

of 1897 that total

increased to 2,048,092.

had The '^ amount of

protection written" during the year 1896

Almvas Israel, Independent Order American Henetit Society American (iuil<i American Lcf^'ioii nf Honor Ancient Order of tlic Pyramids
Ancient Order United Worlvnien Artisans' Order of Mntiud Protection B'nai B'ritli, Independent Order Ben Hiir, Supreme Tribe of
Bolieiniun C.
Brotliei

2,J0.3

4,381

3,680
21,31.')

$18,114 32,750 43.000


l,98;i,.50O
16,.'i00

3,02f.

.347,990
4,54.5
(i,15ti

7,7()1,9:M

was $574,964,915, as against $517,512,481. That in force was $3,698,398,335, as against


$3,392,016,474.
$12,078,710,
before.

CU

13,G95 10,827
1,211
12,tii;6

38,000 104,393 74,700


ltX).800 20.(KX
.'>7..')00

The

assets

aggregated

Boliemian Slavonian Kniglits and Ladies..

against $9,604,974, the year


liabilities

hood of the Union Canadian (Jrder of Foresters


Catholic Benevolent l.cfiion Catholic Kniu'lits of America C'alhiilic Knijihts of WlKonsin Catholic Mutual r.enelit .\seociation Catholic Order of Koreslers Catholic Relief and Beneficiary Association.

27,1G.5

l.'->2,:i25

The

against $2,479,438.

From

were $3,666,924; assessments in

46.998 22.878 7,4as 43,028


5.-),4(-3

1,081,407 710.208
1(H). 000

t;90.(X)0

327,200
3f..:3

1896 the sum of $39,896,618 was received, Catliolic Women's Benevolent Legion Friends, Order of against $35,844,732 in 1895. Receipts, ex- Chosen Foresters of Illinois. IndependentOrder of Fraternal .\id Association clusive of assessments, were $6,278,397 in Fraternal Alliance Tiihnnes The total Fraternal 1896, and $2,617,206 in 1895. Free Sons of Israel, Independent Order. Independent Order of income was $42,678,120 in 1896, and $38,- Foresters, Fraternal I>e<:ion Mystic Circle 851,727 in 1895; $38,067,676 losses paid in Fraternal Fraternal Union of America of Uu- .Amer. Benev. Assn.. (i;ii. Assemhly Ex]icnses 1896, and $34,575,927 in 1895. Golden Cross," X'nited )rder Star Fraternity Golden in 1896 were $2,895,872, and $2,699,534 in Good Fellows, Hoyal Society of 1895. Total disbursements forl896 amounted Ileptasophs. IinjjroviMi )r(ler llerniann's Sons of Wisconsin to $40,985,084, while in 1895 they were Home Circle
. .

4,077 4,78 24,4:


15,13ti
13,3.'>7

14,000 K48,46R
19(i.300

2,519
2,!)18

12,185 124.B85 2.318


12.1S1 6,011

93,500 6,017 4,060 277,927


9fl2.22<i
42,l.'-.0

173.250 22.075
11,3'.)0

2,445 32,983 2.097 10.3:8


38.2.5(>

494,150
23..'n5 .324,370
5>'3.4ij0

2.30S
t'..293

(W.HOtJ

Ilonii'

Forum

Benefit OrdiT

42.'.K

328,608

$37,338,157.

114

FRATERNAL ORDERS
of the relais

The enormous membership


tively

numerous Fraternal Orders

ex-

plained by their beneficiary or "'protection " features, which Vary greatly, and not

only include a death benefit varying from $100 to So, 000, but insurance against sickness,
disability,

and accident, and, in

in-

stances, a funeral benefit,

the death of the wife of one Order erects a monument over the grave
of everv deceased

and a benefit at a member, while


to cost

member,

Mem-

Name of Ordek.

bership,
1897.

Indepenrieiit Order Mutual Aid ludi'peiident Order of Foresters Indei)ciuleiit W'estern Star Order Knights and Ladies of Honor Kni^lits and Ladies of Security Knights and Ladies of the Fireside Knights and Ladies of the Golden Star Knights of Columbus Knights of Father Mathew Knights of Honor Iviiights of Pytiiias, Endowment Kank Knights of St. Jolm and Malta Kniglitsof Sobriety, Fidelity, and Integrity Knights of the Golden Eagle Knights of the Maccabees Ladies' Catholic Benevolent Association.... Ladies of tlie Maccabees Legion of the Red Cross Loyal Additional Benefit Association Loyal Mystic Legion of America IjoW (Terinan (ir. Lodge of the U. S. of N. Masonic Protective Association Modern Woodmen of America. ... Mutual Protection, Order of Mystic Workers of the World

National National National National National

Benevolent Society Protective Legion Provident LTnion Reserve Association

New

Union England Order of Protection

Northwestern Legion of Honor North .\merican Union Pilgrim Fatliers, United Order of
Protected Home Circle Ridgehy Protection Association
Roj-id

Arcanum
Circle

Royal Royal Royal Royal Royal

League
Neiglibors of America Temple of Temperance
,

Tribe of Joseph Scottish Clans, Order of

Honor Supreme Council,


Shield of

Home

Circle
, ,

Sui>reme Council, Legion of Honor Supreme Court of Honor Supreme Lodge, Nat. Reserve Association.. Supreme Lodge, Order of Colutnbian Kts. Supreme Ruling, Fraternal Mystic Circle..

United Friends, Order of United Friends of Michigan Women's Catholic Order of Foresters
."

Woodmen

of the World Workmen's Benefit Association

^MMARIES OP TOTALS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

SUMMARIES OF TOTALS IN FOREIUN COUNTRIES. TOTAL MEMBERSHIP BY STATES AND TERRITORIES OP TWENTY-SIX OF THE LEADING SECRET SOCIETIES IN THE UNITED STATES, TOGETHER WITH

Total Total Total Total Total Total

T'aDada

Elsew'e N.Am, South America.

Europe
Ai*ia

Africa Total Australasia Total Oceanica Total

Not organlaed Into separate State or

Territorial

Grand Bojlea.
if

KrN'kah

Id lb<>

C S

FRATERNAL ORDERS
lo-day
classes
:

115

may

be divided into four general

should be added tliat both branches of the Hibernians are now united. The grouping
includes, in addition to totals for the Masonic

themselves to (1) Those which bind bury their dead, and to furnish stated relief
to

Fraternity, information from the following


charitable and benevolent secret societies
:

members who may be

sick, disabled, etc.,

Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Independent Order of Good Templars, Sons for pecuniary assistance ; (2) Regular death benefit, mutual assess- of Temperance, Knights of Pythias, Independent Order of Red Men, Foresters of ment societies shortAmerica, Grand Army of the Republic, of the benefit orders Death (3) term variety, which seek to couple mutual Ancient Order of Hibernians, Knights of assessment life-insurance with the tontine Malta, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons plan and pay back to surviving members (negro), and Grand United Order of Odd who shall have made regular payments, Fellows (negro).
irrespective of the

need of such members

etc., for

a certain

number

of years, the full

Among
official
:

the

so-called Patriotic

Orders,

amount in some

of their assessments, or

premiums,

returns have been received from the

instances with interest added.

The following
;

success which temporarily attended a few of

the better-known short-term orders which


are dead, appeared to be due to surviving

Junior Order, United American Mechanics; Order of United American Mechanics Patriotic Order, Sons of America Order of the American Union, and Ameri-

members being relatively few, and lapsed memberships comparatively numerous. (4) The fourth group is not a large one, comprising the few orders which have sought to render the Building and Loan Association more attractive by reason of becoming a secret order. The accompanying tabular exhibit of statistics of membership of twenty-six of the larger and more important national and international secret societies in the United States, with totals arranged by States and

can Protective Association (A. P. A.) Statistics of the Patrons of Husbandry

have also been included, as well as details


respecting

membership

of

the

following
:

Ancient Order of United "Workmen, Royal Arcanum, Modern Woodmen of America, Knights of the Maccabees, Knights of Honor, Knights and Ladies of Honor, Knights of the Golden Eagle, and Woodmen of the World. Figures furnished by the American Protective Association and the Order of the Territories, in conjunction with those of American LTnion are official, but do not membership abroad, must prove of interest seem to be sufficiently in accord with the to members of the organizations named, as situation to be of great value for compariOmitting totals for these two organiwell as to students of the sociological aspects son. of the growth and development of secret zations, it is found that twenty-four of the This presentation has been pre- more important secret fraternities, out of societies. pared after prolonged correspondence with nearly 350 having an active existence, those best fitted to eon tribute data, and repre- numbered 4,548,840 members in the L^nited It is probable that with sents the latest available comparative totals States in 1895-96. The Loyal Orange tlie added membership of more than three of all the organizations. Institution is omitted because of its prefer- hundred others, many of them small socieence not to make public details as to mem- ties, the grand total would approximate bership. Totals for the Ancient Order of 0,000,000, thus pointing to nearly 4,000,000 Hibernians refer to only one branch. Board adults, members of secret fraternities in of America, members of the Board of Erin the L^nited States, after allowing for the It usual {)ro])ortion belonging to two or more preferring not to send totals by States.

death and other benefit societies

FRATERNAL ORDERS
lo-day
classes
:

115

may

be divided into four general

should be added that both branches of the Hibernians are now united. The grouping
includes, in addition to totals for the Masonic

themselves to (1) Those which bind bury their dead, and to furnish stated relief
to

Fraternity, information from the following


charitable and benevolent secret societies
of
:

members who may be

sick, disabled, etc.,

irrespective of the need of such for pecuniary assistance


;

members Independent Order

Odd

Fellows, Inde-

pendent Order of Good Templars, Sons of Temperance, Knights of Pythias, Inde(2) pendent Order of Red Men, Foresters of ment societies (3) Death benefit orders of the short- America, Grand Army of the Republic, term variety, which seek to couple mutual Ancient Order of Hibernians, Knights of assessment life-insurance with the tontine Malta, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons plan and pay back to surviving members (negro), and Grand United Order of Odd who shall have made regular payments, Fellows (negro).
Regular death benefit, mutual assess;

etc., for a certain

number

of years, the full

Among
official
:

the

so-called Patriotic

Orders,

amount
in

of their assessments, or

premiums,

returns have been received from the

some instances with

interest added.

The following
;

success which temporarily attended a few of

the better-known short-term orders which


are dead, appeared to be due to surviving

members being relatively few, and lapsed memberships comparatively numerous. (4) The fourth group is not a large one, comprising the few orders whicii have sought to render the Building and Loan Association more attractive by reason of becoming a secret order. The accompanying tabular exhibit of statistics of membership of twenty-six of the larger and more important national and international secret societies in the United States, with totals arranged by States and
Territories,
in

Junior Order, United American Mechanics; Order of United American Mechanics Patriotic Order, Sons of America Order of the American Union, and American Protective Association (A. P. A.) Statistics of the Patrons of Husbandry have also been included, as well as details

respecting

membership

of

the

following
:

conjunction with those of

membership abroad, must prove of interest to members of the organizations named, as


well as to students of the sociological aspects
of the

Ancient Order of United Workmen, Royal Arcanum, Modern Woodmen of America, Knig^its of the Maccabees, Knights of Honor, Knights and Ladies of Honor, Knights of the Golden Eagle, and Woodmen of the World. Figures furnished by the American Protective Association and the Order of the American Union are official, but do not seem to be sufficiently in accord with the
situation to be of great value for compari-

death and other benefit societies

Omitting totals for these two organison. growth and development of secret zations, it is found that twenty-four of the This presentation has been pre- more important secret fraternities, out of societies. pared after prolonged correspondence with nearly 350 having an active existence, those best fitted to con tribute data, and repre- numbered 4,548,840 members in the United
sents the latest available comparative totals

States in 1895-9G.

It is

probable that with

of

all

the organizations.
is

The Loyal Orange


its i)refer-

the added

membership

Institution

omitted because of

hundred
ties,

others,

many
total

of

ence not to
bership.

make

public details as to

mem-

the

grand

more than three them small sociewould approximate


of
fraternities in

Totals for the Ancient Order of

G,000,000, thus pointing to nearly 4,000,000


adults,

Hibernians refer to only one branch. Board of America, members of the Board of Erin It preferring not to send totals by States.

members

of

secret

the United

States, after allowing for the

usual proportion belonging to two or more

116

FRATERNAL ORDERS
with more than 513,000 mem about 11 per cent.; Ohio fourth, with 10 per cent.; Massachusetts fifth, Avith Michigan sixth, with more than 8 per cent.
Illinois third,
; ;

organizations; nearly one in three of the voting population of the country. The relative numerical strength of the

bers, or

four larger societies in the various States

and Territories is made plain by an accom- 7 per cent. and Indiana seventh, with 7 per panying map (see Preface), on which their cent., the seven States accounting for fournames are marked in order, according to fifths of the aggregate American membermembership in those States and Territories. ship of the twenty-four fraternities speciEeference to tlie geographical chart shows fied. The payment of benefits or insurance by that there are more members of the Masonic means in Maine, of assessments, graded according to fraternity than of any other secret Vermont, Connecticut, New York, Ken- age at time of joining, is apparently (1898) tucky, Missouri, District of Columbia, Vir- most popular among societies in the FraterOf the forty-five fraternities ginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Ten- nal Congress. Mississippi, reports have been received from thirty-six, of Alabama, Florida, nessee, Arkansas, and Indian Territory and more which twenty-seven report the above plan in members of the Odd Fellows in Massachu- operation, eight of the remaining nine setts, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jer- being equally divided between the merits of sey, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, the premium system proper and what may Wyoming, Colorado, Oklahoma, Washing- be called the step-rate plan of assessment, inton, California, and Nevada of the Ancient creasing at regular intervals with the age of Order of United Workmen in Delaware, the insured. In the remaining society the Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, benefits are graded according to the age, Montana, Idaho, Nebraska, Kansas, Oregon, while the assessments are fixed and uniform. and Arizona of the Knights of Pythias The Ancient Order of United Workmen Louisiana and New Mexico; of the reports twenty-one jurisdictions using the in Patrons of Husbandry in New Hampshire; straight, ungraded assessment j^lan and thirJunior Order of United American Mechan- teen the step-rate assessment. The Order ics in Maryland; Knights of the Maccabees of United Friends changed on January 1, in Michigan; Modern Woodmen of America 1898, to the step or group plan of assessTwo in Illinois and Wisconsin; and the negro ment, increasing at each five years. Other societies other societies are considering a similar Freemasons in Ceorgia. There is some variation in the finding a place among the first four in point change. A benefit of of number, in one or more States, are the amount of insurance paid. Grood Templars; Grand Army of the Repub- from $50 to $2,000 is paid by the Knights" and Ladies of the Clolden Star, while tlie lic; Foresters of America; Royal Arcanum; Patriotic Order, Sons of America; Improved Catholic Benevolent Legion, the National Order of Red Men; Knights of Honor; Provident Union, the Home Circle, the Independent Order of Foresters, the American and the negro Odd Fellows. Pennsylvania is the banner secret society Legion of Honor, the National Union, and State, contributing more than 850,000 mem- the Improved Order of Heptasophs pay from
; ;

bers

of

twenty-four

organizations

w'hose

totals are considered in the


statistics of

grand

total

accompanying membership, 19 per cent, of the in all States and Territories.


stands
second,

$500 to $5,000. Seven out of thirty-six orders report paying sick benefits; nine others report such benefits optional with the local
or subordinate bodies; while nineteen,

or

New York
members

with

724,000

more than
are

one-half, report none.

In the

of the twenty-four fraternities, 16

majority of cases where paid, such benefits


the
result
of

per cent, of the grand total for the country

the

work

of

the local

pio
0i-l
r^
t-i

3;

(>j

o o ic 21 in

(^^

to

r-i

,-.

-uioiv;

sod jsoo
at!o,\

0J(Neji-<r1T-n-lr1

-o 2

ooooooo^
CO^OJi-H

,1

l-l

l-l

SS8
OTi-.i-ii-<

g K s
^
CO

^
:pS
SJ

in

SJBO \ e

J,)<1

tni^icrosi!.i,).\v

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c

s^

eS

'putljl 8.\.I0S.)}I

So'cS.^j^v-

= O O

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cc

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^2;

piBJ A\On

< < ?? ^*i


XI

0)

-r'5SSaer"

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g"..

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i-

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VV

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piBJ .V\OH

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;?;

= =

>',aq^^?',^.;z;^

... .-S<=S. 3OoOCC= o CC s


00
.

^
in

^^

g- ^^f^.
oi

^ Q
i~ in

socooo
;<?;

?^ k;

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Oicr^-rocio:"^
)i.'000'l$Jod

o o
ir:

coo

ooo

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-el

0.)Ut!JIWUl

JoOOO'tS-iJd JSOO OijBJ8AV

oj

T- CO w o - QC o o Q O i.Or-iffjo(Oooi:<oin in o O 1 co:o-hoo! 0050 o


'7*
*

oj -v

o ^J o o
in

OS

00

O O CO 30 * X to o ino tCO

o
"! 000' I
i<>'I

c! TO

-T i> cc -r r)

c< i- -r c_ a:xxxxQCooxc:x XXXXXXXXXX


-

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i-

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oo X X C3 X
-

00

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ooaiijj noiiA\ J OOO'l

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in-*

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'sjgauog joii^o

Co

o_

._

^-

118
bodies,

FRATERNAL ORDERS
and are not part of fhe duty of the
societies.

parent

More than one-half

of

these societies report varying grades of benefits payable in case of accident involving
partial or total disability, such as the loss of

The Ancient Order of United Workmen raise $1,000,000 annually by a tax of 13 per member. Some societies have a reserve in the shape of one
vested as provided by law.

assessment in advance.

As a general thing
is

one or more limbs or eyes, incapacity from old age (seventy years being a common
period),
paralysis,

the reserve, where possessed,

invested in

or other
to

causes.
of

payment

of one-tenth

one-half

United States or State and municipal bonds The and first mortgages on real estate. The Orthe der of Select Friends adopted a reserve plan
at the close of 1897.

face of the

member's

benefit certificate

upon

The National Keserve


is

the occurrence of any of these disabilities Payment of funeral seems quite general.

Association plan of insurance

very like

that of old-line companies, except for the

expenses

is

a feature of several societies, but


Six-

almost always of local lodges or bodies.

teen out of thirty-six societies report no benefits payable by reason of total or partial

element in the latter's premiums. Average age of death benefit members in tAventy-four societies at the end of the first
reserve

three years of

the

societies'

existence

is

weekly sick benefits are often payable out of dues of local lodges, whereas the other benefits are more generally defrayed by means of
disability.

The

replies indicate that

placed at about 36.40, while the average

age in the same societies in the last


year
is

fiscal

placed at 40.30, showing the intro-

duction of younger members.


as to cost of

assessments.
It is of interest to note that the rate of

The replies management show an increase

per capita as the societies advance in years.

mortality in thirty societies during the third

The average
fraternities

of the replies of twenty-seven

year of the existence of each of them averaged 4.10 per 1,000, while during the last

shows that the per capita cost of management during the last year was per member, whereas when fiscal year (1897) the average death-rate per about II. 65 1,000 was '9.50, and the average age of the these societies were three years old their per Some societies societies showing this death-rate about fif- capita cost was only 11.48. In twenty-eight societies the reckon the cost of management per memteen years. average cost per 11,000 for such benefits ber as a fixed sum and report it year after Others, like the Royal Arcanum, the paid in 1897 was 19.22, whereas the same year. League, the Modern "Woodmen of Royal when those socost companies reported the the Knights of the Maccabees, America, at 15.04. three years of age were only cieties The need of an adequate reserve to provide Legion of the Red Cross, Knights and for emergencies does not seem to have im- Ladies of Security, Woodmen of the World, Only National Reserve Association, and the Napressed all of these societies alike. about one-half of tiie fraternities, members of tional Union show a decreased cost of manthe Congress, report having reserve funds. agement per member now as compared with

The method
with the

of

raising such funds varies

the third year of their existence.

but generally it is by means of assessments upon members. Some organizations set apart a certain percentage
societies,

The

irregularity

and iucompleteness of
of the Fraternal

replies received from beneficiary organiza-

tions not

members

Con-

In of such assessments as a reserve fund. Massachusetts and other States the banking
laws, under
ate,

gress

testimony to the value of organization in fraternal insurance as well as in


is

which insurance

societies oper-

other lines of business.

There

are, of course,

require reserve funds and direct

how some honorable

exceptions, but the statistics

they shall be invested.


gion of

The American Le-

of operation of these organizations are not

Honor has

a reserve of 1500,000 in-

generally satisfactory.

Among

fraternities

-^
.

si

|| Sao

p-e^

Id

=6

.d d'^

a"

t-6

ls2ii:^|IS|-'-ir-l

J^

120

FRATERNAL ORDERS

not members of the Fraternal Congress the popularity of the "assessment according to

Endowment

Guild, and the Prudent Patri-

cians of Pompeii collect insurance

premiums

age" plan

is

shown by

the thirty societies

Of suggestive of a revival reporting, seventeen are by old-line companies.


their records.

of the systems used

using the plan.

The

following

is

list

of

them
Canadian Order of Foresters. Catholic Mutual Benefit Association. Catholic Women's Benevolent Legion.

Commercial Travelers' Association. Golden Star Fraternity. Independent Order B'nai B'rith. Knights and Ladies of Honor. Knights of Columbus. Knights of Pythias, Endowment Eank. Loyal Knights and Ladies, Modern American Fraternal Order. Mystic Workers of the Woi'ld.
National Fraternity.

The Independent Order Free Sons of Israel, Independent Order Sons of Abraham, Independent Order Sons of Benjamin, and the Order of Sparta pay benefits by means of uniform, straight, ungraded assessments, Avhile in the Order of the Iroquois and in the Brotherhood of Eailway Conductors, benefits and not assessments or contributions' are graded according
to

age.
is

The

Continental

Fraternal

an endowment association, while the Foresters of America, which formerly had such a plan, has discontinued it. The Grand Fraternity is unique in that it pays

Union

annuities for partial or total disability, or


to Avidows

and orphans or other

relatives at

Grand United Order

of

Odd

Fellows.

the death of members.

Order of Scottish Clans.

Among
ties,

the distinctively friendly socie-

Union Fraternal League.


AVestern Knights Protective Association.

those Avhich aim to relieve distress and

Among

the above the

amount

of benefits

pay funeral expenses among members, and to assist those whom death has robbed of
support, are the following:

paid varies from

150 to 13,000, most of

them paying $500 to 12,000. Twelve of them report no benefits paid by the Order
as a whole,

the same being optional Avith


Partial

subordinate bodies.

and permanent by many A tendency toward an of these societies. increased death-rate as they grow older is noted, and a similar increase in the cost of Dues this form of insurance per thousand. of local branches seem to be the basis of
disability is provided for, hoAvever,

Independent Order of Odd Fellows. United Ancient Order of Druids. Ancient Order of Foresters. Ancient Order of Hibernians. Jr. Order United American Mechanics. Actors' Order of Friendship. Independent Order of Mechanics. Improved Order of Red Men. Sons of St. George.
National Protective Society. Shepherds of Bethlehem.

the sick benefits, while regular assessments


are general!}^ relied on to defray other benefits.

Ancient and Ilhistrious Order of Knights


of Malta.

About one-half

of these organizations
statis-

report reserve or emergency funds;


tics of
i

age and cost of management are very


general conclusions are to be
statis-

ncomplete.

In only one instance, the Sons of St. George, and then in only a few States, does the benefit paid at the death of a member
In one instance, the Independent Order of Mechanics, the amount paid falls as low as 120, and runs as high as In the instances of the Ancient Order 125. of Hibernians, the Ancient and Illustrious Order of Knights of Malta, the Improved Order of Red Men, the Independent Order exceed $250;

The same

obtained from an examination of the


tics of similar societies

doing business under Two, the American Insurance Union and the Knights of the Golden
different plans.

Eagle, use the step-rate assessment, while


the

Fraternal

Tribunes,

the

Progressive

RIBS
j; Jl!

8S 8 S S

J113111

-sSbiiuk isoo
%s\ii

JB3A IBOSj^ uj luaiu

-aSBUBJ^ J8O0

JBSA
pJOSI^ JSB'I
111

,iT<y '.):oRjoA

^i

siw.iA
11183(1

J"

i-iq

33V 'AV
XiiV Jl
8.\J983Ji

'pnn^

>*>>*

Mm
sjBaA 8 li? }SO0 35l!a3.\V

ooiuunsui JO 000' 1 9 wd JSOJ 0SlU3.\V

C"3

122 of

AMERICAN BENEFIT SOCIETY

Odd

Fellows, and the Ancient United

idly.

It issues certificates to

members

for

Order of not recognize the payment of either insurance or death benefits. Subordinate lodges, courts, groves, or tribes employ a death
benefit

Druids the governing body does

$250, $500, $1,000, or $2,000, and Lodges

pay weekly sick benefits, and dues and


option.
Its

as-

sessments of members while sick, in their

method
is

of assessment to

meet

system in whole

or in

part.

In

death benefits

approved by some of the

some States a few of these organizations, best fraternal actuaries in the country, and, notably the Ancient Order of Hibernians in as in only one of two other instances among
regular

Pennsylvania, contract for insurance with The sick insurance companies.

like organizations, a formal initiation

is

not

necessary to acquire membership.

The cerethe
se-

benefit, weekly,

monthly, or otherwise,

is

mony

of initiation

is

said to be simple, yet

recognized institution

among

the societies

dignified, but those

who

prefer

may take
and

named, and where systematically paid varies from $2 to $15 weekly. Medical attendance and medicines are paid for by subordinate bodies of some of these societies, while the payment of specific sums for burial expenses
is

obligation before a supreme officer


ular meeting.

cure membership as effectually as at a reg-

Men and women between

the

ages of eighteen and forty-five,

who may be
Supreme

socially acceptable, believers in a

general.

The

ISTational Protective

Being, and able to earn a livelihood, are


eligible to
will

Society jmys an accident benefit.


these funds
is

Eaising

membership.

The

organization

provided for generally from

dues, although a few of the societies rely

upon assessments.

The

necessity

for acis

not enter any except the more healthful regions of northern States, and at present has Lodges in all the New England
States.
Its

cumulating a reserve or

emergency fund

i^ublished

list

of

some

of

its

recognized in at least one half of the fraternities named, but in others dependence seems
to be placed

better

known

certificate

holders includes

governors of States and a long list of State, on the weekly or other dues and national, and municipal officials. There are In the Ancient Order of For- also found the names of prominent officers assessments. esters, in which dues are graded according of the Ancient Order of United Workmen, to age at entry, its various treasurers held Knights of Honor, Eoyal Arcanum, Eoyal at the close of 1896 $29,137,745, an increase Society of Good Fellows, Workmen's BeneThe Actors' fit Association, Improved Order of Heptaof $1,052,595 in that year. Order of Friendship, from the circumstances sophs, American Legion of Honor, Good of the case a small society, reports $20,000 Templars, Order of the Golden Cross, ImStatistics of the death rate proved Order of Eed Men, Independent in the treasury. per thousand and cost of insurance among Order of Odd Fellows, and Freemasons. these friendly societies are naturally affected The list of lawyers, physicians, bank offiby the irregular nature of the benefits paid cials, editors, publishers, and business men and systems of dues and assessments, and are throughout New England who are identified with the Society would prove an addition to therefore unclassifiable. American Benefit Society. This is any similar organization. The headquarone of the smaller mutual assessment bene- ters of the society are at Boston. but although incorAmerican Benevolent Legion. A ficiary fraternities porated as late as 1893, by Cliarles H. Burr, newly organized mutual assessment beneGeorge B. Stevens, Lewis N. Qushman, ficiary society, with headquarters at San Geoi'ge H. Johnson, Daniel T. Buzzell, Ja- Francisco. American Fraternal Insurance cob Billings, Jr., and Samuel Shaw, of Organized at Batavia, N. Y., Massachusetts, it already numbers nearly Union. five thousand members, and is growing rap- within the past few years, a beneficiary and

AMERICAN LEGION OF HONOR


social association for

123
Its

men and women. Its Lodges are scattered through western New York. Auiericau Insurance Union. Organized at Columbus, 0., 1894, by members of

of

Massachusetts.

first

Council was
9,

organized at Fall River, July

1888.

