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CELTA Pre-Course Task

Section 1: Learners and teachers, and the Learning and Teaching Context Task 1 1. The context in which I will be doing the CELTA course is likely to be multilingual and an open group of students. Lessons are most likely to be conducted in groups and of a similar ability given that classes are divided into levels. 2. I do not know what context I will be teaching in after I finish the course but I would like to teach a wide range of groups in a number of different contexts to best gain experience in this field. Task 2 1. I have decided to teach adults, as they are generally more motivated to learn and complete a course once they have decided to study. They often have a wider range of life experiences and may be from different cultural, working and educational backgrounds, which means that teaching methods may have to be more goal oriented and focused on the specific needs of the learners. Teaching adults appears to utilise a more active style of interaction than a passive or lecturing style, which encourages debate and raises interesting points. 2. As an adult, I bring to this learning situation my own personal experiences and knowledge. This may assist other learners as I can relate to what their needs may be as I have undertaken learning experiences myself and what outcomes I like to achieve in these situations. 3. Adult learners can be characterised by: Their motivation to learn and obtain tangible outcomes and goals. Requiring active teaching styles where they are treated as peers with valuable experiences that they can relate and share in a learning environment. The wide diversity of their cultural, linguistic and educational backgrounds, which may influence their learning styles. Individual personalities may also need to be considered when determining suitable teaching materials and methods. Having other concerns, which may take priority such as family, employment, time and money.

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1. I would want to find out: What their motivation is for learning. What outcomes they would like to achieve. What their cultural, linguistic, educational, employment backgrounds are so that all teaching materials are chosen with respect. 2. I would ask them in a brief written questionnaire or verbally on my first day in class as they introduced themselves. Task 4 Out of all the possible motivating factors, I think that learners who were motivated by family pressure or were made to attend classes by someone else (like an employer) would be most challenging as they may not be ready to learn or may not see the value in learning. Task 5 Is approachable Knows how to listen well to students Gives clear information and feedback Paces lessons to match the learners Does not complicate things unnecessarily

Section 2: Language Analysis and Awareness Task 6 Grammar associations: Task 7 Weve been looking for you for ages. I went to the movies last night. He often comes (arrives) late. They were waiting by the fountain. Can I have a black coffee, please? People with 12 items or less can queue here. Task 8 2 Grammar comprises of punctuation and spelling Grammar is used only in the written form and not in spoken language Grammar is difficult and unnecessary to learn Grammar is the foundation in which languages can be learnt

English language teachers need to know about grammar because: Understanding how the system works means you can explain it to someone who doesnt understand why their use of language may be incorrect. Task 9 1. you = personal pronoun 2. a = indefinite article 3. but = conjunction 4. quite = adverb 5. abstract = adjective 6. could = modal verb 7. those = determiner 8. for = preposition 9. mean = verb 10. plunger = noun Task 10 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. He watches TV for at least two hours every evening. (lexical) What are you looking for? (lexical) They arent going to come. (auxiliary) What does he want? (auxiliary) They havent been here before. (auxiliary) He was waiting on the corner. (lexical)

Task 11 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. I had a bad headache yesterday. (lexical) When do you get up each day? (auxiliary) How long have you been learning English? (auxiliary) I did it without thinking. (lexical) We do some exercise every morning. (lexical) Have you had them long? (auxiliary) I was hoping for a quick answer. (lexical) Are they still here? (auxiliary)

Task 12 1. You should see a doctor as soon as you can. = C. Advice 2. You may go now, thank you. = E. Permission 3. This letter must be from Frank hes the only one who hasnt written so far. = B. Logical deduction 4. I cant play the piano very well. = A. Ability 5. We could go out, but I dont know if Im in the mood. = D. Possibility

Task 13 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I worked until 7 oclock last night. = past tense form Theyve been seeing a lot of each other lately. = -ing form She lives not far from here. = 3rd person present simple tense You have to try harder. = base form It was handed to me as I was leaving. = past participle form

