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# E:\glassboxDI_v0.

2>glassboxDI_v02
# ---------------------------------
# Desain Balok Beton Bertulang
# SKSNI-T15-1991-03 (syont, 2008)
# ---------------------------------
Dimensi balok
Lebar (mm), b : 300
Tinggi (mm), h : 300
Selimut beton, c_v = 30.00 mm (default)
Mutu beton (MPa), f_c : 25
Kuat leleh baja tul. pokok (MPa), f_y = 450.00 MPa (default)
tul. begel (MPa), f_ys = 200.00 MPa (default)
Diameter tul.
Tul. pokok, D_tul : 16
Tul. begel, d_tul = 8.00 mm (default)
Gaya dalam terfaktor
Momen (kN.m), M_u : 120
Geser (kN), V_u : 60

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## ... proses perhitungan ...

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============================
Desain Balok Beton Bertulang
SKSNI-T15-1991-03
Oleh : Suyono Nt., 2009
============================

Data-data
---------

Dimensi balok :
Lebar, b = 300.00 mm
Tinggi, h = 300.00 mm
Selimut beton, c_v = 30.00 mm

Material :
Mutu beton, f_c = 25.00 MPa
Kuat leleh baja tul. pokok, f_y = 450.00 MPa
tul. begel, f_ys = 200.00 MPa
Diameter tul. pokok, D_tul = 16.00 mm
begel, d_tul = 8.00 mm

## Gaya dalam terfaktor :

Momen, M_u = 120.00 kN.m
Geser, V_u = 60.00 kN.m
Aksial, P_u = 20.00 kN.m

## Faktor reduksi kekuatan, tinjauan :

- lentur, phi_b = 0.80 (sesuai SNI)
- geser, phi_v = 0.60 (sesuai SNI)
- aksial /+ lentur, phi_a = 0.65 (sesuai SNI)

## Faktor beta_1 yang tergantung mutu beton :

f_c = 25.00 MPa. Untuk f_c <= 30 MPa, nilai beta_1 = 0.85
Luas satu tul. D16.00 mm, A_sd = (1/4)*pi*D_tul^2
= (1/4)*3.14*16.00^2
= 201.06 mm^2

Perkiraan kebutuhan tulangan (mendekati jika f_y = 400 MPa, otherwise need more works) :
Luas tul., A_sp = M_u * 10^6 / (250 * h)
= 120.00 * 10^6 / (250 * 300.00)
= 1600.00 mm^2

## Jumlah, N_tulp = A_sp / A_sd

= 1600.00 / 201.06
= 7.96 ~ 8 btg.

## Jumlah tulangan maksimum dalam satu baris (s >= 25 mm)

N_maks1 = (b - 2 * (25 + d_tul + D_tul)) / (25.0 + D_tul) + 1
= (300.00 - 2 * (25 + 8.00 + 16.00)) / (25.0 + 16.00) + 1
= 5.93 ~ 5 btg.

N_tulp > N_maks, diperkiraakan lebih dari satu baris tulangan (s >= 25 mm)
Titik berat tulangan tarik,
d_s = ((N_maks*(c_v+d_tul+(D_tul/2)))+((N_tulp-N_maks)*(c_v+d_tul+D_tul+25+(D_tul/2))))/N_tul
= ((5*(30.00+8.00+(16.00/2)))+((8-5)*(30.00+8.00+16.00+25+(16.00/2))))/8
= 61.38 mm

= 300.00 - 61.38
= 238.63 mm

## Titik berat tulangan tekan,

d_s1 = c_v + d_tul + (D_tul/2)
= 30.00 + 8.00 + (16.00/2)
= 46.00 mm

## Faktor momen pikul:

K_t = M_u * 10^6 / (phi_b * b * d^2)
= 120.00 * 10^6 / (0.80 * 300.00 * 238.63^2)
= 8.78 MPa

K_maks = (382.5*beta_1*f_c*(600+f_y-225*beta_1))/(600+f_y)^2
= (382.5*0.85*25.00*(600+450.00-225*0.85))/(600+450.00)^2
= 6.33 MPa

