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Page 22 www.petaminda.com
-Sources Of Electricity -Light Travels in a -Applications Page 23 -Temperature
Light Light Page 24
-Parallel and Series Circuits Straight Line -Devices -Effects of Heat on Matter
Electricity 1/2 2/2
-Handling Electricty -Shadow Formation -Applications
1/1 Heat
Unit 5 -Reflection of Light -Three States of Matter
1/1 -Properties of Matter Page 25
Page 21 Electricity States of -Changes in States of Matter
-Transformation of Energy Unit 6 Unit 7 Matter
-Renewable and Energy Light Heat Unit 8
1/2
Non-Renewable Energy 2/2
-The Water Cycle
-Saving Energy Unit 4 States of -Importance of Water Cycle
Page 26
States of
Energy M atter Matter
Page 20 Energy 2/2
1/2
-Uses of Energy
-Properties of Acids & Alkali
-Sources of Energy Unit 3 Acid and -Acidic and Alkali Substances Page 27
-Forms of Energy Unit 9 Alkali
Food Chain -Neutral Substances
Food Chain Acid and Alkali 1/1
Page 19 and
and
Food Web Food Web YEAR 5
1/1 Constellations -Types
-Animals' Food 1/1 -Importance of Constellations Page 28
-Food Chain Unit 10
-Food Web Unit 2 Constellations
-Importance Survival of the -Movements of Earth, Moon
The Earth, Moon and sun Page 29
Species and Sun -Shadows Length and Positions
Unit 11
Page 18 Survival of the B The Earth,The Moon
1/2 -Day and Night
Species
2/2 and The Sun
Unit 1 The Earth, Moon -Phases of Moon Page 30
M icroorganisms and Sun
2/2
-Plants' Survival Survival of the
-Methods of Dispersal Species Unit 12
-Importance of Plants 1/2 Strength and Page 31
Survival Strength and -Shapes of Objects in Structures
Microorganisms Microorganisms Stability
Stability -Strength and Stability
2/2 1/2
1/1
Page 17 -Animals' Survival
-Birth Giving Animals
-Egg Laying Animals -Unseen Living Things
-Harmful Effects -Types
-Prevention of Diseases -Characteristics
Page 16
-Uses
-Of Humans
A Basic Needs
1/1 -Of Animals
Page 1
Page 15 -Of Plants
Page 14
Page 13 -Development of Technology(2)
-Advantages & Disadvantages of Unit 1
Technology Unit 7 -Humans Breathe
Technology Basic Needs -Humans Excrete & Defecate
Around us Technology
2/2 Around Us YEAR 4 Life -Respond to Stimuli
Processes -Reproduction Page 2
-Human Limitations 1/2 -Avoid Bad Habits
-Devices to Overcome human -Animals Excrete& Defecate
Technology Unit 6
Page 12 Limitations Unit 2 -Animals Breathe
Around us
-Development of Technology(1) 1/2 The Earth and Life
-Animals Reproduce
-Life Cycles of Animals
the Universe Pro cess es Life
The Earth and Processes
-Plants Respond to Stimuli Page 3
the Universe 2/2
Unit 5 -Plants Reproduce
-Constituents of the Solar System 1/1 Unit 4
-Size and Distance M aterials M ea surem ent Protection
Page 11 -Planets in the Solar System
Unit 3 (In Animals)
Protection 1/2 -Protection from Danger
Materials
-Special Characteristics and Behaviour Page 4
3/3
-Living in Extreme Climate
-Rusting Materials -Survival
2/3 Materials
-Reuse, Reduce, Recycle
Page 10 1/3 Measurement Measurement Protection
2/2 1/2 ( In Plants)
2/2
-Choosing Suitable Materials -Materials Around Us Page 5
-Natural Defense in Plants
-Combined Use of Materials -Properties of Materials -Mass -Lengths -Adaptation to Nature
-Natural and Man-made Materials -Conductors & insulators -Volumes -Areas
Page 9 -Transparent, Translucent & c -Importance of
Opaque Materials Standard Units i
Page 8 Page 7 Page 6
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Ia bermula dengan Ini diikuti oleh katakunci Ranting "Food" pula akan bercambah
cabang utama yang bercambah dari menjadi ranting kecil yang
cabang ini iaitu ranting mengandungi fakta yang berturutan
A yang berlabel 1 yang berlabel dan a b c
iaitu "OF HUMANS" iaitu "Food" seterusnya. Habiskan membaca
turutan yang fakta-fakta 1 2 3 4 yang
bercambah di e sebelum, anda pergi
ke ranting yang berlabel 2
4 iaitu "Water".

3 5

Sebagai contoh,
sila lihat peta
2 CARA
minda yang MENGGUNA
pertama di muka
sebelah iaitu
"Basic Needs" 1 6

Ulangi langkah yang sama


Nota yang terdapat dalam peta minda ini hendaklah
A bagi ranting 2 , 3 dan 4
dibaca menurut turutannya. Ia bermula dengan sebelum anda pergi
cabang utama yang berlabel dengan huruf bersaiz ke cabang utama berlabel B
besar seperti: iaitu "OF ANIMALS" untuk
A B C meneruskan bacaan.
dan seterusnya.

