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AIRFRAME DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF ULTRALIGHT FUSELAGE

MOHD ZAIREN BIN MOHAMMAD ZIN (2009848424)

BACHELOR ENGINEERING (HONS) MECHANICAL UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA (UiTM) JULY 2013

I declared that this thesis is the result of my own work except the ideas and summaries which I have declared their sources. The thesis has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any degree.

Signed: Date:

___________________ ___________________

Mohd Zairen Bin Mohammad Zin UiTM No.: 2009848424

I declared that I read this thesis and in my point of view this thesis is qualified in term of scope and quality for the purpose of awarding the Bachelor of Engineering (Hons) Mechanical.

Signed: Date:

___________________ ___________________

Supervisor or Project Advisor Prof. Dr. Ir. Wahyu Kuntjoro Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) 40450 Shah Alam Selangor

AIRFRAME DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF ULTRALIGHT FUSELAGE

MOHD ZAIREN BIN MOHAMMAD ZIN (2009848424)

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor Engineering (Hons) Mechanical

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM)

JULY 2013

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. I wish to appreciate my supervisor, Prof. Dr. Ir. Wahyu Kuntjoro for giving much of his time and experience throughout the project from beginning until the end. I am very grateful for his thoughts in reminding me the importance of this project and sharing along his knowledge and guidance by supervising the work progress every time. Many thanks for my colleague, Collins Emang Lian for his support during the project the whole time in assisting for the completion of the project. Thanks to the Mechanical Engineering Faculty technicians, especially Mr. Johari Maamor for their cooperation in using the tools and laboratories equipment for the project sake. Finally, special appreciation for Captain Roizan Hj. Ahmad, for giving permission at Melaka 4B Flying Club and permit the inspection of the Quicksilver Sport 2S. Thank you and May Allah bless all of you.

ABSTRACT

Ultralight aircraft airframe is an extremely lightweight aircraft and categorized as an experimental aircraft by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR). FAR 103 states that the ultralight airframe design is less than 70 kg if unpowered with fuselage and wing components installment only. The fuselage has two parts which is the trike and the empennage. The project is to design an airframe fuselage which is safe for use. The material used was limited to what is available at the Mechanical Engineering Faculty workshop. The project is based on Aluminium 6000 series for the airframe. CATIA software was used in designing the fuselage airframe design. The design was manufactured using tools and materials available at the workshop and purchased if needed for other parts such as wheels. The product was assembled together with wings. The analysis was done experimentally. The design was analyzed using ANSYS software in terms of Finite Element Analysis and simulation. The simulation designated load is applied with from 1g until 3.8g force. Assuming the full weight of the ultralight fuselage including engine, fuel and pilot is 150kg, therefore the design lift force are 1471.5 N for 1g and 5591.7 N for 3.8g. The result of testing shows that the modulus of elasticity of 26mm and 33mm beam are 40GPa and 30GPa respectively. The load factor determine was 1.39 from the design specification analysis of FEA at most stressed beam 26mm at 57.48 MPa at the pilot position. The result is compared to the yield strength of the 26mm material which is 80 MPa based on tensile test result. Compared to other load factor, 2.2 and 4.4 are based on 1g and 2.5g respectively which is safer compared to the 3.8g load acceleration. Therefore, the airframe is safe for used at a load factor of 2.5g with restricted maneuvering controls. ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................ i ABSTRACT .......................................................................................... ii LIST OF FIGURES: .............................................................................. v LIST OF TABLES: .............................................................................. viii LIST OF ABBREVIATION: .................................................................. ix LIST OF SYMBOLS: ............................................................................ x CONTENTS CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTIONS ............................................................................... 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 CHAPTER 2: Background of study ................................................................... 2 Problem Statement ..................................................................... 3 Objectives of Project ................................................................... 3 Scope of Project ......................................................................... 4 Significance of Project ................................................................ 4

LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................ 5 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Aircrafts ...................................................................................... 5 Ultralight Regulations.................................................................. 7 Airframe Fuselage Design .......................................................... 8 Ultralight Airframe example....................................................... 10 Maneuvering Control System .................................................... 15 iii

2.6 2.7 CHAPTER 3:

Finite Element Method .............................................................. 16 Material Strength ...................................................................... 18

METHODOLOGY ............................................................................... 21 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Introductions ............................................................................. 23 Visit Malacca 4B Flying Club .................................................... 23 Material Source ........................................................................ 24 Preliminary Design.................................................................... 25 Fuselage Design....................................................................... 27 Manufacturing Process ............................................................. 28 Material Testing ........................................................................ 40 Finite Element Analysis of Fuselage Airframe ........................... 44 Fuselage Structure Test ........................................................... 47

3.10 Assembly of Airframe................................................................ 49 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS......................................................... 50 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 CHAPTER 5: Sparking Test Results............................................................... 50 Bending Test Results................................................................ 51 Tensile Test Results ................................................................. 53 Static Analysis Results ............................................................. 57

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................... 63 5.1 5.2 Conclusion ................................................................................ 63 Recommendation ..................................................................... 64

REFERENCES ........................................................................................................... 65 APPENDICES ............................................................................................................ 67 APPENDIX A ..................................................................................... 68 APPENDIX B ..................................................................................... 78 APPENDIX C ..................................................................................... 84

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LIST OF FIGURES:

Figure 2.1: Ultralight Quicksilver MX Sprint [15] ............................................................ 6 Figure 2.2: Fuselage Airframe Design [16] .................................................................... 8 Figure 2.3: BWB Baseline II-E2 UAV airframe model [6] ............................................... 9 Figure 2.4: Mainair Blade 912 [17] .............................................................................. 10 Figure 2.5: Wing frame main components .................................................................. 11 Figure 2.6: Full Mainair Blade 912 [18] ....................................................................... 13 Figure 2.7: Trike structure ........................................................................................... 14 Figure 2.8: Airplane motion [19] .................................................................................. 15 Figure 2.9: FE meshing of the BWB airframe [6] ......................................................... 16 Figure 2.10: FE Model of BWB with loading [6] ........................................................... 17 Figure 2.11: Result of BWB airframe stress tensor contour [6] .................................... 18 Figure 2.12: Stress Strain Diagram ............................................................................. 19 Figure 3.1: Melaka visit ............................................................................................... 23 Figure 3.2: MX Sport 2S in Melaka ............................................................................. 24 Figure 3.3: Materials in the workshop FKM UiTM........................................................ 24 Figure 3.4: Measurement of Material .......................................................................... 25 Figure 3.5: Isometric view of expected outcome design .............................................. 25 Figure 3.6: Initial dimension of the fuselage ................................................................ 26 Figure 3.7: front view of the design ............................................................................. 26 Figure 3.8: top view of design ..................................................................................... 27 Figure 3.9: Trike Design.............................................................................................. 28 Figure 3.10: Disc Cutting Machine .............................................................................. 29 Figure 3.11: Cut-off material ....................................................................................... 29 v

Figure 3.12: Sample of square cutoff from 33mm tube aluminium hollow ................... 30 Figure 3.13: Hydraulic Swing Beam Shearing Machine............................................... 30 Figure 3.14: The plate for different joints of the trike ................................................... 31 Figure 3.15: Using Drilling Machine for drilling process of joints.................................. 31 Figure 3.16: Precision Lathe Machine ......................................................................... 32 Figure 3.17: Threading the shaft ................................................................................. 32 Figure 3.18: Shaft of rare wheel assembly along with dipole joint ............................... 33 Figure 3.19: Rare Left side of Trike Joints................................................................... 33 Figure 3.20: The bending process of seat frame ......................................................... 34 Figure 3.21: Seat assembly process ........................................................................... 34 Figure 3.22: Front trike joint ........................................................................................ 35 Figure 3.23: Trike assembly ........................................................................................ 35 Figure 3.24: Foot Paddle ............................................................................................ 36 Figure 3.25: Nose plate of Trike .................................................................................. 36 Figure 3.26: Grinding process for most edges of the airframe ..................................... 37 Figure 3.27: Assembly of front wheel at Trike nose ..................................................... 37 Figure 3.28: Front view of trike.................................................................................... 38 Figure 3.29: Side view of trike ..................................................................................... 38 Figure 3.30: Preliminary stage Trike ........................................................................... 39 Figure 3.31: Final stage Trike ..................................................................................... 39 Figure 3.32: Sparking test for sample of Figure 3.12 ................................................... 40 Figure 3.33: Simple Bending Test Configuration ......................................................... 41 Figure 3.34: 5 kg of mass = 40.05 N load ................................................................... 41 Figure 3.35: Deflection of 33mm hollow beam ............................................................ 42 Figure 3.36: INSTRON 8802 ....................................................................................... 42 Figure 3.37: Specimen of 26mm Tube ........................................................................ 43 Figure 3.38: Sample 26mm Dimensions ..................................................................... 43 Figure 3.39: Tensile Sample Test after Run ................................................................ 44 Figure 3.40: Section Data input................................................................................... 45 Figure 3.41: ANSys trike model .................................................................................. 45 Figure 3.42: ANSys Load Definition ............................................................................ 47 Figure 3.43: Hanging on cranes .................................................................................. 48 Figure 3.44: The Load Distribution on Actual Airframe ................................................ 48 Figure 3.45: Zaicol Flyer Ultralight Airframe ................................................................ 49 Figure 4.1: Stress vs. Strain Graph of 26mm tube ...................................................... 55 Figure 4.2: 26mm tube tensile test .............................................................................. 55 Figure 4.3: 33mm tube tensile test .............................................................................. 56 vi

