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CHAPTER 10

Simple machines
CHAPTER 10

Simple machines
UNIT 10.1 Analysing lever

List things around them that use the principle of the lever
State what a lever can do
Identify load, force and fulcrum of the lever
Classify lever
Explain what is meant by the moment of force
Solve problems related to levers
What is Lever ?
Lever is
a) A simple machine

b) Enables small effort to overcome a


heavy load

c) Can be used to lift heavy objects

d) Makes work easier


A lever is a simple machine which turns
about a fixed point called the FULCRUM (F)
when a force called the EFFORT (E) is
applied to overcome a resisting force
known as the LOAD (L).
Types of Simple Machines

Wedge
Lever Wheel and
axle

6 types of simple machines

Screw Inclined
plane
Pulley
What is Lever ?
A lever has 3 parts

a)Fulcrum (F) – the turning point or pivot

b)Effort (E) – the force applied to


overcome a resisting force called the
load

c)Load (L) – the resisting force exerted


by an object
Simple Machines
E E
L
F L

F
E
L
E L
E E
F
L

L
F
L
E
What is Lever ?
Lever can be classified into
a) 1st class

b) 2nd class

c) 3rd class
Classes of Levers

A lever is a simple machine which turns


about a fixed point called the FULCRUM
Lever (F) when a force called the EFFORT (E)
is applied to overcome a resisting force
known as the LOAD (L).

3 classes of levers

First class Second class Third class


First Class Lever 1st class E

First class
L
lever

Relative position of Common Common


F, E and L characteristics devices

F between E and L • Small force is used to move • Claw hammer


a large load
• Pliers
• Effort moves through a
• Scissors
longer distance than the
load • Crowbar
• Effort is further from the
fulcrum than the load
2nd class E
Second Class Lever
F

Second class L
lever

Relative position of Common Common


F, E and L characteristics devices

L between F and E • Small force is used to move • Wheelbarrow


a large load
• Bottle opener
• Effort moves through a
• Paper cutter
longer distance than the
load • Nutcracker
• Effort is further from the
fulcrum than the load
Third Class Lever 3rd class E

F
Third class
lever L

Relative position of Common Common


F, E and L characteristics devices

E between F and L • Large force is used to move • Fishing rod


a small load
• Broom
• Load moves through a
• Ice tongs
longer distance than the
effort • Human arm
• Load is further from the
fulcrum than the effort
1st class E

F
= L F E
L

2nd class E

F
= F L E
L

3rd class E

F
= F E L
L
F
E
F
E L

F E E
L

L
F
L
E
E L E
F

L F
L E

E E
F
L F

L
What is the Moment of a Force?
When we loosen a bolt using a spanner, a force that is applied has
a turning effect on the spanner.
This turning effect of force is known as the moment of force
Spanner Spanner
P Q

Force Force
18 cm 7 cm

a) It is easier to loosen the bolt if you hold the spanner at


position P than Q because the turning effect is greater.
b) It is also easier to loosen the bolt if a larger force is applied at
P to cause a greater turning effect.
What is the Moment of a Force?
• The moment of a force is the turning effect of
the force
• The moment of a force is defined as:

Moment of
= Force (N) x Perpendicular distance from
a force (N m) the pivot to the force (m)

Increasing the size of


the force
The moment of a force
can be increased by
Applying the force at a further
distance from the pivot
To Calculate the Moment of a Force

Opening a door 0.6 m

4N

Moment of
Perpendicular distance from
= Force (N) x
a force (N m) the pivot to the force (m)

= 4N x 0.6 m

= 2.4 N m
Principle of Moments in a Lever

The effort and the load


produce opposing moments

Anticlockwise moment

When the lever is in EQUILIBRIUM, the sum of the anticlockwise


moments about a point is equal to the sum of the clockwise
Principle Of Moments in a Lever

When the lever system is balanced

Anticlockwise moment = Clockwise moment

Load (N) x Distance of load Effort (N) x Distance of effort


from fulcrum (m)
= from fulcrum (m)
Moments in a Lever

30 cm x

250 g 400 g

Calculate the value of x using the equation below:

Load (N) x Distance of load = Effort (N) x Distance of effort

from fulcrum (m) from fulcrum (m)

Answer : 18.75 cm
CHAPTER 10

Simple machines
UNIT 10.1 Appreciating the innovative
efforts in the design of machine
Devices that Using the Principle of Levers

A spade
A hockey
Tongs stick

Devices using the principle of levers

A fishing rod A crane


A fire engine
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