KEJAYAAN
AKAN MENANTI
ANDA !
Sekali sekala anda
harus juga lakukan
ulangkaji pantas yang 3 C B
merumuskan kesemua
bahagian ingatan. E-book Peta MInda untuk SAINS UPSR adalah
dalam format PDF. Untuk membukanya
MENGULANGKAJI komputer anda harus mempunyai program
Ulangkaji semula
selepas sebulan e PETA MINDA SALINAN 1 Adobe Acrobat Reader. Jika tidak
ANDA KERAS DAN muaturunkan dari:
d http://get.adobe.com/reader/
PEMBESARAN
Ulangkaji semula 2
selepas seminggu c 1
CARA 2
Apabila dicetak, mukasuratnya adalah dalam
b saiz A4. Walaupun boleh dibaca oleh
Baca semula peta Kajian telah menunjukkan
a 3 matakasar, adalah dicadangkan anda
minda anda keesokan bahawa ingatan akan
membuat salinan fotokopi ke kertas A3 dengan
harinya untuk mengisi berkurang mengikut masa yang
pembesaran 141% untuk paparan yang lebih
semula ingatan yang tertentu.Sebagai persediaan
besar dan jelas. Selepas itu bolehlah dijilidkan
telah hilang Selepas 1 jam proses bagi peperiksaan, anda
menjadi buku.
pembelajaran, anda haruslah mengulangkaji peta
seharusnya mengulangkaji minda anda dari masa ke
semula selepas 10-30 minit. semasa. Ini membolehkan anda Fotokopi
untuk memperbaiki bahagian 
yang kurang diingati, atau 141%
mengingatkan semula bahagian
yang terlupa . Saiz A4 ii
Saiz A3
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Grass under box becomes
Water is absorbed Without sunlight, A diet that has correct
yellowish because there is
through the roots plants wilt and turn b amounts of all kinds of food
no sunlight under the box.
yellowish. To stay Contains 7
Helps to repair healthy 2 classes of food
When there's no water d damaged body tissues Body consist of
SUNLIGHT 1 70% water
plants wilts and die c 3
c a Examples: rice,
To make their own Helps growth 4
To control their d Balanced diet chicken, meat,
temperature food and grow d vegetables & fruits
b c
e a
To make their own WATER 3 black
Controls body
a Gives energy temperature
food and grow paper
to do work b FOOD
Transparent b
Although there
Prevents air pl as ti c
bag
is water, the 2
from entering
the leaves
plant will wilt a WATER c Helps to remove
because there
Part of leave covered by To stay alive waste products
is no air.
the black paper becomes from body
l e av e s OF PLANTS
d yellow because it does not d
a
receive any sunlight.
s te m s b Absorbed 1 e Helps to carry
c
from c AIR 1 digested food to
roots f other parts of body
(some plants)
2
b
To make their a
own food and Replace water loss
grow
To stay alive
C Need to take at through sweating and
least 1.5 litres urination.
Sp ide rs everyday.
Ra bbi ts YEAR 4 UNIT 1
1
Hutch/ Cobweb 2 Drink water, soup, milk,
Burrows Chic ken BASIC OF HUMANS fruit juice and beverages.
Bees
A Eat juicy fruits

Hives Pen
Duc ks

Go os e
NEEDS (water melons,oranges) and
Birds vegetables (celery, carrot)

Snakes Bir ds
(1/1)
To breathe and
Ra ts Holes Cage 3 a get energy
Ha ms te rs
(pets)
Earthworms
5 6 Dog
AIR
4 7
Bears 3 8 Kennel B b Chest movements help us to
Caves breathe in (inhale) and breathe
B at s 9 out (exhale) through the nose.
2 Shelter types Cow
Swallows 10 4
Barn Goat OF ANIMALS
1 11
A nt s
To stay alive
Nest To grow
Birds
Stable Horse a To stay healthy
Wasps b
c
c
SHELTER In ha la ti on Ex ha la ti on
4 1
d To get energy
FOOD a
A place to live
To protect from b SHELTER
extreme weather 3 e b
2 Ho le d
c Bungalow
a Protect from
Ho le Terraced house
To protect
AIR dangers 1
2
from danger Protect from
b Wet Snail will die although Shelter types 3
Flats/apartments
cotton there is water and air extreme weather
Animals will Food because there is no food.
WATER 4
die without air a d
2 5 Kampung house
Layer of oil 3 1 6
2 7
1 To breathe and Rat will die a
although there is
get energy food and air c Controls body Extreme cold / heat Longhouse
b Lightning Storms Igloo Hut
because there is temperature
no water. Helps to carry
digested food to Helps to remove waste
Rat dies although other parts of body products from body
there is food and
The tadpole dies water because
because the layer of there is no air
oil prevents air
Food Water
1
entering the water.
butterfly Has larva and pupa frog
Breathing rate is Breathing rate increases
Contains: Excreted by sweat www.petaminda.com
egg stage Breathing rate Urea, water & mineral salts glands in skin Contains:
the number of during exercise
1 decreases when Skin Urea, water &
tadpole eggs la y hatches Other rat chest b a
caterpillar 2 with
mammals
2 we relax. b
mineral salts
(larva) legs g iv e movements in a 3 3 Excreted a
Butterfly tadpole grows into c 1 Urine Sweat
pupa bir th period of time by
3 Fr og Breathing Rate Kidneys 2 Organs kidneys Excreted
Other examples: Sta ges rat 1 2
c b pup a through lungs
bees, b Animals That Water in exhaled air
mosquitoes, flies a Give Birth Exhalation c Waste 3
a 1 a Vapour
Animals That Sta ges Materials
Chest lowers & Excreted
Mammals that Lay Eggs 3 Lungs b
lay eggs: 4 give birth  moves inwards 2 Breathing 4
Carbon a through lungs
a in exhaled air
1. Platypus
d
c
Air moves out from Excretion dioxide
Life-Cycle lungs, windpipe and
2. Spiny anteater grows into finally nose & mouth.
b
Gr as sho pp er 3 Other examples:
c oc kr oa ch es , d Carbon dioxide Mechanism Removal of undigested
Offsprings feed 1 praying mantis, 2 Shapes leaves lungs a
a b food in form of faeces.
on milk from grasshopper dragon flies Animals Diapraghm a
mothers' 6 1
Change b Sizes
relaxes 1 Defecation b
mammary glands 2 1 Faeces formed in the
c Organs 2
eggs Weights large intestines.
5 c Stages of Inhalation
nymph
Has NO larva d c
Many offsprings growth in
Giving and pupa stage Chest rises outwards Removed through anus.
at one time: 4 animals  a & upwards 1 nose
Eg: dogs, cats, Birth 3 Large
2 mouth
r at s c Air moves in through intestines
3 b nose & mouth, 3 windpipe
One offspring 2 1
windpipe and lungs lungs
4
at one time: Offsprings grow By mammals
d Oxygen from air
Eg: elephants,
in mothers' womb
Reproduction b
enters lungs IN HUMANS Anus
w h al e , Diaphragm
rh in oc er ou s before birth To protect from danger
contracts a
4
Response
Some animals do YEAR 4 UNIT 2
A to Stimuli b For survival
not take care of
4
Some animals take
care of eggs but
eggs or youngs.
Eg: Turtle eggs hatch
a LI FE c 1
Smell : nose