It

forms one of several


ficiary

secret, fraternal, bene-

organizations
are

women

both

the Fraternal Mystic Circle,


satisfied

who were
of the

dis-

their operations to

which men and which confine the New England States.


to
eligible,

its founders were members of the Grand United Order of Druids in the States, the Ancient Order of tional Union, of the Knights of Pythias, United the Odd Fellows, and the Masonic Frater- United Workmen, and the United Order of

with the

course pursued by

the

Among

latter, as

well as by

members

Na-

It pays sick and death means of assessments. It has which had done so much to build up and 2,300 members. American Ijegion of Honor. One of strengthen the National Union, and provides for death, total disability, and old age bene- the best known among the larger and more The form of government is the usual popular fraternal, social, and beneficiary fits. similar secret beneficiary societies, assessment societies, founded by Dr. Darius in one and includes local and State Chapters, to- Wilson and nine others of Boston, DecemIt admits to membership gether with a National (or supreme) Chapter, ber 18, 1878. Member- white men and women, between 18 and 50 the highest legislative authority. ship is confined to men and women between years of age, and is governed by a Supreme Subordinate Councils, which are 15 and 49 years of age, residing in the Council. more healthful portions of the United widely scattered throughout the Union, are States, '' who are engaged in preferred oc- directed in matters of local interest by cupations." Death benefits of sums rang- Grand or State Councils, representatives ing from 1500 to ^3,000, permanent total from which, and all Past Supreme Comdisability benefits of from $250 to $1,500, manders, make up the Supreme Council. and old age benefits of like amounts arc The ritualistic and initiatory features are paid, and the Union is under the super- less pronounced than those of most similar Prospective yision of the insurance department of the societies in the United States. The ritual teaches ''All members are informed that initiatory cereState of Ohio. for one and one for all," which suggests the monies, if objected to, may be dispensed motto of the Knights of Labor, but is in- with by assuming a formal obligation at The emblem consists any convenient time and place. Originally terpreted differently. of a circular band containing thirteen stars, the maximum age of eligibility to memberand in them the letters forming the words ship was G4 years, but this was reduced to "Helj) in Need," the whole surrounding 50 years in 1885. The Order insures the the initial letters of the name of the organ- lives of its members for $1,000, $2,000, and ization. While among the younger of sim- $3,000 each, at their o])tion, certificates of which carry a graduated weekly relief ilar societies, the Union, which started out with 500 members, has enjoyed rapid in- benefit. Some of the founders were among crease in membership and gives promise of those who organized the Royal Arcanum, realizing the anticipations of those who and one. Dr. Wilson, was connected with the Knights of Honor. Since its foundacreated it. American Order of I>ruids. Organ- tion the Order has paid more than $30,000,ized by William Pearson and William A. 000 in death and relief benefits. The proDunn, at Fall Kiver, Mass., and chartered portion of women to men among its mem-

nity.

It partially paralleled the increasing

Pilgrim Fathers.

rate

of

assessments,

according

to

age,

benefits by

Mav

17, 1888,

under the laws of the State

bershij) in

1894 was about as one

to seven.

124

ANCIENT ORDER, KNIGHTS OF THE MYSTIC CHAIN


of

The American Legion

Honor

suffered

beautiful,

popular, and attractive.

Both

from increased expenses, death rate, and lack of new members during 1895 and 1896, as
did some other similar organizations. bers accounted for the situation by

Odd Fellows and


similar purposes,
sonry.

Foresters' societies have

and

differ

from Freema-

Mem''

The point

to this lies in the resem-

un-

blance of the Ancient Order, Knights of


the Mystic Chain to the

usually heavy assessments in 1896," owing to ''increased debts," the ^'hard times,"

Odd

Fellows and
it is

Foresters, in the face of the fact that

and a "smaller proportion of new mem- the creation of Freemasons, and bears many bers," which a grand total of 36,028 mem- imprints of the handiwork of the Craft. bers December 31, 1896, compared witb Not until eighteen years after it was founded 53,210 on December 31, 1895, and 62,457 did the Sir Knights of the Mystic Chain at the close of 1889 (the maximum), would incorporate an insurance feature like those seem to confirm. Leading members of the adopted by so many other secret societies The Supreme Council are men of experience in founded in the past thirty* years. fraternal insurance societies, and with co- Ancient Order, Knights of the Mystic Chain operation from the rank and file of the was founded at Eeading, Pa., February 2, Order were able to so conduct the society's 1871, by John 0. Matthew, locomotive enaffairs as to restore the prosperity the or- gineer on the Philadelphia and Eeading ganization previously enjoyed. The chief Eailroad, and John M. Brown, merchant. emblem of the Legion is a modification of John 0. Matthew was alive in 1897, blind the cross of the French Legion of Honor, and helpless, the charge of subordinate Cas-

which has the Maltese Cross for its model, and has been conspicuous, under various

John M. Brown died Both founders were Freeforms, as the basis of so many decorations. masons, and the emblem of the Order, emIn 1879, the year following the founding bodying the All-Seeing Eye over the holy of the American Legion of Honor, the Iowa Bible upon an altar, suggests the earlier Legion of Honor, a similar society, was or- influences surrounding it, yet at the first ganized at Cedar Eapids, and does busi- initiation ceremony twenty-one Knights In 1884 the of Pythias became Knights of the Mystic ness in that State only.
tles of

Pennsylvania.

June

10, 1880.

ized

Northwestern Legion of Honor was organand incorporated to do business in Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Minnesota, North

Chain.

The purposes

of the

Order are to relieve


;

brethren in sickness, accident, or distress

mutual assistance in business and to procure and South Dakota. employment to assist and care for widows MysAncient Order, Knights of the and orphans of deceased members to create organization is conThis secret tic Chain. greater love for country, homes, and fireof the hundred-and-one the spicuous among to teach obedience and fidelity to the sides having its not of reason by generation last been started as a mutual insurance society. laws of the country in which they live, and Its high-sounding title becomes simpler to bind together the members of the Order
;

when

it is

realized that this

modern broth-

in

erhood is founded on traditions and fancies which hedge themselves about King Arthur and the Knights of the Eound Table, whence the designation, " Ancient Order." One is compelled to compare it with the Order of Foresters rather than the Odd Fel-

one common brotherhood. Partisanship and sectarianism are excluded. The motto or ensign is " Loyalty, Obedience, and Fidelity

;" and the ''mark" is a pentagon, bearing on each of its sides an inverted lower half of an isosceles triangle, the whole suggesting one form of a Maltese cross of five This furnishes five distinct fields, in arms. the first of rituals the of lows, for the basis of which, white, is an open book the first and are romance, English in found two are

ANCIENT ORDER, KNIGHTS OF THE MYSTIC CHAIN


in the second, blue, a shield

125

and spear
; ;

in

recipients

members

of the

Supreme

Castle,

the third, red, skull and cross bones


fourth, red.
black,
centre,
tlie

in the

crossed swords

in the fifth,

All-Seeing
the

letters,

Eye and in the meaning of which is


;

known
the bossed

only to
castle,

Mark degree members.


field
is

On

but without a vote, unless elected representatives. While there is nothing Masonic in this arrangement, yet Freemasons probably helped to j)lan it. In the Esquire degree the candidate is

instructed in the fundamental principles of which is the mark of the the Order by a reference to the Good Samarhighest rank. There are slight changes for itan in the Sir Knight's degree, in the those lower in rank or degree. lesson to be learned from the chivalry of The Order has four branches, all of which the time of King Artliur, and the im{)orare subordinate to the Supreme Castle. tance of exercising love, mercy, friendship, They are, first, the civic branch, with the benevolence, and charity toward his fellowSupreme Castle, Select (State) Castles, and men while in the third, or Round Table subordinate Castles, which initiate mem- degree, the candidate is impressed with the second, the military rank, or degree uncertainty of life and the certainty of bers third, the insurance benefit fund and, death. fourth, the degree of Naomi, or Daughters On Februaiy 2, 1871, Matthew Castle, Subordinate Castles send two No. 1, was instituted at Reading, Pa., being of Ruth.
reverse, in the centre
;

an em-

named after one of the founders. On July Every Past Commander 17th, the same year, the First Select Castle is a member of a Select Castle, but has no was instituted at Reading, and' on Septemvote on questions of law, unless elected a ber 16, 187 L, the Su])reme Castle of the Orrepresentative. Past Commanders of subor- der was instituted at the same city. For dinate Castles vote for a Past Select Com- a time progress was slow, due in part to the
Past
yearly as representatives
to Select Castles.

Commanders

mander
Castle.

as representative to the

Sujjreme

financial dejiression following the panic of

tative to the

But ten years later, when the Select 1873. Supreme Castle for every one Castle of Pennsylvania met for the second thousand members, but no State can elect time at Reading, there were sixty subordimore than ten such. The Supreme Castle, inate Castles reported, with a total (Pennof course, is the highest authority in the sylvania) membership of 2,500. About
State
is

Each

allowed one represen-

Order.

that time the Order began to gain strength


in

Three degrees are conferred in subordinate Castles, which every member must re:

Jersey and Delaware, where Select had been established, and by 1890 ceive in order to participate in the benefit Select Castles had been placed in New fund 1. White, or Esquire degree York, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Delaware, 2. Blue, or Sir Knight's degree and 3. Red, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and or Round Table degree. The fourth degree Ohio. There are also Subordinate Castles is only for those who wish to connect themunder the sujiervision of the Supreme
Castles
;

New

selves

Avith

the

military

rank.

All

past

Castle in Connecticut, Massachusetts,

New

Hampshire, Michigan, Indiana, and Louisithe Select Castle a Past Commander's or ana. The Order enters its second quarter Mark degree, which puts them in possessio7i century with a total membership of about of the essentials to gain admission to the Se- 40,000, of which 10,000 are in Pennsyllect Castle, and after they shall have passed vania, and about 1,000 in the six States through the chairs makes them members named in which Castles exist by authority of the State Body. The Supreme Castle of the Supreme Castle, leaving about 24,000 confers the Supreme degree, which makes members in the eio^ht States of Rliode
officers of

subordinate Castles receive from

126
Island,

ANCIENT ORDER OF FORESTERS

At the death of of from thirty to one hundred dollars are paid and Ohio. The military rank or degree was intro- at the death of a member, benefits of from duced by the Supreme Castle in 1880, but fifty to two hundred and fifty dollars. The 'Mady degree," known as degree of at that time had no military head, and was designed merely to attract members. The Naomi, or Daughters of Euth, was introSubordinate bodies are plan failed, and in 1889 the Supreme Castle duced in 1890.
York,
Jersey, Delaware,

New

New

from four

to ten dollars.

Maryland,

Virginia,

AVest

Virginia, and

the wife of a member,

benefits

elected a military head to the rank, with the

The bodies Commander-General. were no longer called Commanderies, the rank being jJatterned, as to tactics and uniform, after the United States Army. Arms used are the straight sword for all except
title

of

This degree was formerly under the supervision of the Supreme Castle, but its growth was so rapid it was thought best to allow members to legislate
called Assemblies.

for themselves.

Each Assembly now

elects

mounted officers, who carry military sabers. The Commander-General, who must be a Assembly elects two representatives to the member of the Supreme Castle, is elected Supreme Castle of the Ancient Order, for three years by the commissioned officers Knights of the Mystic Chain, all of whom of the several States. This branch, which must be Past Grand Commanders. They is now firmly established, is divided into are admitted to meetings of the Supreme companies, battalions, regiments, brigades, Castle only when the latter is working or This and divisions. It is " the only military legislating for the degree of Naomi. secret organization which uses the United branch is established in Pennsylvania, New States Army tactics exclusively," and in- York, West Virginia, Virginia, Ohio, New cludes five regiments and three battalions, Jersey, Ehode Island, New Hampshire, and forming one brigade, and seven unattached Delaware, and the total membership is companies, with a total membership, Sep- 3,500. Weekly benefits average four doltember, 1896, of 1,680.
lars,

a Past Commander, representative to its Grand (State) Assembly, and each Grand

and death benefits


a Castle.

fifty dollars.

All

The insurance feature was introduced in men taking 1889, and is known as the Funeral Benefit members of
Belief

the degree of

Naomi must be There is no known


An-

and a preme
body.

Fund. It is controlled by officers Board of Directors elected by the SuCastle,

connection between the degree of Naomi,


or Daughters of Ruth, attached to the
cient Order,

who

report annually to that

Knights of the Mystic Chain,

Participants in the benefits of this and any of several other similarly named fund are members of Castles in good stand- secret societies for men and women. ing and health, between eighteen and fifty Ancient Order of Foresters. The Ancient Order of Foresters in the United years of age, and women members of the degree of Naomi, between sixteen and fifty States. is the lineal descendant of the EngThe first Court is now dead, years of age. Assessments are twenty cents lish Order.

each, payable monthly.


is

The death

benefit

eighty per cent, of one assessment, but in

having been established in Philadelphia in 1832. When, at the Minneapolis Convention, about 53,000 out of 56,000 members seceded from English authority and called themselves the Ancient Order of Foresters of

no case

shall it exceed $5i50. Of the remainder, 15 per cent, is placed in the general fund and 5 per cent, in the sinking

by the Board of Mana- America, it left the remaining Courts of the gers. The total membership in this depart- Ancient (English) Order in this country to ment on December 31, 1896, was 2,278. apply for a form of local government to the Weekly sick benefits paid by Castles range High Court of England, and to begin again
fund
to be invested

COURT COOP ^PP

NO. 201. PHIL.

/e32

7^/>w r cci//tr or rue ROYAL [CHCUin] OPOeR or roRZi URS in the m.


,

1 65 6 ^ COURT (S0ODSPC[D onZflTSTO THE. ANCICNT ORDER or rOBESTCRi


I

\WHICH 5UCCIDD TNi ROYAL ORDER

CI

/at.

4
7^CCSSI0H)-INDP[N0Efi7 OR0[R rOR[STRS-

iSf^
;>

1675

CANADIAN COuRTi

AOr JOINED OR
I

.^3

larecAirfiKt pe rAUA tioh^

\
^.

(secession)

^
laei

"^I

5^

"X v. li

188:

(5RUT)

ms

ANC OKP or rOUSTS or am.

..

II s go >

nm.CHAHi'.D

}^

189

S^*
a

1695

ToroKEsriR:,

or AMERICA

3^
:i

^ ^

CHART SHOWING RELATIONSHIP OF THE AMERICAN AND CANADIAN ORDERS OF FORESTERS TO THE PARENT EN(}LISH <)IU)ER OF THAT ANCIENT AND HONORABLE FRATERNITY.

128

ANCIENT ORDER OF GLEANERS

the work of recruiting its depleted memTwo Subsidiary High Courts bership.

Aucieut Order of Gleaners.


paratively recent fraternal,
ciety,

com-

beneficiary so-

were granted in 1891, one for tlie Atlantic, and Southern States, and the other for remaining States of the Union.
Central,

organized at Cairo, Mich.

Ancient Order of Pyramids.


fraternal, beneficiary society,

A new

organized at

Within the past six years its increase in membership has been noteworthy, the total including about 36,000 men and 3,300 women. Women have been admitted to full membership since 1892, notwithstanding the
incorporation
in
this

Topeka, Kan.

Ancient Order of United Workmen (1868). The Ancient Order of United Workmen, characterized as the oldest of the

great fraternal, beneficiary Orders in the Order of United States, was founded at Meadville, The Pa., October 27, 1868, by John Jordon UpCircles of Companions of the Forest. ritual of the Ancient Order in America has church, a Freemason, Avho, with others, had been greatly amplified, by permission of become dissatisfied with and had retired Like other from " The League of Friendship, Supreme the High Court of England. branches of Foresters, the Ancient Order is Mechanical Order of the Sun." * The first primarily a sick and funeral benefit society. Lodge of the Ancient Order of United It has an endowment benefit, but it is op- Workmen was named Jefferson, No. 1, and tional. Sick and funeral benefits are paid the constitution adopted by it provided that from fixed contributions graded according only white male persons should be eligible to age at entry, and upon Foresters' ex- to membership; that this provision should Endowments are paid never be altered, amended, or exjjunged; perience tables. from assessments graded according to age and that when the total membership should Foresters' mortality amount to one thousand, an insurance office at entry, based on British Forestry, including Courts should be established and policies issued tables. in the United States, Canada, Bermuda, securing at the death of a member not less British Guiana, British Honduras, Spain, than 1500 to be paid to his lawful heirs. Hawaiian Islands, Holland, British India, A Provincial Grand Lodge was formed in Malta, New Sonth Wales, New Zealand, 1869, when the amount of insurance was Peru, Queensland, St. Helena, Cajje of Good placed at not less than 12,000, and a uniHope, Natal, South African Republic, South form assessment established of $1. By 1870 Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, on the Gold fi.ve Lodges were represented at the ProvinAs in other Orders, disCoast, at Lagos, in Central America, the cial Grand Lodge. United States of Colombia, British and sensions arose, and for two years there were But by 1872 Danish West Indies, Hayti, and West Aus- two rival Grand Lodges. union and harmony i^revailed, and the Ortralia, has paid sick and death benefits since 1854 in excess of $85,000,000. Prior to the der entered on a career of growth and j^rosIts total membership in about 6,000 date named, returns were incomplete or perity. This is the great fraternity Lodges, in 1895, was in excess of 318,000 unreliable. which ranks almost with the Manchester in the United States, and nearly 32,000 in, Unity Odd Fellows in total membership, in Canada, a striking record for practically distribution throughout the world, and in tw-enty-four 5'ears of active existence, but the enormous sums paid annually to sick which is less remarkable than the sum total and distressed members. Its present grand paid to widows and orphans between 1869 The total membershipis nearly 900,000. The pro- and 1895, more than $70,000,000. portion of the membership of the Order in government of the Order rests in the

the United States

is

about 4 per cent. Fully


* Not

85 per cent, is found in the United Kingdom.

known

to exist to-day.

ANCIENT ORDER OF UNITED WORKMEN

(1868)

129

bers

Supreme Lodge, which pays benefits to mem- Fellows, the Companions of the Forest or heirs of members of subordiuate allied to the Foresters of America, and other
Lodges
in a State,

Territory, or province
its

like societies auxiliary to

secret organizafully

not having a Grand Lodge of


der.

own, and

has control of the general laws of the Or-

membership is In imitation 40,000, mostly women.


tions for
Its

men.

of the

Grand Lodges under the Supreme so-called Masonic "side degree," the WorkLodge control the benefit funds of their own men, who, by the way, are not necessarily Li rela- artisans, and in no sense constitute a trades States or provincial jurisdictions. tion to its method of insurance, surprise has union, confer what is officially entitled the
Order of MoguUians.
nish
fits.

been expressed that the Order has so long continued its siiccessful career, notwithstanding
all
its

This

is

said to fur-

amusement
It Avould

as well as substantial bene-

refusal to assess

members accorddone by nearly

seem to the student of the

ing to age at initiation, as


cieties;

is

sociological function of secret, assessment,

other of the larger and similar secret so-

beneficiary Orders that while the Ancient

and by
all

its

insistance that its

(and Provincial) Lodges shall


disburse

Grand receive and

oldest

Order of L'nited Workmen is perhaps the and among the more successful of its
its

death benefits which are based


at the

class in the L'nited States, while its affairs

on assessments, made
$1
i>ev capita,

uniform rate of are managed capably, and


States.

membership

irrespective of the fact that


in

the death

rate varies
is

different

ranks second only to that of the Odd Fellows, the Freemasons, and Knights of
Pythias

AVhen the death rate


ticular jurisdiction,

excessive in any par-

among

non-political secret organi-

and assessments there zations, that sooner or later there may dereach a certain point, determined by the velop a necessity for a revision of its assessSupreme Lodge, any additional assessment ment insurance system in the direction at which may be required is met by a levy least of a grading of payments according to Sick and age, and the jdacing of death benefit funds iipon the Order as a whole. funeral benefits are not comprised within in the hands of the supreme governing body. the objects for which the Order was estabAll great and good movements that have It is optional with subordinate filled a place in history have shed lustre lished. Lodges to provide the same, or either of upon the place of their birth. Mt. Vernon them, but comparatively few do so. The had its AVashington, Springfield its Lincoln, ritual and emblems of the Order betray the and Meadville its L^pchurch; and from the ]\Iasonic influence which has presided at the seed planted b}' the latter has grown the birth of so many modern secret, fraternal, tree of mutual protection, under whose shelbeneficiary fraternities. Its objects, covered ter to-day millions rest in security from by its watchwords, " Charity, Hope, and want and dependence. The Ancient Order Protection," are illustrated in its ceremo- of L'nited Workmen lays no claim to disnies of initiation. As in Masonic and other tinction as the originator of the idea of life
secret societies,
it

has three degrees; but even

insurance, as that existed


to its birth;

many

years prior

more Holy

significant are the All-Seeing Eye, the

Bible, anchor, and, singularly enough,

but its recognized claim to originality rests on the fact of its applying

more the principles of life insurance in a novel and cheap way, coupled with the care of the is an auxiliary branch for women (and men who sick, the relieving of the distressed, and the are members of the Order) called the De- moral, social, and intellectual betterment of gree of Honor. This has proved quite as its membership. The idea of forming a sopopular among the families of members as ciety that should ]iarallel the relief of the has the Daughters of Kebekah among Odd sick and burial of the dead of the secret.
its

the square and compasses

among

frequently displayed emblems.

There

130

ATLANTIC SELF-ENDOWMENT ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA

yond precedent and ranks to-day among the and more ago, which, in addition, first of its class. Senators M. S. Quay, J. C. should extend its beneficence to the widows S. Blackburn, Congressman J. G. Cannon, and orphans of its deceased members in a ex-Governor James E. Campbell of Ohio, stipulated sum of money sufficient to secure and William Jennings Bryan are members them from want, was an untried experi- of this Order. Atlantic Self-EndoAVineiit Associatiou ment until the organization of the Ancient Order of United Workmen. Following in of America. Formed at Greenville, S. C, in 1886, to insure the lives of its members its wake, scores of other assessment, secret, insurance societies have divided the field of by means of mutual assessments. Eeported life insurance in the United States with the dead. Big Four Fraternal Liife Association. From its ranks have old-line companies. Organized at Denver, Colo., to pay sick sj)rung many organizations of like character. Prior to the Civil War protection for widows and death benefits by means of mutual asand orphans through the medium of life sessments. Canadian Order of Chosen Friends. insurance was within the means of the wellFormed in 1801 and 1892 by seceding To-day it is the privilege of to-do only. The founder of the Order, members of the Order of Chosen Friends the humblest. John Jordon Upchnrch, Avas a mechanic^ resident in the Canadian Dominion. The and in 18G8 was in the employ of the Atlan- parent Order was arranging to give its CanaHe was dian membershij) separate jurisdiction in tic and Great Western Eailroad. possessed of no marked literary attainments, order not to antagonize the Dominion inbut was a keen observer of men and events, surance laws when the secession took place. Canadian Order of Foresters. Bewas possessed of good reasoning powers, and, above all, a philanthropic nature. His orig- tween the Canadian branch and the. Indeinal object was not so much to establish a pendent Order of Foresters, from which it system of insurance as to bring together sprung in 1879, there developed a sharp then conflicting social interests, capital and rivalry and antagonism which lasted four or in fact, until the latter so far labor, to provide means of arbitration with five years which to settle difficulties that were con- outran the Canadian Society in membership
fraternal, beneficiary organizations of thirty

years

stantly arising.

This feature has since been


for that of nintual

as to render

rivalry out of

the question.
Illi-

eliminated to
protection.

make room
Viewed

(See Independent Order of Foresters of


nois

and the Independent Order of Foresment of the Order at the beginning was ters.) The Canadian Order, of course, is crude and unbusiness-like, and its success is only one of four Orders of Forestry in the undoubtedly due more to the integrity and Dominion, the largest being the Inde2:)ensincerity of its members and to the rapid dent, from which the Canadian Order segrowth of the Society than to the early em- ceded, after which rank the Ancient (Engployment of distinctly business j)rinciples. lish) Order and (one Court of) the Foresters The first five years of its history developed of America. The Canadian Order has proslittle success and much opposition. It was pered, having increased from 850 members not until the session of the Grand Lodge of in 1880, to nearly 23,000 within seventeen Pennsylvania, held at Meadville, Pa., in years. Like other branches of the tree of January, 1873, at which time the Order Forestry, it retains the characteristic titles, numbered only 800 members, that it gave ritual, legend, and form of government of
to-day,

the manage-

promise of

real

growth.

Since the organiin February,

the parent society.


like the

It does not seek

mem-

zation of the

Supreme Lodge

bership out of the Canadian Dominion, and,

1873, the Order has prospered almost be-

Independent Order, charges a fixed

EMPIRE KNIGHTS OF RELIEF


monthl}'

131

benefits, confining sick

porated April 1, 1897, after which the growth of the organization was conspicuIt pays -SoOO, 81,000, -^1,500, ously rapid. assessments. *rhe withdrawal of Mr. Warne or 82,000 benefits at death, besides sick and and others from the Ancient Order of funeral benefits (which are optional), and United Workmen was " because the Grand furnishes members with medical attendance Lodge refused to adopt certain changes Since 1879 the Canadian Order has whicli he thought vitally necessary to the free. paid over 81,297,356 to members and their Order," provision for increasing cost of independents in insurance and benefits. Its surance as the society grows older. Memfunds are all invested in Canada, and thus bers of the Columbian League will make a far it has reported an exceedingly low death feature of celebrating October 12th as Corate, only 4.(J0 per 1,000 in its seventeenth lumbus Day. Men only are eligible to memyear. This, like the Independent Order, bership, all men to social and jiatriotic appears to make a feature of its insurance membership, but only those between eighand other beneficial advantages, rather teen and fifty years of age in the death benemore than some other secret, beneficiary fit department, which issues certificates of societies. The seat of government of the 8500, 81,000, 81,500, and 82,000 based on
to

premium with which

pay death

and other

benefits to

Society

is

at Brantford, Out.

Circle of the
the latter.)

Golden Baud.

Auxiliary
(See

twelve annual, step-rate assessments, according to age. The founders of the new Order are

to the Patriarchal Circle of

America.

prominent

citizens of Michigan,

and the soci-

ety starts out with every prospect for success.

Colored Brotherhood and Sisterhood


of Honor.

Danisli Brotherhood of America.

Omaha, Neb., in 1881, a frasomewhat similar in which classification it is recorded in cen- to the Order of Modern Woodmen. It pays sus reports for 1890. 'No further informa- sick and death benefits, and numbers about tion is obtained concerning it. 10,000 members in Massachusetts, ConnectiColored Consolidated Brotherliood. cut, New York, Michigan, Illinois, WisconAt Atlanta, Tex., the home office of this sin, Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota, South mutual beneficiary society of negroes (as Dakota, Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, Washat

Organized

Franklin, Ky.,

Founded

at

in 188G, as a social

and beneficiary

society,

ternal, beneficiary society

given in the tenth census), nothing


of the organization.

is

known

ington, and California.


in benefits.

It

has paid $500,000

Columbian League.

An

outgrowth of

the Ancient Order of United


ternities in the

Workmen,

the

parent of modern fraternal beneficiary fra-

Daujfliters of Hope. The census of 1890 gives the address of this mutual assessment, beneficiary society at Olneyville, 11. 1.,

where it is not known to the postal authori" the an- ties. Daug^hters of the Globe. Branch of niversary of the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus," by Eev. W. Warne or auxiliary to the Knights of the Clobe, an Wilson, Past Supreme ^Master Workman and Illinois social, benevolent, military and former Crrand Pecorder of the Ancient Or- patriotic fraternal society. (See Knights of der of United Workmen William A. Pungs; the (ilobe.) Eastern Star Benevolent Fund of Rev. William Prall, D.D.; Albert P. Jacobs, and others. No further action was taken America. See Order of the Star of Bethuntil January 1, 1897, when "the prelim- lehom. inary matters of organization " were continKmpire linights of Relief. OrganUnited
States, organized at

Detroit, Mich., October 12, 1896,

ued.

