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I) Definition of Soap
o Soap are sodium or potassium salts of long-chain carboxylic
o The general formula of a soap : RCOO Na / RCOO K
• R is an alkyl group which contain 12 to 18 carbon atoms.

II) The history of soap manufacturing. Process of making soap

ashes or sodium
Babylonians Purifying oils is recorded on carbonate from common
made soap Hebrew Tables around 4000 B.C. salt is patented by
around 2800 Ash + Lime – Caustic potash Nicholas Leblane
B.C. Caustic Potash + fats – soap (French).

Michel Chevreul (French) Sodium carbonate Na CO

After 20 years, Ernest
discovered animal fats are is produced cheaply &
Solvay ( Belgian Chemist)
cmposed of fatty acids and used for glass making ,
developed Solvay process.
glycerol ( Causes rapid soaps and detergent.
development of soap &

Later on, vegetables oil is

used to replace animal fats.

 Solvay Process
- Carbon dioxide ( obtained from heating CaCo ) is passed into
concentrated NaCl solution which is saturated with ammonia .
NaCl +NH +H O + CO – Na HCO +NH Cl
- NaHCO is then heated to obtain soda.
2NaHCO – Na CO +H O +CO .

III) Preparation of Soap by Saponification

Saponification is a process whereby the soaps are prepared by hydrolyzing

fats or oils under alkaline conditions.
It is also the alkaline hydrolysis of esters using alkaline solutions.

Fats/ Vegetable oils + concentrated alkalis – soap + glycerol

(Fats- tallow from cow)
( Vegetable oils – palm oil or olive oil)
For example,
- Glyceryl tristearates
 is a naturally occuring esters

 found in fats or oils.


(concentrated alkali)
(glyceryl tristearate)

( sodium stearate)


Example of soap,
1) sodium palmitate, C H COONa
2) Sodium oleate, C H COONa
3) Sodium stearate, C H COONa

♦ To enhance the soap’s marketability,additives are used such as perfume,

colouring matter and antiseptic.
♦ Production of soap can be precipitated by adding common salt to the
reaction mixture in order to reduce the solubility of soap in water.
♦ Properties of soap depends on
a) type of alkali used for saponification
b) type of animal fats or vegetable oils used

♦ Potassium soap are softer, milder than sodium soap which can be used for

IV) Structure of soap molecule.

• When soap is dissolved in water, it will dissociate and produce sodium
ions and carboxylate ions.
• The active substances in soap is carboxylate ions which consists two
a) the ‘ Head’
1. negatively charged

2. contains the – C – O – ion

3. is hydrophilic ( like to dissolves water)

b) the ‘Tail’
1. positively charged
2. is a long hydrocarbon chain
3. is hydrophobic ( do not like to dissolves water)

I )Definition of Detergent
Detergent is a synthetic cleasing agents which is made from hydrocarbons
obtained from petroleum fraction.
It is a kind of petrochemicals.
There are 3 types of detergent which depends on the charge on detergent ion.
a) Anionic Detergent.
Head of the detergent particle contains a negatively charged ions.
Example : R – O – SO Na
Divide into two types:
Sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate ( detergent molecule with a benzene ring)

R- - S – O Na R SO

Sodium alkyl sulphate ( without a benzene ring)
b) Cationic Detergent
Head of the detergent particle contains a positively charged ion.
Example : R – N(CH ) Br
c) Non- ionic detergent
Example : R –O –CH CH OH

II) Preparation of Detergent

Sodium alkyl sulphate Sodium alkylbenzene sulphonates
- can be prepared from alcohols with chain Starting materials
lengths of 12 to 18 carbon atoms. - long chain alkene, RCH = CH , obtained from
- Step 1: the cracking of petroleum.
Reaction with Concentrated sulphuric acid Step 1 :
Alkylation ( introduction of the alkyl group to
an organic molecule)

Step 2 :
Step 2 : Sulphonation ( introduction of the sulphonic
Neutralisation with sodium hydroxide solution acid group to an organic molrcule to form
sulphonic acid)

Sodium alkyl sulphate Sodium alkylbenzene sulphonates
Example : Step 3 :
Dodecan - 1- ol, CH (CH ) CH OH Neutralisation
Detergent prepared from dodecan – 1 – ol is
called sodium dodecyl sulphate / sodium
lauryl sulphate

III) The Structure of Detergent Molecule

• When a detergent is dissolved in water, it dissociates to form sodium ions
and detergent ions.
• It consists of two parts:
a) the ‘ Head’ (sulphate group, - OSO / sulphonate group - SO)
1. negatively charged
2. hydrophilic ( like water)
b) the ‘Tail’ ( long hydrocarbon chain)
1. neutral
2. hydrophobic ( hates water)

The cleansing action of soap and detergent

The cleansing action of soaps and detergent results from
• the ability to lower the surface tension of water,
• to emulsify oil/ grease and
• to hold them in suspension in water
This can be occurred due to their chemical bonding and the structure.
Oil cannot be washed away from clothing with water only as it is a covalent
molecule which is insoluble in water.