Figure 4.4: Deformation of Airframe at 3.8g ................................................................ 58 Figure 4.5: Plot Results for maximum Stress at 3.8g .................................................. 58 Figure 4.6: Deformation of Airframe at 2.5g ................................................................ 59 Figure 4.7: Plot Results for maximum Stress at 2.5g .................................................. 59 Figure 4.8: Deformation of Airframe at 1g ................................................................... 60 Figure 4.9: Plot Results for maximum Stress at 1g ..................................................... 60 Figure 6.1: Trike Part Design ...................................................................................... 78 Figure 6.2: Trike Joint Design ..................................................................................... 79 Figure 6.3: Trike Nose Design .................................................................................... 80 Figure 6.4: Trike Part Design ...................................................................................... 80

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LIST OF TABLES:

Table 2.1: Lift Force Based on BWB Area Percentage ............................................... 17 Table 2.2: Weight Percentage..................................................................................... 17 Table 2.3: Distribution of Weight ................................................................................. 17 Table 2.4: Aluminium Alloy Properties Comparison .................................................... 19 Table 3.1: Section Beam 188 data input ..................................................................... 44 Table 3.2: Load Distribution ........................................................................................ 46 Table 3.3: Fixed Support............................................................................................. 46 Table 4.1: Chemical Properties of Aluminium Alloy through Sparking Test (%) ........... 50 Table 4.2: Chemical Properties of Aluminium Alloy 6063 (%)...................................... 51 Table 4.3: 6063 Aluminium Alloy Mechanical Properties ............................................. 51 Table 4.4: Tensile test result of 26mm diameter sample ............................................. 53 Table 4.5: 26mm Sample Specs ................................................................................. 54 Table 4.6: Result of Material Strength from Figure 4.2 ................................................ 56 Table 4.7: Result of Material Strength from Figure 4.3 ................................................ 57 Table 4.8: FEA Material Data ...................................................................................... 57 Table 4.9: Maximum Stress Comparison .................................................................... 61 Table 4.10: Load Factor Comparison .......................................................................... 62 Table 6.1: Bill of Materials ........................................................................................... 79

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LIST OF ABBREVIATION:

BWB CFD FAA FAR FE FEA UAV

Blended Wing Body Computational Fluid Mechanic Federal Aviation Administration Federal Aviation Regulations Finite Element Finite Element Analysis Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

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LIST OF SYMBOLS:

Ag Al Al B Be Bi Ca Cd Co Cr Cu El Fl Fe Il

Silver Aluminium Cross-Section Area Boron Beryllium Bismuth Calcium Cadmium Cobalt Chromium Copper Modulus of Elasticity Force/Load Iron Second Moment of Inertia x

Li Ll n Mg Mn Na Ni P Pb Si Sn Sr Ti V vl Zn Zr

Lithium Length Load Factor Magnesium Manganese Sodium Nickel Phosphorus Lead Silicon Tin Strontium Titanium Vanadium Deflection Zinc Zirconium Allowable Stress Failure Stress

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CHAPTER 1:

INTRODUCTION

Ultralights were invented at around 1960's as the basic of using hand gliders. It is known as ultralight from the basis of minimum weight it possesses. Ultralight aircraft account for approximately 20% of all civil aircraft. Ultralight aviation is the flying of lightweight, 1 or 2 seat fixed-wing aircraft. Some countries differentiate between weight shift and 3-axis aircraft, calling the former "microlight" and the latter "ultralight". Within 1970s and early 1980s, mostly stimulated by the hang gliding movement, many people sought affordable powered flight. As a result, many aviation authorities set up definitions of lightweight, slow-flying airplanes that could be subject to minimum regulations.

The weight and speed limits of ultralight aircraft differs for each country. For example, ultralight aircraft in Europe the sporting definition limits the maximum take-off weight to 450 kg (992 lb.) (472.5 kg (1,042 lb.) if a ballistic parachute is installed) and a maximum stalling speed of 65 km/h (40 mph). The definition means that the aircraft has a slow landing speed and short landing roll in the event of an engine failure [5].

1.1

Background of study

Ultralight is defined as extreme light weight airplane. Airframe is defined as the body of an aircraft as distinct from its engine. Ultralight airframe is the body of an aircraft at minimum weight without consideration of its engine. The project produces the result of strength requirement or static behavior of the ultralight airframe fuselage part.

The fuselage of the ultralight airframe has several sections included with the connections to other important sections such as the wing. It consists both trike and empennage components. The trike is the part of the cockpit where the pilot is. It is a main component used for installations of other part such as the front wings, the empennage, the power plant (engine and fuel compartment) and the controls of the airframe. The study is done as such in consideration of all the loadings applied at those parts of the fuselage where the airframe is static.

Ultralight airframe design gives further understanding of the specifications of the aircraft must be according to the certified regulations and the airworthiness of the aircraft is predetermined as such that the aircraft is within the limits of ultralight category. The design of the ultralight airframe for the fuselage part generates the safety factors of the airframe in statics. This can be determined by analysis of each loading of the beams, struts and frames at the fuselage of the airframe design to ensure that the yield strength of the fuselage is larger than that of the overall maximum stress of the elements found within the fuselage [2].

It determines the fuselage design is safe in statics and would not break after all the certain loadings have been applied. This method can also be applied during dynamic motion or flight of the airframe of the ultralight as the loading is different of that during statics. It relates to the load factor of the airframe in flight and the factors can change depend on the positioning of the airframe airborne for instance when the airframe is rolling or making a turn.

The load factor of the airframe defers as compared during ground, the load factor is 1 and during airborne, the load factor is 3.8. This is also based on the airworthiness of the ultralight airframe aircraft determined [13] ("Part 25 - Airworthiness Standards: Transport Category Airplanes", FAA, Retrieved 29 March 2010). This is the

standard given to determine the safety feature of the airframe design of the fuselage of the ultralight aircraft as it is the main body for the whole product.

1.2

Problem Statement

Design of ultralight airframe fuselage deals with the safety consideration in use during aviation purpose. It could bring harm to the user and public without proper analysis done on the airframe structure. There are several reports considering the safety of the structure is not valid. 13th March 2010, a 54-year-old ultralight pilot (Antares) was severely injured during an accident in Chugiak, Alaska where there was evidence of in-flight airframe failure [11]. This proves that the structure of the ultralight airframe can fail anytime without prior to the users knowledge. Therefore, it is mandatory to check the safety of airframe design of ultralight aircraft of the trike to minimize the damage.

1.3

Objectives of Project

The objectives are: To design the fuselage of ultralight airframe To manufacture the ultralight fuselage prototype To test material strength used in the prototype model To do the strength analysis and Finite Element Analysis simulation of the

fuselage airframe.

1.4

Scope of Project

The study is done by adopting the design of existing ultralight fuselage airframe, the Quicksilver MX 2S design. It is also to consider the regulations established for the type of aircraft. This is done based on the airframe selection and its static behavior. The material strength is tested by sparking test, bending test and tensile test. Analysis can be done by implementing Finite Element Method for the fuselage of the ultralight airframe.

1.5

Significance of Project

The importance of this project is to give out more understanding for the ultralight airframe in this country. The airframe itself is important in terms of the fuselage as it can help to be the basis of other aircraft airframe design to accomplish further improvements on the flight performance of the aircraft industries. It can help in terms of obtaining lower cost of manufacturing as it helps in optimizing the design criteria in terms of material selection and the number of support required for flight safety. Accomplishing the objective also can pioneer for Mechanical Engineering Faculty UiTM for importance in aerospace field.