The

necessary two hundred

members

ized in 1889 at Buffalo,

N. Y., and incor-

having been obtained, the society was incor-

porated under the laws of that State as a


EQUITABLE AID UNION OF AMERICA

132

fraternal, beneficiary, assessment insurance


society.
Its
it

published announcements de-

clare that

has ''no secrets

and mental culture, and needy, to aid one or iron-clad another in obtaining employment, and to
lence,

charity, social

to care for the sick

oaths," but (elsewhere) that members " are bound by a solemn obligation " to render

assist

each other in business.

It also in-

sured members in sums ranging from $325


to $3,000

any sick or disabled brother in need of help. The Supreme Secretary is authority for the statement that it is called
assistance to

by means

of assessments of

from

twenty-five cents to $1, according to age and

amount.

The

benefit certificates also pro-

a secret society, ''and properly, too."


insures

It

vided for the payment of specified sums in


case of accident resulting in physical disability.

members for $1,000, $2,000, or $3,000, and makes no restriction with reference
to

Eligibility

to

membership

ex-

extra-hazardous

occupations.

tended to candidates from 15 to 55 years of


age.

temperate, industrious man between 20 and 55 years of age is eligible to membership, providing he can pass the required One assessment is physical examination.

Any

membership in twenty-four Canada in 1896 was about 30,000, of which 25,000 were beneficiary and 5,000 social members. The official emlevied each month, whether there has been blem consisted of the initials of the title of a death or not, the amount collected an- the Order in a triangle, surrounded by a The system nually in excess of the sum required to pay conventionalized sun-burst. Equitable Aid Union in the assessments fund. of death benefits going into the reserve
total

The

States and

in

funeral benefit of $100, $200, or $300

is is is

suggests the influence of the Ancient Order


of

paid immediately on proof of death, but deducted from the death benefit, which

United Workmen.
is

The government

of

the society
lar

similar to that of other simi-

payable within ninety days.

The Empire

Knights

of Relief

was founded by promi-

subordinate Unions being societies, under the immediate jurisdiction of Grand


or State (or provincial) Unions,
cers

nent citizens of Buffalo and vicinity, members of the Ancient Order of United Workmen, the Royal Arcanum, Freemasons, and Odd Fellows. The motto of the Order is

the

offi-

and representatives of the latter making up the Supreme Union, or highest


legislative

authority.

In April, 1897, the


into
It

" Benevolence, Philanthropy and Charity," Union susjDended payments and went
and its ritual is based on the G-olden Rule and inculcates obedience to the moral and civil The total membership is about 4,000, law.
distributed throughout half a dozen States.

the hands of

had fought hard to continue its existence, and numbered about 30,000 members, principally in
a receiver.

Pennsylthan five promise of continued years before it had $43,000,000 worth of start and gives policies in force, and not many years pregrowth and prosperity. viously the amount was almost $75,000,000. Equitable Aid Union of America. Organized at Columbus, Warren County, Its decline began in 1891. In 1895 its income Pa., March 22, 1879, and incorporated was $792,895 and its disbursements$801, 435, under the laws of Pennsylvania. Four of and its death rate had increased within four the founders were Freemasons. This secret, years from 12.2 to 17.4 per 1,000 annually. Equitable League of America. beneficiary fraternity permitted the formamutual assessment insurance tion of subordinate Unions, as its Lodges Baltimore organized about ten years ago. are termed, north of 36 30' north latitude Order,
the

The

society has been successful

from the

vania,

country districts of and New York.

Ohio,
Less

in the United States


of

and
to

in the

Canada.
into

It
its

sought to bring

women

Unions

Dominion Died in 1894. Fraternal Aid Association. Organmen and promote benevo- ized October 14, 1890, at Lawrence, Kan.,

FRATERNAL MYSTIC CIRCLE


by members
Ancient Order of United of America, Knights of the Maccabees, and otlier fraof the
ers,

133

Milton Barnes, formerly Secretary of


still

Workmen, Modern Woodmen

State for Ohio, died in 1895, but three others


are
of the

" members of the Order and officers Supremo Ruling'': D. E. Stevens, of acceptable white men and women, be- Supreme Mystic Ruler John G. Reinhard, tween 18 and 55 years of age, who are not Supreme Treasurer and F. 8. Wagenhals, engaged in prohibited (iiazardous) occupa- Supreme Medical Director. Of those that Honorary membership may be ob- made up the membership at the first meettions.
ternal, beneficiary Orders, to insure
tlie lives
;
;

tained by specified relatives of beneficiary

ing, in December, 1884, the following, in members. The Association also seeks to addition to those above named, are still promote fraternity among its members, to members of the Supreme Ruling John F. comfort the sick and distressed, and care Follett, Cincinnati, 0. ; A. N. Hill, ColumH. C. for surviving relatives of deceased members. bus, 0. ; J. D. Grimes, Dayton, 0. Sick, total disability, and death benefits are Drinkle, Lancaster, 0. and A. X. Ozias, Raprovided, the latter in three classes, ranging cine,Wis. Messrs, Stevens, Wagenhals, Hill, from $1,000 to $3,000. No assessments are and Follett are Freemasons, some of them called nutil money is needed to meet a claim, having taken the Scottish Rite degrees to and Its including the thirty-second. Others named of which thirty days' notice is given. government is vested in a General Council, are members of Knights of Pythias and This composed of its officers and representatives, other well-known secret societies. The Order has the usual form of government of chosen from local or State Councils. Association declines to recruit members in like fraternities, a Supreme and Grand and The first named is the Atlantic Coast and Gulf States from Subordinate Rulings. Virginia to Texas, inclusive; in CookCounty, the supreme governing body and the final A Supreme Executive court of appeals. 111., and all of Illinois south of Centralia; in Milwaukee, Cincinnati, New York city, Committee of five manage in the interim, Detroit, St. Louis, San Francisco, Sacra- between sessions of the Supreme Ruling. mento, and all other cities having a popula- Grand Rulings (Grand lodges) are instition of more than 200,000, in which peculi- tuted in a State when the membership arity it imitates a number of strong and reaches 500, or the number of Rulings is 15.
:

prosperous fraternal Orders of the West.

Subordinate Rulings are instituted


ful localities,

in health-

has about 3,000 members, a "modern'' ritual, and has paid about $100,000 in sick
It

and death
Its

benefits since
is

it

was organized.

emblem

composed

of tiie initials of its

where a sufficient number of good, eligible, and desirable candidates are found, willing to join hands for the mutual protection of themselves and families. Subordinate Rulings are
bers,

title

about a pair of clasped hands across a

managed by

their

mem-

shield bearing the stars

and

stripes.

Fraternal Legion.
ficiary society,

A Baltimore

bene-

organized in 1881, to pay

81,000 death benefits. Is not known to have survived the recent period of trade depression.

Fraternal 3Iystic Circle.


zation
is

This organiIt

among

the

smaller

beneficiary secret societies.

assessment was formed

December 9, 1884, to provide safe indemnity for young business and professional men under the lodge system. Of the five found-

and naturally become educational centres as to the plans and benefits of the Order and methods of conducting business. Each Subordinate Ruling entitled to one elects a Representative to the Grand Ruling an(who nually, and these Representatives make up the Grand Ruling) elect one or more delegates (as the State may be entitled) to the Supreme Ruling. The special To unite 1st, purposes of the Order are acceptable men, between the ages of 18 and 49 years, to carry out all that which is
:

134

FRATERNAL TRIBUNES
are filed annually with the insurance depart-

ments of New York, New Jersey, PennsylLodge shall, from its vania, Maryland, Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, At no period in its general fund, pay dues and assessments of Iowa, and Nebraska. sick or disabled members, maturing during history has the Order been more prosperous
each

included within the meaning of the word " fraternity ; " 2d, To make provision that

Subordinate

3d, The paysuch sickness or disability ment of the amount specified in the certificate of membership ($500 to $3,000) to the
;

at the death of a member Organized in Fraternal Tribunes. Payment to a member of one-half of 4th, the sum named in his certificate of mem- June, 1897, by A. L. Craig and others, at bership in case permanent total disability Eock Island, 111., to pay death, sick, disBoth oth. The creation of an ability, old age, and annuity benefits. overtakes him Emergency or Equalization Fund, to pre- men and women may become members. vent the number of assessments exceeding The Society started with 750 members, emtwelve in any year Gth, The collection of a ploys the graded plan of assessments, and General Fund to meet the expenses of the claims the " unique feature "of " guarantee Supreme Kuling. During twelve years the by a Loan and Indemnity Company " that its Order has paid to members and beneficiaries contracts with its members will be fulfilled. Fraternal Order of Protectors. in death and permanent total disability

beneficiaries

the year 1896 having at present, brought a larger volume of new business than any preceding year. The present membership is more than 12,000.

than

benefits almost $1,000,000,

and the emer-

gency fund has to its credit over $125,000, while the annual cost to members has been years ago. Fraternal small. In 1895 it was as follows, for the ages

mutual assessment beneficiary society which had its headquarters at Lincoln, Neb., a few

Union of America.

A mufounded

named
"
30,

tual assessment, beneficiary society


$3,000, $19.20;

Age 25, on
"

p, 000,

$22.80;

" " "

35,
40, 45,

" $3,000, $28.20; " $3,000, $34.20;


" $3,000, $42.60;

on $1,000, $6.40 per "$1,000, 7.60 " " $1,000, 9.40 " " $1,000, 11.40 "

an.

"
" " "

by F. F. Eoose, F. A. Falkenburg, and others at Denver, Colo. September 1, 1896, to pay death, sick, disability, and old age
,

"$1,000,14.20

"

These annual payments include the three elements required to meet the death claims fund, emergency fund, and expense fund.
of 35, a $3,000 certificate for 1896 would cost 128.20, distributed as folDeath claims fund, $22.21 Emerlows gency fund, $2.47; and' Expense fund,
: ;

At the age

$3.52.

From

the date of organization until

Men and women are eligible to membership, and the total number of members is in excess of 5,000. Mr. Eoose, the Supreme President, has had much experience among fraternal orders, and is a member of the Ancient Order L^nited Workmen, Modern Woodmen of America, Knights of Pythias, Woodmen of the World, Phi Delta Theta, Heptasophs, Junior Order United American Mechanics, Eed Men, and of the
benefits.

June, 1894, all the executive officers of the Supreme Euling resided at Columbus, 0., when the offices of the Supreme Mystic Euler and Supreme Eecorder w^ere moved In April, 1895, the Suto Philadelphia.

Masonic Fraternity. Fraternity of Friendly Fellows. Organized at New York, in 1885, to pay $1,000 insurance to members by mutual assessments. It was still alive in 1890, but no trace of it

preme Euling was incorporated.


of the Executive Ofiicers of this

The

policy

is

found in 1897.

Order has favored the filing of annual reports with the Insurance departments of States, where the laws provide for it, and annual reports

Glenwood Degree.
in 1875.

Uniform

rank of

the Independent Order of Foresters, formed


(See Independent Order Foresters

and

ditto of Illinois.)

HOME CIRCLE
Golden Rule Alliance. Organized at Boston prior to 1889, and recorded in the census of 1890 as a mutual assessment, beneficiary fraternity.
Its

135

membersliip was not

was organized in Boston, October 2, 1879, and began business November 5, 1879, being chartered under the laws of ^lassachu setts January 13, 1 880. Its founders were Henry
Dr. John T. Codman, Dr. Thomas Waterman, Dr. Edward Page, N. II. Fuller, John A. Cummings, and Julius M.

large,
tion.

nor did

it

secure a national reiwta-

Damon,

No

trace has been secured of survivtliis

ing bodies of

Order.

Organized in 1881 at Newark, N. J., as a fraternal, beneficiary

Golden Star Fraternity.


society

Swain,

all

residents of Boston or vicinity.

for
is

men and women.

Its

about 2,200, distributed New York, and Connecticut, but very few of its Lodges are found outside of the State where it was
total

membership

through

New

Jersey,

members of the Masonic FraKnights of Honor, and Royal Arcanum, three were Odd Fellows, and two were members of the Ancient Order of Ignited
Avere all

They

ternity,

Workmen. The charter permitted


to unite in social

the society,

first,

founded.
in a

It

has neither a prohibition,

re-

ligious, or political bias,

and states that it is sound financial condition with no outliabilities.

union all acceptable members of the Royal Arcanum, their wives,


mothers,
friends,
sisters,

daughters,

and

women

standing
press
charity.

Its ritual seeks to

im-

the

teachings

of

benevolence and

purpose of mutual aid, assistance, moral and intellectual improvefor

the

ment; and, second,

to establish a benefit

Grand United Order, Independent fund from which a sum Sons and Daughters of Purity. This $3,500 should be jiaid to the

not exceeding
deceased

mem-

l)eneficiary

and

social society

was organized

ber's

famil}^,

relatives,

or

dependents as

at Harrisonburg, Va., prior to the jiresent

directed.

decade.

None

of its

Lodges are known to


at Philadel-

be in existence now.

Granite League.

Formed

Four benefit degrees were adopted, and a candidate having passed a satisfactory inand the was admitted to one of the four degrees as he might elect, carrying >!500,
ballot,

vestigation, a medical examination,

phia nearly ten years ago to insure the lives of members by means of assessments. Re^ ported dead. Home Circle, The. When the Royal

$1,000, $2,000, or $3,500 protection, and

there was then issued a benefit certificate

Arcanum, which is composed exclusively of for the amount selected, ^^Jiyj^ble to some men, had been organized nearly two years legal beneficiary named in the application. and a half, and had been introduced into In 1881 the Legislature of Massachusetts twenty-three States of the Union, some of by special act granted the Sujireme Council its active members, residents of Massachuof the Home Circle authority to increase its setts, conceived the idea of organizing a benefit to $5,000, and to receive as members similar society into which the members of all acceptable applicants without reference the Royal Arcanum could take tlieir wives, to their altiliation with the Royal Arcanum. daughters, sisters, and women friends, and Under the laws of ^lassachusetts the society give them the full beneficial and social priv- cannot transact a commercial insurance busiileges which membership in such a societv ness, and while its policies or benefit certificonfers. The plan was to welcome woman cates are good for their face value to the to a full share of the work, honors, and family, relative, or actual dependent named,
responsibilities which, with

few excei)tions,

no

certificate is issued

payable to any other

had been refused her by secret beneficiary organizations. With this object in view the Supreme Council of the Home Circle

person, and the benefits cannot be disposed


of by will, assigned for

any purpose, or

at-

tached for debt of the

member

or beneficiary

136

HOME FORUM BENEFIT ORDER


mittees,

either during the lifetime of the member or Membership in the Home at his decease.
Circle, tlien, is

and

representatives from

Grand

Councils.

Assessments paid by members in


first of

an assurance to the member


of benefit

subordinate Councils are called to the Su-

that the

amount

named

will,

in

preme Treasury on the

each month.
is

the event of his or her decease iu good standing, be paid the beneficiary selected. The exi)erience of the Order in receiving

The
the

jurisdiction of the Order

limited to

women and

according

to

them

office,

honors,

and permission to carr}^ a protection or insurance for dependent parents or children

upon the same conditions of entrance, medical examination, and cash payments as men, Women compose thirty North Carolina, Georgia, Ohio, Illinois, has been favorable. per cent, of the membership, and the Home Michigan, Missouri, and Nebraska, the DisCircle furnishes the first and " perhaps only trict of Columbia, and the Provinces of Onexample," where a beneficial society consti- tario, Quebec, and New Brunswick. Its tuted of men and women has elected a lady ritual is based on the Golden Kule, and The teaches morality and upright living. as its chief executive officer. of design consists a the Society of paid in emblem Two million dollars have been death benefits besides the special relief to formed of the letter H and a circle, Avhile members when ill or in need, amounting to that of the Supreme Council, its governing about 1100,000 in seventeen years. Death body, suggests the domestic results of a benefits paid have directly aided over 3,000 well-spent and industrious life. Home Forum Benefit Order. Charpersons, and in a large majority of cases the deceased member has left to dependents no tered under the laws of the Stae of Illinois,

United States and the Dominion of Canada, and its business is conducted in the English language only. It has a membership of about 8,000, located in the States of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Ehode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, A'irginia,

other protection or

life

insurance.

in 1892, as a mutual assessment, beneficiary


Circle has
se-

The experience

of the

Home

society,

by prominent members
It is controlled

of the

Mod-

been conspicuous among the beneficiary


cret societies of the country, in that a benefit in the courts, and that
it

ern

Woodmen of America and of tlie Masonic


by
its

has

Fraternity.

members,

never had occasion to contest the payment


of
its legal

the business of the association being

man-

expenses for a period of seventeen years are Subordinate Councils are comtrifling.

aged by a board of directors. Women are admitted to full membershii) with men, the age limits for beneficiary membership being

posed of beneficiary members of either sex between eighteen and fifty years of age, who must pass a favorable examination and ballot.

between sixteen and

fifty-five years.
is

Hon-

orary or social membership

granted those

over the age limit for insurance.


issues

The order
losing
is

Applicants over

fifty

years of age

may

death benefit certificates for $500,

be admitted as social members without a Grand Councils are medical examination.

$1,000, and $2,000, and any

member

a foot, hand, or an eye by an accident

en-

organized in States and provinces having at


least

1,000 members, and are composed of


officers,

titled to receive one-fourth of the amount named in the certificate, the balance being

their

standing

committees,

and

payable at death.

^Membership

is

restricted
to those

representatives from subordinate Councils.

to healthful districts,

and denied

They have the general supervision

of the

following hazardous occupations.

An
is

unthat

Order in their respective jurisdictions. The Supreme Council, the head of the Order, makes laws and disburses the Benefit Fund. It is composed of its officers, standing com-

usual regulation in like fraternities

ber

which suspends for three months any memwho becomes intoxicated and expels for
the second ofEence, although, as explained.

IMPROVED ORDER OF HEPTASOPHS


such action
or
is

137

"without publicity."
is

The and has thus


low death
of the

far enjoyed
It

an exceptionally

plan of assessment
best

amon<]f the

approved
all

rate.

numbers over 2,000

graded systems in use by nearly

numaged fraternal orders. The ritual, like that of some other similar organizations,
finds its inspiration in

lioman history.

It

was about the


Ca?sar,

Ronum Forum

that Cicero,
dis-

Brutus, Anthony, and other

tinguished

Romans met

to discuss the queslaws,

tions of their time

and form

and the

Home Forum
interest to its

of to-day,

adopting the old


les-

members, and is growing rapidly. The Imperial Lt'f-iou. A Denver, Colo., beneficial fraternal association. Lodges of which have been established as far east as Missouri. Many prominent Colorado business and professional men are members of it. Improved Order ofHeptasoph.s. The growth of beneficiary secret societies, those paying sick, funeral, and death benefits,

Roman name, meets


sons of
honesty,

to decide questions of

within ten or fifteen years after the close of


the Civil "War, was, no doubt, responsible
for the desire by

members and impart the


fraternity,

benevolence,
initials of

members

of the Order of

temperance, and patriotism, the


star of the Order.

Heiita8ophs,or Seven Wise Men, that that Society be placed

which are found in the angles of the golden The total membership, principally in Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, and
about 12,000. Home Palladiniu. A secret beneficiary fraternity, to which acceptable white men
Michigan,
is

on a purely beneficiary
in Zeta

basis.

The movement centred


No.
6,

Conclave,

of

the Ileptasophs, or Seven Wise

cates of the

Md., and as the advochange from a purely beneficiary secret organization on modern lines were

Men,

at Baltimore,

and women are

eligible,

organized at Kansas

not able to carry out their plan within the


Society, they ajiparently determined to
so

City, Mo., in August, 1891,

by E. F. EdgeJ.
its

do

comb, Dr. L. G. Taylor, and Dr. T.


Eggers, to give financial aid to
in

members

permanent, partial, or total disability and death, by means of twelve graded assessments annually. It claims to combine the
best features of

older similar societies, to


its

by means of an independent organization. A call was accordingly issued August 10, 1878, signed by Judge George Y. Metzel, John W. Cruett, James S. Watkins, Hon. John G. :Mitchel, W. F. C. Gerhardt, and Herbert J. Thurn, all of ^laryland, asking
the cooperation of fourteen other members,
six

have new and desirable ones of


to avoid that Avhich is

own, and
are

objectionable in some
certificates

like

fraternities.

Benefit

issued in

sums of $500, $1,000, $1,500, and 12,000 in three classes, extra rates being charged members engaged in hazardous and
extra-hazardous occupations.
placed on
its

from ^laryland, six from Pennsylvania, and one from \'irginia, and one from Kentucky, at a meeting in convention to organ-

The a secret, beneficiary organization. convention was held at Odd Fellows' Hall on
ize

method

of creating
is

Emphasis is and main-

Broad
all of

Street,

Philadelphia,

August 27th,

the signers of the call and those asked

taining a reserve fund, which

copyrighted.
set apart for

to join

with them, twenty in number, being

A permanent organization of a was effected ujuler the Conclave Supreme member's benefit certificate Improved Order of Heptasophs, The title, or inon which he she pays reserve fund the terest at the rate of 2 per cent, per annum with S3 members of Zeta Conclave, Order of so long as the certificate renuiins in force. the Heptasophs, or Seven Wise Men, as the The Order is governed directly by the Su- nucleus of the new society. Judge George jireme Lodge, to which State Representatives V. ^letzel is regarded as the founder of the are elected by Grand Lodges existing for Improved Order, aiul he was elected the that purpose alone. It avoids the yellow first Archon, or chief executive. At the first
One-tenth of the amount of the face of a
is

present.

fever and malarial districts of the South,

annual session, in 1879, only nine Conclaves


INDEPENDENT CHEVALIERS AND LADIES OF INDUSTRY
bers were

138
"were reported,

with a total membership of For the first six years of its existence, the Improved Order of Heptasophs was antagonized by the parent society, so that during the first two years its membership in149.

made permanent members of the Supreme Conclave as Past Supreme Archons,

having equal privileges with the

Rej)-

resentatives on the floor of each


Sitting.

Supreme
is

The membership

of the Order

and is disBut the Society (see Order of the Heptasophs, tributed north of South Carolina, Kentucky, or Seven Wise Men) was in the hands of Arkansas, and Texas, extending west to and Death benefits range strong, conservative men who are said to including Colorado. have given freely of their time and means from $1,000 to $5,000, and are met by assessSubordinate Conclaves under the It now numbers more than ments. to build it up. 35,000 members in twenty States, and in Supreme general laws are permitted to shape the year 1895 enjoyed a phenomenal growth. their own by-laws, so far as they refer to sick The Order embraces the fundamental prin- benefits but many Conclaves have decided Two Conclaves ciples of leading kindred societies, except not to pay sick benefits. that it has abolished Grand (State) Con- have been so prosperous as to be able to Zeta Conclave claves, and leaves its business affairs, includ- build temples of their own.
creased to only 516
in

twelve Conclaves.

exclusively in the United States

ing the management of

its its

death benefit

of

Baltimore has

an

edifice

whicli

cost

fund, in the hands of


other Supreme
officials.

permanent and

$40,000, and Grant Conclave atEaston, Pa.,

In Maryland, the

has also dedicated a handsome temple to the

cradle of the Order, there are nearly 12,000

members, with an average mortality rate of The following only 7 in 1,000 per annum. is extracted from the Maryland Insurance Committee's report for 1895:
examination of the conditions of it is proper for one to refer specially to the Improved Order of Heptasophs as to the promptness with which all claims have been met and paid, and in all eases it was found the organization had made reasonable effort to complete
In closing
Fraternal Benefit Orders,
the necessary formalities and inquiries, in order to
increase the efficiency for the settlement of
claims.
all

my

The Order has

issued certificates repre-

This Order was among the first to place its insurance feature under the supervision of insurance departments in States where its meetings are held, in order that its efforts and the results of its work may remain " an open book," in which the record of tlie material good it accomjDlishes may be seen by all men. Iiidepeiideiit Chevaliers and liadies of Industry. Organized at Fail Eiver, Mass., 1889, as a fraternal mutual assessment association. Lived only about six years. Independent Order of Chosen Friends. Early in 1887, when the Order of Chosen Friends was only three years old,
principles of the Fraternity.

senting $48,000,000, more than $12,000,000

leaders of the latter in California applied to

In eighteen years over $2,000,000 have been paid to


in 1895, a creditable exhibit.

the

Supreme Council

for a separate juris-

diction on the Pacific Coast.

This was

re-

Order there, and the result was a secession and the formation of the Independent Order tive Acts of 1894, whicli clears from any at- of Chosen Friends. Within a few years the tachment i3roceedings all moneys to be paid Independent California Friends numbered from such funds held by any similar organi- 7,000 or 8,000 members, but the Society zation. The Supreme body consists of ultimately dropped out of sight. (See Order its oflBcers, deputies, and representatives of Chosen Friends.) elected by the membershi]! of Subordinate Independent Order of Foresters. Conclaves. The original, or charter, mem- This branch of Forestrv, like the Foresters
tion 143, L, of chapter 295, of the Legisla-

fund is protected by the Maryland Code of Laws, secbeneficiaries.

The

beneficiary

fused, notwithstanding the strength of the

INDEPENDENT ORDER OF FORESTERS


of

139
in other

America (which

see),

was the outgrowth

Knights of the Sherwood Forest

movemeut to secure local self-govern- branches of Forestry. In 1877 juvenile ment among New York and New Jersey branches were organized in which youths
of a

Foresters,

which began

in

1871, and cul-

minated, after several refusals of the English High Court to establish a Sul)sidiary

were interested, taught parliamentary law, and restrained from indulgence in liquor

High Court for the United States, in June, 1874, at Newark, N. J., when Court Independence seceded from the Ancient Order, and, with two Courts created by it, established a new, or Independent Order. A. B. Caldwell, the leader of the niovement, was the first Most Worthy High Chief Eanger. The remarkable success which has attended the growth of this offshoot from English Forestry is attested by its twenty-two years of existence and an increase of from perhaps 500 to more than 100,000 members in twenty States of the Union, the Canadian Dominion, the United Kingdom, and Ireland. About 43 per cent, of its membership is in the United States. Its form of government, with some minor differences, is like that of the Foresters of America and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. It furnishes members with free medical attendance and nurses, and pays sick, total disability, funeral, and mortuary benefits. A marked difference between this and other branches
of Forestry
is,

and tobacco. Since 1882, when the juvenile de2)artment was reorganized, it has become a useful and successful adjunct. In 1875, when only one year old, tiie Order had grown from three Courts and 500 members, with which it began, to forty-six Courts and 4,000 members; and in 1878, when its membership was nearly 14,000, the title of the governing body was changed to the Most Worthy High Court of the World, the
alteration

being

the

substitution
for

of

the

words
States."

"the World"

"the United In 1878 the Order met with seriof

ous disaster in the unfaithfulness


official,

an

who disappeared simultaneously


its

with about 117,000 of

funds.

