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FEASIBILITY PLANNING

Dr S. UDAYASHANKAR Professor MSNM BESANT INSTITUTE OF PG STUDIES MANGALORE

CHAPTER CONTENTS
Planning paradigm for new ventures Stages of growth model Fundamentals of a good feasibility plan

Components of feasibility plan

MODEL FOR NEW VENTURES


No universally accepted Model of entrepreneurship. Similarities among the models suggest a paradigm, or

a general pattern of how to progress from an abstract idea to achieving sustained sales.
Paradigm encompasses a feasibility plan. Different models suggest different sequences for

creating new ventures.

THE FOUR STAGE GROWTH MODEL


The four stage growth model is the general paradigm

for new venture development. It consists of distinct activities essential for a new venture to progress from an idea to a substantial enterprise. The four stages are: 1. PRE-START-UP STAGE 2. START-UP STAGE 3. EARLY GROWTH STAGE 4. LATER GROWTH STAGE

PRE-START-UP STAGE
The period during which entrepreneurs plan the

venture and do the preliminary work of obtaining resources and getting organized prior to start-up.
Entrepreneurs will try to answer questions about

production, operations, markets, competitors, costs, financing, and potential profits.

PRE-START-UP ACTIVITIES
I. DEFINING BUSINESS CONCEPT What is the purpose of the venture? What does the entrepreneur want to accomplish with the business? II. PRODUCT-MARKET STUDY Product research: Is the product or service feasible? Realistic? Market research: Who will buy? Where are they? What niche? What competitors exist?

PRE-START-UP ACTIVITIES
III. FINANCIAL PLANNING
Financial projections: What cash is needed? How

will income be generated? What expenses are expected? What is invested? Borrowed? What is needed to meet operating requirements? IV. PRE-START-UP IMPLEMENTATION The entrepreneur must find resources, purchase beginning inventory, hire those needed at start-up, and obtain necessary licenses, permits, leases, facilities, and equipment.

START-UP STAGE
It is the initial period of business when the

entrepreneur must position the venture in a market and make necessary adjustments to assure survival. The start-up stage has no definite time frame, and there are no models to describe what a business does during this stage. The two objectives of the entrepreneurs are: 1. to meet operating objectives such as satisfying revenue and cost targets, and 2. to position the venture for long term growth.

EARLY GROWTH STAGE


A period of rapid development and growth when the

venture may undergo major changes in markets, finances, and resource utilization. A period of intense monitoring, and growth can occur at different rates along a long continuum, ranging from slow growth through higher sales to explosive growth through quantum changes in consumer demand.

LATER GROWTH STAGE


The evolution of a venture into a large company with

active competitors in an established industry when professional management may be more important than entrepreneurial verve. Companies reaching this stage often go public with stock offerings. Family fortunes turn into corporate equity positions, private investors convert their holdings into publicly traded securities, and management teams replace the entrepreneurial cadre.

UNDERSTANDING THE FOUR STAGE GROWTH PARADIGM


During the pre-start-up stage, the focus is on product,

service, and market planning. The start-up stage requires entrepreneurs to focus on implementation and early positioning. During the early growth stage, they are concerned with rapid changes in sales and resources. During the later growth stage, they must make a successful transition from personally managed enterprises to professionally managed companies.

FUNDAMENTALS OF A FEASIBILITY PLAN


A feasibility plan covers the full range of business

planning activities, but it does not require the depth of research or details expected for an established enterprise. A feasibility plan is an outline of potential issues to address and a set of guidelines to help an entrepreneur make better decisions.

FUNDAMENTALS OF A FEASIBILITY PLAN


Feasibility plan should be an honest plan with well-

supported information. It should clearly identify products, services, markets, and the founders. It should be easy to read, complete, and accurate. Abstract language has to be avoided. It is wise to include a strong nondisclosure statement that states information in the plan is proprietary and cannot be copied, disclosed, shared, or otherwise compromised. This is to protect entrepreneurs from having their ideas stolen. Make the plan readable by keeping it short.

COMPONENTS OF A FEASIBILITY PLAN


1. Executive Summary

2. Business concept
3. Product or Service

4. Market research and analysis


5. Market Plan 6. Manufacturing or operations 7. Entrepreneurial team 8. Financial documentation

KEY ELEMENTS OF EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


1. Venture defined: Describe the purpose and nature of the

2.
3.
4. 5.

business Product or Service: Describe the product or service to be sold. Market characteristics: Describe market size, location, and customers. Entrepreneurial team: Describe the founders, key people, and their roles. Financial summary: Describe estimates of revenue and expenses, founders equity, debt and capital needed.

BUSINESS DESCRIPTION
Describe evolutionary steps that led to the business

formation. Explain the nature of market demand. Is the firm responding to an established demand, or is it trying to establish a new product or service in untested markets? Explain the nature of the business by clearly stating how the firm will operate and what the founders intend to accomplish. Explain the firms technological profile including description of equipments, wholesale networks, foreign licensing agreements etc.