Kontrol :
K_t > K_maks
8.78 MPa > 6.33 MPa, Analisa balok dgn tul. GANDA

= 0.8 * 6.33
= 5.06 MPa

## Tinggi blok tegangan tekan beton, a_t = (1 - sqrt(1-(2*K_1/0.85*f_c))) * d

= (1 - sqrt(1-(2*5.06/0.85*25.00))) * 238.63
= 66.00 mm

## A_1 = (0.85 * f_c * a_1 * b) / f_y

= (0.85 * 25.00 * 66.00 * 300.00) / 450.00
= 935.06 mm^2

## A_2 = ((K_t - K_1)*b*d^2)/((d-d_s1)*f_y)

= ((8.78 - 5.06)*300.00*238.63^2)/((238.63-46.00)*450.00)
= 732.33 mm^2

## Tulangan tarik, A_su = A_1 + A_2

= 935.06 + 732.33 = 1667.38 mm^2
digunakan, A_st = 9 D 16 mm
= 9 * (1/4) * pi * D_tul^2
= 1809.56 mm^2 > A_su (1667.38 mm^2) ... Okey

## Tulangan tekan, A_su1 = A_2

= 732.33 mm^2
digunakan, A_st = 4 D 16 mm
= 4 * (1/4) * pi * D_tul^2
= 804.25 mm^2 > A_su (732.33 mm^2) ... Okey

## Menghitung momen tersedia :

A_st = 9 D 16 = 1809.56 mm^2
A_st1 = 4 D 16 = 804.25 mm^2

Rasio tulangan
rho = (A_st - A_st1) / (b * d)
= (1809.56 - 804.25) / (300.00 * 238.63)
= 1.40 %

## rho_maks = 0.75 * rho_b = (382.5 * beta_1 * f_c) / ((600 + f_y) * f_y)

= (382.5 * 0.85 * 25.00) / ((600 + 450.00) * 450.00)
= 1.72 %

Kontrol :
rho < rho_maks
1.40 % < 1.72 % ... Okey

## Rasio batas tul. leleh, nu_l = (600 * beta_1)/(600 - f_y)

= (600 * 0.85)/(600 - 450.00)
= 3.40

## Tinggi blok tekan beton, a = ((A_st - A_st1)*f_y)/(0.85 * f_c * b)

= ((1809.56 - 804.25)*450.00)/(0.85 * 25.00 * 300.00)
= 70.96 mm

= 3.40 * 46.00
= 156.40 mm

## a < a_leleh, tulangan tekan belum leleh

Dihitung nilai a dan f_s1 sebagai berikut :
p = (600 * A_st1 - A_st * f_y) / (1.7 * f_c * b)
= (600 * 804.25 - 1809.56 * 450.00) / (1.7 * 25.00 * 300.00)
= -26.02
q = (600 * beta_1 *d_s1 * A_st1 ) / (0.85 * f_c * b)
= (600 * 0.85 *46.00 * 804.25 ) / (0.85 * 25.00 * 300.00)
= 2959.63

## Tinggi blok tekan beton, a = sqrt (p^2 + q) - p

= sqrt (-26.02 + 2959.63) - -26.02
= 86.32 mm

## Tegangan baja tul., f_s1 = ((a - beta_1 * d_s1) / a) * 600

= ((86.32 - 0.85 * 46.00) / 86.32) * 600
= 328.23 MPa

## Momen nominal dari beton, M_nc = 0.85 * f_c * a * b * (d - 0.5*a)

= 0.85 * 25.00 * 86.32 * 300.00 * (238.63 - 0.5*86.32)
= 107566813.36 N.mm = 107.57 kN.m
dari baja, M_ns = A_st1 * f_s1 * (d - d_s1)
= 804.25 * 328.23 * (238.63 - 46.00)
= 50849545.67 N.mm = 50.85 kN.m

## dijumlahkan, M_n = M_nc + M_ns

= 107.57 + 50.85
= 158.42 kN.m
Momen tersedia positif, M_t(+) = phi_b * M_n
= 0.80 * 158.42
= 126.73 kN.m > M_u (120.00 kN.m) ... Okey
Momen tersedia negatif :
Tulangan tarik (atas), A_st = 4 D 16.00 mm = 804.25 mm^2
Tulangan tekan (bawah), A_st1 = 9 D 16.00 mm = 1809.56 mm^2

## A_st1 > A_st, maka tul. tekan belum leleh

Dihitung nilai a dan f_s1 sebagai berikut :
p = (600 * A_st1 - A_st * f_y) / (1.7 * f_c * b)
= (600 * 1809.56 - 804.25 * 450.00) / (1.7 * 25.00 * 300.00)
= 56.77
q = (600 * beta_1 *d_s1 * A_st1 ) / (0.85 * f_c * b)
= (600 * 0.85 *46.00 * 1809.56 ) / (0.85 * 25.00 * 300.00)
= 6659.17