Subse-

quently about one-third of the


efforts of the Society to

amount was
its obli-

restored, but so great was the loss that the

make good

by extra assessments resulted in serious differences which, for a time, threatened complete disruption. The firm stand taken l)y Judge William B. Hoke, then the
gations
executive head of
the Order, his judicial

that while the latter rely


in of

temperament, strong character, and wide


personal influence alone prevented disintegration.

wholly upon assessments to pay benefits and

endowments, the Indej^endent Order, 1881, combined the assessment feature

large

number

of Massachusetts

the beneficiary or friendly society, with the

Courts held out for State as opposed to national assessments and payments, but
ultimately decided to remain and be governed by the will of the majority. Not so, however, with some of the Illinois Courts, which refused to abide by the decisions of the Supreme Court, and had their charters revoked,

plan of the regular premium-paying insur-

In 1892 it was registered ance comi)any. as a Friendly Society in the United Kingdom, and under the requirements of the Friendly Societies Act, deposited with the British Government 20,000 to enable it to do an insurance business in the United Kingdom. In 1875, one year after its establishment, a ladies' branch was formed, called the Miriam degree, which corresponds

whereupon they met and organized the Independent Order of Foresters of Illinois.

in the ranks of the Illinois Independent Order of Foresters was not the only like consequence of the financial loss Prior to the Illinois to the Order in 1870. Companions of the Forest to the degree of in the Foresters of America. In 1875, also, movement, the Independent Order numa Uniformed Eank was instituted as the bered about 15,000, and the total loss from Glenwood degree, which corresponds to the secession within a vear was no less than

The break

140

INDEPENDENT ORDER OF FORESTERS OF ILLINOIS


There were, as pointed
out, about

4,000.

ington, Colorado,

2,500 seceders in Illinois, to which must be added 1,500 in the Canadian Dominion, in

consin, Pennsylvania, Kansas, in 1891,


in

Montana, Arizona, Wisand


in 1893.

the United

Kingdom
and
of

The
its

by whom the Canadian Order of Foresters was organized. It was in 1878, also, that Foresters in London, Ontario, planned and founded the original Order of Knights of the MaccaOctober,
1879,
bees.

spirit

shown by

this Society, its

methods of

self-develoi^ment

conducting

business have been most effective.


its

Under

Supreme Court are registered thirty-two High Courts in various States, Territories,
countries, to

In 1881, the Independent Order, the

provinces, and

which 2,600

larger part of the


in

membership

of

which was
severest

subordinate Courts hold allegiance.


after,

And

the United States, suffered

its

nominally, twenty-three years of ex-

blow through the action of its Supreme Court at Albany, N. Y., in resolving to change the name of the society to the United Order of Foresters. The Canadian Courts were unwilling to abide by this, and. found fault with American Courts for having

istence (practically only fifteen years), with

more than 100,000 members,

it

has a sur-

plus of '$1,848,000, after having paid over

$3,800,000 in benefits. Second to the efforts of no other man in organizing and extending the Independent Order of Foresters are
those of

its Supreme Chief Eanger, Dr. Oronhyatekha of Toronto, Ont. Independent Order of Foresters of and for holding meetings on Sundays. The Illinois. It is stated by various chroniclers result was the continuation of the Canadian that the Independent Order of Foresters of Courts as the Independent Order of Forest- Illinois, which was formed by a member of ers (the claim being that the Courts which the Massachusetts Catholic Order of Forestchanged the name of the Order were the ers, and by seceding members of the Indeseceders), and at the High Court meeting at pendent Order of Foresters of Illinois, at

made changes

in the ritual, for eliminat-

ing the chaplain from the list of officers, discarding prayers from the cerepmnies,

Ottawa, in July, 1881, with a total

mem-

bership reduced to less than 400 (excepting one Court in Elizabeth, N. J.) again began

members,

Chicago, in 1879, started with about 2,500 its Courts all being in the State
city of Chicago.

The the work of building u^i the Order. American, or seceding branch, that which
changed its name to the United. Order, though it started with about 13,000 members, did not possess the elements of success.

It languished,

became

extinct.

and within a few years Meanwhile the Indepenall

most of them in and about the The Miriam degree was carried along in what may be called the Illinois secession, but its membership was not large and is not to-day. A novel feature is found in its modification of the Glenwood degree or military rank, which was
of Illinois,
also retained, in that ladies are admitted.

time in the CanadianDominion,went resolutely to work, and, notwithstanding active oj)position from the Canadian Order, secured, within two years, a list of 1,700 members, an increase
dent Order, almost
of
it

at that

This Society

]3ays

endowment

benefits

by

assessments and sick and funeral benefits

of 300 per cent.


it

Two

years later, in 1885,

numbered, nearly 3,000 members, and in 1889, when it was incorporated, at Toronto, more than 14,000 members. Between 1890 and 1896 its growth was phenomenal, or from 16,000 to nearly 87,000 members. Courts were established in Oregon, Wash-

from Court dues. To judge from statistics of membership, interest in the Illinois Order In of Foresters has been on the decline. 1880 it had more than 2,500 members, and late in 1893, 21,160 members, an increase
of nearly ninefold in thirteen years.

Since

that time the membership

has declined,

amounting

to only 20,107 in

January, 1894,

18,376 in January, 1895, and to only 17,330 one year later, a decline of about one-seventh


KNIGHTS AND LADIES OF AZAR
within three years.

141

In 1883

it

suffered
of

tion of Jacob's ladder


their

and the ark among

emblems. The Order has about 10,000 the Komau Catholic faith, who organized members, and has paid nearly 500,000 for the Catholic Order of Foresters. As in the the relief of members and to their benecase of other secessions from like societies, ficiaries. Illinois Order of Mutual Aid. Organthe Illinois Order altered enough of its ritual and means of recognition to give it in- ized for the purpose expressed in its title at dividuality, but in other respects it followed Springfield, 111., June 17, 1878, when its (See first Grand Lodge meeting was held. It in the footsteps of similar secessions. took its rise from the Ancient Order of Independent Order of Foresters.) ludepeudeiit Order of Tininaciilates United Workmen, and pays 2,000, ?!l,000, of the United States of America. Or- and $500 death benefits "and accrued asganized at Nashville, Tenn., by W. A. Ilad- sessments." In the latter feature it differs Men ley, June 23, 1872, to pay sick, accident, from the organization last named. and disability benefits to members. It took alone are eligible to join the Order, the its rise from the Young Men's Immaculate membership of which is G,000. Independent Workmen of America. Association, an organization of colored men, A Nebraska fraternal and beneficial assobut differed in that it patterned after various secret, beneficiary Orders, and admitted ciation of recent origin. Its headquarters men and Avomen as members. Its head- are at Omaha. Iowa Legion of Honor. A social and quarters are at Nashville, and it has about beneficiary assessment Order, designed for 5,000 members. men and women, residents of the State of Independent Order of Meclianicts. Organized at Baltimore April 19, 18G8, a Iowa only. Removal from the State does The beneficiary benevolent, beneficiary fraternity paying not forfeit membership. sick and accident benefits of from $1 to $5 divisions for men and for women are sepaThe secret work and ceremonies are weekly, and death benefits of from $200 to rate. SuborAll white men between eighteen and described as "simple but lasting." 8400. fifty years of age are eligible to membership. dinate Lodges elect representatives to the The Order has never had any connection Grand Lodge, who with the officers thereof with practical mechanics or labor organiza- constitute that body. The Grand Lodge "When founded, the only prominent meets biennially, and the government is tions. and widesj^read benevolent fraternities in more representative than in like societies the country were the Freemasons, the Odd which subordinate Grand or State Lodges There were to a Supreme body. Members' lives are inFellows, and the Eed Men. The total memalso the well-known patriotic Orders, the sured for $1,000 or $2,000. United American Mechanics, Senior and bership is about 7,500. A prominent oftieial But it is more than doubtful states that the founders were not members Junior. whether either of the latter suggested the of any other particular organization of like name, the Independent Order of Mechanics. nature. (See American Legion of Honor.) Knights and Ladies of Azar. A reThe fact that the 'Hhree cardinal principles" of the latter are Friendship, Truth, organization of the Knights of Azar,' a fra and Love, as contrasted with the Friendship, ternal, beneliciary, and jiatriotic Order Under the Love, and .Truth of the Independent Order founded at Chicago in 1893. of Odd Fellows, suggests that some of the reorganization ladies are to be admitted on In June, 1897, founders of the "Independent Order of'' equal terms with men. Mechanics were Odd Fellows, which is there were 300 members enrolled, and as borne out by the use by both of a representa- soon as 500 were obtained the Society was

from the secession

of

some of

its

members

142
to be incorporated

KNIGHTS AND LADIES OF HONOR


under the laws
of Illinois
eligible to
jiersons,

affecting organizations paying deatli, acci-

membership " all acceptable Avhite male and female." The original

dent,

disability,

and old age

benefits by

act of 1878 fixed the

amount

of benefit pay-

means
Avas

mutual assessments. Kniglits and Ladies of Honor.


of

on the death of a member at a sum not This exceeding 11,000, but the amendatory act
able
of 1881 increased the limit of benefit pay-

the

first

secret

beneficiary society to

mapower to its members, and those depending upon them, by holding moral, literary, and scientific lectures, by met at Louisville, Ky., to discuss the con- encouraging each other in business, and by dition of affairs, and, if possible, effect a per- assisting each other to obtain employment. manent organization. The outcome Avas (3) To promote benevolence and charity by the formation of a Provisional Supreme establishing a relief fund. This fund is Lodge for the degree, of which the folloAv- maintained by monthly assessments on those ing, all of Kentucky, were the first officers: members Avho desire to participate in it, E. J. Williamson, T. W. Seymour, E. J. who are distinguished in the laws of the McBride, F. D. Macbeth, C. L. Piper, J. A. Order as Eelief Fund members. The Relief Demaree, W. E. Ladd, K. H. Seng, 0. N. Fund Deiiartment comprises three open Bradburn, T. E. Dennis, G. W. Check, and divisions: Division 1, of 1500; Division 3, T. J. Wyatt. The first annual meeting of of 11,000; Division 3, of $3,000; Division 4, the " Supreme Lodge of Protection, Knights of 13,000, but the last-named division is and Ladies of Honor," Avas held at Louis- noAV closed to entrants. Upon satisfactory ville, Ky., September 19, 1878, and in April proof of the death of a Eelief Fund memof the folloAving year the Supreme Lodge of ber, in good standing at time of death, such Protection, Knights and Ladies of Honor, sum of money is paid to the designated was incorporated. On December 14, 1881, beneficiary as the deceased had in life conthe General Assembly of Kentucky amended tributed for, and Avhich Avas specified in the the act of incorporation by striking out the Eelief Fund certificate held by the member words " of Protection," and so changing the at the date of death. Benefits are payable membership limitation clause as to render to " such member or members of his or her
age.
(3)

admit women to equal social and beneficiary privileges with men, and is otherwise noteAvorthy in that it is the outgrowth of a side or auxiliary degree knoAvn as the degree of Protection, which was attached to the Knights of Honor from 1875 until 1877. Knights of Honor, their wives, mothers, Avidows, and unmarried daughters and sisters over eighteen years of age were eligible to the degree of Protection, which performed the same social and beneficiary functions for the Knights of Honor that the Daughters of Eebekah does for the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Only a few Lodges of the degree of Protection Avere organized during 1875 and 1876, but little encouragement being given by the Supreme Lodge of Knights of Honor, which body in May, 1877, repealed the law creating the degree. On September G, 1877, representatives from Lodges of the degree of Protection

able at deatli of a

member

to 15,000,

which

changes constitute the foundation of the growth and prosperity of the Order of Knights and Ladies of Honor of to-day, the date of the independent existence of Avhich
is

September

C,

1877.

each single assessment by each

The amount paid on member deOrder and


30,

l^ends uj^on the age at joining the

amount
1878j
its

of benefit

carried.

On June

membership was as folloAvs: Men, 907; women, 1,018; total, 1,925. On December 31, 1895, men, 39,933; women,
43,083; total, 83,005.

The

objects of the

Fraternity are (1) to unite fraternally all acceptable Avhite men and women of any reputable profession, business, or occupation' who

are over eighteen

and under
all

fifty

years of

To

give

possible moral and

terial aid

in its

"

KNIGHTS AND LADIES OF SECURITY


family, person or persons dependent on or

143

him or her, as he or she may have directed." The Order has paid out in death
related to
benefits

of

O. ^[. A., which probably refer to the motto the Order, ai)pear ou an ornamental

during nineteen years

-^1

1,042,000.

Any
age,

acceptable Avhite person, not less

shield over the design. The best known emblem of the Knights of Honor is a monothan gram formed of the letters 0. M. A., and

eighteen nor more than sixty-five years of

of the

Knights and Ladies

of

Honor, a

jien-

may be admitted

as a social

without medical examination.


bers pay the usual

member dant triangular design, in tlie These mem- which the same letters appear.

angles of
It is of in-

Lodge dues, but are ex- terest to point out that the experience of empt from contributing to the Relief Fund. the Knights and Ladies of Honor shows The business of this Order is conducted that its risks on women members have conthrough a Supreme Lodge, Grand Lodges, stantly proven the better of the two classes. coextensive with their several State bounda- L. D. Witherill, M.D., Supreme Medical ries, and subordinate Lodges. It has six- Examiner of the Order for the twelve years, teen Grand Lodges, but its membership is reports out of the first 8,000 deaths (Dedistributed in nearly every State of the cember 26, 1877, to June 10, 1895, incluUnion. Representatives chosen by subordi- sive) -4,198 were of men and 3,802 women. nate Lodges constitute the several Grand The same authority says, concerning the Lodges, and representatives chosen by the character and desirability of women as inseveral Grand Lodges constitute, with its offi- surance risks Statistics show that the life cers and committeemen, the Supreme Lodge. of females, as a rule, is longer than that of The Supreme Lodge conducts, exclusively, males. Their exposure to violent deaths the collection and disburseijient of the Re- and abuse of intoxicants is far less. From lief Fund, and has full power to make laws a medical standi:)oint I would urge the memfor its own government, and to govern bers of the Order to increase their ranks as Grand and subordinate Lodges. far as possible from the women of our land. Less effort has been made by the Knights (See Loyal Knights and Ladies.) Knights and Ladies of Security. One and Ladies of Honor to make that organization distinct from the Knights of Honor of the more modern and progressive of the than has sometimes been the case by off- latter-day mutual assessment, death and shoots from secret societies, the comparison disability beneficiary secret societies, to being found rather with schisms among Odd which both men and women are eligible. Fellows and Foresters, so many independent It was chartered under the laws of the State Orders of which exist with similar names, of Kansas February 22, 1892, with its headtitles, emblems, and rituals. The seal of quarters at Topeka, by members of the the Supreme Lodge of the Knights and ^lasonic Fraternity, the xVncient Order of Ladies of Honor contains the representation United "Workmen, one or both Orders of of a knight in armor, with sword and shield, Woodmen, and others. It eliminates the ready to defend and protect the widow and expensive and generally unnecessary State
' : '

children which, with a broken column, are


also represented.

organization usually found in similar societies, its

Upon

the shield held by

National Council being composed

the knight,

who symbolizes the Order, are the letters 0. M. A. in the angles of a triangle. The seal of the Supreme Lodge of

from subordinate Countiie members. It operates throughout the United States the mother Order, the Knights of Honor, and Canada, north of Xorth Carolina, Tenis similar, except that the knight stands with nessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, his shield arm raised. The triangle and the and Arizona, excluding cities of 150,000 broken column are missing, but the letters population and over. Admission, as in
of representatives
cils

elected by a direct vote of

144

KNIGHTS AND LADIES OF THE FIRESIDE


societies,
is

most such

restricted to white

per cent, of the amount paid into the bene-

persons of good moral character between

eighteen and
pass
a

fifty-five years of

age

who can

satisfactory

physical

examination.

fund by the deceased or former meminvested by the Supreme Lodge to form a permanent fund with Avhich to proficiary
is

ber

Certificates or policies are issued to

women members

alike

from $500 to 13,000. means of graded assessments,


accident.

men and vide sums ranging bers These are paid by The
for
in
full

for the

payment

of assessments of

mem-

of fifteen (or twenty) years' standing.


services of S.

IL Snider, ex-SuperinKnights and

at

tendent of Insurance of the State of Kansas,


as Sujireme Secretary of the

death, or in part in case of disability by

Holders who reach the age of

Ladies of the Fireside, are an evidence of


the intelligence and enthusiasm with which
the society has entered the already well-filled
field of fraternal

seventy receive one-tenth of the amount of the policies each year until the face is paid.

A feature

of the organization
is

is its

reserve

insurance orders.

Knights and Ladies of the Golden on each 11,000 named in certificates, and Precept. Founded by Thomas Gauderup, loaning it on real estate mortgage security. E. E. Everhart, W. B. Davison, and John
fund, which
created by setting aside 150

Iverson at Clinton, la., in 189G, and incoris used to meet death losses after twelve monthly assessments, have been made within porated under the laws of the State of Iowa In explaining its reserve fund the with social and beneficiary objects. It cona year. announcement is made that the plan of cre- templates establishing Lodges throughout ating it has been copyrighted, and '' its j^er- the Union. The Knights and Ladies of the Goklen petual use secured to the Order." growth of the Order has been unusually Rule. One of the older but smaller secret rapid, its total membership amounting to beneficiary societies, combining many of the
It

about 25,000 in one-third the States of the Union, a tribute to the efficiency of the salaried organizers of new Councils and to the enthusiasm and loyalty of the rank and

features of

other like organizations with

some

of its

own.

It

cinnati,

0., in August,

was organized at Cin1879, and incor-

membership, in which it may be said to have fairly rivalled the vitality shown by almost any similar society. Councils of Knights and Ladies of Security are practically private social clubs rather than mystic temples, but the ritual and ceremonial are instructive and attractive, being well calcufile

of its

porated under the laws of Kentucky in the same month. The founders were members
of other beneficiary fraternal societies, no-

tably the Order of

Mutual Aid, which

suc-

cumbed

to

the yellow fever epidemic at


;

Memphis, early in its career, in 1878 the Ancient Order of United Workmen, and the Knights of Honor. A few representatives

and officers met in final session at Cinand after settling claims against the protection, and fraternity. Order of Mutual Aid adjourned sine die. Knights and Ladies of the Fireside. A majority of those present then met and A mutual assessment beneficiary organiza- organized the Knights of the Golden Eule, tion, founded at Kansas City, Mo., in 1893, which has preserved with varying success by representatives of kindred organizations a continuous existence ever since. The in Missouri and Kansas. It issues life, acci- headquarters of the Order are at Louisville, dent, and sick benefit certificates in separate Ky., and the form of government is much classes. It admits men and women alike, like that of similar societies, including a and has about 5,000 members pointing to an Supreme Commandery, Grand Chapters At the death having jurisdiction in the States, and Subexceptionally rapid growth.
lated to impress
vitiate the

upon the mind

of the no-

importance of wisdom, security,

cinnati,

of a

member

or lapse of a membershi]:), 10

ordinate Castles.

Funds paid

to beneficiaries

KNIGHTS OF BIRMINGHAM
of

145

members

of

the

Order are not subof the Fraternity


is

women between
of age
shij).

sixteen and sixty-five years


eligible to

ject to legal process for the collection of

and children are

meniberof $500,

debts.

The emblem

Its beneficiary certificates

shield, on

uiiich are the letters

K. G. R.,
the

$1,000, $1,500, or $2,000, i)ayable at death,

over a circle on

which

is

inscribed

may

be converted into paid-up insurance

It appeals to young men and Below are five links women to take out certificates of insurance of a chain, containing F. and P., which in small amounts, which, " in the event of a may or may not stand for Friendship and long life, will bring in a rich accumulation of Protection. The employment of detached the original face value.'' Annuities are paid links, symbolical of a chain of brotherhood, those Avho are fifty years of age and have is one of the few instances in which an been members twenty-one years, and one-half in

Golden Rule,

the centre of which are a

after ten years.

pair of clasped hands.

adaptation of the triple link of

Odd

Fel-

the face value of certificates


disability.
it

is

paid at total
in

lowship

is

fonnd among the more modern


is

The

Society

is

unique

that

secret societies.

receives into

membership
in

entire families,

The Order
and provides
fied

divided into three sections,

'^

children being received into the immedi-

for the i)aYment of a speci-

ate relief

department

sums ranging from

sum on
:

the death of a
section,

member

as fol-

lows

first

loOO

second section,

$1,000, and

white

man

or

and not over There is a ficiary member. ments graded according

Any $2,000. woman eighteen years of age, fifty, may be enrolled a benethird
section,
scale of assessto

$50 up to $400. Its present membership is about 10,000. The original members were members of the Royal Templars of Temperance, but the Order may hardly be classed as a temperance organization, though it excludes saloon keepers and bartenders from
Its

age.

The membership.

"golden star"
it

refers to

graded assessment plan was adopted in 1892 in place of the level assessment plan used at time of organization. A Grand

the Star of Bethlehem, and

has no secrets

beyond the password to exclude those not

members from
founded.

its

meetings.
benefits

It

has paid
it

Chapter has supervision of the work in a State and elects one or more representatives to the Supreme Commandery, which has
entire

nearly $700,000

in

since

was

control

of

the

beneficiary

depart-

Knights and Ladies of the Roiiitd Table. Organized in 1887, and registered
in census reports of

ment, and a general supervision of the Order at large. The organization has Castles in Alabama, Arkansas, California,
Georgia,
Jersey,
lina,
Illinois,

1890 as a mutual assessfor

ment insurance order

men and women,


111.

with headquartersat Bloomington,


ters addressed there are

Let-

Indiana, Missouri,

New

returned unojiened;

North Carolina, Ohio, South CaroKentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts,

but there

is still

name

in Central

an organization by the same Western States, notably at

Minnesota, Mississippi, Tennessee, Texas,


Virginia, and

Toledo, 0.

West

Virginia, and the total

membership
Star.

is

over 3,000.

Knights and Ladies of the Gohleii


ficiary society,

An assessment, charitable, and bene11,

January

founded at Newark, N. J., having its permanent headquarters at Newark. For a few years
1884,

Kniglits and Ladies of AVashingfon. social and beneficiary organization founded at Easton, Pa. Not known there now. Knights of Aur<n*a. Organized at Minneapolis prior to 1889 as a mutual insurance

society.

Not known there now.

the organization was local in character, but

afterward established Lodges in


State and elsewhere in
10

New York

New Jersey. Men and

Kniglits of l$irniingiiani. Founded at Philadelphia in 1873 by Peter Jones, Edwin Smith, and John Weldc, three Freemasons,

146
as a

KNIGHTS OF COLUMBIA
ise

mutual assessment beneficiary society, which only Master Masons between twenty-one and fifty years of age are eligito
ble.

"

to

"

i)rotect a

obey the laws of the Order and worthy brother in his adversities

and

afflictions."

The would-be member

is

It issues certificates of $1,000 each,

required to profess a belief in Cxod, and

payable at death, and has expended in this

manner more than 11,000,000. membership is about 5,000, most


reside at or near Philadelphia.

Its

total

must be able and family.


to

to earn a livelihood for himself

member may

carry $500,

of

whom
Grand

$1,000, or $2,000 insurance, and assessments

meet jiayments of death

benefits are as-

Lodge was organized in 1877, which consists of all Past Sir Chiefs and the five elective
otHccrs of subordinate Lodges.

sessed at the lowest limit, graded according


to age.*

More than $52,000,000 has been

paid in death benefits within the twentythree years since the Society was organized.
Beneficiai'ies
relatives.

Knights of Columbia. A Topeka, Kan., fraternal, mutual benefit organizaIts Lodges are scattered through tion.

Certificates of

West Mississippi and Missouri Valley States. be used as their redemption subject to seizure to satisfy The membership is not large. Knig'hts of Honor. The line of descent debts of the insured. Lodges pay sick benefits of the Knights of Honor in the family of to members at their option, and handle their beneficiary secret societies is direct from the own funds to that end. Death benefit funds parent death benefit assessment society, the are jiaid to and disbursed by the Supreme Ancient Order of United Workmen, seventeen Lodge. The government of the Order, like members of which, including members of the that of the Independent Order of Odd

must be the nearest dependent membership cannot collateral, nor are moneys paid in

Independent Order

of

Odd

Fellows, led by

The Knights

of

James A. Demaree, founded the Knights It of Honor at Louisville, Ky., in 1873.


has been very successful in that it ranked in numerical strength among the first half-

of the Ancient Order of

Honor took one step in advance United Workmen, in that,


all

while the latter assessed

raembei's a uniform
still

sura to pay a death benefit (and

does), the for-

dozen similar Orders, with a total membership of 120,000 in 1895, which fell off to 96,000 in 1897, during reorganization, when was remodelled and its assessment plan brought down to date. Its purposes are to unite, fraternally, acceptable white men of good moral character and sound bodily health; to lead them to assist each other in
distress, in business,

mer found an excuse for existence in its original plan of assessment by which members between 45 aud 55 years of age paid more than those between Fi'om that period, 1873-75, the work 21 and 45.
of evolution

among

fraternal assessment societies

and the search for em-

ployment, which are characteristic of many similar societies, and to establish a widows' and orphans' benefit fund of not less than
$500 nor more than $2,000, to be paid to
families
of

deceased

called secrecy

members. The sowhich attaches to the Frateris

nity

is

declared to be only such as


benefits

necessary

to keep out intruders

and unworthy men

from

its

upright

men
is

of all politi-

cal parties

and

religious creeds being wel-

come

to its ranks.

No

oath

administered

went rapidly on, the next step being the grading of assessments, and later an increasing assessment according to age. It was not long befoi-e the Knights of Honor admitted to membership persons between 18 and 21 years of age and adopted graded assessments for all joining thereafter, up to the age of 45. By 1894-95 it became plain that the system of paying a fixed assessment year after year, determined by the age of the member at date of joining the society, would sooner or later be found wanting; and in 1895 the Knights of Honor, after prolonged investigation, adopted a plan of insurance based on a different rate of assessment for each age, beginning with 18 and ending with 61, increasing from year to year. The effect, it is declared, will be that each member in any one year will pay only the sum needed for benefits on deaths among members of his own age, based on mortality tables and the experience of assessment beneficiary This radical change has resulted secret societies.
advantaireouslv.

to candidates for initiation,

" only a prom-

KNIGHTS OF SOBRIETY, FIDELITY, AND IXTKciHITY


Fellows, the Foresters, and nearly
organizations,
is

147

all siniilai-

ing nearly
crease in

all

of the past eighteen years inin popularity has

centred in a Supreme Lodge


(J

membership and

Its Supreme Lodge is made up of representatives of 36 sentatives of subordinate Lodges, and have Orand Lodges, to which are attached 3,000 jurisdiction over the affairs of the Order in subordinate Lodges with an average of 50 their respective States. Nearly all tlie larger members each. assessment beneficiary organizations are reKiiijjhts of Honor of tlie AVorhl. sponsible directly or indirectly for the cre- new fraternal insurance society, with head-

made up
Lodges.

of representatives df

rand (State)

characterized the Fraternity.

The

latter are

composed

of repre-

ation

of

similar

societies,

either

through
lead-

schism born of rivalry


ers or

among would-be
of

by having served as models, or other-

quarters at Natchez, Miss. It appears to have used the name of another organization. Knights of the Seven AVise 3Ien of

wise,

and the Knights


In 1875

exception.

the

Honor prove no the WorUl. Supreme Lodge 1890 names


founded nothing
its

The
this

United States census of


Society

among

others

established a side or auxiliary degree enti-

to
is

do an insurance business, but


of
it

the degree of I'rotection, to which Knights of Honor, their wives, mothers, nnmarried danghters and sisters, eighteen or more years of age, were eligible. Only a few Lodges of this degree were instituted during the next year or two (see Knights and Ladies of Honor), and in 1877 the Supreme Lodge repealed the law creating the degree, whereupon representatives of the degree met at Louisville and organized an
tled

known
it

at Nashville, Avhere
Its title sug-

chief office Avas located.


Avas

an offshoot from or related in some Avay to the Improved Order of, or to the Order of the Heptasophs. Kniglits of Sobriety, Fidelity, and Integrity. A mutual assessment beneficigests that

ary society for men, organized at Syracuse, N. Y., in 1890. It does business in nearly
a dozen States, but a large proportion of its

inde2:iendent society for

secret

assessment beneficiary
the
title.