CHAPTER 2:

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1

Aircrafts

Standard and special are two different categories of aircraft. United States claims that aircraft must legally possess an airworthiness certificate. Standard categorized aircrafts are normal, aerobatic, utility, commuter and transportation type. Special categorized aircrafts are mostly special light sport and experimental types. The similarities of standard and special categorized aircraft are that both can be certified using the same method recognized by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) [13]. Below is an example of an ultralight aircraft from the special category.

United States gives freedom for use of ultralight aircraft for pilots an opportunity to have fun but currently, there are strict limitations that required to be followed. Each owner has the responsibilities to ensure the safety individuals on air and ground. FAA issued Federal Aviation Regulation Part 103, ultralight vehicles in 1982.

Figure 2.1: Ultralight Quicksilver MX Sprint [15]

Ultralight is identified as a vehicle not aircraft. Because they are vehicles and not aircraft, this regulation allows individuals to operate ultralight vehicles without requiring FAA pilot or vehicle certification. Upon publishing Part 103 the FAA said it did not wish to issue pilot certificates for ultralight operators. FAA understood individuals who want to fly ultralight should participate in industry-established self-regulation and training programs.

Since 1983, EAA has maintained programs to support Part 103 and has held an exemption to Part 103 that allowed the operation of 2-place ultralight training vehicles by authorized ultralight flight instructors.

In 2004, the FAA passed the sport pilot & light-sport aircraft regulations. One specific purpose of this new rule was to transition 2-place ultralight training vehicles to experimental light-sport aircraft. As a result, after the training exemption expires on 31st January 2008 there will no longer be a way to fly a 2-place ultralight to train ultralight pilots. The FAA has said they intend ultralight pilot training to be conducted in Nnumbered aircraft by FAA flight instructors.

The EAA Ultralight & Light-Sport Aircraft Council has developed this information guide for those individuals interested in ultralight flight training, FAA certified flight instructors (CFI), student ultralight pilots, or pilots transitioning to ultralight from other aircraft. This guide sets forth recommendations to students and flight instructors who wish to learn and train to fly ultralight vehicles under the rules of Part 103 [14].

2.2

Ultralight Regulations

There are several types of regulations needed to be considered before building the airframe of the ultralight which determines the expected and limitations of the specifications of the airframe. The first important part of the regulations is from the airframe weight. One of the regulations is the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) [4] (Page 23).

There are several parts within the regulation. The basic part is the FAR23 for determining the minimum takeoff weight. Ultralight is an experimental aircraft within the special category but the airworthiness certificate can be deducted as a normal category aircraft [11].The regulation states as follows: The Maximum Takeoff Weight; normal, utility or acrobatic category 5670kg. The Maximum Takeoff Weight; commuter category 8618kg.

Ultralight also has its own unique regulations within the FAR. Ultralight is within the FAR103 which specifically states that: 103.1 Applicability This part prescribes rules governing the operation of ultralight vehicles in the United States. For the purposes of this part, an ultralight vehicle is a vehicle that: (a) Is used or intended to be used for manned operation in the air by a single occupant; (b) Is used or intended to be used for recreation or sport purposes only; (c) Does not have any U.S. or foreign airworthiness certificate; and (d) If unpowered, weighs less than 70kilograms; or (e) If powered: (1) Weighs less than 115kilograms empty weight, excluding floats and safety devices which are intended for deployment in a potentially catastrophic situation; (2) Has a fuel capacity not exceeding 19 liters; (3) Is not capable of more than 102 km/h calibrated airspeed at full power in level flight; and 7

(4) Has a power-off stall speed which does not exceed 44.5 km/h calibrated airspeed. 103.3 Inspection requirements. (a) Any person operating an ultralight vehicle under this part shall, upon request, allow the Administrator, or his designee, to inspect the vehicle to determine the applicability of this part. (b) The pilot or operator of an ultralight vehicle must, upon request of the Administrator, furnish satisfactory evidence that the vehicle is subject only to the provisions of this part. 103.5 Waivers. No person may conduct operations that require a deviation from this part except under a written waiver issued by the Administrator. 103.7 Certification and registration. (a) Notwithstanding any other section pertaining to certification of aircraft or their parts or equipment, ultralight vehicles and their component parts and equipment are not required to meet the airworthiness certification standards specified for aircraft or to have certificates of airworthiness.

2.3

Airframe Fuselage Design

Figure 2.2: Fuselage Airframe Design [16]

The design of the fuselage is considered along with the positions of each component of the airframe within the fuselage. It is also where the position of the pilot is located as to initiate the controls of the aircraft along the rest of the airframe parts design of the aircraft such as the positioning of the wingspan, the engine or power plant, pilots and passengers seats, the empennage and back wings. It is an important part within the airframe of every aircraft design as the design requires the determination of the center of gravity for the whole airframe [9] (Chapter 5, page 86).

There are several examples of fuselage design such as the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) at Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) which is a radio controlled aircraft called Kenyalang of the conduct a research titled Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Fuel Cell Propulsion System. The airframe is designed based on balsawood rib with aluminium framework that holds the engine, fuel cell, hydrogen tank, remote control, instrumentation and landing gear position; and the fuselage is carbon fiber laminated.

Other example is based on the Blended Wing Body (BWB) Baseline I1-E2 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This UAV relates to the combination of both the fuselage part and the wing part. The BWB airframe model is modeled by using CATIA software. The model is in the form of solid model (3-D).The BWB possess a power plant which is kept inside the body. Frames carry through structure and stiffeners were used as the main carrying load for the airframe. The figure shows the airframe structure of the aircraft without the outer skin by frames.

Figure 2.3: BWB Baseline II-E2 UAV airframe model [6] BWB have several advantages as it is merged together between the fuselage and the wings. Some such that it has high lift wing efficient and wide airfoil-shaped body. The BWB design gives the lift force of the wings together with the fuselage. This proves the research conducted by Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) on the 9

development of Blended Wing Body concept. This research is in correlation to the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Using the fundamentals of fluid mechanics, 0.3 Mach number of the BWB model can be analyze with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to various elevator deflection sequence. Finite Element Model of the BWB is designed using ANSys software, the same software applying the CFD function, to do the structural analysis. Without elevator deflection, it is tested through wind tunnel analysis of 0.1 Mach number for the wing pressure distribution. This is done to confirm the reliability of CFD and wind tunnel test. BWB design sets the pressure drag as crucial to the total drag compared to conventional designs due to intrinsic nature of lower surface to volume ratio of the BWB shape [6].

2.4

Ultralight Airframe example

Figure 2.4: Mainair Blade 912 [17] Figure 2.4 illustrates a Mainair Blade 912, a distinctive weight shift microlight aircraft. The airframe of the aircraft involves two parts which is the wing and fuselage (trike). The connection between those two parts is considered essential to the features of the airframe but separately [3].

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2.4.1 The wing structure

Microlight possesses flex wings that have complex wing structure than conventional wing. The leading edges for the wing primary structure with two segmented tubes of 4.5-5.5m long are joined together at the nose to the keel tube extended from the trailing edge as shown in Figure 2.4 that runs the length of the wing. The wing cover seen as a fabric is made from a polyester Dacron, a high strength nonporous fabric which is overextended at the wingspan like a sail. During rigging, the rigidity and form are ensured by cross tubes that are being hinged to each other overhead the keel tube and half-span of the leading edges at the center where the structure is applied considerable internal loads. The form of the wings is formed based on the tensioning cable where it runs throughout the length of the keel. The above statement can be identified using the following Figure 2.5.

Figure 2.5: Wing frame main components Tensioning cable also holds the keel tube and the leading edge which is designed to move laterally relative to the keel tube. Floating keel is referred to the mechanism that moves the keel and cross-tubes sideways with respect to each other. The kingpost is attached above the wing and the keel tube with a flexible join. All the cables and lines such as the landing wires (attachment of the leading edge and crosstube junction), luff lines, and wires of leading and trailing edges which is commonly used to hold it tin place.