not their youngs. by themselves


Eg: Snakes 5
PROCESSES 5 Stimuli and
2
Sound : ears

4
IN ANIMALS B (1/2) organs 3 Light : eyes
Laying Eggs 6 4
5
Touch : skin
3
Eg: Hens, ducks 2 1 Taste : tounge
A few eggs; 1. Amphibians
many eggs at a To produce new
2. Birds a
Eggs hatch into generation offsprings
time 3. Reptiles Overdose can Reproduction
Eg: Frogs
chicks youngs 
4. Fish cause brain
5. Insects damage & death b
To ensure the continuity
3 Animals breathe in oxygen, d c of human species
1 Cause addiction 6
2 breathe out carbon dioxide
affects 5
To get rid and water
logical 4 Family tree shows Reproduce by
undigested b Defecation thiinking
Drug giving birth.
abuse relationships
materials 3 between
a lose c Bad 1
a members.
control 2
To stay healthy 1 Behavoiurs
Delay response First
Aquatic animals:
Breathing to stimuli Taking illegal drugs Generation Grandfather Grandmother Grandfather Grandmother
fish, tadpoles, Excretion without doctor's
By most land a Second
prawns, crabs animals. prescription Father Mother
b In fish, tadpoles Eg: mammals, b Generation
Excrete carbon Water that contains oxygen
b a birds
a Gills Lungs Thi rd
dioxide and water a enters the mouth of fish and c
Generation Elder brother Me Younger sister Younger brother
4 flows out through gills. b 1 b
Animals with Some aquatic
Organs Oxygen is absorbed and Gills animals. Cause Drinking Smoking
kidneys: a 5 Breathing liver 6
mammals, b 3 carbon dioxide is get rid Eg: whales, alcohol
off at the gills. Structures dolphins, turtles. failure
birds. Kidney 5 1 1
4 2 Harmful nicotine - causes addiction
a 2 1 2 Get a
Air enters tiny pores Tracheal 4
Make people substances in
Excrete urea, 3 Moist skin addicted to 3 2
uric acid, mineral (spiracles) at sides of structure drunk cigaretes
insect's bodies to air tubes b become an b tar
salts and water Can smoke
and directly to body cells. Lung books a alcoholic f
(in urine) Skin Lungs a
b Lung cancer Cause a c
Oxygen from air enters
a c In frogs, the body directly
Delay e stained carcinogens - causes cancer
Excrete carbon dioxide In crabs, b a Lung books Lose Affects Difficulty in
b a b Consists of narrow air salamanders through the moist skin. response b teeth
and water spiders and control of breathing d c
tubes in body of insects. worms logical to stimuli
Animals with scorpions Lungs look
Excrete urea, air tubes himself thinking Bad breath
thick skin, Animals with lungs: like book Addiction
mineral salts and Lost of
mammals mammals, birds, pages
water (in sweat) appetite
reptiles, amphibians. spiracles 2
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YEAR 4 UNIT 2

LI FE
Bud grows into
PROCESSES
new shoots (2/2)
Plants grow upright
because light is coming
Plants bent towards the
from the top.
lamp that produce the light.
Begonia
Bryophyllum Roots of plants grow
a Roots of plants grow upwards towards the
b
2 1 downwards towards moist cotton wool.
Aloe vera
3
Buds at edge grow
into new shoots
C water at the bottom.
a
Examples
Are usually thick a
By non-flowering plants
b moist cotton
Small and light c a Beaker A Beaker B wool
a water
b IN PLANTS
Carried by wind Leaves Beaker A Beaker B
c drying agent
Spores under
Grow into new plants Spores
leaves d Sunlight
in moist places e
Ferns
Water
Spores like 1
flower Examples 5 Roots of plants grow
Mosses 2 1
Spores downwards towards gravity.
under gills
3
4 1 2 a
Mushrooms

Response Stimuli
a moist cotton
Bud grows into
to Types wool
Cutings planted in soil
new plant
2 Stimuli 3
Gravity Petri dish A Petri dish B
a
Buds on stem grow into new plants Stem
b Reproduction 4
Cuttings 3
Methods

c Mimosa plant
b
Bougainvillae
5 Touch
4
Examples 2
Rose 1
Reproduction
3 2 1
Hibiscus
Sugar cane Tapioca

a Form new plants a


1
Ensure survival of species
2 Leaflets of mimosa plant
flowers fruits seeds Why? fold up when touched.
New shoots that grow from buds
a Seeds 3 Prevent extinction
Suckers
b
  4
At base of parent plants a
c b Supply food to animals
d d c From fruits of flowering plants
Grow more quickly than seeds

Examples Examples of
plants with Seeds germinate into
1 one seed Examples of seedlings then young plants.
Banana Mango 1
2 3 plants with
Sucker 2 many seeds
Pineapple Bamboo
Rambutan 1
Maize 4
2
3
Durian Watermelon
Papaya
Sucker
Sucker

3
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To continue To prevent species By having special
from extinction 1. Characteristics Thick skin
living
2. Behaviours Hard shells
Penguin Polar bear Sh ee p Polar bear b
Wal rus
a c
b a Keep body
b a
c temperature Attack by humans Survival Tortoise
S ea l Keep body Examples Elephant Hide heads and
d fixed and other animals Rhinoceros Turtle
Examples warm legs in shells 1
Small ear W ha l e e when attacked
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 2 Snail
2 Hard scales
3
Thick fur a Examples Prevent enemies Pangolin
Thick fat Prevent enemies
FROM Examples b injuring them
S ea l Prevent heat layer under injuring them 1
loss from body skin DANGER a
Wal rus a Hard Examples 2 Crocodile
a b
b 1 shells b
Examples a Hard
2
Thick scales To kill or weaken
Small ears A and
enemies Scorpion
a 1
Bear Sleep thoughout hard skin
a cold season Examples 2 Centipede
1 Extreme cold Poisonous b
Fox
b YEAR 4 UNIT 3 stings/
Examples Hibernation 4 3
2 v en om
Squirrel
c
PROTECTION Snake
Bee
Avoid extreme weather
IN ANIMALS 2 To keep away
Look for food
1 2 3 enemies by raising
2 1
S wa n s
a Migration
(1/2) 4 a spines
Porcupine
Examples 3
C Spines 1