5,000 luembers are residents of the Empire


State. It issues death certificates for $500, $1,000, and 12,000, and pays accident and

men and women under


of Protection of

The Order

Knights and

Ladies of Honor, which was subsequently changed to the Knights and Ladies of Honor. The Knights of Honor, while among the better and favorably known of like societies, has not attained its present eminence without intelligent and persistent work on the part of hundreds of prominent business and professional men Avho have been and still are members. Of Western origin, it early spread to the East and the South. From 17 members who founded the Order, the membership increased to 1)9 by the close of 1873, but one year later it had grown tenfold, with 999 names on the roll. From 1875 the Society's increase was rapid until 1878, when the yellow fever epidemic was

sick benefits of 5, 10, 815, 820,


Aveekly.

and $25
fi\'e

The

latter are limited to

con-

secutive weeks, and to tAventy weeks alto-

gether in any one year.

Three rates of

assessments are offered members, the lowest of Avhich delays the period at Avhich the
benefit goes into effect, but

surance easier to carry.

makes the inThe second rate is

based on a shorter delay in putting into operation the death benefit contract, while

the third makes the insurance operative from the moment of joining. The loss of one hand and arm above the wrist, or one foot and leg above the ankle, entitles a member to one-sixth the amount due under his certificate in case of death. In case of the cause of its first serious reverse. In the loss of both hands and arms above the that year alone the Order suffered a drain Avrist, or both feet and legs above the ankles, on its financial resources of 8385,000, the he is entitled to one-third the face of the result of the death of 193 members. Dur- certificate. Members Avho arrive at the aire

148

KNIGHTS OF THE BLUE CROSS OF THE WORLD


American Legion of Honor, Woodmen of the World, the Grand Army of the Republic, and other secret societies. The influence of the

of seventy years are entitled to 10 per cent.


of the

amount named

in the certiticate each

year until one-half the

amount named
of claims,
is

in

the certificate is paid.

All surplus of preset

Workmen

is

seen in the uniform

miums

after the

payment

assessment rate, that of the Freemasons and

aside as a reserve fund, " to j)rovide against

Odd Fellows
tion that
''

in the degree

work and emin its obliga-

excessive mortality in any one j^ear.

'
'

Loans

blems, and the Grand

Army

on real estate security are made to members on the monthly payment plan in States where the Order is incorporated. Knights of the Blue Cross of the World. Organized at Homer, Mich., in 1888, to pay $1,000 and $2,000 death benefits by means of mutual assessments of memIt also paid weekly benefits in cases bers. The organization of sickness of members.

no other

flag

than the glorious

Stars

country."

and Stripes shall ever fioat over our Four degrees or ranks are conKnight,

ferred, that of Volunteer, Militant,

and Valiant Knight.

Of the
111.,

latter L. L.

Munn,

33,
is

of Freeport,

writes that

while he

familiar with

many Orders and


the

has witnessed ceremonies of

highest

grade of excellence, the beauty, instruction,

and impressiveness of the Valiant Knight's not known now to the postal officials. Knights of the Brotherhood. A mu- rank take a very high rank among them. tual assessmeut beneficiary Order founded One of the chief objects of the Fraternity is
is

prior to 1889, which reported to the United


States tenth census from Phoenixville, Pa.,

but

is now unknown there. Knights of the Globe.

social, mili-

American citizenWhile the Order is Avell distributed throughout the West, it is strong in Illinois, where a large proportion of its 7,000 memto inculcate lofty ideas of
ship.

tary, charitable,

and

patriotic secret organi-

bers reside.

Knights of the Globe Mutual Benefit Knights through the Association. A non-secret, cooj)erative members ture to of the Globe Mutual Benefit Association, a insurance company, organized under the
zation

which secures the death


its

benefit fea-

non-secret, cooperative insurance

company,

laws of the State of Illinois in 1890 to in-

sure members of the Knights of the Globe which only Knights of the Globe and Daughters of the Globe. (See the latter.) Knights of the Golden Eagle. Among Men and women may become are eligible.

organized under the laws of the State of


Illinois, to

members
first

of both organizations, the latter

the various beneficiary, semi-military secret


societies

joining the Daughters of the Globe, a

which have founded their rituals and

branch of the Knights of the Globe. The mutual aid society through the Knights is recruited from the more healthful portions of the United States, and announces special inducements to young men because of its uniform rate of assessments. It issues death benefit certificates for ten different amounts, ranging from $500 to 15,000, to those between eighteen and fifty-six years of age who are otherwise eligible. The Knights of the Globe was organized at Chicago in 1889 by Freemasons prominent in the Scottish

ceremonials upon the history and pageantry


of the Crusaders, the

Knights of the Golden


is

Eagle, or Chivalric Knights of America,

conspicuous, not alone for


creasing membership, which
60,000, but as well for
its

its

rapidly in-

numbers about
adaptation to
of

American

soil

of

the

struggles

early

Christian knighthood.

The

objects of the
relief against

Order are benevolence, mutual


ness,
distress,

the trials and difficulties attending sick-

and death,

so

far

as

they

may

be mitigated by sympathy and pecu-

by Odd Fellows of the highest niary assistance; to care for and protect members of the Ancient Or- the widows and orphans; to assist those der of United Workmen, Royal Arcanum, out of employment; to encourage each other
Rite,

rank, and by

KNIGHTS OF THE GOLDEN EAGLE


in business;
of
to

149

"

to ameliorate the condition

theme the struggles


after
''

of the Christian warrior

humanity

in

every possible manner; "

the immortal crown. "

He succeeded

stimulate moral and mental culture by


to elevate the

in enlisting a sufficient inimber of friends


to

wholesome precepts, fraternal counsel, and


social intercourse,

insure the success of his plan, and by

member- means of symbol and allegory representing ship to a higher and nobler life, and the 'the passing through the wilderness of sin inculcation and dissemination of the princi- and woe on the journey to the Heavenly ples of benevolence and charity. Castle," the ritual was made characteristic The organization consists of a Supreme and the Order established. At Shorey's Castle, Grand Castles, and subordinate Cas- Photograph Gallery, No. 129 East Baititles. The Supreme body is composed of more Street, January 20, 1873, the Grand Past Grand Chiefs (of Grand Castles), and Castle of Maryland was organized, and steps Grand Castles of Past Chiefs of subordinate were taken to institute several subordinate
Castles. This is in line with the system pursued by the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, with its Supreme Lodge, Grand, and subordinate Lodges; the Foresters, with their Supreme Court, Great and subordinate Courts, and many other similarly governed The subordinate body in each societies.

Castles, four being in active 02)eration eight

months

later.

Templar Knighthood played

a part in the preparation of the ritual of the

holds allegiance to the State organization,

and the

latter to the

Supreme Body.
Knights
of the

The

ritualistic

work

of the

Golden

Knights of the Golden Eagle as in other of Knighthood. The history of the ancient Templars, the Hospitallers, the Teutonic Knights, and the Knights of St. John and Malta, together with the example of the Masonic Knights Templars, has had an unending influence on the minds

modern Orders

Eagle includes three degrees: the first, or of secret society ritualists of the nineteenth Pilgrim's; second, or Knight's; and third, century, and not only are the Knights of '' or Crusaders' Degree. The three degrees the Golden Eagle an evidence of it, but are symbolic of a soldier battling for his there is reason to believe their ritual is infaith. He is first a Pilgrim, then a Knight, debted to membership in the Order of those and finally a Crusader." The Pilgrim's de- who had been brought to light and had been gree teaches fidelity and eternal faithfulness advanced in the parent of all modern secret to God and our fellow-man. The Knight's societies. With such seed, tbe blossoms degree confers the honors of Knighthood, could not fail to be numerous and beautiful. arms and equips the Pilgrim, and teaches Philadelphia Odd Fellows became interested, him veneration for religion, fidelity, valor, and took the new Order of Knighthood to courtesy, charity, and hospitality. The the City of Brotherly Love in 1875, and by Crusader's degree sends the newly made April, 187G, the Grand Castle of Pennsylknight forth upon a crusade against the vania Avas organized. The Centennial Exhosts of evil, armed and equipped to con- hibition and the financial dei)ression which quer opposing foes. The ceremonies and followed it delayed progress; but by 1880 lectures are free from anything of a frivo- the banner of the Eagle Knights was unlous or objectionable character. furled in Massachusetts by the aid of influThe Order has for its motto, " Fidelity, ential members of the Knights of Pythias; Valor, and Honor," a trinity of graces five subordinate Castles with a total memtaught in its ritual. It was founded by bership of 500 were secured, and the Grand John E. Burbage of Baltimore, Md., who, Castle of that State was instituted in the in 1872, conceived the idea of an organiza- following year. The Supreme Castle had tion, secret in character, which should ''go been formed in lialtimore on January 22, hand in hand Avith religion," having for its 1878. Since 1884, wlien a number of

150

KNIGHTS OF THE GOLDEN EAGLE


citizens of Philadelphia

prominent
interested,

became
it

military,
rades.

the pi'ogress of

the Order has

which has charge of drills and paThere is a semi-military feature iu

been rapid, and by December, 1896,


with
years

was

the ritualistic Avork of the Castles said to be

in successful operation in thirty-four States,

very attractive, but the military work con-

830
its

Castles.

During the past ten

nected with the


claimed,
is

degree of Chivalry,
societies.

it

is

growth has been conspicuous in the history of kindred organizations, more than 800 Castles having been organized during
that period.
It is

" unsurpassed " by any similar


of the

ceremonial in like

The Knights

Golden Eagle say

they are pioneers in protecting those

who

not obligatory for the members to have passed the limit of age at which they connect themselves with the military branch, 'can enter similar organizations. There are

which is an important adjunct and attracts The Commanderies as the young men. bodies are termed are separate military the from the Castles; but any Sir Knight in good standing in his Castle is eligible to membership in a Commandery. The uniform of members of the Commanderies is elaborate and jolainly patterned after, but still dissimilar from, that of the Masonic The Commanderies Knights Templars.

a large

number

of Veteran

Castles,

com-

posed of men fifty years of age and over, which, like the Castles and Commanderies, have power to legislate in regard to dues

and

benefits.

The Order
Castles

also claims to be the pioneer

in protecting those

who have belonged

to

which have become defunct. The Castle of Protection, originated by Past Supreme Chief J. D. Barnes of Pennsylvania, now confer the degree of Chivalry, adopted provides that such members may pay dues by the Supreme Castle at its annual session to, and receive benefits from, the Grand This Castle of Pennsylvania, and the Supreme held in Eeading, Pa., October, 1896. Castle has recently adopted a like plan for is required to be taken by those who connect The the benefit of those under its immediate themselves with the military branch. motto of this degree is '^ Chivalry, Truth, jurisdiction. This branch is known as the and Peace," and the ritual deals at length National Castle of Protection. The Knights with chivalry and the history of the Crusades. of the Golden Eagle have certainly taken a Commanderies are under the control of a stride in advance in looking out for the wellieutenant-general, elected by the Supreme fare of members whose Castles are defunct, Castle every three years, except in States iu which respect some older and larger benewhere there are five or more Commanderies, ficiary secret societies are remiss. In 1885 when a Grand Commandery may be insti- members of the Knights of the Golden The oflficers of a G-rand Command- Eagle organized a similar society under the tuted. Grand Commander, Grand Vice- title. Legion of the Eed Cross. The requiare ery Commander, Grand JMarshal, Grand Herald, site qualifications for membershiji iu the Grand Preceptor, Grand Historian, Grand Knights of the Golden Eagle are that the Almoner, Grand Inne Guard, and Grand applicant be a white man, eighteen j^ears of Outer Guard. The members of the Grand age, of good moral character, a believer in Commandery are known as Grand Cheva- the existence of a Supreme Being and of liers, and achieve that honor by virtue of the Christian faith, free from mental or having passed through the posts of a subor- bodily infirmity, competent to support himdinate Commandery. Subordinate Com- self and family, a law-abiding resident of manderies may be beneficial or non-bene- the country in which he lives, and have There are two depart- sufficient education to sign his own apficial, as they choose. ments the civil, which confers the degree plication for membership, which, by the and attends to all business matters; and the way, are almost exactly the qualifications

KNIGHTS OF THE MACCABEES

151

demanded for admission

into the Order of the


]\Ien.

the same place with respect to Kniglits of

Heptasophs, or Seven Wise


is

More than
Castle Ilall

the Golden Eagle as the Daughters of Re-

one-half the total membership of the Order


in Pennsylvania.

bekah do

to the

Independent Order of Odd

The Grand
!j!45,000,

Fellows, and the

Companions

of the Forest

The " Lady meet in Temples, and regulate ter moved its headquarters to AVashington their own weekly and funeral benefits and Their total membership is about a few years ago, and is a monument to the dues. extent and importance of the Order in the 9,000. Temples which are separate from, Keystone State. The Death Benefit Fund and in no wise adjuncts of. Castles are under the immediate control of the Suis composed of members in good standing of subordinate Castles, between the ages of preme Castle until there are ten Temples eighteen and fifty, and members of subordi- in a State, when a Grand Temple may be nate Temples (the auxiliary, or Ladies' Or- formed. FoundKiiigrhts of the Loyal Guard. der), between the ages of sixteen and fifty,
at

Philadelphia was

purchased from the

to the Foresters of America.

Knights of Labor for

when

the lat-

Eagles "

who must

pass a satisfactory examination

ed

by Edwin 0. Wood, at Flint, Mich.,


31, 1895.
to

previous to admission.
to beneficiaries of
is

The amount paid January members in good standing eligible


benefits

Men and women


It

are

membership.
It

pays death

Weekly

1,000 in Class A, and -^500 in Class B. sick benefits and funeral benefits are

only.

organized

Lodges

in

104

cities

within two and one-half years,

paid by means of assessments at the option The assessment of subordinate Castles.


in Class
cents.

and
bers.

numbers

more

than

5,000

memone

is

50 cents, and in Class

25

Knights of the Maccahees.


societies

No

one object of the founders was to furnish a moderate death Li 189G benefit to members at a low cost.
It will be seen that

of the popular secret beneficiary fraternal

which have sprung into being dur-

ing the latter quarter of the nineteenth

a $250. death benefit class was provided, assessments in which are pro rata with those
in Classes

centuiy has been more successful than the


Maccabees.
early
Its original inspiration
its

was of

A and

B.

During the year 1895

Canadian origin, but

robust youth and

$180,000 was paid out for relief by the Castles of the Order, the investments amounting to S850,000.

manhood

are tributes to

the nurtur-

ing care and executive capacity of Ameri-

The founders of the modem Maccabees are to be commended for quanyvania has for its object the protection of ing tiie foundation stones of their ritual, the aged Eagles, widows, and orphans, and legend, and ceremonial in strata which had not even been uncovered by the exploring is supported by a per capita from such Cascan citizens.

The Eagle Home

Association of Pennsyl-

tles as are

enrolled in membership.

social feature is characteristic of the Order,

and one night in each month


set apart for entertainments.

is

The hand of the secret society ritualist. The modern Order of Maccabean Knighthood is generally built upon the traditions and history of the
ancient Maccabean
dynasty,
the
achieve-

ments of which are recorded in the first and Golden Eagle, is open to women of good second Books of the Maccabees, in the moral character, not less than sixteen years apocryphal Old Testament. The followers of age, whether relatives of Knights of the of Judas Maccabeus were Jews of no parGolden Eagle or not, as well as to members ticular tribe, who braved death in the deof the Order of the Knights of the Eagle. fence of their belief in the God of their This auxiliary to the Eagle Knights has so- fathers. The name Maccal)eus is said to cial and beneficiary objects, and fills much have been derived from a Hebrew term

The Temple

degree,

or

Ladies of the

152

KNIGHTS OF THE MACCABEES

It Avas to Judas death of Antiochus, but was murdered by signifying a hammer.* Maccabeus the Jews were indebted for the those who feared his influence on the heir Simeon, the second brother preservation of their political power and to the throne. In the second century of Judas, aided by Roman allies, became religious liberty. B.C., the Jews transferred their allegiance the ruler of the Jews, and finally reestabfrom Egypt to Syria, and tw'enty-five years lished the independence of the Jewish naThe wisdom and moderation with later the Syrian King, Antiochus Epiphanes, tion. commanded them to renounce their religion, which he used the power intrusted to him defiled their sauctuarj-, and ordered them were so well appreciated in his own day that after his sucto pay the honors due alone to Divinity to that the year 141 B.C. Tliis the Jews un- cession was made the beginning of a new the Olympian Jupiter.

der their Priest Mattathias resisted in a "thirty years' war.'' Before the outbreak
Mattathias, being a person of consequence,

era.

Upon

the enduring traits of character

displayed by the ancient Maccabean family


in the Jewish thirty years'

the
the

was tempted by a Syrian captain to embrace new faith, but with his own hand he
first

war

for religious

and

political liberty, particularly those of

slew the

altar

of

renegade Jew who apjiroached This precipitated idolatry.


Mattathias, his five sous, and

cabeus, the

the conflict.!

a few faithful followers destroyed the emblems of the heathen worship in Modin and vicinity and fled into the wilderness of

Judas MacMaccabees have founded their fraternal Order of It was Judas Maccabeus mutual relief.
its first

great representative,

modern Knights

of the

who

first

commanded

his soldiers in divid-

ing the fruits of their victories to reserve a


part for the widows

Judea. The Hellenes, friends of the Greeks, aided the Syrians and the family of Maccabeus, of which Judas Maccabeus was the

and orphans

of

their

brothers
beism.

who had

fallen in battle

a jn-omi-

nent feature of the work of modern Macca-

head, espoused the cause of the Jews, Judas

Maccabeus becoming the leader of the


volt after the death

re-

of his father

Matta-

founded
tario,

The modern Order of the Maccabees was in 1878 by members of the Order
and others,
at

a few years after the outbreak of the war in 166 B.C. The former took command, and at Mizpah repulsed and put to flight the Syrians, although his forces were greatly outnumbered. At Bethzur he again put the Syrians to flight, reconquered Jerusalem, purified the Temple, reestablished the holy service, and concluded an alliance with the Komans. He fell in battle in IGL B.C. He was succeeded by his brother Jonathan, who became High Priest on the
thias
* It
is

of Foresters,

London, On-

who were

familiar with the history

also claimed the

name

''

Maccabi

"

was

of the ancient Maccabees, and believed it formed an excellent framew^ork on which to construct a modern fraternal and benefiThey drew up a constitution, ciary society. prepared a ritual and ceremonials, and the new society was born. Within two years it had spread throughout the Canadian Dominion and into several of the United States, with a total membership of about 10.000. Its earh" growth is declared to have been of

formed from the

initials of the

Hebrew words mi

Kamocha baelim, Jehovah, signifying " Who is like thee among the gods, Jehovah?" f On being summoned by the Syrian overseer and bade to make sacrifice to the gods, Mattathias answered: "If
their
all

the people in the

kingdom obey the

mushroom character. No medical examination was required of applicants, and assessments at deaths were only ten cents apiece for all members. The business management was not of the kind which beneorganizations of
this

order of the monarch to depart from the faith of


fathers,
I

ficiary

variety

now
more

and

my

sons will abide by the

require, expenses increased relatively

covenant of our forefathers."

rapidly

than the income,

and as deaths

KNIGHTS OF THE MACCABEES


became numerous a
in the face.*
crisis stared

153

the society

germs of ii usesome of the' more conservative business men of Michigan among its relatively large membership in that State
Believing
it

to possess the

in the Supreme Tent. A Great Camj) was promptly chartered in Michigan and incorporated June 11, 1881, which day

retained

ful institution,

has since been recognized as the anniversary of the reorganized Order. At the Supreme Tent, in July, 1881, the laws were amended,

mainly through the exertions of the Michigan representatives, to permit Great (State) Camps to control benefit funds of their own changed, and the business methods revised jurisdictions. Michigan members were eviand }>laced on a stronger foundation. This dently aware that the Order, even as recould not have been accomplished without organized, could not long survive, and were some friction, and one outcome was the seces- apparently planning to act as heirs and sion of a minority of the Order in Canada, assignees of what might remain when the under the leadership of one McLaughlin end came. At this period, September, 1881, of London. But one year later the rival Major N. S. Boynton was induced to act as Orders came together at Port Huron, Mich., secretary and general business manager for in the persons of their chief executive offi- the Michigan Great Camp, officially, as cials, and, after a two days' conference, were Great Record Keeper. He opened an office reunited, and elected a full corps of officers. in his residence at Port Huron, and adIt was several years before the society began vanced funds with which to jjurchase supits career of prosperity, owing to much plies, charters, seals, j)Ostage stamps, etc. " bad material" having been admitted, the His private business took him about Michiconsequent high death rate, to activity of gan so frequently that be was enabled to would-be leaders and of leaders who were work effectively for the Order, which, for a not competent. Major N. S. Boynton, who year, he did without pay had he not had been elected Supreme Lieutenant Com- done so, there would probably have been no mander at Buffalo, in 1881, was made Maccabees to-day. He subsequently became chairman of a committee appointed at the Great Commander of the Great Camp of
;

undertook to reorganize the society at the grand review held at Buifalo, N. Y., in 1880. The constitution and laws were

Port Huron joint review, in 1881, to draft


a

new

constitution and laws.

The

results

the

Michigan, the highest office in the gift of Fraternity in that State, which he,

of this committee's deliberations were adopted in February, 1881. They provided

more than any other one man, may claim


the credit for maintaining and upbuilding.

for

the

organization

of

Great Camps in

States, Territories,

and Provinces where the funct.

membershii? was 1,000 or more, but the management of the death benefit fund was
* This

Outside of Michigan the Order became deIt started anew in the Peninsular State in 1882, with only 700 members, and

has spread

throughout the United States

and Canada.
was about
tlic

period

of

tlio

so-called

"

Griffin defalcation " in the

Foresters,

Independent Order of which was followed in 1879 by schisms

The constitution and laws have been revised again, the ritual has been changed, and a funeral service incor-

to escape extra assessments, the offshoot organiza-

Independent Order of Foresters of Illinois, and the Canadian Order of Foresters. While it is probable, it has not been determined whether or no the Knights of the Maccabees
tions taking the
of
tlie

names

was devised by members of the Independent Order of Foresters for reasons similar to those which gave birth to the Illinois and Canadian Orders of Foresters.

These were largely the outcome new leaders, some of them Freemasons and members of other secret societies whose rituals and methods have served as models for many fraternal, beneficiary societies. Tlie old Supreme Tent being dead, its members in the Michigan Order revived it, Sei)tember, 1883, and began
porated.
of suggestions of

154

KNIGHTS OF THE STAR OF BETHLEHEM


shij) fee

work of extending the memthe country. In 1892 a throughout bershij) permanent headquarters was established at Leaders among the Knights Port Huron. declare that the Order, which consists of a body of men banded together for the protection of their families and homes, is not an insurance company, and bears the same
the active
relation
to

when

applied for at the same time,

and on payment of dues to maintain only one local organization. Certain classes of railroad employees, expressmen, firemen, and miners (except coal miners, which are prohibited risks) are regarded as hazardous risks, and pay twenty-five cents additional
assessment for each
$1,000.

Persons en-

an insurance company that a gaged in blasting, coal mining, submarine It is only operations, making highly inflammable or father bears to a guardian. proper to add that this distinction is drawn explosive materials, aeronauts, electric linebetween nearly all secret, fraternal, benefi- men, etc., are not eligible to membership on ciary societies and open mutual assessment account of the extra hazardous nature of insurance companies, as well as between the the occupations; in addition to which, prinformer and the old line, level jDremium- cipals or agents or employees in the manuThe facture or sale of spirituous or malt liquors, paying life insurance companies. Order of the Maccabees is quite compre- and those addicted to the intemperate use
hensive as to the relief
it

extends.

It not

of intoxicating

liquors, are

ineligible

to

only pays benefits at the deaths of members, both men and women, but for disability,

membership.

during extreme old age and sickness, for accidents, and to meet funeral expenses. These payments are met by mutual assessbased upon the ''actuaries' table Assessments are made monthly, and include an allowance of 12

The total membership of the Knights, December 1, 1896, of which more than oneMichigan, was about 182,000, throughout forty States and Provinces, and the death rate in 1895 was only 5.54 in 1,000, which was exceptionally Fully $5,000,000 in benefits have low. been paid since the Order was founded. The total membership, Knights and Ladies combined, December 1," 1896, was 248,000, and the combined benefits distributed had amounted to more than $7,000,000. Knights of the Star of Bethlehem. See Order of the Star of Bethlehem. Ladies of the Golden Eagle. The women's social and beneficiary branch of the mutual assessment fraternal society, the Knights of the Golden Eagle. (See the
third
is

in

distributed

ments,
of

mortality."

per cent, for the actual cost of management. All white persons of sound bodily health

and good moral character, socially acceptbetween eighteen and seventy years of but only age, are eligible to membership those between eighteen and fifty-two years of age may join and share in the beneficiary Sick benefits are from $4 to $10 features.
able,
;

per week, while $50, $200, or $300 annually are paid in case of total and permanent disability,

old age benefits.

and $50, $100, or $300 annually for A benefit of from $3 to


loss of

latter.

$30

is

paid in case of disabling accidents;


to $2,000 for the accidental
all

Ladies of the Maccabees.

As

nearly

$175 both $100 $500

the prominent beneficiary secret societies

eyes, hands, or feet, or


to $1,000 for

hand and
foot;

foot

have auxiliary, or women's, branches, to aid

for the accidental loss of an eye.

funeral benefit of
$50, and the

in charitable work and assist socially and The otherwise in promoting the interests of the an unmarried member is parent organizations, so the Knights of tlie

hand or

and $40 to

$2,000, or $3,000;
exist)

death benefit $500, $1,000, and (where Great Camjjs

Maccabees are supplemented by the Ladies


of the .Alaccabees.

To Mrs. A. G. Ward

of

high as $5,000. These benefits (one or all) may be secured for one memberas

Muskegon. Mich., belongs the credit of having suggested and planned the Ladies

LADIES OF THE MACCABEES


of the Maccabees.

165

She drafted the original October 1, 1892, to harmonize the workings first Hive, composed of of various Great Hives, and to render their wives of the Knights, at Muskegon. At first social, ritualistic, and other work uniform, this society was local and purely social in and, as its name suggests, the Supreme character, but in 1886 application was made Hive is to-day the supreme authority of the
constitution for the

Camp for Michigan, at Kalamazoo, for recognition as an auxiliary branch to aid local Tents socially, and for laws to provide for life and disability benefits to be managed by the auxiliary society itself. The request was not granted, and a second apto the Great

Ladies of

tlie

Maccabees.

It

is

made up
is

of representatives of

Great Hives, and

the auxiliary branch of the


of

Supreme Tent

met with another refusal. would-be Lady Maccabees were not relaxed, and as many of the leading Knights had become convinced of the determination and ability of the ladies to accomplish what they had undertaken, the Great Camp, which met at Port Huron
plication in 1887

But the

efforts of the

the Knights of the Maccabees of the World, the supreme governing body of the Knights. The Ladies of the Maccabees is claimed to be the first movement of the kind among

women
own
even

offering death benefits,

laws,

and transacting

its

making its own bu.siness.


many,

Its successful

career has surprised

in 1888,

recognized the organization of a

Great Hive for Michigan, auxiliary to the Great Camp. A Great Hive was finally organized, its laws approved by the Great

among its well-wishers, and has shown that women may safely be intrusted with the conduct and management of many of the broader business affairs of life. The
membership of the Ladies of the MacDecember 1, 1896, of which fully one-half is in Michigan, had increased to
total

cabees,

Camp, and its officers elected and installed by Major N. S. Boynton, Great Record Keeper, in May, 1890. Organizers were appointed, and the ladies' Order was rapidly introduced throughont Michigan in connection with various Tents of the Maccabees. By August, 1890, the total membership of the Ladies of the Maccabees was only 170, but from that time onward its growth, success, and ])opularity among ladies, relatives of the Knights of the Maccabees, and others, have been continuous. For some years the growth of the society, owing to its charter, was confined to Michigan. Hives were subsequently organized by (ireat Camps in other States but in New York and Ohio
;

66,000

since the

formation of the Great

Hive for Michigan in 1888, and may be found in more than one-half the States of the Union and in the Canadian Dominion. It aids its sick and distressed members, cares for the living, buries its dead, and pays death and disability benefits. Women between the ages of sixteen and fifty-two, socially acceptable, are admitted to life
benefit membersliip, after passing a medical

examination.

