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Chapter Chapter X 1 Resource Resource Masters Masters

Course 1 1 Course

Consumable Workbooks
Many of the worksheets contained in the Chapter Resource Masters booklets are available as consumable workbooks in both English and Spanish. Study Guide and Intervention Workbook Study Guide and Intervention Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Skills Workbook Practice: Skills Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Word Problems Workbook Practice: Word Problems Workbook (Spanish) Reading to Learn Mathematics Workbook 0-07-860085-5 0-07-860091-X 0-07-860086-3 0-07-860092-8 0-07-860087-1 0-07-860093-6 0-07-861057-5

Answers for Workbooks The answers for Chapter 1 of these


workbooks can be found in the back of this Chapter Resource Masters booklet.

Spanish Assessment Masters Spanish versions of forms 2A and 2C of


the Chapter 1 Test are available in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts Spanish Assessment Masters, Course 1 (0-07-860095-2).

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teacher, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1 Chapter 1 Resource Masters 024 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03

ISBN: 0-07-846545-1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

CONTENTS
Vocabulary Builder .............................vii Family Letter ............................................ix Family Activity ........................................x Lesson 1-1
Study Guide and Intervention ............................1 Practice: Skills ....................................................2 Practice: Word Problems....................................3 Reading to Learn Mathematics..........................4 Enrichment .........................................................5

Lesson 1-6
Study Guide and Intervention ..........................26 Practice: Skills ..................................................27 Practice: Word Problems..................................28 Reading to Learn Mathematics........................29 Enrichment .......................................................30

Lesson 1-7
Study Guide and Intervention ..........................31 Practice: Skills ..................................................32 Practice: Word Problems..................................33 Reading to Learn Mathematics........................34 Enrichment .......................................................35

Lesson 1-2
Study Guide and Intervention ............................6 Practice: Skills ....................................................7 Practice: Word Problems....................................8 Reading to Learn Mathematics..........................9 Enrichment .......................................................10

Lesson 1-8
Study Guide and Intervention ..........................36 Practice: Skills ..................................................37 Practice: Word Problems..................................38 Reading to Learn Mathematics........................39 Enrichment .......................................................40

Lesson 1-3
Study Guide and Intervention ..........................11 Practice: Skills ..................................................12 Practice: Word Problems..................................13 Reading to Learn Mathematics........................14 Enrichment .......................................................15

Chapter 1 Assessment
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 1 Test, Form 1 ..............................4142 1 Test, Form 2A ............................4344 1 Test, Form 2B ............................4546 1 Test, Form 2C............................4748 1 Test, Form 2D............................4950 1 Test, Form 3 ..............................5152 1 Extended Response Assessment ...53 1 Vocabulary Test/Review...................54 1 Quizzes 1 & 2..................................55 1 Quizzes 3 & 4..................................56 1 Mid-Chapter Test .............................57 1 Cumulative Review..........................58 1 Standardized Test Practice........5960

Lesson 1-4
Study Guide and Intervention ..........................16 Practice: Skills ..................................................17 Practice: Word Problems..................................18 Reading to Learn Mathematics........................19 Enrichment .......................................................20

Lesson 1-5
Study Guide and Intervention ..........................21 Practice: Skills ..................................................22 Practice: Word Problems..................................23 Reading to Learn Mathematics........................24 Enrichment .......................................................25

Standardized Test Practice Student Recording Sheet ..........................................A1 Standardized Test Practice Rubric...................A2 ANSWERS .............................................A3A32

iii

Teachers Guide to Using the Chapter 1 Resource Masters


The Fast File Chapter Resource system allows you to conveniently file the resources you use most often. The Chapter 1 Resource Masters includes the core materials needed for Chapter 1. These materials include worksheets, extensions, and assessment options. The answers for these pages appear at the back of this booklet. All of the materials found in this booklet are included for viewing and printing in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1, TeacherWorks CD-ROM.

Vocabulary Builder Pages vii-viii include a student study tool that presents up to twenty of the key vocabulary terms from the chapter. Students are to record definitions and/or examples for each term. You may suggest that students highlight or star the terms with which they are not familiar.
When to Use Give these pages to students before beginning Lesson 1-1. Encourage them to add these pages to their mathematics study notebook. Remind them to add definitions and examples as they complete each lesson.

Practice: Skills

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice that more closely follows the structure of the Practice and Applications section of the Student Edition exercises. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Practice: Word Problems

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice in solving word problems that apply the concepts of the lesson. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Family Letter and Family Activity


Page ix is a letter to inform your students families of the requirements of the chapter. The family activity on page x helps them understand how the mathematics students are learning is applicable to real life. When to Use Give these pages to students to take home before beginning the chapter.

Reading to Learn Mathematics

Study Guide and Intervention


There is one Study Guide and Intervention master for each lesson in Chapter 1. When to Use Use these masters as reteaching activities for students who need additional reinforcement. These pages can also be used in conjunction with the Student Edition as an instructional tool for students who have been absent.

One master is included for each lesson. The first section of each master asks questions about the opening paragraph of the lesson in the Student Edition. Additional questions ask students to interpret the context of and relationships among terms in the lesson. Finally, students are asked to summarize what they have learned using various representation techniques. When to Use This master can be used as a study tool when presenting the lesson or as an informal reading assessment after presenting the lesson. It is also a helpful tool for ELL (English Language Learner) students.

iv

There is one extension master for each lesson. These activities may extend the concepts in the lesson, offer an historical or multicultural look at the concepts, or widen students perspectives on the mathematics they are learning. These are not written exclusively for honors students, but are accessible for use with all levels of students. When to Use These may be used as extra credit, short-term projects, or as activities for days when class periods are shortened.

Enrichment

A Vocabulary Test, suitable for all students, includes a list of the vocabulary words in the chapter and ten questions assessing students knowledge of those terms. This can also be used in conjunction with one of the chapter tests or as a review worksheet.

Intermediate Assessment
Four free-response quizzes are included to offer assessment at appropriate intervals in the chapter. A Mid-Chapter Test provides an option to assess the first half of the chapter. It is composed of both multiple-choice and freeresponse questions.

Assessment Options
The assessment masters in the Chapter 1 Resources Masters offer a wide range of assessment tools for intermediate and final assessment. The following lists describe each assessment master and its intended use.

Continuing Assessment
The Cumulative Review provides students an opportunity to reinforce and retain skills as they proceed through their study of Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. It can also be used as a test. This master includes free-response questions. The Standardized Test Practice offers continuing review of pre-algebra concepts in various formats, which may appear on the standardized tests that they may encounter. This practice includes multiplechoice, short response, grid-in, and extended response questions. Bubble-in and grid-in answer sections are provided on the master.

Chapter Assessment
Chapter Tests Form 1 contains multiple-choice questions and is intended for use with basic level students. Forms 2A and 2B contain multiple-choice questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Forms 2C and 2D are composed of freeresponse questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Grids with axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. Form 3 is an advanced level test with free-response questions. Grids without axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. All of the above tests include a free-response Bonus question. The Extended-Response Assessment includes performance assessment tasks that are suitable for all students. A scoring rubric is included for evaluation guidelines. Sample answers are provided for assessment.

Answers
Page A1 is an answer sheet for the Standardized Test Practice questions that appear in the Student Edition on pages 46-47. This improves students familiarity with the answer formats they may encounter in test taking. Detailed rubrics for assessing the extended response questions on page 47 are provided on page A2. The answers for the lesson-by-lesson masters are provided as reduced pages with answers appearing in red. Full-size answer keys are provided for the assessment masters in this booklet.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
This is an alphabetical list of new vocabulary terms you will learn in Chapter 1. As you study the chapter, complete each terms definition or description. Remember to add the page number where you found the term. Add this page to your math study notebook to review vocabulary at the end of the chapter. Vocabulary Term algebra [AL-juh-bruh] Found on Page Definition/Description/Example
Vocabulary Builder

algebraic [AL-juh-BRAY-ihk] expression area

base

composite [com-PAH-zit] number cubed

divisible

equals sign

equation [ih-KWAY-zhuhn] evaluate

even

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

vii

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
Vocabulary Term exponent [ex-SPOH-nuhnt] factor Found on Page

(continued)
Definition/Description/Example

formula [FOR-myuh-luh] numerical expression

odd

order of operations

power

prime factorization

prime number

solution

solve

squared

variable [VAIR-ee-uh-buhl]

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

viii

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Letter

Dear Parent or Guardian: classes because they do Students are often frustrated in math ial in the real world. In our not see how they can use the mater mathematics beyond the math class, however, we try to take realize and appreciate its classroom to a point where students importance in their daily lives. Algebra, your child will In Chapter 1, Number Patterns and patterns, prime factors, the be learning about problem solving, ressions, and powers and order of operations, variables and exp equations and find the area exponents. Your child will also solve pter, your child will of rectangles. In the study of this cha assignments and activities complete a variety of daily classroom . and possibly produce a chapter project it with your child, you By signing this letter and returning ting involved. Enclosed is agree to encourage your child by get ld that also relates the an activity you can do with your chi 1 to the real world. You math we will be learning in Chapter line Study Tools for selfmay also wish to log on to the On dy Guide pages, and check quizzes, Parent and Student Stu et. If you have any other study help at www.msmath1.n contact me at school. questions or comments, feel free to Sincerely,

Signature of Parent or Guardian ______________________________________ Date ________

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ix

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Family Letter

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Activity
Using Patterns
Draw the next three figures in each pattern. You can take turns with a family member. 1.

2.

Find a pattern in your home or neighborhood. Sketch at least the first three figures in the pattern. Have a family member draw the next three figures in the pattern.

Have a family member find a pattern in your home or neighborhood. Have him or her sketch at least the first three figures. Draw the next three figures in the pattern.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

1. Sample answer:

2. Sample answer:

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


A Plan for Problem Solving
When solving problems, it is helpful to have an organized plan to solve the problem. The following four steps can be used to solve any math problem. 1 Explore Read and get a general understanding of the problem. 2 Plan Make a plan to solve the problem and estimate the solution. 3 Solve Use your plan to solve the problem. 4 Examine Check the reasonableness of your solution. SPORTS The table shows the number of field goals made by Henry

High Schools top three basketball team members during last years season. How many more field goals did Brad make than Denny? Name Brad Chris Denny Explore Plan Solve 3-Point Field Goals 216 201 195

You know the number of field goals made. You need to find how many more field goals Brad made than Denny. Use only the needed information, the goals made by Brad and Denny. To find the difference, subtract 195 from 216. 216 195 21; Brad made 21 more field goals than Denny.

Examine Check the answer by adding. Since 195 21 216, the answer is correct.

1. During which step do you check your work to make sure your answer is correct?

2. Explain what you do during the first step of the problem-solving plan.

SPORTS For Exercises 3 and 4, use the field goal table above and the

four-step plan. 3. How many more field goals did Chris make than Denny?

4. How many field goals did the three boys make all together?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 11

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
A Plan for Problem Solving
Use the four-step plan to solve each problem. 1. GEOGRAPHY The president is going on a campaign trip to California, first flying about 2,840 miles from Washington D.C. to San Francisco and then another 390 to Los Angeles before returning the 2,650 miles back to the capital. How many miles will the president have flown?

2. POPULATION In 1990, the total population of Sacramento, CA was 369,365. In 2000, its population was 407,018. How much did the population increase? 3. MONEY The Palmer family wants to purchase a DVD player in four equal installments of $64. What is the cost of the DVD player?

4. COMMERCIALS The highest average cost of a 30-second commercial in October, 2002 is $455,700. How much is this commercial worth per second? 5. A tennis tournament starts with 16 people. The number in each round is shown in the table. How many players will be in the 4th round? 1st Round 2nd Round 3rd Round 4th Round 16 8 4 ?

Complete the pattern. 6. 2, 4, 8, 16, 32,

7. 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31,

8. 81, 72, 63, 54,

9. 5, 15, 20, 30, 35, 45, 50,

10. 50, 40, 45, 35, 40, 30, 35, ___, ___, ___, ___

11. 6, 12, 18, ___, ___, ___, ___

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


A Plan for Problem Solving
Use the four-step plan to solve each problem.
GEOGRAPHY For Exercises 1 and 2, use the poster information about Crater Lake National Park in Oregon. Visit Crater Lake National Park 90 miles of trails 26 miles of shoreline Boat tours available Open 24 hours Directions from Klamath Falls: Take U.S. Highway 97 north 21 miles, then go west on S.R. 62 for 29 miles.

1. How many more miles of trails are there than miles of shoreline in Crater Lake National Park?

2. How many miles is it from Klamath Falls to Crater Lake National Park?

3. SPORTS Jasmine swims 12 laps every afternoon, Monday through Friday. How many laps does she swim in one week?

4. SPORTS Samantha can run one mile in 8 minutes. At this rate, how long will it take for her to run 5 miles?

5. SPORTS On a certain day, 525 people signed up to play softball. If 15 players are assigned to each team, how many teams can be formed?

6. PATTERNS Complete the pattern: 5, 7, 10, 14, ___, ___, ___

7. SHOPPING Josita received $50 as a gift. She plans to buy two cassette tapes that cost $9 each and a headphone set that costs $25. How much money will she have left?

8. BUS SCHEDULE A bus stops at the corner of Elm Street and Oak Street every half hour between 9 A.M. and 3 P.M. and every 15 minutes between 3 P.M. and 6 P.M. How many times will a bus stop at the corner between 9 A.M. and 6 P.M.?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 11

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


A Plan for Problem Solving
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 6 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. How many pennies are in a row that is one mile long? (Hint: There are 5,280 feet in one mile.)

2. Explain how to find the value of the pennies in dollars. Then find the value.

3. Explain how you could use the answer to Exercise 1 to estimate the number of quarters in a row one mile long.

Reading the Lesson


4. Think of how you use the word explore. When was the last time you did some exploring of your own? Write a definition of the word explore that matches what you did during your exploration. Or maybe you would like to consider someone from history who was an explorer. Write a definition of the word explore that matches what that person did.

5. If you were doing an exploratory, when do you think this would happen? Before or after the thing you were exploring?

6. In the four-step plan for problem solving, think about the term examine. Does examine come before or after the solution? (Hint: What are you examining?)

Helping You Remember


7. Think about the four steps in the problem-solving plan: Explore, Plan, Solve, Examine. Write a sentence about something you like to help you remember the four words. For example, I like to explore caves.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Using a Reference Point
There are many times when you need to make an estimate in relation to a reference point. For example, at the right there are prices listed for some school supplies. You might wonder if $5 is enough money to buy a small spiral notebook and a pen. This is how you might estimate, using $5 as the reference point. The notebook costs $1.59 and the pen costs $3.69. $1 $3 $4. I have $5 $4, or $1, left. $0.59 and $0.69 are each more than $0.50, so $0.59 $0.69 is more than $1. So $5 will not be enough money. Use the prices at the right to answer each question. 1. Jamaal has $5. Will that be enough money to buy a large spiral notebook and a pack of pencils?
Filler P Pack aper of 10 $1.29 0 Spira l No Large tebook Smal $2.29 l $1.5 9

Three -Ri Binde ng r $4.75

2. Andreas wants to buy a three-ring binder and two packs of filler paper. Will $7 be enough money?

3. Rosita has $10. Can she buy a large spiral notebook and a pen and still have $5 left?

Ball-P oint Pen $3.69

4. Kevin has $10 and has to buy a pen and two small spiral notebooks. Will he have $2.50 left to buy lunch?

5. What is the greatest number of erasers you can buy with $2?

Penc Pack ils of 1 $2.39 0

6. What is the greatest amount of filler paper that you can buy with $5?
Erase r $0.55

7. Lee bought three items and spent exactly $8.99. What were the items?

8. Select five items whose total cost is as close as possible to $10, but not more than $10.
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 11

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Divisibility Patterns
A whole number is divisible by another number if the remainder is 0 when the first is divided by the second. A whole number is even if it is divisible by 2. A whole number is odd if it is not divisible by 2. Rule A whole number is divisible by: 2 if the ones digit is divisible by 2. 3 if the sum of the digits is divisible by 3. 4 if the number formed by the last two digits is divisible by 4. 5 if the ones digit is 0 or 5. 6 if the number is divisible by both 2 and 3. 9 if the sum of the digits is divisible by 9. 10 if the ones digit is 0. Examples 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 4, 8, 12, , 104, 108, 112, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 9, 18, 27, 36, 45, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50,

Tell whether 112 is divisible by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, or 10. Then classify the number as even or odd. 2: Yes; the ones digit is divisible by 2. 3: No; the sum of the digits, 4, is not divisible by 3. 4: Yes; the number formed by the last two digits, 12, is divisible by 4. 5: No; the ones digit is not a 0 or a 5. 6: No; the number is not divisible by 2 and 3. 9: No; the sum of the digits, 4, is not divisible by 9. 10: No; the ones digit, 2, is not 0. The number 112 is even because it is divisible by 2.

Tell whether each number is divisible by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, or 10. Then classify the number as even or odd. 1. 80 4. 81 7. 48 10. 3,579 2. 93 5. 650 8. 268 11. 7,000 3. 324 6. 23,512 9. 665 12. 24,681

Tell whether each sentence is sometimes, always, or never true. 13. A number that is divisible by both 2 and 3 is also divisible by 6.

14. Any number that is divisible by 10 is also divisible by 2 and 5.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Divisibility Patterns
Tell whether the first number is divisible by the second number. 1. 527; 3 2. 1,048; 6 3. 693; 9 4. 1,974; 2

5. 305; 10

6. 860; 5

7. 4,672; 9

8. 2,310; 6

9. 816; 3

10. 13,509; 5

11. 2,847; 2

12. 192; 6

Tell whether each number is divisible by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, or 10. Then classify the number as even or odd. 13. 24 14. 27 15. 90

16. 81

17. 104

18. 205

19. 1,000

20. 6,598

21. 399

22. 27,453

23. 33,324

24. 16,335

Use divisibility rules to find each missing digit. List all possible answers. 25. 1__2 is divisible by 9

26. 1,__24 is divisible by 4

27. 1,25__ is divisible by 3

28. 5,__32 is divisible by 6

29. 31,45__ is divisible by 5

30. 1,679,83__ is divisible by 2

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 12

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Divisibility Patterns
MONTHS OF THE YEAR For Exercises 13, use the table that shows how many days are in each month, excluding leap years. (Every four years, the calendar is adjusted by adding one day to February.)

JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUN. JUL. AUG. SEP. OCT. NOV. DEC. 31 28 31 30 31 30 31 31 30 31 30 31

1. Which month has a number of days that is divisible by 4? During a leap year, is this still true?

2. Which months have a number of days that is divisible by both 5 and 10? During a leap year, is this still true?

3. The total number of months in a year are divisible by which numbers?

4. FOOD Jermaine and his father are in charge of grilling for a family reunion picnic. There will be 40 people attending. Ground beef patties come 5 to a package. How many packages of patties should they buy to provide 1 hamburger for each person? Will there by any patties left over? If so, how many?

5. RETAIL Li is stacking bottles of apple juice on the shelf at her parents grocery store. She has space to fit 4 bottles across and 6 bottles from front to back. She has 25 bottles to stack. Will all of the bottles fit on the shelf? Explain.

6. FARMING Sally is helping her mother put eggs into egg cartons to sell at the local farmers market. Their chickens have produced a total of 108 eggs for market. Can Sally package the eggs in groups of 12 so that each carton has the same number of eggs? Explain.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Divisibility Patterns
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 10 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
Describe a pattern in each group of numbers listed. 1. the numbers that can be evenly divided by 2 2. the numbers that can be evenly divided by 5 3. the numbers that can be evenly divided by 10 4. the numbers that can be evenly divided by 3 (Hint: Look at both digits.)

Reading the Lesson


5. Complete the following table. The number 12 12 12 12 20 20 is divisible by 2 3 4 6 5 10 because

the ones digit is divisible by 2 the sum of the digits is divisible by 3

the number is divisible by both 2 and 3 the ones digit is 0 or 5 the ones digit is 0

6. The Pledge of Allegiance uses the term indivisible. How do the meanings of divisible and indivisible compare to each other?

Helping You Remember


7. Several commonplace items come in amounts that are divisible by smaller units. For example, a deck of playing cards has 4 suits of 13 cards, so 52 is divisible by 4 and 13. Name other everyday items that illustrate divisibility patterns.
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 12

the number formed by the last two digits is divisible by 4

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Leap Years
You probably know that a leap year has 366 days, with the extra day being February 29. Did you know that divisibility can help you recognize a leap year? That is because the number of a leap year is always divisible by 4. A number is divisible by 4 if the number formed by its tens and ones digits is divisible by 4. 1936 is divisible by 4 because 36 is divisible by 4. 1938 is not divisible by 4 because 38 is not divisible by 4. So 1936 was a leap year, and 1938 was not. Be careful when you decide if a year is a leap year. A century yearlike 1800, 1900, or 2000is a leap year only if its number is divisible by 400. Decide whether each year is a leap year. Write yes or no. 1. 1928 2. 1930 3. 1960 4. 1902

5. 1492

6. 1776

7. 1812

8. 1900

9. 1994

10. 2000

11. 2001

12. 2100

13. How many leap years are there between 1901 and 2001? 14. How many leap years were there from the Declaration of Independence in 1776 to the bicentennial celebration in 1976? (Include 1776 and 1976 in your count.) 15. In 1896, the first modern Olympic games were held in Athens, Greece. After that, the officially recognized games were held every four years except for 1916, 1940, and 1944, when the world was at war. How many times were the games held from 1896 to 1992? 16. George Washington was first elected president in 1789. Since 1792, United States presidential elections have been held every four years. How many presidential elections will there have been up to and including the election in the year 2000? 17. CHALLENGE If a person lives to be exactly 100 years old, how many leap years or parts of leap years will that person see?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

10

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Prime Factors
Factors are the numbers that are multiplied to get a product. A product is the answer to a multiplication problem. A prime number is a whole number that has only 2 factors, 1 and the number itself. A composite number is a number greater than 1 with more than two factors.

Tell whether each number is prime, composite, or neither. Number 15 17 1 Factors 1 15 35 1 17 1 Prime or Composite? Composite Prime Neither

Find the prime factorization of 18.


18 2 9 Write the number that is being factored at the top. Choose any pair of whole number factors of 18. Except for the order, the prime factors are the same.

2 3 3

18 is divisible by 2, because the ones digit is divisible by 2. Circle the prime number, 2. 3 6 9 is divisible by 3, because the sum of the digits is divisible by 3. 3 2 3 Circle the prime numbers, 3 and 3. The prime factorization of 18 is 2 3 3.
18

Tell whether each number is prime, composite, or neither. 1. 7 4. 81 7. 54 10. 243 2. 12 5. 18 8. 28 11. 61 3. 29

9. 120 12. 114

Find the prime factorization of each number. 13. 125 14. 44

15. 11

16. 56

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

11

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 13

6. 23

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Prime Factors
Tell whether each number is prime, composite, or neither. 1. 0 2. 1 3. 2 4. 3

5. 4

6. 5

7. 6

8. 7

9. 8

10. 9

11. 10

12. 11

Find the prime factorization of each number. 13. 9 14. 25

15. 28

16. 54

17. 34

18. 72

19. 55

20. 63

SCHOOL For Exercises 2124, use the table below.

Marisas History Test Scores Date January 28 February 15 March 5 March 29 Test Score 67 81 97 100

21. Which test scores are prime numbers?

22. Which prime number is the least prime number?

23. Find the prime factorization of 100.

24. Find the prime factorization of 81.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

12

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Prime Factors
ANIMALS For Exercises 13, use the table that shows the height and

weight of caribou. CARIBOU Cows (females) Bulls (males) Height at the Shoulder inches 43 50 centimeters 107 125 pounds 220 400 Weight kilograms 99 180

1. Which animal heights and weights are prime numbers?

2. Write the weight of caribou cows in kilograms as a prime factorization.

3. ANIMALS Caribou calves weigh about 13 pounds at birth. Tell whether this weight is a prime or a composite number.

4. SPEED A wildlife biologist once found a caribou traveling at 37 miles per hour. Tell whether this speed is a prime or composite number. Explain.

5. GEOMETRY To find the area of a floor, you can multiply its length times its width. The measure of the area of a floor is 49. Find the most likely length and width of the room.

6. GEOMETRY To find the volume of a box, you can multiply its height, width, and length. The measure of the volume of a box is 70. Find its possible dimensions.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

13

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 13

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Prime Factors
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 14 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. For what numbers can more than one rectangle be formed?

2. For what numbers can only one rectangle be formed?

3. For the numbers in which only one rectangle is formed, what do you notice about the dimensions of the rectangle?

Reading the Lesson


4. The word factorization is made up of factor a verb ending a noun ending. Write a definition for each of the following mathematical terms: a. factor

b. to factorize, or to factor

c. factorization

5. Is 9 a prime number or a composite number? Explain.

Helping You Remember


6. Pick a number that has two or three digits. Explain to someone else how to use a factor tree to find the prime factors of the number. In your explanation, show how the rules of divisibility help you to do the factoring.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

14

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Making Models for Numbers
Have you wondered why we read the number 32 as three squared? The reason is that a common model for 32 is a square with sides of length 3 units. As you see, the figure that results is made up of 9 square units.
3 units

3 units

32 9 square units

Make a model for each expression. 1. 22 2. 42 3. 12 4. 52

Since we read the expression 23 as two cubed, you probably have guessed that there is also a model for this number. The model, shown at the right, is a cube with sides of length 2 units. The figure that results is made up of 8 cubic units. Exercises 5 and 6 refer to the figure at the right. 5. What expression is being modeled? 6. Suppose that the entire cube is painted red. Then the cube is cut into small cubes along the lines shown.

2 units 2 units 2 units 23 8 cubic units

b. How many small cubes have red paint on exactly three of their faces? c. How many small cubes have red paint on exactly two of their faces? d. How many small cubes have red paint on exactly one face? e. How many small cubes have no red paint at all? 7. CHALLENGE In the space at the right, draw a model for the expression 43.
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

15

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 13

a. How many small cubes are there in all?

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Powers and Exponents
A product of prime factors can be written using exponents and a base. Numbers expressed using exponents are called powers. Powers 42 56 74 93 Words 4 to the second power or 4 squared 5 to the sixth power 7 to the fourth power 9 to the third power or 9 cubed Expression 44 5 5 5 5 5 5 7777 999 Value 16 15,625 2,401 729

Write 6 6 6 using an exponent. Then find the value of the power. The base is 6. Since 6 is a factor 3 times, the exponent is 3. 6 6 6 63 or 216 Write 24 as a product. Then find the value of the product. The base is 2. The exponent is 4. So, 2 is a factor 4 times. 24 2 2 2 2 or 16 Write the prime factorization of 225 using exponents. The prime factorization of 225 can be written as 3 3 5 5, or 32 52.

Write each product using an exponent. Then find the value of the power. 1. 2 2 2 2 2 3. 3 3 3 5. 3 3 3 3 3 2. 9 9 4. 5 5 5 6. 10 10

Write each power as a product. Then find the value of the product. 7. 72 9. 84 11. 28 8. 43 10. 55 12. 73

Write the prime factorization of each number using exponents. 13. 40 15. 100
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

14. 75 16. 147

16

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Powers and Exponents
Write each expression in words. 1. 72 2. 83 3. 44 4. 56 Write each product using an exponent. Then find the value of the power. 5. 4 4 4 4 7. 5 5 5 5 9. 3 3 3 3 3 11. 6 6 6 6. 3 3 3 3 8. 7 7 10. 2 2 2 2 2 2 12. 6 6 6 6

Write each power as a product. Then find the value of the product. 13. 38 15. 83 17. 62 19. 23 21. 65 14. 25 16. 105 18. 74 20. 35 22. 27

Write the prime factorization of each number using exponents.

25. 63

26. 245

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

17

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 14

23. 54

24. 36

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Powers and Exponents
1. SPACE The Sun is about 10 10 million miles away from Earth. Write 10 10 using an exponent. Then find the value of the power. How many miles away is the Sun? 2. WEIGHT A 100-pound person on Earth would weigh about 4 4 4 4 pounds on Jupiter. Write 4 4 4 4 using an exponent. Then find the value of the power. How much would a 100-pound person weigh on Jupiter?

3. ELECTIONS In the year 2000, the governor of Washington, Gary Locke, received about 106 votes to win the election. Write this as a product. How many votes did Gary Locke receive?

4. SPACE The diameter of Mars is about 94 kilometers. Write 94 as a product. Then find the value of the product.

5. SPACE The length of one day on Venus is 35 Earth days. Express this exponent as a product. Then find the value of the product:

6. GEOGRAPHY The area of San Bernardino County, California, the largest county in the U.S., is about 39 square miles. Write this as a product. What is the area of San Bernardino County?

7. GEOMETRY The volume of the block shown can be found by multiplying the width, length, and height. Write the volume using an exponent. Find the volume.

2 in. 2 in.

2 in.

8. SPACE A day on Jupiter lasts about 10 hours. Write a product and an exponent to show how many hours are in 10 Jupiter days. Then find the value of the power.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

18

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Powers and Exponents
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 18 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. What prime factors did you record?

2. How does the number of folds relate to the number of factors in the prime factorization of the number of holes?

3. Write the prime factorization of the number of holes made if you folded it eight times.

Reading the Lesson


4. Describe the expression 25. In your description, use the terms power, base, and exponent.

5. In the power 35, what does the exponent 5 indicate?

6. Complete the following table. Expression 43 72 96 8888 33333 Words

4 7 9 8 3

to to to to to

the the the the the

third power or 4 cubed second power or 7 squared sixth power fourth power fifth power

Helping You Remember


7. Explain how to find the value of 54.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

19

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 14

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
The Sieve of Erathosthenes
Erathosthenes was a Greek mathematician who lived from about 276 B.C. to 194 B.C. He devised the Sieve of Erathosthenes as a method of identifying all the prime numbers up to a certain number. Using the chart below, you can use his method to find all the prime numbers up to 120. Just follow these numbered steps. 1. The number 1 is not prime. Cross it out. 2. The number 2 is prime. Circle it. Then cross out every second number4, 6, 8, 10, and so on. 3. The number 3 is prime. Circle it. Then cross out every third number6, 9, 12, and so on. 4. The number 4 is crossed out. Go to the next number that is not crossed out. 5. The number 5 is prime. Circle it. Then cross out every fifth number10, 15, 20, 25, and so on. 6. Continue crossing out numbers as described in Steps 25. The numbers that remain at the end of this process are prime numbers. 7. CHALLENGE Look at the prime numbers that are circled in the chart. Do you see a pattern among the prime numbers that are greater than 3? What do you think the pattern is?

1 7 13 19 25 31 37 43 49 55 61 67 73 79 85 91 97 103 109 115

2 8 14 20 26 32 38 44 50 56 62 68 74 80 86 92 98 104 110 116

3 9 15 21 27 33 39 45 51 57 63 69 75 81 87 93 99 105 111 117

4 10 16 22 28 34 40 46 52 58 64 70 76 82 88 94 100 106 112 118

5 11 17 23 29 35 41 47 53 59 65 71 77 83 89 95 101 107 113 119

6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 102 108 114 120

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

20

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Order of Operations
Order of Operations 1. Simplify the expressions inside grouping symbols, like parentheses. 2. Find the value of all powers. 3. Multiply and divide in order from left to right. 4. Add and subtract in order from left to right.

Find the value of 48 (3 3) 22. 48 (3 3) 22 48 6 22 48 6 4 84 4


Simplify the expression inside the parentheses. Find 22. Divide 48 by 6. Subtract 4 from 8.

Write and solve an expression to find the total cost of planting flowers in the garden. Item pack of flowers bag of dirt bottle of fertilizer Words cost of 5 flower packs Expression 5 $4 5 $4 $3 $4 $20 $3 $4 $23 $4 $27 The total cost of planting flowers in the garden is $27. plus Cost Per Item Number of Items Needed $4 $3 $4 cost of dirt $3 plus 5 1 1 cost of fertilizer $4

Find the value of each expression. 1. 7 2 3 4. 8 8 4 7. 80 8 32 2. 12 3 5 5. 10 14 2 8. 11 (9 22) 3. 16 (4 5) 6. 3 3 2 4 9. 25 5 6 (12 4)

10. GARDENING Refer to Example 2. Suppose that the gardener did not buy enough flowers and goes back to the store to purchase four more packs. She also purchases a hoe for $16. Write an expression that shows the total amount she spent to plant flowers in her garden.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

21

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 15

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Order of Operations
Find the value of each expression. 1. 7 6 5 2. 31 19 8

3. 64 8 21

4. 17 34 2

5. 28 (89 67)

6. (8 1) 12 13

7. 63 9 8

8. 5 6 (9 4)

9. 13 4 72 8

10. 16 2 8 3

11. 30 (21 6) 4

12. 6 7 (6 8)

13. 88 16 5 2 3

14. (2 6) 2 4 3

15. 43 24 8

16. 100 52 43

17. 48 23 25 (9 7)

18. 45 9 8 7 2 3

19. 18 72 (8 2) 3 8

20. (52 33) (81 9) 10

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

22

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Order of Operations
Lesson 15
MONEY For Exercises 13, use the table that shows the price of admission to a movie theater.

Movie Theater Admission Adults: $8 Children (under 13): $5 Matinee (before 6 P.M.): $3 1. Janelle (age 12) and her cousin, Marquita (age 14), go to a 7:00 P.M. show. Write an expression for the total cost of admission. What is the total cost? 2. Jan takes her three children and two neighbors children to a matinee. All of the children are under age 13. Write an expression for the total cost of admission. How much in all did Jan pay for admission?

3. Connor (age 13), his sister (age 7), and Connors parents go to a movie on Saturday night. Write an expression for the total cost. What is the total cost?

4. SOCCER Eduardo is 16. Eduardos dad takes him and his younger sister to a soccer match. Tickets are $17 for adults and $13 for children (18 and under). Write an expression for the total cost of the tickets. What is the total cost of the tickets?

5. MONEY Frankie orders two hamburgers and a soda for lunch. A hamburger is $3 and a soda is $1.00. Write an expression to show how much he paid for lunch. Then find the value of the expression.

6. MONEY A store sells barrettes for $2 each and combs for $1. Shelby buys 3 barrettes and a comb. Kendra buys 2 barrettes and 4 combs. Write an expression for the amount the two girls spent all together. Find the total amount spent.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

23

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Order of Operations
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 24 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. How many Calories would you burn by walking for 2 hours?

2. Find the number of Calories a person would burn by walking for 2 hours and bike riding for 3 hours.

3. Explain how you found the total number of Calories.

Reading the Lesson


4. The steps for finding the value of a numerical expression are listed below. Number the steps in the correct order. _____ Find the value of all powers. _____ Add and subtract in order from left to right. _____ Simplify the expressions inside grouping symbols. _____ Multiply and divide in order from left to right. 5. Using the order of operations, explain how you would find the value of (7 5) 22 8.

6. How would the value of (7 5) 22 8 differ if you added the 8 before you divided by 4?

Helping You Remember


7. Using only operation symbols and grouping symbols, write the order of operations.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

24

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Lesson 15
30 50 1

Operations Puzzles
Now that you have learned how to evaluate an expression using the order of operations, can you work backward? In this activity, the value of the expression will be given to you. It is your job to decide what the operations or the numbers must be in order to arrive at that value.

Fill in each 1. 48 3

with , , , or to make a true statement. 12 12 2. 30 15 36

3. 24

12

34

4. 24

12

3 18

5. 4

16

8 24

6. 45

93

7. 36

12

20

8. 72

12

Fill in each

with one of the given numbers to make a true

statement. Each number may be used only once. 9. 6, 12, 24 12 10. 4, 9, 36 0

11. 6, 8, 12, 24 4

12. 2, 5, 10, 50

13. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 0

14. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9

15. CHALLENGE Fill in each

with one of the digits from 1 through 9 to

make a true statement. Each digit may be used only once. 100

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

25

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Algebra: Variables and Expressions
A variable is a symbol, usually a letter, used to represent a number. Multiplication in algebra can be shown as 4n or 4 n. Algebraic expressions are combinations of variables, numbers, and at least one operation.

Evaluate 35 x if x 6. 35 x 35 6 41
Replace x with 6. Add 35 and 6.

Evaluate y x if x 21 and y 35. y x 35 21 56


Replace x with 21 and y with 35. Add 35 and 21.

Evaluate 4n 3 if n 2. 4n 3 4 2 3 Replace n with 2. 83 Find the product of 4 and 2. 11 Add 8 and 3. Evaluate 4n 2 if n 5. 4n 2 4 5 2 Replace n with 5. 20 2 Find the product of 4 and 5. 18 Subtract 2 from 20.

Evaluate each expression if y 4. 1. 3 y 4. 9y 7. y2 2. y 8 5. 15y 8. y2 18 3. 4 y 6. 300y 9. y2 3 7

Evaluate each expression if m 3 and k 10. 10. 16 m 13. m k 16. 3k 4m 19. 20m k 11. 4k 14. 7m k 17. 2mk 20. m3 2k2 12. m k 15. 6k m 18. 5k 6m 21. k2 (2 m)

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

26

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Algebra: Variables and Expressions
Complete the table. Algebraic Expressions 1. 5d 2c 2. 5w 4y 2s 3. xy 4 3m 6 Variables ? d, c ? w, y, s ? x, y, m Numbers ? 5, 2 ? 5, 4, 2 ? 4, 3, 6 Operations ? , ? , , ? , , ,

Evaluate each expression if a 3 and b 4. 4. 10 b 5. 2a 8 6. 4b 5a

7. a b

8. 7a 9b

9. 8a 9

10. b 22

11. a2 1

12. 18 2a

13. a2 b2

14. ab 3

15. 15a 4b

16. ab 7 11

17. 36 6a

18. 7a 8b 2

Evaluate each expression if x 7, y 15, and z 8. 19. x y z 20. x 2z 21. xz 3y

22. 4x 3z

23. z2 4

24. 6z 5z

25. 9y (2x 1)

26. 15y x2

27. y2 4 6

28. y2 2x2

29. x2 30 18

30. 13y zx 4

31. xz 2y 8

32. z2 5y 20

33. 3y 40x 1,000

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

27

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 16

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Algebra: Variables and Expressions
TRAVEL For Exercises 1 and 2, use the table that shows the distance between cities in Arizona.

Arizona Mileage Chart Flagstaff Phoenix Tucson Nogales 136 miles 253 miles 317 miles 117 miles 181 miles 64 miles 2. To find the time it will take for a bicyclist to travel from Nogales to Tucson, use the expression d/s where d represents distance and s represents speed. Find the time if the bicyclist travels at a speed of 16 miles per hour. Phoenix Tucson 117 miles Nogales 181 miles 64 miles

1. To find the speed of a car, use the expression d t where d represents the distance and t represents time. Find the speed of a car that travels from Phoenix to Flagstaff in 2 hours.

3. PERIMETER The perimeter of a rectangle can be w found using the formula 2 2w, where represents the length and w represents the width. Find the perimeter if 6 units and w 3 units.

4. PERIMETER Another formula for perimeter is 2( w). Find the perimeter of the rectangle in Exercise 3 using this formula. How do the answers compare? Explain how you used order of operations using this formula.

5. SHOPPING Write an expression using a variable that shows how much 3 pairs of jeans will cost if you do not know the price of the jeans. Assume each pair costs the same amount.

6. SHOPPING Write an expression using variables to show how much 3 plain T-shirts and 2 printed T-shirts will cost, assuming that the prices of plain and printed T-shirts are not the same.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

28

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Algebra: Variables and Expressions
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 28 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Model the sum of five and some number.

3. Write a sentence explaining how to evaluate an expression like the sum of some number and seven when the unknown value is given.

Reading the Lesson


4. Look up the word variable in a dictionary. What definition of the word matches its use in this lesson? If classmates use different dictionaries, compare the meanings among the dictionaries.

5. Exercise 4 of the Mini Lab uses the expression unknown value, which can also be read as "value of the unknown." In the expression value of the unknown, would the expression value of the variable mean the same thing?

Helping You Remember


6. Explain the difference between a numerical expression and an algebraic expression.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

29

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 16

2. Find the value of the expression if the unknown value is 4.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Whats in a Word?
Suppose you use the following code for the letters of the alphabet. A B C D E F G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 H I J K L M N 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 O P Q R S T 15 16 17 18 19 20 U 21 V 22 W 23 X 24 Y 25 Z 26 13 (M) 1 (A) 13 20 (T) 260 8 (H) 2,080

To evaluate a word using this code, you replace each letter with its code number, then multiply. For instance, at the right you see how to find the value of the word MATH, which is 2,080. Use the code above to evaluate each word. 1. BOX 3. TABLE 5. VARIABLE 2. CUBE 4. CATTLE 6. ALGEBRA

Circle the word that has the greater value. (Hint: Do you have to evaluate the entire word, or is there a shortcut?) 7. PRINCIPAL or PRINCIPLE 9. THOUGHT or THROUGH 8. MARCH or CHARM 10. RIGHT or WRITE

Find a three-letter word that has a value as close as possible to the given number. 11. 1,000 13. 3,000 12. 2,000 14. 6,000

15. CHALLENGE What is the least possible value that you can find for a threeletter word? the greatest possible value?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

30

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Algebra: Solving Equations
An equation is a sentence that contains an equals sign, =. Some equations contain variables. When you replace a variable with a value that results in a true sentence, you solve the equation. The value for the variable is the solution of the equation.