Task 14 Hear = irregular Do = irregular Help = regular Think = irregular Take = irregular Steal = irregular Go = irregular Drink = irregular Arrive = regular Task 15 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. I was hoping to see you. past progressive They might have got home by now. present, modal, perfect We have tried to help. present perfect They were being questioned at length. past progressive passive I saw it coming. past simple This time next week you will be lying on a beach. present modal progressive

Task 16 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. I am having a really good time. progressive We stopped doing that years ago. past simple She lives somewhere near here. present simple We had been for a drink before we met him. past perfect These computers are made in China. present passive You will have been here for 2 days by then. modal present perfect It happened as I was driving home. past simple, past progressive I have been feeling unwell for a while. present perfect progressive

Task 17 1. The sun was shining brightly in the sky. (past progressive) Action was in progress in the past but not up to the present. 2. Theyll have finished work on the bridge by then. (future perfect simple) refers to something which is in the past from a viewpoint in the future.

3. Shes been working in the garden all morning. (present perfect progressive) Action is in the recent past. 4. Have you got a minute? I was wondering whether we could have a word. (past progressive) - Action was in progress in the past but not up to the present. 5. They own most of the land around here. (present simple) Action in present time. Task 18 The verb to be is the auxiliary verb used with the present progressive tense. The form of the lexical verb of the present progressive is ing. Task 19 A: How about going to a movie this evening? B: I cant. Im meeting Judy for a drink. Speaker B is using the present progressive to indicate that she will be doing a planned activity in the future. A: Wheres Tony? B: I dont know where hes got to. A: Hes always running late. Speaker A is using the present progressive with always as an idiom to express an ongoing annoying habit. A: It was late at night and dark and I was on my way back to the hotel. Suddenly I find Im walking down the street all on my own and I can hear the sound of footsteps Speaker A is using the present progressive to describe a temporary event that is limited in duration. Task 20 1. Hes having a brother and sister. Present progressive is used to describe an ongoing event. The sentence should use the present simple as it describes an event that started in the past and is ongoing. He has a brother and sister. 2. Im liking this ice cream. Present progressive has been used to describe this action. The present simple should be used as it is occurring in the present moment. I like this ice cream.

3. What are you thinking of your new job? The present progressive has been used and the present simple should be used as the question is being asked about the present moment. What do you think of your new job? 4. This sauce is lacking salt. The present progressive has been used to describe this event. The present simple should be used as the action is occurring in the present. This sauce lacks in salt. Task 21 Dictionaries can also provide information on the pronunciation of a word, the grammatical use of a word, the various contexts in which the word can be used, Task 22 1. Hes the highest person in the family by more than 2 centimetres. Tall is mostly used to describe the height of people. 2. I think Ill go to bed now. Im feeling a little enervated. Enervated has been used incorrectly as it is used to describe something done to someone else and is very formal to be used in every day speech. 3. It is an extremely good essay. The ideas in it are original and pretentious. Pretentious has a negative connotation which is at odds with the rest of the sentence as it is overall quite positive in tone. 4. Her grandfather gave her a loving slap on the face. These two words are an oxymoron as they are opposite in meaning so the sentence is awkward. 5. Every day I like to go footing after work. Its good exercise and it helps me to relax. Footing is not an English word. Task 23 1. Not only was he nice, but he was also strikingly handsome. (adverb + adjective) 2. After he got up, he made his bed and did some housework. (verb + noun) 3. It was absolutely fabulous! (adverb + adjective) 4. They both really depend on each other. (adjective noun) 5. Their farewell at the airport was highly emotional. (adverb + adjective) 6. She was caught in a vicious circle. (verb + preposition)