They

receive

death benefit

certificates for $500, $1,000,

and 2,000, and

in case of permanent or total disability, or on reaching the age of seventy years, they

receive annually one-tenth of the


in

sum named

Great Camps retained control of subordinate Hives and of tlieir funds. This for
a time

their certificates.

Thus

far tiie death

rate

among

the Ladies of the Maccabees has


Tlie social, ritualis-

from Hive of the Order of the Ladies of the Maccabees of the World, restricting their enjoyment of social and "fraternal'' benefits of the Order in other States than their own. But the Supreme Hive of the Ladies of tlie Maccabees of the World was organized

prevented Hives in the States named being represented in the Supreme

been remarkably low.


tic,

and educational exercises are prominent features. In view of its unique


literary,

character, the society being the

first

of

its

kind managed exclusively by women, it is proper to add that to Lady Lillian M. Hollister of Detroit and Lady Bina M. West of Port Huron is larfjelv due the success

15(5

LEAGUE OF FRIENDSHIP, SUPREME MECHANICAL ORDER OF THE SUN


Loyal Circle.

and present high standing of the auxiliary


branch
of" tlie

new

fraternal benefi-

Maccabees.

ciary society, organized at

Champaign,

111.

Loyal Knights and Ladies. An outLeague of Frieiidsliii), Supreme Media iiieal Order of tlie Snii. A benefi- growth of the Knights and Ladies of Honor. ciary labor organization, now extinct, mem- The latter society M'as connected with the
bers of

which formed the Ancient Order

of

United

Workmen in

1868.

(See the latter,

Legion of the Red Cross.


smaller mutual assessment
cieties,

One
the

of the

beneficiary so-

founded in 1885 by members of the Knights of tlie Golden Eagle, which insures
of
its

Knights of Honor, and Mizpah Lodge, Bosmost wide-awake Lodges. The Knights and Ladies of Honor severed its connection with the Knights of Honor, and the membership of Mizjoah Lodge, diston, Avas one of the
satisfied

with the action of the society, disconnection with the Knights and
u]}

the lives

members

in

sum

of

solved

its

$1,000, seeks to procure emjaloyment

for

Ladies of Honor and set


its

housekeeping

own account as the Loyal Knights All acceptable white men, be- and Ladies. The first meeting was held in business. tween eighteen and fifty years of age, who November 11, 1881, in Boston. The forcan pass the required physical examination, mation of the other Courts devolved upon
them, and,
so far as possible, to assist

them on

It is governed by a Supreme Council, made up of its officers and representatives of Grand Councils, which have jurisdiction over subordinate It Councils in States where established. furnishes sick as well as death benefits, and, since it was founded, has paid nearly $160,000 to beneficiaries. The ritual is based on the history and traditions of the Crusades,

are eligible to membership.

Court Mizjjah, and until the fifth Court had been instituted no attempt at a higher body was made. At that time delegates were sent from the five Courts, and upon
these devolved the duty of establishing the

governing body.

The Imperial Court was


6,

formed December

1883, though

it

was

known

as the

High Court

until February 23,

but, as

may be supposed, has no


Red
Cross.

direct or

other relation to the Masonic or other orders of the

The

total

memberand

ship, about 4,500, is centred in

Maryland,

Delaware, Pennsylvania,

New

Jersey,

New

York, and

its

headquarters are at Balis

1884. No esjsecial attempt was made to push matters until after the incorporation of the society, June 18, 1895, when some important changes were made in its constituAt the present time the Order is tion. growing slowly though very satisfactorily. The death rate of the Order has been very
low.

timore.
slightly
sliape,

The emblem
modified

a red Maltese Cross,

from the

conventional

with the letters L. 0. E. C. in the arms, and a circle in the centre containing
a representation of the Cross and Crown.
(See also Knights of the Golden Eagle.)

its

The strongest claim the Order has upon members is the genuine feeling of fraternity, which has held it together when so many stronger societies have gone to the
wall.

Very much

is

Indiana fraternal beneficiary society, with its headquarters at Indianapolis, which in 1897 dropped its fraternal features, and continued business as an ordinary insurance company. Loyal Additional Benefit Association.

Light of the Ages.

An

to encourage this sentiment,

done by all the Courts and many enter-

tainments are given.


also is very good.
society,

The

ritualistic

work

It is a secret beneficiary
all

admitting

socially

acceptable

white persons of suitable age who can jiass It pays the required physical examination.
a death benefit not to exceed $1,000, though

fraternal

beneficiary

society,

by members of the Royal Arcanum, to which only the latter are eligible as members. (See Royal Arcanum.)
formed
in 1889

the actual
that sum.
desired,

amount paid has never reached

sick benefit

is

provided for

if

though few of

the

Courts have


MODERN WOODMEN OF AMERICA
adopted the system.
benefit
ability,
is

157

Xo

other

form of

to provide for old age, total

attached, neither accident, dis-

ability benefits,

and partial disand for death benefit assess-

ciety

ments in excess of twelve annually, has been formed by setting aside 30 per cent, of the members, about 100 of whom are social or assessments on benefit certificates. Widows non-beneficiary. The amount of the benefit and orphans of members receive from $100
so-

annuity, or endowment.

The

has at the present time about GOO

averages II per assessment.

Miriam OogToe

Forestor.s.

to $1,000, $3,000, or $3,000.


l>enetllife's

On

reaching
re-

expectation the aged

members may
and

ciary and social branch of the Independent

ceive $500, $1,000, or $1,500,

to per-

Order of Foresters, to which only memand women relatives and friends are eligible. (See Independent Order of Foresters and Independent Order of
bers of the latter

Foresters of Illinois.)

Aiuerioaii Fraternal Order. at Effingham, 111., in 180G, by esting degrees for the consideration of those William B. Wright atid others, to pay death, who desire to become members, and curidisability, and old age benefits by means of ously founds its ritual on the life and adven-

Organized
eligible to

Modern

manently disabled members $100, $200, or $300 is paid annually for five years, all sums paid for permanent disability and at life's expectation being deducted from the death benefit. This League of Modern Knights presents three highly instructive and inter-

mutual assessments. Men and women are tures of Don Quixote and his companion membership. About 1.000 have Sancho Panza. It numbers about 5,000 members. In that the ritual is based upon joined. incidents in the life of these well-known Modern Knights' Fidelity League. A mutual assessment beneficiary society for characters in Spanish fiction, it forms one men and women, organized in Kansas in of the two successful organizations which 1S91 by members of the Royal Arcanum, have based their unwritten work on stories National Union, Woodmen of the World, wliich underlie great and popular works of and other fraternal beneficiary associations, fiction. Modern TVoodmen of America. and incorporated under the laws of the State of Kansas in 1S93, with its chief offices at Among the many successful fraternal orders Kansas City, Kan. Membership is re- guaranteeing death benefits to members, the stricted to persons between eighteen and Modern Woodmen of America stands out fifty-six years of age residing in the more prominently, numerically, financially, and
healthful portions of the country.
Its gov-

fraternally.

Its benefit certificates

provide

ernment

is

on the widespread plan found


societies, consisting of

for the

payment

of $500, $1,000, $3,000, or

among like
and

or governing body
representatives

made up

Supreme $3,000 to the families of deceased members, and for care and attention during from Grand or State sickness. The Order is an Illinois corporaa
of its officers
tion,
5,

working under a charter granted ^May It was founded at Lyons, la., in 1883, by Joseph C. Root, a prominent Freeis to combine a number of risks in one certificate, such as a death and endowment mason, an Odd Fellow, a Knight of Pythias, benefit and annuity after the member shall member of the American Legion of Honor, have reached the age of seventy years. Sepa- and of the Ancient Order of United WorkThe first Camp, as its Lodges are rate tables of graded rates are employed to men. arrive at the cost of such benefits according called, was instituted January 5, 1883, Weekly bene- which is regarded as the birth of the Order, to the age at time of joining. although its beginning really dates back fits of from 13.50 to 810 are also paid in Since its incorporation it has cases of sickness or accident. A reserve fund to 1880.
Councils, which have direct charge of the
Its

subordinate Councils.

plan of insurance

1884.

158

MODERN WOODMEN OF AMERICA


a

increased from

membership
local

of

1884 to 210,000 in 4,180 September 1, 189G.

The record made by the Modern Wood600 in Camps on men of America shows that the cost of protection has not increased within seven years;
is

The
nois,
sin,

territory of the
its

Modern Woodmen

that

it is

furnishing insurance at a cost of

confined by

charter to the States of

Illi-

14.96 for $1,000 per


of

annum;

that the cost

Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, WisconMichigan, Kansas, North Dakota, South

management

is

78 cents per

member;
is

that the average age of membership


years,

35.96

such an increase in membership within a year as that of the ritory the healthiest in the country. In Modern Woodmen of America, which w^as, addition, persons engaged in hazardous oc- in round numbers, 45,000. There were 692 cupations are not eligible to membership.* death claims paid that year, amounting to Assessments to jiay benefits are graduated $1,408,500 and the total amount paid to
society

Dakota, Missouri, Indiana, and Ohio, from which the cities of Chicago, Detroit, Milwaukee, St. Louis, and Cincinnati are excluded.

and that the average death rate per


is

1,000

5.05.

No

other secret beneficiary

ever showed

This,

it

is

claimed, makes

its ter-

according to the age of the j)erson joining, the grading being in jiroportion to the average expectancy of

beneficiaries since organization

is

16,522,385.

The

total

increase in

membership during

life by the standard of eight months of 1896 broke the Society's American tables. The rate remains the own record, 49,350. On September 1, 1896, same as at the beginning, the special induce- it had 1515,000,000 of insurance in force. ment being to young and middle-aged men. Under the Order's charter the head office is Ordinary expenses of the local and head located at Fulton, 111., Avhere C. W. Hawes

Camps
men
of

are j^aid by the semi-annual dues.

has charge of the record dejiartment.


der the direction of

The

* As qualifications for membership in the Wood-

general supervision of the Order comes un-

America are

as exceptional
is

among like
:

rules

in similar societies as

the rapid annual increase

Northcott of Greenville,

Head Consul W. A. 111. Colonel A. H.

under the control of the who form the Board of who is over forty-five years of age, if but for a single day, is ineligible. Persons engaged in the fol- Directors: A. R. Talbot, Chairman, Lincoln, lowing kinds of business or employment will not be Neb. J. W. W^hite, Eock Falls, 111. J. N. admitted as members of this Fraternity Railway Reece, Springfield, 111. Marvin Quackenbrakeman, railway engineer, fireman, and switchbush, Dundee, 111.; and B. D. Smith, Manman, miner employed under ground, mine inspector, kato, Minn. The membership of the Order pit boss, professional rider and driver in races, employee in gunpowder factory, wholesaler or manu- includes many prominent men, among them facturer of liquors, saloon keeper, saloon bartender, former Comptroller of the Currency James aeronaut, sailor on the lakes and seas, plough polisher, H. Eckles, William J. Bryan, ex-Governor brass finisher, professional base-ball player, profesHoard of Wisconsin, and Congressman La
cial

in membership, these are given in full Persons to become members must be white males, over eighteen and under forty-five years of age, of sound health, exemplary habits, and good moral character. One

Hollister of Madison, Wis., is intrusted with the funds of the Order, and the finan-

supervision

is

following gentlemen,

sional

foot-ball player, professional fireman, sub-

marine operator, or soldier in regular army in time of war. One who, after joining the Order, engages in any prohibited occupation, thereby himself A'oids his contract with the Order and renders his certificate null and void, but may obviate this difficulty and retain his membership by filing with the Head Clerk a waiver of all right to benefits in case death results by reason of such prohibited occupation except where engaged in the sale of intoxicant
liquors.

Follette.

While making a point

of being particular

to restrict its operations to the healthiest

States in the Union, and to young and healthy men so as

receive
to

only

keep the

cost of insurance as low as the lowest, the

Modern

Woodmen

of

America makes a
This
is

strong feature of the social and fraternal


side of secret societv life.

indicated

MYSTIC WORKERS OF THE WORLD

159

by the following extract from an address to which members of the latter and women It has been estabbefore the orgauizi^.tion in 1894 by its then relatives are eligible. lished only a few years, but gives promise Head Banker (Treasurer) D. C. Tink The " Woodmen " in one form or another existed of ably supplementing the Camps of AVoodcenturies before the Golden Fleece or the Roman men as have so many similar auxiliary orEagle was dreamed of that the Orders of the Star and Garter, the Red Cross, and the Legion of
;

ganizations attached

to

other beneficiary

Orders.

This branch of the Order pays


also.

Honor
them.

are things of yesterday as

Far back
laid

in the

compared with dim and misty ages, before


before the
first

death
of

benefits

The membership

is

the creatures were born,

stones

were

in

the eternal city, in regions unlike

and fraternal, there being about 3,000 of the former and


varieties, beneficiary

two

those we see round about us, where snow-crowned

13,000 of the

latter.

peaks stand guard like sentinels, where babbling brooks and murnuiring rills discoursed soft music
to the

nodding

jiines,

the

first

Camp

of

With the axe they cleared the forest, with the wedge they opened up the seei-et resources of nature, and with the beetle they battered down the opposition of unworthy tribes that
was
organized.

Mystic Workers of the WoiUl. Founded by G. AV. Clendenen of Fulton, Woodmen 111., and incorporated under the laws of
Illinois in 1892, to

pay death and disability

sought to bar their progress. So, my friends, we, as Modern Woodmen of America, have the same
axe, beetle,

means of mutual assessments. Both men and women between sixteen and fifty-five years of age may join and be inbenefits by

sured for 8500, 81,000, 81,500, or 82,000.

and wedge, and we are destroying the


as they did

abiding places of poverty,

the wild

beasts, so that the blooming roses of happiness, the waving grain of plenty, the lowing herds of sympathy, the rumbling machinery of industry, and

Those unable to pass the required physical examination may, if elected, become social members. A member who becomes permanently and totally disabled by sickness, accident, or old age
of
is

the stately cities of the

home

of the beneficiaries

entitled to one-twentieth

are thus maintained and protected.

his certificate, or policy, semi-annually


it is

The
Society

reference

to the emblems of the makes evident the effort of the

until
is

cancelled.

This disability clause

not effective "until the Order can pay a


policy in full."

organizers to be as original as possible in

maximum

No

assessments

formulating ritual and ceremonies. Yet are levied after members arrive at the age so much had been done in the way of creat- of seventy years, and one-twentieth of the ing secret societies prior to 1880-83 that amount of their policies will be paid them some Avell-traveled ground had to be cov- every six months until cancelled, or if death Thus, notwithstanding the rela- takes i^lace before such time, the remaining ered.
the beetle and portion will be paid the beneficiary. Folnovel emblems, tively wedge, we find the chief official to be a lowers of the customary list of hazardous Head Consitl, which, with the employment occupations are not eligible to membership. of certain forms derived from ancient Kome, The founder of the ^lystic Workers was a suggests a partial, though perhaps uncon- member of the Masonic Fraternity, of the scious duplication of some of the rites of the Knights of Pythias, Modern Woodmen of English secret beneficiary society known as America, Knights of the Maccabees, and the Ancient Order of the Golden Fleece. Woodmen of the World, from which it may

The
in

abolition of State jurisdiction

is

a step

advance among American secret beneparticularly

be inferred that the Mystic Workers is the legitimate offspring of some of the most
representative of the older and
ternities.

ficiary societies,

when

the re-

striction of territory is considered in

which

Its

modern fraemblem includes two columns

the

Woodmen

operate.

or pillars

Royal Neighbors of America is the title of theauxiliarybrauchof the Modern Woodmen,

surmounted by two globes, and between them an open Bible, the scales of
justice, a

plane and square.

The

ritual

160

NATIONAL FRATERNAL CONGRESS


not included any merely speculative assessment or
non-fraternal cooperative concerns.
interests are based
tical.

emphasizes Charity, as described in I. CorThere are about 3,000 Mysinthians xiii.

Their meth-

Workers enrolled. National Fraternal Congress. (Contributed l)y N. S. Boynton, Past President.) At the Fourteenth Annual Session of the Supreme Lodge of the Ancient Order of United Workmen, held at Minneapolis in June, 1886, a resolution was adopted which
tic

ods are, in a very great degi'ee, the same, and their

on principles which are idenformation of a national body will prove of great advantage to
It is confidently believed that the

every organization represented.

The cooperative

plan of insurance as ,carried on by our societies has not wholly laid aside the character of an ex-

led

to

the organization

of

the National
is

Fraternal

Congress.

The following

copy

and the fundamental principles upon which their future depends have never been fully proven or even investigated. It would be as unreasonable to expect a successful importing merchant to carry on business in ignorance of foreign and
periment,

Resolved,

Workman

That the incoming Supreme Master be authorized to appoint, upon the basis

domestic markets, the rate of exchange, etc., as to expect our great fraternities to achieve the highest,

hereinafter stated, a committee,


as delegates on the part of the

who

shall also act

and

especially a continued, success,

knowing noth-

Supreme Lodge, to bring about a meeting and permanent organization


;

ing of the rules which govern admissions, lapses,

death rates, and other questions relating to such

of representatives of fraternal beneficiary societies

that such committee invite other beneficiaiy societies to

unite in such an association

that reprefirst

sentation in such association for the

meeting

to be one delegate for the first 40,000 beneficiary-

ing part,
40.000
of 20,000

members, or part thereof, or any organization takand one delegate for each additional

members or fractional part thereof in excess and that such committee have power to
;

arrange further details to secure the perfect organization and perpetuation of such an association of
representatives.

These ideas are, of course, not you who have had much experience in the work of fraternities, and it is of course evident to you that the investigation of these principles can best be conducted through cooperation, and that their efficiency and value are increased in proporThere tion as the study is made common to all. are many other results which an association of these societies may accomplish and which may be productive of good, not the least of which is that a "fraternity of fraternities" will be formed and
organizations.

new

to

the

fraternal

character

of

our

organization be
subjects are sug-

more firmly
apgested as

fixed.

The following

Supreme Master Workman Badgerow


pointed as such committee
Minneapolis,
;
:

A. L. Levi,

most
to

Hon. 0. F. Berry, Minn. Carthage, 111., and Warren Totten, barrister, Woodstock, Ont., with Leroy Andrus A call was acof Buffalo as chairman.
cordingly issued for a preliminary meeting of representatives of various fraternal
beneficiary societies,
to be

those which would be of the utalthough the field of discussion may First, the laws relating profitably be extended.
interest,

among

cooperative associations

and
;

the necessity of

further legislation in aid of fraternal societies and


the securing of uniform laws
sion of

second, the discus-

means by which

inore perfect medical exetc.


;

aminations can be secured,

and, third, the

general principles necessary to the successful cari-y-

held at Wash-

ington, D.
reciting
set forth

C, November

ing on of fraternal cooperative societies. Representatives of non-fraternal assessment associations


are not eligible to

16, 1886.

After

membership.

the foregoing resolution the call

the objects of the convention sub:

stantially as follows

The widely extended

influence

iary interests connected with

and vast pecunand represented by

The meeting was held pursuant to call, and Leroy Andrus of Buffalo was elected temporary chairman, and E. C. Hill of
Buffalo
secretary.

The
:

societies

repre-

the great beneficiary societies of the present time

sented were as follows

important and interesting development in this country. There are a large number (not less than fifty) of those societies, each having a considerable membership, carrying on a purely fraternal, beneficiary business in the United States, and among these are
render them a most
feature
of
social

Ancient Order of United Workmen, Leroy Andrus, Warren Totten, A. L. Levi, and
0. F. Berry, Carthage, HI.

Knights of Honor, W. H. Barnes, San


Francisco, Cal.

NATIONAL FRATERNAL CONGRESS


United Order of Honor, A. W. Wishard,
Indiunapolis, Ind.

161

Vice-President,

John Haskell Butler


;

Ee-

cording Secretary, E. C. Hill


ing Secretary, 0. M. vShedd
;

Corres})ond-

Order United American Mechanics, C. H. Stein, Baltimore, Md. Order United Friends, 0. M. Shedd, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Empire Order Mutual Aid, J. H. Meech, Bumilo, N. Y. Select Knights, Ancient Order United Workmen, E. C. Hill, Buffalo, N. Y. Endowment Rank, Knights of Pythias, Halvor Nelson, Washington, D. C. Equitable Aid Union, E. N. Seaver, Columbus, Pa. Knights of the Maccabees, N. S. Boynton. Port Huron, Mich. Eoyal Arcanum, A. 0. Trippe, Baltimore, Md.; J. Haskell Butler, Boston, Mass. Knights of Columbia, C. P. Kriezer,

and Treasurer,

Halvor Nelson. The following declaration " This association shall be was adopted
:

known

as the National Fraternal Congress.

Its objects are

hereby declared to be the


all

uniting permanently of
tual
Its

legitimate fra-

ternal benefit societies for i)ur[)oses of

mu-

information, benefit, and protection.

membership

shall be

composed

of its

officers,

standing committees, and of repre:

sentatives as follows

Each

society of 40,000

one representaand for each additional 40,000 members, or fraction of 40,000 over 20,000, an At any meeting additional representative.
shall be entitled to
tive,

members

when

a test ballot or vote shall be required,


society not fully represented, the

and any

New York

City.
J.

representative

or

representatives

present
entitled.

Knights of the Golden Rule,


ving, Toledo, 0.

D.

Ir-

shall be authorized to cast the full vote to

which his or their order may be

United Order of the Golden Cross, A. M. McBath, Washington, D. C. Eoyal Templars of Temperance, C. K. Porter, Buffalo, N. Y. Home Circle, J. H. Butler, Boston, Mass. The orders and membership rei^resented were as follows Ancient Order of United Workmen, 175,000 Knights of Honor, Eoyal Arcanum, 76,000 Order 130,000 of United American Mechanics, 40,000 Eoyal Templars of Temperance, 2:2,000 Equitable Aid Union, 17,000 Endowment Eank, Knights of Pythias, 16,000; Order Select Knights, of United Friends, 12,000 Ancient Order United Workmen, 11,000 Knights of the Maccabees, 11,000 ; United Order of the Golden Cross, 9,000 Empire Order of Mutual Aid, 8,000 United Order of Honor, 7,000 ; Knights of the Golden Eule, 9,000 Home Circle, 5,000 ; Knights of Columbia, 2,000 a grand total of
:

No

fraternal society, order, or association

shall be entitled to representation in this

Congress, unless said society, order, or association works under a ritual, holds regular

lodge or similar meetings, and pays endow-

ment moneys

to the beneficiaries of its de-

ceased members.
at such place as

This Congress shall meet

annually on the third Tuesday of November,

may

be selected."

After a two days' session, during which a number of papers were read and discussed,
the Congress adjourned to meet in Philadelphia, Pa., on the third Tuesday in November, 1887. The next annual meeting was held in

Philadelphia,

November

15,

1887.

The
first

attendance was smaller than at Washington the year before, and the feeling at

was strongly
ganization
topics of
;

in favor of

abandoning the

or-

but

it

was

finally decided to

535,000,

with

outstanding

life

benefits

amounting
:

to $1,200,000,000.

After a dis-

permanent officers were chosen President, Leroy Andrus First Vice-President, W. H. Barnes Second John Haskell Butler, Boston, Mass.; First
cussion the following
;
:

Papers were read, orders were discussed, and several societies not represented the year before were admitted. The following officers were elected President,
continue the Congress.
interest to the

11

163

NATIONAL FRATERNAL CONGRESS


over one million

Vice* President, Warren Totten, Woodstock,


Ont.; Second Vice-President, R. N. Seaver,

two hundred thousand.

During the
visited the

session the Congress, as a body,

tary,

M.D., of Pennsylvania Samuel Nelson of

Recording Secre-

New York

Cor-

Harrison.

White House and met President Among the more important


J.

responding Secretary, 0. M. Shedd of New York ; and Treasurer, George Hawkes of


Pennsylvania.

papers read was one by

E. Shapherd,

At the second annual session, held in Murray Hill Hotel, New York City, November 20 and 21, 1888, with increased attendance and greater interest, seven Orders Paj^ers on Avere admitted as new members. various subjects were read and discussed, and the constitution and laws were amended so as to do away with the office of Second Vice-President, and to merge the ofiBces of
:

" Can a fraternal society safely transact an endowment business and pay a stated sum at the end of a stated number of years, or
sooner in the event of death ?" and one by

N.

S.

Boynton on

notices be dispensed with

" Should assessment ?" Others were:

^'Should medical examiners be elected by the


lodge, appointed by the chief medical ex-

aminer, or chosen by the supreme body?'*


Dr. J. Foster

Uses of a and secret ceremonies in benefit orCorresi^ouding and Recording Secretaries. ders," by C. W. Hazzard. Frank N. Gage Presi- read a paper on the '' Advisability of Officers elected at this session were Vice-Presi- abolishing the per capita tax and levying dent, John Haskell of Boston dent, Warren Totten ; Corresponding and all revenues for the general fund ujjon the and same basis as assessments are levied to pay Recording Secretary, 0. M. Shedd death benefits " and B. F. Nelson one on George Hawkes, Treasurer. tojjic, "'Is it advisable for fraternal in the was held BosThe third annual session benefit societies to prohibit the admission Twenty1889. 12 and 13, ton, November of men engaged personally in the sale of inand four represented, were six societies The following offi- toxicating liquors ?" A special committee others were admitted. was appointed to confer with the PostmasterPresident, D. H. Shields cers were elected Vice-President, A. R. Savage, Lewiston, General, with reference to the circulation Treasurer, of fraternal society journals through the Me.; Secretary, 0. M. Shedd United States mails, by paying the rates George Hawkes. Officers The fourth annual session was held in fixed for second-class matter. President, Adam Pittsburg, Pa., November 11 and 12, 1890, elected were as follows Vice-President, M. G. Jeffris, with a still larger attendance, societies rep- Warnock resented having a total membership of over Janesville, Wis.; Secretary and Treasurer, one million. The Committee on Legisla- 0. M. Shedd. The sixth annual session was held at tion was directed to draft a uniform law, disWashington, D. C, November 15, 16, 17, and having separate of object with the Delegates were present from thirtytinct laws for the regulation of frateral 1892. beneficiary societies passed by the State three societies with a total membershij) of Among papers read were The following officers were 1,250,000. legislatures. Vice- "The typical frater,^' by Louis Maloney President, A. R. Savage chosen of Boston, "Am I my brother's keeper ?" by W. S. President, Adam Warnock Mass.; and Secretary and Treasurer, 0. Bailey; "Increasing membership," by John " Press and societies," by J. D. J. Acker M. Shedd. " The state and its relations to frain Smith The fifth annual session was held societies," by Howard H. ternal beneficiary November and C, 10, 11, Washington, D. " legislation," by D. E. Morse Securing societies were thirty-two when 12, 1891, and " Fraternal duties," by A. L. represented, with a total membership of Stevens
''
;

Bush

and the

ritual

NATIONAL FRATERNAL CONGRESS


Barbour. A. R.
Savage,

mi
by forty orders repre-

from the Com-

their

organization

amounted to %228,447,120, and that revision of uniform laws in the form of a bill during 1894 more than $28,000,000 had entitled, ''An Act regulating fraternal ben- been disbursed. The ratio of expense to eficiary societies, orders, or associations,'* benefits was $G5.67 for each $1,000, and the which was adopted, and action taken look- ratio of expense to membership was $1.27 ing toward the passage of the bill through per capita, and the average rate of mortalthe legislatures of the different States and ity was 9.92 per 1,000. Certificates in force in the Provinces of Canada. The following amounted to $2,855,018,610. The medical officers were elected: President, M.G. Jeffris; section, formed of medical examiners-inVice-President, N. S. Boynton Secretary chief of orders represented, met, and a numand Treasurer, 0. M. Shedd. ber of papers were submitted. The followsented,
;

mittee on Laws, presented a report on the

Cincinnati, 0.,

The seventh annual session was held at ing officers were elected President, W. R. November 21, 23, and 23, Spooner Vice-President, John G. John1893, when thirty-six organizations, having son, Peabody, Kan., and Secretary, M. W.
:

a total membership of nearly one million


three hundred and fifty thousand, were represented.