Solve m 12 15 mentally. m 12 15 Think: What number plus 12 equals 15? 3 12 15 You know that 12 3 15. m3 The solution is 3. Solve 14 p 6 using guess and check. Guess the value of p, then check it out. Try 7. 14 p 6 14 7 6 no Try 6. 14 p 6 14 6 8 no Try 8. 14 p 6 14 8 6 yes

The solution is 8 because replacing p with 8 results in a true sentence.

Identify the solution of each equation from the list given. 1. k 4 13; 16, 17, 18 2. 31 x 42; 9, 10, 11

3. 45 24 k; 21, 22, 23

4. m 12 15; 27, 28, 29

5. 88 41 s; 46, 47, 48

6. 34 b 17; 16, 17, 18

7. 69 j 44; 25, 26, 27

8. h 19 56; 36, 37, 38

Solve each equation mentally. 9. j 3 9 10. m 5 11 11. 23 x 29

12. 31 h 24

13. 18 5 d

14. 35 a 25

15. y 26 3

16. 14 n 19

17. 100 75 w

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

31

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 17

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Algebra: Solving Equations
Solve each equation mentally. 1. 9 m 8 4. 31 h 21 7. y 25 3 10. 18 v 9 13. 45 r 59 True or False? 16. If 31 h 50, then h 29. 17. If 48 40 k, then k 8. 18. If 17 x 9, then x 7. 19. If 98 g 87, then g 11. 20. If p 8 45, then p 51. Identify the solution of each equation from the list given. 21. s 12 17; 5, 6, 7 23. 24 k 3; 21, 22, 23 25. 69 50 s; 17, 18, 19 27. 66 d 44; 21, 22, 23 29. 54 f 70; 16, 17, 18 31. 28 v 92; 64, 65, 66 22. 59 x 42; 15, 16, 17 24. h 15 31; 44, 45, 46 26. 34 b 13; 20, 21, 22 28. h 39 56; 15, 16, 17 30. 47 72 b; 25, 26, 27 32. 56 c 109; 52, 53, 54 2. 4 k 11 5. 18 20 b 8. 7 f 15 11. 26 d 19 14. 64 n 70 3. 23 x 10 6. 16 z 25 9. 20 r 25 12. 49 c 41 15. 175 w 75

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

32

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Algebra: Solving Equations
INSECTS For Exercises 13, use the table that gives the average lengths

of several unusual insects in centimeters. Insect Walking stick Goliath beetle Giant weta Harlequin beetle Length (cm) 15 15 10 7 Insect Giant water bug Katydid Silkworm moth Flower mantis Length (cm) 6 5 4 3

1. The equation 15 x 12 gives the difference in length between a walking stick and one other insect. If x is the other insect, which insect is it?

2. The equation 7 y 13 gives the length of a Harlequin beetle and one other insect. If y is the other insect, which insect makes the equation a true sentence?

3. Bradley found a silkworm moth that was 2 centimeters longer than average. The equation m 4 2 represents this situation. Find the length of the silkworm moth that Bradley found.

4. BUTTERFLIES A Monarch butterfly flies about 80 miles per day. So far it has flown 60 miles. In the equation 80 m 60, m represents the number of miles it has yet to fly that day. Find the solution to the equation.

5. CICADAS The nymphs of some cicada can live among tree roots for 17 years before they develop into adults. One nymph developed into an adult after only 13 years. The equation 17 x 13 describes the number of years less than 17 that it lived as a nymph. Find the value of x in the equation to tell how many years less than 17 years it lived as a nymph.

6. BEETLES A harlequin beetle lays eggs in trees. She can lay up to 20 eggs over 2 or 3 days. After the first day, the beetle has laid 9 eggs. If she lays 20 eggs in all, how many eggs will she lay during the second and third day?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

33

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 17

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Algebra: Solving Equations
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 34 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Suppose the variable x represents the number of cubes in the cup. What equation represents this situation? 2. Replace the cup with centimeter cubes until the scale balances. How many centimeter cubes did you need to balance the scale? Let x represent the cup. Model each sentence on a scale. Find the number of centimeter cubes needed to balance the scale. 3. x 1 4 4. x 3 5 5. x 7 8 6. x 2 2

Reading the Lesson


7. In the Mini Lab, how did you make the scale balance?

8. In this lesson, what makes a mathematical sentence true?

9. How are the words solve and solution related?

10. Look up the word equate in a dictionary. How does it relate to the word equation?

Helping You Remember


11. Suppose you are buying a soda for $0.60 and you are going to pay with a dollar bill. Write an equation that represents this situation. What does your variable represent?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

34

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Equation Chains
In an equation chain, you use the solution of one equation to help you find the solution of the next equation in the chain. The last equation in the chain is used to check that you have solved the entire chain correctly. Complete each equation chain. 1. 5 a 12, ab 14, 16 b c, 14 d c, e d 3, so a so b so c so d so e . . . . . 2. 9f 36, so f . . . .

g 13 f, so g 63 g h, so h h i 18, so i j i 9, so j

a e 25 Check:

j f 5 Check:

3. m 4 8, m n 12, np 100, q 40 p,

so m so n so p so q .

. . . .

4. 18 v 12,so v v w 3, 80 wx, so w so x

. . . . .

w x 2y, so y xy z 40, so z z v 2 Check:

p q 10 r, so r r m 8 Check:

5. CHALLENGE Create your own equation chain using these numbers for the variables: a 10, b 6, c 18, and d 3.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

35

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 17

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Geometry: Area of Rectangles
The area of a figure is the number of square units needed to cover a surface. You can use a formula to find the area of a rectangle. The formula for finding the area of a rectangle is A w. In this formula, A represents area, represents the length of the rectangle, and w represents the width of the rectangle.

Find the area of a rectangle with length 8 feet and width 7 feet. Aw Area of a rectangle A87 Replace with 8 and w with 7. A 56 The area is 56 square feet.

Find the area of a rectangle with width 5 inches and length 6 inches. Aw Area of a rectangle A65 Replace with 6 and w with 5. A 30 The area is 30 square inches.

Find the area of each rectangle. 1. 2.


5 ft

3.

7 cm

3 cm

4.

6 yd

5 yd 8 ft

5. What is the area of a rectangle with a length of 10 meters and a width of 7 meters?

6. What is the area of a rectangle with a length of 35 inches and a width of 15 inches?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

36

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Geometry: Area of Rectangles
Complete each problem. 1. Give the formula for finding the area of a rectangle. 2. Draw and label a rectangle that has an area of 18 square units.

3. Give the dimensions of another rectangle that has the same area as the one in Exercise 2.

4. Find the area of a rectangle with a length of 3 miles and a width of 7 miles. 5. Find the area of a rectangle with a width of 54 centimeters and a length of 12 centimeters. Find the area of each rectangle. 6.
6 in. 9 in.

7.
10 ft

14 ft

8.

16 cm

32 cm

9. 2 m
11 m

10.
3 yd

7 yd

11.
8 in.

9 in.

12.

5 ft

13.

15 m

14.

7 cm

12 ft

24 m

7 cm

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

37

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 18

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Geometry: Area of Rectangles
FLOOR PLANS For Exercises 16, use the diagram that shows the floor

plan for a house.


9 ft 2 ft Closet 7 ft 2 ft Closet 10 ft

Bath

6 ft

13 ft

Bedroom 1

Bedroom 2

13 ft

Hall

14 ft

Kitchen

Living/Dining Room

14 ft

12 ft

18 ft

1. What is the area of the floor in the kitchen?

2. Find the area of the living/dining room.

3. What is the area of the bathroom?

4. Find the area of Bedroom 1.

5. Which two parts of the house have the same area?

6. How much larger is Bedroom 2 than Bedroom 1?

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38

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Geometry: Area of Rectangles
Pre-Activity Complete the activity at the top of page 39 in your textbook. Write
your answers below.
1. Complete the table below. Object flag game board Squares Along the Length Squares Along the Width Squares Needed to Cover the Surface

2. What relationship exists between the length and the width, and the number of squares needed to cover the surface?

Reading the Lesson


3. Look up the word area in a dictionary. Write the meaning of the word as used in this lesson.

5. On page 39, the textbook says that the area of a figure is the number of square units needed to cover a surface. If the length and width are measured in inches, in what units will the area be expressed?

6. What unit of measure is indicated by m2? How large is one unit?

Helping You Remember


7. With a partner, measure a surface in your classroom. Explain how to find its area. Then find the area in the appropriate square units.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 18

4. In order to find the area of a surface, what two measurements do you need to know?

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Tiling a Floor
The figure at the right is the floor plan of a family room. The plan is drawn on grid paper, and each square of the grid represents one square foot. The floor is going to be covered completely with tiles. 1. What is the area of the floor?

2. Suppose each tile is a square with a side that measures one foot. How many tiles will be needed?

3. Suppose each tile is a square with a side that measures one inch. How many tiles will be needed?

4. Suppose each tile is a square with a side that measures six inches. How many tiles will be needed?

Use the given information to find the total cost of tiles for the floor. 5. tile: square, 1 foot by 1 foot cost of one tile: $3.50 6. tile: square, 6 inches by 6 inches cost of one tile: $0.95

7. tile: square, 4 inches by 4 inches cost of one tile: $0.50

8. tile: square, 2 feet by 2 feet cost of one tile: $12

9. tile: square, 1 foot by 1 foot cost of two tiles: $6.99

10. tile: rectangle, 1 foot by 2 feet cost of one tile: $7.99

11. Refer to your answers in Exercises 5-10. Which way of tiling the floor costs the least? the most?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

40

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Chapter Chapter X 2 Resource Resource Masters Masters

Course 1 1 Course

Consumable Workbooks
Many of the worksheets contained in the Chapter Resource Masters booklets are available as consumable workbooks in both English and Spanish. Study Guide and Intervention Workbook Study Guide and Intervention Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Skills Workbook Practice: Skills Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Word Problems Workbook Practice: Word Problems Workbook (Spanish) Reading to Learn Mathematics Workbook 0-07-860085-5 0-07-860091-X 0-07-860086-3 0-07-860092-8 0-07-860087-1 0-07-860093-6 0-07-861057-5

Answers for Workbooks The answers for Chapter 2 of these


workbooks can be found in the back of this Chapter Resource Masters booklet.

Spanish Assessment Masters Spanish versions of forms 2A and 2C of


the Chapter 2 Test are available in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts Spanish Assessment Masters, Course 1 (0-07-860095-2).

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teacher, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1 Chapter 2 Resource Masters 024 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03

ISBN: 0-07-860065-0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

CONTENTS
Vocabulary Builder .............................vii Family Letter ............................................ix Family Activity ........................................x Lesson 2-1
Study Guide and Intervention ..........................61 Practice: Skills ..................................................62 Practice: Word Problems..................................63 Reading to Learn Mathematics........................64 Enrichment .......................................................65

Lesson 2-6
Study Guide and Intervention ..........................86 Practice: Skills ..................................................87 Practice: Word Problems..................................88 Reading to Learn Mathematics........................89 Enrichment .......................................................90

Lesson 2-7
Study Guide and Intervention ..........................91 Practice: Skills ..................................................92 Practice: Word Problems..................................93 Reading to Learn Mathematics........................94 Enrichment .......................................................95

Lesson 2-2
Study Guide and Intervention ..........................66 Practice: Skills ..................................................67 Practice: Word Problems..................................68 Reading to Learn Mathematics........................69 Enrichment .......................................................70

Lesson 2-8
Study Guide and Intervention ..........................96 Practice: Skills ..................................................97 Practice: Word Problems..................................98 Reading to Learn Mathematics........................99 Enrichment .....................................................100

Lesson 2-3
Study Guide and Intervention ..........................71 Practice: Skills ..................................................72 Practice: Word Problems..................................73 Reading to Learn Mathematics........................74 Enrichment .......................................................75

Chapter 2 Assessment
Chapter 2 Test, Form 1 ..........................101102 Chapter 2 Test, Form 2A ........................103104 Chapter 2 Test, Form 2B ........................105106 Chapter 2 Test, Form 2C........................107108 Chapter 2 Test, Form 2D........................109110 Chapter 2 Test, Form 3 ..........................111112 Chapter 2 Extended Response Assessment .113 Chapter 2 Vocabulary Test/Review.................114 Chapter 2 Quizzes 1 & 2................................115 Chapter 2 Quizzes 3 & 4................................116 Chapter 2 Mid-Chapter Test ...........................117 Chapter 2 Cumulative Review........................118 Chapter 2 Standardized Test Practice....119120 Unit 1 Test/Review..................................121122 Standardized Test Practice Student Recording Sheet ............................A1 Standardized Test Practice Rubric...................A2 ANSWERS .............................................A3A33

Lesson 2-4
Study Guide and Intervention ..........................76 Practice: Skills ..................................................77 Practice: Word Problems..................................78 Reading to Learn Mathematics........................79 Enrichment .......................................................80

Lesson 2-5
Study Guide and Intervention ..........................81 Practice: Skills ..................................................82 Practice: Word Problems..................................83 Reading to Learn Mathematics........................84 Enrichment .......................................................85

iii

Teachers Guide to Using the Chapter 2 Resource Masters


The Fast File Chapter Resource system allows you to conveniently file the resources you use most often. The Chapter 2 Resource Masters includes the core materials needed for Chapter 2. These materials include worksheets, extensions, and assessment options. The answers for these pages appear at the back of this booklet. All of the materials found in this booklet are included for viewing and printing in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1, TeacherWorks CD-ROM.

Vocabulary Builder Pages vii-viii include a student study tool that presents up to twenty of the key vocabulary terms from the chapter. Students are to record definitions and/or examples for each term. You may suggest that students highlight or star the terms with which they are not familiar.
When to Use Give these pages to students before beginning Lesson 2-1. Encourage them to add these pages to their mathematics study notebook. Remind them to add definitions and examples as they complete each lesson.

Practice: Skills

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice that more closely follows the structure of the Practice and Applications section of the Student Edition exercises. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Practice: Word Problems

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice in solving word problems that apply the concepts of the lesson. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Family Letter and Family Activity


Page ix is a letter to inform your students families of the requirements of the chapter. The family activity on page x helps them understand how the mathematics students are learning is applicable to real life. When to Use Give these pages to students to take home before beginning the chapter.

Reading to Learn Mathematics

Study Guide and Intervention


There is one Study Guide and Intervention master for each lesson in Chapter 2. When to Use Use these masters as reteaching activities for students who need additional reinforcement. These pages can also be used in conjunction with the Student Edition as an instructional tool for students who have been absent.

One master is included for each lesson. The first section of each master asks questions about the opening paragraph of the lesson in the Student Edition. Additional questions ask students to interpret the context of and relationships among terms in the lesson. Finally, students are asked to summarize what they have learned using various representation techniques. When to Use This master can be used as a study tool when presenting the lesson or as an informal reading assessment after presenting the lesson. It is also a helpful tool for ELL (English Language Learner) students.

iv

There is one extension master for each lesson. These activities may extend the concepts in the lesson, offer an historical or multicultural look at the concepts, or widen students perspectives on the mathematics they are learning. These are not written exclusively for honors students, but are accessible for use with all levels of students. When to Use These may be used as extra credit, short-term projects, or as activities for days when class periods are shortened.

Enrichment

A Vocabulary Test, suitable for all students, includes a list of the vocabulary words in the chapter and ten questions assessing students knowledge of those terms. This can also be used in conjunction with one of the chapter tests or as a review worksheet.

Intermediate Assessment
Four free-response quizzes are included to offer assessment at appropriate intervals in the chapter. A Mid-Chapter Test provides an option to assess the first half of the chapter. It is composed of both multiple-choice and freeresponse questions.

Assessment Options
The assessment masters in the Chapter 2 Resources Masters offer a wide range of assessment tools for intermediate and final assessment. The following lists describe each assessment master and its intended use.

Continuing Assessment
The Cumulative Review provides students an opportunity to reinforce and retain skills as they proceed through their study of Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. It can also be used as a test. This master includes free-response questions. The Standardized Test Practice offers continuing review of pre-algebra concepts in various formats, which may appear on the standardized tests that they may encounter. This practice includes multiplechoice, short response, grid-in, and extended response questions. Bubble-in and grid-in answer sections are provided on the master.

Chapter Assessment
Chapter Tests Form 1 contains multiple-choice questions and is intended for use with basic level students. Forms 2A and 2B contain multiple-choice questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Forms 2C and 2D are composed of freeresponse questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Grids with axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. Form 3 is an advanced level test with free-response questions. Grids without axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. All of the above tests include a free-response Bonus question. The Extended-Response Assessment includes performance assessment tasks that are suitable for all students. A scoring rubric is included for evaluation guidelines. Sample answers are provided for assessment.

Answers
Page A1 is an answer sheet for the Standardized Test Practice questions that appear in the Student Edition on pages 9495. This improves students familiarity with the answer formats they may encounter in test taking. Detailed rubrics for assessing the extended response questions on page 95 are provided on page A2. The answers for the lesson-by-lesson masters are provided as reduced pages with answers appearing in red. Full-size answer keys are provided for the assessment masters in this booklet.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
This is an alphabetical list of new vocabulary terms you will learn in Chapter 2. As you study the chapter, complete each terms definition or description. Remember to add the page number where you found the term. Add this page to your math study notebook to review vocabulary at the end of the chapter. Vocabulary Term average Found on Page Definition/Description/Example
Vocabulary Builder

bar graph

box-and-whisker plot

circle graph

data

frequency table

graph

horizontal axis

interval

key

leaves

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vii

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
Vocabulary Term line graph Found on Page

(continued)
Definition/Description/Example

mean

measure of central tendency median

mode

outlier

range

scale

statistics

stem-and-leaf plot

stems

tally mark

vertical axis

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

viii

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Letter

Dear Parent or Guardian: routines. One of the things We use math in many of our daily ivities in the classroom to we try to do in this class is relate act this connection will help activities in the real world. Making rning math concepts. students realize the importance of lea s, your child will be learnIn Chapter 2, Statistics and Graph le graphs, stem-and-leaf ing about bar graphs, line graphs, circ dian, and mode. In the plots, frequency tables, and mean, me complete a variety of daily study of this chapter, your child will and possibly produce a classroom assignments and activities chapter project . it with your child, you By signing this letter and returning ting involved. Enclosed is agree to encourage your child by get r child that also relates the an activity that you can do with you 2 to the real world. You math we will be learning in Chapter line Study Tools for selfmay also wish to log on to the On dy Guide pages, and check quizzes, Parent and Student Stu et. If you have any quesother study help at www.msmath1.n t me at school. tions or comments, feel free to contac Sincerely,

Signature of Parent or Guardian ______________________________________ Date ________

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ix

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Family Letter

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Activity
Bar Graphs and Line Graphs
1. Have a family member help you count the number of cans of food, glass jars of food, boxes of food, and bags of food you have in your pantry. Food in Pantry cans glass jars boxes bags other 2. Make a bar graph to represent the data. Number

3. Name the type of container of which you have the most (can, glass jar, box, or bag). 4. Do you have more cans of food or more bags of food? 5. Make a line graph of the data.

6. Do you think a line graph or a bar graph is better for answering the questions? Why?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Frequency Tables
Statistics involves collecting, organizing, analyzing, and presenting data. Data are pieces of information and are usually numbers. You can organize data by making a frequency table. A frequency table shows the number of times each piece of data appears. The parts of a frequency table: Scale: Interval: Tally marks: Frequency: lets you record all of the data; includes the least and the greatest number separates the scale into equal parts lets you record a mark each time a piece of data appears gives the sum of the tally marks for each category

SCHOOL Vinnie recorded his scores

Step 1

Choose a scale and interval. A scale that includes all the data is 0 to 10. An interval that separates the scale into equal parts is 2. Draw a table with three columns and label the columns. List the intervals, tally the data, and add the tallies.

My Quiz Scores Score 12 34 56 78 910 Tally 1 1 3 2 5 Frequency 1 1 3 2 5

Step 2 Step 3

Since the quiz score 9 has the greatest number in the frequency column, Vinnie scored 9 most often.

MUSIC Use the table that shows

the number of hours the band members practiced in a week. 1. Make a frequency table for the data. 2. Which number of hours practicing is most common?

Hours Spent Practicing 3 2 3 4 4 3 2 1 3 4 1 3 5 3 5 2 2 1 2 1

3. How many band members practiced more than 4 hours a week?

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61

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 21

on this months math quizzes. Make a frequency table of the data. Which score did Vinnie get most often?

My Quiz Scores 9 5 8 9 9 6 5 2

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Frequency Tables
Make a frequency table for each set of data. 1. Class Quiz Scores 4 6 8 7 8 9 10 9 7 5 8 6 8 9 7 8 10 8

2.

Students Eye Colors R L R R H G L R H R R V L L R L G R R G H R R H R

L Blue G Green V Violet

R Brown H Hazel

MOVIES Use the frequency table shown.

All-Time Top 27 Kids Films Gross Sales Tally (millions $) 100149 150199 200249 250299 300349 554 5 2 4 2 Frequency 14 5 2 4 2

3. Describe the scale.

4. Describe the interval.

5. What is the most common gross sales category?

6. How many films grossed more than $299 million?

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Frequency Tables
ANIMALS For Exercises 13, use Table A. For Exercises 46, use Table B.

Table A Insects Under a Rock E S S B S B S E S E E S B E B E B E E B E E S E E S E B E S B E S E E E

Table B Weights (lb) of Dogs at the Vet Clinic Weight 110 1120 2130 3140 4150 Tally 554 5554 55555 55 5 Frequency 14 19 25 10 5

B beetle E earwig S sow bug

3. When Maria writes her report, she will list the insects in order of most common to least common. What order should she write in her report?

4. The strength of medicine given to a dog depends on the dogs weight. There is a different strength for each weight group. For which weight group should a veterinarian order the most medicine? the least medicine?

5. Describe the scale and the interval in Table B.

6. How many more dogs are in the most frequent group than in the second most frequent group?

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 21

1. Maria is counting three types of insects she finds under rocks in the park for an ecology survey. Make a frequency table showing her data from Table A.

2. How many more earwigs did Maria find than beetles?

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Frequency Tables
Pre-Activity Complete the activity at the top of page 50 in your textbook. Write
your answers below.
1. What is the height of the tallest tree? 2. How many trees are between 41 and 80 feet tall? 3. Tell how you might organize the heights of the trees so that the information is easier to find and read.

Reading the Lesson


Refer to the frequency table in the middle of page 50. 4. What does the number 13 in the Frequency column indicate?

5. Does the number in the Frequency column tell you anything about the frequency of individual numbers within the data set? How do you know?

6. How is frequency related to interval?

7. Why do the numbers in the Height column begin at 51 and end at 140?

8. How does an interval make it easier to read the table?

Helping You Remember


9. Write the three steps used to make a frequency table. Then, using any data set you want, make a frequency table for those numbers.

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64

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Histograms
Often a graph is used to picture the data in a frequency table. When frequencies are pictured in a bar graph, the graph is called a histogram. For example, at the right is a histogram that pictures the frequencies of the scores on a math test. Each bar in a histogram shows the number of pieces of data in a certain interval. Use the histogram at the right to answer each question. 1. How many scores are in the interval 8190?
10 9 8 7

Scores on a Math Test

Frequency

6 5 4 3 2 1 0
41 5 0 51 6 0 61 7 0 71 8 0 81 9 0 91 1 00

3. How many scores are 70 or less?

4. Suppose that, to pass this test, a student needed a score of 61 or higher. How many students passed the test?

5. Can you tell in which interval there is the greatest number of scores? Explain.
Pulse Rates of Students in a Biology Class
10 9

6. Can you tell what was the highest score on the test? Explain.
Frequency

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
81 8 5 86 9 0 91 9 5 66 7 0 71 7 5 76 8 0

7. Use the histogram at the right. In the space below, write two questions about the data in the histogram. Then answer each question.

Beats per Minute

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 21

2. In which interval(s) are there exactly three scores?

Score

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Bar Graphs and Line Graphs
A graph is a visual way to display data. A bar graph is used to compare data. A line graph is used to show how data changes over a period of time.

Make a bar graph of the data. Compare the number of students in jazz class with the number in ballet class. Step 1 Decide on the scale and interval. Step 2 Label the horizontal and vertical axes. Step 3 Draw bars for each style. Step 4 Label the graph with a title. About twice as many students take ballet as take jazz.
Dance Class Attendance
12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Ballet Tap Jazz Modern

Dance Classes Style Ballet Tap Jazz Modern Students 11 4 5 10

Students

Style

Make a line graph of the data. Then describe the change in Gwens allowance from 1998 to 2002. Gwens Allowance Year Amount ($) Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Gwens 1997 10 1998 15 1999 15 2000 18 2001 20 2002 25
Amount ($)

Gwen's Allowance
26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10

Decide on the scale and interval. 0 Label the horizontal and vertical axes. Draw and connect the points for each year. Year Label the graph with a title. allowance did not change from 1998 to 1999 and then increased from 1999 to 2002.

Make the graph listed for each set of data. 1. bar graph Riding the Bus Student Paulina Omar Ulari Jacob Amita Time (min) 10 40 20 15 35 2. line graph Getting Ready for School Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Time (min) 34 30 37 20 25

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

19 9 19 7 9 19 8 9 20 9 0 20 0 2001 02

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Bar Graphs and Line Graphs
Make a bar graph for each set of data. 1. Cars Made in 2000 Country Brazil Japan Germany Spain U.S.A. Cars (millions) 1 8 5 2 6 2. People in America in 1630 Colony Maine New Hampshire Massachusetts New York Virginia People (hundreds) 4 5 9 4 25

Use the bar graph made in Exercise 1. 3. Which country made the greatest number of cars?

4. How does the number of cars made in Japan compare to the number made in Spain?

For Exercises 5 and 6, make a line graph for each set of data. 5. Yuba County, California Year Population (thousands) 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 59 61 62 61 60 60 6. Everglades National Park January February March April May June 2 2 2 2 7 10

7. POPULATION Refer to the graph made in Exercise 5. Describe the change in Yuba Countys population from 1990 to 2000.

8. WEATHER Refer to the graph made in Exercise 6. Describe the change in the amount of rainfall from January to June.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

67

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 22

Month

Rainfall (inches)

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Bar Graphs and Line Graphs
TREES For Exercises 1, 3, and 4, use Table A. For Exercises 2, 5, and 6, use Table B.

Table A Average Heights of Pine Trees Tree Eastern White Lodgepole Longleaf Pitch Ponderosa Height (ft) 75 48 110 55 140

Table B Lemons Produced by My Tree Year 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Number of Lemons 26 124 122 78 55 2. Table B shows the number of lemons your tree produced each year. Make a line graph for the data in Table B.

1. You and Jorge are writing a report on different kinds of pine trees. Make a bar graph for the report that shows the average heights of different kinds of pine trees. Use the data from Table A.

3. Use your graph for Exercise 1. Which tree is about half as tall as a ponderosa?

4. How does the average height of a pitch pine compare to the average height of a lodgepole pine?

5. Use the line graph you made in Exercise 2. Describe the change in fruit production for your lemon tree.

6. FRUIT Suppose you want to make a graph of the total number of lemons produced by your lemon tree and the total number of oranges produced by your orange tree in one year. Would you make a bar graph or a line graph? Explain.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Bar Graphs and Line Graphs
Pre-Activity Complete the activity at the top of page 56 in your textbook. Write
your answers below.
1. What type of roller coaster is most common? 2. What might be an advantage of organizing data in a table? Are there any disadvantages of organizing data in this way?

Reading the Lesson


Compare the frequency table at the top of page 56 with the bar graph in the middle of the same page. 3. How are they similar?

4. How are they different?

Refer to the line graph at the bottom of page 56. 6. Represent the same data in a table that uses only numbers. 7. Compare the table you just created with the line graph. Which do you think presents the data in a way that is easier to compare changes over periods of time? Explain.

U.S. Wooden Roller Coasters

Helping You Remember


8. Explain how the information in a line graph differs from the information in a bar graph.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

69

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 22

5. For purposes of comparison, which do you find easier to use to compare differences among frequenciesthe frequency table or the bar graph? Explain.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Line Plots
In a line plot, data are pictured on a number line. An  is used to represent each item of data. For example, the figure below is a line plot that pictures data about the number of CDs owned by the students in a math class.

0 5

Number of CDs Owned by Students in a Math Class


10 15


20 25 30

35

Use the line plot above to answer each question. 1. How many students own exactly eighteen CDs?

2. What number of CDs is owned by exactly three students?

3. A data item that is far apart from the rest of the data is called an outlier. Is there an outlier among these data? What is it?

4. What would you say is the number of CDs owned by the typical student in this class?

5. Use the data in the table to complete the line plot below. Four data points have been graphed for you. Number of Seconds for 24 Sixth-Graders to Run 200 Meters 130 125 100 105 85 100 120 70 100 125 100 85 110 95 150 130 90 105 100 90 110 105 130 100

70

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Circle Graphs
A circle graph is used to compare parts of a whole. The pie-shaped sections show the groups. The percents add up to 100%.

SCHOOL The circle graph shows the

Mike's Homework

subjects Mike studies during homework time. Which subject does Mike spend most of his time studying? The largest section of the graph is the section representing math. So, math takes up the most time. How does the time spent studying social studies compare to the spent studying science?
Science 8%

Math 48% Social Studies 17% Reading 26% Music 1%

The section representing social studies is about twice the size of the section representing science. So, twice as much time is spent on social studies as on science.

SURVEYS Use the graph that shows the results of a favorite

colors survey. 1. Which color is the least favorite?

Favorite Colors

Blue 33%

Red 25% Green 19%

2. Which colors are the favorites of the same number of people? 3. How does the number of people who say green is their favorite color compare to the number who say yellow is their favorite color?
FOOD Use the graph of Mikes study time from

Yellow 10%

the Examples. 4. Which subject does Mike spend the least time studying? 5. On which two subjects together does Mike spend about the same time as reading? 6. How does the amount of time spent on math compare to the amount of time Mike spends on science?

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 23

Orange Purple 10% 3%

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Circle Graphs
GEOGRAPHY Use the graph that shows how much of Earths land that each continent represents. Continents
North America 16% Asia 30% South America 12%

1. Which continent has the greatest area?

2. Which two continents are the smallest?


Africa 20%

3. How does the size of Europe compare to the size of Africa?


Antartica 9%

Australia 6% Europe 7%

4. How much larger is Asia than Africa?

LAKES Use the graph that shows how much of the

total surface of the Great Lakes each lake takes up. 5. Which of the Great Lakes is the smallest?

Great Lakes

Superior 34%

Huron 24% Ontario 8% Erie 10%

6. Which two lakes are about the same size?


Michigan 24%

7. How does Lake Erie compare to Lake Ontario?

8. Which two lakes together are the same size as Lake Superior?

VACATIONS Use the graph that shows how families will spend winter vacation.

Winter Vacation
Beach 7% Shop 22% Visit Family 33%

9. How will most families spend their vacations?

10. Will more families go to the beach or go shopping?

Ski 11%

Home 27%

11. Compare how many families will be skiing to how many will be visiting family.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Circle Graphs
SPORTS For Exercises 13, use Graph A. For Exercises 46, use Graph B.

Graph A
Favorite Sports of Mr. Franco's Class

Graph B
Attendance at the Baseball Game
Age 46-60 14% Age 61 and older 5%

Baseball 49% Hockey 10% Football 21% Age 31-45 21% Basketball 20% Age 16-30 35% Age 0-15 25%

1. Kwan surveyed Mr. Francos class to find out the favorite sports of the class. Which sport was the favorite of the largest percent of students in the class? Which sport was the favorite of the smallest percent of students?

2. Which sports were the favorite of about the same number of students?

3. Which sport is the favorite of half as many students as basketball?

5. Which two age groups have about the same percent of people?

6. Mr. Jacksons daughter is in the age group with the second highest percent. In which age group is Mr. Jacksons daughter?

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Lesson 23

4. Mr. Jackson kept track of attendance at the baseball game for an advertising agency. The agency wants to target its advertising to the age group that has the highest percent in attendance. To which group should the agency target ads?

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Circle Graphs
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 62 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Make a bar graph of the data.
Driving Together in One Car to Spring Break

2. Which graph represents the data better, a circle graph or a bar graph? Explain.

Reading the Lesson


3. A circle graph compares parts of a whole. How is a circle well suited for this kind of representation?

4. At the bottom of page 62, the text says that the percents add up to 100%. Why is this important?

Helping You Remember


5. Find a circle graph in a newspaper or magazine. Explain to a classmate what the sections of the graph represent.
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NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
A Circle Graph Mystery
The circle graph below was drawn to show the leading causes of fire in the United States. However, all the labels except one have mysteriously disappeared. Use the clues below to decide what the labels should be and where they belong. Then complete the graph. (Remember: Each label must include a word or phrase and a percent.)
Causes of Fires

cooking 16%

Clue 1 Clue 2

Most fires are caused by heating equipment. Fires caused by electrical wiring and fires caused by heating equipment together make up 46% of all fires. The percent of fires caused by children playing is 12% less than the percent of fires caused by cooking. The percent of fires caused by open flames is equal to the percent of fires caused by children playing. The percent of the fires caused by cooking and the percent of fires caused by arson are together just 1% less than the percent of fires caused by heating equipment. The percent of the fires caused by electrical wiring is 15% greater than the percent caused by children playing. Fires caused by smoking and fires caused by arson together make up 17% of all fires. Fires that result from other causes are listed in a category called other.

Clue 3

Clue 4

Clue 5

Clue 6

Clue 7

Clue 8

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 23

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Making Predictions
Because they show trends over time, line graphs are often used to predict future events.

Hours

The graph shows the time Ruben spends each day practicing piano scales. Predict how much time he will spend practicing his scales on Friday. Continue the graph with a dotted line in the same direction until you reach a vertical position for Friday. By extending the graph, you see that Ruben will probably spend half an hour practicing piano scales on Friday.

Piano Scale Practice Times


2 1 0
Sa t. Su n M . on Tu . e W . ed Th . ur . Fr i.

Day

MONEY Use the graph that shows the price of a

ticket to a local high school football game over the last few years. 1. Has the price been increasing or decreasing? Explain.
Price ($)

Football Tickets
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

2. Predict the price of a ticket in year 6 if the trend continues.

3. In what year do you think the price will reach $9.00 if the trend continues?

Year

BANKS Use the graph that shows the interest rate

for a savings account over the last few years. 4. What does the graph tell you about interest rates?
Rate
6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 0 1

Interest Rates

5. If the trend continues, when will the interest rate reach 1 percent?

Year

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NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Making Predictions
INTERNET Use the graph that shows Internet users

in the United States. 1. Describe the change in active Internet users from April 2000 to April 2001.
120 115 110 105 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 0

Active Internet Users

2. Predict how many active users there were in October 2001 if the trend continued.

3. Predict when the number of active users exceeded 115 million if the trend continued.

Users (millions)

4. Were there more active users in January 2002 or October 2001? Explain.

SPORTS Use the graph that shows the winning

times of the 10K Biathlon rounded to the nearest minute. 5. How did the winning time change from 1980 to 2002?
Time (min)

10K Biathlon Winning Times


33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25

6. To the nearest minute, by how much did the winning time change from 1980 to 2002?

24 0 '80 '84 '88 '92 '94 '98 '02 '06

8. Predict when the winning time will be less than 20 minutes if the trend continues.
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Lesson 24

7. Predict the winning time for 2006 if the trend continues.

ril Ju '00 ly O '00 ct Ja . '00 n. Ap '01 ril Ju '01 ly O '01 ct . Ja '01 n. '0 2

Ap

Date

Winter Olympic Year

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Making Predictions
FITNESS For Exercises 13, use Graph A. For Exercises 46, use Graph B.

Graph A
Aerobics Class
14

Graph B
Sit-ups
80 70

Number of Students

12

Number of Sit-ups
1 2 3 4 5 6

10 8 6 4 2 0

60 50 40 30 20 10

Week

Week

1. Refer to Graph A. Describe the change in the number of students taking the aerobics class.

2. Predict how many students will be in the aerobics class in week 6 if the trend continues.

3. Predict how many students will be in the aerobics class in week 8.

4. Describe the change in the number of sit-ups Cara can do.

5. Predict how many sit-ups Cara will be able to do in week 6 if the trend continues.

6. Predict the week in which Cara will be able to do 80 sit-ups if the trend continues.

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NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Making Predictions
Pre-Activity Complete the activity at the top of page 66 in your textbook. Write
your answers below.
1. Describe the trends in the winning amounts.

2. Make a prediction as to the amount of money the winner of the 2005 Daytona 500 will receive.

Reading the Lesson


Refer to the sentence just below the activity at the top of page 66: Line graphs are often used to predict future events because they show trends over time. 3. The word predict comes from two Latin words that mean to tell in advance. Look up the word predict in a dictionary. What meaning is given for the word?

4. Look up the word trend in a dictionary. What meaning is given for the word as it is used in the definition of line graph?

5. Look at the line graph at the bottom of page 66. In terms of trend, what happened between 1997 and 1998? What is the difference between prediction and data or statistics?

Helping You Remember


Lesson 24
6. Find two line graphs, one where you feel you can predict the future with confidence and one where you cannot. Explain the difference.

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NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Graphs and Decision Making
Just as important as knowing how to make a bar graph or a line graph is deciding what type of graph to use. Here are some guidelines to help you make that decision. A bar graph compares data that fall into distinct categories. Example Use a bar graph to show how the populations of several cities compare in one year. A line graph shows changes in data over a period of time. Example Use a line graph to show how the population of one city changed over several years. Would you use a bar graph or a line graph to show these data? 1. average temperatures in Sacramento for each month of the year 2. average temperatures in January in five California cities 3. land area of the continents 4. number of CD players purchased each year from 1981 through 1990 5. weight of a baby in each month from birth to one year of age 6. heights of the worlds five tallest trees Make an appropriate graph for each set of data. 7. Year 1970 1980 1990 2000 Cars in Use Number (millions) 80 105 124 136
Cars in Use

8. Seating Capacity of Aircraft Model B747 DC-10 L-1011 MD-80 Number of Seats 405 288 296 142
Seating Capacity of Aircraft

Model

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Study Guide and Intervention


Stem-and-Leaf Plots
Sometimes it is hard to read data in a table. You can use a stem-and-leaf plot to display the data in a more readable way. In a stem-and-leaf plot, you order the data from least to greatest. Then you organize the data by place value.

Make a stem-and-leaf plot of the data in the table. Then write a few sentences that analyze the data. Step 1 Order the data from least to greatest. 41 51 52 53 55 60 65 65 67 68 70 72 Step 2 Draw a vertical line and write the tens digits from least to greatest to the left of the line. Step 3 Write the ones digits to the right of the line with the corresponding stems. Stem
In this data set, the tens digits form the stems.

Money Earned Mowing Lawns ($) 60 67 65 55 72 70 53 65 52 41 68 51

Leaf 1 1 2 3 5 0 5 5 7 8 0 2

4 5 6 7

The ones digits of the data form the leaves.

6|5 $65
Always write each leaf, even if it repeats. Key

Step 4 Include a key that explains the stems and leaves. By looking at the plot, it is easy to see that the least amount of money earned was $41 and the greatest amount was $72. You can also see that most of the data fall between $51 and $68.

Make a stem-and-leaf plot for the set of data below. Write a few sentences that analyze the data. 34 44 51 48 55 41 47 22 55

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 25

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Stem-and-Leaf Plots
Make a stem-and-leaf plot for each set of data. 1. 18, 16, 13, 20, 33, 58, 32, 14, 61, 67, 52 2. 61, 75, 62, 63, 74, 71, 75, 82, 64, 81, 91, 65

3. $52, $49, $37, $21, $65, $23, $49, $51, $22, $21, $24, $47, $44, $53, $61

4. 82, 91, 80, 55, 63, 54, 83, 90, 84, 91, 59, 62, 50, 92, 85, 92, 92

SPORTS For Exercises 58, use the stem-and-

leaf plot that shows the total number of points earned by each volleyball team at a tournament. 5. What was the greatest number of points earned?

Stem 2 3 4 5 6

Leaf 9 6 4 1 1 6 5 4 3 7 8 9 5 7 9 9 5

4|5 45 points 6. What was the least number of points earned?

7. How many teams earned more than 50 points?

8. Between what numbers are most of the points earned?

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NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Stem-and-Leaf Plots
the stem-and-leaf plot. Number of Trucks Passing Through the Intersection Each Hour 5 19 32 10 15 18 26 6 6 19 34 8 42 22 19 40 34 23 29 14 28 21 21 17 Number of Birds at a Watering Hole Each Hour Stem 1 2 3 4 5 Leaf 8 4 3 2 0 9 8 4 5 0 9 4 4 5 5 5 7 8 3 3 4 6 6 7 3|4 34 birds 1. Mr. Chin did a traffic survey. He wrote down the number of trucks that passed through an intersection each hour. Make a stem-and-leaf plot of his data. 2. Refer to your stem-and-leaf plot from Exercise 1. Mr. Chin needs to know the range of trucks passing through the intersection in one hour into which the greatest number of hours fall.

3. What is the least number of birds at the watering hole in one hour? What is the greatest number?

4. What is the most frequent number of birds to be at the watering hole in one hour?

5. RVs Make a stem-and-leaf plot for the number of RVs Mr. Chin counted in 12 hours: 3, 4, 9, 13, 7, 9, 8, 5, 4, 6, 1, 11.