## Tinggi blok tekan beton, a = sqrt (p^2 + q) - p

= sqrt (56.77 + 6659.17) - 56.77
= 42.64 mm
Tegangan baja tul., f_s1 = ((a - beta_1 * d_s1) / a) * 600
= ((42.64 - 0.85 * 46.00) / 42.64) * 600
= 49.79 MPa

## Momen nominal dari beton, M_nc = 0.85 * f_c * a * b * (d - 0.5*a)

= 0.85 * 25.00 * 42.64 * 300.00 * (238.63 - 0.5*42.64)
= 59067626.90 N.mm = 59.07 kN.m
dari baja, M_ns = A_st1 * f_s1 * (d - d_s1)
= 1809.56 * 49.79 * (238.63 - 46.00)
= 17354294.11 N.mm = 17.35 kN.m

= 59.07 + 17.35
= 76.42 kN.m

= 0.80 * 76.42
= 61.14 kN.m

## Panjang penyaluran tul. deform tarik :

D_tul <= 36 mm
16.00 mm < 36 mm, perhitungan sebagai berikut
l_db = 0.02 * A_b * f_y / sqrt(f_c)
= 0.02 * (1/4) * pi * D_tul^2 * f_y / sqrt(f_c)
= 0.02 * (1/4) * 3.14 * 16.00^2 * 450.00 / sqrt(25.00)
= 361.91 mm
l_db > 0.06 * D_tul * f_y
> 0.06 * 16.00 * 450.00
> 432.00 mm
dipakai, l_db = 432.00 mm

Faktor pengali :
Jarak antar tul. atas dan bawah s > 300 mm
K_1 = 1.40

K_2 = 2 - 400/f_y
= 2 - 400/450.00
= 1.11

K_3 = 1.00

## K_4 = A_su / A_st

= 1667.38 / 1809.56
= 0.92
Digunakan panjang penyaluran tulangan :
l_d = l_db * K_1 * K_2 * K_3 * K_4
= 432.00 * 1.40 * 1.11 * 1.00 * 0.92
= 619.20 mm

## Perhitungan tul. begel untuk Gaya geser

Gaya geser yg ditahan beton, V_c = sqrt(f_c)/6 * b * d
= sqrt(25.00)/6 * 300.00 * 238.63
= 59656.25 N
phi_v * V_c = 0.60 * 59656.25
= 35793.75 N

## nilai V_u >= phi_v * V_c

60000.00 > 35793.75

## Gaya geser yang ditahan begel :

V_s = (V_u - phi_v * V_c) / phi_v
= (60000.00 - 0.60 * 59656.25) / 0.60
= 40343.75 N

## V_smaks = (2/3) * sqrt(f_c) * b * d

= (2/3) * sqrt(25.00) * 300.00 * 238.63
= 238625.00 N

## Luas begel perlu A_vu untuk 1 m. (S = 1000 mm)

A_v = (V_s * S) / (f_ys * d)
= (40343.75 * 1000.00) / (200.00 * 238.63)
= 845.34 mm^2

## A_vmin = (b * S)/(3 * f_ys)

= (300.00 * 1000.00)/(3 * 200.00)
= 500.00 mm^2

## dipilih A_vu = max(A_v,A_vmin)

= max(845.34,500.00)
= 845.34 mm^2

## Dipilih begel 2 kaki, d_tul = 8.00

Perhitungan jarak begel
Luas begel 2 kaki, A_vs = n * (1/4) * pi * d_tul^2
= 2 * (1/4) * 3.14 * 8.00^2
= 100.53 mm^2

## Jarak begel, s = (A_vs * 1000) / A_vu

= (100.53 * 1000) / 845.34
= 118.92 mm

## Persyaratan jarak begel

V_s < sqrt(f_c) / 3 * b * d
V_s < sqrt(25.00) / 3 * 300.00 * 238.63

s = d / 2
= 238.63 / 2
= 119.31 mm

## dipilih jarak s = min (118.92,118.92,600.00)

= 118.92 mm ~ 100.00 mm (dibulatkan)

## Jadi digunakan begel 2 kaki d_tul = 8.00 mm jarak 100.00 mm

Tinjau gaya aksial terfaktor maksimum yg bekerja pada balok
Luas penampang, A_g = b * d
= 300.00 * 300.00
= 90000.00 mm^2

## Batasan gaya aksial balok, P_maks = 0.1 * f_c * A_g

= 0.1 * 25.00 * 90000.00
= 225000.00 N = 225.00 kN

Kontrol :
P_u < P_maks
20.00 kN < 225.00 kN, pengaruh gaya aksial dapat diabaikan

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