Sackett.

very large

number

of valuable

papers was read and discussed, as in previ-

The tenth annual session was held at November 17, 18, and 19, 1896. Forty-three orders, with a total memLouisville, Ky.,

ous sessions.

A committee
if

to be

known

as

the Committee on Fraternal Press was ap-

bership of 1,587,859, were represented. President Spooners annual address stated


that material progress had been made in securing legislation in the interest of fraternal beneficiary orders.
too,

pointed to secure,

possible, the passage of

an act by Congress which would permit fraternal publications to be mailed as second-class matter.

At

this session,

paper on

"Women

in

the necessity for increasing rates of

fraternal societies" was presented by Mrs.

Emma

M.

Gillette of
officers
;

Washington, D. C.
were elected
:

assessments was considered, basing them on some recognized mortality tables, so as to

The following
dent, N. S.
urer, 0.

Presi-

Boynton

Vice-President, S. A.

provide an emergency fund with which to meet an increased death rate,- which it was
held would appear as the Orders grow older.

Wills, Pittsburg, Pa;

Secretary and Treas-

The concensus of opinion favored the proThe eighth annual session was held at posed change. The following officers were Buffalo, N. Y., November 20, 21, and 22, elected President. J. G. Johnson, Peabody,
M. Shedd.
:

Forty orders, having a total membership of 1,300,000, were represented. The Committee on Fraternal Press reported they had succeeded in securing legislation admit1894.

Kan.

Vice-President, James E. Shepard, Lawrence, Mass.; Secretary and Treasurer,


;

M. W. Sackett Chaplain, Rev. J. G. Tate, Grand Island, Neb. The titles of the or;

ting to the mails

all

fraternal journals as

ganizations

represented

at

Louisville

in

second-class matter.

The

following officers
;

1896, together with the


the
in

names

of delegates

were chosen
President,
rotary,

President, S. A. Wills
R. Spooner,

Vice;

there, contrasted with like data respecting


first

W. M. W.

New York

Sec-

Congress, that held at Washington


fitly

Sackett, Meadville, Pa.


at Toronto,

1886,

represent

the

growth

of

forty orders,

21, 1895 ; having a total membership of 1,400,000, were represented. The Committee on Statistics submitted a report showing that the total benefits paid since

The ninth session was held Can., November 19, 20, and

the "fraternity of fraternities" sentiment

throughout the country. Titles of Orders and names of delegates at the National Fraternal Congress of 1896 American Legion of Honor, Adam War:

nock. Boston, Mass.

164

NATIONAL FRATERNAL CONGRESS


Pa.
;

Ancient Order of the Pyramids, E. S. McClintbck, Topeka, Kan. Ancient Order of United Workmen, Joseph E. Riggs, Lawrence, Kan.; J. G. and D. H. Tate, Grand Island, Neb.
;

B. F. Nelson, St. Louis, Mo.,

and L.

A. Gratz, Louisville, Ky.

Knights of the Loyal Guard, Mark W.


Stevens and Orson Millard, M.D., Flint,

Mich.
Flint, Mich.

Siiields,

M.D., Hannibal, Mo. Artisans' Order of Mutual Protection, Louis Maloney, Philadelphia, Pa. Chosen Friends, Louis A. Steber, St. William B. Wilson, Newark, Louis, Mo. N. J. Henry Jamison, M.D., Indianapo;

Order of the Maccabees, D. D. Aitkin, Thomas Watson, Mrs. M. M. Danforth, and R. E. Moss, M.D., Port Huron, Mich. George J. Seigle, Buffalo, Edward L. Young, Norwalk, 0.; N. Y.
;

Mrs.

Lillian

M.

Hollister, Detroit, Mich.,

lis,

Ind.
of
Relief,

and Mrs.

Frances E.

Burns,

St.

Louis,

Empire Knights

Frank E.

Munger, Buffalo, N. Y., and Philip A. McCrae, M.D., Buffalo, N. Y. Equitable Aid Union, Albert Morgan,
Corry, Pa.

Mich. Legion of the Red Cross, H. F. Ackley,

Camden, N.
Loyal

J.

Additional

Benefit

Association,

Fraternal

Walker, Kansas City, Kan., Horner, M.D., Wichita, Kan.


Fraternal Legion, J.

Aid Association, William T. and Levi N. Reece, Springfield,


cott,

Frank S. Petter, Jersey City, N. J. Modern Woodmen of America, Jasper


111.
;

W.

A. North-

Greenville,
;

111.;

Charles

W. Hawes,

W.

P. Bates,

M.D.,

Baltimore, Md.
Fraternal Mystic Circle, D. E. Stevens,
Pa., and F. S. Wagenhals, M.D., Columbus, 0. Golden Chain, J. A. Baden, M.D., Baltimore, Md. Home Circle, Julius M. Swain, Boston,

Philadelphia,

A. 0. Faulkner, Lincoln, Fulton, 111. Neb.; Benjamin D. Smith, Mankato, Minn,, and C. A. McCollum, M.D., Minneapolis, Minn.

Mutual Protection, Dr. W. K. Harrison,


Chicago,
111.

National Provident Union, Edward


Peck,

S.

New York

city.

Mass.

National

Reserve

Association,

F.

W.

Improved Order of Heptasophs, F. L. Brown, Scranton, Pa. John G. Mitchell, Baltimore, Md., and J. H. Christian, M.D., Baltimore, Md.
;

Sears and J. T. Craig, M.D., Kansas City,

Mo.
National Union,
land, 0.; J.

W. M. Bayne, CleveW. Meyers, Toledo, 0., and

hyatekha,

Independent Order of Foresters, OronA. E. M.D., Toronto, Ont.


;

Stevenson,

Chicago,

111.

J.

D.

Clark,

Dayton, 0., and Thomas Millman, M.D., Toronto, Ont. Meyers, New York city. Protected Home Circle, W. S. Palmer Iowa Legion of Honor, Dr. E. R. Hutchins, Des Moines, la. and S. Heilman, M.D., Sharon, Pa. Knights and Ladies of Security, W. B. Royal Arcanum, John E. Pound, LockKirkpatrick, Topeka, Kan., and H. A. port, N. Y. ; J. A. Langfitt, Pittsburg, Justin F. Price, New York city; W. Warner, M.D., Topeka, Kan. Pa. Knights and Ladies of the Golden 0. Robson, Boston, Mass., and J. M. Star, Rev. Samuel P. Lacey, Newark, McKinstry, Cleveland, 0. N. J. Royal League, C. C. Linthicum and WalKnights of Honor, John Mulligan, Yon- lace K. Harrison, M.D., Chicago, 111. Royal Society of Good Fellows, D. S. J. W. Goheen, Philadelphia, kers, N. Y.
; ;

M. R. Brown, M.D., Chicago, 111. New England Order of Protection, Lucius P. Deming, New Haven, Conn. Order United Friends, John G. H.

NATIONAL FRATERNAL CONGRESS


Biggs, Arlington, Mass., and W. G. Weaver, M.D., Wilkesbarre, Pa. Eoyal Templars of Temperance, T. N. Boyle, D.D., Pittsburg, Pa., and J. W. Grosvenor, M.D., Buffalo, N. Y.
Select Friends, Dr. J. T. Tinder, Parsons,

165

system,'" with its endowment, tonand semi-tontine features. In this there is a contract between the company and the insured called a policy, and profit is the
tine,

premium

controlling object. In every State there are laws providing for the incorporation of com-

Kan.
Shield of Honor,

panies using

tliis

system and for governing

James H. Livingston,

their operations.

Baltimore, Md.

Supreme Tribe

of

Ben Hur, D. W. Gerard tem,

Second, the open business assessment sysin which the contract between the asso-

and J.F. Davidson, M.D.,Crawfordsville,Ind. United Order of Pilgrim Fathers, J. Albion Briggs, Somerville, Mass. ; J. S. Taft, Keene, N. H. United Order of the Golden Cross, John :N". Ehle, Washington, D. 0. J. D. Young, M.D., Winthrop, Mass.
;

and the insured is sometimes called and sometimes a certificate. This system has no lodges or fraternal bond to bind the insured together, and the associaciations

a policy

tions are merely business concerns without

a representative form of government, generally close corporations.


also,

In every State,

Woodmen

of the

World,

W.

0. Rogers,
;

laws are found for their incorporation

M.D., and Joseph C. Root, Omaha, Neb.


F. A. Falkenberg, Denver, Col.

and supervision.
Third, the fraternal beneficiary system,

composed of societies having a representaothers not tive form of government, subordinate although eligible, constitute the fraternal lodges, and ritualistic work, furnishing beneficiary system of the country, and are financial assistance to living members in in no way to be classed witli the old line life sickness or destitution, providing for the or open business assessment associations, payment of benefits to living members in nor with any orders or associations not case of partial or total physical disability recognized by the National Fraternal Con- arising from sickness or old age, and prowith probably ten represented in the Congress,
societies,

The above

gress as a part of the fraternal beneficiary

viding benefits at the death of members for


their families or dependent blood relatives.

system of
orders

life

protection.

The foregoing

hud a combined membership of over one million and a half in 189G, and had paid out within a year for life benefits the

The lines of demarcation between the three


and have been kept so enactments relating to them. The uniform bill adopted by the National Fraternal Congress, which has been engrafted on the statute books of several of
are clear
distinct,

and

in all legislative

sum
life

of

828,034,855

total paid
;

out since
$3,026,-

organization, $231,043,180
benefit
certificates

total value of
force,

in

membership the States, defines what constitutes a fraduring the year was 165,544, all of which ternal beneficiary society in the following goes to show what the fraternal beneficiary terms: Section 1. A fraternal beneficiary
545,042.
increase of

The net

system of the country as represented in the National Fraternal Congress has accomplished in a
little over a quarter of a century. In view of the extraordinary results from

association

is

hereby declared to be a cor-

poration, societ}', or voluntary association,

this

form of cooperation
it is

since the close of

the Civil War,

important to carefully
the three distinct sys-

distinguish between

tems of

life

protection

now

in operation.

formed or organized and carried on for the sole benefit of its members and their beneficiaries and not for profit. Each association shall have a lodge system, with ritualistic form of work and representative form of government, and shall make provision
for
tlie

First, the

" old

line life insurance, or level

payment

of benefits in case of death.

166

NATIONAL FRATERNAL CONGRESS


for the

aud may make provision

payments

of benefits in case of sickness, accident, or

fully

changes in the laws, etc., that may be lawmade during his membershij). He has

old age, provided the j^eriod in life at

payment

of physical disability benefits

which on

acconnt of old age commences shall not be under seventy (70) years, subject to their

no vested or property rights while living and belonging to such societies unless he should become sick or disabled, and then
only after his claim has been allowed.
the death of a

After

compliance with
benefits shall be

its

constitution and laws.

member who has complied


beneficiary has a vested
to the

The fund from which the payment of such with the laws, the made and the fund from or property right
which the expenses of such association shall be defrayed shall be derived from assessments or dues collected from its members. Payments of death benefits shall be to the

amount of a deceased member's certificate, as provided by


the society's laws.
operative bodies,

These orders are coagree-

members mutually

ing to protect each other and their families

families,

heirs,

blood

relatives,

affianced

husbands, affianced wives, or to persons de-

pendent upon the members. Such associations shall be governed by this act, and shall be exempt from the provisions of insurance laws of this State, and no law hereafter

and dependents in case of sickness, disabilcontributing a certain ity, or death by amount of money from time to time to pro.

vide for the jjayment of the

sum

specified in

the certificate.
tine, or

No term-endowment,

ton-

any other form of speculative cerpassed shall apply to them unless they be tificates are issued, neither can a certificate expressly designated therein. within the objects and purposes of a legitiThe laws of the National Fraternal Con- mate beneficiary order be made payable to a gress declare that no fraternal society, member or his creditor, nor can it be used order, or association shall be entitled to as collateral for a loan or have a surrender rejoresentation in it unless the latter " works value. The holder can transfer it to any under a ritual, holds regular lodge or sim- legal beneficiary without the consent of the ilar meetings, where the purposes are con- person named in the certificate, but the
fined to visitation of the sick, relief of distress, burial of -the

policy of a life insurance

dead, protection of wid-

be so transferred.

ows and orj)hans, education of the orjihan, beneficiary of a payment of a benefit for temporary or per- rights in the certificate, but that a permanent disability or death, and where these son named as, the payee has such rights. principles are an obligated duty on all mem- The decision of the supreme court of bers, to be discharged without compensation Pennsylvania in the Dickinson case, " Ella

company cannot The courts hold that a member has no vested

where the general M. Dickinson vs. Grand Lodge of Ancient membership attend to the general business Order of United Workmen of Pennsylvaof the order, and where a fraternal interest nia," defines the objects and purposes of in the welfare of each other is a dut}^ taught, fraternal beneficiary societies, and holds that recognized, and practised as the motive and they are not insurance corporations, but bond of organization.'' The mutual agree- purely benevolent associations, as follows: ment between the fraternal society and the The first specification charges error in
or pecuniary reward;
''

member

is

not a policy or contract like that


life

entered into between a

insurance comFraternal soci-

pany and
eties

its

policy-holder.

simply issue a certificate of member-

admitting the application thus referred This is grounded on the assumption to. that defendant (the A. 0. U. W.) is an insurance company, and the contract sued

which the member agrees to comply with all rules and regulations in force at the time he becomes a member, and with all
ship, in

on

is

a contract of assurance

on the

life of

plaintiff's

husband

for her benefit.


is

Such

assumption, however,

unwarranted.

The

NATIONAL PROVIDENT UNION


defendant is not an insurance company, but belongs to the distinctly recognized class of organizations known as benevolent associations.

l(i7

It

pays deatii
;

benefits
disability

of

from

500
of

to

13,500

total

benefits

from

AVhat

is

known

as a benevolent or-

ganization, however, has a wholly different

object and purpose in view.

The

great unis

$250 to $1,250; and sick and accident benefits of from $5 to $25 weekly, with a cash distribution at stated periods of all earnings and accumulations, and a savings dividend
every five years of membership.

derlying purpose of the organization


sign
to accumulate a
its

not

Lodges

to indemnify or secure against loss; its deis

are governed by Sections, corresjtondiiig to

fund from the confor beneficial or

Grand

or State bodies,
is

tributions of

members

at large

and the Fraternity under the jurisdiction of the

protective purposes, to be used in their

own Board

of Control,

made

iip of

its

officers

aid or relief, in the misfortunes of sickness,


injury, or death.

and representatives of the Sections.


system of five-year credits
it is

By the

The

benefits,

although

secured by contracts, and for that reason, to a limited extent, assimilated to the proceeds Such of insurance, are not so considered.
societies are

proposed to cancel all sick benefits drawn during that Any excess is to be carried over period.
against a succeeding five-year credit period.

rather of a philanthropic or

Sick benefits,

previously drawn,
total

are

de-

and benevolent character; their beneficial feafor permanent or drawn benefits charlikewise all narrow or restricted of a tures may be acter; the motives of the members may be temporary disability are deducted from the
ducted from
disability

claims,

some extent upon which they


to

but the principle founded in the conThese benefits, by siderations mentioned. the rule of their organizations, are paying to their own unfortunate, out of funds which the members themselves have contributed for the purpose, not as an indemnity or security against loss, but as a protective reselfish,

ultimate death benefit, unless already cancelled

rest is

by the five-year credits.

''In this

manner those who never draw sick benefits The will not suffer from those who do." former A. 0. U. W. plan of fixed assessments of $1.10 characterizes the organization, the headquarters of which are at
Philadelphia.

The

ritual of the Society is

lief in case of sickness or injury, or to pro-

vide the means of a decent burial in the

based on the history of the United States, and its leading emblem is the dome of the

event of death.
ital stock.

Such

societies

have no cap-

They

yield

no

profit,

and their

contracts, although beneficial

and

protective,

altogether exclude the idea of insurance, or


of indemnity, or of securing against loss.''

Like so many other similar frait has a motto in three words -' The Charity, Union, and Fellowship. total number of members is about 3,000.
capitol.
ternities,
:

''

National Provident Union.

An

as-

Hence

it

will

be seen that the fraternal

beneficiary orders are purely cooperative

non-speculative,

and do not

in

and any sense

sessment, beneficiary and patriotic organiIt zation, founded at Xew York in 1883.
is

governed by a Congress ])atterned after

furnish

life

insurance.

Neither can they

the United States House of Kejiresentatives.

be classed with the open business assessment


associations;

there

is

nothing in

common New England and


front and
cils
is

between them. National Fraternity. Organized at Philadelphia in 1893 by members of the Ancient Order of United "Workmen, a fraternal mutual assessment beneficiary society, which both men and women between

10,000 members are found principally in the Middle States, but the Order i.s pushing its way rapidly to the
Its

already establishing

new CounStates.
Its

in

Central and
character

Western
is

democratic

shown by there
its

being 300 ineml)er8 of

Congress.

Its

eighteen and

fifty years

of age

may

join.

death benefits range from $1,000 to $5,000, and the live interest taken in securing the


NATIONAL RESERVE ASSOCIATION

168

most advanced system of assessments to meet been designated in accordance with laws Certificates are issued in death benefit payments is indicative of the of the Order. It amounts of $1,000, $2,000, $3,000, $4,000, exceptional vitality of the organization. or $5,000. is very strong in Greater Xew York, where The feature in which the National Union it maintains permanent headquarters. National Association. Reserve diflEered from the fraternal societies that Founded in 1891 at Kansas City, Mo., by preceded it was in the adoption of a system F. W. Sears, 32, an Odd Fellow, a Kni.sjht of assessments graded according to age, of Pythias, and a member of several f r.aternal advancing each year with the age of its It receives acceptable members, on the ^'step-rate ^' principle, by beneficiary orders. white men and Avomen on ec[ual terms, to which each member pays from year to year whom or their beneficiaries it pays, by means the actual cost of the protection afforded. of assessments, permanent, total, and death This system is based on the increasing cost Total membership about 5,000. benefits. of insurance as a member advances in age. National Union. One of the more pro- The vitality of the Order does not, therefore, gressive fraternal assessment beneficiary so- depend upon new members alone, but is also cieties, organized in Mansfield, 0., and in- preserved by the increasing rate of assesscorporated under the laws of Ohio, May 11, ments of members, thus overcoming the ob1881, by Dr. A. E. Keyes, N. N. Leyman, jection commonly urged against assessment E. V. Anders, George W. Cole, and others. societies which do not have reserve funds. Dr. Keyes, who was elected Medical Di- The argument is that the inducement for rector, had been Supreme Director of the new members to join will always be the Knights of Honor and Supreme Eegent of same, thereby preserving the life of the the Eoyal Arcanum. N. N. Leyman was Order by taking in younger members who also a man of experience among fraternal have the advantage of paying assessments societies, and for years was chairman of the at their own ages, but who are not comCommittee on Laws of the Supreme Council pelled to carry the burden of older members, of the Eoyal Arcanum. George W. Cole as each bears his equitable proportion of was a Freemason. Among the first Board the actual cost.

of Officers were Dr.


field,
;

W.

G.

Graham

of "Win-

Kan. George L. Fuller of Binghamton, N. Y., and J. "W". Meyers of Columbus, 0., each of whom had had experience in
similar societies.

The National Union is patriotic in charand the American flag appears in its The government of the ritualistic work.
acter,

Order

is

States, its

modelled after that of the United Supreme body being called a

forth at the time of organization, were:

Senate, to which representatives are elected That by the different State Assemblies or Legisthe National Union is a distinctively Ameri- latures. Eepresentatives to the Assemblies can, secret, beneficiary Order, formed to as- are elected, in turn, by delegates from the sociate white male citizens of good moral different Councils in the various States.
special purposes of the Order, as set

The

character,

sound

bodily health,

twenty and
to

fifty years of age, to

between advance its

The Order thus has a Senate, Assemblies, and Councils, or Lodges, the latter being

members morally, socially, and intellectually; subordinate bodies. The principal emblem. provide for the relief of sick and dis- is a badge representing a shield. A lapel tressed members and their families, and to button is also worn, which, like the shield, secure a benefit fund from which, upon the displays the national colors. death of a member, a sum not exceeding The membership has steadily progressed, 15,000 shall be paid to such beneficiaries but not phenomenally, and in personnel related to the deceased member as mav have is unexceptionable, comprising business and

NEW ENGLAND ORDER


professional
as those in

OF PROTECTION

1G9

men

of high character as well


of
life.

tlie

humbler walks

The

Order has Councils estal)lished in the following States Ahibama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, District of Columbia, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, New Mexico, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, West At Virginia, "Washington, and AVisconsin. the close of 189G there were 48,000 members, and at that time there had been paid
:

to beneficiaries the

sum

of 87,500,000.

The

table of rates of assessments in the


is

National Union

given in

full,

owing
t^tep

to

the system constituting a marked


of fraternal assessment societies.

in

advance in the history of the development

TABLE OF ASSESSMENT KATES PER


[Inci

$1,000.

170

NORTH AMERICAN UNION


of

Honor on the question


Supreme Lodge
of the

separate juris-

diction which arose in that Order.

At the

Knights and Ladies of Honor, in Philadelphia, September 14, 1887, the petition of twenty-one Xew England Lodges, with over 1,300 members, for a New England jurisdiction was referred to the committee on the state of the order. A majority of that committee reported in favor of the petition, and a minority adversely; but the minority rejjort was adopted. Inspired by the success of the Ancient Order of United Workmen under a separate New England jurisdiction, those who had agitated the question were confident that an order
confined within the limits of the six

New

England States could be made successful, and one month later the new society was
formed.
all

Its objects are to unite fraternally

white persons of good moral character and steady habits; to provide for and comfort the sick; to establish relief

and benefit

funds from which, ujoon satisfactory proof of the death of a beneficiary member, a sum not exceeding $3,000 shall be paid to his or her family as directed by the member. The first Lodge was instituted November On April 30, 17, 1887, with 46 members. total membership waa 2,117; on 1888, the April 30, 1889, it amounted to 6,213; on April 1, 1892, to 11,949; on April 1, 1894, to 15,656; on April 1, 1896, to 19,722, and on January 1, 1897, to 21,122. The Order on January 1, 1897, carried 137,812,000

and had paid out $1,311,000. It pays $1,000, 12,000, and $3,000 benefits, and is conducted on the graded assessment plan,
j)rotection,

with an increase in the rate of assessment, as

shown

in the following table:

ORDER OF CHOSEN FRIENDS


It does business in

171

Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota, North and South Dakota, and

States and
for

Councils and 26,000 members in the United Canada. It makes provisions

State of Iowa.

was incorporated March 12, 1884, in the It is governed by a Grand Council composed of its officers and repre-

benefits,

payment, in addition to sick and death one to aged members, and also one to those who become totally disabled by reaIts objects are

sentatives

from subordinate Councils, thus


machinery of many similar
or-

son of disease or accident.

avoiding, like the Iowa Legion of Honor,

to unite, fraternally, acceptable white per-

much
to

of the

sons of good character, steady habits, sound


bodily health, and reputable calling,
believe
in

ganizations.

It issues beneficiary certificates

who

men and women members


$2,000,

alike for $500,

Supreme Being;

to

$1,000,

or $3,000 each.

Assess-

their condition morally, socially,


rially

improve and mate-

ments are graded according


fund from which
the death rate.

to age, one-fifth

of each assessment going into the reserve


losses are to be

lessons,

by timely counsel and instructive encouragement in business, and

met

in case

assistance to obtain

employment when

in

of epidemics or other causes of increase in

This Order frankly admits an offspring of the American Legion of Honor. Its ritual teaches benevolence. The total membership is about 2,500. The emblem of the Order is the six-jiointed star, with the abbreviations of the names of the
it is

need; to establish a relief fund from which a sum not exceeding $3,000 shall be jiaid,
first,

when

disabled by old age (provided

seventy-five

years

are

reached);

second,
be-

when by

disease or accident a

member

comes permanently disabled; and,

third,

when
cil

member
all

dies.

The Supreme Counmanagement of membership is


is

States

in

the angles

the motto,

''

We

makes

laws for the government of


Beneficiary

work together,"

in the centre, surrounding

the Order, and -has entire

"N.

^\.

L. of IL," the whole overhung

the relief fund.


optional.

with an encircling chain of seven links. (See American Legion of Honor.)

medical

examination

re-

quired before an apj)licant can become a


beneficiary
for $500,

Order of Alfredians.^Dormant.
tive at Boston,

Ac-

member.

Certificates are issued

Providence, and elsewhere

$1,000, $2,000, or $3,000 as de-

than twenty years embodied beneficiary features, but was founded for the "descendants of the wdse and good King Alfred.'' It commemorated April 23d, because on that day in 871 Alfred ascended the throne, and also because Shakespeare was born on April 23d, "the poet of all time, the embalmer of the Anglo-Saxon tongue." Order of American Fraternal Circle. A Baltimore mutual assessment organization, founded prior to 18S9. It died in 1S94. Order of Aniitie. A Philadelphia mutual assessment insurance society. Died in
in

New England more


It

sired, subject to the approval of the super-

ago.

vising medical examiner.

Beneficiary

members
fund

are required to pay

into the relief

at deaths of
to

sums graded according

age.

members By the

equalization plan of paying assessments all

equal benefit.''
fifth birthday,

members "pay an equal amount for an The member who lives out
his expectancy of life, or passes his seventy-

"pays no more

for his one-

thousand-dollar benefit than the


Avho
is

member
a

so unfortunate as

to die within

short time after acquiring membership."

This plan " in this respect

is

unique.''

It

1894.

Order of Chosen Friends.


nal, benevolent,

frater-

and protective

society, or-

makes the cost a fixed sum for each $1,000. Where this is not done, the cost would be uncertain and assessments frequently come
so often as to be burdensome.

ganized under the laws of the State of Indiana. It was established May 28, 1879, at
Indianapolis, Ind., and has

In the early

part of February, 1878, Albert Alcon and

now

over GOO

T. B. Linn, residents of Indianapolis, Ind.,

172

ORDER OF CHOSEN FRIENDS


of

and members

several fraternal

orders,

leading emblem.

By May

28,

1879, the

were discussing the merits and demerits of At tlie societies to which they belonged.
that time there Avere a

number

of organiza-

Order of Chosen Friends was declared an established fact, with twenty-three charter members on its rolls. The first set of officers

tions paying death benefits, but


disability

none paying
to

and members
;

is

as follows:

Supreme
In-

or old age benefits

members

Councillor, Rev. Dr. T. G. Beharrell,


dianajiolis, Ind.
cillor,

preme Vice-Councillor, Emi Kennedy; Supreme Recorder, T. B. Linn; Supreme Treasurer, W. W. Douglass; Supreme Medical Examiner, Charles D. Pearson, M.D., all of Indianapolis; Supreme Prelate, Hon. William Cumback, Greensburg, Ind. Supreme A third Marshal, C. Bradford; Supreme AVarden, ent, among them J. B. Nickersou. meeting, June 8th, brought in Emi Ken- J. B. Nickerson, both of Indianapolis; SuDuring the summer and fall of 1878 preme Guard, C. H. Buttner, Cleveland, 0. nedy. Messrs. Alcon, Linn, Nickerson, and Ken- and Supreme Sentry, M. C. Davis, IndianSupreme Trustees, W. H. nedy held many meetings and perfected a apolis, Ind. plan, constitution, and laws for the new Page, Hon. J. F. Wallick, Hon. John Mr. Linn acted as Secretary, and Cavin, G. H. Webber, and B. F. Rogers, Order. upon him devolved the labor of formulat- all of Indianapolis. Other original memThe admission of bers were Joseph Greenwood, M. D. Losey, ing the ideas agreed to. ladies to the Order was a subject of frequent William H. Partlow, Hamilton McCoy, F. D. and prolonged discussion, but finally it was Somerby, 0. S. Hadley, and C. H. Behardecided to admit them on the same terms rell, all of Indianapolis. On June 30, 1879, the first subordinate and in the same manner as men. Up to that date a few orders had established a Council, Alpha, No. 1, of Indiana, was orwomen's degree, or branch, into which the ganized at Indianapolis with 30 charter Ohio Council, No. 1, of wives, mothers, sisters, and daughters of members present. members could be admitted; but the Order Ohio, was instituted Jul}^ 15, 1879, at Woosof Chosen Friends claims the honor of lead- ter, with 24 charter members present; and
;
;

through a national organization. It was believed that there was not only room, but a demand, for an order with that feature. They solicited friends to unite with them, and received half-way promises from some and refusals from others; but a meeting was called May 2, 1878, and another on June 1st, at which there were four persons pres-

Supreme Assistant Coun;

Albert Alcon, Sheridan, Ind.