Swallows
b B b Examples

LIVING IN 5 2
Porcupine
EXTREME millipede fish
Use horns/
Broad, flat WEATHER 3 SPECIAL antlers to attack
Long ear hairs hooves prevent pangolin a
prevent entering of 2 Examples CHARACTHERICTICS enemies
from sinking into b Curling 6 Horns/
sand in sand storm sand 14 AND BEHAVOIUR antlers 1
Rhinoceros
1 up b
Long eye lashes b armadillo Examples
prevent entering of c a
Curling into shape of 2
sand in sand storm a
a ball so that enemies 13 7 3
Deer
Camel's Goat
special cannot attack
1 Sea Sharp claws/
features
Hippopotamus
anemone
2 Poisonous 12 talons
a
Rhinoceros c f Examples b tentacles 11 To protect themselves/
b
1
10 9 8 b youngs
Examples Jellyfish 1 Bear
2
a Also has Examples
a
Wallowing Sting to repel 1. sharp eyesight 2
B uf f al o 2. strong beak Lion
in mud e enemies 3
Cockroach cl aw s
Keep bodies cool
1 holes Extreme hot
3 Eagle
Desert fox
d Tal on s
b Keep away Bed bug 2 Examples b Releasing
Examples 2
from heat c stinks
a Camouflage a
a 1 Have same shape / skin
1
b a colour with surroundings
snakes
Skunk Repel enemies.
During the day  b
Wrinkled Prevent fom
rest in holes or
under rocks
Store Lo ng skins being eaten Living in Strong Examples 1 Zebra
fat ears
1
he rd s and
3 2 muscular legs 2
3 3 Increase surface area 3
2 1
Examples 2 b Smokescreen 5 4
Stick insect
1 a a
Keep Examples Lose body heat faster Examples b a Squirt black ink
Example
b animal Lose body Increase b to confuse Chameleon
a 3 Enemies are
H um p alive for Can heat faster surface area c
b a 2 1 Examples To outrun their enemy
a afraid to attack Moth
in days change to E le ph an t' s Monkeys enemies when Examples
c am e l Elephant wrin kled 3
food and Desert fox B uf f al o Hippopotamus Elephants Zebras 2 1 attacked
Tail in skin
h um p kanggaroo rat water Long ears Giraffe 2 1 Arctic fox
Antelope Horse Octopus
t ai l Squid Spots look like
wrin kled eyes to frighten
Hippopotamus's
skin en emi es
wrin kled
skin 5
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Grow deep Searching ca ct us
in soil for water 1
Example
a b
th ic k c
Aloe vera th ic k
l e av e s b a
l e av e s s te m s
Cac tus Long roots lo ng Mimosa plant
baobab 2 Expose thorns
ro ot s
trunk 1 a
When touched on stem
3
1
Examples c
Thick and To protect from
b 2 Example leaflets
banana 4
succulent being damaged From predators 1
f o ld e d
s te m stems/leaves (humans and animals) 3 Bitter Poisonous
a 2 Sticky
To store water Obtain and To protect from
Store water being eaten Folding 1
2 3 Cause itchiness
2 3 leaflets 4 stems
Cac tus 1 a
1 Needle Excreted b
1 leaves
P in e Examples a shaped 5
2 1
Prevent a Latex at
c
leaves fruits
3 excessiv e NATURAL 6
water loss DEFENCE a
Examples
a papaya
Cuasarina 2 b
Hairy IN b b
yam
Cac tus
leaves DRY c
1
Examples
a
3 4
4
REGIONS A jackfruit
2 Hurt animals that
W at e r 3 Waxy TYPES try to eat/destroy
me lo ns
Leaves OF
1
Pumpkin a Curling
1 YEAR 4 UNIT 3 NATURAL stems
of Leaves a
Examples DEFENCE c
Ban ana 1 2 Found
T horns leaves
2 Examples
b
a PROTECTION at
b

c
H ya ci nt h
Ban ana
1 During IN PLANTS 3
fruits
hot days
2
ADAPTATION B (2/2) d t ho rn s aloe vera
g Examples
a durian
Le mo n f e b
TO NATURE f
cactus
c
mimosa e
d
rose t ho rn s
pineapple bougainvillea
Break tree 2 Bad smell
tho rn
t ho rn s
stems
Palm C o co n u t tho rn
a 2
a Examples
b Uproot trees Tobacco leaves c 1
b STRONG
Examples b Cause itchiness
WINDS Prevent animals
Marigold a stems
1
from eating 1
Do not a
break Found
e as il y 2 Separated Rafflesia flower leaves
b
c 2 at
Leaves Poisonous Fine hairs
a c
Modified substances fruits

b
Leaves 1 Adaptation 3
Long bamboo fine hairs
Red uce M ethods 1
a
r es i st a nc e 1 Leaves c
3 1 3 Examples
to wind 2
Thin 2 Strong If eaten may
2 Modified a Flame of
Leaves buttress the forest cause b
2 Roots c
roots Found a
P ad i a Examples 1 a diarrhoea
Modified b 1 D ur ia n in c
b sugar
Stems b Ping pong Examples pumpkin
b Red uce Examples d nausea cane
r es i st a nc e a Prop roots fruit d a
c b death
c
Lalang to wind Strong b c
b a stalks sap
trunks Soft stems 1
2
Long/flexible Poison ivy flowers fruits fine
Example stems Examples h ai r s
a 1 1
2 Yellow Toadstool
C o co n u t
2 1 Examples a frangipani mushrooms
W i t hs t a n d Bent easily b
strong winds Examples Bent easily a c Maize Mangrove
b
a b P ad i Re ed Lalang
Sugar cane Ba mb oo

S tr on g
trunk
6
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 

A square  
Span  
Arm span Cubit
Area = length X width
1 2
Wid th 3 Strings Paper clips
Bigger objects have length different lengths  
a a
Foot b Matchsticks
A rectangle L e ng t h bigger surface area. Use body 4
c
b parts Examples d
Wid th a Distance between Straws
two points 1
c
L e ng t h
Areas of squares The size of the
surface of an object a Use objects 2 Less accurate
L e ng t h = 10 cm and rectangles
W i d t h = 5 cm
Example
d 1
A r e a = 10 cm x 5 cm 1
b More accurate
= 50 cm 2 1
3 1 Use standard units
Us e 2
MEASURING Ruler
LENGTH 2 c measuring 3 Examples
a
LENGTH
AREA tools b Measuring tape
Area of a
di st ri ct
Example
2 d
Very large A In metric system
area
square 1 2 C 1
a
millimetres (mm) } 10 mm
kilometres Very short Thick ness
e
( km2) length of book
2 b
YEAR 4 UNIT 4 Examples
Large Standard Units Length of
Example 2
area
d Standard Units 3
Short ins ect
 
length 16 mm
Area of a room 1
MEASUREMENTS 4
a centimetres (cm) 
20 cm
c b
Length of book
(1/2)

square a 1 5
metres ( m2) Examples
b


Longer
In metric system length Height of 18 cm
a metres (m)
Small bo tt le
Very small


area Relationships b
area Reading = 63 cm Very long
2 c Examples a Height of


2 1 kilometre = 1000 metres length
1 1 tr ee
Example b a b
a
Example 15 m
square square 1 metre = 100 centimetres 1 centimetre = 10 millimetres b Length of room
centimetres kilometres (km)
millimetres 1 cm
Area of a 1 mm  
(cm 2 ) Wrap the measuring tape around the
B


piece of Area of a (mm 2 ) 10 mm

}
pa pe r small square object and read the scale that meets Examples
on graph the zero mark on the tape.
pa pe r a  
1 b
6 m
Distance between Distance
Using MEASURING moon and earth = between house
383,000 km and school = 5
measuring tape TECHNIQUES km

Place string on ruler b 2


to measure length 1
3 Use ruler or
Curved a measuring tape
Make mark on string object Straight
2 a
Using string Objects Place eye vertically on
& ruler mark (correct position)
2 to take reading
a 1
Use string to trace
A (X ) B (X )
the curve surface
b b
3 Do not place eye at position A or B
Place one end of 1 (incorrect position) because the
object at zero Reading = 2.4 cm readings are not accurate.
4
mark of ruler/tape