1. sodium soap dissolves in water to form soap (-ions) and sodium (+ions).
2. Anion consists of a long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxylate group on
one end.
3. the hydrocarbon (hydrophobic)soluble in oil/ grease.
4. carboxylate group (hydrophilic) soluble in water.

Process of the cleaning action of soap and detergent.

• A piece of cloth is stained with grease and then dipped into
soap/ detergent water.

• Through this, the wetting ability of water increases.

• Thus, the surface of cloth is wetted thouroughly.

• The hydrophobic part of the soap/ detergent anion dissolve in

grease while the hydrophilic part is attracted to water molecule.

• Because of the forces of attraction between water molecules and

negatively-charged heads, the grease begins to be lifted off the
surface when the water is agitated slightly.

• Mechanical agitation during scrubbing helps the process of

emulsfication occurs whereby the grease is broken into small

• The droplets do not coagulate and redeposit on the surface of

the cloth due to the repulsion between the negative charges on
th surface. These droplets are suspended in water to form
emulsion. The droplets is rinsed and washed away and leave the
surface clean.

IV) Additives in detergents

Additives in detergent is used to increase their cleaning power and make
the detergent more attractive and saleable.

Additives Function Example

Builders To enhance the cleaning efficiency of detergent Sodium tripolyphosphate

by softening the water.
To increase the pH value of water.
Drying agents To ensure that the detergent in powdered form Sodium sulphate
is always in dry condition. Sodium silicate
To add to the bulk of the detergent and enable to
pour it at ease.
Fragrances To add fragrance to both detergent anf fabrics.
Foam control agents To control foaming in detergent.
Optical whitener To add brightness and whiteness to white Fluorescent dyes
Suspension agents To prevent dirt particles removed from Carboxymethylcellulose
redepositing onto cleaned fabrics. (CMC)
Biological enzymes To remove protein stains such as blood. Amylases ,proteases,
To break down fat and protein molecules in cellulases and lipases
food stains.
Whitening agents To convert stains into colourless substances. Sodium perborate
To make the fabrics whiter and more beautiful. Sodium hypochlorite

V) The effectiveness of soaps and detergents as cleansing agents

Cleansing Advantages Disadvantages

Soap 1. very effective in soft water to wash 1. Ineffective in hard water.
clothes.( water does not contain Mg & Ca 2. A grey scum (Magnesium stearate &
ions) calcium stearate) will be produced in hard
2. Do not cause pollution as soaps are water.
made from fats and oils and can be
decomposed by the action of bacteria.

3. Not effective in acid water.( exist as

molecules & do not have hydrophilic ends)
- H ion from rainwater (acid) will react

with soap ions to produce carboxylic acid
molecules of large molecular size that are
insoluble in water. Example,

Detergent 1. effective in soft water and hard water. 1. non-biodegradable

( magnesium salt and calcium salts are 2. water pollution occurs.
formed aand soluble in water) 3. Decrease in oxygen content in water and
( scum is not formed) the aquatic lives are given the harm.(
phosphates in detergents)
4. a lot of foam will be produced in water
that prevent oxygen from dissolving in
water.As a result, fish and other aquatic
lives face the death.
5. Additives (sodium hypochlorite )
releases chlorine gas that is highly toxic
and kills aquatic life.

2. Synthetic cleansing agents

- structure of hydrocarbon chain can be
modified to produce detergent.
3. effective in acidic water as H ions is
not combine with detergent ions.


- Definition of Food Additives – are natural or synthetic substance which are

added to food to:
i) prevent spoilage
ii) improve its appaerance , taste or texture
iii) prevent growth of microorganisms
iv) prevent oxidation of fats and oils by oxygen in air
v) restore the colour of food destroyed during food
- Type of Food Additives and Their Functions
1. Preservatives – substance added to food to slow down and prevent the
growth of microorganisms in order to kepp the lasts longer.
- salts, vinegar and sugar have been used for centuries to preserve food.
Preservatives Molecular Uses
Salt Drwas water out of the cells of microorganisms
sugar Retards the growth of microorganisms.
Vinegar Provides acidic condition that inhibits the growth of
Sodium nitrite NaNO To preserve the meat, sausage, cheese and dried fish.
Sodium nitrate NaNO To prevent food poisoning in canned food.
To maintain the natural colour of meat.
To make the meat look fresh.
Benzoic acid C H COOH To preserve sauces, fruit juice, jams and margarine.
Sodium C H COONa
Sulphur SO Used as antioxidants to prevent browning in fuits.
dioxide Maintain the colour and freshness of vegetables.
Sodium Na SO To prevent thr growth of yeast.