Task 24 1. Stress = B. Giving emphasis to one syllable. 2. Phoneme = C. An individual sound. 3. Intonation = A. The music of our voices. Task 25 1. An individual sound is mispronounced = B. The listener might understand bin when the speaker wanted to say pin. 2. A request is made with very flat intonation = C. The speaker can sound arrogant and demanding. 3. The wrong syllable is stressed in a word = A. The word is incomprehensible. Task 26 1. there 2. south 3. language 4. peaceful 5. young 6. call 7. search 8. equation 9. sugar Task 27 1. guarantee 2. cavalry 3. mechanisation 4. language 5. retreat 6. speculative 7. success 8. balance 9. identity 10. articulate Task 28 Photograph Photography Photographer Photographic To record / a record

To present / a present To increase / an increase To import / an import Task 29 Mother Forget Announce Tonight Notable Mention Patrol Indicative

Section 3: Language Skills: Reading, Listening, Speaking and Writing Task 30 There has been a mixture of texts that Ive read today, which range from letters, to newspaper articles and books. I have read these all in a different manner, depending on how important the information is perceived to be and the manner in which I need to respond to them. The letters and documents I have read more thoroughly as they require input from me whereas the newspaper articles have been skimmed to gain a general understanding of the information in the time I have in which to read them. Task 31 1. An academic article we need to read for an essay we are writing intensive / detailed reading 2. A telephone directory scan reading 3. The editorial of a newspaper on a topic we care about a lot reading to infer 4. An advertisement for a job that might be suitable skim / gist reading Task 32 Some of the problems encountered with this way of reading are that a lot of time is spent on understanding each individual word in the sentence and that the general context of the sentence can be lost. They may also try and translate the words into their native language where again, the context of the text may be misinterpreted. Often too much focus is on the vocabulary instead of on the general understanding on what is trying to be conveyed. Task 33

Some reasons that non-native speakers might find listening more challenging than reading are: Native speakers speak very quickly. When you dont understand what is being said, people can stop listening to what is being said. Native speakers may speak with accents that are difficult to understand. As the words cant be seen visually, it may be more difficult to understand what words are being used and in what context. Native speakers tend to speak in conversational or slang which may also be more difficult to understand. Task 34 1. Listening to a bank officer on the phone I listened intently as I required the information that he was providing me with in order to establish my internet banking so needed a password and some other key information. 2. I listened to the radio I only half listened to the newsreader as my motivation for listening was for the daily news and so tuned in and out depending on my interest in the general topics. 3. I listened to my child I listened carefully to what she said as she was telling me what she wanted and I needed to listen in order to provide her with what she needed. Task 35 1. A lecture for a course you are taking at university intensive listening. 2. A sales pitch for a computer that doesnt really interest you. However, you are at work and you cant just walk out skim / gist listening. 3. Announcements at a train station when you are waiting to hear the time of the next train to your destination scan listening. 4. Instructions from your boss for a new task that is critical for your job intensive listening. 5. An interview with someone who is famous and whose political opinion you would like to find out about listening to infer meaning. 6. A radio programme on a topic that is mildly interesting to you skim / gist listening. Task 36 There can be a difference between two years of language study and a lack of ability to speak as it can be quite confronting to speak a language that you are not familiar with due to lack of confidence or the thought of sounding silly. Also, if you are not in a situation where the language you are studying is being used, it may be difficult to practice conversational language. It can also be very different studying grammar and then speaking a language without getting caught up in the grammar and so not focus on trying to be understood and to communicate.

Task 37 1. Could I please have a ? (learner gesticulates, indicating he is unsure of the word) unsuccessful communication as the subject is missing from the sentence. 2. You come my house tonight? (said with rising intonation) successful communication as the message has been received. 3. Yesterday good time. Next week we see, no? (learner smiles ) unsuccessful communication as context is not understood. 4. A: How long have you been in New Zealand? B: I stay here 5 weeks. This is a successful communication as the question has been answered with a period of time. Task 38 1. You ask a colleague if s/he would mind helping you with something transactional 2. You offer to collect your neighbours mail while s/he is away on holiday transactional 3. You comment on the weather to an acquaintance at a bus stop interactional 4. You visit a friend and spend time admiring and talking about his / her garden interactional 5. You participate in a university group tutorial that is useful for an essay you are writing transactional 6. You go out with your boss and other colleagues for a drink and a chat after work interactional Task 39 Speaking fluency practice helps with language development as: You are practicing speaking which helps with learning language The more mistakes you make, the more you learn over time through feedback and speaking to other people You can practice your pronunciation, which in turns helps you with your communication. Learners can speak to each other and correct each other as they go along so that there is two way communication and feedback. Task 40 1. Includes gesture and facial expression to back up the message spoken language 2. Uses punctuation to make the content easier to understand written language