6
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Mililitre (ml) Litre (l)
Length = 5 cm
Volume = Width = 2 cm Small Large 1 litre (l) = 1000 millilitres (ml)
length X width X height Height = 4 cm volumes volumes
Volume of Volume = 5 cm x 2 cm x 4 cm
swimming pool
A Cuboid tablespoon cup
= 40 cm3 1 2 3
b c bowl
Example Example
bottle cap d
He ig ht c Standard Units for a
b
th d Less
cubic metres Large W
id
b volumes of liquids accurate e bottle
a Length
(m 3 ) volumes
f
Vo lu me 1 pail
a
of pencil 3 VOLUMES OF
bo x
a CUBOIDS
Example Standard Units for b Measuring liquid
b VOLUMES OF
Small 2 volumes of solids volumes
cubic LIQUIDS
a volumes 2 beaker
centimetres 2
a
(cm 3 ) 1 3 Accurate
The amount of
Volume of c b
Very small space taken by an Measuring
sugar cube Example b
volumes object 1 VOLUMES cylinder
Use measuring
a cylinder
a
cubic millimetres a Measuring
(mm 3 )
Bigger objects have
Techniques b Place at level surface
bigger volumes
D c
b
incorrect X
Useful in international d Place eye at lower
3 part of meniscus e
communication

Consistency in measurement 2
IMPORTANCE YEAR 4 UNIT 4
Read at lowest part
correct   Lowest part of
of meniscus meniscus.
1
OF STANCARD Reading = 42.0 cm3
Accuracy in measurement
UNITS G incorrect X
MEASUREMENTS
(2/2) Very light
milligram
(mg)
Pocket watch 1 objects
Stop watch Digital clock
3 gram (g)
2
1
Wall clock
E Standard Units 2 Light
2 objects
Wrist 1
Watches Clocks
F MASS
watch 3 3
Alarm a Heavy
a b
clock 2 4
objects kilogram (kg)
Modern 5
times
1 MEASURING
2 TIME MASS 1 gram (g) = 1000 milligrams (mg)
Waterclock Measuring The amount of
1 kilogram (g) = 1000 grams (g)
d Tools matter in an
Candleclock object
c Ancient 1
c
2 1 b
a c
times
b
Hourglass MEASURING The period
Heavier objects Beam balance
a TIME have more mass Measuring 1
between two
events Take reading when Tools
Sundial 3 Measuring 2
pointer stops moving
b Techniques Compression
a
3 balance
Use process 2 5
4
that repeats Standard Units
3 itself
Dripping water 6 1 Lever balance
1
2 1 day = 24 hours (hr) Bathroom scale Electronic balance
5 2 Very short Place eye at same
1 4 3 time
Pulse level as pointer Place object on pan
1 hour (hr) = 60 minutes (min) Longer Second (s)
= 3600 seconds (s) Very long time
Pendulum swing time
1 minute (min) = 60 seconds (s) Minute (min)
Hour (hr)

7
To prevent the www.petaminda.com
inside of house To disperse
seen clearly from l ig h t
o ut si de .
Lamp shade To prevent
(thin cloth) 4 s un l i gh t
TRANSLUCENT en teri ng
mirror
Frosted glass 3 ho us e ke y kni fe c oi n
Examples c MATERIALS To provide From sand
To make sh ad e boat paper
2
copies of Tracing roof tiles furniture gl as s
d ra w i ng s 1 Objects
paper 1
hat From rocks Objects a
Certain plastic b 2 2 Objects b
a
OPAQUE a b
bo tt le
d Examples From trees
MATERIALS Glass
Objects behind To protect a b
3 clothe Metal
3 4 b od y From crude oil
Me asu ri ng cannot be seen co nt ai ne r
bea ker cy lind er clearly (blurred) TRANSPARENT, c containers Wood (petroleum)
a a
To see b
contents to
Materials that TRANSLUCENT, To keep 1
2 3 b
Objects ruler

measure allow some


v o lu m e s light to pass AND Materials that
c o n te n t s
uns een
Plastic t oy s
ac cur ate ly through Forms a
Measuring OPAQUE do not allow
any light to shadow 4 From rubber
containers Uses windscreen Objects tree sap (latex)
MATERIALS pass through behind cannot when light
be seen at all
shines on it MATERIALS a
tyre

light Clear
For drivers to AROUND US 5 Rubber b Objects ba ll
bulb Glass see clearly 1 D g l ov e s
To illuminate
2
su rr ou nd in gs

Examples
TRANSPARENT A 6
Clear 1 MATERIALS 7
Plastics 8 Leather
YEAR 4 UNIT 5 a From animal skin
To project a
image on b Cloth/ b
larger Fabric s ho e s

Containers
Uses
Transparency screen
Objects behind Materials that allow most MATERIALS Clay Objects
light to pass through a
To see
can be seen clearly
(1/3) b a b From cotton,
belt

contents wool wal let

Materials From earth Objects


Objects
that do not
c INSULATORS C
heat to pass 1 clothe
Heat
through vase tiles t ow e l cu rt ai n
insulators
b
2
a CONDUCTORS B
bri ck

2
Electric AND
2 Materials that
Examples insulators
DO NOT allow INSULATORS allows electricity to
electricity and pass through copper wire
C la y 1 heat to pass
Non-Metals a
through iron nails
F ab ri c Materials that 1 Metals
do not allow Conduct 1
steel knife
Gla ss
W o o d R ub be r
Plas tic electricity to PROPERTIES OF 1 b Examples
glass door Glass Allows light electricity 2
pass through 2
Examples c to pass 7 MATERIALS Non-metals
ca rb on
CONDUCTORS 1
plastic sheet Plastic through 2 allows heat to pass
d b a through a lu m i ni u m
a 6 Conduct
Good conductors of Object placed behind
c 5 3 heat Metals steel
elecricity are ALSO
b a can be seen 4 b 1
good conductors of heat Examples
Made of glass Can be 2 wok
Heat and clear plastic stretch Float on Cooking
w at e r a utensils
conductors c Do not Absorb do not sink in water pot
Electric Materials that allow
1
electricity and heat to Examples b a Absorb w at e r b
conductors 2
Materials that 2
pass through Rubber w at e r a Examples 1 Wood
allow heat to 1 furniture
2
1 Returns to Can be
b b becomes wet when in
pass through Examples rubber band
Spring a 2
w ir e s original pulled and contact with water
Examples stretched Examples Plastics
Materials that allow shape when Example b ot t le s
electricity to pass through released prevent 1
spring riders 2 c on ta in er s
Metals (Elastic) from Cloth
1 t ow e l
C op pe r
getting Wood
Plastic wet na pp y
Metals Aluminium (Waterproof) paper
e le ct ri c Iron wok tis sue
steel Ir on u mb r e ll a
i ro n t en t ra in co at
pot Steel
steel base Zi nc
8
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Used to form many
Plastics synthetic materials Trapped air in insulators
products slows down heat flow to/ cloth / towel
prevent heat from
a 1 Natural materials used to from materials
leaving/entering a
form new materials 2 cotton wool
Examples 2 Petroleum 1
b
b c Obtained through 3 Examples
Wrapping c paper
PVC d chemical processes.
Synthetic c b d
leather Leather with insulator e