6. RVs Write a few sentences that analyze the RV data for Mr. Chins report in Exercise 5.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 25

TRAFFIC For Exercises 1 and 2, use the table. For Exercises 3 and 4, use

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Stem-and-Leaf Plots
Pre-Activity Complete the activity at the top of page 72 in your textbook. Write
your answers below.
1. What were the least and greatest number of points scored? 2. Which number of points occurred most often?

Reading the Lesson


3. In a stem-and-leaf plot, in what order are the data?

4. In a stem-and-leaf plot of two-digit numbers, how are the data represented?

5. In the box below the stem-and-leaf plot on page 72, it says "Always write each leaf even if it repeats." Because of this rule, what do the leaves of a stem-and-leaf plot tell you that you do not know from a frequency table?

6. Look at the stem-and-leaf plot at the top of page 73. What number of butterflies per day occurs the most often in the stem-and-leaf plot? What does that number indicate?

Helping You Remember


7. Write the steps for making a stem-and-leaf plot. Show someone what a stem-and-leaf plot is, how to read one, and how to make one.

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NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Lesson 25
A back-to-back stem-and-leaf plot is used to compare two sets of data. In this type of plot, the leaves for one set of data are on one side of the stems, and the leaves for the other set of data are on the other side of the stems. Two keys to the data are needed.
ELECTIONS Use the back-to-back stem-and-leaf plot of the electoral

votes cast by each state and the District of Columbia for the Democratic and Republican candidates for U.S. president in 2000. Democrat 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 7 7 8 0 0 1 1 2 5 8 2 3 3 4 2|0 2 votes Stem 0 1 2 3 4 5 Republican 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 1 1 2 3 3 4 1 5 2

0|3 3 votes

1. What is the greatest number of electoral votes cast by a state for the Democratic candidate? the greatest number of electoral votes cast by a state for the Republican candidate?

2. Which candidate received votes from the greater number of states?

3. Which candidate received the greater number of total votes?

4. What is the difference between the number electoral votes cast for the candidates?

5. Write a sentence or two comparing the number of electoral votes cast for the two candidates.

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NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Mean
The mean is the most common measure of central tendency. It is an average, so it describes all of the data in a data set.

The prices of twelve different jackets are shown. Find the mean.
25 34 39 27 mean 12 444 or 37 12 sum of the data number of data items

Jacket Prices ($) 25 45 56 34 52 61 39 27 15 41 22 27

The mean price of a jacket is $37.


A set of data may contain very high or very low values. These values are called outliers.

Find the mean for the snowfall data with and without the outlier. Then tell how the outlier affects the mean of the data. Compared to the other values, 4 inches is low. So, it is an outlier. mean with outlier
20 19 20 17 4 mean 5 80 or 16 5

Month Snowfall (in.) Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. 20 19 20 17 4

mean without outlier


20 19 20 17 mean 4 76 or 19 4

With the outlier, the mean is less than the values of most of the data. Without the outlier, the mean is close in value to the data.

Find the mean for each set of data. 1. 11, 8, 7, 12, 10, 9, 13, 26 3. 26, 19, 29, 15, 2, 31, 56, 30 2. 15, 10, 9, 17, 24, 27, 39, 15, 24 4. 108, 121, 73, 79, 56, 91

5. Find the mean for the set of data in Exercise 1 without the outlier. Then tell how the outlier affects the mean of the data.

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NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Mean
Find the mean for each set of data. 1. 6, 9, 2, 4, 3, 6, 5 2. 25, 18, 14, 27, 25, 14, 18, 25, 23

3. 13, 6, 7, 13, 6

4. 8, 2, 9, 4, 6, 8, 5

7. 28, 32, 23, 43, 32, 27, 21, 34

8. 30, 16, 29, 32, 14, 21, 26

9. 42, 35, 27, 42, 38, 35, 29, 24

10. 157, 124, 157, 124, 157, 139

Identify the outlier or outliers in each set of data. 11. Price $10 $20 $30 $40 Tally 4 5 3 1 Frequency 4 5 3 1 12. Stem 2 3 4 5 Leaf 0 1 4 7 0 0 1 5 6 3 6 7 2|4 24

WEATHER Use the data in the table that shows daily temperatures.

Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

Temp. (F) 69 70 73 35 68

13. Identify the outlier.

14. What is the mean of the data with the outlier included?

15. What is the mean of the data without the outlier included?

16. How does the outlier temperature affect the mean of the data?

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 26

5. 13, 7, 17, 19, 7, 15, 11, 7

6. 1, 15, 9, 12, 18, 9, 5, 14, 7

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Mean
ANIMALS For Exercises 13, use the table about bears.

Bear Alaskan Brown Black Grizzly Polar

Average Height (ft) 8 6 7 7

Average Weight (lb) 1,500 338 588 850

1. You are writing a report on bears. You are analyzing the data on heights and weights in the table above. First look for outliers. Identify the outlier for the height data. Identify the outlier for the weight data.

2. Find the mean of the bear weight data with and without the outlier.

3. Describe how the outlier affects the mean of the bear weight data.

4. WORK Carlos earned $23, $29, $25, $16, and $17 working at an ice cream shop after school. What is the mean amount he earned?

5. CARS The cost of a tank of gas at nine different gas stations is shown below. What was the mean cost of a tank of gas? Cost of Gas: $17, $18, $22, $15, $17, $16, $25, $21, and $20

6. SCHOOL Sally received scores on math quizzes as shown below. Find her mean score with and without both outliers. Quiz Scores: 84, 85, 91, 81, 52, 92, 99, 91, and 45

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NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Mean
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 76 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. How many pennies are in each cup? 2. For the five quizzes, your average score was _______ points. 3. Suppose your teacher gave you another quiz and you scored 14 points. How many pennies would be in each cup?

Reading the Lesson


4. Look up the word mean in a dictionary. Write the meaning that fits the way the word is used in this lesson.

Look at the paragraph below the activity at the top of page 76 in your textbook. A number that helps describe all of the data in a data set is an average. An average is also referred to as a measure of central tendency. 5. Is the mean a good measure of central tendency when there is no outlier? Give an example.

6. Is the mean a good measure of central tendency when there is an outlier? Give an example.

Helping You Remember


7. Explain one problem with using the mean as a measure of central tendency.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 26

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Linguistic Statistics
Linguistics is the study of human speech. The activity on this page shows the type of data collection and analysis that might be done by a linguist who is researching the structure of the English language. All questions refer to the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution, printed at the bottom of the page. 1. Which two consonants do you think appear most often in the Preamble? 2. Which vowel do you think appears most often in the Preamble? least often? 3. Complete this table by counting the occurrences of each letter. A few letters have been counted already, to help you get started. (Hint: Your total should be 268.) Letter a b c d e f g h i 9 11 Frequency Letter j k l m n o p q r 20 17 Frequency Letter s t u v w x y z Frequency

4. Which two consonants actually appear most often in the Preamble? 5. Find the mean frequency for the consonants. Which two consonants occur the closest number of times to this mean? 6. Which vowel actually appears most often in the Preamble? least often? 7. Find the mean frequency for the vowels. Which vowel occurs the closest number of times to this mean? 8. Which word do you think occurs most often in the Preamble? Verify your answer. Preamble to the Constitution of the United States of America We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
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NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Median, Mode, and Range
The median is the middle number of the data put in order, or the mean of the middle two numbers. The mode is the number or numbers that occur most often.

The table shows the costs of seven different books. Find the mean, median, and mode of the data.
105 22 13 11 16 14 13 16 mean: or 15 7 7

Book Costs ($) 22 14 13 13 11 16 16

To find the median, write the data in order from least to greatest. median: 11, 13, 13, 14, 16, 16, 22 To find the mode, find the number or numbers that occur most often. mode: 11, 13, 13, 14, 16, 16, 22 The mean is $15. The median is $14. There are two modes, $13 and $16.
Whereas the measures of central tendency describe the average of a set of data, the range of a set of data describes how the data vary.

Find the range of the data in the table. Then write a sentence describing how the data vary.

Temperature (F) 40 60 32 63 55 50

The greatest value is 63. The least value is 32. So, the range is 63 32 or 31. The range is large. It tells us that the data vary greatly in value.

Find the mean, median, mode, and range of each set of data. 1. 14, 13, 14, 16, 8 2. 29, 31, 14, 21, 31, 22, 20

3.

Quiz Scores 72 68 60 72 80 86

4. 2 3

Snowfall (in.) 6 0 5 1 4

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 27

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Median, Mode, and Range
Find the mean, median, mode, and range for each set of data. 1. 6, 9, 2, 4, 3, 6, 5 2. 13, 6, 7, 13, 6

3. 1, 15, 9, 12, 18, 9, 5, 14, 7

4. 13, 7, 17, 19, 7, 15, 11, 7

5. 3, 9, 4, 3, 9, 4, 2, 3, 8

6. 25, 18, 14, 27, 25, 14, 18, 25, 23

7. 8, 3, 9, 4, 6, 7, 5

8. 28, 32, 23, 43, 32, 27, 21, 34

9. 157, 124, 157, 124, 157, 139

10. 42, 35, 27, 42, 38, 35, 29, 24

11. Write a sentence that describes how the data items in Exercise 5 vary.

12. Why is mode not the best choice to describe the data in Exercise 5? Explain.

MUSEUMS Use the table showing the number of visitors to the art museum each month.

Vistors to the Art Museum (thousands) 3 5 12 11 3 2 5 6 2 4 3 4

13. What is the mean of the data?

14. What is the median of the data?

15. What is the mode of the data?

16. Which measure of central tendency best describes the data? Explain.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Median, Mode, and Range
SCIENCE For Exercises 13, use Table A. For Exercises 46, use Table B.

Table A shows the number of days it took for some seeds to germinate after planting. Table B shows how tall the plants were after 60 days. Table A Number of Days for Seeds to Germinate 15 9 20 21 30 21 15 15 16 Table B Height (in.) of Plants After 60 Days 17 15 19 17 13 21 17 14 20

3. What is the range of the seed germination data? Describe how the data vary.

4. What are the mean, median, and mode of the plant height data?

5. Refer to your answer in Exercise 4. Which measure of central tendency best describes the data? Explain.

6. What is the range of the plant height data? Describe how the data vary.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 27

1. Refer to Table A. You are doing some experiments with germinating seeds. You are preparing a report on your findings to a seed company. What are the mean, median, and mode of the data?

2. Use your answer from Exercise 1. Which measure of central tendency best describes the data? Explain.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Median, Mode, and Range
Pre-Activity Complete the activity at the top of page 80 in your textbook. Write
your answers below.
1. Find the mean wingspan. 2. List the data in order from least to greatest. 3. Which data are in the middle of the arranged data? 4. Compare the number that is in the middle of the data set to the mean of the data.

Reading the Lesson


5. How are mean, median, and mode similar? How are they different?

Look at Example 3 at the bottom of page 81. Also, look at its opening statement, "Some averages may describe a data set better than other averages." 6. Which averages are discussed in the example? 7. What is causing the mean to be so high? 8. What if there were two 54s? How would that affect the averages?

9. Does this example illustrate its opening statement?

Helping You Remember


10. You may already know that a median strip refers to the concrete or landscaped divider that runs down the center of many roads. How does this idea of median relate to the meaning of median in this lesson?

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NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Puzzling Over Data
Each puzzle on this page contains an incomplete set of data. The clues give you information about the mean, median, mode, or range of the data. Working from these clues, you can decide what the missing data items must be. For example, this is how you might solve the data puzzle at the right. Clue: mean 18 Data: 12, 17, 18, 19, 19,

There are 6 items of data. The mean is 18, so the sum of the data must be 6 18 108. Add the given data: 12 17 18 19 19 85. Subtract from 108: 108 85 23. So the complete set of data is: 12, 17, 18, 19, 19, 23 . Find the missing data. (Assume that the data items are listed in order from least to greatest.)

Data: 7, 7, 8,

, 14

Data: 36, 40, 49,

, 65, 84

3. Clues: mean 27 mode 30 Data: 10, 25, 27, , 30,

4. Clues: median 120 range 46 Data: 110, 112, , 124, 136,

5. Clues: mean 13 median 13 range 13 Data: , 9, 12, , 18,

6. Clues: mean 7 median 8.5 mode 10 Data: , 4, 8, , ,

7. Clues: mean 60 mode 52 range 28 Data: , 52, , , 72, 78

8. Clues: median 24 mode 28 range 24 Data: 6, 15, , , ,

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 27

1. Clue: mode 8

2. Clue: median 54.5

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Analyzing Graphs
Graphs can lead readers to the wrong conclusion about the data when the numbers on either scale are inconsistent, the vertical or horizontal scale does not start at zero, or different scales are used.

Price ($)

Both graphs show the same data, but Graph B appears to show the cost increasing more quickly. Graph A uses a scale of 2 and Graph B uses a scale of 1.

19 9 20 9 0 20 0 0 20 1 0 20 2 03

Price ($) Year

The graphs at the right show how the cost of a movie increased over time. Which graph appears to show that the cost increased more quickly? Explain.

Movie Tickets Graph A


20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Movie Tickets Graph B

Using an inappropriate measure of central tendency can cause readers to make a wrong conclusion.

Refer to the table. The store says the average price of an electronic pet is $12. Explain how using this average to attract customers with low prices is misleading.

Electronic Pet Prices ($) 14 21 15 12 15 12 20 20 49 12

Order the data from least to greatest: 12, 12, 12, 14, 15, 15, 20, 20, 21, 49. mean: $19 median: $15 mode: $12 The store used the mode as the average. Because the mode price is less than the other prices, it is not the most accurate average to use.

1. In Example 1, how could you change Graph A to appear to show that the cost rose more slowly? 2. Oletas test scores in order from least to greatest were 19, 75, 76, 82, 83. Find the mean, median, and mode of the data. Which measure might be misleading in describing the average number of points Oleta earned.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

19 9 20 9 0 20 0 0 20 1 0 20 2 03

Year

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Analyzing Graphs
ANIMALS For Exercises 13, use the graph that shows the weight of bears. Weight of Bears Graph A
700

Weight (lb)

1. About how many times heavier does a grizzly bear appear to be than a black bear?

600 500 400 300 0 Black Bear Grizzly Bear

2. Explain how this graph is misleading.

3. Redraw the graph so that it is not so misleading. 4. BUSINESS The graphs below show company sales. Which graph makes the sales appear to be increasing more rapidly? Explain.
Company Sales Graph A
12 24

Weight of Bears Graph B

Company Sales Graph B

Users (millions)

Users (millions)

10 8 6 4 2 0
9 19 8 9 20 9 0 20 0 0 20 1 02 19

20 16 12 8 4
Black Bear Grizzly Bear

Year

Year

BUDGETS Use the table that shows the 2003

budgets for eight national parks. 5. Find the mean, median, and mode of the data.

National Park 2003 Budget Park Acadia Crater Lake Denali Everglades Mammoth Cave Olympic Great Smokies Zion Budget ($) 6,000,000 4,000,000 11,000,000 14,000,000 6,000,000 10,000,000 15,000,000 6,000,000

6. Which measure would be misleading in describing the average budget for these parks? Explain.

7. Which measure describes the data most accurately? Explain.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 28

0
9 19 8 9 20 9 0 20 0 0 20 1 02 19

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Analyzing Graphs
BUSINESS For Exercises 1 and 2, use Graph A. For Exercises 3 and 4, use Graphs B and C. The graphs show the number of DVDs and videos sold by a video store.

Graph A
March Sales
400

Graph B
Sales
6 5 12 10

Graph C
Sales

Number Sold

350

Number Sold (thousands)

300 250 200 0 DVDs Videos

4 3 2 1 0
n. Fe b M . ar Ap . r. M ay Ju ne Ja

Number Sold (thousands) Month

8 6 4 2 0
Ja n. Fe b M . ar Ap . r. M ay Ju ne

Month

1. About how many times fewer DVDs than videos appear to have been sold?

2. Explain how Graph A is misleading.

3. The graphs show the same data. Which graph appears to shows that the number of DVDs and videos sold increased more rapidly? Explain.

4. The store owner is trying to get a loan from the bank and wants to show that business is good. Which graph should the store owner show the bank? Explain.

5. MARKETING A store advertises that it has the lowest average price for T-shirts in town. Find the mean, median, and mode of the prices. T-Shirt Prices: $14, $5, $10, $12, $5, $4, $13

6. MARKETING Use your answer from Exercise 5. Which measure of central tendency describes the average T-shirt price the most accurately? Explain.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Analyzing Graphs
Pre-Activity Complete the activity at the top of page 86 in your textbook. Write
your answer below.
1. Suppose you look at the lengths of the bars that represent Dan Marino and Terry Bradshaw. You might conclude that Dan Marino threw three times as many touchdown passes as Terry Bradshaw. Why is this conclusion incorrect?

Reading the Lesson


For Exercises 24, look at the first sentence below the activity at the top of page 86: Graphs let readers analyze and interpret data easily. 2. Look in a dictionary for meaning of the word analyze. Write a definition that fits the sentence just quoted. 3. Do the same for the word interpret. Write a definition that fits the sentence just quoted. 4. Why is it important to analyze as well as interpret data in a graph?

5. Why is the graph in the activity at the top of page 86 misleading? 6. On a separate sheet of paper, redraw the graph in the activity at the top of page 86 to correct the problem. Do the lengths of the Marino and Bradshaw bars represent more closely the relationship between touchdown passes actually thrown by these players?

Helping You Remember


7. Look up the word mislead in a dictionary. Write the definition here. Then tell how it is easy for a graph to mislead.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 28

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Be a Data Detective!
Each of the graphs on this page has been drawn incorrectly. Can you detect the mistake? 1.
Weekly Book Sales

2.
300 250

United States Population

Population (millions)

Fiction Biography Reference Other

200 150 100 50 0 1800 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000 (projected)

Year

Mistake:

Mistake:

3.
100

Areas of the Great Lakes


Square Miles (thousands)
80

4.
2002 2000

Retail Sales of Automobiles

Year
H ur on Er ie M ic hi ga n O nt ar io

60 40 20 0

1998 1996 1994

Su pe rio r

8, 99 0, 00 0

8, 52 6, 00 0

8, 14 2, 00 0

Lake

Number of Automobiles

Mistake:

Mistake:

5. Draw a corrected graph for Exercise 3.


Areas of the Great Lakes

6. Draw a corrected graph for Exercise 4.


Retail Sales of Automobiles

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

100

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

8, 84 6, 00 0

Chapter Chapter X 3 Resource Resource Masters Masters

Course 1 1 Course

Consumable Workbooks
Many of the worksheets contained in the Chapter Resource Masters booklets are available as consumable workbooks in both English and Spanish. Study Guide and Intervention Workbook Study Guide and Intervention Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Skills Workbook Practice: Skills Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Word Problems Workbook Practice: Word Problems Workbook (Spanish) Reading to Learn Mathematics Workbook 0-07-860085-5 0-07-860091-X 0-07-860086-3 0-07-860092-8 0-07-860087-1 0-07-860093-6 0-07-861057-5

Answers for Workbooks The answers for Chapter 3 of these


workbooks can be found in the back of this Chapter Resource Masters booklet.

Spanish Assessment Masters Spanish versions of forms 2A and 2C of


the Chapter 3 Test are available in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts Spanish Assessment Masters, Course 1 (0-07-860095-2).

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teacher, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240

ISBN: 0-07-860066-9
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 024

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1 Chapter 3 Resource Masters 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03

CONTENTS
Vocabulary Builder .............................vii Family Letter ............................................ix Family Activity ........................................x Lesson 3-1
Study Guide and Intervention ........................123 Practice: Skills ................................................124 Practice: Word Problems................................125 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................126 Enrichment .....................................................127

Lesson 3-5
Study Guide and Intervention ........................143 Practice: Skills ................................................144 Practice: Word Problems................................145 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................146 Enrichment .....................................................147

Chapter 3 Assessment
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 3 Test, Form 1 ..........................149150 3 Test, Form 2A ........................151152 3 Test, Form 2B ........................153154 3 Test, Form 2C........................155156 3 Test, Form 2D........................157158 3 Test, Form 3 ..........................159160 3 Extended Response Assessment .161 3 Vocabulary Test/Review.................162 3 Quizzes 1 & 2................................163 3 Quizzes 3 & 4................................164 3 Mid-Chapter Test ...........................165 3 Cumulative Review........................166 3 Standardized Test Practice....167168

Lesson 3-2
Study Guide and Intervention ........................128 Practice: Skills ................................................129 Practice: Word Problems................................130 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................131 Enrichment .....................................................132

Lesson 3-3
Study Guide and Intervention ........................133 Practice: Skills ................................................134 Practice: Word Problems................................135 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................136 Enrichment .....................................................137

Standardized Test Practice Student Recording Sheet ............................A1 Standardized Test Practice Rubric...................A2 ANSWERS .............................................A3A25

Lesson 3-4
Study Guide and Intervention ........................138 Practice: Skills ................................................139 Practice: Word Problems................................140 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................141 Enrichment .....................................................142

iii

Teachers Guide to Using the Chapter 3 Resource Masters


The Fast File Chapter Resource system allows you to conveniently file the resources you use most often. The Chapter 3 Resource Masters includes the core materials needed for Chapter 3. These materials include worksheets, extensions, and assessment options. The answers for these pages appear at the back of this booklet. All of the materials found in this booklet are included for viewing and printing in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1, TeacherWorks CD-ROM.

Vocabulary Builder Pages vii-viii include a student study tool that presents up to twenty of the key vocabulary terms from the chapter. Students are to record definitions and/or examples for each term. You may suggest that students highlight or star the terms with which they are not familiar.
When to Use Give these pages to students before beginning Lesson 3-1. Encourage them to add these pages to their mathematics study notebook. Remind them to add definitions and examples as they complete each lesson.

Practice: Skills

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice that more closely follows the structure of the Practice and Applications section of the Student Edition exercises. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Practice: Word Problems

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice in solving word problems that apply the concepts of the lesson. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Family Letter and Family Activity


Page ix is a letter to inform your students families of the requirements of the chapter. The family activity on page x helps them understand how the mathematics students are learning is applicable to real life. When to Use Give these pages to students to take home before beginning the chapter.

Reading to Learn Mathematics

Study Guide and Intervention


There is one Study Guide and Intervention master for each lesson in Chapter 3. When to Use Use these masters as reteaching activities for students who need additional reinforcement. These pages can also be used in conjunction with the Student Edition as an instructional tool for students who have been absent.

One master is included for each lesson. The first section of each master asks questions about the opening paragraph of the lesson in the Student Edition. Additional questions ask students to interpret the context of and relationships among terms in the lesson. Finally, students are asked to summarize what they have learned using various representation techniques. When to Use This master can be used as a study tool when presenting the lesson or as an informal reading assessment after presenting the lesson. It is also a helpful tool for ELL (English Language Learner) students.

iv

There is one extension master for each lesson. These activities may extend the concepts in the lesson, offer an historical or multicultural look at the concepts, or widen students perspectives on the mathematics they are learning. These are not written exclusively for honors students, but are accessible for use with all levels of students. When to Use These may be used as extra credit, short-term projects, or as activities for days when class periods are shortened.

Enrichment

A Vocabulary Test, suitable for all students, includes a list of the vocabulary words in the chapter and ten questions assessing students knowledge of those terms. This can also be used in conjunction with one of the chapter tests or as a review worksheet.

Intermediate Assessment
Four free-response quizzes are included to offer assessment at appropriate intervals in the chapter. A Mid-Chapter Test provides an option to assess the first half of the chapter. It is composed of both multiple-choice and freeresponse questions.

Assessment Options
The assessment masters in the Chapter 3 Resources Masters offer a wide range of assessment tools for intermediate and final assessment. The following lists describe each assessment master and its intended use.

Continuing Assessment
The Cumulative Review provides students an opportunity to reinforce and retain skills as they proceed through their study of Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. It can also be used as a test. This master includes free-response questions. The Standardized Test Practice offers continuing review of pre-algebra concepts in various formats, which may appear on the standardized tests that they may encounter. This practice includes multiplechoice, short response, grid-in, and extended response questions. Bubble-in and grid-in answer sections are provided on the master.

Chapter Assessment
Chapter Tests Form 1 contains multiple-choice questions and is intended for use with basic level students. Forms 2A and 2B contain multiple-choice questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Forms 2C and 2D are composed of freeresponse questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Grids with axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. Form 3 is an advanced level test with free-response questions. Grids without axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. All of the above tests include a free-response Bonus question. The Extended-Response Assessment includes performance assessment tasks that are suitable for all students. A scoring rubric is included for evaluation guidelines. Sample answers are provided for assessment.

Answers
Page A1 is an answer sheet for the Standardized Test Practice questions that appear in the Student Edition on pages 130131. This improves students familiarity with the answer formats they may encounter in test taking. Detailed rubrics for assessing the extended response questions on page 131 are provided on page A2. The answers for the lesson-by-lesson masters are provided as reduced pages with answers appearing in red. Full-size answer keys are provided for the assessment masters in this booklet.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
This is an alphabetical list of new vocabulary terms you will learn in Chapter 3. As you study this chapter, complete each terms definition or description. Remember to add the page number where you found the term. Add this page to your math study notebook to review vocabulary at the end of the chapter. Vocabulary Term clustering Found on Page Definition/Description/Example
Vocabulary Builder

equivalent [ih-KWIHV-uh-luhnt] decimals

expanded form

front-end estimation

standard form

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

vii

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Letter

Dear Parent or Guardian: on our bills, on our car Decimals are all around us. They are derstanding decimals and odometer, and on our calculators. Un useful, but important in how to work with them is not only todays world. ing Decimals, your child In Chapter 3, Adding and Subtract ing them, ordering them, will learn all about decimalscompar cting them, and estimating rounding them, adding them, subtra dy of this chapter, your their sums and differences. In the stu classroom assignments child will complete a variety of daily a chapter project . and activities and possibly produce it with your child, you By signing this letter and returning ting involved. Enclosed is agree to encourage your child by get ld that also relates the an activity you can do with your chi 3 to the real world. You math we will be learning in Chapter line Study Tools for may also wish to log on to the On t Study Guide pages, self-check quizzes, Parent and Studen 1.net. If you have any and other study help at www.msmath contact me at school. questions or comments, feel free to Sincerely,

Signature of Parent or Guardian ______________________________________ Date ________

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ix

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Family Letter

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Activity
Adding and Subtracting Decimals
Knowing how to add and subtract decimals is very important when balancing a checkbook. Work with a family member to complete the sample check register below. Add any deposits and subtract withdrawals to determine the balance of the account. The balance in the account on November 1st was $337.88. Date 11/1 11/7 11/10 11/15 11/21 11/22 11/26 12/1 Transaction Withdrawal Amount $42.59 $125.00 $35.67 $415.00 $769.63 $17.54 $500.00 Deposit Amount Balance $337.88 Groceries Transfer from Savings Account Electric Bill Deposit from Paycheck Oil Change Birthday Present for Friend Demember Rent

For Exercises 13, use the completed check register. 1. How much did the oil change cost on November 22?

2. What was the balance on December 1st after rent had been paid?

3. Compare the balance on November 1st with the balance after rent was paid on December 1st. What is difference in the two balances?

4. Work with a family member to develop a personal budget. What income and expenses do you expect to have?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

1. $29.99

2. $252.09

3. $85.79

4. See students work.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Representing Decimals
Decimals can be written in standard form and expanded form. Standard form is the usual way to write a decimal, such as 3.52. Expanded form is a sum of the products of each digit and its place, such as (3 1) (5 0.1) (2 0.01).

Write 128.0732 in word form.

Write ninety-nine and two hundred seven thousandths in standard form and expanded form. Place-Value Chart

Place-Value Chart ten-thousandths

ten-thousandths

thousandths

thousandths

hundredths

hundredths

thousands

thousands

hundreds

hundreds

tenths

tenths

8 0

9 2

In words, 128.0732 is one hundred twenty-eight and seven hundred thirty-two ten-thousandths.

Standard form: 99.207 Expanded form: (9 10) (9 1) (2 0.1) (0 0.01) (7 0.001)

Write each decimal in word form. 1. 2.3 2. 0.68 3. 32.501 4. 0.0036 Write each decimal in standard form and expanded form. 5. twenty and two hundredths 6. seven and five tenths 7. three hundred four ten-thousandths 8. eleven thousandths

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 31

ones

ones

tens

tens

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Representing Decimals
Write each decimal in word form. 1. 6.5 2. 0.3 3. 39.2

4. 0.83

5. 5.67

6. 14.006

7. 12.001

8. 0.5214

9. 12.0905

Write each decimal in standard form and expanded form. 10. three tenths 11. fifteen and one tenth

12. eight and four hundredths

13. seventy-two and sixteen thousandths

14. one hundred and one hundredth

15. four hundred seven thousandths

16. four hundred seven tenthousandths

17. one hundred and one thousandth

18. Express (2 100) (3 10) (1 1) (4 0.1) (5 0.01) in word form.

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124

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Representing Decimals
BASEBALL For Exercises 14, use the table.

The table shows lifetime batting averages for leading baseball players.

Lifetime Batting Averages for Leading Players


Player Tony Gwynn Mike Piazza Derek Jeter Vladimir Guerrero Edgar Martinez Team San Diego Padres New York Mets New York Yankees Montreal Expos Seattle Mariners Batting Average 0.338 0.325 0.320 0.319 0.319

1. Write Mike Piazzas batting average in word form.

2. Which digit is in the thousandths place of each players batting average?

3. What is the batting average for the New York Yankees player in expanded form?

4. Which players average has a 3 in the hundredths place?

5. BUILDING When measuring board footage for some exotic woods, a carpenter must use 1.25 for thickness rather than 1 in her calculations. Write 1.25 in expanded form.

6. TRAVEL The summer camp Jason attends is exactly four hundred twentythree and four tenths of a mile from his home. Write four hundred twenty-three and four tenths in standard form.

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Lesson 31

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Representing Decimals
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 102 in your textbook.
Model each decimal using a place-value chart, money, a decimal model, and base-ten blocks. 1. 1.56 2. 0.85

3. 0.08

4. $2.25

Reading the Lesson


5. What does the decimal point do?

6. How does changing the decimal point in 5.78 to 57.8 affect the value of the decimal?

Helping You Remember


7. Look up the words dime and decimal in a dictionary. How is dime related to decimal? Explain how our money system (dollars, dimes, pennies) and the place-value chart use base ten.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Decimal Letters
The letter A at the right was created by shading part of a hundreds square. There are 26 parts shaded, so the value of the letter A is 26 hundredths, or 0.26. Find the value of each letter. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26. CHALLENGE Use the values of the 26 letters as a set of data. What is the frequency of the value 0.26? Which value is the mode?

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 31

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Comparing and Ordering Decimals
Use or to compare 68.563 and 68.5603.
First, line up the decimal points. Then, starting at the left, find the first place the digits differ. Compare the digits. Since 3 0,

68.563 68.5603 So, 68.563 is greater than 68.5603.

30

68.563 68.5603

Order 4.073, 4.73, 4.0073, and 4 from least to greatest.


First, line up the decimal points. Annex zeros so that each has the same number of decimal places. Use place value to compare and order the decimals.

4.073 4.73 4.0073 4

4.0730 4.7300 4.0073 4.0000

4.0000 4.0073 4.0730 4.7300

The order from least to greatest is 4, 4.0073, 4.073, and 4.73.

Use , , or to compare each pair of decimals. 1. 4.08 4.080 2. 0.001 0.01 3. 23.659 22.659

4. 50.031 50.030

5. 7 7.0001

6. 18.01 18.010

Order each set of decimals from least to greatest. 7. 0.006, 0.6, 0.060, 6 8. 456.73, 465.32, 456.37, 456.23 9. 3.01, 3.009, 3.09, 3.0001 10. 45.333, 45.303, 45.03, 45.003, 45.0003

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128

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Comparing and Ordering Decimals
Use , , or to compare each pair of decimals. 1. 2.4 2.04 2. 6.23 6.32 3. 0.02 0.020

4. 12.05 12.50

5. 0.92 0.095

6. 39.21 39.021

7. 0.849 0.0851

8. 12.1 12.10

9. 21.967 2.1968

10. 0.0128 0.128

11. 1.4601 1.460

12. 19.08 19.079

13. 28.003 28.03

14. 0.831 0.0835

15. 39.020 39.0200

16. 15.6243 15.6234

17. 12.0905 12.10

18. 56.7 5.67

Order each set of decimals from least to greatest. 19. 1.25, 1.52, 1.02, 1.50 20. 67.39, 68.004, 67.039, 67.04

21. 15.0421, 14.52, 14.521, 15.421

22. 0.0012, 0.0211, 0.0002, 0.0022

Order each set of decimals from greatest to least. 23. 4.99, 4.001, 5.0, 4.01 24. 12.0012, 120.012, 12.012, 12.12

25. 3.5, 3.05, 3.55, 3.555

26. 45.0, 40.5, 40.09, 49.5

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Lesson 32

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Comparing and Ordering Decimals
MUSIC For Exercises 14, use the table.

The table shows the percent of the music market for each type of music. Music Industry Sales Statistics, 2001 Type of Music Pop Country Rock Rap/Hip-Hop R&B 1. Use or to compare the percents for pop and rap/hip-hop. Which is greater? Percent of Market 12.1 10.5 24.4 11.4 10.6 2. Use or to compare the percents for country and R&B. Which is greater?

3. If you owned a store that sells CDs, which kind of music would you want to sell, based on the table? Explain.

4. Suppose childrens songs have 12.05 percent of the market. Is this greater or less than the percent for pop music? Explain.

5. CONSTRUCTION Alberto is setting out four boards of lumber. The lengths of the boards are 4.5 feet, 4.52 feet, 4 feet, and 4.505 feet. Order the lengths from longest to shortest.

6. CONSTRUCTION Ella set out a board of pine lumber that was 0.8 feet long and a board of cedar lumber that was 0.80 feet long. Alberto said the cedar board was longer. Is he correct? Explain.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

130

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Comparing and Ordering Decimals
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 108 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Which player had the highest score? Explain.

Reading the Lesson


For Exercises 24, refer to the paragraph above Example 2 on page 109. 2. What are equivalent decimals?

3. What does it mean to annex a zero in a decimal? What happens to the value of the decimal?

4. List three decimals that are equivalent to 0.7.

6. What does the expression 7.6 7.8 mean?

7. What symbol would you use to compare 7.6 and 7.3? Explain.

Helping You Remember


8. Explain how using a number line to compare decimals is similar to using a number line to compare whole numbers.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 32

5. Look at Example 2 on page 109. Why is annexing zeros used in ordering decimals?

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
A Look at Nutrients
The table below gives data about a few of the nutrients in an average serving of some common foods. Protein Fat Carbohydrates (grams) (grams) (grams) 0.3 2.2 0.0 21.8 1.7 4.5 2.3 8.0 0.5 9.4 0.0 14.5 0.1 0.4 1.0 8.2 21.1 16.5 40.7 0.0 26.8 10.8 11.3 11.4 Vitamins (milligrams) B apple (medium) chocolate bar (1.02 oz) cola (12 fl oz) hamburger (1 medium) orange juice (8 fl oz) peas (1/2 cup) wheat bread (1 slice) whole milk (8 fl oz) 8 0 0 0 97 19 0 2 B-1 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.13 0.20 0.22 0.11 0.09 B-2 0.02 0.08 0.00 0.15 0.05 0.09 0.08 0.40 Minerals* (milligrams) Na 1 29 20 40 2 K Ca

Food

159 10 119 55 7 382 11 6

474 22

128 137 17 129 33 30

120 370 291

*Na sodium, K potassium, Ca calcium

Use the data in the table to answer each question. 1. Is there more potassium in one apple or in one serving of peas? 2. Does one serving of milk contain more fat or more carbohydrates? 3. Which foods contain less than 0.05 milligram of vitamin B-2? 4. Which foods contain an amount of carbohydrates between 15 grams and 25 grams? 5. Which food contains the least amount of calcium? 6. Which food contains the greatest amount of vitamin B-1? 7. List the foods in order of their protein content from least to greatest. 8. List the foods in order of their fat content from greatest to least. 9. Make up two questions about the data in the table. Exchange questions with a classmate. Then answer your classmates questions.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Rounding Decimals
To round a decimal, first underline the digit to be rounded. Then look at the digit to the right of the place being rounded.

If the digit is 4 or less, the underlined digit remains the same. If the digit is 5 or greater, add 1 to the underlined digit.

Round 6.58 to the nearest tenth. Look at the digit to the right of the underlined digit. 6.58 Since the digit to the right is 8, add one to the underlined digit. 6.6

Underline the digit to be rounded. 6.58

To the nearest tenth, 6.58 rounds to 6.6. Round 86.943 to the nearest hundredth. Look at the digit to the right of the underlined digit. 86.943 Since the digit is 3 and 3 5, the digit 4 remains the same. 86.94

Underline the digit to be rounded. 86.943

To the nearest hundredth, 86.943 rounds to 86.94.

Round each decimal to the indicated place-value position. 1. 3.21; tenths 3. 6.5892; hundredths 5. 0.0914; thousandths 7. 500.005; hundredths 9. 0.0052; thousandths 11. 131.1555; thousandths 2. 2.0505; thousandths 4. 235.709; hundredths 6. 34.35; tenths 8. 2.5134; tenths 10. 0.0052; hundredths 12. 232.88; tenths

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Lesson 33

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Rounding Decimals
Round each decimal to the indicated place-value position. 1. 54.38; ones 2. 2.671; tenths

3. $87.01; tens

4. 12.0905; tenths

5. 441.031; ones

6. 7.892; tenths

7. 20.2093; hundredths

8. 5.5252; ones

9. 16.01; tens

10. 0.58; tenths

11. 0.2859; hundredths

12. 145.15455; thousandths

13. $10.65; ones

14. 3.0188; thousandths

15. 0.01426; thousandths

16. 4.8255; thousandths

17. 0.830528; ten-thousandths

18. 143.09354; ten-thousandths

19. 0.0523413; ten-thousandths

20. 137.892; hundredths

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NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Rounding Decimals
POPULATION For Exercises 1 and 2, use the table.

The table shows the number of people in the United States per square mile. U.S. Population Year 1970 1980 1990 2000 1. Round the decimal for the number of people per square mile in 2000 to the nearest tens. Then round it to the nearest ones. Number of people per square mile of land area 57.4 64.0 70.3 79.6 2. Round the decimal for the number of people per square mile in 1970 to the nearest tens. Then round it to the nearest ones.

EVERGLADES For Exercises 37, use the following information.

The Everglades National Park gets an average of 59.10 inches of rainfall a year. It had 1.08025 million visitors in 2001, and its budget for 2003 was $13.958 million. 3. How much rain does the Everglades National Park receive each year rounded to the nearest inch? 4. How many visitors did the park have rounded to the nearest tenth of a million?

7. What is the budget to the nearest hundredth of a million?

8. SNOWBOARDING Mike, Jake, and Aaron are buying snowboards. Mike is getting his snowboard on sale for $219.49. Jakes costs $279.97. Aarons costs $234.95. Round each snowboard price to the nearest dollar.

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Lesson 33

5. How many visitors did the park have rounded to the nearest ten-thousandth of a million?

6. What is the budget to the nearest million?

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Rounding Decimals
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 111 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Round each cost to the nearest dollar.

2. How did you decide how to round each number?

3. Make a conjecture about how to round each cost to the nearest dime.

Reading the Lesson


For Exercises 4 and 5, see Examples 1 and 3 on pages 111 and 112. 4. In Example 1, what is the underlined digit? What place is it in? Why does the 1 remain the same when the decimal is rounded?

5. In Example 3, why is the digit in the cents place underlined? Why is it increased by 1 when the decimal is rounded?

Helping You Remember


6. Explain how to round a number. Give an example.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Everybody into the Pool!
Answer each question using the decimal pool below. 1. Which decimal when rounded to the nearest hundredth is 0.03? 2. Which decimal when rounded to the nearest thousandth is 0.003? 3. Which two decimals when rounded to the nearest hundredth are 0.02? 4. Which five decimals when rounded to the nearest tenth are 0.2? 5. Which decimal when rounded to the nearest thousandth is 0.210? 6. Which two decimals when rounded to the nearest hundredth are 0.20? 7. Add to the pool four different decimals that when rounded to the nearest thousandth are 0.301. 8. Add to the pool a three-place decimal that when rounded to the nearest tenth is 1.0.

0.025

0.1505

0.0

029

0.0209

0.1 099

0.196

0.185

3 0.0

0.301

0.2099

0.019

9. CHALLENGE Suppose that you are rounding decimals to the nearest hundredth. How many three-place decimals round to 0.05? List them. How many four-place decimals do you think round to 0.05?

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Lesson 33

0.2

01

51

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Estimating Sums and Differences
Estimation Methods Rounding Front-End Estimation Clustering Estimate by rounding each decimal to the nearest whole number that is easy for you to add or subtract mentally. Estimate by first adding or subtracting the front digits. Then add or subtract the next digits. Estimate by rounding a group of close numbers to the same number.

Estimate 14.07 43.22 using front-end estimation. Add the front digits. 14.07 43.22 5 Add the next digits. 14.07 43.22 57.00

An estimate for 14.07 43.22 is 57.

Use clustering to estimate $7.62 $7.89 $8.01 $7.99. To use clustering, round each addend to the same number. 7.62 7.89 8.01 7.99

8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 32.00

An estimate for $7.62 $7.89 $8.01 $7.99 is $32.

1-9. Sample answers given.


