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Paradigma Baru dalam MEMAHAMI dan MERESPON Bencana

disarikan dari kerangka kerja the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM)

Ahmad Muttaqin Alim

Yang Mana termasuk bencana?

Hazard Event
Damage
Change in Function

Needs
Local Response OutsideResponse Emergency/MCI

Disaster

Hazard Event
Damage
Change in Function

Apapun yang bisa mengakibatkan bahaya Bisa natural, human-made, campuran Memiliki potensi untuk berefek negatif terhadap kesehatan manusia, properti, aktivitas dan/atau lingkungan Energi Potensial

Needs
Local Response OutsideResponse Emergency/MCI

Disaster

Hazard Event
Damage
Change in Function

Peristiwa/kejadian yang memiliki potensi untuk mempengaruhi makhluk hidup ataupun lingkungan. Aktualisasi dari Hazard Primer Sekunder Energi yang dilepaskan

Needs
Local Response OutsideResponse Emergency/MCI

Disaster

Hazard Event
Damage
Change in Function

Kerusakan atau luka Hasil negatif dari event

Needs
Local Response OutsideResponse Emergency/MCI

Disaster

Hazard Event
Damage
Change in Function

Damage dapat mengakibatkan berubahnya fungsi (change in function)


Kerusakan pipa mengakibatkan kekurangan suplai air Kerusakan jembatan mengakibatkan terganggunya transportasi Robohnya bangunan mengakibatkan kehilangan tempat tinggal Kaki yang patah mengakibatkan kehilangan mobilitas
Emergency/MCI

Needs

Local Response OutsideResponse

Disaster

Hazard Event
Damage
Change in Function

Perbedaan antara kebutuhan dan sumberdaya yang tersedia

Needs
Local Response OutsideResponse Emergency/MCI

Disaster

Hazard Event
Damage
Change in Function

Gangguan serius atas keberfungsian masyarakat, yang menyebabkan kerugian manusia, material maupun lingkungan, yang melebihi kemampuan masyarakat tsb untuk mengatasinya dengan kemampuan/sumberdayanya sendiri
A serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material, and/or environmental losses, which exceed the ability of an affected society to cope using only its own resources. (WADEM)
Emergency/MCI

Needs

Local Response OutsideResponse

Disaster

Risk, Probability, Capacity, Resilience

Risk
Risk = Probability of something will occur High, Moderate, Medium, Mild etc 1 in 10, 1 in 1000, 1 in 1 million 4 tahun sekali

Hazard Event
Damage
Change in Function

Needs
Local Response OutsideResponse Emergency/MCI

Disaster

Hazard
Prob Event
Hazard Modification

Event
Damage
Change in Function

Needs
Local Response OutsideResponse Emergency/MCI

Disaster

Hazard
Prob Event
Hazard Modification

Event
Prob Damage Damage
Change in Function
Absorbing Capacity

Needs
Local Response OutsideResponse Emergency/MCI

Disaster

Hazard
Prob Event
Hazard Modification

Event
Prob Damage Damage Prob function
Change in Function
Buffering Capacity Absorbing Capacity

Needs
Local Response OutsideResponse Emergency/MCI

Disaster

Hazard
Prob Event
Hazard Modification

Event
Prob Damage Damage Prob function
Change in Function
Local Response Capacity Buffering Capacity Absorbing Capacity

Needs
Local Response OutsideResponse Emergency/MCI

Disaster

Hazard
Prob Event
Hazard Modification

Event
Prob Damage Damage Prob function
Change in Function
Local Response Capacity Buffering Capacity Absorbing Capacity

Needs
Local Response OutsideResponse Emergency/MCI

Disaster

Resilience

Hazard
Prob Event
Hazard Modification

Event
Prob Damage Damage Prob function
Change in Function
Local Response Capacity Buffering Capacity Absorbing Capacity

Needs
Local Response Emergency/MCI

Prob Disaster
OutsideResponse

Prob Emergency

Disaster

Resilience

Risk Reduction
World Health Organization (WHO) International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) UN-Ooffice for Coordination of Humanitarian Affair (UN-OCHA) Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC)