a also called Used to prevent


Synthetic MAN MADE synthethic materials saw
a dust ice from melting
Cloth MATERIALS coconut husk
Polyester quickly
Nylon SOURCES
Rayon
2 KEEPING
polystyrene containers
THINGS HOT/
1
CHOOSING COLD
NATURAL AND 1 b Us e
MAN-MADE SUITABLE insulator
MATERIALS MATERIALS containers Keep fish cold
Obtained c 2
wood from nature Plastic containers
1
rubber 1
a
2
Plants G E T h erm os
3 b NATURAL
cotton flask A good insulator,
MATERIALS 1
prevent heat
SOURCES escaping
YEAR 4 UNIT 5
Empty space wthout
fur c d 2 air, a good
1
MATERIALS Prevent heat 3
insulator

wool Animals
2
Rocks (2/3) escaping
3
silk 3 2 1 Temperature of
4 liquid kept constant
metals petroleum in longer time
leather clay

hard
strong
a strong
a
b
Metal Leather b flexible
COMBINED USES Use of object
c comfortable feel
OF MATERIALS 1
a
transparent b Glass Determined Properties to
3
4 5 7 b
function
strong
a by c
Suitable
6 materials
a Car 5 3 waterproof
4 a

2
Wires Plastic
a b insulator of heat
Plastic 1
b
Boots c
Light 1
Frying insulator of electricty
a a
tough Rubber pan Umbrella 2
waterproof d
Spectacles 2
c
strong b a a a Copper a
S ol e conductor of
2 a metal
good flexible fr am e electricty
strong d 1
grip Leather
flexible c Rubber handle
b c 1
a waterproof 1 fr am e
comfortable b a 2 Plastic or/and hard and
2 a
2 1 le ns es
feel last long good metal strong
soft, flexible Plastic / wood
grip Metal Clear plastic or
and strong
Plastic Metal glass a strong
b b a
a b
hard and
conductor strong insulator b a a transparent
strong
of heat of heat opaque waterproof hard and
9
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Reducing Reusing Recycling
2
Use both sides Save 1 3
Non-renewable Used up
when printing production Reduce the use Limited rusty steel pipes rusty iron nails
Reduce cost of materials Conserving
Use cloth a 2 3
amount of natural 1
instead of b waste materials by
tissue paper Reduce using b a
paper Natural
c Matrials steel metal iron metal
Bring own
b
copper lead aluminium
shopping bag a 1 2
a Reduce using increased mass
Examples d REDUCING b gold
plastic bag CONSERVING Examples
a c
unatttractive clay
MATERIALS 5 rubber glass d
brittle 4
wood 3 plastic Rust-proof
Avoid using (break easily) 3
2 4
Surface c 1 metals
disposable 5
2 properties Non-
dull
objects 2 1 b metals 1
a 1 clean and shiny
b rough 2
X polystryrene
plastic spoons,
forks, chopsticks X RUSTY a Metals

plates and OBJECTS


cups a b Br ok en
Reddish-brown 1 Rust rusty
layer formed on NON-RUSTY i ro n
Continue usage surface of certain 2 b ri dg e
instead of throwing metal objects. 1 OBJECTS Objects become
Formed by a brittle and break
Modify the objects into a chemical process 2 a easily
other useful objects between:
1. iron metal Objects have to
b 3 2. water be replaced,
Reduce waste, 3. air b increase cost
save materials c REUSING RUSTING 3 DISADVANTAGES
YEAR 4 UNIT 5 Bo y

Old newspapers/
I H c
infe cted
by
d d t et a nu s
magazines as
wrappers MATERIALS 5 4 Rust contains
1 Examples Looks unattractive bacteria, that
(3/3)

cause tetanus

2 3 4
CONDITIONS a Rusting A chemical process between:
Empty containers as FOR RUSTING 1. iron metal
other new containers Old tyres as garden
4 2. water
decorators Old clothes as 3. air
scrubbers / apron / PREVENTING b
  blankets
RUSTING Objects made of steel or iron will
tin plating rust when exposed to water and air.
coper plating Coating iron a Air Water droplet
zinc with other Also called By keeping away metals Rusty deposit
plating metals electroplating b from water and air.
Converting old materials 1
2
into new products b a
3
collection centres chromium
4
plating Examples c Non-rusting 4 By coating Ir on
1 a metals
5 wi th
Materials
silver 6 3
collected grease texture
b plating 1
2 at RECYCLING Plastic or 2 a
recycling bins with gold plating rubber
recycling symbols Grease or bicycle
R ec y c li n g
Aluminium cans are recycled oil chain
symbol Applied to Paint 1
c d into various aluminium products b
4
Recycled
Materials Examples  c
b a
Applied to 2 blades

 Applied to 3

glass
1
2
3
Old newspapers
1
2
3  fence wires
paper clips other iron
d
c
a
gates
5 4
engine
4 are recycled into racks objects b nuts and parts
door
tissue paper, vehicles bolts
hinge
paper cardboards or Glass are recycled into Plastics are recycled into grills
newspapers various glass products various plastic products
aluminium
plastic 
  
 10
Surrounded by Surrounded by Covered with blue www.petaminda.com
3 wide rings narrow rings methane liquid Has a faint
Uranus 9 P luto
3 Saturn 3 ring system
Most Lies on 1
2 2
beautiful 2 its side 8N eptune
Neptune At centre of 8
1 Greenish 1 7 U r an us
Second biggest planet The only star in solar system 4 M a rs
blue colour 7
solar system SUN 6 S at urn
9 planets move
around it 2 V en u s
Made up of gases and ice Pluto Biggest body in E ar th 5 Jupiter
Jupiter f g solar system
3
2 water
air M ercury
e The only planet Source of life on 1
Biggest planet 1
c
with living things 2 suitable b earth (light and
THE h 1
atmosphere
d heat energy)
Surface covered Very cold; all d 3 a
OUTER 2 1 3 e
with red dust; water frozen
PLANETS Smallest 9 planets
called red planet 2 Very cold a SUPPORTS
No life c planet Very far The 10th (named Sedna) and 11th
1 LIFE
Has 3 forms Made of from sun and dark THE SUN a b planets were discovered in 2004 and
1. air 4
Mars mainly b b suitable distance 2005 respectively
2. water a 6 5 c
3. suitable temperature gases THE from sun orbit