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Based on Figure 2.4, the end view of the wing shows an A-frame that have a basebar and two uprights which are clearly demonstrated in Figure 2.5. The basebar plays a vital role in flight control giving the roll and pitch control during normal flight. It is also the principal structure of supporting the tension via flying cables and wires the wing loads outboard of the leading edge and cross-tube junction. The most part that is compressed is the A-frame uprights and the leading edge of the inboard sections. The ideal location of then basebar is critical as it aids in the correct control of the airplane where some may refer to it as the piano-playing position. Adjusting the position of the basebar during wing development is done usually through the adjustment of the front rear wires located at nose to the end of the basebar as displayed in Figure 2.5. These wires are fundamentally important for weight shifting the wings against the structure of the aircraft as it locates the base bar and provides maneuvering for wing pitch control. Structural wires are 20-60mm away jointed together as parallel wires to provide more clasps for the form and shape of the aircraft. Different than those lines function are the luff lines which yield small amount of actual load in flight although aerodynamically crucial to the system. Therefore, the diameter of the luff lines are reduced extensively as 2mm diameter compared to other structural wires of 5mm diameter overall as the flying wires. The design of the flex wing is developed in 1980s compared to older design of the sail which is a single surface of upper surface of airfoil without separated lower surface, the flex wing design increases forward part of the sail for both upper and lower surfaces. This describes the modern wing design possess both upper and lower airfoil surfaces all over. Battens that are designed rods inserted through the pockets in the sail maintains the airfoil section as it is put under compressive force. Modern wings retain shape of the battens as a highly significant factor, as it gives the aerodynamic properties of the wings and needed to be regularly removed and checked for inspection and maintenance on the wing part. This is a routine as the wing owns about 12 to 20 battens per side.

2.4.2 The wing aerodynamics

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The wingspan is 8 to 10 meters long and the length of the leading edge or nose till the trailing edge is 3 meters long. The wing is weight shifted with no tail of horizontal or vertical stabilizer as any normal airplanes. The trike is hanged to the wings directly along with the crew, power plant and undercarriage which are gripped by the hang point with a joint of all three axes free degree of freedom to freely rotate in pitch and roll without interference. The joint is fundamentally stable with no pendular stability but provided longitudinal stability. The arrangement of the twist of the wing between root and tip, the reflex that is at the inboard trailing edge shaped as an inverted airfoil and the wing sweep gives the longitudinal stability that is behind the center of gravity (CG). It gives the down force at the wingtips. The minimized washout rods known as tip sticks are cantilever rods connected through the leading edge perpendicularly from beneath the wing edge supports the sail of the wing that tends to smoothen out during high speed operation of the aircraft. The sail tendency to flatten causes the decreasing in static stability which is intolerable affecting loss in longitudinal stability. The tipsticks acts as a limiter for the sail aero elastic movement at the tips, preventing the tips washout to ease below the angle of attack preset value. The sail is also supported by the luff lines that are attached to the kingpost and the trailing edge at constant length and in series which helps maintain low angle of attack for the reflex movement.

Figure 2.6: Full Mainair Blade 912 [18]

2.4.3 The trike structure

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Figure 2.7: Trike structure Monopole is the bone structure and most vital part of the trike where it holds up the main wheels to the hang point vertically as a pole. All the parts such as wing, power plant, main wheels and the seat are joined at the structure of monopole. The monopole is set up so that it can withstand dire stress failure such from fatigue crack propagation. The design also includes cable at the center of the monopole itself to provide safety precautions towards the design that connects the engine mount or undercarriage connections to the hang point. The base of the trike directly connected to the monopole is the trike keel tube to support the seat frame and nose wheel. This part also supports altogether the weight of the aircraft at ground level. The snoot is connected to the hang point through the front strut. It functions to retain the shape and position of the trike as the primary structure for the basebar. The front strut is designed to gauge the length and to avert the misjudged of basebar length from moving too far onward. This assists the safe distance of the attached propeller from touching the rear part of the wing keel. The front strut also serve as a purpose to preclude the shape of the trike during heavy landing or great acceleration maneuvers as it deals great stress causing slight distortion or collapse. The joint of the front strut is connected through a single removable pin in which placed at both ends to ensure that it can be removed easily to allow ease derigging of the wing.

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2.5

Maneuvering Control System

The maneuvering system consists of several parts which hold onto the positioning control in-plane and height. There are several control features for ultralight which have 3 axes of motions. There are the elevator motion, rudder motion, and ailerons motion. These parts are crucial for the airframe to be able to produce motion airborne and for taking off [1] (page 230). The parts produce the following motions: o o o o o Elevator Motion Climbing/descending Pitching Rudder Motion Side slipping/Skidding Yawing Ailerons Motion Rolling

The following figure shows the illustration of motion produced by an aircraft.

Figure 2.8: Airplane motion [19]

The motion for vertical and horizontal of the aircraft is based on the pilots control stick. The stick is situated nearby the seat of the pilot and is within reach of the pilot for ease of control. The control motion of the pilot is as follows: a) Altitude control and turning control 15

Using motion of control directly from the control yoke 1. 2. Controls the elevator for up and down motion Controls the ailerons for rotational motions

b) Horizontal motion The motion for the rudder is based on footwork which moves left when the left foot is pressed and moves right when the right foot is pressed.

2.6

Finite Element Method

Using Finite Element Analysis, the analysis for static structure beam or frame can be obtained [10]. For example, the BWB Finite Element Model CATIA file from . catpart and . catproduct were converted to . stp file, which can be read by the PATRAN software. Then, this . stp file was imported into PATRAN. Later, the model was meshed with cquad4 and bar2for surfaces and lines respectively. The figure shows the meshed FE model of the BWB airframe:

Figure 2.9: FE meshing of the BWB airframe [6] Aluminum 7075 is used in this BWB airframe. Then, the selection of loading is based on the forceproduced from the maneuver of 4g magnitude.Because of the model used in the simulations is half model,than half of the BWB mass, 55 Kg is used. It was found that,the maximum weight and lift force produce during thismaneuver were 2200 N. The weight and lift forces weremapped with respect to percentages of BWB 16

modules area. The following table shows the distribution of weight and lift force with respect to BWB modules area [6]. Table 2.1: Lift Force Based on BWB Area Percentage

Table 2.2: Weight Percentage

Table 2.3: Distribution of Weight

The weightwas assumed to be distributed by having 80% of the weight at the wing body wing and 20% of the weight at the wingmodules. For canard, the loading is neglected. The following figure belowshows the FE model with its loading.

Figure 2.10: FE Model of BWB with loading [6] 17

BWB Static Results is shown by the resultant BWB stress tensor and displacement contour. It was found that the maximum stress value is 81.1 MPa at node 238, and the maximum displacement value is 156.0 mm at node 1463. The maximum stress occurs at the point connection between wing body and canard modules. The maximum displacement was found to be at the wing tip of canard [6].

Figure 2.11: Result of BWB airframe stress tensor contour [6]

2.7

Material Strength

The ultralight aircraft is known to use lightweight material such as aluminium. This type of material can be considered weak among other material such as mild steel. In aircraft industries, using aluminium materials falls into different type of series. All structural of an aircraft can be built using special certified aluminium alloy using its own standard and grades. Aircraft based aluminium alloy are from the 7000 series which produced a stronger yield strength compare of 503 MPa to normal mild steel of 250 MPa. This proves that aluminium alloy can produce stronger structural behavior than steel. Below is the comparison between a series of aluminium alloy of different grades.

18

Table 2.4: Aluminium Alloy Properties Comparison Aluminium Alloy Properties Ultimate Tensile Strength Tensile Yield Strength Modulus of Elasticity Density Poissons Ratio 6063-T6 241 MPa 214 MPa 68.9 GPa 2.7g/cc 0.33 7075-T6 572 MPa 503 MPa 71.7 GPa 2.81g/cc 0.33

The Stress-Strain relationship allows the identification of mechanical properties such as the yield strength and modulus of elasticity. The following figure shows a stress-strain curve.

4 3 2 2 2 E 2

1 0.2%

Figure 2.12: Stress Strain Diagram The following Figure 2.12 shows the properties of metal in such that it is:

19

1: True elastic limit 2: Proportionality limit 3: Elastic limit 4: Offset yield strength

20

CHAPTER 3:

METHODOLOGY

21

Project Flowchart

22

3.1

Introductions

In this project, several processes have been carried out and were included in the research methodology. The processes consist of the study on the structure of airframe fuselage, build the airframe, conduct the test analysis and gain data, hence compare with the theoretical and the actual value of the adopted design of the ultralight airframe.

3.2

Visit Malacca 4B Flying Club

During the duration of the project, the flying club for ultralight in Batu Berendam, Melaka has been visited to carry out actual process of understanding the mechanism built for the airframe of the aircraft.