Estimate using rounding. 1. 59.118 17.799 2. $45.85 $6.82 3. 4.65 4.44

Estimate using front-end estimation. 4. 81.23 5.51 5. 42.06 17.39 6. 754.23 23.17

Estimate using clustering. 7. $0.99 $1.15 $0.52 8. 3.65 4.02 3.98 9. 6.87 6.97 7.39

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Estimating Sums and Differences
Estimate using rounding. 1. 2.32 2.52 2. 87.146 24.953

3. 18.93 27.45

4. $46.83 $18.60

5. $13.23 $2.87

6. 43.058 15.726

Estimate using front-end estimation. 7. 51.62 6.58 8. $233.10 23.62

9.

4.57360 0.58256

10.

820.1 3.2

11. $102.34 $23.00 $32.67

12. 652.355 52.736

Estimate using clustering. 13. 59.62 60.4 60 61 14. $4.79 $5.29 $4.99

15. 8.2 7.8 7.2 7.99

16. 89.04 87.55 90.101 91

17. 15.044 14.765 14.689

18. $1.44 $0.86 $1.00 $0.7

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Lesson 34

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Estimating Sums and Differences
SPORTS For Exercises 13, use the table.

The table shows the percent of annual hospital visits due to sports injuries by males 15 to 19 years of age. Percent of Male Sports-Related Injuries in the U.S., 20002001 Sport Basketball Football Baseball/softball Soccer Percent 25.9 21.3 4.1 4.6 Sport Boxing, Wrestling Exercise Bicycling Skateboarding Percent 4.4 3.8 8.1 3.6

1. Use clustering to estimate the total number of hospital visits due to injuries in baseball/softball, exercising, skateboarding, and boxing.

2. Use rounding to estimate how many more visits were due to football injuries than to soccer injuries.

3. Use front-end estimation to estimate the total number of visits caused by injuries in basketball and skateboarding.

4. BASKETBALL Len dribbled a basketball for 43 seconds before Greg got the ball away. Then Greg dribbled the ball for 11.525 seconds before Len got the ball. Use front-end estimation to estimate how many more seconds Len dribbled the ball than Greg.

5. GARDENING Kevin is going to plant three new types of vegetables in his garden. The garden store sells packages of tomatillo seeds for $1.67, chili pepper seeds for $0.89, and pumpkin seeds for $2.32. Use rounding to estimate how much Kevin will spend on all three packets of seeds.

6. TRAVEL Gloria drove 53.2 miles to her grandmothers home. From her grandmothers home she drove 12.67 miles to her aunts home. Use front-end estimation to estimate how many miles Gloria drove to get to her aunts home. Then use rounding to estimate the number of miles again.

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NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Estimating Sums and Differences
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 116 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Round each number to the nearest million.

2. About how many more people travel through Hartsfield Atlanta than San Francisco?

Reading the Lesson


3. Below is a difference estimated by rounding to the nearest tens. Describe in words each step shown. 54.3 2 8 . 7 50 3 0 20

4. Below is a difference estimated by using front-end estimation. Describe in words each step shown. 68.5 34.9 3 68.5 34.9 34.0

5. Below is a sum estimated by using clustering. Describe in words each step shown. 83.20 80.14 79.55 80.09 80 80 80 80 320

Helping You Remember


6. Suppose you are shopping for groceries. Which method of estimation would you use to estimate the cost of the groceries and why would you pick this method? You may want to consider accuracy, ease or speed of calculation. .

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Lesson 34

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Horizontal Estimation
Many times an addition problem is given to you in horizontal form, with the addends written from left to right. To estimate the sum, you dont have to rewrite the addition vertically in order to line up the decimal points. Just use place value to figure out which digits are most important. Here is an example. 3.11 0.4639 8.205 The most important digits are in the ones place. 3 0 8 11 The next group of important digits are in the tenths place. 1 tenth 4 tenths 2 tenths 7 tenths Add to make your estimate: 11 7 tenths about 11.7 Estimate each sum. 1. 7.44 0.2193 2. 0.4015 9.3 3.264

3. 0.4208 0.16

4. 0.52 0.1 0.308 0.0294

5. 10.2 0.519

6. 12.004 1.5 4.32 0.1009

7. 6.72 0.5037

8. 0.805 1.006 0.4 2.0305

9. 1.208 3.1 0.04 6.143 0.3075

10. 0.9005 5.03 7.108 0.004 10.7

This same method works when you need to estimate a sum of much greater numbers. Estimate each sum. 11. 53,129 420,916 12. 6,048 2,137 509 13. 723 4,106 4,051 318 14. 7,095 12,402 3,114 360 15. 650,129 22,018 107,664 10,509
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NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Adding and Subtracting Decimals
To add or subtract decimals, line up the decimal points then add or subtract digits in the same placevalue position. Estimate first so you know if your answer is reasonable.

Find the sum of 61.32 8.26. First, estimate the sum using front-end estimation.
61.32 8.26

61 8 69

61.32 8.26 69.58 Since the estimate is close, the answer is reasonable. Find 2.65 0.2.
Estimate: 2.65 0.2

303

2.65 0.20 2.45

Annex a zero.

Since the estimate is close, the answer is reasonable.

Add or subtract. 1. 2.3 4.1 2. $13.67 7.19 3. 0.0123 0.0028 4. 132.346 0.486

5.

113.7999 6.2001

6.

0.0058 0.0026

7.

$5.63 4.10

8.

5.00921 4.00013

9. 0.2 5.64 9.005

10. 12.36 4.081

11. 216.8 34.055

12. 4.62+ 3.415 + 2.4

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Lesson 35

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Adding and Subtracting Decimals
Add or subtract. 1. 0.581 11 2. 4.78 6 3. 9.6 5.2 4. 7.8 4.3

5.

16.79 0.51

6.

1.02 0.38

7.

20.1 3.2

8.

0.86 0.38

9.

3.84 2.69

10.

4.17 2.58

11.

47.06 38.27

12.

96.293 68.501

Add or subtract. 13. 8.5 0.5 14. 8.3 7.9 15. 5.21 4 0.2

16. 3.4 3.2 6

17. 0.485 9.32

18. 362 145.9

19. 19.4 7.86

20. 4 8.5 2

21. 8.3 5.41 3.2

22. ALGEBRA Evaluate b a if a 113.04 and b 241.931.

23. ALGEBRA Evaluate x y if x 2.057 and y 16.3.

Find the value of each expression. 24. 3.4 2 6 25. 16.9 22 26. 7 2.3 5.8

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Adding and Subtracting Decimals
Lesson 35

1. MICE The average length of the head and body of a western harvest mouse is 2.9 inches. The average length of the tail is 2.8 inches. First, estimate the total length of the mouse. Then find the actual total length.

2. MUSIC A piano solo on a CD is 5.33 minutes long. A guitar solo is 9.67 minutes long. How much longer is the guitar solo than the piano solo? First estimate the difference. Then find the actual difference.

3. WHALES The average length of a humpback whale is 13.7 meters. The average length of a killer whale is 6.85 meters. How much longer is the humpback whale than the killer whale?

4. GARDENING Alan is connecting three garden hoses to make one longer hose. The green hose is 6.25 feet long, the orange hose is 5.755 feet long, and the black hose is 6.5 feet long. First, estimate the total length. Then find the actual total length.

5. ASTRONOMY Distance in space can be measured in astronomical units, or AU. Jupiter is 5.2 AU from the Sun. Pluto is 39.223 AU from the Sun. How much closer to the Sun is Jupiter than Pluto?

6. ALGEBRA It is x miles from James City to Huntley and y miles from Huntley to Grover. How many miles is it from James City to Grover? To find out, evaluate x y if x 4.23 and y 16.876.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Adding and Subtracting Decimals
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 121 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Estimate the total amount of money earned by the top five movies.

2. Add the digits in the same place-value position. Use estimation to place the decimal point in the sum.

Reading the Lesson


For Exercises 35 look at the paragraph just above Example 1 on page 121 in your textbook. 3. Before you add or subtract decimals, what do you need to do?

4. Then, starting on the right, what do you do next?

5. Why do you think the first sentence of that paragraph says in the same place-value position? Give an example.

6. In Examples 15 on pages 121 and 122 in your textbook, the first step is to estimate the sum or difference. How does the estimate help?

Helping You Remember


7. Tell what steps you would use to evaluate the algebraic expression x y if x 3.4 and y 5.68.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Lesson 35

Palindromes
A palindrome is a number that reads the same from left to right and from right to left. Decimals like 4.4 and 73.37 are examples of palindromes. A decimal like 5.14 is not a palindrome, of course, but it can be transformed into one using this trick.
Write the number. Flip it around the decimal point. Add.

5.14 41.5 46.64

Be sure to line up the decimal points.

Use the addition trick shown above to transform each number into a palindrome. 1. 41.22 2. 50.9

3. 1.092

4. 0.0008

Use two additions to transform each number into a palindrome. (Exercise 5 has been started for you.) 5. 25.61 16.52 42.13 31.24 6. 5.92

7. 3.904

8. 415.9

Transform each number into a palindrome, using as many additions as necessary. 9. 49.6 10. 8.9

11. 517.6

12. 6.58

13. CHALLENGE Words can be palindromes, too, when they read the same from left to right and from right to left. Can you think of two words that are palindromes?

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Chapter Chapter X 4 Resource Resource Masters Masters

Course 1 1 Course

Consumable Workbooks
Many of the worksheets contained in the Chapter Resource Masters booklets are available as consumable workbooks in both English and Spanish. Study Guide and Intervention Workbook Study Guide and Intervention Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Skills Workbook Practice: Skills Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Word Problems Workbook Practice: Word Problems Workbook (Spanish) Reading to Learn Mathematics Workbook 0-07-860085-5 0-07-860091-X 0-07-860086-3 0-07-860092-8 0-07-860087-1 0-07-860093-6 0-07-861057-5

Answers for Workbooks The answers for Chapter 4 of these


workbooks can be found in the back of this Chapter Resource Masters booklet.

Spanish Assessment Masters Spanish versions of forms 2A and 2C of


the Chapter 4 Test are available in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts Spanish Assessment Masters, Course 1 (0-07-860095-2).

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teacher, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1 Chapter 4 Resource Masters 024 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03

ISBN: 0-07-860067-7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

CONTENTS
Vocabulary Builder .............................vii Family Letter ............................................ix Family Activity ........................................x Lesson 4-1
Study Guide and Intervention ........................169 Practice: Skills ................................................170 Practice: Word Problems................................171 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................172 Enrichment .....................................................173

Lesson 4-5
Study Guide and Intervention ........................189 Practice: Skills ................................................190 Practice: Word Problems................................191 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................192 Enrichment .....................................................193

Lesson 4-6
Study Guide and Intervention ........................194 Practice: Skills ................................................195 Practice: Word Problems................................196 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................197 Enrichment .....................................................198

Lesson 4-2
Study Guide and Intervention ........................174 Practice: Skills ................................................175 Practice: Word Problems................................176 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................177 Enrichment .....................................................178

Chapter 4 Assessment
Chapter 4 Test, Form 1 ..........................199200 Chapter 4 Test, Form 2A ........................201202 Chapter 4 Test, Form 2B ........................203204 Chapter 4 Test, Form 2C........................205206 Chapter 4 Test, Form 2D........................207208 Chapter 4 Test, Form 3 ..........................209210 Chapter 4 Extended Response Assessment .................................................211 Chapter 4 Vocabulary Test/Review.................212 Chapter 4 Quizzes 1 & 2................................213 Chapter 4 Quizzes 3 & 4................................214 Chapter 4 Mid-Chapter Test ...........................215 Chapter 4 Cumulative Review........................216 Chapter 4 Standardized Test Practice....217218 Unit 2 Test/Review..................................219220 Standardized Test Practice Student Recording Sheet ............................A1 Standardized Test Practice Rubric...................A2 ANSWERS .............................................A3A28

Lesson 4-3
Study Guide and Intervention ........................179 Practice: Skills ................................................180 Practice: Word Problems................................181 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................182 Enrichment .....................................................183

Lesson 4-4
Study Guide and Intervention ........................184 Practice: Skills ................................................185 Practice: Word Problems................................186 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................187 Enrichment .....................................................188

iii

Teachers Guide to Using the Chapter 4 Resource Masters


The Fast File Chapter Resource system allows you to conveniently file the resources you use most often. The Chapter 4 Resource Masters includes the core materials needed for Chapter 4. These materials include worksheets, extensions, and assessment options. The answers for these pages appear at the back of this booklet. All of the materials found in this booklet are included for viewing and printing in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1, TeacherWorks CD-ROM.

Vocabulary Builder Pages vii-viii include a student study tool that presents up to twenty of the key vocabulary terms from the chapter. Students are to record definitions and/or examples for each term. You may suggest that students highlight or star the terms with which they are not familiar.
When to Use Give these pages to students before beginning Lesson 4-1. Encourage them to add these pages to their mathematics study notebook. Remind them to add definitions and examples as they complete each lesson.

Practice: Skills

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice that more closely follows the structure of the Practice and Applications section of the Student Edition exercises. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Practice: Word Problems

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice in solving word problems that apply the concepts of the lesson. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Family Letter and Family Activity


Page ix is a letter to inform your students families of the requirements of the chapter. The family activity on page x helps them understand how the mathematics students are learning is applicable to real life. When to Use Give these pages to students to take home before beginning the chapter.

Reading to Learn Mathematics

Study Guide and Intervention


There is one Study Guide and Intervention master for each lesson in Chapter 4. When to Use Use these masters as reteaching activities for students who need additional reinforcement. These pages can also be used in conjunction with the Student Edition as an instructional tool for students who have been absent.

One master is included for each lesson. The first section of each master asks questions about the opening paragraph of the lesson in the Student Edition. Additional questions ask students to interpret the context of and relationships among terms in the lesson. Finally, students are asked to summarize what they have learned using various representation techniques. When to Use This master can be used as a study tool when presenting the lesson or as an informal reading assessment after presenting the lesson. It is also a helpful tool for ELL (English Language Learner) students.

iv

There is one extension master for each lesson. These activities may extend the concepts in the lesson, offer an historical or multicultural look at the concepts, or widen students perspectives on the mathematics they are learning. These are not written exclusively for honors students, but are accessible for use with all levels of students. When to Use These may be used as extra credit, short-term projects, or as activities for days when class periods are shortened.

Enrichment

A Vocabulary Test, suitable for all students, includes a list of the vocabulary words in the chapter and ten questions assessing students knowledge of those terms. This can also be used in conjunction with one of the chapter tests or as a review worksheet.

Intermediate Assessment
Four free-response quizzes are included to offer assessment at appropriate intervals in the chapter. A Mid-Chapter Test provides an option to assess the first half of the chapter. It is composed of both multiple-choice and freeresponse questions.

Assessment Options
The assessment masters in the Chapter 4 Resources Masters offer a wide range of assessment tools for intermediate and final assessment. The following lists describe each assessment master and its intended use.

Continuing Assessment
The Cumulative Review provides students an opportunity to reinforce and retain skills as they proceed through their study of Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. It can also be used as a test. This master includes free-response questions. The Standardized Test Practice offers continuing review of pre-algebra concepts in various formats, which may appear on the standardized tests that they may encounter. This practice includes multiplechoice, short response, grid-in, and extended response questions. Bubble-in and grid-in answer sections are provided on the master.

Chapter Assessment
Chapter Tests Form 1 contains multiple-choice questions and is intended for use with basic level students. Forms 2A and 2B contain multiple-choice questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Forms 2C and 2D are composed of freeresponse questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Grids with axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. Form 3 is an advanced level test with free-response questions. Grids without axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. All of the above tests include a free-response Bonus question. The Extended-Response Assessment includes performance assessment tasks that are suitable for all students. A scoring rubric is included for evaluation guidelines. Sample answers are provided for assessment.

Answers
Page A1 is an answer sheet for the Standardized Test Practice questions that appear in the Student Edition on pages 170171. This improves students familiarity with the answer formats they may encounter in test taking. Detailed rubrics for assessing the extended response questions on page 171 are provided on page A2. The answers for the lesson-by-lesson masters are provided as reduced pages with answers appearing in red. Full-size answer keys are provided for the assessment masters in this booklet.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
This is an alphabetical list of new vocabulary terms you will learn in Chapter 4. As you study the chapter, complete each terms definition or description. Remember to add the page number where you found the term. Add this page to your math study notebook to review vocabulary at the end of the chapter. Vocabulary Term center Found on Page Definition/Description/Example
Vocabulary Builder

circle

circumference [suhr-KUHM-fuh-ruhns]

diameter [deye-A-muh-tuhr]

radius

perimeter [puh-RIH-muh-tuhr]

scientific notation

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vii

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Letter

Dear Parent or Guardian: decimals is a valuable skill. Knowing how to multiply and divide ch money we will spend We use decimals to calculate how mu how much of our on sports equipment or to determine movie. Skill in using allowance will be left after seeing a isions about purchasing decimals helps us make informed dec goods and services. viding Decimals, your In Chapter 4, Multiplying and Di find the products and child will learn how to estimate and the perimeter and quotients of decimals as well as find In the study of this circumference of polygons and circles. iety of daily classroom chapter, your child will complete a var ly produce a chapter assignments and activities and possib project . it with your child, you By signing this letter and returning ting involved. Enclosed is agree to encourage your child by get r child that also relates the an activity that you can do with you 4 to the real world. You math we will be learning in Chapter line Study Tools for selfmay also wish to log on to the On dy Guide pages, and check quizzes, Parent and Student Stu et. If you have any other study help at www.msmath1.n contact me at school. questions or comments, feel free to Sincerely,

Signature of Parent or Guardian ______________________________________ Date ________

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ix

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Family Letter

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Activity
Multiplying and Dividing Decimals
Work with a family member. Research the current Federal minimum wage at your local library or on the Internet. Use this information for Exercises 15. Whenever necessary, round to the nearest hundredth. 1. What is the current Federal minimum wage?

2. Suppose you worked 5.5 hours last Saturday and were paid minimum wage. How much money would you have earned?

3. Suppose you earned $110.00 last week. If you are paid the Federal minimum wage, how many hours did you work?

4. Federal, state, and local labor laws limit the number of hours that a person under a certain age can work in a day or week. Research the number of hours you can legally work. Use this information to determine the maximum amount you could earn in a day or week if you are earning the Federal minimum wage.

5. Visit a local retail store or look at store advertisements for three or more items you would like to purchase. If you were earning the Federal minimum wage, how many hours would you have to work to earn enough money to purchase each item? Item 1: Item 2: Item 3:

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

15. See students work.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Multiplying Decimals by Whole Numbers
When you multiply a decimal by a whole number, you multiply the numbers as if you were multiplying all whole numbers. Then you use estimation or you count the number of decimal places to decide where to place the decimal point. If there are not enough decimal places in the product, annex zeros to the left.

Find 6.25 5. Method 1 Use estimation. Round 6.25 to 6. 6.25 5 6 5 or 30


12

Method 2 Count decimal places. 6.25 5 31.25


There are two places to the right of the decimal point. Count the same number of decimal places from right to left.

6.25 5 31.25

Since the estimate is 30 place the decimal point after 31.

0.0047 3 0.0141

There are four decimal places. Annex a zero on the left of 141 to make four decimal places.

When you write a number greater than ten as the product of a decimal and 10 raised to a whole number power, you are writing the number in scientific notation. The whole number factor is a power of ten. Write 8.2 105 in standard form. Method 1 Use order of operations. Evaluate 105 first. Then multiply. 8.2 105 8.2 100,000 820,000 So, 8.2 105 820,000. Method 2 Use mental math. Move the decimal point 5 places. 8.2 105 8.20000 105 820,000

Multiply. 1. 8.03 3

2. 6 12.6

3. 2 0.012

4. 0.0008 9

Write each number in standard form. 5. 2.32 102 6. 6.8 102

7. 5.2 103

8. 1.412 104

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

169

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 41

Find 3 0.0047.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Multiplying Decimals by Whole Numbers
Multiply. 1. 1.5 3 2. 0.9 6 3. 0.45 5 4. 3.12 8

5. 3.47 5

6. 2.08 6

7. 9.14 2

8. 0.82 9

9.

6.3 9

10. 0.02 3

11. 9.12 4

12. 27.3 8

13. 4.007 4

14. 3.13 3

15. 5.02 8

16. 6.31 6

17. 8.01 5

18. 4.325 7

19. 0.762 2

20. 0.08 8

21. 6 3.04

22. 2.6 9

23. 13 2.5

24. 1.006 4

25. Evaluate 42.3t if t = 110.

26. Evaluate 231a if a = 3.6

Write each number in standard form. 27. 3.15 104 28. 2.6 105 29. 5 106

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

170

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Multiplying Decimals by Whole Numbers
1. COOKING Norberto uses three 14.7 oz cans of chicken broth when he makes his delicious tortilla soup. How many total ounces of chicken broth does he use? 2. TIME Amanda works on a farm out in the hills. It takes her 2.25 hours to drive to town and back. She usually goes to town twice a week to get supplies. How much time does Amanda spend driving if she takes 8 trips to town each month?

5. MONEY David wants to buy 16 bolts from a bin at the hardware store. Each bolt costs $0.03. How much will David pay for the bolts?

6. INSECTS One wing of a Royal Moth is 0.75 inch across. How wide is the moths wingspan when both wings are open?

7. COSTUMES KJ is making costumes for this years samba parade. The pattern she is using calls for 2.125 yards of fabric for each costume. How many yards of fabric will she need to make 34 costumes?

8. PLANETS Earth is 1.496 108 kilometers from the Sun. What is this distance written in standard form?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

171

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 41

3. EXERCISE The local health club is advertising a special for new members: no initiation fee to join and only $34.50 per month for the first year. If Andy joins the health club for one year, how much will he spend on membership?

4. BIKING In order to train for a crossstate biking trip, Julie rides her bike 34.75 miles five times a week. How many total miles does she ride each week?

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Multiplying Decimals by Whole Numbers
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 135 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Use the addition problem and the estimate to find 2 $7.99. 2. Write an addition problem, an estimate, and a multiplication problem to find the total cost of 3 CDs, 4 CDs, and 5 CDs.

3. Make a conjecture about how to find the product of $0.35 and 3.

Reading the Lesson


4. When multiplying a whole number and a decimal, it is very important that the decimal point in the product is in the right place. What are two methods for determining the placement of the decimal point in the product?

5. If you place the decimal point in the product of a whole number and a decimal by counting decimal places, how is this done?

6. What does it mean to annex zeros in the product? Why is it sometimes necessary to do this?

Helping You Remember


7. Work with a partner. Explain the difference between standard form and scientific notation, and give examples of each.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

172

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Multiplying by 10, 100, and 1,000
Can you see a pattern in these multiplications? 5.931 5.931 10 100 59.310 59.31 593.100 593.1 5.931 1,000 5,931.000 5,931

When you multiply a number by 10, 100, or 1,000, the product contains the same digits as the original number. However, the decimal point moves according to these rules. multiply by 10 multiply by 100 multiply by 1,000 move to the right one place move to the right two places move to the right three places

Many people use this fact as a mental math strategy. Find each product mentally.

3. 1,000 7.402 5. 1,000 0.5362 7. 24.07 10 9. 0.075 100 11. 0.0046 100 Now you can use this mental math strategy to estimate some products. The secret is to recognize when one of the factors is fairly close to 10, 100, or 1,000. An example is shown at the right.

4. 10 0.84 6. 100 3.83 8. 1.918 1,000 10. 6.1 10 12. 0.005 1,000 32.83 97 32.83 100 3,283

So, 32.83 97 is about 3,283.

Estimate by rounding one number to 10, 100, or 1,000. 13. 6.57 9 15. 1,225 3.548 17. 98.04 26.331 14. 14.32 96 16. 0.6214 11.05 18. 0.0358 9.3145

19. CHALLENGE Find the product 1,000 16.5 mentally. How is this different from the other exercises on this page?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

173

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 41

1. 10 7.402

2. 100 7.402

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Multiplying Decimals
When you multiply a decimal by a decimal, multiply the numbers as if you were multiplying all whole numbers. To decide where to place the decimal point, find the sum of the number of decimal places in each factor. The product has the same number of decimal places.

Find 5.2 6.13.


Estimate: 5 6 or 30

5.2 6.13 156 52 312 31.876

one decimal place two decimal places

three decimal places Compared to the estimate, the product is reasonable.

The product is 31.876.

Evaluate 0.023t if t 2.3. 0.023t 0.023 2.3 0.023 2.3 69 46 0.0529


Replace t with 2.3.

three decimal places one decimal place

Annex a zero to make four decimal places.

Multiply. 1. 7.2 2.1 2. 4.3 8.5 3. 2.64 1.4

4. 14.23 8.21

5. 5.01 11.6

6. 9.001 4.2

Evaluate each expression if x 5.07, y 1.5, and z 0.403. 7. 3.2x y 8. yz x 9. z 7.06 y

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

174

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Multiplying Decimals
Multiply. 1. 0.3 0.5 2. 1.2 2.1

3. 2.5 6.7

4. 0.4 8.3

5. 2.3 1.21

6. 0.6 0.91

7. 6.5 0.04

8. 8.54 3.27

9. 5.02 1.07

10. 0.003 2.9

11. 0.93 6.8

12. 7.1 0.004

15. 2.6 5.46

16. 16.25 1.3

17. 3.5 24.09

18. 0.025 17.1

19. 11.04 6.18

20. 14.83 16.7

21. 27.1 10.105

Evaluate each expression if x 2.1, y 0.031, and z 3.05. 22. xy z 23. y xz 24. x 13.55 y

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

175

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 42

13. 3.007 6.1

14. 2.52 0.15

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Multiplying Decimals
1. GIFTS Colin is filling 4.5 ounce bottles with lavender bubble bath that he made for gifts. He was able to fill 7.5 bottles. How many ounces of bubble bath did he make? 2. GROCERY Ionas favorite peaches are $2.50 per pound at the local farmers market. She bought 3.5 pounds of the peaches. How much did she spend?

3. SHOPPING Jennifer is buying new school clothes. The items she wants to buy add up to $132.50 before sales tax. Sales tax is calculated by multiplying the total amount by 0.08. What is the amount of sales tax for the items?

4. DRIVING Ana bought a van that holds 20.75 gallons of gas and gets an average of 15.5 miles per gallon. How many miles can she expect to go on a full tank?

5. INCOME Ishi makes $8.50 an hour rolling sushi at Kyoto Japanese Restaurant. His paycheck shows that he worked 20.88 hours over the past two weeks. How much did Ishi make before taxes?

6. TRAVEL Manny is on vacation in France. He rented a car to drive 233.3 kilometers from Paris to Brussels and wants to figure out the distance in miles. To convert from kilometers to miles, he needs to multiply the total kilometers by 0.62. How many miles will Manny drive?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

176

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Multiplying Decimals
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 141 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Suppose you fill a bag with 1.3 pounds of jellybeans. The product 1.3 2 can be used to estimate the total cost. Estimate the total cost. 2. Multiply 13 by 200. 3. How are the answers to Exercises 1 and 2 related? Repeat Exercises 13 for each amount of candy. 4. 1.7 pounds of gummy worms 5. 2.28 pounds of snow caps 6. Make a conjecture about how to place the decimal point in the product of two decimals.

Reading the Lesson


Lesson 42
7. When multiplying decimals, what is the relationship between the number of decimal places in each factor and the number of decimal places in the product? 8. Look at Exercises 1 and 2 above and the answers for these exercises. a. How is 13 related to 1.3 pounds? b. c. How is 207 related to $2.07 per pound? What is the actual cost of 1.3 pounds of jellybeans if each pound costs $2.07 per pound? How is 2691 related to the actual cost of 1.3 pounds of jellybeans?

d.

Helping You Remember


9. In situations where you are multiplying decimals by whole numbers it is easy to think of the calculation as adding the same value multiple times. What does it mean to multiply decimals? Describe some situations where you would need to multiply decimals.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

177

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
A Logic Puzzle
Here is a puzzle that will help you brush up on your logical thinking skills. The product 3.3 8.1 is in both the circle and the triangle, but not in the square. Place the product in the diagram at the right. 8.1 3.3 243 243 2 6.73

Write 26.73 in the correct region of the diagram.

26.73

Use the given information to place the product in the diagram above. 1. The product 14.19 1.3 is in both the triangle and the square, but not in the circle.

2. The product 0.08 2.7 is in the triangle, but not in the circle or the square.

3. The product 1.24 0.16 is not in the circle, the square, or the triangle.

4. The product 2.2 0.815 is in both the square and the circle, but not in the triangle.

5. The product 0.02 0.03 is in the circle, but not the triangle or the square.

6. The product 21.7 0.95 is in the circle, the square, and the triangle.

7. The product 2.5 12.8 is in the square, but not the circle or triangle.

8. If you did all the calculations correctly, the sum of all the numbers in the diagram should be a nice number. What is the sum?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

178

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Dividing Decimals by Whole Numbers
When you divide a decimal by a whole number, place the decimal point in the quotient above the decimal point in the dividend. Then divide as you do with whole numbers.

Find 8.73 9.
Estimate: 9 9 1

0.97 98 .7 3 0 87 8 1 63 63 0

Place the decimal point directly above the decimal point in the quotient.

Divide as with whole numbers.

8.73 9 0.97

Compared to the estimate, the quotient is reasonable.

Find 8.58 12.


Estimate: 10 10 1

0.715 128 .5 8 0 8 4 18 12 60 60 0

Place the decimal point.

Annex a zero to continue dividing.

8.58 12 0.715 Compared to the estimate, the quotient is reasonable.

Divide. 1. 4 9.2 2. 54 .5 3. 8.6 2 4. 2.89 4

.2 5. 43

6. 37 .2

7. 7.5 5

8. 3.25 5

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

179

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 43

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Dividing Decimals by Whole Numbers
Divide. Round to the nearest tenth if necessary. 1. 39 .6 2. 55 .1 5

3. 21 6 .0 8

4. 72 4 .6 4

5. 111 3 2 .2 2

6. 161 4 2 .4

7. 79.2 9

8. 47.4 15

9. 217.14 21

10. 5 34 .6 5

11. 82 0 .7 2

12. 107 2 .6

13. 155 7 .4 8

14. 252 6 4 .5

15. 343 1 7 .5 9 4

16. 122.32 11

17. 42.48 18

18. 323.316 24

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

180

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Dividing Decimals by Whole Numbers
1. ENTERTAINMENT Frank, Gina, Judy, and Connie are splitting their dinner bill. After tip, the total is $30.08. How much does each owe if they split the bill four ways? 2. FOOD There are 25 servings in a 12.5 ounce bottle of olive oil. How many ounces are in a serving?

3. RUNNING Isabella has found that she stays the most fit by running various distances and terrains throughout the week. On Mondays she runs 2.5 miles, on Tuesdays 4.6 miles, on Thursdays 6.75 miles, and on Saturdays 4.8 miles. What is the average distance Isabella runs on each of the days that she runs? Round to the nearest hundredth of a mile.

4. BUSINESS Katherine spends $1,089.72 each month for rent and supplies to run her hair salon. If she charges $18 for a haircut, how many haircuts must Katherine do to cover her monthly expenses? Round to the nearest whole number.

Grade A B C D F

Average Score 90 100 80 89 70 79 60 69 50 59

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

181

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 43

5. CONSTRUCTION It took Steve and his construction crew 8 months to build a house. After expenses, he was left with $24,872.67 for himself. On average, how much did Steve make per month? Round to the nearest dollar.

6. GRADES Shane wants to figure out what grade he is getting in math. His test scores were 85.6, 78.5, 92.5, 67, and 83.7. What was his average test score? What grade will he receive?

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Dividing Decimals by Whole Numbers
Pre-Activity Do the Mini Lab at the top of page 144 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
Use base-ten blocks to show each quotient. 1. 3.4 2

2. 4.2 3

3. 5.6 4

Find each whole number quotient. 4. 34 2 5. 42 3 6. 56 4

7. Compare and contrast the quotients in Exercises 13 with the quotients in Exercises 46.

8. MAKE A CONJECTURE Write a rule about how to divide a decimal by a whole number.

Reading the Lesson


9. In the equation 4.8 8 0.6, how can you check to see if the division sentence is true? 10. Where do you place the decimal point in the quotient when dividing by a whole number?

Helping You Remember


11. Work with a partner. Pretend your partner missed the class that covered this lesson. Explain to your partner the method for knowing where to place the decimal point when you are dividing with decimals.
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

182

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Unit Pricing
The unit price of an item is the cost of the item given in terms of one unit of the item. The unit might be something that you count, like jars or cans, or it might be a unit of measure, like ounces or pounds. You can find a unit price using this formula. unit price cost of item number of units For example, you find the unit price of the tuna in the ad at the right by finding the quotient 0.89 6. The work is shown below the ad. Rounding the quotient to the nearest cent, the unit price is $0.15 per ounce. TUNA 89 6 ounce can 0.148 6 0.8 9 0 6 29 24 50 48 2

Find a unit price for each item. 1. 5-pound bag CARROTS $1.29 2. 18-ounce jar PEANUT BUTTER $2.49 3. Grade A Jumbo EGGS Dozen $1.59

Give two different unit prices for each item. 4. Frozen BURRITOS 5-ounce pkg 2 for $1.39 5. Purr-fect CAT FOOD 3/$1 3-ounce can 6. Old Tyme SPAGHETTI SAUCE 12-ounce jars 2/$3

Circle the better buy. 7. Mozarella Cheese 3/$4 10-ounce pkg Mozarella Cheese 2/$3 18-ounce pkg 8. Dee-light Chicken Wings $9.99 5-pound bag Top Q Chicken Wings $2.29 18-ounce bag

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

183

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 43

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Dividing by Decimals
When you divide a decimal by a decimal, multiply both the divisor and the dividend by the same power of ten. Then divide as with whole numbers.

Find 10.14 5.2.


Estimate: 10 5 2 Multiply by 10 to make a whole number.

5.2 1 0 .1 4
Multiply by the same number, 10.

1.95 521 0 1 .4 0 52 494 468 260 260 0

Place the decimal point.


Divide as with whole numbers.

Annex a zero to continue.

10.14 divided by 5.2 is 1.95. Check: 1.95 5.2 10.14  Find 4.09 0.02. 0.02 4 .0 0
Multiply each by 100.

Compare to the estimate.

204.5 24 0 9 .0 4 00 0 09 8 10 10 0

Place the decimal point. Divide.

Write a zero, in the dividend and continue to divide.

4.09 0.02 is 204.5. Check: 204.5 0.02 4.09 

Divide. 1. 1.49 .8 2. 2.14 .4 1 3. 0.72 16 .8 4 8

4. 8.652 1.2

5. 0.5 0.001

6. 9.594 0.06

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

184

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Dividing by Decimals
Divide. Round to the nearest hundredth if necessary. .8 6 1. 0.24 2. 0.72 .5 2

3. 1.21 4 .4

4. 3.81 7 .1

5. 1.32 3.9 6

6. 34.9 62 8 .2

7. 0.105 0.5

8. 1.296 0.16

9. 3.825 2.5

10. 0.58 .2 5 3

11. 0.80 .9 9 4 4

12. 0.32 1.5 0 0 4 8

13. 0.75 13 .5 9

14. 1.84 .4 2 0 8

15. 4.02 16 .1 6 0 4

16. 160.3639 25.1

17. 246.3293 13.3

18. 106.288 6.5

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

185

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 44

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Dividing by Decimals
MARATHON For Exercises 1 and 2, use the table that shows course

records for the Boston Marathon. Course Records for the Boston Marathon Division Mens Open Womens Open Mens Wheelchair Womens Wheelchair Record-holder Cosmas Ndeti Margaret Okayo Heinz Frei Jean Driscoll Year 1994 2002 1994 1994 Time (hours) 2.121 2.345 1.356 1.523

1. The Boston Marathon is 26.2 miles. Use the times shown in the table to calculate the miles per hour for each division winner. Round to the nearest thousandth.

2. To the nearest hundredth, how many times greater was the mens open time than the womens wheelchair time?

3. DRIVING The Martinez family drove 48.7 miles to the river. It took them 1.2 hours to get there. How fast did they drive? Round to the nearest whole number.

4. SHOPPING Nikki is buying some refrigerator magnets for her friends. Her total bill is $16.80. If magnets are $0.80 each, how many magnets is she buying?

5. SCALE MODEL Matt is making a scale model of a building. The model is 3.4 feet tall. The actual building is 41.48 feet tall. How many times smaller is the model than the actual building?

6. COOKING Yori has 14.25 cups of cupcake batter. If each cupcake uses 0.75 cup of batter, how many cupcakes can Yori make?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

186

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Dividing by Decimals
Pre-Activity Do the Mini Lab at the top of page 152 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
Use a calculator to find each quotient. 1. 0.048 0.06 0.48 0.6 4.8 6 48 60 2. 0.0182 0.13 0.182 1.3 1.82 13 18.2 130

3. Which of the quotients in Exercises 1 and 2 would be easier to find without a calculator? Explain your reasoning.

Rewrite each problem so you can find the quotient without using a calculator. Then find the quotient. 4. 0.42 0.7 5. 1.26 0.3 6. 1.55 0.5

Reading the Lesson


7. When dividing decimals, what happens to the decimal point in the divisor and the dividend when you multiply both by the same power of 10?

8. Without doing any dividing, describe what you must do to start dividing 0.07 by 1.5.

Helping You Remember


9. Write a short song or come up with a clever saying that will help you remember that whatever change you make to the decimal point of the divisor you must also make to the decimal point of the dividend.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

187

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 44

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Its in the Cards
Below each set of cards, a quotient is given. Use the digits on the cards to form a division sentence with that quotient. Use as many zeros as you need to get the correct number of decimal places. For example, this is how to find a division for the cards at the right. You know that 24 3 8. So, one division is 0.0024 30 0.0008.
2
3

Quotient: 0.0008

1.
4

2.
5

3.
1

Quotient: 0.009

Quotient: 0.04

Quotient: 0.0005

4.
3

5.
5

6.
1

Quotient: 0.0074

Quotient: 0.0155

Quotient: 0.0025

7.
1

8.
2 4

9.
1

Quotient: 0.0004

Quotient: 0.03

Quotient: 0.005

10.
1

11.
2 3

12.
2

Quotient: 20.65

Quotient: 0.0208

Quotient: 0.08

13. CHALLENGE Use the cards at the right. Write four different divisions that have the quotient 0.4.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

188

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Perimeter
The distance around any closed figure is called its perimeter. To find the perimeter, add the measures of all the sides of the figure. Finding Perimeter Figure Rectangle Words The perimeter P of a rectangle is the sum of the lengths and widths. It is also two times the length plus two times the width w. The perimeter P of a square is four times the measure of any of its sides s. Symbols Pww P 2 2w P 4s

Square

Find the perimeter of the rectangle.


Estimate: 5 5 5 5 20

3 ft

P 2 2w P 2(5) 2(3) P 10 6 P 16

Write the formula. Replace with 5 and w with 3. Multiply. Add.

5 ft

5 ft

The perimeter of the rectangle is 16 feet. Compared to the estimate, the answer is reasonable. Find the perimeter of the square. P 4s P 4(6) P 24
Write the formula. Replace s with 6. Multiply. 6 in.

3 ft

The perimeter of the square is 24 inches.

Find the perimeter of each figure. 1.


1 in. 4 in. 10 yd 10 yd 4 in. 1 in.

2.

3 yd

3.

5 ft

5 ft 3 yd

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

189

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 45

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Perimeter
Find the perimeter of each figure. 1.
2 ft 5 ft 5 ft 2 ft 8.7 in. 8.7 in.

2.

4.3 in.

4.3 in.

3.

4 in.

4.

11.5 yd

4 in.

4 in.

13.2 yd

13.2 yd

4 in. 11.5 yd

5.

9.8 km

6.

2 mi

9.8 km 9.3 mi 9.3 mi

2 mi

7.
2 km

7.6 km

8.

2. 1

cm

2.

cm

4.3 km 9.2 km 7.2 km


5.6 cm

5.6 c m

3.3 km

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

190

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Perimeter
1. GEOGRAPHY The state of Colorado is nearly rectangular. It is about 589 kilometers by 456 kilometers. What is the perimeter of Colorado? 2. FRAMING How many inches of matting is needed to frame an 8.5 inch by 11 inch print?

3. GARDENING Jessica wants to put a fence around her 10.5 foot by 13.75 foot rectangular garden. How many feet of fencing will she need?

4. SEWING Amy is making pillows to decorate her bed. She is going to make three square pillows that are each 2 feet by 2 feet. She wants to use the same trim around each pillow. How many feet of trim will she need for all three pillows?

5. JOGGING Before soccer practice, Jovan warms up by jogging around a soccer field that is 100 yards by 130 yards. How many yards does he jog if he goes around the field four times?

6. POSTER Ted is making a stop sign poster for a talk on safety to a first grade class. He will put a strip of black paper around the perimeter of the stop sign. Each of the stop signs eight sides is 16.34 inches. How long a strip of paper will he need?

7. FLAG Jo is making a triangular banner. Each of the three sides is 14.567 inches long. If she puts a braided trim around the banner, how much trim will she need?

8. PYRAMIDS The Great Pyramid at Giza, Egypt, has a square base, with each side measuring 0.229 kilometer. If you could walk once all the way around the pyramid at its base, how far could you walk?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

191

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 45

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Perimeter
Pre-Activity Do the Mini Lab at the top of page 158 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Find the distance around your textbook by adding the measures of each side.

2. Can you think of more than one way to find the distance around your book? If so, describe it.

Reading the Lesson


3. The perimeter of a rectangle is equal to 2 2w. What does the formula tell you about the lengths and widths of a rectangle?