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3. Includes hesitation devices and fillers such as yeah, umm, ah, etc spoken language 4. The communication usually gets immediate feedback fro the person they are communicating with spoken language 5. Is usually pre-prepared, although email and text messages often are not written language 6. Uses pauses, stress and intonation to show where ideas begin and end spoken language 7. Is spontaneous and planning usually takes place in the moment of communicating spoken language 8. Suggests that meaning is static in the communication although open to interpretation written language 9. The communicator may never find out what the person he is communicating with thinks of his message written language 10. Includes headlines, different type sizes and colours to enhance the content written language 11. Is usually smooth-flowing written language 12. Involves negotiation of meaning between the communicator and the person they are communicating with spoken language Task 41 1. She through the ball hard so it hurt when I court it She threw the ball hard, so it hurt when I caught it. Using the correct word can be difficult when they sound the same phonetically but when written mean different things. 2. My brther livs in Swedn. My brother lives in Sweden. The second vowel can be left out as the are often silent when spoken but required when written. 3. However, hard I try it never works out However hard I try, it never works out. The comma has been put in the wrong place. Although grammatically it is correct to use a comma after however to mean on the contrary, in this case, it means no matter how. It could also have occurred as when spoken, the comma is not obvious. 4. first of all he invited me to sit down after that he offered me a coffee I was very surprised by his politeness First of all, he invited me to sit down. After that, he offered me a coffee. I was very surprised by his politeness. This sentence is missing punctuation (capital letters, full stops and commas) which are required in the written language to indicate separate clauses. This might have occurred as the learner might have thought that the smaller sentences could be made into one big one. Task 42 Some of the difficulties faced by learners who do not come from a Roman script background may be that punctuation and mixing lower case and upper case letters in the same word may occur. Sentence connectors and the use of prepositions may also be confusing to use. Sentence structure may be difficult as they could be

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translating what they want to say in their own language into the English language which has different rules which govern its construction. Some activities that may be useful are fill in the gap type activities for learning about sentence connectors and punctuation, and perhaps asking a partner about their day and having to write about it in a paragraph.

Section 4: Planning and Resources Task 43 a. Id like to smile more and create a better rapport today Probably from 3. Personal aim. b. Students_Students in pairs Probably from 5. Procedure c. By the end of the lesson students will be able to use a range of adjectives to describe someones personality Probably from 1. Lesson aims / learning outcomes. d. Teacher hands out text and gives a different set of questions to each group Probably from 6. Interaction pattern e. Some students may find the pronunciation of several words quite difficult. I must make sure I use lots of repetition Probably from 2. Anticipated problems and solutions. f. To get students interested in the topic of the listening text Probably from 7. Stage aim. Task 44 1. Published coursebook f. Developing students language and skills in a structured way and allowing them to review at home. 2. Cassette or CD player g. Developing students listening skills with specially prepared or real materials. 3. Newspapers in English b. Developing students ability to read real texts. 4. Internet e. Finding information on a particular topic area and developing reading skills. 5. Overhead projector (OHP) i. Showing pre-prepared work on a large screen for clarity. 6. Whiteboard h. Writing down new words for students to focus on, making the form, meaning or pronunciation features of a language clear. 7. TV / radio d. Developing students ability to listen to authentic speech. 8. Teachers own materials c. Giving students work which can be tailored to their individual needs. 9. Dictionaries a. encouraging students to expand their vocabulary and to find out about new words on their own.