Figure 3.1: Melaka visit

23

Figure 3.2: MX Sport 2S in Melaka The preliminary design is set up to be the same model, the Quicksilver MX Sport 2S. The design of the fuselage is tampered to be a single seated instead of a double seated aircraft. The entire dimension is obtained by measuring the design using measuring tape.

3.3

Material Source

The materials can be compromised with the facultys workshop for the frame part of the ultralight airframe fuselage as the most appropriate material. These are the results:

Figure 3.3: Materials in the workshop FKM UiTM

24

Figure 3.4: Measurement of Material Aluminium hollow tube available Diameter range of 25-38mm

3.4

Preliminary Design

Figure 3.5: Isometric view of expected outcome design

25

Figure 3.6: Initial dimension of the fuselage

Figure 3.7: front view of the design

26

Figure 3.8: top view of design

3.5

Fuselage Design

The fuselage design is based on the trike part as shown. Further detail design is shown in APPENDIX B.

27

Figure 3.9: Trike Design The overall cost estimation for the fuselage part are stated in APPENDIX C.

3.6

Manufacturing Process

The manufacturing process of the fuselage airframe is based on two categories which is the trike and the empennage. The construction of fuselage airframe is done based on the trike first to support other components of the airframe. The design is based on the one person-seat. The airframe is built from bottom to top part of the trike. The initial part is to cut of the material based on the available material at workshop using the cutting machine after measurement. Most material is cut off using the same type of machine as shown in the figure below.

28

Figure 3.10: Disc Cutting Machine The material is based on type 26mm and 33mm hollow tubes. The following figure shows the materials cut.

Figure 3.11: Cut-off material The cutoff materials are being made into small samples for further testing to obtain the chemical properties for grade identification as shown in Figure 3.12.

29

Figure 3.12: Sample of square cutoff from 33mm tube aluminium hollow The figure shows the sample needed to be tested through sparking test at the foundry lab to obtain the chemical composition data sheet allowing identifying which grade the material belongs to. The joints are based on plate which is cut-off from a thickness of range of 2mm4mm to hold the beams together to from a frame. The plate is thick and needed to use a special cutting tool as the following Figure 3.13. It specialized in cutting plate materials of aluminium and steel both for more than 1mm thickness.

Figure 3.13: Hydraulic Swing Beam Shearing Machine The plate is then drilled with specific distance according to the drawings. Each joint plate have different dimensions and thickness according the type of joint each beam is connected and the load application on the structure figure below shows the exact plate with difference specification in comparison to each joint.

30

Figure 3.14: The plate for different joints of the trike The hollow beam of each joint is then drilled respective to the length of the hole of each joint.

Figure 3.15: Using Drilling Machine for drilling process of joints The drilling process for each joint is done to properly give out fitting process for ease. Further lathe machine process is run through to get the shaft of the wheel for the trike as using the following machine.

31

Figure 3.16: Precision Lathe Machine The result of the lathe process is then threaded out to provide an up thread for the shaft to be bolted together to fix the wheel in place as illustrated in Figure 3.17.

Figure 3.17: Threading the shaft Next, is the assembly process for all the hollow beams and joints together with the shaft and wheels. The joints are done precise at one point of the trike which gives out all the load application and stress reaching out to one point of joint. This gives the implementation of analysis easier to be done as it declares that the point as the node of connections of the trike.

32

Figure 3.18: Shaft of rare wheel assembly along with dipole joint The figure shows that the joint for rare dipole and the shaft of rare wheel is being assembled together to provide strong connection in and out of the tube. The tube itself is 33mm hollow of 1.37 thicknesses. By inserting the shaft, the joint is reinforced and less distortion can occur at the point as the plate of the rare dipole holds together the joint to withstand stress. Figure 3.19 shows the complete assembly of the right rare part of the trike.

Figure 3.19: Rare Left side of Trike Joints The method is repeated for the right part of the trike. The seat part is the begun to be constructed as accordance to design. The use of the rolling machine is required to bend the needed beam into shape as the seat frame.

33

Figure 3.20: The bending process of seat frame The seat frame is then assembled and connected together with the seat as shown in the Figure 3.21.

Figure 3.21: Seat assembly process The assemble resumes on to the trike front strut to the base of the trike which is connected to the rear dipole. The front strut holds together the seat frame and the main hang point of the trike as it is determines the center of gravity of the airframe fuselage design.

34

Figure 3.22: Front trike joint The trike structure can be fully assembled as shown in the following Figure 3.23.

Figure 3.23: Trike assembly The details part of the trike leads on to the paddle and the front wheels. The front wheel of the trike is developed by focusing on the fork of a bicycle with maneuvering system based on the paddle to move left and right. Unlike handle bars, the paddle focuses on the use of the tie end rods bearings for smooth movement base on foot application. The foot paddles were constructed as shown in Figure 3.24.

35

Figure 3.24: Foot Paddle The front or nose of the trike is then plated together to from a platform for the support of the front wheels. It is designed base on the latter Quicksilver MX 2 Sprint visited at Melaka airport.

Figure 3.25: Nose plate of Trike The finishing of the plate is done using grinder to chamfer out the edges of the plate to give out safe design requirements of the airframe.

36

Figure 3.26: Grinding process for most edges of the airframe The plate is drilled to produce a hole of diameter 34mm to provide shaft hole for the support of the wheel along for maneuvering purpose of the wheel to rotate. The front wheel support is done simply by bending of plate and welded together to a shaft. The smooth rotation is provided by the installed burger bearing that functions solely as a bearing on two plate surfaces.

Burger Bearing

Figure 3.27: Assembly of front wheel at Trike nose The trike undergoes full assembly of the part together with the connection of the tie rods bearing of the front wheel as it completes the set. The illustration of Figure 3.28 shows how the form of the trike takes place after full assemble.

37

Tie rods

Figure 3.28: Front view of trike

Figure 3.29: Side view of trike The following shows the stages of the finishing of the trike being approved.

38

Figure 3.30: Preliminary stage Trike

Figure 3.31: Final stage Trike This marks as the end of the manufacturing process of the trike structure of ultralight airframe.

39

3.7

Material Testing

The structure of the airframe needed to be tested in terms of material strength. Several test such as sparking test, bending test and tensile test were conducted to evaluate the aluminium strength in terms of the Modulus of Elasticity and Yield Strength.

3.7.1

Sparking Test

The analysis of the fuselage can be done using the ANSys software. Before the analysis can be done, testing to determine the material properties is carried out. The purpose of the testing is originated to identify the strength of the material used based on standards given. The first is to identify which category the material belongs to and the chemical composition. A short test for sparking is done based on sample in Figure 3.12.

Figure 3.32: Sparking test for sample of Figure 3.12 Figure 3.32 demonstrates the sparking test carried out in the Foundry Lab. This test defines the chemical composition of the aluminium grade.

3.7.2

Bending Test

40

This test is operated using simple mechanism without accordance to any other standard. The bending test is carried out to search for the value of Modulus of Elasticity for the hollow beam.

Figure 3.33: Simple Bending Test Configuration Figure 3.33 displays the set-up of simple apparatus which includes the clamp to fix the hollow beam on a rigid table and a piece of paper on the wall to indicate the deflection of bending. The experiment is further applied to with force as shown in the Figure 3.35.

Figure 3.34: 5 kg of mass = 40.05 N load The experiment recommences as soon the load is fixed on the free end of the beam and the deflection is recorded as shown.

41

Length, l Deflection, v

Load, 40.05N

Figure 3.35: Deflection of 33mm hollow beam The result of the test is recorded on the piece of paper and all measurements. The experiment is repeated to get a more accurate value of the reading.

3.7.3

Tensile Test

The tensile test is conducted based on the Europe standard EN 10002 using a tensile test machine as shown.

Figure 3.36: INSTRON 8802 The specimen of the test is cut based on the material used from the hollow tube.

42

Figure 3.37: Specimen of 26mm Tube The samples are tested out in to the machine and the results are based on the input key of dimension for each cutoff sample. The dimension of the sample is based on the European Standard EN 10002-1: 2001. The dimension is as follows:

Figure 3.38: Sample 26mm Dimensions

43

The cross-section area, Al = 0.000017995 The sample was tested and resulted as follows.