4. The formula for the perimeter of a square is P 4s. What does that tell you about the sides of a square?

5. Can you use the formula for the perimeter of a rectangle to find the perimeter of a square? Why or why not?

Helping You Remember


6. Think of a way to remember the formula for the perimeter of a rectangle, P 2 2w. For example, use the letters of the variables as the first letters of words in a sentence.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

192

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Lesson 45

Getting From Here to There


At the right, you see a rectangle on a grid of squares. The rectangle is 4 units wide and 7 units long. The diagonal path of this rectangle crosses 10 squares of the grid. For each rectangle, record the width, the length, and the diagonal path. 1. 2. 3. 4.
width length diagonal path 4 7 10

5. Refer to your answers to Exercises 14. What is the pattern?

Now record the width, length, and diagonal path for each of these rectangles. 6. 7. 8.

9. Refer to your answers to Exercises 68. Does the pattern that you found in Exercise 5 still hold? 10. What is the difference between the rectangles in Exercises 14 and the rectangles in Exercises 68?

Predict the diagonal path for each rectangle. 11. 4 units by 9 units 13. 20 units by 30 units 12. 10 units by 21 units 14. 20 units by 24 units

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Circumference
Center The circumference is the distance around a circle. The radius, r, is the distance from the center to any point on a circle.

The diameter, d, is the distance across a circle through its center.

The circumference of a circle is equal to times its diameter or times twice its radius.

C d or C 2r

Find the circumference of a circle whose diameter is 4.2 meters. Round to the nearest tenth. C d 3.14 4.2 13.188 13.2
Write the formula. Replace with 3.14 and d with 4.2. Multiply. Round to the nearest tenth.

The circumference of the circle is about 13.2 meters. Find the circumference of a circle whose radius is 13 inches. Round to the nearest tenth. C 2r 2 3.14 13 81.64 81.6
Write the formula. Replace with 3.14 and r with 13. Multiply. Round to the nearest tenth.

The circumference of the circle is about 81.6 inches.

Find the circumference of each circle shown or described. Round to the nearest tenth. 1. 2.
3.25 in. 4m

3.
0.65 ft

4. The radius of a circle measures 16 miles. What is the measure of its circumference to the nearest tenth? 5. Find the circumference of a circle whose diameter is 12.5 yards to the nearest tenth. 6. What is the circumference of a circle with a radius of 2.05 inches to the nearest tenth?
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

194

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Circumference
Find the circumference of each circle shown or described. Use 3.14 for . Round to the nearest tenth. 1.
2.5 cm

2.
3.4 in.

3.
11 m

4.
21 mi

5.
7.1 yd

6.
8.6 mm

7.

8.
12.5 cm
4.83 ft

9.
14.04 m

10.

11.
0.875 yd

12.

25.3 ft 16.2 in.

13. r 13 cm

14. d 4.1 ft

15. r 22 mm

16. d 1.25 in.

17. r 10.6 mi

18. d 14.23 yd

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 46

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Circumference
AUDIO MEDIA For Exercises 13, use the table that shows the sizes of three main audio media: vinyl, CD, and mini-disc. Use 3.14 for .

Diameters of Audio Media Medium Vinyl Disc Compact Disc (CD) Mini Compact Disc (Mini-disc) 1. What is the circumference of a CD? Diameter (inches) 12 5 2.5 2. When a record player needle is placed on the outside edge of a vinyl record, how far does the needle travel in one rotation?

3. What is the difference between the circumference of a vinyl disc and a mini-disc?

4. CROP CIRCLES On June 8, 1992 a crop circle with an 18-meter radius was found in a wheat field near Szekesfehervar, 43 miles southwest of Budapest. What was its circumference?

5. SEQUOIAS The largest living thing in the world is the General Sherman sequoia in Sequoia National Park, California. It is 272 feet high, has a diameter of 36.5 feet, and has an estimated weight of 2,150 tons. What is the sequoias circumference to the nearest tenth of a foot?

6. MONSTER TRUCKS A monster truck fleet uses 23 degree tires 66 inches tall, 43 inches wide, mounted on 25-inch diameter wheels. What is the circumference of a monster truck wheel to the nearest tenth of an inch?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Circumference
Pre-Activity Do the Mini Lab at the top of page 161 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. What do you notice about each quotient?

3. Predict the distance around a circle that is 4 inches across.

Reading the Lesson


4. What is the real value of ? What does it mean that the real value never ends?

5. Why is the symbol used in the solutions of the circumference problems in the examples?

6. What are the two formulas that you can use to find the circumference of a circle? When would you use each of them?

Helping You Remember


7. Make a model of a circle and its parts using materials from your home. Label the center, radius, diameter, and circumference.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 46

2. What conclusion can you make about the circumference and diameter of a circle?

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Estimating the Area of a Circle
You have learned that area is the number of square units needed to cover a surface. Counting square units on a circular surface can be challenging. Here is a counting method that gives a fairly good estimate of the area of a circle. Count the squares that cover any part of the circular region. Count the squares that are entirely within the circle. Find the mean of the two numbers.
60 32 92 46 1 2

So the area of the circle is about 46 square units.


60 32

Estimate the area of each circle or oval. 1. 2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

198

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Chapter Chapter X 5 Resource Resource Masters Masters

Course 1 1 Course

Consumable Workbooks
Many of the worksheets contained in the Chapter Resource Masters booklets are available as consumable workbooks in both English and Spanish. Study Guide and Intervention Workbook Study Guide and Intervention Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Skills Workbook Practice: Skills Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Word Problems Workbook Practice: Word Problems Workbook (Spanish) Reading to Learn Mathematics Workbook 0-07-860085-5 0-07-860091-X 0-07-860086-3 0-07-860092-8 0-07-860087-1 0-07-860093-6 0-07-861057-5

Answers for Workbooks The answers for Chapter 5 of these


workbooks can be found in the back of this Chapter Resource Masters booklet.

Spanish Assessment Masters Spanish versions of forms 2A and 2C of


the Chapter 5 Test are available in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts Spanish Assessment Masters, Course 1 (0-07-860095-2).

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teacher, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1 Chapter 5 Resource Masters 024 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03

ISBN: 0-07-860068-5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

CONTENTS
Vocabulary Builder .............................vii Family Letter ............................................ix Family Activity ........................................x Lesson 5-1
Study Guide and Intervention ........................221 Practice: Skills ................................................222 Practice: Word Problems................................223 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................224 Enrichment .....................................................225

Lesson 5-6
Study Guide and Intervention ........................246 Practice: Skills ................................................247 Practice: Word Problems................................248 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................249 Enrichment .....................................................250

Lesson 5-7
Study Guide and Intervention ........................251 Practice: Skills ................................................252 Practice: Word Problems................................253 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................254 Enrichment .....................................................255

Lesson 5-2
Study Guide and Intervention ........................226 Practice: Skills ................................................227 Practice: Word Problems................................228 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................229 Enrichment .....................................................230

Chapter 5 Assessment
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 5 Test, Form 1 ..........................257258 5 Test, Form 2A ........................259260 5 Test, Form 2B ........................261262 5 Test, Form 2C........................263264 5 Test, Form 2D........................265266 5 Test, Form 3 ..........................267268 5 Extended Response Assessment .269 5 Vocabulary Test/Review.................270 5 Quizzes 1 & 2................................271 5 Quizzes 3 & 4................................272 5 Mid-Chapter Test ...........................273 5 Cumulative Review........................274 5 Standardized Test Practice....275276

Lesson 5-3
Study Guide and Intervention ........................231 Practice: Skills ................................................232 Practice: Word Problems................................233 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................234 Enrichment .....................................................235

Lesson 5-4
Study Guide and Intervention ........................236 Practice: Skills ................................................237 Practice: Word Problems................................238 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................239 Enrichment .....................................................240

Standardized Test Practice Student Recording Sheet ............................A1 Standardized Test Practice Rubric...................A2 ANSWERS .............................................A3A30

Lesson 5-5
Study Guide and Intervention ........................241 Practice: Skills ................................................242 Practice: Word Problems................................243 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................244 Enrichment .....................................................245

iii

Teachers Guide to Using the Chapter 5 Resource Masters


The Fast File Chapter Resource system allows you to conveniently file the resources you use most often. The Chapter 5 Resource Masters includes the core materials needed for Chapter 5. These materials include worksheets, extensions, and assessment options. The answers for these pages appear at the back of this booklet. All of the materials found in this booklet are included for viewing and printing in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1, TeacherWorks CD-ROM.

Vocabulary Builder Pages vii-viii include a student study tool that presents up to twenty of the key vocabulary terms from the chapter. Students are to record definitions and/or examples for each term. You may suggest that students highlight or star the terms with which they are not familiar.
When to Use Give these pages to students before beginning Lesson 1-1. Encourage them to add these pages to their mathematics study notebook. Remind them to add definitions and examples as they complete each lesson.

Practice: Skills

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice that more closely follows the structure of the Practice and Applications section of the Student Edition exercises. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Practice: Word Problems

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice in solving word problems that apply the concepts of the lesson. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Family Letter and Family Activity


Page ix is a letter to inform your students families of the requirements of the chapter. The family activity on page x helps them understand how the mathematics students are learning is applicable to real life. When to Use Give these pages to students to take home before beginning the chapter.

Reading to Learn Mathematics

Study Guide and Intervention


There is one Study Guide and Intervention master for each lesson in Chapter 5. When to Use Use these masters as reteaching activities for students who need additional reinforcement. These pages can also be used in conjunction with the Student Edition as an instructional tool for students who have been absent.

One master is included for each lesson. The first section of each master asks questions about the opening paragraph of the lesson in the Student Edition. Additional questions ask students to interpret the context of and relationships among terms in the lesson. Finally, students are asked to summarize what they have learned using various representation techniques. When to Use This master can be used as a study tool when presenting the lesson or as an informal reading assessment after presenting the lesson. It is also a helpful tool for ELL (English Language Learner) students.

iv

There is one extension master for each lesson. These activities may extend the concepts in the lesson, offer an historical or multicultural look at the concepts, or widen students perspectives on the mathematics they are learning. These are not written exclusively for honors students, but are accessible for use with all levels of students. When to Use These may be used as extra credit, short-term projects, or as activities for days when class periods are shortened.

Enrichment

A Vocabulary Test, suitable for all students, includes a list of the vocabulary words in the chapter and ten questions assessing students knowledge of those terms. This can also be used in conjunction with one of the chapter tests or as a review worksheet.

Intermediate Assessment
Four free-response quizzes are included to offer assessment at appropriate intervals in the chapter. A Mid-Chapter Test provides an option to assess the first half of the chapter. It is composed of both multiple-choice and freeresponse questions.

Assessment Options
The assessment masters in the Chapter 5 Resources Masters offer a wide range of assessment tools for intermediate and final assessment. The following lists describe each assessment master and its intended use.

Continuing Assessment
The Cumulative Review provides students an opportunity to reinforce and retain skills as they proceed through their study of Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. It can also be used as a test. This master includes free-response questions. The Standardized Test Practice offers continuing review of pre-algebra concepts in various formats, which may appear on the standardized tests that they may encounter. This practice includes multiplechoice, short response, grid-in, and extended response questions. Bubble-in and grid-in answer sections are provided on the master.

Chapter Assessment
Chapter Tests Form 1 contains multiple-choice questions and is intended for use with basic level students. Forms 2A and 2B contain multiple-choice questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Forms 2C and 2D are composed of freeresponse questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Grids with axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. Form 3 is an advanced level test with free-response questions. Grids without axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. All of the above tests include a free-response Bonus question. The Extended-Response Assessment includes performance assessment tasks that are suitable for all students. A scoring rubric is included for evaluation guidelines. Sample answers are provided for assessment.

Answers
Page A1 is an answer sheet for the Standardized Test Practice questions that appear in the Student Edition on pages 214215. This improves students familiarity with the answer formats they may encounter in test taking. Detailed rubrics for assessing the extended response questions on page 215 are provided on page A2. The answers for the lesson-by-lesson masters are provided as reduced pages with answers appearing in red. Full-size answer keys are provided for the assessment masters in this booklet.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
This is an alphabetical list of new vocabulary terms you will learn in Chapter 5. As you study the chapter, complete each terms definition or description. Remember to add the page number where you found the term. Add this page to your math study notebook to review vocabulary at the end of the chapter. Vocabulary Term common multiples Found on Page Definition/Description/Example
Vocabulary Builder

equivalent fractions

greatest common factor (GCF)

improper fraction

least commmon denominator (LCD)

least common multiple (LCM)

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

vii

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
Vocabulary Term mixed number Found on Page

(continued)
Definition/Description/Example

multiple

repeating decimal

simplest form

terminating decimal

Venn diagram

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

viii

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Letter

Dear Parent or Guardian: is part of our daily lives. Using fractions, ratios, and decimals ret these types of Knowing how to represent and interp measure lengths, and numbers helps us analyze statistics, the importance of math compare prices. In order to emphasize cepts to everyday events. skills, we try to relate classroom con als, your child will learn In Chapter 5, Fractions and Decim anized list , and to find the to solve problems by making an org mon multiple of numbers greatest common factor and least com r child will also learn to to simplify and compare fractions. You fractions and to write express mixed numbers as improper In the study of this decimals as fractions and vice versa. iety of daily classroom chapter, your child will complete a var ly produce a chapter assignments and activities and possib project . it with your child, you By signing this letter and returning ting involved. Enclosed is agree to encourage your child by get ld that also relates the an activity you can do with your chi 5 to the real world. You math we will be learning in Chapter line Study Tools for selfmay also wish to log on to the On dy Guide pages, and check quizzes, Parent and Student Stu et. If you have any other study help at www.msmath1.n contact me at school. questions or comments, feel free to Sincerely,

Signature of Parent or Guardian ______________________________________ Date ________

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ix

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Family Letter

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Activity
Writing Decimals as Fractions
Work with a family member. Batting averages are written as decimals to the thousandth place. For example, a sample batting average could be .266. Research three different baseball players and their batting averages in your local newspaper, library, or on the Internet. 1. Write your players names and their batting averages. Players Name Batting Average

2. Which player has the greatest batting average? 3. Write each batting average as a fraction with a denominator of 1,000. Then if the fraction is not already written in simplest terms, write an equivalent fraction in simplest terms. For example, the batting average
266 .266 would be written as . Then an equivalent fraction in simplest 1,000 133 terms is . 500

Players Name

Batting Average

4. Suppose a baseball player has 16 hits from 53 times at bat. What is his batting average as a decimal to the nearest thousandth? Is it better or worse than the averages of the players you chose? Explain.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

13. See students work.

4. .302; See students work.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Greatest Common Factor
The greatest common factor (GCF) of two or more numbers is the greatest common factor of the numbers. To find the GCF, you can make a list or use prime factors.

Find the GCF of 12 and 30 by making a list. List the factors of 12 and 30. 12: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12 30: 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 The common factors are 1, 2, 3, and 6. The greatest is 6. The GCF of 12 and 30 is 6. Find the GCF of 18 and 27 by using prime factors. Write the prime factorizations of 18 and 27.
18 2 9 2 3 3 27 3 9 3 3 3

The common prime factors are 3 and 3. So, the GCF of 18 and 27 is 3 3 or 9.

Find the GCF of each set of numbers by making a list. 1. 8 and 12 2. 10 and 15 3. 81 and 27

Find the GCF of each set of numbers by using prime factors. 4. 15 and 20 5. 6 and 12 6. 28 and 42

Find the GCF of each set of numbers. 7. 21 and 9 8. 15 and 7 9. 54 and 81

10. 30 and 45

11. 44 and 55

12. 35, 20, and 15

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 51

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Greatest Common Factor
Find the GCF of each set of numbers by making a list. 1. 12 and 20 2. 24 and 30 3. 18 and 27

Find the GCF of each set of numbers by using prime factors. 4. 10 and 25 5. 6 and 21 6. 14 and 42

Find the GCF of each set of numbers. 7. 15 and 40 8. 16 and 36 9. 12 and 54

10. 24 and 64

11. 39 and 26

12. 35 and 63

13. 36 and 48

14. 35 and 28

15. 40 and 56

16. 56 and 14

17. 27 and 63

18. 88 and 66

19. 60 and 84

20. 45 and 90

21. 85 and 51

22. 54 and 72

23. 48 and 80

24. 63 and 108

25. 21, 30, 44

26. 16, 24, 56

27. 27, 54, 81

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Greatest Common Factor
1. WAREHOUSE A warehouse has three shelves that can hold 8, 12, or 16 skateboards. Each shelf has sections holding the same number of skateboards. What is the greatest number of skateboards that can be put in a section? Explain. 2. FRUIT Mei has 15 oranges, 9 peaches, and 18 pears. She wants to put all of the fruit into decorative baskets. Each basket must have the same number of pieces of fruit in it. Without mixing fruits, what is the greatest number of pieces of fruit Mei can put in each basket? Explain.

3. SHIPPING Oscar needs to ship 14 rock CDs, 12 classical CDs, and 8 pop CDs. He can pack only one type of CD in each box, and he must pack the same number of CDs in each box. What is the greatest number of CDs Oscar can pack in each box? Explain.

4. GARDENING Jill wants to put 45 sunflower plants, 81 corn plants, and 63 tomato plants in her garden. If she puts the same number of plants in each row and if each row has only one type of plant, what is the greatest number of plants Jill can put in one row? Explain.

5. MONEY The list Wednesday $36 shows the Thursday $54 amounts of Friday $72 money the club leader collected from members for a camping trip. Each member paid the same amount. What is the most the camping trip could cost per member? Explain.

6. MONEY Use the information from Exercise 5. How many members have paid to go on the camping trip if the price is the greatest possible price per member?

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 51

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Greatest Common Factor
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 177 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Who rode Rainbow Falls? 2. Who rode Gold Rush? 3. Who rode both Rainbow Falls and Gold Rush?

Reading the Lesson


4. Look at the diagram at the top of page 177 in your textbook. What does a Venn diagram do?

For Exercises 58, use the Venn diagram in Example 1 at the bottom of page 177. 5. What elements are listed in the circle on the left?

6. What does the name tell you about each of the numbers inside the circle on the left?

7. What does the area where the two circles overlap represent?

8. What does GCF mean and what is the GCF of 42 and 56?

Helping You Remember


9. Work with a partner to find the GCF for these two sets of numbers: 12 and 13, and 14 and 42. Have one partner find each GCF by listing factors. Have the other partner find each GCF by using prime factors. Then exchange papers and check each others work.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

224

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
GCFs By Successive Division
Here is a different way to find the greatest common factor (GCF) of two numbers. This method works well for large numbers. Find the GCF of 848 and 1,325. Step 1 Divide the smaller number into the larger. 1 R477 848 1,3 2 5 848 477 Step 2 Divide the remainder into the divisor. Repeat this step until you get a remainder of 0. 1 R371 1 R106 3 R53 2 R0 477 84 8 371 47 7 1063 7 1 531 0 6 477 371 318 106 371 106 53 0 Step 3 The last divisor is the GCF of the two original numbers. The GCF of 848 and 1,325 is 53. Use the method above to find the GCF for each pair of numbers. 1. 187; 578 2. 161; 943

3. 215; 1,849

4. 453; 484

5. 432; 588

6. 279; 403

7. 1,325; 3,498

8. 9,840; 1,751

9. 3,484; 5,963

10. 1,802; 106

11. 45,787; 69,875

12. 35,811; 102,070

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

225

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 51

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Simplifying Fractions
Fractions that name the same number are equivalent fractions. To find equivalent fractions, you can multiply or divide the numerator and denominator by the same nonzero number.

1 Replace the with a number so that .


2 10

Since 2 5 10, multiply the numerator and denominator by 5. 5


1 10 2

5
5 1 10. 2

When the GCF of the numerator and denominator is 1, the fraction is in simplest form. To write a fraction in simplest form, you can divide the numerator and denominator by the GCF.
12 Write in simplest form. 30

The GCF of 12 and 30 is 6. 6 12 2 30 5 6


2 The GCF of 2 and 5 is 1, so is in simplest form. 5

Divide the numerator and denominator by the GCF, 6.

Replace each with a number so that the fractions are equivalent.


1 1. 5 15 12 2 2. 18 27 3. 14 42

Write each fraction in simplest form. If the fraction is already in simplest form, write simplest form.
6 4. 30 21 7. 28 2 5. 3 15 8. 30 6 6. 8 7 9. 10

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226

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Simplifying Fractions
Replace each with a number so that the fractions are equivalent.
1 1. 5 35 2 2. 15 5 1 3. 6 24

10 2 4. 15

4 20 5. 45

1 4 6. 16

1 27 7. 3

8 8. 7 28

18 9. 24 4

Write each fraction in simplest form. If the fraction is already in simplest form, write simplest form.
1 10. 2 8 11. 10 20 12. 60

6 13. 15

15 14. 60

7 15. 8

81

12

36

90 19. 100

8 20. 21

14 21. 35

23 22. 46

9 23. 13

12 24. 27

4 25. 12

75 26. 100

60 27. 110

10 28. 25

15 29. 19

20 30. 28

49 31. 56

49 32. 70

24 33. 64

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 52

27 16.

7 17.

28 18.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Simplifying Fractions
For Exercises 13, use the following information and the table at the right. Write your answers in simplest form. In a frequency table, the relative frequency of a category is the fraction of the data that falls in that class. To find relative frequency, divide the frequency by the total number of items. Eye Color Survey Color Brown Blue Green Hazel Violet Tally 552 5 4 53 1 Frequency 12 5 4 8 1

1. STATISTICS What is the relative frequency of people with brown eyes?

2. STATISTICS What is the relative frequency of people with hazel eyes?

4 15

3. STATISTICS What is the relative frequency of people with brown or hazel eyes?

4. ANIMALS Lions sleep about 20 hours a


20 day. Write as a fraction in simplest 24

form.

5 6

5. MARBLES Carlota has 63 marbles. Twenty-eight of her marbles are aggies. What fraction of Carlotas marbles are aggies? Write the answer in simplest form.

6. MOVIES Fourteen of the top thirty alltime grossing childrens films were
14 animated films. Write as a fraction 30

in simplest form.

7 15

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

228

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Simplifying Fractions
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 182 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. How many students were surveyed? 2. How many students prefer music magazines?

Reading the Lesson


3. The word equivalent [ih-KWIH-vuh-luhnt] means equal in quantity, strength, value, and so forth. What are equivalent fractions?

4. How can you find equivalent fractions?

5. Which of the following fractions are equivalent? How can you tell?
5 15 20 , , 9 27 45

6. How can you tell if a fraction is in simplest form?

7. What are two ways you can use to write a fraction in simplest form?

Helping You Remember


8. Look at the bar graph at the top of page 182 in your textbook. Write a fraction that shows how many of the total number of students say comics is their favorite type of magazine. Write an equivalent fraction that uses greater numbers. Write this fraction in simplest form. Be sure to show all your work.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 52

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Fraction Mysteries
Here is a set of mysteries that will help you sharpen your thinking skills. In each exercise, use the clues to discover the identity of the mystery fraction. 1. My numerator is 6 less than my denominator.
3 I am equivalent to . 4

2. My denominator is 5 more than twice my numerator.


1 I am equivalent to . 3

3. The GCF of my numerator and denominator is 3.


2 I am equivalent to . 5

4. The GCF of my numerator and denominator is 5.


4 I am equivalent to . 6

5. My numerator and denominator are prime numbers. My numerator is one less than my denominator. 6. My numerator and denominator are prime numbers. The sum of my numerator and denominator is 24. 7. My numerator is divisible by 3. My denominator is divisible by 5. My denominator is 4 less than twice my numerator. 8. My numerator is divisible by 3. My denominator is divisible by 5. My denominator is 3 more than twice my numerator. 9. My numerator is a one-digit prime number. My denominator is a one-digit composite number.
8 I am equivalent to . 32

10. My numerator is a prime number. The GCF of my numerator and denominator is 2.


1 I am equivalent to . 5

11. CHALLENGE Make up your own mystery like the ones above. Be sure that there is only one solution. To check, have a classmate solve your mystery.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Mixed Numbers and Improper Fractions
2 The number 2 is a mixed number. A mixed number indicates the sum of a whole number and a 3 5 fraction. The number is an improper fraction. Improper fractions are fractions greater than or equal 3 to 1. Mixed numbers can be written as mixed numbers or as improper fractions.

1 1 Draw a model for 2 . Then write 2 as an improper fraction. 3 3 1 The model shows there are seven s. 3

You can also multiply the denominator and the whole number. Then add the numerator.
3 3 1 7 So 2 can be written as . 3 3 9 Write as a mixed number. 4 1 (2 3) 1 7 2 3

Divide 9 by 4. Use the remainder as the numerator of the fraction.


1 2 4 49 8 1 9 1 So, can be written as 2. 4 4
2 1 4 9 4

Write each mixed number as an improper fraction.


1 1. 3 8 4 2. 2 5 1 3. 2 2 2 4. 1 3

1 5. 2 9

7 6. 3 10

3 7. 2 8

3 8. 1 4

Write each improper fraction as a mixed number.


7 9. 4 5 10. 3 3 11. 2 11 12. 8

22 13. 5

15 14. 7

25 15. 4

16 16. 3

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231

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 53

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Mixed Numbers and Improper Fractions
Draw a model for each mixed number. Then write the mixed number as an improper fraction.
1 1. 4 3

3 2. 3 8

2 3. 2 5

Write each mixed number as an improper fraction.


1 4. 6 2 5 5. 1 6 3 6. 1 8 1 7. 3 3

7 8. 3 8

1 9. 2 4

8 10. 2 9

5 11. 4 6

3 12. 8 5

4 13. 5 7

2 14. 10 3

1 15. 9 4

Write each improper fraction as a mixed number.


9 16. 5 5 17. 2 15 18. 4 17 19. 8

19 20. 6

27 21. 4

25 22. 2

31 23. 7

52 24. 9

41 25. 3

37 26. 5

77 27. 8

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232

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Mixed Numbers and Improper Fractions
5 1. MILEAGE Brownsville is 7 miles away 8 47 2. SWIMMING Steven swam meters 6

from Frisco. Write the distance as an improper fraction.

crossing Lady Jay Creek. Write the distance he swam as a mixed number.

5 7 m 6

3. FOOD Kenjis favorite recipe calls for


3 3 cups of flour. Write the amount of 4

4. PUPPY Nikkis puppy weighs


25 pounds. Write the puppys weight as 7

flour he needs as an improper fraction.

a mixed number.

4 3 lb 7

7 5. EXERCISE Koto can run 4 miles before 10

87 6. GEOGRAPHY Hampshire Hill is 9

2 9 m 3

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 53

she is too tired to keep going. Write the distance she can run as an improper fraction.

meters tall. Write its height as a mixed number.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Mixed Numbers and Improper Fractions
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 186 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1 1. How many shaded s are there? 3 1 2. What fraction is equivalent to 1 ? 3

Make a model to show each number.


3 3. the number of fourths in 2 4

1 4. the number of halves in 4 2

Reading the Lesson


5. What is a mixed number? Write three examples.

1 6. You read 4 as four and one-sixth. How do you read the following mixed 3 2 1 numbers: 3 , 2, 8? 5 3 2 6

7. What is an improper fraction? Write three examples.

8. Look at Example 2 on page 187. What does the (6 2) 1 represent?

Helping You Remember


9. Work with a partner. Have one person show the other how to write a mixed number as an improper fraction. Then have the other partner show how to write an improper fraction as a mixed number.
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

234

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Nice Fractions
Can fractions be nice? When you see fractions like the ones at the right, it is hard to think of them as anything but nasty. Sometimes, all you need to do is write a simple fractiona nice fractionas an estimate. You can do this by using compatible numbers.
14 25
?
53 44

? 6 17 ?

198 ? 147

1 49 98

6 1 18 3

Choose the best estimate for each fraction from the choices at the right.
15 1. 21 49 5. 41 147 9. 298 35 2. 24 89 6. 46 118 10. 61 21 3. 29 59 7. 48 39 11. 158 24 4. 49 19 8. 81 76 12. 51

Write a nice fraction as an estimate of each fraction.


4 13. 19 14 17. 25 53 21. 44 12 14. 25 30 18. 37 50 22. 19 7 15. 31 23 19. 35 121 23. 79 8 16. 53 79 20. 98 198 24. 147

Write a fraction that fits each description.


1 25. Its close to . 2 2 26. Its close to . 3

The denominator is 55.


1 27. Its close to 1 . 2

The numerator is 99.


2 28. Its close to . 3

The denominator is 49.

The denominator is 89.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 53

18

17 is close to 18, and 18 3 6.

100

150 3 100 2

6 17

149 98

150

149 is close to 150. 98 is close to 100.

1 a. about

b. about c. about d. about e. about

4 1 2 3 4 1 1 4 1 1 2

f. about 2

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Least Common Multiple
A multiple of a number is the product of the number and any whole number. The multiples of 2 are below. 122 224 326 428 5 2 10 The smallest number other than 0 that is a multiple of two or more whole numbers is the least common multiple (LCM) of the numbers.

Find the LCM of 4 and 6 by making a list. Step 1 List the nonzero multiples. multiples of 4: 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, multiples of 6: 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, Step 2 Identify the LCM from the common multiples. The LCM of 4 and 6 is 12. Find the LCM of 6 and 15 by using prime factors. Step 1 Write the prime factorization of each number.
6 2 3 15 3 5

Step 2 Identify all common prime factors. 623 15 3 5 Step 3 Find the product of all of the prime factors using each common prime factor once and any remaining factors. The LCM is 2 3 5 or 30.

Find the LCM of each set of numbers. 1. 2 and 4 2. 5 and 10 3. 3 and 7

4. 5 and 6

5. 6 and 9

6. 4 and 10

7. 9 and 27

8. 4 and 6

9. 5 and 7

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236

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Least Common Multiple
Find the LCM of each set of numbers. 1. 4 and 36 2. 5 and 25 3. 3 and 42

4. 4 and 5

5. 3 and 8

6. 5 and 13

7. 7 and 10

8. 7 and 49

9. 6 and 9

10. 6 and 30

11. 5 and 6

12. 12 and 18

13. 8 and 28

14. 6 and 14

15. 5 and 14

16. 12 and 15

17. 9 and 24

18. 15 and 18

19. 12 and 14

20. 3, 5, and 12

21. 6, 16, and 24

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 54

22. 12, 18, and 24

23. 7, 10, and 14

24. 2, 5, and 12

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Least Common Multiple
1. FORESTRY Omar is planting trees. He has enough trees to plant 6, 7, or 14 trees in each row. What is the least number of trees Omar could have? 2. BUSES The Line A bus arrives at the bus stop every 25 minutes, and the Line B bus arrives every 15 minutes. They are both at the bus stop right now. In how many minutes will they both be at the bus stop again?

3. MARCHING BAND The high school marching band rehearses with either 6 or 10 members in every line. What is the least number of people that can be in the marching band?

4. TIME In a clock, a large gear completes a rotation every 45 seconds, and a small gear completes a rotation every 18 seconds. How many seconds pass before the gears align again?

5. ROSES Dante is planting his rose garden. He knows he can plant all of his roses by planting 12 or 15 rose bushes in every row. What is the least number of rose bushes Dante could have?

6. FAMILY Every 7 years the Lancaster family has a family reunion. Every 6 years they update their family tree. If they both had a photo taken and updated their family tree in 1997, in what year will both events occur again?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

238

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Least Common Multiple
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 194 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Write the products of 8 and each of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10. 2. Describe the pattern you see in the way the numbers increase. 3. Study the products of any number and the numbers from 1 to 10. Write a rule for the pattern you find. Give examples to support your rule.

Reading the Lesson


Look at page 194 in your textbook. Complete each sentence. 4. The multiples 0, 8, 16, and 24 are found on the lists of multiples for both 8 and 4. They are multiples that are common to both 8 and 4. Multiples that are common to both 8 and 4 are ____________________ of 8 and 4. 5. The smallest multiple other than 0 that is on the list for both 8 and 4 is 8. It has the least value of all the multiples that 8 and 4 have in common other than 0. This smallest common multiple is the ____________________ or _____________ of 8 and 4. Look at Example 2 on page 195. Complete each sentence. 6. A prime factor is a factor that is a ________________. 7. The example says to use each common prime factor once and then any remaining prime factors. The common prime factor in the example is 5 because __________________________________.

Helping You Remember


Lesson 54
8. Work with a partner to find the least common multiple of 8 and 12. Have one person find the LCM by making a list and have the other by using prime factors. Then exchange papers and check each others work.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

239

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Perfect!
A proper factor of a number is any factor of the number except the number itself. You can use proper factors to classify numbers. A number is abundant if the sum of its proper factors is greater than the number itself. Proper factors of 12: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 1 2 3 4 6 16, and 16 12. So, 12 is abundant. Now you can probably guess the definition of a perfect number. A number is perfect if the sum of its proper factors is equal to the number itself. A number is deficient if the sum of its proper factors is less than the number itself. Proper factors of 16: 1, 2, 4, 8 1 2 4 8 15, and 15 16. So, 16 is deficient. Proper factors of 6: 1, 2, 3 1236 So, 6 is perfect!

Tell whether each number is abundant, deficient, or perfect. 1. 8 3. 15 5. 20 7. 25 9. 30 2. 9 4. 18 6. 24 8. 28 10. 35

11. What is the least whole number that is abundant? 12. Is it possible for a prime number to be perfect? Explain.

13. Is it possible for the sum of two deficient numbers to be an abundant number? Explain.

14. CHALLENGE Show why 496 is a perfect number.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

240

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Comparing and Ordering Fractions
To compare two fractions, Find the least common denominator (LCD) of the fractions; that is, find the least common multiple of the denominators. Rewrite each fraction as an equivalent fraction whose denominator is the LCD. Compare the numerators.
5 1 Replace with , , or to make true. 3 12

The LCM of 3 and 12 is 12. So, the LCD is 12. Rewrite each fraction with a denominator of 12. 4
1 4 1 , so . 12 3 12 3 5 5 12 12

4
1 4 5 5 Now, compare. Since 4 5, . So . 12 12 3 12 1 2 1 3 Order , , , and from least to greatest. 6 3 4 8

The LCD of the fractions is 24. So, rewrite each fraction with a denominator of 24. 4
1 4 1 , so . 6 24 24 6

8
2 2 16 , so . 24 3 3 24

4 6
1 1 6 , so . 24 4 4 24

8 3
3 3 9 , so . 8 24 8 24

3
6 4 8 3

1 1 3 2 The order of the fractions from least to greatest is , , , .

Replace each with , , or to make a true sentence.


5 3 1. 12 8 6 3 2. 8 4 2 1 3. 7 6

Order the fractions from least to greatest.


3 3 1 1 4. , , , 4 8 2 4
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

2 1 5 7 5. , , , 3 6 18 9

1 5 5 5 6. , , , 2 6 8 12
Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

241

Lesson 55

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Comparing and Ordering Fractions
Replace each with , , or to make a true sentence.
2 3 1. 3 4 6 3 2. 8 16 7 5 3. 8 12

1 6 4. 2 7

3 1 5. 9 3

1 9 6. 6 10

5 7 7. 6 8

5 5 8. 8 12

4 2 9. 5 3

6 4 10. 7 5

5 3 11. 12 16

3 2 12. 4 9

5 7 13. 7 10

1 2 14. 15 6

2 5 15. 12 5

3 5 16. 10 14

4 3 17. 9 7

3 5 18. 5 9

2 1 19. 6 12

7 4 20. 9 7

9 11 21. 10 12

1 2 22. 4 8

8 7 23. 9 8

2 4 24. 9 15

Order the fractions from least to greatest.


3 2 5 1 25. , , , 4 5 8 2 1 2 3 1 26. , , , 3 7 14 6 2 4 5 7 27. , , , 3 9 6 12

4 2 13 7 28. , , , 5 3 15 9

11 5 3 9 29. , , , 12 6 4 16

7 3 5 1 30. , , , 15 5 12 2

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242

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Comparing and Ordering Fractions
1. SHOES Toya is looking in her closet. If
1 2 of her shoes are black and are 3 5 7 4 on rent and of his money on food. 9

brown, does she have more black shoes or more brown shoes? Explain.

Does he spend more money on food or rent? Explain.

4 3 food; 9 7

3. WOODWORKING Isi drilled a hole that


5 is inch wide. She has a screw that is 9 5 inch wide. Is the hole wide enough to 6

2 4. FOOD In a recent survey, of the 5

people surveyed said their favorite food


1 was pizza, said it was hot dogs, and 4 3 said it was popcorn. Which food was 10

fit the screw? Explain.

favored by the greatest number of people? Explain.

2 1 3 pizza; 5 10 4

5. OFFICE SUPPLIES A blue paper clip is


1 inch wide. A silver paper clip is 6 3 inch wide, and a red paper clip is 8 1 inch wide. What color paper clip has 3

5 6. GUMBALLS A red gumball is inch

8 5 across. A green gumball is inch 6 7 across, and a blue gumball is inch 9

the smallest width? Explain.

across. List the gumballs in order from smallest to largest.

red, blue, green

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243

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 55

3 2. BUDGET Daniel spends of his money

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Comparing and Ordering Fractions
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 198 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Use the models to determine which marble is larger.

Reading the Lesson


For Exercises 24, look at the key concept box on page 198. 2. How is LCM related to LCD?

3. How can you find the least common denominator?

4. For the second step, it says to rewrite each fraction as an equivalent fraction using the LCD. What are equivalent fractions?

5. When comparing numbers, you can use the signs , , and . What does each sign mean?

Helping You Remember


6. Explain how to order fractions having different denominators from least to greatest.

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244

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Developing Fraction Sense
5 probably would give the answer pretty quickly. But what if you 4 5 were asked to name a fraction between and ? At the right, you 7 7 9 4 5 fraction between and is . 7 7 14 7 7 7 4 7 14 5 14 7 4 8 7 14 5 10 7 14

can see how to approach the problem using fraction sense. So, one

Use your fraction sense to solve each problem.


1 2 1. Name a fraction between and . 3 3 3 4 2. Name a fraction between and . 5 5 1 3. Name five fractions between and 1. 2 1 4. Name five fractions between 0 and . 4 1 1 5. Name a fraction between and whose denominator is 16. 4 2 2 3 6. Name a fraction between and whose denominator is 10. 3 4 1 7. Name a fraction between 0 and whose numerator is 1. 6 1 8. Name a fraction between 0 and whose numerator is not 1. 10 2 5 9. Name a fraction that is halfway between and . 9 9 1 3 1 3 10. Name a fraction between and that is closer to than . 4 4 4 4 1 3 11. Name a fraction between 0 and that is less than . 2 10 1 3 12. Name a fraction between and 1 that is less than . 2 5 1 3 4 13. Name a fraction between and that is greater than . 2 4 5 1 1 14. How many fractions are there between and ? 4 2

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245

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 55

4 6 If someone asked you to name a fraction between and , you

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Writing Decimals as Fractions
Decimals like 0.58, 0.12, and 0.08 can be written as fractions. To write a decimal as a fraction, you can follow these steps. Identify the place value of the last decimal place. Write the decimal as a fraction using the place value as the denominator. If necessary, simplify the fraction.

Write 0.5 as a fraction in simplest form.


5 0.5 10
1

0.5 means five tenths. Simplify. Divide the numerator and denominator by the GCF, 5.
1 So, in simplest form, 0.5 is . 2

5 10
2

1 2

Write 0.35 as a fraction in simplest form.


35 0.35 100
7

0.35 means 35 hundredths. Simplify. Divide the numerator and denominator by the GCF, 5.
7 So, in simplest form, 0.35 is . 20

35 100
20

7 20

Write 4.375 as a mixed number in simplest form.


375 4.375 4 1,000
3

0.375 means 375 thousandths. Simplify. Divide by the GCF, 125.

3 75 4 1 ,000
8

3 4 8

Write each decimal as a fraction or mixed number in simplest form. 1. 0.9 2. 0.8 3. 0.27 4. 0.75

5. 0.34

6. 0.125

7. 0.035

8. 0.008

9. 1.4

10. 3.6

11. 6.28

12. 2.65

13. 12.05
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

14. 4.004

15. 23.205

16. 51.724

246

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Writing Decimals as Fractions
Write each decimal as a fraction or mixed number in simplest form. 1. 0.6 2. 10.9 3. 0.08

4. 6.25

5. 4.125

6. 0.075

7. 9.35

8. 3.56

9. 8.016

10. 21.5

11. 0.055

12. 7.42

13. 5.006

14. 3.875

15. 1.29

16. 2.015

17. 6.48

18. 0.004

19. 4.95

20. 8.425

21. 9.74

22. 0.47

23. 5.019

24. 1.062

25. 3.96

26. 0.824

27. 20.8

28. 6.45

29. 4.672

30. 0.375

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

247

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 56

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Writing Decimals as Fractions
1. FIELD TRIP About 0.4 of a biology class will be going on a field trip. Write the decimal as a fraction in simplest form. 2. EARTH Eighty percent of all life on Earth is below the oceans surface. Write 0.80 as a fraction in simplest form.

4 5

3. VENUS The planet Venus is 67.24 million miles away from the Sun. Write the decimal as a mixed number in simplest form.

4. SATURN If you weighed 138 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 128.34 pounds on Saturn. Write the weight on Saturn as a mixed number in simplest form.

17 128 lb 50

5. MERCURY If you were 10 years old on Earth, you would be 41.494 years old on Mercury. Write the age on Mercury as a mixed number in simplest form.