Section 5: Developing Teaching Skills and Professionalism

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Task 45 1. Jot that down Difficulty may have been from the use of the word jot which is informal (slang) language Write it down might have been more appropriate. 2. I wonder if youd mind just looking at question number 4 and then if you could just answer it. Difficulty may have been from understanding that the two instructions are related and that the word just twice may be confusing as to which instruction to just do. Please answer question number 4 may be more appropriate. 3. Id like you to read the text on page 4 and answer the first three, then compare your answers with the person next to you. After that write a short summary of the story and discuss this with your partner. Difficulty may have been from thinking that the first three pages needed to be answered as opposed to the questions on page 4. Please read the text on page 4 and answer the first three questions relating to that text. Compare your answers with the person next to you and then write a short summary of the story to discuss with your partner. 4. Look at the question at the bottom of the page and think about an answer. Difficulty may have been from not understanding which question is at the bottom of the page. Look at the last question on the page and think about an answer for discussion with the group. Task 46 1. I dont want to work in a group because I will only learn mistakes from other students. Group work is important as it helps you practice on other students and learn from each other. You are able to teach other students and help them learn while at the same time helping you remember what you have learnt. 2. I wish you could translate more words into my language. I will help you where I can but some words in English do not translate directly into your language and I am not able to translate correctly as I do not speak your language. 3. Please dont ask me to work with that student. I dont like people from her country.

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This class is about learning English and speaking to different people can provide new ways of learning language and sharing experiences. If this is a serious problem and you dont think that you can work with this person without any personal distress to you or to that student, I will see what I can do to not pair you with her.

4. Could we just talk in class and not use any books? Books can are useful as they more information than what we talk about in class. I will ask the class if they agree to more balance between talking and book use and if they agree, we can try to do more talking in class. Task 47 Half of the students will play the role of assistants working at an information desk. They will have information about a range of computer courses at different prices and with different numbers of hours and different times. The rest of the students will be given the task of finding the most suitable course for the Character that they have been given. The students have 20 minutes to ask the assistants about their courses and agree a transaction. How would you arrange the classroom to carry out the activity? Individual desks in rows with the assistant on one side and the buyer on the other side. Teacher moving from conversation to conversation What materials would you need? A price guide A timetable Character list for the buyers What problems would you anticipate? 20 minutes could be a long time to do the exercise. That the assistant would just show the buyer the handouts and so there would be no actual exchange of information. That the buyer might get confused at the amount of different information available and be overwhelmed. Task 48 1. Thin / Slim To communicate thin as an adjective I would show objects or pictures of objects that are described as thin. I would also show a picture of someone who is thin and communicate that when applied to humans it is often negative. For slim, I would again use a photo but of a healthy, slim person and demonstrate that it is more positive than thin. 2. Wink / Blink

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I would use facial expressions to demonstrate the difference between a wink and a blink. This could be followed up by pictures or a video shown to highlight the difference. 3. I used to get up early / I am used to getting up early. I would create a diagram on the board to set up a timeline and then tell stories about the difference, for example, I used to get up early every day to go to work but then I went on holiday and could sleep in for two weeks. I am used to getting up early as my baby wakes me up early in the morning! 4. Nervous / Upset I would show some pictures of the facial expressions of nervous and upset people, make exaggerated facial movements and also tell stories about the difference, for example, I am nervous about getting back my exam results. I am upset as I failed my exams. 5. 4 weeks ago / 4 weeks before I would draw a timeline on the board with todays date and showing 4 weeks into the past and 4 weeks into the future. I would also make up a story to go along with the timeline, for example, Four weeks ago I went on holiday (indicating on timeline) Today is four weeks before my next holiday (indicating on timeline) 6. I do it / Ill do it Write the two sentences on the board and then emphasise the difference between the two sentences by speaking them out loud with exaggerated facial expressions. Stress the long sound of the Ill which indicates the contraction of I will and get the class to participate in stressing the long sound. 7. Read (present tense) / read (past tense) Put both words into context in a sentence and then say both sentences stressing the differences in read with a long sound and read with the short sound. 8. Put / Putt Put both words into context in a sentence and then say both sentences stressing the differences in put with a short sound with stress on the vowel and putt with the stress on the tt. 9. Record (noun) / record (verb) Put both words into context in a sentence and then say both sentences stressing the differences in record with stress on the first part of the word and to record with the stress on the last part of the word.