2. Antioxidants- added to food to

i) pevent oxidation that causes rancid fats
and brown foods
ii) to slow down the oxidation process.
- food containing fats or oils are oxidised and become rancid when exposed
to air. This makes the food unpalatable. Th rancid products are volatile
organic compounds with 4 odours.
( exp : butanoic acid, C H COOH)

Antioxidants Uses
Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) To retard rancidity in oils.
Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT)
Sodium citrate To stop fats from turning rancid.
Vitamin C Inhibits the formation of carcinogeic nitrosamines.
Stimulates the immune systems.
Protects against chromosome breakage.
Preserve the colour of friut juice.
Vitamin E Neutralizes free radical compounds before the cell
membrane are damaged.
Reduce the risk of heart diseases and cancer.

3. Flavourings
- Flavourings are the largest group of food additives.
- Function : to improve the taste of food restore taste loss due to processing.
- There are 2 types of flavourings :
i) Flavour enchancers
- Flavor enchancers are chemicals that are added to food to bring
out the flavours/ to enhance the tastes of food.
- Exp : monosodium glutamate (MSG)
MSG is a sodium salt of glutamic acid.
It exists as solid fine white crystal.
It is added to savoury prepared and processed
- frozen foods
- spice mixes
- canned and dry soups
- salad dressings
- meat and fish based products
In order to protect the public health, MSG is not allowed in baby
foods and less used for the adults.

ii) artificial sweeteners

 Aspartame
• Aspartame is a white , odourless powder, approximately 200
times sweeter than sugar.
• It is used in a variety of foodstuffs.

• It is stable when dry or frozen but breaks down and loses its
sweetness over a time when stored in liquids at temperature
above 30.
• Exp : diet drinks and soft drinks
- Synthetic Essences
o contain chemicals which are made to resemble natural flavour.
o Exp :pentyl ethanoate, CH COOC H – give banana flavour and is
cheaper to use.
- Many of compounds are used to produce artificial flavours belong to the
homologous series of esters.

4. Stabilizers
- a substance which helps to prevent on emulsion ( oil /water droplets
suspended in water/oil droplets) from separating out.
- It is used in margarine, butter, ice cream and salad cream.
- exp : lecithin, mono- and di-glycerides of fatty acids.

5. Thickeners
- are chemicals that are added to food to thicken the liquid and to prevent the
food from liquefying.
- They absorb water and thicken the liquid in food to produce a jelly-like
- They are natural carbohydrates.
- Exp:
Thickeners Explanation
Modified starch Used in instant soups and puddings.
pectin Used in jams and jellies.
Forms a firm jel when there is sufficient sugar in a
Is not digested.
Can be considered as a beneficial and dietary fibre.
Acacia gum To thicken chewing gum, jelly and wine.
Gelatine To thicken yogurt.

6. Dyes
- chemicals that are added to food to give the colour so as to improve the
appearance of food.
- is used to add or restore the colour in food in order to
• enhance its visual appeal
• match consumer expectations

• give colour to food that have no colour.
- artificial food dyes are oftenly used as they are more uniform, less
expensive and have brighter colours than natural food dyes.
- many food dyes are
i) azo compounds ( red , orange, yellow)
- orang drinks, custard powders, sweets and apricot jam.
iii) triphenyl compounds( blue-brilliant blue FCF, green)
- main trend in colour of food towards the use of natural colours is
* found in red grapes, red cabbage sweet potatoes
* have antioxidants properties.

Effect of Food Additives on Health.

Effects Explanation
Allergy  Caused by Sodium sulphite, BHA and BHT , MSG
and food dyes( yellow No.5).
 Cause an diseases named ‘ Chinese restaurant
syndrome’ (giddiness, chest pain and difficulty in
 Cause ‘blue baby’ diseases occuring on babies
which iits synptoms is lacking of oxygen and the
presence of sodium nitrate /nitrite.
Cancer  Caused by carcinogens(sodium nitrite)
 Nitrite reacts with amines to produce nitrosamine(
cause cancer)
Brain damage  Caused by excessive intake of nitrites.
Hyperactivity  Caused by tartrazine (additives)
 Difficul to sleep or relax and felt restles.