Figure 3.39: Tensile Sample Test after Run

3.8

Finite Element Analysis of Fuselage Airframe

All the data is inputted into the ANSys Software. The software was used to do Finite Element Analysis for structures. The data is tabulated as follows:

Table 3.1: Section Beam 188 data input Sections 1 2 Diameter (mm) 26 33 Thickness (mm) 1.37 1.33

44

Figure 3.40: Section Data input By plotting the node sequence in coordinate system, the data can be obtained in the following order. The figure displays the completion of the modeling.

Figure 3.41: ANSys trike model The load is applied based on 1g until 3.8g of acceleration.

45

This is based on the weight balance configuration for the airframe fuselage. The following is the force applied on the nodes of the FEA airframe fuselage as shown in Table 3.2. Table 3.2: Load Distribution Node 1 43, 44, 45, 46 53 1g Force(N) -49.05 2.5g Force(N) -122.625 3.8g Force(N) -186.39 Part/Component Fuel Tank

-206.53

-516.32

-784.8

Pilot

-196.2

-490.5

-745.56

Powerplant

Table 3.3: Fixed Support Fuselage Boundary Condition: Node 51 52 2 4 Part Wing Strut Right Wing Strut Left Leading Edge Trailing Edge

Applying all those loads definitions, the analysis is carried under way by reading the results of the set. The configuration for the boundary condition and the load application can be displayed in Figure 3.42.

46

Fuel Tank Load

Engine/ Powerplant Load

Pilot distributed Load

Figure 3.42: ANSys Load Definition

3.9

Fuselage Structure Test

The following determined the testing for airframe structure of the trike. The Empennage was not taken into consideration due to boundary condition.

47

96.3cm

Figure 3.43: Hanging on cranes The Figure 3.43 shows the airframe of the trike being held at the position of the fixed support beam as analyzed using ANSys. The load application is distributed as illustrated on Figure 3.44.

Fixed
Pilot

Fixed
Pilot

Fuel = 5kg = 49.05N

Engine = 30kg = 294.3 N 56.7cm

Pilot = 80kg = 784.8 N Figure 3.44: The Load Distribution on Actual Airframe

48

3.10

Assembly of Airframe

The airframe was assembled together. The fuselage was completed with the wings and joined as shown:

Figure 3.45: Zaicol Flyer Ultralight Airframe

49

CHAPTER 4:

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1

Sparking Test Results

The result is as shown: Table 4.1: Chemical Properties of Aluminium Alloy through Sparking Test (%) Al = 98.6 Ti = Si = 0.497 Ag = Fe = 0.255 B= Cu = 0.040 Be = Mn = 0.023 Bi = Mg = 0.55 Ca = 0.0011 Sr = Cr = 0.014 Cd = 0.001 V= 0.01 Ni = 0.001 Co = <0.001 Zr = <0.0003 Zn = 0.009 Li = <0.0002 Bg = 98.6

0.0043 <0.0001 0.0006 <0.0001 <0.001 Na = 0.0011 P= <0.001 Sn =

Pb = 0.0007

<0.001 <0.0001

Those are the results in the test for sparking. The analysis represents the chemical properties of aluminium 6000 series. The alloy composition of 6063 is: 50

Table 4.2: Chemical Properties of Aluminium Alloy 6063 (%) Al = remainder Si = 0.2~0.4 Fe = <0.35 Cu = <0.1 Mn = <0.1 Mg = 0.45~0.9 Cr = <0.1 Ti = <0.1 Zn = <0.1

Other elements = <0.05

The minimum mechanical properties of the aluminium alloy 6063 can be produced as such: Table 4.3: 6063 Aluminium Alloy Mechanical Properties Ultimate Tensile Strength Tensile Yield Strength Modulus of Elasticity Poisson's Ratio 89.6 MPa 48.3 MPa 68.9 GPa 0.33

The data sheet is the standard of aluminium alloy. Other test required to support the above criteria for the materials strength.

4.2

Bending Test Results

These are the results obtained from the bending test: Calculations:

51

(4.2.1)

The formula can be done:

(4.2.2) The Second Moment of Inertia, I can be done using the area of the hollow beam:

(4.2.3)

Therefore;

The results clearly shown that the Youngs Modulus of the beam is lower than the actual standardize value of El = 68.9GPa. The same test is repeated using the 26mm hollow beam. 52

The same result can be said for different thickness and diameter of hollow beam. This concludes that the test occur some error due to standard or the material itself is not in standard. The test further continues using standardize tensile test of the material.

4.3

Tensile Test Results

The following shows the result of tensile test for the first two samples based on 26mm diameter tube.

Table 4.4: Tensile test result of 26mm diameter sample

53

The results are as shown in Table 4.4. Using the tensile test machine, the result clearly shows that even using standards, the results are slightly similar to the bending test. But the result can be corrected as to follow the standard by changing the cross section area which is inputted into the machine in square surface instead of arc surface. The following is the table of the specification of sample inputted into the machine. Table 4.5: 26mm Sample Specs Width Thickness Length Area 12.5 mm 1.37 mm 50 mm 0.17995 cm^2

The results outcome of the machine is used to do the analysis of the fuselage airframe using ANSys software. The results of the tensile test are used for FE modeling as shown:

54

Figure 4.1: Stress vs. Strain Graph of 26mm tube

Figure 4.2: 26mm tube tensile test

55

Table 4.6: Result of Material Strength from Figure 4.2 YieldStrength,yield Specimen 1 Specimen 2 Average 80 MPa 80 MPa 80 MPa

Modulus of Elasticity, E E1 E2 Average 40 GPa 40 GPa 40 GPa

Stress Vs Strain 33mm

Stress (Pa)

Strain

Figure 4.3: 33mm tube tensile test

56

Table 4.7: Result of Material Strength from Figure 4.3 YieldStrength,yield Specimen 1 Specimen 2 Average 120 MPa 120 MPa 120 MPa

Modulus of Elasticity, E E1 E2 Average 30 GPa 30 GPa 30 GPa

The result is used in ANSys by inputting into the material model library as shown: Table 4.8: FEA Material Data Diameter of tube(mm) 26 33 Thickness(mm) 1.33 1.37 Youngs Modulus (GPa) minimum 40 30

The modulus is deliberately taken from the tensile test result from the lowest possible value to estimate the worst case of material strength the airframe of the fuselage can withstand. The data is inputted in ANSys software for modeling purpose. Then the cross section of the tubes data is inserted.

4.4

Static Analysis Results

57

The following is the result of the ANSys application for 3.8g;

Figure 4.4: Deformation of Airframe at 3.8g During the fuselage test, the displacement of the seat is 29.7cm which is higher compared to 36.49 mm.

Figure 4.5: Plot Results for maximum Stress at 3.8g 58

For 2.5g;

Figure 4.6: Deformation of Airframe at 2.5g

Figure 4.7: Plot Results for maximum Stress at 2.5g 59

For 1g;

Figure 4.8: Deformation of Airframe at 1g

Figure 4.9: Plot Results for maximum Stress at 1g 60

The results for the experiment can be concluded based on the tensile test done on the material used and the analysis done for the fuselage airframe. The results can be formed from the largest stress on the beam analyze against the yield strength of the material. The largest stress can be resolved from the ANSys of the airframe where the 4 nodes of node 43, 44, 45, 46 are applied to the pilot weight average on 1g, 2.5g and 3.8g. This is done to compare maximum load factor, n of the airframe. Table 4.9: Maximum Stress Comparison Load Factor, n 1g 2.5g 3.8g Deflection (mm) 0.95 14.55 36.49 Maximum Stress (at same node 45,46) 18.07MPa 36.33MPa 57.48MPa

The largest stress value is;

(4.4.1) This result is differentiated with the yield strength of the material type. This is taken from the tensile test. The result is taken for the 26mm tube because the element under stress is using the same type. The value is taken for the yield strength of the material. The load factor can be calculated as shown.

(4.4.2)

The result show positive value of safety factor. This concludes the experiment. To ensure the reliability of the data, further experimental testing is done to the airframe as shown. The load is distributed based on 1g to ensure safety precautions taken. The

61

load factor shows that the load can be increased up to 1.39g.The following is the result of load factor calculation: Table 4.10: Load Factor Comparison Load Factor, n 1g 2.5g 3.8g Safety Factor 4.43 2.20 1.39

Therefore, the results show a maximum load factor of 4.43 for 1g load distribution. The airframe is still safe at restricted maneuvering when submitted to 2.5g as the load factor is 2.2 the airframe is not safe when the airframe is submitted by load of 3.8g.