Su-

ing in recognizing the full cooperation of

Lincoln Council, No.


first

2, of

Ohio,
the

at Cleve-

woman
The

in

the fraternal insurance world.

land, October 8, 1879, with 34 present.

selection of the ritualistic

work gave the


selected as

annual session of

At Supreme

the founders
perfect

much thought and study.

number "seven" was

The Council, held in Indianapolis, October 21, 1879, the Supreme Recorder reported three
Councils with a membership of 150.

the central idea, and Mr. Linn was chosen


to write the ritual.

He

perfected the plan

year later this had grown to 60 Councils

and composed the charges. At that time, November, 1878, Eev. Dr. T. G. Beharrell, a minister of the Methodist Church, and well known in Masonic and Odd Fellows' circles, became interested in the movement, and to him was assigned the revision and

completion of the ritual. To be in with the central idea of the ritual, the " chain of seven links " was selected as the

and 3,536 members in eleven States. The Order rapidly increased during the following year, numbering 10,133 members in 176 Councils located in 24 States, at the end of This the fiscal year closing June 30, 1881. had further increased to 12,392 members harmony and 221 Councils by September 30th, when
a season full of troubles followed.

dis-

sension

arose

among

the

members

of the

ORDER OF CHOSEN FRIENDS


Grand Council
members.
of

173

California, resulting in

schism, by which the Order lost about 3,000

ance in the State of

The superintendent of New York attempted

ington, and Wisconsin, thirty-one States, and in Canada. insurMost of the original members were memto

bers of various leading fraternal beneficiary


societies,

rule the Order out of that State

on account secret

and some were prominent


It is parlat-

of its old age disability features, going so


far as to threaten with arrest

Odd
ter

Fellows and Freemasons.

and

inqirison-

ticularly

noteworthy that several of the

and members if they did not cease working in Xew York. The Order appealed to the courts, and after a prolonged and bitter contest was sustained in viz., that it was legally tloing its position business in New York. The situation there called attention to other States, and it was found that some of them made no jirovisions for the payment of disability benefits by a fraternal society, and such defects had to be remedied through the legislatures of such States. These contests caused a loss of 7,001 members during the fiscal year ending June, 30, 1882 but 8,126 new members were added, making a net gain
officers

ment

were members of the higher degrees in The princi2)al emScottish liite Masonry.
blem, a seven-pointed star containing the

primary colors in the angles, with two


scribed
triangles

in7

containing the figure

in the centre, is especially significant

points to

hedging

and the popularity of the mysticism about these ])articular symbols


ritual

among modern dent who is also


find

makers.

a Scottish Rite
this to

something in

The stuMason will interest him when

considered in connection with the historical

sketch of the Order of the Heptasophs, or

for the year of 925.

The following

years

were in the main prosperous, and the Order, after sixteen years of experience, had on

June 30, 1895, a membership of 38,095, and had paid to beneficiaries of 4,789 dead members 88,839,704;
1)562,980;
to 16

to 613 disabled

members,

members

disabled by old

and 45 advance or immediate payments to beneficiaries of dead members whose claims were in process of adjustment, 813,700; in all, 89,448,383. The Order is eighteen and a half years old, has paid
age, $32,000;

$10,209,513
of
its

to

the beneficiaries of 5,579

members who have died; 8620,780 to 734 members who became permanently dis-

Seven Wise Men. Members of the latter organization and of the Order of Chosen Friends have practically identical emblems. In addition to the foregoing the Chosen Friends present the clasped hands, a sevenlinked chain, and a representation of the Good Samaritan. The Order is also noteworthy for having given birth to five similar organizations, the results of disaiTectiou and The first was the secession in New schism. York State, which caused a good deal of feeling. The trouble between the insurance department of the State of New York and the Order of Chosen Friends has already been referred to. The result was the formation of the Order of United Friends in New York in 1881. The Chosen Friends
in California tion in 1882,

abled from earning a livelihood; and 8116,-

demanded a

separate jurisdic-

and it was denied, wliereujwn of old age, a total of 810,947,165. It has they seceded and formed the Independent Councils in Arizona, California, Colorado, Order of Chosen Friends. It flourished for Connecticut, District of Columbia, Georgia, a few years and attained a membership of The Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Mary- 7,000 or 8,000, when it collapsed. land, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mon- United Friends of Michigan Avas organized tana, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, in 1889, shortly after the meeting of the Nevada, North Carolina, Ohio, Ontario, Ore- Supreme Council of the Order of Chosen gon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Friends in that 3'ear, at which the repreDakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, "Wash- sentative of the Supreme Council from

872 to 61 members disabled by the burden

174

ORDER OF FRATERNAL HELPERS


Death benefit certificates
saloon keepers,
of $500, 11,000, and 13,000 are issued, except to women and to

Michigan failed to secure the recognition he believed himself entitled to. It was organized by Dr. G. A. Kirker of Detroit, and E. F, Lamb of Mt. Morris, Mich., and has grown and prospered. In the years 1891 and 1892 the Order had some difficulty with It was the laws in the Province of Ontario.
believed by
rate jurisdiction

who

are restricted to $1,000.

At

total disability a

member

is

entitled to

one-half the

amount

of his or her certificate, of seventy years,

and on reaching the age Sick the whole amount.

benefits are paid

some members there that a sejja- in the discretion of subordinate Lodges. No would remedy the matter, Lodges are established in the Southern States, but before it could be accomplished a schism excepting the two Virginias, Maryland, in occurred, and the Canadian Order of Chosen Kentucky, and in the District of Columbia. Friends was organized. In 1895, immedi- The government of the Order is vested in ately after the passage of the Morse equaliza- a Supreme Lodge composed of representation laws, a disappointed aspirant for office
tives of subordinate Lodges.

Total

mem-

headed a division of the German members bership amounts to about 5,000, and about in Chicago, and formed a new organization, 1600,000 has been paid in sick, disability, The ritual embodies the United League of America. and death benefits. called Whether the movement was a success or features found in the secret work of many similar organizations. The office of the Sunot is not known.

Order of Fraternal Helpers.

One of

the numerous local mutual assessment in-

surance Orders founded in New England. Letters of inquiry returned unopened.

preme Secretary is at Chicago. Order of Mogullians. A "side degree " of the Ancient Order of United

Order of Fraternal Preceptors.


at

MuUnat

Workmen. (See the latter.) Order of Odd Ladies.


festly

New EngFellows.

tual assessment, beneficiary society, organized

land mutual benefit, assessment society mani-

Grand Haven, Mich., prior

to 1889.

named in

imitation of the

Odd

known there now. Order of Mutual Aid.

Formed

Memphis, Tenn., where it collapsed a few years later, in 1878, owing to the ravages of
the yellow fever epidemic.
It

was a SouthIts

have been received to inquiries. Order of Protestant Knights. Described in the census of 1890 as a mutual assessment beneficiary organization, with the office of the Secretary at Buffalo, N. Y.
replies

No

ern offshoot of the Ancient Order of United

Workmen and of the Knights of Honor.

only surviving offspring is the Golden Eule, organized at Cincinnati in


1879.
(See Knights of the Golden Eule.)

the Knights of

Not known there now. Order of Shepherds of Bethlehem. Organized "in America," November 19, 189G, by Ira A. M. Wycoff, at Trenton,
N.
to

J., a sick and funeral benefit association which men and women between eighteen Its ized at St. Louis in 1878, an outgrowth of and fifty-five years of age are eligible. The Order is the Order of Mutual Aid, and incorporated membership is about 2,000. under the laws of the State of Missouri. evidently drawn from the same source as the Men and women between eighteen and fifty Order of the Star of Bethlehem, an outline years of age, in good health, not engaged in of which is given in connection herewith.

Order of Mutual Protection.

Organ-

hazardous occupations, are eligible to memMembers enjoy the social privibership. leges of Lodge rooms, the moral and social

Compare the
tract

latter

with the following ex-

from the " History of the Order of the Shepherds of Bethlehem "
In 1875 a prominent officer

advancement, and the encouragement in business to which they are entitled under the " laws and bonds of mutual assistance."

named

came

to

New York and

started

Sir Fred Holt two Lodges, which


of the

grew nicely until Sir Holt's duties as Scribe

ORDER OF THE GOLDEN CHAIN


Sovereign Lodge called him to Europe, -when they quarrelled, and under a strange name ran on for a
time, and died out, with the exception of a few small

175

Smith,

all

of

Philadelphia, in 1879, as a

Western Lodges that had

their start

from them and

mutiud assessment, death benefit society. Its field is restricted to within one hundred
all

drifted into another snuiU Order not connected with

no good rethis.* The eJTort was sults. The next person who took up he matter was a popular antiquarian who went to the Holy Land to study the Order among the shepherds as it origiill-advised, witii
t

The founders were members of the Ancient Order of United Workmen, who souglit to establish a commiles of Philadelphia.

pact secret society with the one-dollar assess-

nally existed

and

is

now

in the

home

of these

and ceremonies, and the (American) Order of Heptasophs, or Seven Wise j\Ien. The Order is managed conservatively, and has There are marked similarities between the an invested permanent fund with which to two Orders of Bethlehemites, notably the pay the assessments of those who may reprovision that membership does not lapse in tain their membership twenty-five years, either for non-payment of dues, except so and a relief fund with which to pay the far as the right to share in benefits is conassessments of members who through sickcerned, and the custom of addressing memness or financial disability may be unable bers by the titles Sir and Lady. The ritThis is done to keep worthy to pay them. ualistic ceremonies of the Shepherds of distressed members in good standing, and is Bethlehem are declared to be beautiful and accomplished " without the general knoAvlelevating.

Holy Land. lie learned all and methods of the Order, and on his return presented tlie Order in the thoroughly original form, translated and put in modern shape. By special arrangement the Supreme Lodge of Nortli America was formed in 189G, and instructed in the beautiful ceremonies of this old and wondrous Order. The Supreme Lodge of North America, by authority of the Sovereign Lodge, is supreme authority in North America.
jincient people of the

ment of the Ancient Order of United Workmen. They confined membership to men
between twenty-one and fifty years of age, of good physical health, " believers in the Christian faith.'' Its ritual is founded on
the history of ancient Sparta, thus parallel-

the old legends

ing the English Order of Ancient


in its search for a

Eomans
its rites

new

source for

The

first

degree

is

of Light, the second the ShephercVs,

third the Disciple's degree.

Ancient Order of Shepherds, Order of the Star of Bethlehem, and Shepherds of AmerWhen one reads in the leaflets of these ica.) Bethlehemite Orders that each "is without a doubt one of the oldest in the world, and was founded as an Order shortly after the birth of Christ, by the shepherds who watched over their flocks on that eventful night, when they were first chosen of God to hear of the birth of our Saviour and went at once to see and worship him," he is compelled to wonder at the audacity of the
genealogist

the organization." The total of amount of benefits paid exceeds $1,000,000. (Com2)are with The Order is governed by a Great Senate

entitled that

and the

edge

which

exercises jurisdiction over tlie subordiIts 7,000 members are drawn from the mercantile and professional
life,

nate Senates.
largely

walks of

although nearly

all

trades are

represented.

The

seat of the Great Senate

contains a representation of a shield upon

which
or

is

a sword and the words,


it."

''

With

it

upon

Order of the Black Kiiig^ht. A German (Deutscher Orden Schwarze Ritter)


secret,

benevolent society.
principally in

It

claims an
Its

who

constructed

the

existence here of about thirty years.


society's

family tree.

strength

Organized by J. B. A. Welsh, James ^IcConnell, Alexander J. McCleary, and William H.


^Moffitt, "Robert

Order of Sparta.

Pennsylvania, New York, and District of ColumLike some other German Orders, it bia.
is

New Jersey,

claims great antiquity.

Order of

tlie

Goldi'u Chain.

Organ1881, by

* Order of the Star of Bethlehem

ized at Baltimore,

December

22,

176

ORDER OF THE HEPTASOPHS, OR SEVEN WISE MEN


Order gives no adherence to any religious from its candidates the

members of the Knights of Honor, Royal Arcanum, American Legion of Honor, and
the Masonic Fraternity, as a mutual assess-

creed, but requires

jirofession of a belief in a
It bears aloft

Supreme Being.

ment

beneficiary society to

which men be-

the motto, ''In


its

tween twenty-one and fifty-one years of age


are eligible.
It insures the lives of

admitting to

mysteries both the

God We Trust," Jew

the Christian on the common ground of mutual dependence and universal brotherwhich it pays sick and total disability bene- hood under the Fatherhood of God. To the popular step-rate this end it inculcates the principles of It employs fits. graded system of assessments, and enjoys ''Wisdom, Truth, and Benevolence." The the enviable record of having paid out more earlier official history of the Order, as may

mem- and

bers for $1,000, 12,000, or 13,000, besides

than $1,600,000 to beneficiaries since organan average annual cost to those The total insured of about 18 per $1,000. membership is about 11,000, and is steadily The ritual seeks to exemplify increasing. the meaning of the golden chain of friendization at

have been
tion
of

antici2:>ated, carried

the inspira-

the society back to the Persian

ship, which, represented by twelve links of

a chain surrounding a monogram comjDOsed of the letters 0. G. C. and the motto of the

Magi, or Seven Wise Men, the initials of title being given in this form, S. . W. M. ., the missing letters being represented by seven dots. In the precise form in which the Order "now exists in America," strict succession in ritual, forthe original
mulge, etc., from the Persian

Magi was not from Persia to Greece, from Greece to Rome, from Rome under the laws of the State of Maryland, to Britain and to the Western world, it was with its headquarters at Baltimore, and is a admitted that certain changes had doubtworthy sister of similar organizations which less been made in the course of adaptation to races, times, civilizations, and forms of have had their origin in that city. Oi'der of the Heptasoplis, or Seven government " but its legends, traditions, Wise Men. This is one of the oldest and teachings were claimed to be " as true
Order in Greek, constitute the emblem of The Order is incorporated the society.
claimed.

" In the

transfer

benevolent,

secret organizations in the country, and possesses the attractively mystical title of the Order of the Heptasoplis,

to the ancient tyj^e as are those of its sister

societies

to their venerable predecessors."

The

original story ran, that the Order of

or Seven Wise Men.

It is far

among
aims,

the larger

societies

from being with similar

the Seven Wise

Men

was " introduced into

the United States" at


;

New

Orleans, La.,

numbering only about 4,000 mem- April 6, 1852 that in June of that year bers in eighteen States. This is all the the Grand Conclave of Louisiana was ormore curious when one recalls that it is ganized, and that in 1854 it was incorponearly half a century old, and possesses an rated. It was not stated whence the Order elaborate and exceptionally beautiful ritual, came, or who brought it to New Orleans. based upon some of the ancient mysticism The society was, however, established at the which, in j^art, had remained unapiarojDri- Crescent City, and a Supreme Conclave was ated by older and better known secret organized in 1857, in which year the latter The organization was originally was said to have held its first " communisocieties. called The Seven Wise Men, but the title cation." This body was and is the Suwas changed to its present form, because preme legislative and governing authority of *'the higher excellence " impressed upon of the Order. The admission in printed its ritual "by the Hellenic mind,'' the proceedings that the Supreme Conclave term " Heptasophs " being derived from the established the " ritual, regalia, and workGreek Hepta, seven, and Sophos, wise. The ing paraphernalia now in use," evidently

ORDER OF THE HEPTASOPHS. OR SEVEN WISE MEN


appealed to later chroniclers, for they have admitted that the Order "had its
B.C.,
first

177

and couples
Zoroaster,

it

with the
is

name

of the

since

who

said to have been the

origin in the city of

New

Orleans."

When

head of the Magi of Persia at that time.

one recalls the period of Jewish history which led np to and witnessed the completion and dedication of King Solomon's temple, with which the Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons link so many of their traditions the story of David and Jonathan, concerning which the ritual of Odd Fel;

From these Magi, Persian kings iuid to receive instructions in the art of reigning and in worship before they could come to the throne, and from the most ilhistrious of their niunbers the king had to
men as counsellors, who, together with the monarch, constituted the celebrated council of seven. In a subterranean cavern, beneath the royal palace at Ispahan, the capital of Persia, was the only spot where it was lawful to impart the
select six wise

lowship has
of
identified

much to say the friendship Damon and Pythias, which is so closely


;

with

the
;

ceremonials

of

the

Knights of Pythias

the legends of Eobin

Men, which have been appropriated by the Foresters the manners and customs of the American Indians, which are being preserved by the Improved Order of Red Men and the struggles by the various Orders of ancient Knighthood to preserve the Holy Land from defilement at the hand of the Infidel, which have given us the Masonic Knights Templars, and various other secret Orders of Knighthood Avhen one contemplates not only this vast amount of material in the hands of modern secret
his Merrie
;

Hood and

most occult mysteries of the seven, and to which the heir of the throne was only admitted for merit and not of right. For many centuries the pliilosopliy of tlie Seven Wise Men formed the basis of the polity of the Persian dynasty, and without whose advice the king on the throne determined no imAs one among many evidences of portant matter. this, we refer to the language of Feridon (200 years B.C.), who, under the advice and guidance of the seven, after twenty years of exile with them, successfully revolted against Zohak, the usurper, and came in triumph to the throne of his fathers. He
*. W. M.\) "Have they not for centuries been the advisers and counsellors of the mighty rulers of this spacious realm ?"

said (referring to the S.

Firdisi, the

in the time of the illustrious

eminent Persian historian, records that King Kayomers, who


the council
of

reigned 900 years before Christ,

society ritualists, but the use of Druidic


lore

seven were

by modern Orders of Druids, legends


symbols of woodof other
Avhicli

of ancient Shepherdry by existing secret


societies of shepherds, the

craft by

Modern Woodmen, and


fraternal

by the grateful people " the earliest distributors of justice." On his deathbed this great ruler exhorted his son and heir to the throne to adhere to the teachings of the Seven Wise iMen, which was religiously done by him and his
styled

and
to

like

quarrying for material on

sons after him, until the dynasty of the

Kayomers

came

build

and beneficiary

secret

Pashdaidans, which means distributors of justice. It appears that about a.d.


to be called

organizations, then the antiquity, the appropriateness, the beauty, and the mystical

638, Yezdefird,

King

of Persia,

was conquered by

Mohammed,

then styled ''Camel Driver of Mecca,"

character of the groundwork of the ritual


of the Order of the Heptasophs challenges
attention.

The Heptasophs
traces
of
far

declared that

" the

earliest

the

chronology, reaching

Order defy back into the

twilight of legend and tradition clustering about the Magi of the East, which antedate the Druids of Gaul and Britain, and probably the Masons who existed in Judea." This brought the Order down to the The first alleged authentic history" of golden era of Greece, from whence ''the to Rome, from Rome to the Seven Wise Men is so ingenious and in- transfers teresting as to merit a permanent record. l^ritain and the Western world " were preIt takes the Order back to the period llO-l sumed to follow. It might prove interesting
''^

and with his downfall perished the influence of the Seven Wise Men in the national affairs of Persia. They, however, left the impress of their philosophy and wisdom upon the history of that country running through a succession of centuries, rendering their kingdom glorious and its subjects happy by (heir devotion to justice and the inculcation of Wisdom, Truth, and Benevolence long before the brighter and grander glories of Greece dawned.

...

13

178
to

ORDER OF THE HEPTASOPHS, OR SEVEN WISE MEX


Seven as unique among college fraternithat it was not given a Greek letter title. It was organized at Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn., in 1837, by Hamilton Brewer, uncle of Judge Brewer of the United States Supreme Court, fifteen years prior to the appearance of the Seven Wise Men at New Orleans. Its chajDters were called temples, and named after its emblems. The Wesleyan Temple was the " Wand "' that at Emory College, Georgia, where it was taken in 1841, was " Skull and Bones '' and that at the University of Georgia, where it was established in 1844, the " Skull.'' In all, there were ten Temples, eight of them in the South, two being at colleges in Georgia, and one each in Mississippi (1857), Louisiana (1857), Tennessee (1867), and Virginia (1867). Temples were also placed at two colleges in North Carolina as late as 1884. Thus, out of eight Southern Temples, two those at Emory College, Oxford, Ga., and the University of Georgia, Athens were esties, in
;
;

speculate on the possibility of the mysteries of the Seven AVise Men of old

having been carried from Rome by means the workingmen's guilds of the early and middle ages to England, as an inner
of
circle

or cult, in the recesses, as

it

were,

of ancient craft Masonry, which, some have declared, crossed Europe in that manner.
it may, the original Seven Wise America builded beautifully and well from a ritualistic point of view. That their ceremonials and ritual did not imbibe Freemasonry from Masonic guardians and protectors on a secret journey from Persia to Greece, through Italy and iiortli to England, but acquired it at New Orleans, where

Be that
in

as

Men

the Society was formed, may be accepted That it did acquire Masonic as a fact.*
traditions
its

and symbols

is

in part

shown

in

seven-pointed star enclosing a sevenbranched candlestick, the All-Seeing Eye,


the ark and the altar,
its

groups of seven,

the adoption of a three-word motto, and Efforts to learn more of other features. the origin of the Order than
its

officials

tablished,

respectively,

eleven and
at

eight

could furnish have been fairly successful.

years prior to the introduction or founding


of the

The

early history of

modern

secret societies

Seven Wise

Men

New
at

Orleans in

has too frequently been fragmentary because of lack of interest in compiling, or

1852.

The mother Temple,

Wesleyan,

became dormant in 1861, but was revived An examinarecords. preserving, some years later as a local senior society. in care tion of the "Greek letter," or college With other surviving Temples it united in secret society system, reveals the Mystical 1887 with and became absorbed by the widespread college secret society. Beta * In a letter from George W. "Wright, Supreme Theta Pi. The significance of this referSecretary, S.". W. M.'., Xovember 30, 1896, it is " The Order was founded at Xew Orleans, ence to the first college secret society to be stated April 6, 1852, by Alexander Leonard Saunders, a established in tlie Soutli * is due merely to resident of that city, and prominent Freemasons, two of its Temples having been j^laced in among the earlier members being ex-governors, Georgia some years prior to the establishex-mayors, etc." In 1855 Mr. Saunders " moved to ment of the Seven Wise Men at New Paducah, Ky., where his son published a newspaOrleans and the strength of the society in New York understood that he died
:

per.

It

was

city in 1869."

Members

of the Order tell that

some

of its

ceremonials are based on Grecian liistory.


is

This impress of "Hellenic influence"

natural

haying been largely at the South. Baird, the author of " American College Fraternities,'' says of the Mystical Seven
:

when a connection between


college
ritual of

this society

fraternity M'orld

is

and the contemplateel. The


strikingly

The customs
interesting.

of the Fraternity were quaint


is

the Mystical Seven includes

Much

made

of the

and number "7,"


was for

original featui-es with traces of Scottish Rite Free-

and the membership

in each Cliapter

many

masonry, which rank it among the first of such productions by American college fraternities.

* Baird's American

College

Fraternities,

New

York,

4tli edition, p. 60.

ORDER OF THE HEPTASOPHS, OR SEVEN WISE MEN


years retained at that figure, or a multiple of
it.

179

election " blew over, there was a reaction.

The badge
star,

of

the Fraternity

is

a seven-pointed
;

each point containing a Hebrew letter


is

within

the centre field of the star

displayed a caiddron

At Hamilton College, N. Y., in 1832, the Alpha Delta Phi was born, one of the first
of the great college fraternities,

and

ladle over a bundle of

burning faggots, encir-

cled by a snake.
white,

The color of the J^raternity is and each Chapter was assigned one of the
^
is,

same

year,

at

Yale

College,

Skull

and in the and

primary colors."

The conclusion
tliat

therefore, suggested
tlic

graduate or other members of


society

Mystical Seven, or of the Rainbow Society,


a college originating at

Oxford,

and strongly resembling the Mystical Seven, were, in whole or in part, responsible for the birth of the Seven Wise Men, especially when secret and jiublic characteristics of the two societies are found to have had so much in common. Even the Greek letter nomenclature of
Miss., in 1848,

various subordinate bodies

is

or has been
It

similar in both organizations.

was the

" Zeta " Conclave of the Heptasophs, or Seven Wise Men, in Baltimore, from which of appropriation of the secret society idea sprung the Improved Order of Heptasophs by the general jiublic as well as by college in 1878. It is unnecessary to explain why students, the Freemasons and the Odd
resemblances of the ritual of the Mystical

Bones, the famous local senior society, first saw the light Psi Upsilon made its appearance in 1833, at Union College, stimulated by a desire to rival Kappa Alpha, Sigma Phi, and Delta Phi, which had been founded there seven or eight years before, after which the Mystical Seven appeared at Wesleyan, with a ritual, as explained, having distinct Masonic thumb-marks.* It was about this period, also, that tlie Ancient Order of Foresters was introduced into the United States from England, and that the Improved Order of Red Afen, of distinctly American origin, was revived and entered on a career of prolonged prosperity. Coincident with these evidences
;

Fellows were enjoying seasons of renewed

Seven (now incorporated within the Beta Theta Pi) to that of the Heptasophs, or Seven Wise Men, cannot be given at length but they leave little room for doubt that
;

the benevolent, and afterward beneficiary,


secret
society,

the Heptasophs or Seven

1852, is an indirect descendant of the Mystical Seven college fraof

Wise

Men,

and rapidly increasing memberwas on this wave that the Mystical Seven floated out to sea, and from it undoubtedly arose, substantially as outlined, the Seven Wise Men, afterwards rechristened Order of the Heptasophs, or Seven Wise Men, the first general secret
interest
shij).

It

society, so far as learned, to find its origin

founded in 1837. During the in one of the American college fraternities. period 1830-1840 the birth and growth of Several of the larger and better known colcollege and other secret societies were no- lege secret societies have found their inspiticeable, due in part to the reaction which ration in, or have been established by Freefollowed the anti-Masonic agitation. The masons, Odd Fellows, Foresters, and other but the springing of latter brought before the public, as never general fraternities before, the whole subject of secret societies, the Seven AVise Men from the Mystical their ceremonials and objects, with the re- Seven, which fact is, apparently, known to sult that much not secret, but which had or ajipreciated by few, if any, of its living not been discussed out of Lodge rooms, members, marks the incident as unique found its way into daily papers, almanacs, and warrants the space given it. The pamphlets, and other publications, late in earlier growth of the Heptasojihs, or Seven the second and early in the third decade * This could be made plain to any "mystic" of this century. When the storm raised who is also a Scottish Rite Freemason, S.'. P.". by the ''good enough Morgan until after R.-. S.-.
ternity,
;

180

ORDER OF THE IROQUOIS


consisting of Subordinate Conclaves acting

Wise Men, was principally in the Southern States, and at the outbreak of the Civil

War

it

naturally lost

many

of

its

members