The Rationale for Using Food Additives

To prevent food Advantages To improve

spoilage. nutritional value

Medical reasons
Life without food

Food spoilage Malnutrition will

always occur occur particularly.
Diseases will occur

- medicine is a substance used to prevent or cure diseases or to reduce pain
and suffering due to illness.
- it is classified as
i) traditional medicine
• is a medicine derived from natural resources without being
processed chemically.
• Can be obtained from plants and animals.
• Any medicinal plant containing alkaloid is potentially toxic to
• Some of it interacts with medications resulting in serious side
• Exp : garlic capsules combined with diabetes medication can
cause a sudden decrease in blood sugar

ii) Modern Medicine
they usually contain a mixture of active ingredientsprepared in different
forms such as capsules, pills, solution and suspensions.
Exp: Alka-Seltzer (used as antacid) contains sodium bicarbonate (NaHCo ),
citric acid and aspirin to neutralises the excess stomach acid.
can be classified as follows based on their sffect on the human body :
a) analgesics (painkillers)
medicines that relieve pain without causing numbness or affecting
Analgesics Uses Side effect
Aspirin o Reduce fever ♦ Cause brain and liver
 Pain relief and anti- o Relieve headaches, damage of illed-
inflammatory action. muscle aches and joint children.
 Acetyl salicylic acid aches. ♦ Cause bleeding in the
(IUPAC name) o Treat arthritis stomach.
 Contains 2 functional o Acts as an ♦ Cause allergy
groups(carboxylic anticoagulant – reactions, skin rashes,
acid/ester) prevent clotting blood. asthmatic attacks.
 Acidic. o Reduce the risk of
heart attack and

Paracetamol o To relieve mild to ♦ Causes skin rashes,

 neutral moderate pain blood disorders and
(headache,muscle and acute inflammation
joint pain, backache , of the pancreas.
period pains) ♦ Cause liver damage.
o Does not irritate the
stomach to bleed.
Codeine ♦ Cause addiction,
 Is an organic compounds depression, nausea,
that contains carbon, drownsiness
hydrogen oxygen and
nitrogen elements.
 Uesd in headache tablets
and cough medicine
 Is synthesized from
 Is a nacortic drugs.
 Is a strong analgesics.

b) antibiotics
Cemicals that destroy / prevent the growth of infected microorganisms.
Will not cure the infection caused by viruses such as cold and flu.
Obtained from bacteria/fungi.
Broken down by acid in the stomach.
Antibiotics Uses Side effects
Penicillin o Treat diseases ♦ Cause allergic
 Derived from the caused by bacteria reactions
mould penicillium such as oneumonia, ♦ Cause daeth for
notatum gonorrhoea, syphilis people who
and tuberculosis. allergiuc at it.
• Streptomycin o Treat tuberculosis, ♦ Cause
• Produced by soil and whooping cough nausea,vomitng,
bacteris at the genus and some forms dizziness, rashes
streptomyces of pneumonia. and fever.
♦ Loss of hearing
following long
term use.

c) psychotherapeutic medicines.
A group of dugs for treating mental / emotional ilness.

Psychotherapeutic medicines Uses Side effects

Stimulants i) Adrenaline Cause addiction
A medicine which activates the A need in demanding energetic
level of arousal and alertness of activities.
the central nervous system to ii) caffeine
reduce fatigue and elevate moon weak, naturally occuring stimulant
in most people. found in coffee, tea and cola drinks.
iii) Amphetamines
Strong synthetic stimulants
Increase alertness & physical
Increase the heart *repiration rates
& blood pressure.

Antidepressants i) tranquilizers cause drowsiness, poor
Medicine used primarily in the to clam down a person coordination and light
treatment of depression. reduce tension & anxiety headedness, respiratory
sleeplessness, coma and
death if overdose.

i) Barbituarates Cause sleep (high dose)

To sedate, calm and relax individual Cause addiction and
in low doses. habit forming
Cause death.
Antipsychotic To treat psychiatrie illness such as Cause mild, dry mouth,
i) chlorpromazine schizophrenia (loses touch with reality) blurred vision, urimary
ii) haloperidol retention, constipation,
iii) clozapine tremor and less rrest as
well as sedation(more

! Drug Abuse – taking drugs excessively and without a doctor’s

prescription.the examples of drugs are ectasy and ice.


The chemicals for consumers such as soap, detergents , food additives and
medicine play an important role in our life . However, they can contribute
negative effects to our health and the environment if these chemicals are
not used wisely .

Some proper management of these chemicals :-

 Wear gloves when working with strong detergents to protect your hands .
 Use biodegradable detergents .
 Use appropriate amounts of detergents.

Food additives
 Be wise when we consume the food with food additives.
 Avoid consuming too much salt and sugar .
 Avoid foods with additives which you are sensitive to .
 Avoid rewarding children with junk food .

 No self medication .
 Do not take medicine prescribed for someone else .
 Check for expiry date .
 Follow your doctor’s instruction for taking medicine .
 Keep away from children .
 Do not overdose .

Intensive scientific research must be carried out to produce new substances

and this takes more time . Scientists must patient and persevere for their
research and development to produce new chemicals in future .