6. INTERNET According to recent figures, 4.65 million people in the Middle East are online. Write the decimal as a mixed number in simplest form.

13 4 20

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248

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Writing Decimals as Fractions
Pre-Activity Complete the activity at the top of page 202 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Write the word form of the decimal that represents the amount of people who prefer Italian ice.

3. Repeat Exercises 1 and 2 with each of the other decimals.

Reading the Lesson


For Exercises 46, look at Example 1 on page 202. 4. Why is the denominator of the fraction 10?

5. How does the example tell you to simplify the fraction?

6. What do the letters GCF stand for?

7. Look at Example 3 on page 203. What is the place value of the last decimal place? What does that mean when you go to write the corresponding fraction?

Helping You Remember


8. Work with a partner. Each of you write several decimals with varying numbers of digits. Next, exchange papers and write the decimals as fractions. Then, exchange the papers again and check one anothers work.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

249

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 56

2. Write this decimal as a fraction.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Estimating with Decimals and Fractions
Often you only need to give a fractional estimate for a decimal. To make fractional estimates, it helps to become familiar with the fraction-decimal equivalents shown in the chart at the right. You also should be able to identify the fraction as an overestimate or underestimate. Heres how. The decimal 0.789 is a little less than 0.8, so it is a
4 4 little less than . Write . 5 5 1 10 8 5 4

0.1

1 0.125

0.2 0.25 0.3

1 1 3 10 8 5 2 5 8

The decimal 1.13 is a little more than 1.125, so it is


1 1 a little more than 1 . Write 1. 8 8

3 0.375

Write a fractional estimate for each decimal. Be sure to identify your estimate as an overestimate or an underestimate.

0.4 0.5

2 1 3

1. 0.243

2. 0.509

3. 0.429

0.6

4. 0.741

5. 0.88

6. 0.63

5 0.625

0.7 7. 0.09 8. 0.57 9. 1.471 0.75 10. 2.76 11. 1.289 12. 5.218 0.8

7 10 4 5 8 3 4

13. The scale in the delicatessen shows 0.73 pound. Write a fractional estimate for this weight. 14. Darnell ordered a quarter pound of cheese. The scale shows 0.23 pound. Is this more or less than he ordered?

7 0.875

0.9

9 10

15. On the stock market, prices are listed as halves, fourths, and eighths of a dollar. Yesterday the price of one share of a stock was $25.61. Write a fractional estimate for this amount. 16. Charlotte used a calculator to figure out how many yards of ribbon she needed for a craft project. The display shows 2.53125. Write a fractional estimate for this length.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

250

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Writing Fractions as Decimals
Any fraction can be written as a decimal using division. Decimals like 0.5 and 0.516 are called terminating decimals because the digits end. A decimal like 0.8 7 0.878787 is called a repeating decimal because the digits repeat.
3 Write as a decimal. 8

Divide. 0.375 8 3 .0 0 0 2 4 60 56 40 40 0
8

7 Write as a decimal. 11

Divide. 0.6363 11 7.0 0 0 0 6 6 40 33 70 66 40 33 7


7 The pattern repeats. Therefore, 3 . 0.6 11

Write each fraction or mixed number as a decimal.


3 1. 10 1 5. 8 3 9. 1 11 3 2. 4 1 6. 2 4 5 10. 1 8 1 3. 3 5 7. 1 6 1 11. 3 6 3 4. 5 8 8. 3 9 5 12. 4 11

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251

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 57

3 Therefore, 0.375.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Writing Fractions as Decimals
Write each fraction or mixed number as a decimal.
9 1. 10 21 2. 100 3 3. 4

1 4. 2

1 5. 6

5 6. 6

4 7. 9

7 8. 3 8

2 9. 9 5

8 10. 11

2 11. 4 3

5 12. 6 8

1 13. 5 3

3 14. 12 8

17 15. 10 20

11 16. 2 18

11 17. 3 16

4 18. 6 5

5 19. 1 9

1 20. 10 8

13 21. 2 18

7 22. 3 12

8 23. 5 9

24 24. 3 25

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252

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Writing Fractions as Decimals
1. PLANETS The planet Mercury is roughly
2 the size of Earth. Write the fraction 5

2. MARBLES Lin has a marble that is


5 inch wide. Write the marbles width 8

as a decimal.

as a decimal.

0.625 in.

6 3. HOMEWORK Miko has finished of 11

5 4. EXERCISE Tate has been dancing for 6

her homework. Write the fraction as a decimal.

of an hour. Write this fraction as a decimal.

5. SPORTS Charlie played tennis for


3 3 hours. Write the mixed number as a 4

2 6. COOKING A recipe calls for 2 cups of 3

decimal.

milk. Write the mixed number as a decimal.

4 7. HEIGHT Winona is 2 the height of her 11

8. RECESS Jennifer has been spinning in


3 circles for 4 minutes. Write the 16

little brother. Write the mixed number as a decimal.

mixed number as a decimal.

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253

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 57

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Writing Fractions as Decimals
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 206 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
9 1. Write the decimal for . 10 1 2. Write the fraction equivalent to with 10 as the denominator. 2 5 3. Write the decimal for . 10 3 2 4. Write and as decimals. 5 5

Reading the Lesson


5. Look at Exercise 4 at the top of page 206. What do you need to do to the fractions in order to write the decimals?

6. Look at Example 1 on page 206. How can you tell that 0.875 is a terminating decimal?

7. How are repeating decimals different from terminating decimals?

8. What two methods are used to indicate repeating decimals?

9. Why is it necessary to use an indicator for repeating decimals?

Helping You Remember


10. Write the following fractions as decimals. First, use the paper and pencil method. Then, use a calculator and compare your answers.
3 3 1 5 , , , 11 20 12 8

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254

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Tagging Along
2 3 4 9 Which of , , , and belongs in the tag 3 4 5 10
?

on the number line at the right? The tag is to the right of 0.75, so the fraction must be greater than 0.75. Express each fraction as a decimal.
2 , 0.6 3 3 0.75, 4 4 0.8, 5

0.25

0.5

0.75

9 0.9 10

Only 0.8 and 0.9 are greater than 0.75, and 0.9 is much closer to 1 than to
4 0.75. Choose 0.8, which is equal to . 5

On each number line, fill in the tags using the given fractions.
8 2 3 9 8 3 4 5 8 16

0.25

0.5

0.75

0.5

0.75

1.25

1.5

7 6 15 3 4 3. , , , , 4 5 8 2 3

9 7 8 13 8 4. , , , , 5 3 5 6 4

1.25

1.5

1.75

1.5

1.75

2.25

2.5

5. Write a fraction in simplest form for each tag on this number line. Use only the denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, and 10. Express numbers greater than 1 as improper fractions.

0.5

1.5

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

255

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 57

3 1 2 1 7 1. , , , ,

4 3 6 5 15 2. , , , ,

Chapter Chapter X 6 Resource Resource Masters Masters

Course 1 1 Course

Consumable Workbooks
Many of the worksheets contained in the Chapter Resource Masters booklets are available as consumable workbooks in both English and Spanish. Study Guide and Intervention Workbook Study Guide and Intervention Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Skills Workbook Practice: Skills Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Word Problems Workbook Practice: Word Problems Workbook (Spanish) Reading to Learn Mathematics Workbook 0-07-860085-5 0-07-860091-X 0-07-860086-3 0-07-860092-8 0-07-860087-1 0-07-860093-6 0-07-861057-5

Answers for Workbooks The answers for Chapter 6 of these


workbooks can be found in the back of this Chapter Resource Masters booklet.

Spanish Assessment Masters Spanish versions of forms 2A and 2C of


the Chapter 6 Test are available in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts Spanish Assessment Masters, Course 1 (0-07-860095-2).

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teacher, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1 Chapter 6 Resource Masters 024 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03

ISBN: 0-07-860069-3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

CONTENTS
Vocabulary Builder .............................vii Family Letter ............................................ix Family Activity ........................................x Lesson 6-1
Study Guide and Intervention ........................277 Practice: Skills ................................................278 Practice: Word Problems................................279 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................280 Enrichment .....................................................281

Lesson 6-5
Study Guide and Intervention ........................297 Practice: Skills ................................................298 Practice: Word Problems................................299 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................300 Enrichment .....................................................301

Lesson 6-6
Study Guide and Intervention ........................302 Practice: Skills ................................................303 Practice: Word Problems................................304 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................305 Enrichment .....................................................306

Lesson 6-2
Study Guide and Intervention ........................282 Practice: Skills ................................................283 Practice: Word Problems................................284 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................285 Enrichment .....................................................286

Chapter 6 Assessment
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 6 Test, Form 1 ..........................307308 6 Test, Form 2A ........................309310 6 Test, Form 2B ........................311312 6 Test, Form 2C........................313314 6 Test, Form 2D........................315316 6 Test, Form 3 ..........................317318 6 Extended Response Assessment .319 6 Vocabulary Test/Review.................320 6 Quizzes 1 & 2................................321 6 Quizzes 3 & 4................................322 6 Mid-Chapter Test ...........................323 6 Cumulative Review........................324 6 Standardized Test Practice....325326

Lesson 6-3
Study Guide and Intervention ........................287 Practice: Skills ................................................288 Practice: Word Problems................................289 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................290 Enrichment .....................................................291

Lesson 6-4
Study Guide and Intervention ........................292 Practice: Skills ................................................293 Practice: Word Problems................................294 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................295 Enrichment .....................................................296

Standardized Test Practice Student Recording Sheet ............................A1 Standardized Test Practice Rubric...................A2 ANSWERS .............................................A3A27

iii

Teachers Guide to Using the Chapter 6 Resource Masters


The Fast File Chapter Resource system allows you to conveniently file the resources you use most often. The Chapter 6 Resource Masters includes the core materials needed for Chapter 6. These materials include worksheets, extensions, and assessment options. The answers for these pages appear at the back of this booklet. All of the materials found in this booklet are included for viewing and printing in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1, TeacherWorks CD-ROM.

Vocabulary Builder Pages vii-viii include a student study tool that presents up to twenty of the key vocabulary terms from the chapter. Students are to record definitions and/or examples for each term. You may suggest that students highlight or star the terms with which they are not familiar.
When to Use Give these pages to students before beginning Lesson 6-1. Encourage them to add these pages to their mathematics study notebook. Remind them to add definitions and examples as they complete each lesson.

Practice: Skills

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice that more closely follows the structure of the Practice and Applications section of the Student Edition exercises. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Practice: Word Problems

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice in solving word problems that apply the concepts of the lesson. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Family Letter and Family Activity


Page ix is a letter to inform your students families of the requirements of the chapter. The family activity on page x helps them understand how the mathematics students are learning is applicable to real life. When to Use Give these pages to students to take home before beginning the chapter.

Reading to Learn Mathematics

Study Guide and Intervention


There is one Study Guide and Intervention master for each lesson in Chapter 6. When to Use Use these masters as reteaching activities for students who need additional reinforcement. These pages can also be used in conjunction with the Student Edition as an instructional tool for students who have been absent.

One master is included for each lesson. The first section of each master asks questions about the opening paragraph of the lesson in the Student Edition. Additional questions ask students to interpret the context of and relationships among terms in the lesson. Finally, students are asked to summarize what they have learned using various representation techniques. When to Use This master can be used as a study tool when presenting the lesson or as an informal reading assessment after presenting the lesson. It is also a helpful tool for ELL (English Language Learner) students.

iv

There is one extension master for each lesson. These activities may extend the concepts in the lesson, offer an historical or multicultural look at the concepts, or widen students perspectives on the mathematics they are learning. These are not written exclusively for honors students, but are accessible for use with all levels of students. When to Use These may be used as extra credit, short-term projects, or as activities for days when class periods are shortened.

Enrichment

A Vocabulary Test, suitable for all students, includes a list of the vocabulary words in the chapter and ten questions assessing students knowledge of those terms. This can also be used in conjunction with one of the chapter tests or as a review worksheet.

Intermediate Assessment
Four free-response quizzes are included to offer assessment at appropriate intervals in the chapter. A Mid-Chapter Test provides an option to assess the first half of the chapter. It is composed of both multiple-choice and freeresponse questions.

Assessment Options
The assessment masters in the Chapter 6 Resources Masters offer a wide range of assessment tools for intermediate and final assessment. The following lists describe each assessment master and its intended use.

Continuing Assessment
The Cumulative Review provides students an opportunity to reinforce and retain skills as they proceed through their study of Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. It can also be used as a test. This master includes free-response questions. The Standardized Test Practice offers continuing review of pre-algebra concepts in various formats, which may appear on the standardized tests that they may encounter. This practice includes multiplechoice, short response, grid-in, and extended response questions. Bubble-in and grid-in answer sections are provided on the master.

Chapter Assessment
Chapter Tests Form 1 contains multiple-choice questions and is intended for use with basic level students. Forms 2A and 2B contain multiple-choice questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Forms 2C and 2D are composed of freeresponse questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Grids with axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. Form 3 is an advanced level test with free-response questions. Grids without axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. All of the above tests include a free-response Bonus question. The Extended-Response Assessment includes performance assessment tasks that are suitable for all students. A scoring rubric is included for evaluation guidelines. Sample answers are provided for assessment.

Answers
Page A1 is an answer sheet for the Standardized Test Practice questions that appear in the Student Edition on pages 252253. This improves students familiarity with the answer formats they may encounter in test taking. Detailed rubrics for assessing the extended response questions on page 253 are provided on page A2. The answers for the lesson-by-lesson masters are provided as reduced pages with answers appearing in red. Full-size answer keys are provided for the assessment masters in this booklet.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
This is an alphabetical list of vocabulary terms you will use in Chapter 6. As you study the chapter, complete each terms definition or description. Remember to add the page number where you first found the term. Add this page to your math study notebook to review vocabulary at the end of the chapter. Vocabulary Term denominator Found on Page Definition/Description/Example
Vocabulary Builder

fraction

least common denominator (LCD)

like fractions

mixed number

numerator

simplest form

unlike fractions

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

vii

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Letter

Dear Parent or Guardian: h fractions is hard. However, Sometimes people think dealing wit nt situations, such as we encounter fractions in many differe owing how to add and cooking, building, and investing. Kn that can help us in our subtract fractions is a valuable skill daily lives. ing Fractions, your child In Chapter 6: Adding and Subtract tract fractions and mixed will learn how to round, add, and sub r, your child will complete numbers. In the study of this chapte nts and activities and a variety of daily classroom assignme possibly produce a chapter project . it with your child, you By signing this letter and returning ting involved. Enclosed is agree to encourage your child by get ld that also relates the an activity you can do with your chi 6 to the real world. You math we will be learning in Chapter line Study Tools for may also wish to log on to the On t Study Guide pages, and self-check quizzes, Parent and Studen et. If you have any other study help at www.msmath1.n contact me at school. questions or comments, feel free to Sincerely,

Signature of Parent or Guardian ______________________________________ Date ________

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ix

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Family Letter

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Activity
Adding and Subtracting Fractions
Work with a family member to record the amount of time (in hours) each of you spends doing each activity on a typical day. Then write a fraction in simplest form to represent the fraction of a day spent on each activity. Remember that the total number of hours for all six categories must be 24. Name _____________ Activity work school eating sleeping recreation/ entertainment other Hours Fraction Name _____________ Activity work school eating sleeping recreation/ entertainment other Hours Fraction

Use the fractions from the tables above to answer the following questions. Express all answers as fractions in simplest form. 1. Together, how much of a day do you both spend sleeping? 2. Who spends more time on recreation or entertainment? What is the difference in time expressed as a fraction of the day? 3. Together, how much of a day do you both spend on work and/or school? 4. Find the activity that you each spend the most time doing. Find the difference in time between these activities expressed as a fraction of the day. 5. Together, what fraction of a day do you both spend doing activities that are included in the other category?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Rounding Fractions and Mixed Numbers
Use these guidelines to round fractions and mixed numbers to the nearest half. Rounding Fractions and Mixed Numbers Round up
1 Round to 2

Example
7 rounds to 1. 8 3 1 4 rounds to 4. 7 2 1 rounds to 0. 5

When the numerator is almost as large as the denominator, round up to the next whole number. When the numerator is about half of the denominator, round 1 the fraction to .
2

Round down

When the numerator is much smaller than the denominator, round down to the previous whole number.

3 Round 2 to the nearest half. 8 8 3 1 denominator. So, 2 rounds to 2. 8 2 3 The numerator of is about half of the

28 2 3

Round up when it is better for a measure to be too large than too small. Round down when it is better for a measure to be too small than too large.
1 MUSIC You have 4 minutes left on a mixed tape you are making 2

for a friend. Should you choose a song that is 5 minutes long or a song that is 4 minutes long? In order for the entire song to be recorded, you should round down the number of minutes left on the tape and choose the song that is 4 minutes long.

Round each number to the nearest half.


2 1. 5 1 2. 18 6 3. 13 2 4. 6 9

4 5. 5 7

4 6. 8 5

1 7. 4 7

2 8. 7

Tell whether each number should be rounded up or down. 9. the weight of a package you are mailing

10. the length of a rug for your bathroom

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

277

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 61

21 2

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Rounding Fractions and Mixed Numbers
Round each number to the nearest half.
2 1. 3 1 2. 2 9 4 3. 1 7 11 4. 12

1 5. 2 5

1 6. 1 3

3 7. 7 4

2 8. 3 5

5 9. 12

1 10. 10

7 11. 9 8

3 12. 4 8

6 13. 8 7

5 14. 1 12

1 15. 18

8 16. 3 9

9 17. 16

11 18. 2 13

3 19. 5 20

9 20. 7 11

1 21. 10 7

13 22. 15

4 23. 6 25

9 24. 8 19

Tell whether each number should be rounded up or down. 25. the amount of wrapping paper for a
4 gift that is 2 feet wide 7

26. the length of a strip of wallpaper to hang


5 on a wall 7 feet high 6

27. the width of a CD player to fit into a


2 width of 18 inches 5

28. the height of a notebook that must


3 fit inside a backpack 1 feet tall 4

Find the length of each line segment to the nearest half inch. 29. 30.

31.

32.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

278

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Rounding Fractions and Mixed Numbers
5 1. EXERCISE Judy walked 6 miles. To the 8 4 2. ANIMALS Marias hamster weighs 3 9

nearest half mile, how many miles did she walk?

pounds. How many pounds is this to the nearest half pound?

1 3 lb 2

7 3. TRAVEL It is 9 miles from the 10

4. CARPENTRY Jan has cut a board to


2 make a shelf. The board is 3 feet long. 7

library to the school. How many miles is this to the nearest half mile?

5. LUMBERING Pat needs to haul away


3 1 tons of wood from the lot. The 8

6. CLOTHING Mandy is making table place


1 mats that will take 2 yards of cloth. If 4

maximum weight his pickup truck is supposed to carry is 1 ton. How many trips should Pat make to haul all the wood away? Explain.

cloth is sold in half yards, how many yards of cloth will Mandy need to buy? Explain.

1 1 2 yd; is more than a whole 2 4

yd and less than a half yd.

7. EXERCISE Julien is preparing for a 5-mile race. He can choose from a


7 2 4 -mile course to train on or a 5-mile 8 5

8. CRAFTS Marisa wants to glue her


1 4 6 -inch by 8-inch painting onto 4 5

course. Which course should he choose? Explain.

foam backing. The foam backing comes in sheets that are 6 inches by 9 inches or 7 inches by 9 inches. Which sheet of foam should Marisa buy? Explain.

1 7 in. by 9 in.; 6 in. is greater 4 than 6 in.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

279

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 61

How many feet is this to the nearest half foot?

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Rounding Fractions and Mixed Numbers
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 219 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Compare the numerators and denominators of the fractions in each list. How do they compare?

2. Write a rule about how to round to the nearest half inch.

Reading the Lesson


For Exercises 35, look at the Concept Summary on page 219 in your textbook. 3. When do you round the number up to the next whole number?
1 4. When do you round the fraction to ? 2

5. When do you round the number down to the whole number? 6. Look at Example 3 on page 220 in your textbook. Name another example of when it is better to round up even if the rules say to round down.

Helping You Remember


7. Work with a partner. Write several different fractions and mixed numbers on a piece of paper. Make a table with three columns headed Round up to 1 the Next Whole Number, Round to , and Round Down to the Whole Number. 2 Then have your partner write your numbers in the correct columns. Now, have your partner write some numbers and you write the numbers in the correct columns.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

280

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Greatest Possible Error
When you measure a quantity, your measurement is more precise when you use a smaller unit of measure. But no measurement is ever exactthere is always some amount of error. The greatest possible error (GPE) of a measurement is one half the unit of measure. At the right, you see how the GPE for the
1 ruler shown is calculated as inch. Since 16 6 3 1 1, the actual measure of the line 16 8

INCHES

length of line segment:


3 1 1 inches, to the nearest inch 1 unit of measure: inch 8 8 16 8 8 1 1 GPE: half of inch, or inch

segment may range anywhere from


5 7 1 inches to 1 inches. 16 16

1.
INCHES 1 2

2.
INCHES 1 2

3.
INCHES 1 2

4.
CM 1 2 3 4 5

5. Using this scale, the weight of a bag of potatoes is measured as 3 pounds. What is the range for the actual weight of the potatoes?
0 3 1

6. Using this container, the amount of a liquid is measured as 20 milliliters. What is the range for the actual amount of the liquid?
50 mL 40 mL 30 mL 20 mL 10 mL

pounds 2

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

281

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 61

Use the GPE to give a range for the measure of each line segment.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Estimating Sums and Differences
Round fractions to the nearest half to estimate sums and differences.
9 2 Estimate . 5 10 2 1 rounds to . 5 2 9 rounds to 1. 10 9 2 1 1 is about 1 or 1. 10 5 2 2 3 1 Estimate . 8 4 3 1 rounds to . 8 2 1 rounds to 0. 4 3 1 1 1 is about 0 or . 8 4 2 2

Round mixed numbers to the nearest whole number to estimate sums and differences. When you have a fraction and a mixed number, round in the manner that makes the most sense.
1 1 Estimate 8 6. 7 5 1 8 rounds to 8. 7 1 6 rounds to 6. 5 1 1 8 6 is about 8 6 or 14. 7 5 5 2 Estimate 3 . 5

8 5 1 3 rounds to 3. 8 2 2 1 rounds to . 5 2 5 2 1 1 3 is about 3 or 3. 8 5 2 2

Estimate.
9 3 1. 11 8 5 1 2. 8 9 3 3 3. 10 5

7 3 4. 8 4

5 2 5. 1 6 8 7

5 1 6. 3 2 6 4

2 3 7. 6 2 11 4

2 1 8. 4 3 7 7

5 3 9. 3 8 7

3 2 10. 6 8 5

5 4 11. 5 11 9

5 4 12. 1 9 9

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

282

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Estimating Sums and Differences
Estimate.
2 7 1. 3 8 5 1 2. 6 7 9 7 3. 10 8

7 11 4. 12 16

5 4 5. 8 5

1 3 6. 1 3 8

6 1 7. 2 1 7 8

9 3 8. 10 5

7 2 9. 2 15 9

7 15 10. 3 16 16

3 13 11. 8 5 10 15

13 4 12. 4 16 9

1 1 13. 7 10 3

11 5 14. 12 7 14 7

4 5 15. 3 7 8

1 1 16. 4 3 10

3 7 17. 8 8 10 8

2 5 18. 10 9 7 9

1 5 19. 3 3 8 8

7 1 20. 6 13 15

1 14 21. 8 6 15

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

283

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson X2 62

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Estimating Sums and Differences
CLOTHING For Exercises 14, use the table. It shows articles of clothing and the yardage of cloth needed to make them.

Amount of Cloth Needed to Make Clothing Article of Clothing Bandana Vest Pants Shirt Jacket Amount of Cloth (yards)
1 3 7 8 1 4 5 8 9 3 3 4 6

1. Jan wants to make a bandana and a vest from the same cloth. About how many yards of cloth will she need?

2. About how much more cloth will a vest need than a bandana?

1 1 1 or about yd more 2 2

3. Gloria wants to make pants and a matching shirt from the same cloth. About how much cloth will she need?

4. Sam is trying to decide whether to make a jacket or a shirt. About how much more cloth would he need to buy for a jacket than for a shirt?

6 3 or about 3 yd more

5. GARDENING Juan is building a fence around a triangular garden. About how much fencing should he buy to be sure he has enough?
3

6. GARDENING Refer to the drawing in Exercise 5. About how much longer is the longest side of the garden than the shortest side, to the nearest whole number?

2 8 ft 5 8 ft
1

3 8 ft

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

284

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Estimating Sums and Differences
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 223 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. To the nearest whole number, how tall is the largest cowboy boot?

2. To the nearest whole number, how tall is the largest tricycle wheel?

3. About how much taller is the tricycle wheel than the cowboy boots?

Reading the Lesson


4. Why is it important to use the word about when you are expressing an estimate?

5. In this lesson, what happens to fractions that keep the calculations from being exact?

6. Look at Example 5 on page 224 in your textbook. When is it necessary to round up when you are forming an estimate?

Helping You Remember


7. Work with a partner. Write an addition problem and a subtraction problem using mixed numbers. Then write a problem where you need to estimate by rounding all fractions up or down. Exchange papers with your partner. Use rounding to estimate answers to your partners problems.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

285

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson X2 62

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Using 1 as a Benchmark
When you estimate sums of proper fractions, it often helps to use the number 1 as a benchmark, like this.
1 1 Two halves make a whole, so 1. 2 2 1 If two fraction are each less than , 2 their sum is less than 1. 3 4 1 8 9 1 If two fractions are each greater than , 2 their sum is greater than 1. 5 7 1 8 9

Fill in each
2 5 1. 3 8

with or to make a true statement. 1


2 3 2. 5 7

3 5 3. 10 11

7 27 4. 50 10

50 38 5. 99 75

24 32 6. 49 65

Fill in each

with one of the given fractions to make a true statement.

2 3 4 5 7. 7 7 7 7

1 2

1 2

8 7 6 5 8. 11 11 11 11

1 2

1 2

1 2 3 4 9. 5 5 5 5

9 16

9 16

1 12 13 24 10. 25 25 25 25

6 13

6 13

Fill in each
5 1 11. 1 1 8 2

with or to make a true statement.


1 2 5 12. 1 11 1 2 10 13. 1 19 1 2

49 14. 1 99

1 2

3 1 15. 4 7 3

4 16. 3 7

1 2 2

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

286

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Adding and Subtracting Fractions with Like Denominators
Fractions with the same denominator are called like fractions. To add like fractions, add the numerators. Use the same denominator in the sum. To subtract like fractions, subtract the numerators. Use the same denominator in the difference.
3 3 Find the sum of and . 5 5 1 1 Estimate 1

3 5

3 5

2 2 3 3 33 Add the numerators. 11 5 5 5 5 6 Simplify. 5 1 1 Write the improper fraction as a mixed number. 5

Compared to the estimate, the answer is reasonable.


3 1 Find the difference of and . 4 4

Estimate 1 0 1
3 1 31 4 4 4 2 1 or 4 2
Subtract the numerators. Simplify.

Compared to the estimate, the answer is reasonable.

Add or subtract. Write in simplest form.


1 4 1. 9 9 9 7 2. 11 11 9 5 3. 10 10 9 11 4. 12 12

4 5 5. 7 7

4 1 6. 9 9

7 5 7. 8 8

6 4 8. 7 7

3 3 9. 4 4

4 1 10. 5 5

5 1 11. 6 6

7 1 12. 10 10

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

287

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 63

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Adding and Subtracting Fractions with Like Denominators
Add or subtract. Write in simplest form.
2 4 1. 9 9 2 4 2. 5 5 2 1 3. 3 3

3 1 4. 4 4

7 3 5. 8 8

9 3 6. 12 12

5 1 7. 6 6

1 5 8. 6 6

11 7 9. 12 12

7 3 10. 8 8

9 4 11. 10 10

3 1 12. 8 8

10 2 13. 11 11

7 2 14. 9 9

5 4 15. 6 6

3 1 16. 10 10

3 3 17. 10 10

5 3 18. 6 6

5 3 19. 8 8

5 2 20. 7 7

6 5 21. 7 7

2 1 22. How much is pound plus pound? 9 9

3 1 23. How much longer is foot than foot? 8 8

1 3 24. How much more than cup is cup? 4 4

2 7 1 25. What is the sum of , , and ? 11 11 11

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

288

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Adding and Subtracting Fractions with Like Denominators
drawing at the right that shows distances between major sites on the Avenue of the Americas in New York City.
Ci ty M M us us ic eu Ha m ll of M od er n Ar Ce t nt ra lP ar kS ou th

MAPS For Exercises 13, use the


St at eB ui ld in g Em pi re

{
16 mi 20

Ra di o

3 mi 20

Avenue of the Americas, New York City

1. Carla walked from the Empire State Building to the Museum of Modern Art. How far did she walk?

2. Julie walked from Central Park South to the Museum of Modern Art. Jolene walked from Radio City Music Hall to the Museum. How much farther did Julie walk than Jolene?

3 mi 20

3. Dion walked from Central Park South to the Empire State Building. How far did he walk?

4. COOKING Tiffany made a glass of punch from fruit juice concentrate. She
1 3 used cup concentrate and cup 4 4

1 c 2

water. How much more water than concentrate did Tiffany use?

{
6 mi 20

5. ART Beng is creating a painting. He


5 3 has of a tube of red paint and of a 8 8

6. CONSTRUCTION Mr. Hayashi is


5 repairing his sidewalk. He mixed 9

tube of green paint. How much more red paint does he have than green paint?

pound of cement with sand and water to make concrete. The next day he
7 mixed pound of cement with sand 9

and water. How many pounds of cement altogether did Mr. Hayashi use?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

289

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 63

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Adding and Subtracting Fractions with Like Denominators
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 228 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
Find each sum using grid paper.
4 3 1. 12 12 1 1 2. 6 6 3 5 3. 10 10

4. What patterns do you notice with the numerators?

5. What patterns do you notice with the denominator?

3 1 6. Explain how you could find the sum of without using grid paper. 8 8

Reading the Lesson


Look at the paragraph below the Mini Lab on page 228 in your textbook. 7. Write a definition for like fractions. 8. What meaning does your textbook give for denominator? 9. The units being added are twelfths. Write a fraction that indicates one twelfth.

Helping You Remember


10. In your own words, explain how to add like fractions. Then explain how to subtract like fractions.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

290

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Mystic Hexagons
A hexagon is a six-sided figure. In a mystic hexagon, the sum of the numbers along each side is the same number. This number is called the mystic sum. For example, the mystic sum for the hexagon at the right is 20. For each mystic hexagon, write the mystic sum in the blank in the middle. Then find the missing fractions along the sides. 1.
13 35 7 35 6 12 2 15 3 13 4 20 15 5 9 10 1

2.
9 25 7 25 6 35 9 35 3 35 2 35 16 35 4 25 18 25 3 25 1 25 16 25

Complete each mystic hexagon. Be sure to express all your answers in simplest form. 3. 4.

8 25

16 25 6 25 7 45 37 45 7 25 13 25 12 25 1 45 34 45 16 45

3 25

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

291

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 63

14 45

23 45

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Adding and Subtracting Fractions with Unlike Denominators
To find the sum or difference of two fractions with unlike denominators, rename the fractions using the least common denominator (LCD). Then add or subtract and simplify.
1 5 Find . 6

3 1 5 The LCD of and is 6. 3 6


Write the problem.

1 2 Rename as . 3 6

Add the fractions.

1 3 5 6

1 2 2 3 2 6 5 6

2 6 5 6 7 1 or 1 6 6

3 4 2 1 The LCD of and is 12. 3 4


Write the problem.

2 1 Find .

8 3 2 1 Rename as and as . 3 12 4 12

Subtract the fractions.

2 3 1 4

2 4 8 3 4 12 3 1 3 12 4 3

8 12 3 12 5 12 5

1 2 Evaluate x y if x and y . 2 1 2 x y 2 5 1 5 2 2 2 5 5 2 5 4 10 10 1 10
1 2 Replace x with and y with . 2 5 1 2 Rename and using the LCD, 10. 2 5

Simplify. Subtract the numerators.

Add or subtract. Write in simplest form.


1 1 1. 6 7 2 2 2 1 5. 2 1 2. 3 6 2 1 5 6. 12 1 7 3. 4 8 7 1 7. 10 2 9 3 4. 10 9 5 4 1 8. 3

1 1 9. Evaluate x y if x and y . 12 6

1 3 10. Evaluate a b if a and b . 2 4

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

292

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Adding and Subtracting Fractions with Unlike Denominators
Add or subtract. Write in simplest form. 1.
2 3 5 6

2.

5 6 3 4

3.

2 3 1 6

4.

1 2 7 8 1 6 1 1 2 3 7

5.

4 7 1 2 8 4

6.

5 1 7. 1 5 9. 5 6 1 2 11. 2 5 1 3 13. 4 12 3 2 15. 5 3 11 1 17. 12 6

1 5 8. 3 11 10. 4 12 11 3 12. 12 4 4 1 14. 5 2 2 1 16. 3 4 9 3 18. 5 10

3 1 19. How much more is gallon than gallon? 8 4 3 1 20. How much more is ounce than ounce? 4 3 7 3 21. Evaluate x y if x and y . 10 5 2 5 22. Evaluate s t if s and t . 3 6

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

293

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 64

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Adding and Subtracting Fractions with Unlike Denominators
BUSINESS For Exercises 14, use the table below. It lists the fractions of United States car sales held by several companies in 2001.

Leading Car Sales in U.S. in 2001 Company Company A Company B Company C Company D 1. What fraction of the U.S. sales did Company C and Company B hold together? Fraction of Sales
1 5 4 25 2 5 3 20

2. How much greater was the fraction of the market of Company A than of Company D?

1 20

3. How much more than Company As fraction of the market did Company C have?

4. Find the total fraction of the market that Company D and Company B hold together.

31 100

5. TRAVEL Gabriellas travel shampoo


1 bottle holds cup of shampoo. Before 2

6. EXERCISE Bill and Andy were racing to see who could run the farthest in
5 5 minutes. Bill ran of a mile, and 3 Andy ran of a mile. How much 4 8

leaving on vacation, she filled the bottle


1 to the top with cup of shampoo. How 8

much shampoo was already in the bottle?

farther did Andy run than Bill?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

294

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Adding and Subtracting Fractions with Unlike Denominators
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 235 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. How can you describe the sum of 3 pennies and 2 nickels using a common name?

2. How can you describe the sum of 2 pens and 2 pencils using a common name?

3. Explain why you need a common unit name to find the sum.
1 3 4. What do you think you need to do to find the sum of and ? 2 4

Reading the Lesson


5. Look at the paragraph in the middle of page 235 in your textbook. What does it mean to rename a fraction? 6. What do the letters LCD stand for?
1 1 7. What is the LCD of and ? 6 4

Helping You Remember


8. Work with a partner. Pretend you are a teacher. You are teaching your partner how to add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators.
1 3 Simplify , showing and explaining the steps to your partner. Then 1 2 have your partner simplify , showing and explaining each step. 2 5 2 4

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

295

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson X4 64

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Unit Fractions
A unit fraction is a fraction whose numerator is 1 and whose denominator is any counting number greater than 1.
1 1 1 unit fractions: 2 3 10

Did you know? The Rhind Papyrus indicates that fractions were used in ancient Egypt nearly 4,000 years ago. If a fraction was not a unit fraction, the Egyptians wrote it as a sum of unit fractions. The only exception to this rule 2 seems to be the fraction .
3

A curious fact about unit fractions is that each one can be expressed as a sum of two distinct unit fractions. (Distinct means that the two new fractions are different from one another.)
1 1 1 2 3 6 1 1 1 12 3 4 1 1 1 10 11 110

1. The three sums shown above follow a pattern. What is it?

2. Use the pattern you described in Exercise 1. Express each unit fraction as a sum of two distinct unit fractions.
1 a. 4 1 b. 5 1 c. 12 1 d. 100

5 Does it surprise you to know that other fractions, such as , can be 6

expressed as sums of unit fractions? One way to do this is by using equivalent fractions. Heres how.
5 10 6 12

6 4 10 1 1 12 12 12 2 3

5 1 1 6 2 3

3. Express each fraction as a sum of two distinct unit fractions.


2 a. 3 4 b. 15 5 c. 9 2 d. 5

4 4. Express as the sum of three distinct unit fractions. 5

1 5. CHALLENGE Show two different ways to express as the sum of three 2

distinct unit fractions.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

296

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Adding and Subtracting Mixed Numbers
To add or subtract mixed numbers: 1. Add or subtract the fractions. 2. Then add or subtract the whole numbers. 3. Rename and simplify if necessary.

1 1 Find 2 4. 3 4

Estimate 2 4 6
The LCM of 3 and 4 is 12. Rename the fractions. Add the fractions. Add the whole numbers.

3 4 1 3 4 4 3

1 4 2

12 3 4 12

4 2

12 3 4 12 7 12

4 2

12 3 4 12 7 6 12

4 2

7 1 1 2 4 6. Compared to the estimate, the answer is reasonable. 3 4 12

1 1 Find 6 2. 2 3 1 1 Estimate 6 2 4 2 2
The LCM of 2 and 3 is 6. Rename the fractions. Subtract the fractions. Subtract the whole numbers.

2 3 1 2 2 3 2

1 3 6

6 2 2 6

3 6

6 2 2 6 1 6

3 6

6 2 2 6 1 4 6

3 6

1 1 1 6 2 4. Compared to the estimate, the answer is reasonable. 2 3 6

Add or subtract. Write in simplest form. 1.


3 1 2 3 2 3

2.

4 3 1 4

3 4

3.

2 1 4 3

1 5

4.

8 1 3 2

7 6

2 1 5. 3 1 3 2

2 1 6. 4 2 3 4

1 1 7. 5 2 3 4

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

297

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson X5 65

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Adding and Subtracting Mixed Numbers
Add or subtract. Write in simplest form. 1.
4 3 3 4 1 2

2.

6 1 3 6

5 4

3.

12 1 1 12

5 8

4.

7 2 4 7

3 2

5.

3 4 3 9

2 6

6.

12 5 5 12

7 8

3 1 7. 9 7 4 2

1 7 8. 2 5 8 8

2 8 9. 1 4 3 9

3 1 10. 10 2 5 2

5 3 11. 6 6 8

4 2 12. 9 2 5 3

2 1 13. 5 3 6

3 1 14. 8 5 2 10

3 1 15. 4 9 5 3

7 11 16. 7 3 12 12

8 1 17. 5 3 9 6

3 2 18. 8 6 4 5

2 1 5 Evaluate each expression if a 1 , b , and c 3. 3 4 6

19. a b

20. c a

21. c b

22. c a

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

298

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Adding and Subtracting Mixed Numbers
2 1. SCHOOL Liwanu spent 2 hours on his 3 math homework and 1 hours on his 5 5 7 2. FARMING Mr. Garcia planted 4 acres 8 5 of wheat and 1 acres of corn. How 8

science homework. How much time did he spend doing math and science homework?

1 3 acres 4

much more wheat did he plant than corn?

3. COOKING Trey wants to make biscuits


1 and muffins. He needs 2 cups of flour 4 5 for the biscuits and 1 cups of flour for 8

4. COOKING Gina wants to make cookies. The recipe for blueberry muffins calls
3 for 2 cups of flour. The recipe for 1 cornmeal muffins calls for 1 cups of 3 4

the muffins. How much flour does Trey need altogether?

flour. How many more cups of flour would Gina need for blueberry muffins than corn muffins?

5 1 c 12
5. WEIGHT Crystals baby brother weighed
1 7 pounds at birth. After one month, 4 her brother weighed 8 pounds. How 5 2 5 6. BOOKS Kyle read 3 books and Jan

6 1 read 2 books. How many more books 3

did Kyle read than Jan?

much weight did the baby gain?

7. ANIMALS The average length of a


1 Rufous hummingbird is 3 inches. The 2

8. RECYCLING The class collected


5 9 pounds of glass bottles and 1 6 pounds of aluminum cans. How 2 7

average length of a Broad-tailed


1 hummingbird is 4 inches. How much 2

shorter is the Rufous hummingbird?

many pounds of glass and aluminum did the class collect in all?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

299

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 65

Solve. Write answers in simplest form.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Adding and Subtracting Mixed Numbers
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 240 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. How many whole paper plates can you make?

2. What fraction is represented by the leftover pieces?

3 1 3. What is the sum 1 2? 4 2

Reading the Lesson


4. What is a mixed number? Give an example.

5. In Example 2 on page 241 in your textbook, the letters LCM are used. What does LCM stand for?

6. How are LCM and LCD related?

Helping You Remember


7. In your own words, summarize how to add or subtract mixed numbers.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

300

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Lesson 65

Equations with Fractions and Decimals


Sometimes an equation involves both fractions and decimals. To solve an equation like this, you probably want to work with numbers in the same form. One method of doing this is to start by expressing the decimals as fractions. The example at the right shows how you 1 might solve the equation m . 0.6
3 1 m 0.6 3 3 1 2 m 3 3 3 2 1 m 3 1 m

Write 0.6 as a fraction.

Name the number that is a solution of the given equation.