62

CHAPTER 5:

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1

Conclusion

The objective of the project is accomplished. The design of the fuselage airframe is constructed using CAD application. The design comprises of two types of beam which are the hollow beam with diameter of 26mm with 1.33mm thickness and the hollow beam of diameter 33mm with 1.37mm thickness. The fuselage part is manufactured into a prototype for the trike as shown in Figure 5.4. The analysis is conducted based on the data obtain from the tensile test. The result of testing shows that the modulus of elasticity of 26mm and 33mm beam are 40GPa and 30GPa respectively. The load factor determine was 1.39 from the design specification analysis of FEA at most stressed beam 26mm at 57.48 MPa at the pilot position. The load distributed equally for the 3.8g load factor of 784.6 N respectively on the nodes. The result is compared to the yield strength of the 26mm material which is 80 MPa based on tensile test result. Compared to other load factor, 2.2 and 4.4 are based on 1g and 2.5g respectively which is safer compared to the 3.8g load acceleration. Therefore, the airframe is safe for used at a load factor of 2.5g with restricted maneuvering controls. 63

5.2

Recommendation

Some recommendations can be realized in improving the design of the ultralight airframe fuselage:

Materials needed to be aircraft grade or similar to the standard of the airframe design to accomplish structural safety

The weight of the airframe should be lighter. Additional design prompt suggest reduction of modification of the airframe design by using stronger material grade

The center of gravity of the airframe is not feasible. The design based on single seated fuselage. The dimension differs from the adopted design of two seated fuselage.

64

REFERENCES

[1]

A.C. Kermode (2006), D.R.Philpott, R.H.Bernard, Mechanics of Flight, 11th Edition, University of Hertfordshire, Prentice Hall

[2]

Alten F. Grandt Jr. (2003), Fundamentals of Structural Integrity: Damage Tolerant Design and Nondestructive Evaluation, Wiley-Interscience, page 147

[3]

David A. Caughey (2008), Aeronautical History, Important Advances in Aircraft Design. M&AE 3050 Introduction to Aeronautics

[4]

Duane Kritzinger (2006), Aircraft system safety: Military and civil aeronautical applications, CRC Press

[5]

Martin Berkemeier (2011), World Directory of Leisure Aviation 2011-12, page 10. WDLA UK, Lancaster UK

[6]

Matzaini Katon, Wahyu Kuntjoro (2011), Airframe Design for Modularity of the BWB Baseline II-E2 UAV, International Conference on Business, Engineering and Industrial Applications (ICBEIA)

[7]

Ronald J. Wanttaja (2005), Kit Airplane Construction, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill Professional

[8]

T.H.G. Megson (2007), Aircraft Structures for Engineering Students, Butterworth-Heinemann

[9]

Thomas C.Corke (2002), Design of Aircraft, University of Notre Dame, Prentice Hall 65

[10]

Wahyu Kuntjoro (2005), An Introduction to the Finite Element Method, McGrawHill Education

[11]

Airframe Failure Accidents www.eaa.org/(http://www.eaa.org/lightplaneworld/articles/1009_trike_fatality.as p) (Accessed 15 July 2013)

[12]

Ultralight Regulations www.faa.gov/ (Accessed 15 July 2013)

[13]

Ultralight Regulations www.usua.org/Rules/faa103.htm (Accessed 15 July 2013)

[14]

Ultralight News www.flyingstart.org (Accessed 15 July 2013)

[15]

Picture of Quicksilver MX SPRINT http://www.ultralightnews.com/ssulbg/sprintquicksilver/images/quicksilver/quicksilver_sprint60_IMG.JPG (Accessed 15 July 2013)

[16]

Picture of Quicksilver MX 2 Sport Pod http://www.definitely-at-large.com/2010_07_01_archive.html (Accessed 15 July 2013)

[17]

Picture of the Mainair Blade 912 aircraft http://www.airliners.net/photo/Mainair-Blade-912/1837649/L/ (Accessed 15 July 2013)

[18]

Picture of the Mainair Blade 912 aircraft http://www.airliners.net/photo/Mainair-Blade-912/1947478/M/ (Accessed 15 July 2013)

[19]

Adverse Yaw and Aircraft Turns http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/dynamics/q0045.shtml (Accessed 15 July 2013) 66

APPENDICES

67

APPENDIX A NODES

Nodes X-Coordinate No. 1 0.000000000000 2 3 0.000000000000 4 0.000000000000 5 -200.0000000000 6 -378.3333333333 7 -556.6666666667 8 -735.0000000000 9 -825.0000000000 10 735.0000000000 11 408.3333333333 12 571.6666666667 13 200.0000000000 14 825.0000000000 15 617.5000000000 16 500.0000000000 17 393.7500000000 18 287.5000000000

Y-Coordinate

Z-Coordinate

0.000000000000

40.00000000000

0.000000000000 0.000000000000 -320.0000000000 -685.0000000000 -1050.000000000 -1415.000000000 -1415.000000000 -1415.000000000 -685.0000000000 -1050.000000000 -320.0000000000 -1415.000000000 -1415.000000000 -1415.000000000 -1415.000000000 -1415.000000000 68

-720.0000000000 -1495.000000000 -720.0000000000 -720.0000000000 -720.0000000000 -720.0000000000 -720.0000000000 -720.0000000000 -720.0000000000 -720.0000000000 -720.0000000000 -720.0000000000 -370.2000000000 -20.40000000000 283.2000000000 586.8000000000

19 181.2500000000 20 75.00000000000 21 0.000000000000 22 -75.00000000000 23 -181.0000000000 24 -287.0000000000 25 -393.5000000000 26 -500.0000000000 27 -617.5000000000 28 -551.2500000000 29 -367.5000000000 30 -183.7500000000 31 0.000000000000 32 183.7500000000 33 367.5000000000 34 551.2500000000 35 414.9067000000 36 232.7300000000 37 98.18120000000 38 -98.18120000000 39 -232.7300000000 40 -414.9067000000 41 -95.50000000000

-1415.500000000 -1415.000000000 -1415.000000000 -1415.000000000 -1415.500000000 -1415.000000000 -1415.000000000 -1415.000000000 -1415.000000000 -1415.000000000 -1415.000000000 -1415.000000000 -1415.000000000 -1415.000000000 -1415.000000000 -1415.000000000 -1141.685520362 -640.0000000000 -270.0000000000 -270.0000000000 -640.0000000000 -1141.685520362 -1415.000000000

890.4000000000 1194.000000000 1194.000000000 1194.000000000 890.0000000000 586.0000000000 282.8000000000 -20.40000000000 -370.2000000000 -720.0000000000 -720.0000000000 -720.0000000000 -720.0000000000 -720.0000000000 -720.0000000000 -720.0000000000 -8.540700000000 7.710900000000 29.71600000000 29.71600000000 7.710900000000 -8.540700000000 586.2666666667

69

42 96.00000000000 43 -200.0000000000 44 200.0000000000 45 200.0000000000 46 -200.0000000000 47 0.000000000000 48 200.0000000000 49 -200.0000000000 50 0.000000000000 51 -500.0000000000 52 500.0000000000 53 0.000000000000 54 0.000000000000 55 0.000000000000 63 -124.7000000000 64 -224.5000000000 65 -956.3000000000 66 -1351.700000000 67 -1608.100000000 68 -1701.100000000 69 -2458.900000000 70 -2917.900000000 71 -3117.388000000

-1415.000000000 -1315.000000000 -1315.000000000 -1315.000000000 -1315.000000000 -1315.000000000 -965.0000000000 -965.0000000000 -1670.000000000 -1315.000000000 -1315.000000000 94.50000000000 -757.0000000000 0.000000000000 8.700000000000 15.70000000000 66.90000000000 94.50000000000 112.4000000000 119.0000000000 171.9000000000 204.0000000000 217.9890000000

586.5333333333 -140.4000000000 -140.4000000000 -540.4000000000 -540.4000000000 -540.4000000000 -540.4000000000 -540.4000000000 1194.000000000 -141.4000000000 -141.4000000000 -3485.000000000 -3485.000000000 -790.0000000000

70

72 -3203.800000000 73 -3948.600000000 74 -4613.700000000 75 -4693.500000000 76 -124.7000000000 77 -224.5000000000 78 -956.3000000000 79 -1351.700000000 80 -1608.100000000 81 -1701.100000000 82 -2458.900000000 83 -2917.900000000 84 -3117.388000000 85 -3203.800000000 86 -3948.600000000 87 -4613.700000000 88 -4693.500000000 89 -124.7000000000 90 -872.7000000000 91 -1608.100000000 92 -2356.100000000 93 -3117.400000000 94 -4613.700000000