Also called EARTH'S PLANETS


Only 2 giant gases 5 last 3 Not too hot receive d
planet that Earth g PERFECT or too cold enough Move around
1 planets the sun in
supports PLACEMENT light and
f a b c heat their own
life 4
THE orbits
Hottest
INNER
If too
h ot ,
If too cold, Not
c on d u ci v e
1 2
planet Venus all water
3
e PLANETS 2 PLANETS IN ear th will freeze to life
be co me s Satellites : bodies that
Atmosphere
traps heat
2 THE SOLAR dry. orbit a planet or other
a larger bodies
1 d SYSTEM a
YEAR 4 UNIT 6 All planets have natural
Nearest
to earth
Mercury
c b 4 nearest C NATURAL satelites except
planet to sun
THE CONSTITUENTS 3 SATELITES
b
Mercury and Venus
Made of 1 OF THE
Has
atmophere
rocks EAR TH A ND A c Earth's natural
SOLAR SYSTEM 1
Has very
2 1 PLANET'S TH E U NI VER SE THE
satelite

Nearest to TEMPERATURE MOON


high
temperature the sun
(1/1) *Subject to change
due to new discoveries
2 Does not give
light
c 3
a 4
Mars *Pluto : 1 10 Reflects light
Far from sun b 9 from the sun
Planet nearer to sun is
Average temperature: - 50oC
hotter and dryer; getting B Example: Halley's comet
passes near earth every 5 *Neptune : 8 8
Number of
Satellites of Takes 28 days to orbit
Venus more light and more heat 7 around the earth
Very near to sun 72 years Planet
Earth Average Planet farther from sun
4 3 *Uranus : 15
1
temperature: 420o C 6
Near to sun is colder; getting less d 5 2 Mercury : 0
Average temperature: 15oC The sun's heat *Saturn : 21 4 3
light and less melts the ice and
heat c COMET *Jupiter : 16 Venus : 0
makes it glow.
Seen as long trail Mars : 2 Earth : 1
b
earth - sun : Objects smaller than
Moves around
150 000 000 km a planets that moves
the sun in a
1
earth - moon : a SIZE long orbit
METEOROID
around the sun
A lump of ice that
382 500 km AND ASTEROIDS 2 Made of metals and rocks
b contains frozen gases and METEOR
DISTANCE 2 DISTANCE and dust 3
c Have different shapes and sizes
distance ratio 4
(up to hundreds of kilometres)
earth-sun : earth-moon
400 : 1 b a Found in


150 000 000 km

382 500 km
 
1 asteroid belt
between Mars
moon It lands on earth, form a METEOR
ear th and Jupiter
crater and becomes a 3 METEOROIDS
sun Ear th:
4 x bigger meteorite.
2 1 A st er oi d
than moon DIAMETER 1 belt
3
Su n: 2
100 x bigger a Sun's : Looks like a streak of bright Is a meteoroid that
5 Objects that float
than earth 4 d 1 400 000 km
b light (also called shooting star) enters the earth's in space that
Su n: c A
atmosphere broken off from
400 x bigger 3 Size Ratio me teo ri te Have different Made of metals
shapes and asteroids
than moon Moon's : and rocks
Earth's : sizes (smaller
2 3 480 km
1 12 756 km than asteroids)
sun ear th moon sun : earth : moon 11
basketball : marble : sago grain 400 : 4 : 1
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launched by In tro duc ed Computers around Rafts - logs Sampan - planks
ro cke ts by Tim the world are are tied joined together
satellite B er ne s- Le e netwo rked Used for: toge ther Sailing boats, ships think
Travelled by
1 1 . e - ma i l s 4 and junks that used walking but took 1 learn
1 2 2 . c ha tt in g H el ic o pt er s 3 wind power 2
Used to 3 s u p e rs o n i c ca no e a very long time
Communcation 3 . te le co nf er en ci ng 2 5
receive and jet BRAIN memorise
send wave 2 satelites Internet 4 . sharing information Water Bigger ships driven by Ancient b Ride animals like 3
steam and then diesel horses, camels,
sign als Transport 6 times donkeys, buffaloes
1903, Wright Brothers engines that travel do work
between very mobile phone d invented the "Flyer", rocket 1 faster, carry more c 1
far places c Very fast and engine-powered glider Tree trunk p a s s en g e r s d Wheel was
facsimile b easy to use used to travel in vent ed BODY
a 6 b 1 Used to pull 2 move
5 7 s pa c e on water
Examples 4 s hu t tl e ca rr ia ge s a
Walk ie-tal kie 8 Land Steam
The early wheel
see
2 1 TRANSPORTATION a b
Television c The airship filled with
hydrogen / helium
3 Air c Transport 2 Engines 1 hear
b a Steam engine 2
Radio a Examples Latest
(light gas) during Transport b was invented by HUMAN 3 smell
1 9 00 ' s SENSORY
2 James Watt c
Used to send Technology 2 3 ACTIVITIES ORGANS 4 touch
3 1800's - the The vehicles are faster, Used to pull
messages in form 1 train / cars
5
glider was safer and can carry taste
of radio waves e Internal
in vent ed more passengers.
2 Wireless Combustion
By Guglemo 1780's - hot air
DEVELOPEMENT Other vehicles d Engines 1
Are things that
Telegraphy developed : buses, human can do
Marconi 1 Invention
balloon was
in vent ed
OF vans, lorries, trains c a
g a memorising
Used to send TECHNOLOGY Gottlieb Daimler
invented the
b
HUMAN HUMAN
doing simple
calculations some facts
messages in
(1) mo to rc yc le 2 ABILITIES
form of sound f Karl Benz
invented the LIMITATIONS 1 2 walking with
2 1 petrol driven b 3 legs
By Alexander car
1 Telephone The internal Examples
Graham Bell
Invention
e COMMUNICATION D combustion engine 3 4 writing with
hands
Used to send A hearing 9 5
messages using YEAR 4 UNIT 7 with ears 7 6 reading
HUMAN 8 with eyes
Morse code a
invented by Samuel d a LIMITATIONS smelling
Morse 2 c b
Sharing of
TECHNOLOGY Are things that
human cannot do
tasting with
tongue
feeling
with skin
with nose
Telegraph
By William Cooke
and Charles 1 Invention
Information 1 speaking AROUND US doing complex
b
by: 2 Examples memorising
Wheatstone
Ancient 3
listening
(1/2) calculations 6 1
many numbers
Carrier pigeons 4 drawing hearing 5 2
times 5 4 3 running at
send messages very soft
writing
that were tied to 2
Invention sending B sounds
high speeds
their bodies. 3 1 signals DEVICES viewing very lifting very
1
of Writing 2
C far/minute heavy objects Example:
Messengers send People make a objects
The natives Enables to see Enlarging
messages from drawings on tools
Certain American send d b tiny things map's image
places to places walls of c
natives also
beat drums to
messages
caves DEVICES TO to overcome 1 2 Enables to see
through smoke limitations equipments
machines
send signals OVERCOME very fine things
messages Magnifying
Crane 6 LIMITATIONS OF: Glass
1