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10. Live (verb) / live (something happening now) Put both words into context in a sentence and then say both sentences stressing the differences in live to sound like liv with a short sound and live to sound like lyyve with a long sound. Task 49 1. Reading The task may not have been successful as the text may have been too difficult to understand and there might have been a disconnect between reading the text out loud and the context and meaning of the text. This activity may have been more successful had the students had to read the text and answer short questions about it before summarising it in their own words and reading it out to the class. 2. Speaking This task may have been unsuccessful as the topic was too broad and the topic was dominated by a couple of students which meant that the other students felt that they couldnt answer due to a similarity in answer or were too intimidated to speak out. This activity may have been more successful were the group divided into pairs and were asked to conduct a mini interview with each other on the topics with each student then reporting back to the class on what the other said, perhaps then opening up a wider discussion with teacher led questions based on those answers. Task 50 Confidentiality This is important as trust is crucial to the studentteacher relationship. Students have to be able to trust that their work and ability is kept to a professional level by the teacher and would not be discussed without their permission. Of course, should there be matters of an inappropriate manner involving other students, this needs to be discussed with other teachers to maintain a level of professionalism and care to others. Course planning / review The course needs to be planned well and reviewed to ensure that students are getting what they need out of the course and that their needs are being met on a continuing basis since they are paying for the course and have a level of outcome and expectation that they wish to gain.

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Curriculum development Same as above. Relationship with students keeping a professional relationship with students is highly important as trust is key to making sure that students feel they are in a safe environment and wont be mocked or made fun of in class. Setting standards standards are important as people are paying money for the course and expect to gain a tangible outcome. Having high standards also means that the teachers reputation and that of the course are maintained. Record keeping Record keeping is important to keep track of the students progress and to catch problems as they arise. Its also important for the teacher to keep good records for their class to ensure that course planning and review is maintained to high standards. Pastoral care Caring about your students and what might be going on in their personal lives will affect their study and therefore their learning outcomes. By being patient and understanding of any external factors in their lives, you can assist them where you can with their learning needs. Cultural awareness being aware of differences in cultural background means that course planning and curriculum development can be streamlined to different students. Understanding how culture plays a part in the learning needs of students means that inappropriate comments, texts, and social aspects can be avoided to create a safe learning environment for all. Punctuality It is important to be punctual to class. Students expect their teachers to be on time as they are paying for the course and taking time out of their lives to undertake it so it needs to be respected. Assessment Assessements should be fair and based on the merit of the work. Any problems that might arise should be dealt with on a personal level without any singling out in class to make a student feel inadequate or stupid. Help can be given out when necessary but only when the student is struggling and is being left behind. Team work the teacher / student relationship is that of a team, their success is your success as a teacher and so working as a team to reach their goals and expectations is a joint venture. Self-development keeping on top of ones self development is important as there is always more that one can learn in order to be the best that they can be.

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School / college policies and rules (including equal opportunities and health and safety) these are important as they pertain to the workplace and may involve forms of legislation and duties of care. This might mean dressing appropriately and acting in a manner which also takes into account the reputation of the school or college. Membership of / contribution to professional bodies This is important as it means that you agree with a set of professional ethics and code of conduct that other professionals in your field also strive to uphold. It is also a good means to learn more about professional development opportunities and network with other teachers to gain more experience and knowledge. ESOL and teacher training research and development worldwide As above but with emphasis on learning more about the field in which you work and how there are always new and better ways in which the outcomes and goals of your students can be reached.

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