224.0000000000 276.1000000000 322.6000000000 328.2000000000 8.700000000000 15.70000000000 66.90000000000 94.50000000000 112.4000000000 119.0000000000 171.9000000000 204.0000000000 217.9890000000 224.0000000000 276.1000000000 322.6000000000 328.2000000000 8.700000000000 61.02000000000 112.4000000000 164.8000000000 218.0000000000 322.6000000000 -1476.000000000 -1476.000000000 -1476.000000000 -1476.000000000 -1476.000000000 -1476.000000000 -1476.000000000 -1476.000000000 -1476.000000000 -1476.000000000 -1476.000000000 -1476.000000000 -1476.000000000 -737.9000000000 -737.9000000000 -737.9000000000 -737.9000000000 -737.9000000000 -737.9000000000

71

95 -1434.500000000 96 -2087.700000000 97 -2740.900000000 98 -3394.100000000 99 -4047.300000000 100 -4693.500000000 101 -1434.500000000 102 -212.3000000000 103 -209.3000000000 104 -207.2000000000 105 -944.9000000000 106 -941.5000000000 107 -939.0000000000 108 -1689.000000000 109 -1686.000000000 110 -1683.800000000 111 -2447.300000000 112 -2443.800000000 113 -2441.800000000 114 -3190.800000000 115 -3188.200000000 116 -3185.700000000 117 -3931.800000000

100.3000000000 146.0000000000 191.7000000000 237.3000000000 283.0000000000 328.2000000000 100.3000000000 189.3000000000 232.2000000000 262.1000000000 240.5000000000 283.4000000000 313.3000000000 292.5000000000 335.4000000000 365.3000000000 345.6000000000 388.4000000000 418.4000000000 397.5000000000 440.5000000000 470.4000000000 449.4000000000

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72

118 -3933.400000000 119 -3931.000000000 120 -4681.300000000 121 -4677.800000000 122 -4676.500000000 123 124.7000000000 124 224.5000000000 125 956.3000000000 126 1351.700000000 127 1608.100000000 128 1701.100000000 129 2458.900000000 130 2917.900000000 131 3117.400000000 132 3203.800000000 133 3948.600000000 134 4613.700000000 135 4693.500000000 136 124.7000000000 137 224.5000000000 138 956.3000000000 139 1351.700000000 140 1608.100000000

492.6000000000 522.5000000000 501.8000000000 544.6000000000 574.6000000000 8.700000000000 15.70000000000 66.90000000000 94.50000000000 112.4000000000 119.0000000000 171.9000000000 204.0000000000 218.0000000000 224.0000000000 276.1000000000 322.6000000000 328.2000000000 8.700000000000 15.70000000000 66.90000000000 94.50000000000 112.4000000000

-180.0000000000 -380.0000000000 -100.0000000000 -180.0000000000 -380.0000000000

-1476.000000000 -1476.000000000 -1476.000000000 -1476.000000000 -1476.000000000

73

141 1701.100000000 142 2458.900000000 143 2917.900000000 144 3117.400000000 145 3203.800000000 146 3948.600000000 147 4613.700000000 148 4693.500000000 149 124.7000000000 150 872.7000000000 151 1608.100000000 152 2356.100000000 153 3117.400000000 154 4613.700000000 155 1434.500000000 156 2087.700000000 157 2740.900000000 158 3394.100000000 159 4047.300000000 160 4693.500000000 161 1434.500000000 162 212.3000000000 163 209.3000000000

119.0000000000 171.9000000000 204.0000000000 218.0000000000 224.0000000000 276.1000000000 322.6000000000 328.2000000000 8.700000000000 61.02000000000 112.4000000000 164.8000000000 218.0000000000 322.6000000000 100.3000000000 146.0000000000 191.7000000000 237.3000000000 283.0000000000 328.2000000000 100.3000000000 189.3000000000 232.2000000000

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74

164 207.2000000000 165 944.9000000000 166 941.5000000000 167 939.0000000000 168 1689.000000000 169 1686.000000000 170 1683.800000000 171 2447.300000000 172 2443.800000000 173 2441.800000000 174 3190.800000000 175 3188.200000000 176 3185.700000000 177 3931.800000000 178 3933.400000000 179 3931.000000000 180 4681.300000000 181 4677.800000000 182 4676.500000000 183 0.000000000000 184 0.000000000000 185 0.000000000000 186 0.000000000000

262.1000000000 240.5000000000 283.4000000000 313.3000000000 292.5000000000 335.4000000000 365.3000000000 345.6000000000 388.4000000000 418.4000000000 397.5000000000 440.5000000000 470.4000000000 449.4000000000 492.6000000000 522.5000000000 501.8000000000 544.6000000000 574.6000000000 94.50000000000 479.1000000000 951.5000000000 951.5000000000

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75

187 0.000000000000 188 0.000000000000 189 0.000000000000 190 0.000000000000 191 100.0000000000 192 376.1000000000 193 1357.000000000 194 1357.000000000 195 1357.000000000 196 750.0000000000 197 500.0000000000 198 -100.0000000000 199 -376.1000000000 200 -1357.000000000 201 -1357.000000000 202 -1357.000000000 203 -750.0000000000 204 -500.0000000000 205 -500.0000000000 206 500.0000000000 207 2087.700000000 208 2740.900000000 209 3394.100000000

951.5000000000 171.5000000000 -306.4000000000 171.5000000000 94.50000000000 94.50000000000 94.50000000000 94.50000000000 94.50000000000 94.50000000000 94.50000000000 94.50000000000 94.50000000000 94.50000000000 94.50000000000 94.50000000000 94.50000000000 94.50000000000 94.50000000000 94.50000000000 146.0000000000 191.7000000000 237.3000000000

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76

210 4047.300000000 211 -2087.700000000 212 -2740.900000000 213 -3394.100000000 214 -4047.300000000 215 -471.0940000000 216 471.0940000000 217 -1608.874111442 218 -1608.874111442 219 1700.366888328 220 1700.366888328

283.0000000000 146.0000000000 191.7000000000 237.3000000000 283.0000000000 94.50000000000 94.50000000000 -618.3707865169 -618.3707865169 -611.9502407705 -611.9502407705

-1476.000000000 -1476.000000000 -1476.000000000 -1476.000000000 -1476.000000000 -2785.000000000 -2785.000000000 -76.55248796148 -753.4614537950 -76.55248796148 -753.4614537950

77

APPENDIX B DETAIL DESIGNS

Figure 6.1: Trike Part Design

The following Table displays the bill of material for the design used. The indication of 26 and 33 relates to the type of hollow beam used in the design. The design implements two type of beam for ease of use and assembly. The design also prompts the use of M8 Bolt and Nut to standardize the usage for each joint. The joints indicate the type of connection used for each beam. The colors in Figure 3.14 determine the type of beam diameter used for clearer view. Red is for 26mm diameter beam and 33mm is based on blue.

78

Table 6.1: Bill of Materials

Figure 6.2: Trike Joint Design

79

Paddle Nose Wheel Support

Rod End Bearing M8

Figure 6.3: Trike Nose Design

Burger Bearing

Figure 6.4: Trike Component Design

80

81

APPENDIX C Fuselage Cost Analysis Item no. Part name 1 Hollow Beam 26mm Hollow Beam 33mm Square Hollow Beam 55mm Plate Wheels Seat Burger Bearing Rod End Bearing M8 Bolt

Specifications Outer diameter = 26mm Thickness = 1.37mm Aluminium 6063 Outer diameter = 33mm Thickness = 1.33mm Aluminium 6063 Length = 55mm Width = 55mm Thickness = 1.5mm Mild Steel Thickness = 2mm Diameter = 256mm Width = 82mm Max load capacity = 68kg Seat Area = 50mm^2 Outer Diameter = 40mm Inner Diameter = 35mm Inner Diameter = 8mm Length = 55mm Diameter = 8mm 2 Washers and Nut Overall Cost

Cost / Unit RM 5.50/1m

Unit 10.84m

Overall Cost (RM) 60.50

RM 6.80/1m

38.32m

260.60

3 5 6 7 8 9 10

RM 40.00/1m RM 200.00/1m^2 RM 20.00/unit RM 30.00/unit RM 15.00/unit RM 18.00/unit RM 0.30/unit

1.5m 0.6m^2 3 1 2 4 202

60.00 120.00 60.00 30.00 30.00 72.00 60.60 753.70