PRODUCTS OR SERVICES
Describe the distinctive characteristics of the product, how

it works or is used, materials, costs, methods of manufacturing, proprietary protection (patents, trade marks, or copyrights), and potential competing (substitute) products. Most new products also will require validated testing, and many will require approval by regulatory agencies. For example, dental instruments and products have to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Restaurants and medical testing laboratories have to meet government health and safety requirements. Educational institutions are required to meet educational credential standards and comply with central and state regulations.

MARKET RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS


The most important and most difficult part of the plan. Provide a credible summary of potential customers, markets, competitors, and assumptions about pricing, production, and distribution. All of them must relate to the future period of operations, not merely describe what exists at the pre-start-up stage. 1. IDENTIFY POTENTIAL CUSTOMERS: Demographic profile of customers - Characteristics of customers, age, sex, education, income, occupation, etc. Buying habits and relevant information for new venture.

MARKET RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS


2. EVALUATE MARKETS:
Future markets and trends or changes. Window of business opportunity

Niche position information


3. ANALYZE COMPETITORS: Existing competitors with similar products/services

Future competitors and ease of entry


Industry structure

MARKET RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS


4. DESCRIBE ASSUMPTIONS:
Market niche for positioning firm Pricing approach used in plan

Distribution or method of making a market


5. SALES FORECAST: Indicate the quantity of sales and expected gross

sales revenue during the plan period.

ELEMENTS OF THE MARKETING PLAN


The following are the main marketing activities: PRODUCT OR SERVICES: Quality and reliability, use, and how the product or service will be positioned in growth markets. PRICING SYSTEM: Pricing methods, discounts, quantity and bulk prices, methods to set prices. PROMOTIONAL STRATEGIES: Strategy of combining appropriate uses of public relations, advertising, displays, events, demonstrations, personal sales, etc.

ELEMENTS OF THE MARKETING PLAN


DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS: Use of market channels

including retail, wholesale, catalog, telemarketing, personal sales representatives, or other approaches. SERVICES AND WARRANTIES: Description of service-after-sale policies, repair services, guarantees, and product warranties. MARKETING LEADERSHIP: Define leadership roles, persons responsible for marketing and sales.

MANUFACTURING OR OPERATIONS PLAN


This is important for ventures that manufacture, design, or sell products, as well as for service firms that require capital equipment. The following are the main elements of manufacturing or operations plan: 1. FACILITIES: Facilities include fixtures, furniture, equipment, parking space, and renovations necessary to open for business. Equipment lists are usually prepared so that potential investors can evaluate lease-buy decisions and identify collateral. Start-up costs for renovations, fixtures, and equipment installation should be itemized because they represent sunk costs costs that are essential and unrecoverable if the venture fails to open for business.

MANUFACTURING OR OPERATIONS PLAN

2.

3.

INVENTORY MANAGEMENT: Entrepreneurs have to explain their inventory control systems. Inventory must be purchased well in advance of sales. Inventory expenses will always precede sales revenue. Poor inventory and purchasing controls can result in stock-outs during peak periods and excessive inventory stockpiled during periods of poor sales. Poor inventory management may lead to business failure. HUMAN RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS: Human resource requirements should be estimated with details of the number of personnel and types of skills needed.

MANUFACTURING OR OPERATIONS PLAN

4. OPERATIONS:

R & D, manufacturing process, service structure, quality control, safety and maintenance activities should be described. LEGAL AND INSURANCE ISSUES: Entrepreneurs should consider insurance and legal protection to their business to avoid disasters.

5.

THE ENTREPRENEURIAL TEAM


Entrepreneurs must take care to profile the

entrepreneurial team honestly and effectively. They should emphasize team members strengths, past successes, and positive characteristics. Each persons role in the new venture should be described briefly, including board members or investors who may not be involved directly in operations yet be able to influence decisions.

FINANCIAL DOCUMENTATION
Financial statements for a new venture, called pro formas,

are projections based on previously defined operating and marketing assumptions. The important financial documents are the following: Profit and loss statement or income statement showing revenue, cost of goods sold, operating expenses, and net income. Cash flow budget showing actual cash flow rather than accrual income Projected balance sheet summarizing assets and liabilities. Break-even analysis.

RESPONSIBILITY FOR FEASIBILITY PLAN


The entrepreneur knows everything about the proposed business and, therefore, the entrepreneur is ultimately responsible for feasibility planning. No outsider will have the same vision and motivation. The entrepreneur can get assistance from various people and agencies to create the plan, but the responsibility of its composition rests entirely on the entrepreneur. It is a toolbox of decision-making criteria and a synopsis of expectations, objectives, and essential activities.

QUESTIONS

1.

Discuss the concept of a planning paradigm for new ventures. 2. What do you mean by Feasibility Plan? Explain the fundamentals of feasibility plan. 3. Explain the major components of an effective feasibility plan. 4. Explain in detail with examples Technical feasibility and Economic viability of a business opportunity. 5. Describe the four stage growth model of entrepreneurship.

QUESTIONS
6. Contrast entrepreneurial roles during various 7.
transition stages. Discuss the role of an entrepreneur during various transition stages of a venture Develop a feasibility plan for a new venture incorporating the common elements. Discuss the important stages of the life cycle of an entrepreneurial venture. Discuss how an entrepreneur can manage life cycle of a venture.

8.
9. 10.

Wish you good luck!