c 2 Microscope

Forklift b LIFTING HEAVY 5 a 2


OBJECTS Example: Used detect b Example: seeing
a 4 hidden weapons, microorganisms,
Pulley
3 underground pipes/
SIGHT cells
minerals 2 g Enables to
Metal see distant
Microphone Enables to Detectors c
a 1 f objects
HEARING & detect hidden
b Megaphone e d 1
Enables to BRAIN metals
do complex Binoculars
programming Computer TRAVELLING d b 2 1 Example: Used to X-ray
c 3 2
a LONG see infected lungs Machine
Example: Used Enables to Example:
DISTANCES a to speak to amplify Vewing birds
f 2
Calculator large audience sounds Enables to
All vehicles used Night Vision Telescope
e see objects 1
Aeroplane d b to travel far
Hearing Aid Goggles
c distances at a Stethoscope Telephone internal
2 1
shorter time organs
2 1 2 1
Enables to 2 1 2 Example: Enables to
1 Example: Example:
do complex Example: Enables to Enables to Looking at see very far
Car Example: Used to Used by
calculations Enables Used to Enables to transmits see objects moon, objects
Used by speak to soldiers at
Ship Motorbike Bicycle to hear hear hear soft sound to far in the dark planets,
deafs/ someone night
better heartbeats sounds stars
partially deaf overseas places 12
by doctors
de stro ys
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plant / animal Uncontrolled
na tur al species becomes
habitat of a b ex tin ct
logging and r ai n
hoe s i ck l e
plants and mining rake wat er
wat er air pollution anim als Forest cut c d plough watering
trees cut down stones d ib be r b tractor to
pollu tion down Deplete natural e a cans combine harvester
land / hills 1 a Metal plough land
sources quickly sticks c b to harvest crops
spo il
used up 2 1 discovery and Crop
2 b c Irrigation system : a
natu re's Waste 1 bo ne s Started new tools Watering b save
Archimedes's screw
be au ty Materials of Extinction of a farming. c l ab ou r
Factories Depletion of Farm c o s t a ut o m at i c
Environmental Living Things Tools used:
Natural Sources 4 5
Machines
Harmful exhaust Destruction Irrigation system
2 a
fumes of motor 3
wat er
vehicles d Old 1 Watering b chan nels
1 Environmental c e Social 6 Move to another
gather wild 2 days place when soil Crops c
excessive use is Pollution Problems
fruits and edible is infertile
2
d pip es
harmful to body b f plants 1
1
Hunt c
Modern sprinkler
Electronic devices emit 3
Health
DISADVANTAGES animals Days system
electromagnetic waves a Mass media
2 Effects d
influence 3
food 1
4
ad di ti ve s Chemicals 3 a b AGRICULTURE Fertilisers
i m mo r a l Planting b a
drug abuse to increase
pesti cides fer tilis ers ac ti vi ti es crops Modern
ye il d
a Techniques
ey e to increase c a
ha nd
goggles helmet
use machines to
p ro d uc e
contribute to
ec onom ic
ADVANTAGES AND Rearing
quality and
ye il d
b
Hydrophonics :
animals Biotechnology: A
g l ov e s
prote ctive
more products gr ow th DISADVANTAGES and
1 technology that uses
a method of growing plants
using mineral nutrient
living organisms to
devices to
protect workers
1 2 OF TECHNOLOGY livestock
make or modify products
solutions, without soil

or processes for
Increase specific use.
usi ng 2
machines to
productivity G
do dangerous 1 Do work 2 YEAR 4 UNIT 7
work safely e 1 DEVELOPEMENT
d OF
usi ng
ma chin es
2
Better
ADVANTAGES
TECHNOLOGY E TECHNOLOGY to
protect from:
p ro d uc e quality c CONTRIBUTION
ne at er
p ro d u ct s
products OF AROUND US (2)
1.
wild animals
2.
cold
b 3.
heat bamboos
leaves s t ic k s

products last
1
Save
a TECHNOLOGY (2/2) 4.
rain
2
1 2 3 clay
lived in caves 4
l on ge r time
c 1
Used
Do work a Stone 5 ani mal
easily in: Have to
b skins
1
Invention of
2 Age
3 use wisely b hu ts
usi ng
ma chin es c on st ru ct io n 2 1 Gives benefit tools and F a Built
1
to mankind devices
c o m m u ni c a t i o n c 3
trave lling Old t en t s
2
Days
washing NOT strong and
fan ma chi ne CONSTRUCTION sa fe
ai r
co nd it io ne r 1
SOLVING 1
wo od
2 a 1
1
Slow when
PROBLEMS Use 2 gl as s
Uncomfo rtable washing clothes
c Buildings 3 br ic ks
car / bus
in hot weather solved by a 4
3
solved by
b 2 5 c e me n t
highways
ferry / ship
2 Slow when 2 1 and Roads Modern i ro n
trave lling g h expressways Days
ai rp la ne 1 solved by c 2
/ helicopter 1 Bridges
f Modern 1 Old b s tr on g
Identify a 1
Examples Concrete b Days Old Days Build
Keeping food
e problems 2
fresh solved 2 roads Days 2 sa fe
3

refrigerator 1
by
d a  1
a
b a
a
can
b tree trunks
wooden planks,
h om e s
cem ent
withstand stro nger Taller &
c b c Tar
Ro ma ns use Modern
Slow when Poor Use heavy load stronger a
roads ar rang ed p at hw ay s Days condomoniums
cutting grass ha nd wri ti ng b
solved by
Generate s an d a ro ck d c b
solved by c b
ideas 2 blocks f la t s
Slow when Dim 1
1 sweeping floor
solved by
can dle
l i gh t s 2 1
brainstorming
 gr ave ls

Use
Examples Use
sky
s cr ap pe r
a pa rt me nt s

l aw n m ow e r solved by c om p u te r
1 1 2
2
1 typewriter b a c on c r et e s t e e l
1 Design arch
vacuum cleaner gr ave ls tar suspension
fl uo re sc en t device b ri dg e b ri dg e
l i gh t s

13