1 1 3 1 3 1. z 0.375; , , , 8 8 8 2 4 3 1 1 2. 0.75 b; 0, , 1, 1 4 4 4

4 1 3 1 2 3. c 0.6 ; , , 1, 1 5 5 5 5 5

1 1 2 1 4. 0.6 j ; , , 1, 1 3 3 3 3

1 1 1 3 5. r 0.75; , , , 1 4 4 2 4

7 1 3 4 9 6. d 0.1 ; , , , 10 2 5 5 10

Solve each equation. If the solution is a fraction or a mixed number, be sure to express it in simplest form.
2 7. 0.4 k 5 7 8. s 0.125 8

2 9. 0.6 n 3

4 10. t 0.2 5

5 11. 0.375 g 8

3 12. y 0.25 4

1 13. 0.8 x 5

5 14. q 0.125 8

1 5 15. w 0.375 8 8

1 16. 0.7 0.3 a 10

1 3 17. p 0.8 5 5

1 18. k 0.875 0.375 8

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

301

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Subtracting Mixed Numbers with Renaming
Sometimes it is necessary to rename the fraction part of a mixed number as an improper fraction before you can subtract.
1 Find 5 2 . 4
Write the problem. Rename 5 4 as 4 .
4

Subtract.

5
1 2 4

4 4

4 1 2 4

4 4

1 3 So, 5 2 2. 1 3 Find 6 2. 2 4
Write the problem. The LCM of 2 and 4 is 4.

4 1 2 4 3 2 4

4 4

Rename 5 as 4 4 4.

Then cross out 2 4 .

3 Since is greater than 4 2 2 6 , rename 6 as 5. 4 4 4

Subtract.

2 3 2 4

1 6

4 4

4 3 2 4

2 6

4 3 2 4

6 5

1 3 3 So, 6 2 is 3 . 2

4 3 2 4 3 3 4

6 5

Subtract. Write in simplest form. 1. 6


1 1 3

2.

5
2 3 9

3.

3 2 2 3

1 6

4.

6 1 1 3

1 4

1 2 5. 5 3 3 3

3 5 6. 8 3 8 8

2 7. 12 1 5

1 5 8. 7 3 2 6

1 5 9. 5 1 6 6

1 3 10. 9 4 2 4

1 7 11. 8 2 8

1 5 12. 8 6 3 6

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

302

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Subtracting Mixed Numbers with Renaming
Subtract. Write in simplest form. 1.
7 6 1 7 5 4

2.

4 1 3 3

3.

6 5 3 6

1 7

4.

5 7 2 10

1 6

5 5. 10 9 2 2 3

1 6. 11 4 3 5 8

7.

4 5 1 8

1 3

1 8. 15 3 1 6 2

2 9. 12 5 3 4 4

10. 10
1 5 4

5 11. 12 8 3 3 4

12.

5 9 7 10

2 9

1 13. 13 2 4 7 5

14.

3 5 2 9

1 8

15.

10 4 6 5

7 9

16. 12
7 5 11

1 5 17. 5 2 8

1 1 18. 4 1 5 2

3 19. 7 2 8

1 5 20. 7 6 4 6

5 21. 6 5 6

1 3 22. 8 2 10 2

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

303

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson X6 66

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Subtracting Mixed Numbers with Renaming
Solve. Write in simplest form. 1. EXERCISE Seth has already walked
5 3 miles. It takes 1 miles to get to 8 8

2. COOKING Aviva needs fresh lemon juice to make cheesecake. She bought
1 2 lemons but needed only 1 lemons 4

school. How much further does he have to go?

for the amount of juice she needs. How much lemon does she have left over?

3 of a lemon 4

3. WORK In 2000, 17 million workdays were lost due to strikes and labor disputes. In 2001, there were only
1 1 million days lost. How many more 5

3 4. TRAVEL It usually takes Amalie 1 4

hours to get to her aunts house. Due to Thanksgiving traffic, this year it took
1 3 hours. How much longer did it take 3

workdays were lost in 2000?

this year?

5. CARS A 2002 SUV can accelerate from


59 0 to 60 mph in 10 seconds. A sports 86 car takes 9 seconds to get from 0 100 100

1 6. SCULPTURE Jose has 8 cups of Plaster 3 of Paris powder. If Jose uses 5 cups 5 2

to 60 mph. How much faster does the sports car get to 60 mph?

for a sculpture, how much plaster will he have left?

9 2 c 10

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

304

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Subtracting Mixed Numbers with Renaming
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 244 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Which sports ball has the greater weight?

2. Explain how you would find the difference between the greatest weights allowed for a softball and a baseball.

Reading the Lesson


3. Look at Example 1 in the middle of page 244 in your textbook. What is renamed? Why is it necessary to do this renaming?

4. In Example 2 at the bottom of page 244, both fractions have a common


1 denominator. Why is it necessary to rename 4 ? Explain what happened 3

in the renaming.

Helping You Remember


5. Explain why renaming is sometimes necessary when subtracting mixed numbers.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

305

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson X6 66

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
The Stock Market
When you buy stock in a company, you become a part owner in that company. You buy stock in units called shares. The stock report that you see in a newspaper lists high and low prices per share of stock. Historically, stock prices were given as whole dollars or as halves, fourths, or eighths of a dollar. Find the difference between the high and low prices for each stock listed. The difference for Stock A is shown as an example. High
3 49 8 4 8 4 4

Low
1 32 4 8 4 2 8 4 8 8 8 5 12 3 26 1 36 3 29 1 38 3 26 7 46 1 25

Stock A B C D E F G H I J K

Difference
3 1 1 49 32 17 8 4 8

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

3 23 3 44 1 45 1 51

67 45
3 75 4 2 8 1 43 3 39

28
1 43 8

78

11. What stock listed above had the greatest difference between high and low prices? the least difference?
1 12. What would be the price of Stock H if it rose 2 dollars above the high? 2

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

306

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Chapter Chapter X 7 Resource Resource Masters Masters

Course 1 1 Course

Consumable Workbooks
Many of the worksheets contained in the Chapter Resource Masters booklets are available as consumable workbooks in both English and Spanish. Study Guide and Intervention Workbook Study Guide and Intervention Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Skills Workbook Practice: Skills Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Word Problems Workbook Practice: Word Problems Workbook (Spanish) Reading to Learn Mathematics Workbook 0-07-860085-5 0-07-860091-X 0-07-860086-3 0-07-860092-8 0-07-860087-1 0-07-860093-6 0-07-861057-5

Answers for Workbooks The answers for Chapter 7 of these


workbooks can be found in the back of this Chapter Resource Masters booklet.

Spanish Assessment Masters Spanish versions of forms 2A and 2C of


the Chapter 7 Test are available in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts Spanish Assessment Masters, Course 1 (0-07-860095-2).

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teacher, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1 Chapter 7 Resource Masters 024 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03

ISBN: 0-07-860070-7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

CONTENTS
Vocabulary Builder .............................vii Family Letter ............................................ix Family Activity ........................................x Lesson 7-1
Study Guide and Intervention ........................327 Practice: Skills ................................................328 Practice: Word Problems................................329 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................330 Enrichment .....................................................331

Lesson 7-5
Study Guide and Intervention ........................347 Practice: Skills ................................................348 Practice: Word Problems................................349 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................350 Enrichment .....................................................351

Lesson 7-6
Study Guide and Intervention ........................352 Practice: Skills ................................................353 Practice: Word Problems................................354 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................355 Enrichment .....................................................356

Lesson 7-2
Study Guide and Intervention ........................332 Practice: Skills ................................................333 Practice: Word Problems................................334 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................335 Enrichment .....................................................336

Chapter 7 Assessment
Chapter 7 Test, Form 1 ..........................357358 Chapter 7 Test, Form 2A ........................359360 Chapter 7 Test, Form 2B ........................361362 Chapter 7 Test, Form 2C........................363364 Chapter 7 Test, Form 2D........................365366 Chapter 7 Test, Form 3 ..........................367368 Chapter 7 Extended Response Assessment .369 Chapter 7 Vocabulary Test/Review.................370 Chapter 7 Quizzes 1 & 2................................371 Chapter 7 Quizzes 3 & 4................................372 Chapter 7 Mid-Chapter Test ...........................373 Chapter 7 Cumulative Review........................374 Chapter 7 Standardized Test Practice....375376 Unit 3 Test/Review..................................377378 First Semester Test ................................379382 Standardized Test Practice Student Recording Sheet ............................A1 Standardized Test Practice Rubric...................A2 ANSWERS .............................................A3A30

Lesson 7-3
Study Guide and Intervention ........................337 Practice: Skills ................................................338 Practice: Word Problems................................339 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................340 Enrichment .....................................................341

Lesson 7-4
Study Guide and Intervention ........................342 Practice: Skills ................................................343 Practice: Word Problems................................344 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................345 Enrichment .....................................................346

iii

Teachers Guide to Using the Chapter 7 Resource Masters


The Fast File Chapter Resource system allows you to conveniently file the resources you use most often. The Chapter 7 Resource Masters includes the core materials needed for Chapter 7. These materials include worksheets, extensions, and assessment options. The answers for these pages appear at the back of this booklet. All of the materials found in this booklet are included for viewing and printing in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1, TeacherWorks CD-ROM.

Vocabulary Builder Pages vii-viii include a student study tool that presents up to twenty of the key vocabulary terms from the chapter. Students are to record definitions and/or examples for each term. You may suggest that students highlight or star the terms with which they are not familiar.
When to Use Give these pages to students before beginning Lesson 7-1. Encourage them to add these pages to their mathematics study notebook. Remind them to add definitions and examples as they complete each lesson.

Practice: Skills

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice that more closely follows the structure of the Practice and Applications section of the Student Edition exercises. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Practice: Word Problems

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice in solving word problems that apply the concepts of the lesson. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Family Letter and Family Activity


Page ix is a letter to inform your students families of the requirements of the chapter. The family activity on page x helps them understand how the mathematics students are learning is applicable to real life. When to Use Give these pages to students to take home before beginning the chapter.

Reading to Learn Mathematics

Study Guide and Intervention


There is one Study Guide and Intervention master for each lesson in Chapter 7. When to Use Use these masters as reteaching activities for students who need additional reinforcement. These pages can also be used in conjunction with the Student Edition as an instructional tool for students who have been absent.

One master is included for each lesson. The first section of each master asks questions about the opening paragraph of the lesson in the Student Edition. Additional questions ask students to interpret the context of and relationships among terms in the lesson. Finally, students are asked to summarize what they have learned using various representation techniques. When to Use This master can be used as a study tool when presenting the lesson or as an informal reading assessment after presenting the lesson. It is also a helpful tool for ELL (English Language Learner) students.

iv

There is one extension master for each lesson. These activities may extend the concepts in the lesson, offer an historical or multicultural look at the concepts, or widen students perspectives on the mathematics they are learning. These are not written exclusively for honors students, but are accessible for use with all levels of students. When to Use These may be used as extra credit, short-term projects, or as activities for days when class periods are shortened.

Enrichment

A Vocabulary Test, suitable for all students, includes a list of the vocabulary words in the chapter and ten questions assessing students knowledge of those terms. This can also be used in conjunction with one of the chapter tests or as a review worksheet.

Intermediate Assessment
Four free-response quizzes are included to offer assessment at appropriate intervals in the chapter. A Mid-Chapter Test provides an option to assess the first half of the chapter. It is composed of both multiple-choice and freeresponse questions.

Assessment Options
The assessment masters in the Chapter 7 Resources Masters offer a wide range of assessment tools for intermediate and final assessment. The following lists describe each assessment master and its intended use.

Continuing Assessment
The Cumulative Review provides students an opportunity to reinforce and retain skills as they proceed through their study of Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. It can also be used as a test. This master includes free-response questions. The Standardized Test Practice offers continuing review of pre-algebra concepts in various formats, which may appear on the standardized tests that they may encounter. This practice includes multiplechoice, short response, grid-in, and extended response questions. Bubble-in and grid-in answer sections are provided on the master.

Chapter Assessment
Chapter Tests Form 1 contains multiple-choice questions and is intended for use with basic level students. Forms 2A and 2B contain multiple-choice questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Forms 2C and 2D are composed of freeresponse questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Grids with axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. Form 3 is an advanced level test with free-response questions. Grids without axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. All of the above tests include a free-response Bonus question. The Extended-Response Assessment includes performance assessment tasks that are suitable for all students. A scoring rubric is included for evaluation guidelines. Sample answers are provided for assessment.

Answers
Page A1 is an answer sheet for the Standardized Test Practice questions that appear in the Student Edition on pages 288289. This improves students familiarity with the answer formats they may encounter in test taking. Detailed rubrics for assessing the extended response questions on page 289 are provided on page A2. The answers for the lesson-by-lesson masters are provided as reduced pages with answers appearing in red. Full-size answer keys are provided for the assessment masters in this booklet.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
This is an alphabetical list of new vocabulary terms you will learn in Chapter 7. As you study the chapter, complete each terms definition or description. Remember to add the page number where you found the term. Add this page to your math study notebook to review vocabulary at the end of the chapter. Found on Page
Vocabulary Builder

Vocabulary Term compatible [kuhm-PA-tuh-buhl] numbers

Definition/Description/Example

reciprocal [rih-SIH-pruh-kuhl]

sequence

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

vii

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Letter

viding Fractions, your In Chapter 7, Multiplying and Di ts, multiply fractions and child will learn how to estimate produc mixed numbers, and find mixed numbers, divide fractions and of this chapter, your child patterns and sequences. In the study oom assigments and will complete a variety of daily classr pter project . activities and possibly produce a cha it with your child, you By signing this letter and returning ting involved. Enclosed is agree to encourage your child by get ld that relates the math we an activity you can do with your chi real world. You may also will be learning in Chapter 7 to the Tools for self-check wish to log on to the Online Study Guide Pages, and other quizzes, Parent and Student Study you have any questions or study help at www.msmath1.net. If school. comments, feel free to contact me at Sincerely,

Signature of Parent or Guardian ______________________________________ Date ________

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ix

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Family Letter

Dear Parent or Guardian: en measuring distances We often use fractions, especially wh fractions helps us solve and amounts. Knowing how to use miles a jogger runs everyday problems such as how many needed for a bread recipe. around a track or how much flour is

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Activity
Fractions and Recipes
Have a family member help you find a recipe. You can find recipes in cookbooks, the newspaper, or maybe someones memory. In the space below, write the amount of each ingredient of the recipe.

Suppose you want to triple the recipe. Calculate how much of each ingredient you will need to use.

Suppose you want to cut the recipe in half. Calculate how much of each ingredient you will need to use.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Estimating Products
Numbers that are easy to divide mentally are called compatible numbers. One way to estimate the products of fractions is to use compatible numbers.
2 Estimate 8.

3 2 1 Estimate 8. Make it easier by finding 8 first. 3 3 1 Change 8 to 9 since 3 and 9 are compatible numbers. 9 ? 3 1 1 of 9, or 9 divided by 3, is 3. 9 3 3 3 2 1 2 Since of 9 is 3, of 9 is 2 3 or 6. 9 6 3 3 3 2 So, 8 is about 6. 3 1 You can estimate the product of fractions by rounding to 0, , or 1. 2 1 5 Estimate . 3 6 1 5 1 1 1 . 3 6 2 2 1 5 1 So, is about . 3 6 2

You can estimate the product of mixed numbers by rounding to the next whole number.
1 7 Estimate 3 5. 4 8 1 7 1 7 Since 3 rounds to 3 and 5 rounds to 6, 3 5 3 6 18. 4 1 7 So, 3 5 is about 18. 4 8 8 4 8

112. Sample answers given.


Estimate each product. Show how you found your estimate.
1 1. 24 5 7 3 2. 8 5 2 3 3. 7 5 7 4 4 4. 20 7

2 5. 19 8

1 4 6. 2 6 5 12

1 1 7. 9 12

1 7 8. 3 10 8 10

11 6 9. 12 7

3 10. 17 8

9 7 11. 4 2 8 10

11 1 12. 12 3

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327

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 71

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Estimating Products
Estimate each product.
1 1. 26 5 10 1 2. 11 9 1 3. 17 2

6 1 4. 7 8

4 1 5. 3 11

4 1 6. 2 5 5 4

3 7. 29 7

5 2 8. 6 7

7 3 9. 6 4 10 9

3 6 10. 5 7

7 8 11. 8 9

1 7 12. 4 3 3 8

1 1 13. 9 8 3

2 14. 26 9

5 15. 41 8

7 16. 30 8

2 3 17. 7 9 3 8

3 18. 35 4

5 1 19. 9 7

1 5 20. 12 9

1 7 21. 3 7 4 8

2 22. 35 3

7 5 23. 6 8 12 12

6 24. 32 11

4 25. Estimate of 49. 5 4 1 26. Estimate the product of 2 and 16. 11 5

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

328

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Estimating Products
Estimate by using rounding or compatible numbers. Show how you found your estimates.
FOOD For Exercises 13, use the table. The table lists the grams of saturated fat per tablespoon of some common fats.

Grams of Saturated Fat per Tablespoon Safflower Oil Olive Oil Butter Cream Cheese
4 5 4 1 5 1 7 5 1 3 5

3. Rubin is fond of bagels and cream cream cheese on his bagel and ate the bagel. About how many grams of saturated fat did Rubin eat by eating the cream cheese?
2 cheese. He spread 5 tablespoons of 3

4. WATER Marcia is making a habit of drinking at least 7 cups of water a day. About how many cups of water did she
3 drink if she drank the number of

cups she wanted to drink? about

3 3 6 c; 7 8 6 4 4

5. TRAVEL Seth has been driving for


3 4 hours at 62 miles per hour. About 4

6. MAIL The U.S. Postal Service delivers about 199 billion pieces of mail each
4 year. Of this mail, is sent by big

how many miles has he driven?

commercial users. About how many pieces of mail are sent by big commercial users each year?

4 4 199 200 160 5 5

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 71

1. Jenny is making muffins. The recipe calls for 4 tablespoons of oil. If she uses safflower oil, about how many grams of saturated fat would she be adding to the muffin batter?

2. Curtis spread 2 tablespoons of butter on his slice of bread. About how many grams of saturated fat did Curtis add to the slice of bread?

1 7 2 7 2 14

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Estimating Products
Pre-Activity Complete the activity at the top of page 256 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. For the shots attempted, what is the nearest multiple of 3? 2. How many basketballs should be added to reflect the nearest multiple of 3? 3. Divide the basketballs into three groups each having the same number. How many basketballs are in each group? 4. About how many field goals did Kayla make?

Reading the Lesson


For Exercises 5 and 6, look at Example 1 on page 256. The statement 1 1 13 12 is read one-fourth of 13 is changed to one-fourth of 12.
4 4

5. What does the mean? 6. Why is 13 changed to 12? 7. Three combinations of fractions, whole numbers, and mixed numbers are talked about in this lesson. Complete the table to summarize the information in the lesson. Kind of Product Kind of Product How to Estimate How to Estimate fraction fraction and and whole whole number number Use compatible numbers, numbers that are easy to divide mentally. two fractions two fractions 1 Round each fraction to 0, , or 1 2 two mixed numbers two mixed numbers Round each mixed number to the nearest whole number.

Helping You Remember


8. In this lesson, compatible numbers are defined as numbers that are easy to divide mentally. Look up the word compatible in a dictionary. How could you relate one of the meanings you find in the dictionary to numbers like 4 and 12 (rather than 4 and 13) and 4 and 24 (rather than 4 and 23)?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

330

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Shopping with Compatible Numbers
Suppose that you are meeting a friend for lunch and come across the sale advertised at the right. For weeks, you have wanted to buy a set of CDs that is regularly priced at $31.98. Here is how compatible numbers can help you find the sale price of the set.
1 1 of $31.98 is about of $32, or $8. 4 4 1 1 3 off means that you pay 1 , or . 4 4 4 1 3 Since of $32 $8, of $32 $24. 4 4

gs n i v Sa iot R
One-Day Discounts

ff 1/ 4 O ry E ve C D in S t oc k

The sale price is about $24.

Each exercise gives the regular price of one or more items. Use the information at the right to estimate the sale price. 1. video cassette: $8.95 2. CD: $14.95

1/2 Off

3. headphones: $10.98 4. three packs of TRUE-CELL batteries; $5.98 per pack 5. one CD: $20.95 one video cassette: $11.95 6. one set of headphones: $15.79 two video cassettes: $4.98 and $6.98

ALL HEADPHONES TRUE-CELL BATTERIES

$2.00 OFF ALL DVDs

7. one CD: $16.95 one set of headphones: $14.50 one DVD: $19.98 8. two CDs: $14.95 and $12.95 one video cassette: $7.98 two DVDs: $14.95 each

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

331

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 71

1/3 Of f

Every VIDEO CASS ETTE in Stoc k

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Multiplying Fractions
Type of Product two fractions What To Do Multiply the numerators. Then multiply the denominators. Rename the whole number as an improper fraction. Multiply the numerators. Then multiply the denominators. Example
8 2 4 24 35 15 3 5 3 3 7 6 18 6 1 11 11 11 1 11

fraction and a whole number

2 3 Find . 5 4 2 3 23 5 4 54 6 3 or 20 10 4 Find 8. 9 4 4 8 8 9 9 1 48 91 9 32 5 or 3 9 2 3 Find . 5 8 2 3 23 5 8 58


4 1

1 1 Estimate: 1 2 2

Multiply the numerators. Multiply the denominators. Simplify. Compare to the estimate.

1 Estimate: 84 2 8 Write 8 as . 1

Multiply. Simplify. Compare to the estimate.

1 1 1 Estimate: 2 2 4

Divide both the numerator and denominator by the common factor, 2.

3 20

Simplify. Compare to the estimate.

Multiply. Write in simplest form.


1 5 1. 4 6 3 3 2. 7 4 1 3. 4 5 5 4. 2 12

3 5. 10 5

2 3 6. 3 8

1 1 7. 7 7

2 1 8. 9 2

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

332

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Multiplying Fractions
Multiply. Write in simplest form.
3 1 1. 4 2 1 2 2. 3 5 1 3. 6 3

2 3 4. 5 7

3 5. 10 8

1 3 6. 6 5

2 7. 3 9

4 9 8. 10 5

7 2 9. 8 9

3 10. 11 4

5 1 11. 6 4

4 2 12. 9 3

7 6 13. 12 11

5 14. 16 12

4 1 15. 9 8

1 10 16. 5 11

3 5 17. 12 8

4 1 18. 10 7

4 19. 21 7

5 20. 18 9

5 8 21.

2 For Exercises 2224, evaluate each expression if x 4, y , and 1 z . 4 3 22. x 8 3

23. xz

24. 3x

25. xy

26. 9y

1 27. x 3

28. yz

29. 8z

30. xyz

6 2 31. If a , what is a? 7 3

3 32. Evaluate st if s and t 24. 8

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

333

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 72

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Multiplying Fractions
COOKING For Exercises 1 and 2, use the recipe for chocolate frosting.

Chocolate Frosting Recipe


1 cup butter 3

2 ounces melted unsweetened chocolate 2 cups powdered sugar


1 teaspoon vanilla 2

2 tablespoons milk

1. Georgia wants to cut the recipe for chocolate frosting in half for a small cake that shes making. How much of each ingredient will she need?

2. Suppose Georgia wanted to double the recipe; what would the measurements be for each ingredient?

1 3. COMPUTERS of todays college 5 students began using computers between the ages of 5 and 8. If a college has 3,500 students, how many of the students began using computers between the ages of 5 and 8?

4. EXERCISE A paper published in a medical journal reported that about


11 of girls ages 16 to 17 do not exercise 25

at all. The entire study consisted of about 2,500 girls. About how many did not exercise?

3 5. ANIMALS Catherine walks her dog 4 mile every day. How far does she walk

6. MUSIC If you practice a musical


2 instrument each day for of an hour,

each week?

how many hours of practice would you get in each week?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

334

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Multiplying Fractions
Pre-Activity Complete the activity at the top of page 261 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. What part of Earths surface is covered by the Pacific Ocean?

2. What is the relationship between the numerators and denominators of the factors and the numerator and denominator of the product?

Reading the Lesson


For Exercises 3 and 4, look at Example 3 and the sentence before it on page 262 in your textbook. 3. What must the numerator and denominator have in order to simplify before you multiply?

4. Why is it helpful to simplify before you multiply?

Helping You Remember


5. Work with a partner. Look at each example on pages 261 and 262 in your textbook. Use a piece of paper to cover up the words that are beside the equations. Explain to your partner in your own words what is happening in each step. Then uncover the words and check.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

335

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 72

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Word Sums
Can one sixth plus one third equal one? It is possible if the fractions are fractions of words! Here is an example. Find the last one sixth of the word TOMATO: O Find the middle one third of the word FINEST: NE Add the letters O NE ONE!

Match each word sum in the first column with its definition in the second column. 1. the first one fourth of CHECKERS the last one half of AFFAIR 2. the first one half of CLOSET the last one fourth of DOWNTOWN 3. the first one fifth of BACKGROUND the middle one third of WONDER 4. the middle one third of ADVENTURE the last one third of LEADER 5. the middle one third of BUGLER the last one fourth of SATISFACTORY 6. the first two thirds of TICKET the last four fifths of STOCK 7. the middle one half of SEAT the last one half of FOURTH 8. the first two fifths of BOARD the middle one half of DAUGHTER 9. the first one half of MARBLE the last three fifths of SUGAR the last one fourth of CLARINET 10. the last two thirds of EAT the first one third of LANDSLIDE the first one fifth of TABLESPOON a. purchased

b. clock sound

c. capital of Georgia

d. to come into a room

e. where we live

f. honor

g. circus act

h. place to sit

i. womans name

j. music makers

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

336

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Multiplying Mixed Numbers
To multiply mixed numbers, write the mixed numbers as improper fractions, and then multiply as with fractions.
1 2 Find 2 1. 4 3 1 2 9 5 2 1 4 3 4 3 95 4 3
1 3

Estimate: 2 2 4.

Write mixed numbers as improper fractions.

Divide the numerator and denominator by their common factor, 3.

15 3 or 3 4 4

Simplify. Compare to the estimate.

1 1 If a 1 and b 2, what is the value of ab? 3 4 1 1 ab 1 2 3 4 4 9 3 4 9 4 4 3


1 1 1 3

1 1 Replace a with 1 and b with 2. 3 4

Write mixed numbers as improper fractions.

Divide the numerator and denominator by their common factors, 3 and 4.

3 or 3 1

Simplify.

Multiply. Write in simplest form.


1 1 1. 1 3 3 1 3 2. 1 5 4 3 3. 3 1 5 2 1 4. 3 3 2

11

1 9. 8 1 4

3 1 10. 2 8 2

1 11. 4 1 8

1 12. 1 3 9

2 13. Evaluate 5x if x 1 . 3

3 14. If t 2 , what is 4t? 8

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

337

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 73

1 5. 9 1

4 4 6. 2

1 1 7. 2 1

1 3 8. 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Multiplying Mixed Numbers
Multiply. Write in simplest form.
1 1 1. 1 3 4 3 1 3. 3 4 3 3 2 5. 1 3 5 3 4 1 7. 3 7 9 9 1 9. 4 6 10 8 1 11. 5 9 7 3 4 13. 3 2 4 5 2 15. 20 1 5 1 3 17. 5 1 4 11 1 3 2. 2 2 5 1 1 4. 6 5 2 5 1 6. 4 7 5 3 2 8. 1 2 8 7 1 1 10. 3 2 3 4 5 12. 2 6 8 5 3 14. 4 7 8 6 4 16. 2 9 11 5 18. 14 2 7

2 1 For Exercises 1924, evaluate each expression if r 1 , s 2, and 3 5 3 t . 4

19. 4t
1 21. r 2 1 23. s 11 2 1 25. Evaluate m if m 5. 3 6 7 5 26. What is ab if a 1 and b ? 11 8

20. st

22. rs

24. rt

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

338

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Multiplying Mixed Numbers
FOOD For Exercises 13, use the table. The table shows Keiths food

options for a 7-day outdoor survival course. Food Options for 7-day Outdoor Survival Course peanut butter dried noodles/rice dried fruit/nuts concentrated juice boxes beef jerky powdered milk dehydrated soup canned tuna/meat
3 1 plastic jar 4 cups 5 2 14 cups 3 1 6 cups 6 1 8 boxes 16 cups 4 1 3 cups 3 4 1 box 8 cups 5 3

2 5 packages 15 cups 3 4 cans 5 cups 5

1. Keith wants to divide his tuna over the seven-day course. How many cups of tuna meat can Keith plan on consuming each day?

2. Keith would like to bring enough concentrated juice in order to have


1 2 cups available per day. How much

juice does he need and is 8 boxes of concentrated juice enough?

3 15 c; yes 4

the area of the wall. If the mural is 100 square feet, will it fit on the wall?

5 2 75 ft ; no 6
1 5. PAINTING Pam is mixing 3 batches of 5

6. COOKING To make a batch of fruit


2 punch, Steve needs 2 cups blackberry 3 juice. If he wants to make 2 batches 4 3

paint. If one batch calls for


4

3 2 tablespoons of detergent to add to

the tempera powder, how many tablespoons of detergent will Pam need?

of punch, how many cups of blackberry juice will he need?

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339

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 73

3. Six other students have been advised to bring the same menu on the course. How many cups of dried fruits and nuts will the students be bringing all together?

4. MEASUREMENT Bill wants to put a large mural on a wall that is


1 1 9 feet long and 8 feet wide. Find

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Multiplying Mixed Numbers
Pre-Activity Complete the activity at the top of page 265 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. How many miles does Jasmine walk in a week? 2. Write a multiplication sentence that shows the total miles walked in a week. 3. Write the multiplication sentence using improper fractions.

Use a number line and improper fractions to find each product.


1 4. 2 1 3
0 1 2 3

1 5. 2 2 4
0 1 2 3 4 5

3 6. 3 1 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6

7. Describe how multiplying mixed numbers is similar to multiplying fractions.

Reading the Lesson


8. What is an improper fraction?

9. What is a mixed number?

10. Why is it helpful to write a mixed number as an improper fraction?

Helping You Remember


11. Example 2 on page 266 shows how to multiply mixed numbers. Describe a general process you would use to check if your answer is correct. Trade your description with a partner and follow your partners process to check the answer for Example 3. Answer any questions your partner may have about your process.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

340

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Mixed Numbers and Mental Math
Sometimes you can multiply a whole number and a mixed number in your head. The trick is to think of the mixed number in two partsthe whole number and the fraction. Find each product mentally. Example
1 3 10 2 1 1. 7 6 2 1 2. 4 9 2 1 3. 4 6 3 4 1 4. 5 8 1 5. 15 2 5 1 6. 12 4 6 2 7. 1 6 3 4 3 8. 5 20

Think: 3 10

1 Think: of 10 2

Now you can use this mental math technique to make better estimates. Heres how.
1 7 Estimate the product: 4 11 2 9 1 7 1 4 11 4 12

1 7 So, 4 11 is about 54. 2 9

48 6 54

Estimate by rounding only one factor.


2 1 9. 6 4 2 11 15 1 11. 11 2 16 4 2 6 13. 1 14 3 7 9 1 10. 5 8 10 3 7 1 12. 5 4 10 6 2 3 14. 19 1 7 4

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

341

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 73

2 9 2 1 1 4 12 4 12 of 12 2 2

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Dividing Fractions
When the product of two numbers is 1, the numbers are called reciprocals.

Find the reciprocal of 8.


1 1 Since 8 1, the reciprocal of 8 is . 8 8 5 Find the reciprocal of . 9 5 9 5 9 Since 1, the reciprocal of is . 9 5 9 5

You can use reciprocals to divide fractions. To divide by a fraction, multiply by its reciprocal.
2 4 Find . 3 5 2 4 2 5 3 5 3 4 2 5 3 4
2 1

5 Multiply by the reciprocal, . 4

Divide 2 and 4 by the GCF, 2.

5 6

Multiply numerators and denominators.

Find the reciprocal of each number. 1. 2


1 2. 6 4 3. 11 3 4. 5

Divide. Write in simplest form.


1 2 5. 3 5 1 1 6. 9 2 2 1 7. 3 4 1 3 8. 2 4

4 9. 2 5

1 4 10. 5 10

5 5 11. 12 6

9 12. 3 10

3 7 13. 4 12

9 14. 9 10

2 5 15. 3 8

7 16. 4 9

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

342

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Dividing Fractions
Find the reciprocal of each number.
1 1. 2 3 2. 5

3. 7

8 4. 11

5. 12

9 6. 10

5 7. 8

3 8. 10

Divide. Write in simplest form.


5 1 9. 6 3 1 9 10. 10 2 1 3 11. 2 5

4 12. 8 5

7 5 13. 12 6

9 1 14. 10 4

3 15. 9 8

9 3 16. 10 4

2 4 17. 5 7

5 18. 15 9

6 3 19. 7 11

1 5 20. 9 12

5 5 21. 6 12

10 22. 5 11

7 1 23. 9 7

6 8 24. 7 9

9 3 25. 5 11

4 26. 5 9

1 3 2 Find the value of each expression if x , y , and z . 4 5 3

30. z x

1 31. x 3

32. 5 y

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

343

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 74

27. x y

28. z 2

29. y z

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Dividing Fractions
9 1. PIZZA Norberto has of a pizza. The 10

2. CARPENTRY Laura wants to cut a board into three equal pieces. The board is
5 feet long. How long will each piece 8 5

pizza will be divided equally among 6 people. How much will each person get?

be?

ft 24

1 3. PETS Errol uses can of wet dog food

for his dog, Muddy, each day. How many servings will he get from 5 cans of dog food?

1 4. ICE CREAM Julia ate pint of mint

chocolate chip ice cream. Mark ate


3 pint of malt ice cream. How many 4

1 1 times 2

times more ice cream did Mark eat?

5. GARDENING Talia wants to give away 6 bundles of rosemary from her herb
1 garden. If she has pound of rosemary,

3 6. SCHOOL Kirsten has hour left to

how much will each bundle weigh?

3 h 20

finish 5 math problems on the test. How much time does she have to spend on each problem?

1 7. FOOD Joe has of a cake he would like

to split among 3 people. What part of the cake will each person get?

3 8. INTERNET of college students use the 4

9 Internet more than the library. use 100

the library more. How many times more students use the Internet?

1 8 times 3

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

344

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Dividing Fractions
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 272 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1 1. How many -pizza servings are there? 2 1 1 2. The model shows 4 . What is 4 ? 2 2

Draw a model to find each quotient.


1 3. 3 4 1 4. 2 6 1 5. 4 2

Reading the Lesson


6. What is the definition of reciprocals?
1 7. Show that 3 1. 3

8. How do you find the reciprocal of a whole number? How do you find the reciprocal of a fraction?

Helping You Remember


9. Work with a partner. Study the model in Example 3 at the top of
1 1 3 page 273. Explain how it shows that is of . 8 6 4

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

345

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 74

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Operations with Fractions and Decimals
Sometimes an operation involves both fractions and decimals. To perform the operation, you need to express all the numbers in the same form. Here are two examples.
1 1 1 0.3 5 5 3 1 3 5 1 3 5
Express the decimal as a fraction.

3 0.115 0.75 0.115 4

Express the fraction as a decimal.

0.865

Perform the operation. Express the answer as a fraction or mixed number in simplest form.
5 1. 0.25 16 7 2. 0.6 9 4 3. 0.125 11

1 4. 1 0.3 5

3 5. 0.8 5

3 6. 1 0.875 8

Perform the operation. Express the answer as a decimal.


1 7. 0.34 5 1 8. 0.005 8 3 9. 0.001 5

7 10. 6.39 8

1 11. 9.1 4

3 2 12. 0.709 8 5

1 13. Kevin is making one recipe that calls for 1 pounds of hamburger and

another that calls for 2 pounds. In the store, he finds a family pack of hamburger that is labeled 3.75 pounds. Is this more or less than he needs? How much more or less?
1 3 14. Daneesha needs 1 yards of material to make a jacket and 1 yards of

material to make a skirt. The material costs $7.50 per yard. What is the total cost of the material for the skirt and jacket? Round your answer to the nearest cent.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

346

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Dividing Mixed Numbers
Lesson 75
To divide mixed numbers, express each mixed number as an improper fraction. Then divide as with fractions.
2 1 Find 2 1. 3 5 2 1 8 6 2 1 3 5 3 5 8 5 3 6 85
36
3

Estimate: 3 1 3 Write mixed numbers as improper fractions.


5 Multiply by the reciprocal, . 6

Divide 8 and 6 by the GCF, 2. Simplify. Compare to the estimate.

20 2 or 2 9 9

2 3 Find the value of s t if s 1 and t . 3 4

s t

2 3 1 3 4 5 3 3 4 5 4 3 3 20 2 or 2 9 9

2 3 Replace s with 1 and t with . 3 4 2 Write 1 as an improper fraction. 3 4 Multiply by the reciprocal, . 3

Simplify.

Divide. Write in simplest form.


1 4 1. 2 2 5 2 1 2. 1 1 3 4 3 3. 5 1 7 1 7 4. 2 3 9

9 2 5. 5 5 10

1 2 6. 7 1 2 3

5 7. 3 2 6

1 2 8. 2 4 7

1 9. 9 1 9

4 6 10. 2 5 7

8 11. 1 5 9

3 1 12. 2 8 4

1 13. If x 1 and y 3, what is x y? 4

9 14. Evaluate 18 t if t . 11

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

347

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Dividing Mixed Numbers
Divide. Write in simplest form.
5 4 1. 2 6 6 5 6 2 2. 4 3 7 5 2 3 3. 31 7 3 5

1 4. 1 3 3

2 5. 6 2 5

3 3 6. 1 4 4

1 2 7. 2 4 2 7

1 8. 3 7 9

2 4 9. 6 3 5

2 5 10. 1 1 9 6

3 7 11. 6 1 4 20

5 7 12. 2 10 8

5 1 13. 3 1 6 3

7 4 14. 1 9 9

3 15. 5 8 4

2 1 16. 2 1 9 3

1 7 17. 3 1 5 9

1 1 18. 6 3 6 3

3 5 3 Evaluate each expression if a 1 , b 4, and c 3. 8 7 10

19. b a

20. a c

21. c b

3 1 For Exercises 2224, evaluate each expression if a 3 , b 1, and 4 2 1 c 4 . 8

22. a b

23. c a

24. b c

1 3 25. What is the value of r t if r 4 and t 2? 3 5

2 1 26. If x 4 what is 1 x? 3 6

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

348

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Dividing Mixed Numbers
1. VIDEOTAPES Lyle is putting his videotapes on a shelf. The shelf is 12 inches long. If each videotape is
1 1 inches wide, how many videotapes 2 2

equally among 9 people. How much will each person get? of a pie

1 2

can he put side-by-side on the shelf?

3. GARDENING Maurice mows lawns on 1 Saturday. Last week it took him 5 hours to finish. This week it took only 5 hours. How many times longer did it take last week than this week?
2

4. COOKING Chris is cutting a roll of cookie dough into pieces that are
1 1 inch thick. If the roll is 10 inches 2 2

long, how many pieces can he make?

5. SPORTS Tanya Streeter holds the world record for free-diving in the ocean. She
1 dove 525 feet in 3 minutes. How many 2 feet per minute did she dive?

3 6. GARDENING Catherine got 9 pounds

of cherries from her tree this year. Last


1 year she only got 6 pounds. How 4 many times more pounds did she get

this year than last year? 1 times

1 2

3 7. SEWING Jeanne has 3 yards of fabric. 4 She needs 1 yards to make a pair of 5 pants. How many pairs of pants can she make? 5

1 8. EXERCISE Del Ray can run 20 miles in 1 2 hours. How many miles per hour 4 2

can he run? 9 mi per h

1 9

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349

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 75

1 2. FOOD DeLila has 4 pies to divide

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Dividing Mixed Numbers
Pre-Activity Complete the activity at the top of page 276 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. To the nearest yard, how long is each piece? 2. To the nearest yard, how long is the fabric on the bolt? 3. About how many pieces can you cut?

Reading the Lesson


4. Describe how to write a mixed number as an improper fraction.

5. Describe what is happening at each step below. If you need help, use Examples 1 and 2 on page 276 as a guide.
5 1 Find the value of a b if a 5 and b 2. 5 1 a b 5 2 8 4 45 9 8 8 4 9 45 4
45 4 8 9
2 1 5 1

5 1 or 2 2 2

Helping You Remember


1 1 6. As an experiment, try to find 4 2 in a different way from the way

you learned in this lesson. First, divide the whole numbers. Next divide the fractions. Then, put together the whole number you found and the
1 1 fraction you found to make a mixed number. Now find 4 2 in the

way the lesson shows how to divide mixed numbers. What two important steps must you do in order when dividing mixed numbers?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

350

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Lesson 75

Modeling Division of Fractions on a Ruler


How many half-inch lengths are in 4 inches? When you look at a ruler, it is easy to see that the answer is 8.
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

INCHES

1 So, this diagram is also a model for the division 4 8. 2

Write the division that is modeled in each diagram. 1.


INCHES 1 2 3 4 5

2.
INCHES 1 2 3 4 5

3.
INCHES 1 2 3 4 5

4.
INCHES 1 2 3 4 5

2 2 5. Use the ruler below. Create a model for the division 4 7. 3 3

INCHES

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

351

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Sequences
A sequence is a list of numbers in a specific order that follows a pattern or rule.