Risk = Probability

Hazard
Prob Event
Hazard Modification

Event
Prob Damage Damage Prob function
Change in Function
Local Response Capacity Buffering Capacity Absorbing Capacity

Needs
Local Response Emergency/MCI

Prob Disaster
OutsideResponse

Prob Emergency

Disaster

Resilience

Hazard
Risk Event
Hazard Modification

Event
Risk Damage Damage Risk function
Change in Function
Local Response Capacity Buffering Capacity Absorbing Capacity

Needs
Local Response Emergency/MCI

Risk Disaster
OutsideResponse

Risk Emergency

Disaster

Resilience

Hazard
Risk Event
Hazard Modification

Event
Risk Damage Damage
Risk Reduction Preparedness
Absorbing Capacity

Risk function
Change in Function

Buffering Capacity

Local Response Capacity

Needs
Local Response Emergency/MCI

Risk Disaster
OutsideResponse

Risk Emergency

Disaster

Resilience

Hazard Event Damage


Change in Function

Mengamati Proses Bencana (Assesment)

Pre-Event Event Damage

Needs

Change in Function Relief Recovery

Disaster

Waktu

Hazard Event

Mengamati Proses Bencana (Assesment)


Status Masyarakat, Status Rumah Sakit

Damage
Change in Function

Earthquake Rumah Sakit colaps Tidak bisa operasi, tempat tidur kurang

Pre-Event Event Damage

RS Lapangan Rebuild

Needs

Change in Function Relief Recovery

Disaster

Waktu

Hazard Event

Mengamati Proses Bencana (Assesment)


Status Masyarakat, Status Rumah Sakit

Damage
Change in Function

Earthquake Rumah Sakit colaps Tidak bisa operasi, tempat tidur kurang

Pre-Event Event Damage

RS Lapangan Rebuild

Needs

Change in Function Relief Recovery

Disaster
Assessment 1

Waktu
Assessment 2 Assessment 3

Paradigma

D-I-S-A-S-T-E-R
dalam Respons Bencana/MCI
disarikan dari Advanced Disaster Life Support

D-I-S-A-S-T-E-R
D I S A S T E R Detection Incident Command Scene Security and Safety Assess Hazards Support Triage and Treatment Evacuation Recovery

D-I-S-A-S-T-E-R Detect
M Major Incident Apa yang terjadi? E Exact location Dimana? T Type of incident Tipe Kejadian? H Hazard at scene kemungkinan bahaya A Access and egress routes Akses ke lokasi? N Number of casualties involved Jumlah korban? E Emergency services present and requested - kalkulasi resource yang ada dan diminta?

Apakah membutuhkan resource dari luar? Kalau ya, siap-siap deklarasikan BENCANA!

D-I-S-A-S-T-E-R Incident Command


Lapor Kepada Komandan/Koordinator Atau.. Jadilah komandan/koordinator Aktifkan Incident Command System

D-I-S-A-S-T-E-R
Scene Security and Safety Violence? Power lines? Secondary devices?
Hati-hati bahaya berikutnya
Bombs, Shrapnel devices, Incapacitating Devices, Multiple Snipers/Terrorists, Delay Devices

D-I-S-A-S-T-E-R Assess Hazards


Fire? HAZMAT? (Chemical, Biological, Radiation, Nuclear) Radiation? Building collapse? Etc.

D-I-S-A-S-T-E-R Support
Panggil Bantuan! (Polisi, PMK, Ambulan, Pemerintah lain) Menejemen Relawan Menejemen Logistik Menejemen Keuangan

D-I-S-A-S-T-E-R Triage & Treatment


M.A.S.S. Triage M Move A Assess S Sort S Send
M.A.S.S. Triage is a disaster triage system that utilizes US military triage categories with a proven means of handling large numbers of casualties in a mass casualty incident (MCI).

D-I-S-A-S-T-E-R Evacuation
Caranya? Sarananya? Jalurnya? Tujuannya? Tindakan Pasca Evakuasi?

D-I-S-A-S-T-E-R Recovery
Prioritas: Public Safety Healthcare Special Needs

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