Describe the pattern in the sequence 41, 37, 33, 29, . Then find the next two numbers in the sequence. 41, 37, 33, 29, 4 4 4

In this sequence, 4 is subtracted from each number. The next two numbers are 29 4, or 25, and 25 4, or 21. Describe the pattern in the sequence 243, 81, 27, 9, . Then find the next two numbers in the sequence. 243,
1 3

81,
3

27,

9,
3

1 1

1 In this sequence, each number is multiplied by .

3 1 1 The next two numbers are 9 , or 3, and 3 , or 1. 3 3

Describe each pattern. Then find the next two numbers in the sequence. 1. 72, 77, 82, 87, 2. 3, 6, 12, 24,

3. 32, 29, 26, 23,

1 1 1 4. 14 , 14, 13, 13, 12, 2 2 2

1 1 1 5. 1, , , , 2 4 8

1 1 6. 3, 4 , 6, 7, 2 2

Find the missing number in each sequence. 7. ____, 75, 50, 25,
1 2 2 8. 17 , 18, 20, ____, 22, 3 3 3

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

352

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Sequences
Describe each pattern. Then find the next two numbers in the sequence. 1. 6, 10, 14, 18, 2. 31, 26, 21, 16,

3. 12, 24, 48, 96,

4. 16, 8, 4, 2,

5. 108, 36, 12, 4,

1 2 3 6. 1, 1 , 1, 1, 5 5 5

1 1 1 1 7. , , , , 64 32 16 8

8. 43, 38, 33, 28,

9. 63, 56, 49, 42,

10. 2, 15, 28, 41,

11. 5, 20, 35, 50,

2 1 12. 1, 1 , 2, 3, 3 3

13. 4, 12, 36, 108,

14. 1, 5, 25, 125,

Find the missing number in each sequence. 15. 54, ? , 42, 36,
1 1 16. , , 6 3 2 ? , , 3

17.

? , 12, 48, 192,

1 1 18. , , 81 27

1 ? , , 3

19. 16, 4,

1 ? , , 4

20.

? , 1, 5, 25,

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

353

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 76

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Sequences
1. SPORTS Thomas is getting in shape for track. He is starting with a 2 mile run
1 and will increase the run by mile

each week for 4 weeks. What will his distance be for the second, third, and fourth weeks?

2. WATER Kevin is pumping water from a small pond into a water tank. At 9 A.M. the water level was 2 inches. At 11 A.M.
1 it was 3 inches. At 1 P.M. it was 2

5 inches. If the pattern continues, what will the level be at 3 P.M.? Explain.

1 6 in.; The tank is filling at a rate 2 of 0.75 in. per h.

3. BACKPACKING A group of backpackers started with 5 pounds of cheese. On the


1 second day they had only 2 pounds. 1 On the third day they had 1 pounds. 4 If the pattern continues, how much will they have on the fourth day? Explain. 2

4. FROGS The frog population in a Japanese garden is growing at an alarming rate. The counts taken show there were 14 frogs to start, then 28, then 56, then 112. If they continue to grow at this rate, what will the next count be? Explain.

5. MONEY James borrowed $315 from his parents for a snowboard. He agreed to pay them back in monthly payments. In February he owed $265. In March he owed $215. In April he owed $165. What are his monthly payments? How much will he owe in August?

6. TRAVEL Jessica is on a road trip. At noon she still had 372 miles to go. At 1 P.M. she had 307 miles to go. At 2 P.M. she had 242 miles to go. At this rate, how many miles will Jessica have left to go at 5 P.M.? Explain.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

354

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Sequences
Pre-Activity Complete the activity at the top of page 282 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. What are the names of the next three notes?

2. Write the fraction that represents each of the next three notes.

3. Identify the pattern in the numbers.

Reading the Lesson


4. If you have a list of numbers, how can you tell if they are a sequence, as described in this lesson?

5. In extending a sequence, what are the two necessary steps?

Helping You Remember


6. Work with a partner. Make up a sequence of numbers that follow a certain pattern. Exchange lists with your partner. For the list you receive from your partner, describe the pattern, and write the next two numbers in the pattern.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

355

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 76

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Figurate Numbers
Figurate numbers are numbers associated with a pattern of geometric figures. For example, the diagram at the right shows the first four triangular numbers. The first number is 1, and then the pattern is add 2, add 3, add 4, and so on. 1. Refer to the diagram above. Find the next six triangular numbers. 1, 3, 6, 10, , , , , ,

1 2

3 3

6 4

10

2. The diagram at the right represents the first four square numbers. What is the pattern? Use the pattern to list the first ten square numbers in the space below. , , , , , , , , ,

3. The diagram at the right represents the first four rectangular numbers. What is the pattern? Use the pattern to list the first ten rectangular numbers in the space below. , , , , , , , , ,

4. In the space below, sketch the geometric figure that represents the sixth rectangular number.

5. In the space below, sketch the geometric figure that represents the sixth triangular number.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

356

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Chapter Chapter X 8 Resource Resource Masters Masters

Course 1 1 Course

Consumable Workbooks
Many of the worksheets contained in the Chapter Resource Masters booklets are available as consumable workbooks in both English and Spanish. Study Guide and Intervention Workbook Study Guide and Intervention Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Skills Workbook Practice: Skills Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Word Problems Workbook Practice: Word Problems Workbook (Spanish) Reading to Learn Mathematics Workbook 0-07-860085-5 0-07-860091-X 0-07-860086-3 0-07-860092-8 0-07-860087-1 0-07-860093-6 0-07-861057-5

Answers for Workbooks The answers for Chapter 8 of these


workbooks can be found in the back of this Chapter Resource Masters booklet.

Spanish Assessment Masters Spanish versions of forms 2A and 2C of


the Chapter 8 Test are available in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts Spanish Assessment Masters, Course 1 (0-07-860095-2).

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teacher, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1 Chapter 8 Resource Masters 024 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03

ISBN: 0-07-860071-5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

CONTENTS
Vocabulary Builder .............................vii Family Letter ............................................ix Family Activity ........................................x Lesson 8-1
Study Guide and Intervention ........................383 Practice: Skills ................................................384 Practice: Word Problems................................385 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................386 Enrichment .....................................................387

Lesson 8-5
Study Guide and Intervention ........................403 Practice: Skills ................................................404 Practice: Word Problems................................405 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................406 Enrichment .....................................................407

Lesson 8-6
Study Guide and Intervention ........................408 Practice: Skills ................................................409 Practice: Word Problems................................410 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................411 Enrichment .....................................................412

Lesson 8-2
Study Guide and Intervention ........................388 Practice: Skills ................................................389 Practice: Word Problems................................390 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................391 Enrichment .....................................................392

Chapter 8 Assessment
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 8 Test, Form 1 ..........................413414 8 Test, Form 2A ........................415416 8 Test, Form 2B ........................417418 8 Test, Form 2C........................419420 8 Test, Form 2D........................421422 8 Test, Form 3 ..........................423424 8 Extended Response Assessment .425 8 Vocabulary Test/Review.................426 8 Quizzes 1 & 2................................427 8 Quizzes 3 & 4................................428 8 Mid-Chapter Test ...........................429 8 Cumulative Review........................430 8 Standardized Test Practice....431432

Lesson 8-3
Study Guide and Intervention ........................393 Practice: Skills ................................................394 Practice: Word Problems................................395 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................396 Enrichment .....................................................397

Lesson 8-4
Study Guide and Intervention ........................398 Practice: Skills ................................................399 Practice: Word Problems................................400 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................401 Enrichment .....................................................402

Standardized Test Practice Student Recording Sheet ............................A1 Standardized Test Practice Rubric...................A2 ANSWERS .............................................A3A27

iii

Teachers Guide to Using the Chapter 8 Resource Masters


The Fast File Chapter Resource system allows you to conveniently file the resources you use most often. The Chapter 8 Resource Masters includes the core materials needed for Chapter 8. These materials include worksheets, extensions, and assessment options. The answers for these pages appear at the back of this booklet. All of the materials found in this booklet are included for viewing and printing in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1, TeacherWorks CD-ROM.

Vocabulary Builder Pages vii-viii include a student study tool that presents up to twenty of the key vocabulary terms from the chapter. Students are to record definitions and/or examples for each term. You may suggest that students highlight or star the terms with which they are not familiar.
When to Use Give these pages to students before beginning Lesson 8-1. Encourage them to add these pages to their mathematics study notebook. Remind them to add definitions and examples as they complete each lesson.

Practice: Skills

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice that more closely follows the structure of the Practice and Applications section of the Student Edition exercises. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Practice: Word Problems

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice in solving word problems that apply the concepts of the lesson. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Family Letter and Family Activity


Page ix is a letter to inform your students families of the requirements of the chapter. The family activity on page x helps them understand how the mathematics students are learning is applicable to real life. When to Use Give these pages to students to take home before beginning the chapter.

Reading to Learn Mathematics

Study Guide and Intervention


There is one Study Guide and Intervention master for each lesson in Chapter 8. When to Use Use these masters as reteaching activities for students who need additional reinforcement. These pages can also be used in conjunction with the Student Edition as an instructional tool for students who have been absent.

One master is included for each lesson. The first section of each master asks questions about the opening paragraph of the lesson in the Student Edition. Additional questions ask students to interpret the context of and relationships among terms in the lesson. Finally, students are asked to summarize what they have learned using various representation techniques. When to Use This master can be used as a study tool when presenting the lesson or as an informal reading assessment after presenting the lesson. It is also a helpful tool for ELL (English Language Learner) students.

iv

There is one extension master for each lesson. These activities may extend the concepts in the lesson, offer an historical or multicultural look at the concepts, or widen students perspectives on the mathematics they are learning. These are not written exclusively for honors students, but are accessible for use with all levels of students. When to Use These may be used as extra credit, short-term projects, or as activities for days when class periods are shortened.

Enrichment

A Vocabulary Test, suitable for all students, includes a list of the vocabulary words in the chapter and ten questions assessing students knowledge of those terms. This can also be used in conjunction with one of the chapter tests or as a review worksheet.

Intermediate Assessment
Four free-response quizzes are included to offer assessment at appropriate intervals in the chapter. A Mid-Chapter Test provides an option to assess the first half of the chapter. It is composed of both multiple-choice and freeresponse questions.

Assessment Options
The assessment masters in the Chapter 8 Resources Masters offer a wide range of assessment tools for intermediate and final assessment. The following lists describe each assessment master and its intended use.

Continuing Assessment
The Cumulative Review provides students an opportunity to reinforce and retain skills as they proceed through their study of Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. It can also be used as a test. This master includes free-response questions. The Standardized Test Practice offers continuing review of pre-algebra concepts in various formats, which may appear on the standardized tests that they may encounter. This practice includes multiplechoice, short response, grid-in, and extended response questions. Bubble-in and grid-in answer sections are provided on the master.

Chapter Assessment
Chapter Tests Form 1 contains multiple-choice questions and is intended for use with basic level students. Forms 2A and 2B contain multiple-choice questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Forms 2C and 2D are composed of freeresponse questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Grids with axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. Form 3 is an advanced level test with free-response questions. Grids without axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. All of the above tests include a free-response Bonus question. The Extended-Response Assessment includes performance assessment tasks that are suitable for all students. A scoring rubric is included for evaluation guidelines. Sample answers are provided for assessment.

Answers
Page A1 is an answer sheet for the Standardized Test Practice questions that appear in the Student Edition on pages 328329. This improves students familiarity with the answer formats they may encounter in test taking. Detailed rubrics for assessing the extended response questions on page 329 are provided on page A2. The answers for the lesson-by-lesson masters are provided as reduced pages with answers appearing in red. Full-size answer keys are provided for the assessment masters in this booklet.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
This is an alphabetical list of new vocabulary terms you will learn in Chapter 8. As you study the chapter, complete each terms definition or description. Remember to add the page number where you found the term. Add this page to your math study notebook to review vocabulary at the end of the chapter. Vocabulary Term coordinate [koh-AWR-duhn-uht] plane Found on Page Definition/Description/Example
Vocabulary Builder

coordinate system

graph

integer [IHN-tih-juhr]

negative integer

opposites

ordered pair

origin [AWR-uh-juhn]

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

vii

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
Vocabulary Term positive integer Found on Page

(continued)
Definition/Description/Example

quadrant

x-axis

x-coordinate

y-axis

y-coordinate

zero pair

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

viii

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Letter

Dear Parent or Guardian: e, keep scores in games, We use integers to count and compar . Integers often play a solve problems, and describe distances mple, you may decide not role in the decisions we make. For exa cost $36 and you only to buy a pair of jeans because they have $30. r child will learn all about In Chapter 8, Algebra: Integers, you them, adding them, integers: comparing them, ordering and dividing them. Your subtracting them, multiplying them, nate system. In the study child will also learn about the coordi te a variety of daily of this chapter, your child will comple and possibly produce a classroom assignments and activities chapter project . it with your child, you By signing this letter and returning ting involved. Enclosed is agree to encourage your child by get ld that also relates the an activity you can do with your chi 8 to the real world. You math we will be learning in Chapter line Study Tools for selfmay also wish to log on to the On dy Guide pages, and check quizzes, Parent and Student Stu et. If you have any other study help at www.msmath1.n contact me at school. questions or comments, feel free to Sincerely,

Signature of Parent or Guardian ______________________________________ Date ________

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ix

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Family Letter

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Activity
Describing Situations Using Integers
Work with a family member to answer the following questions. Write a positive or negative integer to describe each situation. 1. How many minutes does it take you to travel to school?

2. What was todays low temperature?

3. What is the amount of your last withdrawal from the bank?

4. How many different kinds of vegetables are in your refrigerator?

5. How much money did you spend today?

6. How much time do you spend cleaning your room each week?

7. Give the approximate distance in miles from your house to the movie theater.

8. How much money did you spend on your last trip to the mall?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Estimates will vary. 1. positive 2. positive 3. negative 4. positive 5. negative 6. positive 7. positive 8. negative

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Integers
An integer is any number from the set {, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, } where means continues without end. You can use a number line to compare integers. On a number line, the number on the left is always less than the number on the right. Opposite integers are the same distance from zero on opposite sides of the number line.

Write an integer to show 3 degrees below zero. Numbers below zero are negative numbers. The integer is 3. Order the integers 1, 2, and 3 from least to greatest. Graph each integer on a number line. Then compare.
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

The order from least to greatest is 2, 1, and 3.

Write an integer to describe each situation. 1. 4 degrees below zero 2. a gain of 2 points

Replace each with <, >, or to make a true sentence. 3. 2 0 4. 3 3 5. 9 9

Write the opposite of each integer. 6. 3 7. 2 8. 1 9. 4

Order each set of integers from least to greatest. 10. 2, 3, 0, 1, 1 11. 3, 3, 2, 1, 1

12. 5, 7, 2, 1, 9

13. 2, 1, 5, 5, 0

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

383

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 81

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Integers
Write an integer to describe each situation. 1. a loss of 8 yards 3. 5 feet above sea level 5. scored 10 fewer points 7. a gain of 5 pounds Graph each integer on the number line.
8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8

2. an increase of 2 inches 4. a decrease of 6 members 6. earned 7 dollars interest 8. 4 degrees below normal

9. 0 13. 5

10. 3 14. 1

11. 4 15. 8

12. 6 16. 7

Replace each with , , or to make a true sentence. 17. 9 8 20. 3 3 23. 5 5 26. 57 75 18. 0 1 21. 12 21 24. 83 80 27. 56 56 19. 6 6 22. 12 10 25. 9 9 28. 0 0

Write the opposite of each integer. 29. 2 33. 7 30. 6 34. 10 31. 9 35. 14 32. 8 36. 12

Order each set of integers from least to greatest. 37. 2, 6, 2, 0 39. 5, 3, 11, 9 38. 9, 8, 4, 9 40. 3, 2, 4, 17

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

384

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Integers
1. MONEY Katryn owes her father $25. Write this number as an integer. 2. GEOGRAPHY Mt. Whitney in California is 14,494 feet above sea level. Write this number as an integer.

3. GEOGRAPHY Badwater in Death Valley is 282 feet below sea level. Write this number as an integer.

4. SCHOOL Dick forgot to put his name on his homework. His teacher deducts 5 points for papers turned in without names on them. So, Dick lost 5 points from his score. Write this number as an integer.

5. GEOGRAPHY Multnomah Falls in Oregon drops 620 feet from the top to the bottom. Suppose a log is carried by the water from the top to the bottom of the falls. Write the integer to describe the location of the log now.

6. TRAVEL The train left the station and traveled ahead on the tracks for 30 miles. Write an integer to describe the new location of the train from the station.

7. WEATHER The table shows the average normal January temperature of four cities in Alaska. Compare the temperatures of Barrow and Fairbanks, using , , or . Then compare the temperatures of Barrow and Anchorage. City Anchorage Barrow Fairbanks Juneau Temperature (F) 15 13 10 24

8. WEATHER Use the table from Exercise 7. Write the temperatures of the four cities in order from highest to lowest temperature.

13F 10F; 13F 15F

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

385

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 81

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Integers
Pre-Activity Complete the activity at the top of page 294 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. What does a value of 6 represent? 2. Who has the most money? 3. Who owes the most money? 4. What number represents having 8 dollars in a wallet?

Reading the Lesson


For Exercises 5 and 6, look at the second sentence below the activity on page 294. 5. How are the braces { and } used?

6. Within the set, two sets of ellipsis points () are used. What do they mean and how do they affect the content of the set?

7. In the number lines shown in this lesson, how is continues without end indicated?

8. How do values change as you move from left to right on a number line?

Helping You Remember


9. Antonyms are two words that have opposite meanings, such as cold and hot. Integers can be described by the antonyms negative or positive or as being above zero or below zero. Make a table of antonyms that describe situations involving negative and positive integers. Negative Integer loss gain Positive Integer

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

386

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Graphs with Integers
Statistical graphs that display temperatures, elevations, and similar data often involve negative quantities. On graphs like these, the scale usually will have a zero point and will include both positive and negative numbers. For Exercises 16, use the bar graph at the right to answer each question. 1. In which cities is the record low temperature greater than 0F?
Temperature (F)
60 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 New York City, NY San Francisco, CA New Orleans, LA Honolulu, HI 50 Cincinnati, OH Bismarck, ND

Lowest Recorded Temperatures in Selected Cities

2. In which cities is the record low temperature less than 0F?

3. In which city is the record low temperature about 25F? 4. Estimate the record low temperature for New York City. 5. In which cities is the record low temperature less than twenty degrees from 0F? 6. How many degrees are between the record low temperatures for Bismarck and Honolulu? 7. In the space at the right, make a bar graph for the data below. Altitudes of Some California Locations Relative to Sea Level Location Alameda Brawley Calexico Death Valley El Centro Salton City Altitude (ft) 30 112 7 282 39 230
200 150 100

Altitudes of Some California Locations Relative to Sea Level

Altitude (feet)

50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

387

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 81

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Adding Integers
The sum of two positive integers is always positive. The sum of two negative integers is always negative. The sum of a positive integer and a negative integer is sometimes positive, sometimes negative, and sometimes zero.

Find 3 (2). Method 1 Use counters.


Place 3 negative counters on the mat to show 3.

Method 2 Use a number line.


Place 2 negative counters on the mat to show 2. Start at 0. Move 3 units to the left to show 3. From there, move 2 units to the left to show 2.

2 3 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

So, 3 (2) 5.

Find 4 (1). Method 1 Use counters.


Method 2 Use a number line.


Start at 0. Move 4 units to the right to show 4. From there, move 1 unit to the left to show 1.

Place 4 positive counters on the mat to show 4. Place 1 negative counter on the mat to show 1.

1 4 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

So, 4 (1) 3.

Add. Use counters or a number line if necessary. 1. 3 (6) 2. 9 8 3. 4 7

4. 6 (6)

5. 8 (2)

6. 2 (5)

7. 6 (12)

8. 6 (5)

9. 4 (3)

10. 12 5

11. 4 10

12. 3 (5)

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

388

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Adding Integers
Add. Use counters or a number line if necessary. 1. 6 (8) 3. 5 (4) 5. 2 11 7. 4 (4) 9. 12 3 11. 10 (2) 13. 3 4 15. 2 (1) 17. 8 7 19. 11 4 21. 12 6 23. 9 (9) 25. 3 (11) 27. 15 (7) 2. 9 (3) 4. 13 7 6. 10 (6) 8. 7 (4) 10. 5 14 12. 6 (1) 14. 4 (4) 16. 6 (3) 18. 5 (6) 20. 6 13 22. 7 12 24. 5 (5) 26. 14 9 28. 15 15

29. What is the sum of positive six and negative four? 30. What is the sum of negative five and positive five? 31. Find the result when negative eight is added to positive 4. 32. Find the sum of negative 1 and positive 7. 33. ALGEBRA Find the value of c d if c 4 and d 6.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

389

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 82

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Adding Integers
1. GAME To play a game on a game board, Drew puts his game piece on START. On his first turn, he moves his game piece ahead 7 spaces. On his second turn, Drew moves his game piece back 4 spaces. How many spaces away from START is his game piece now? 2. GAME Fritas game piece is on square 24 of a game board. She draws a card that says, Move back 4 spaces. Then she draws a card that says, Move back 2 spaces. On which square is Fritas game piece now?

3. WEATHER The temperature outside is 0F. If the temperature drops 14 overnight, what was the overnight low temperature?

4. WEATHER The temperature outside is 16F. Then the temperature rises 20 degrees. What is the current outdoor temperature?

5. ANIMALS An ant crawls 14 centimeters down into an ant hole. It then crawls 6 centimeters up to the queens nest. Write and solve an addition sentence that gives the location of the ant.

6. ANIMALS Monarch butterflies travel an average of about 15 feet off the ground. One butterfly flies to a height of 22 feet. Tell how much higher it flies than average.

7. ANIMALS Pacific salmon swimming up the Columbia River travel 2 feet under water. Suppose one salmon darts 3 feet up and out of the water. How far out of the water did the salmon jump?

8. ANIMALS Plankton (microscopic animals) float on the top of a pond at night to feed. They drop to the bottom of the pond during the day. Express their daytime location as a negative number if the top of the pond is at sea level and the pond is 4 feet deep.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

390

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Adding Integers
Pre-Activity Complete the activity at the top of page 300 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. After Gracias third turn, how many spaces from the start is her game piece?

Reading the Lesson


For Exercises 2 and 3, look at the cards at the top of page 300 that Gracia selected for her first three turns. 2. Suppose you were using counters to find the result. Write directions that would show the result of her first three turns.

3. Suppose you were using a number line. Write directions that would show the result of her first three turns.

4. Using a number line, show that a zero pair results in 0.

5 4 3 2 1

5. Look at the Key Concept box at the bottom of page 301. It says that the sum of a positive integer and a negative integer is sometimes negative, sometimes positive and sometimes 0. How can you tell which it will be?

Helping You Remember


6. Work with a partner. Use the three rules for adding integers you have learned in this lesson to make up addition problems and sums to show each rule. Then have your partner prove your addition sum is correct by solving the problem using a number line or counters.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

391

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 82

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Speedy Addition
How would you perform an addition like this? 4 7 (1) 4 (7) (5) Some people add all the positive integers, add all the negative integers, then add the results. 4 (1) (7) (5) 17 7 4 11 17 11 6

Other people find it easier to first group all the zero pairs. 4 4 7 (7) (1) (5) 0 0 6

Which method do you think you would prefer? Check it out by finding each of these sums. 1. 9 5 3 9 (3) 2. 16 9 (11) 16 11 (12) (9) 3. 10 (8) (4) (2) 4. 6 14 (11) (8) 7 11 5. 15 6 (12) 3 9 (3) 6. 20 (13) (5) 13 (10) 16 (5) 7. 19 (7) (9) (9) 15 (10) 16 8. 4 17 (8) 5 (17) (13) 8 (12) 9. 16 (11) 4 (2) 11 (14) 5 (9) 10. 21 3 (7) (4) (8) 15 6 12 15 11. Which method(s) did you use in Exercises 110? Did you choose from the methods above, or did you use a different method? Explain.

{
6

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392

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Subtracting Integers
To subtract an integer, add its opposite.

Find 4 (3). Method 1 Use counters.



Place 4 negative counters on the mat to show 4. Remove 3 negative counters to show subtracting 3.

Method 2 Use the rule. 4 (3) 4 3 To subtract 3,


add 3.

Simplify.

So, 4 (3) 1. Find 3 1. Method 1 Use counters.


Place 3 negative counters on the mat to show 3. To subtract 1, you must remove 1 positive counter. But there are no positive counters on the mat. You must add 1 zero pair to the mat. The value of the mat does not change. Then you can remove 1 positive counter.

Method 2 Use the rule. 3 1 3 (1) To subtract 1,


add 1.

Simplify.

The difference of 3 and 1 is 4. So, 3 1 4.

Subtract. Use counters if necessary. 1. 8 5 2. 4 2 3. 7 (5)

7. 1 4

8. 2 (2)

9. 5 (1)

10. 7 2

11. 9 (9)

12. 6 (2)

13. 8 (14)

14. 2 9

15. 5 15

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393

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 83

4. 3 (5)

5. 6 (10)

6. 8 (4)

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Subtracting Integers
Subtract. Use counters if necessary. 1. 9 4 2. 10 7 3. 8 5

4. 12 6

5. 3 (7)

6. 5 (9)

7. 8 7

8. 2 6

9. 16 (9)

10. 4 (15)

11. 18 5

12. 6 6

13. 7 4

14. 4 (2)

15. 8 10

16. 9 (7)

17. 3 12

18. 3 (10)

19. 13 7

20. 5 (2)

21. 6 6

22. 3 5

23. 8 6

24. 2 (2)

25. 7 (4)

26. 16 (8)

27. 12 (12)

28. 3 10

29. 1 (4)

30. 9 (6)

31. ALGEBRA Find the value of a b if a 5 and b 8.

32. ALGEBRA Find the value of c d if c 7 and d 2.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

394

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Subtracting Integers
MONEY For Exercises 14, use the transaction register.

A transaction register is used to record money deposits and withdrawals from a checking account. It shows how much money Mandy, a college student, had in her account as well as the 4 checks she has written so far. Check No. 1 2 3 4 Date 9/04 9/07 9/13 9/16 9/24 Description of Transaction spending money from parents college bookstore textbooks graphing calculator bus pass Charlies Pizza $291 $99 $150 $12 2. Which check did Mandy write that made her account overdrawn? Payment Deposit Balance $500 $500

1. Subtract each withdrawal to find the balance after each check was written. If Mandy spends more than $500, record that amount as a negative number.

3. Mandy called home and asked for a loan. Her parents let her borrow $500. What is her balance now?

4. After her parents let her borrow the $500 from Exercise 3, Mandy wants to spend $300 on clothes and $150 on decorations for her dorm room. Does she have enough money in the bank? Express her balance with an integer if she buys these items.

5. WEATHER At 2 P.M., the temperature was 9F. If the temperature drops 20 degrees, what is the new temperature?

6. BASKETBALL During a high school basketball game, the home team scored 51 points and the opponents scored 62 points. What is the point differential (the difference between the number of points scored by a team and its opponent) for the home team?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

395

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 83

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Subtracting Integers
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 304 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Model 8 (2) using a number line.

2 1

2. Compare this model to the model for 8 2. How is 8 2 related to 8 (2)? 3. Use a number line to model 3 (4).

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

4. Compare this model to the model for 3 4. How is 3 4 related to 3 (4)?

Reading the Lesson


5. What does the Mini Lab show?

6. What do the two pairs of equations near the bottom of page 304 show?

7. Look at Example 3, Method 1, on page 306. Why is it necessary to add 3 zero pairs in order to do the computation?

Helping You Remember


8. Work with a partner. Look at Your Turn toward the bottom of page 301. Change the three addition problems to subtraction problems. Solve the problems. Compare your answers with those of your partner.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Windchill Temperatures
When you go outside on a windy day, it usually feels much colder than the actual temperature on the thermometer. This happens because the wind causes you to lose more heat from the surface of your skin than you would lose if the air were still. The temperature you feel is called the windchill temperature. The table below lists some of the windchill temperatures that have been calculated by the National Weather Service. Windchill Temperatures (degrees Fahrenheit) Wind Speed (miles per hour) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Actual Temperature 20 13 9 6 4 3 1 0 1 2 15 7 3 0 2 4 5 7 8 9 10 1 4 7 9 11 12 14 15 16 5 5 10 13 15 17 19 21 22 23 0 11 16 19 22 24 26 27 29 30 5 16 22 26 29 31 33 34 36 37 10 22 28 32 35 37 39 41 43 44 15 28 35 39 42 44 46 48 50 51 20 34 41 45 48 51 53 55 57 58

Use the table above to answer each question. 1. If the wind speed is 10 miles per hour and the actual temperature is 0F, what is the windchill temperature? 2. Suppose that the actual temperature is 5F and the wind speed is 15 miles per hour. How much colder than 5F does it feel?

3. The wind speed remains constant at 10 miles per hour, but the actual temperature rises from 5 to 20F. 4. The actual temperature remains constant at 10F, but the wind speed increases from 5 miles per hour to 35 miles per hour. Estimate the windchill temperature in each situation. 5. The actual temperature is 8F and the wind speed is 22 miles per hour. 6. The actual temperature is 10F and the wind speed is 55 miles per hour.
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

397

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 83

Describe the change in the windchill temperature.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Multiplying Integers
The product of two integers with different signs is negative. The product of two integers with the same sign is positive.

Multiply. 2 (1) 2 (1) 2 4 3 4 3 12 35 3 5 15 2 (4) 2 (4) 8


The integers have the same sign. The product is positive. The integers have the same sign. The product is positive. The integers have different signs. The product is negative. The integers have different signs. The product is negative.

Multiply. 1. 3 (3) 2. 5 (2) 3. 8 (1)

4. 2 8

5. 4 3

6. 3 (2)

7. 5 (4)

8. 10 (4)

9. 3 6

10. 3 (10)

11. 6 (4)

12. 7 (7)

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

398

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Multiplying Integers
Multiply. 1. 6 (4) 2. 8 7 3. 2 (9)

4. 5(5)

5. 5(3)

6. 4(8)

7. 9(2)

8. 5(6)

9. 3(10)

10. 4(2)

11. 4(4)

12. 9(6)

13. 7(3)

14. 2(8)

15. 5(10)

16. 2(1)

17. 3(6)

18. 4(5)

19. 7(7)

20. 2(7)

21. 6(1)

22. 4(3)

23. 6(5)

24. 9(10)

25. 3(8)

26. 7(5)

27. 2(2)

28. 8(8)

29. 9(1)

30. 7(4)

31. 7(6)

32. 5(12)

33. 4(8)

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

399

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 84

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Multiplying Integers
1. BASKETBALL A basketball player who makes a basket scores 2 points for her team. Tanya made 9 baskets in the game. Write a number sentence to show many points she scored for her team. 2. HEALTH Jim was recovering in the shade from a walk in the hot desert. His temperature dropped 2F each hour for 2 hours. What was the total change in his temperature?

3. WEATHER The outside temperature is 3F and falling at a rate of 2 degrees per hour. What will the temperature be in 5 hours?

4. POPULATION A small town is losing residents at a rate of 24 residents per year. If this pattern continues for 5 years, what will be the change in relation to the original population?

5. SCIENCE A pebble falls into a pond. From the surface, it descends at a rate of 2 feet per second. Where is the pebble in relation to the surface of the pond after 5 seconds?

6. CONSTRUCTION A construction company is starting to excavate a hole for a new underground parking garage. If the company excavates 3 feet every hour for 4 hours, what will be the depth of the hole in relation to the surface?

7. WEATHER The outside temperature is 20F and rising at a rate of 5 degrees per hour. How long will it be before the temperature reaches 0F?

8. SCIENCE For each kilometer above Earths surface, the temperature decreases 7C. If the temperature at Earths surface is 8, what will be the temperature 7 kilometers above the surface?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

400

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Multiplying Integers
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 310 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Use counters to find 4 (3) and 5 (2).

2. Make a conjecture as to the sign of the product of a positive and negative integer.

Reading the Lesson


3. How does the Mini Lab show that 3 2 6?

4. How does the Mini Lab show that 3 (2) 6?

5. In Examples 1 and 2 on page 311, how do you know that the products should be negative?

6. In Examples 3 and 4 on page 311, how do you know that the products should be positive?

Helping You Remember


7. Look at Example 5 on page 311. Imagine that all you see is the statement of the problem. From the problem, what words indicate that the pattern will start at 0 and progress in the negative direction? How could the problem be reworded to indicate a progression in the positive direction?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

401

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 84

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Integer Patterns
Many number patterns involve integers. When you work with patterns like these, you need to pay special attention to the sign of each number in the pattern. Here are two examples. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64,
Multiply by 2.

(2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) 1, 2 3, 3 0, 2 2, 1, 3 2 1, 2, 3


Add 2, subtract 3, add 2, and so on.

Write the next five numbers in each pattern shown above. 1. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 2. 1, 3, 0, 2, 1, 1, 2, , , , , , , , ,

For each set of numbers, identify the pattern. Then write the next three numbers in the pattern. 3. 1, 3, 9, 27, 81, 4. 5, 1, 7, 13, 19, 5. 11, 8, 5, 2, 1, , , , , , , , ,

6. 2, 10, 50, 250, 1,250, 7. 12, 7, 8, 3, 4, , , , , , , , ,

8. 15, 10, 12, 7, 9, 9. 7, 7, 2, 2, 7, 10. 3, 6, 2, 4, 12, 11. 4, 8, 6, 12, 14, 28, 12. CHALLENGE 1, 2, 0, 3, 1, ,

, ,

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

402

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Dividing Integers
The quotient of two integers with the same sign is positive.

Use counters to find 6 2.

There are 2 groups of 3 negative counters each.

So, 6 2 3. Divide. 10 (5) Since 5 (2) 10, it follows that 10 (5) 2. 12 (3) Since 3 4 12, it follows that 12 (3) 4.

Divide. 1. 4 (2) 2. 9 (3) 3. 8 2

4. 21 7

5. 30 (5)

6. 24 4

7. 36 6

8. 45 (5)

9. 81 9

10. 3 (3)

11. 70 (7)

12. 64 (8)

13. ALGEBRA Find the value of a b if a 18 and b 6.

14. ALGEBRA For what value of p is p 5 = 7 true?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

403

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 85

The quotient of two integers with different signs is negative.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Dividing Integers
Divide. 1. 4 2 2. 6 (2) 3. 8 (2)

4. 3 (3)

5. 9 (3)

6. 10 5

7. 56 (7)

8. 45 9

9. 12 (6)

10. 15 (3)

11. 24 6

12. 18 (3)

13. 48 (8)

14. 40 8

15. 20 (5)

16. 36 (9)

17. 42 7

18. 54 (6)

19. 20 (10)

20. 12 4

21. 35 (5)

22. 27 9

23. 10 (2)

24. 32 (8)

25. 68 4

26. 30 (3)

27. 36 (4)

28. 16 (8)

29. 49 (7)

30. 18 2

31. ALGEBRA For what value of v is 42 v 6 true?

32. ALGEBRA Find the value of m n if m 24 and n 4.

33. ALGEBRA For what value of b is b 4 9 true?

34. ALGEBRA Find the value of x y if x 50 and y 10.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

404

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Dividing Integers
1. SKATING Judges in some figure skating competitions must give a mandatory 5-point deduction for each jump missed during the technical part of the competition. Marisa has participated in 5 competitions this year and has been given a total of 20 points for jumps missed. How many jumps did she miss? 2. SKATING Miranda is an excellent spinner who averages 3 points on her spins during competitions. Last year her total spin points equaled 21. About how many spins did she successfully complete?

3. WEATHER The temperature dropped 32F in 4 hours. Suppose the temperature dropped by an equal amount each hour. What integer describes the change?

4. SKATING Dans scores for speed this season are 1, 3, 1, 1, 2, 0. What is his average speed score for the season? (Hint: The average is the sum of the points divided by the number of scores.)

5. FOOTBALL A football team was penalized 30 points in 3 plays. Suppose the team was penalized an equal number of yards on each play. Write an integer that gives the yards for each penalty.

6. BASKETBALL A team scored a total of 27 points for three-point field goals in the season. How many 3-point field goals did they make?

7. TRACK Anna and Sara both ran 5 laps of a race. When Anna finished, Sara was 15 meters behind Anna. Suppose Sara fell behind the same number of meters during each lap. Write an integer that describes how far Sara fell behind in each lap.

8. BAKING Maria was penalized a total of 12 points in 6 baking contests for not starting on time. Suppose she was penalized an equal number of points at each competition. Write an integer that describes the penalty during each contest.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

405

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 85

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Dividing Integers
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 316 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Explain how you would model 9 3.

2. What would you do differently to model 8 2?

Reading the Lesson


3. What is the definition of division?

4. Write in words what 10 5 means.

5. Write in words what 10 2 means.

6. How do the rules for determining signs of quotients compare with the rules for determining the signs of products?

7. Look at Example 6 on page 317. Which words tell you that the answer will be a negative number?

Helping You Remember


8. Work with a partner. Make two models that show integers divided into equal groups. Give the models to your partner and have your partner write the division expression for each model.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

406

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Lesson 85

Four Negative Fours


Do you think it is possible to use four negative fours to create an expression whose value is 1? Here are two ways to do it.
4 (4) (4) 4 4 (4) 4 (4)

1 (4) 4 1 8 or 1
8

Remember that the fraction bar is a symbol for division.

On this page, you will be challenged to work backward. Instead of finding the value of a given expression, you will be asked to find an expression for a given value. In creating these expressions, you may use addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division in any combinationjust be sure to follow the order of operations. You may also use parentheses and fraction bars to group numbers. Create an expression for each value by using two negative fours. 1. 0 2. 1

3. 16

4. 8

Create an expression for each value by using three negative fours. 5. 3 6. 5

7. 2

8. 4

9. 0

10. 4

Create an expression for each value by using four negative fours. 11. 2 12. 0

13. 3

14. 2

15. 8

16. 5

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

407

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


The Coordinate Plane
A coordinate system is a grid used to locate points. The horizontal number line is the x-axis; the vertical number line is the y-axis. The x-axis and y-axis separate the coordinate system into four regions called quadrants. An ordered pair helps you locate any point on the coordinate plane. The first number is the x-coordinate. The second number is the y-coordinate.
Quadrant II Quadrant I

Identify the ordered pair that names point A. Step 1 Move left on the x-axis to find the x-coordinate of point A, which is 3. Step 2 Move up the y-axis to find the y-coordinate, which is 4. Point A is named by (3, 4). Graph point B at (5, 4).

y 4 3 2 1
O 2 3 4

432

1 2 3 4x

Quadrant III

Quadrant IV

Use the coordinate plane shown above. Start at 0. The x-coordinate is 5, so move 5 units to the right. Since the y-coordinate is 4, move 4 units up. Draw a dot. Label the dot B. See grid at the top of the page.

Use the coordinate plane at the right. Write the ordered pair that names each point. 1. C 3. E 5. G 7. I 2. D 4. F 6. H 8. J
G

A J
432

y 4 3 2 1
O 2 3 4

B H D E I

1 2 3 4x

Graph and label each point using the coordinate plane at the right. 9. A(5, 5) 11. G(0, 5) 13. N(4, 3) 10. M(2, 4) 12. D(3, 0) 14. I(2, 3)
432

4 3 2 1 O 2 3 4

1 2 3 4x

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

408

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
The Coordinate Plane
For Exercises 18, use the coordinate plane at the right. Identify the point for each ordered pair. 1. (2, 4) 3. (4, 4) 5. (3, 5) 7. (1, 3) 2. (2, 3) 4. (3, 5) 6. (4, 1) 8. (4, 2)
N
432

Q S Y

y 4 3 2K 1
O 2 3 4

U R

1 2 3 4x

Z L

T O

X P V M

For Exercises 916, use the coordinate plane above. Write the ordered pair that names each point. Then identify the quadrant where each point is located. 9. K 11. M 13. O 15. Q 10. L 12. N 14. P 16. R
y

Graph and label each point on the coordinate plane at the right. 17. A(5, 2) 19. J(1, 3) 21. C(3, 3) 23. L(0, 1) 25. E(3, 2) 27. N(1, 5) 29. G(1, 4) 18. I(2, 1)
432

4 3 2 1 O 2 3 4

20. B(5, 1) 22. K(1, 2) 24. D(2, 5) 26. M(4, 5) 28. F(2, 5) 30. O(5, 5)

1 2 3 4x

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

409

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 86

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


The Coordinate Plane
MONEY For Exercises 14, use the table and the coordinate plane.

School buttons sell for $2 each. When you have completed the table and the graph, both the table and graph will show the costs of purchasing up to 5 school buttons. Number of Buttons Sold 1 2 3 4 5 Price ($)
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 O origin

y-axis

x-axis 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1. Now complete the second column of the table by writing the cost of each number of buttons.

2. To prepare to graph the data, make a list of ordered pairs from the table.

3. Graph the ordered pairs. Label each point with its ordered pair. Describe the graph of the points.

4. Describe the coordinate plane that you have completed. How is it different from other systems you have used?

5. TRACK If it takes Trixie 8 minutes to run a mile, then 8m represents her total time where m is the number of miles she has run. List the ordered pairs (number of miles, total time) for 0, 1, 2, and 3 miles.

6. TRACK If you were to graph the ordered pairs from Exercise 5, what would their graph look like?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

410

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


The Coordinate Plane
Pre-Activity Complete the activity at the top of page 320 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Use a letter and a number to identify where on the map Autumn Court meets Timberview Drive. 2. Location G2 is closest to the end of which street?

Reading the Lesson


4. An ordered pair is a pair that has been arranged in a certain order. In this lesson, what are the elements of an ordered pair and what do they identify?

5. In what order are the elements of an ordered pair arranged?

6. Why is it important to know the order of the numbers in an ordered pair?

7. Describe how to locate the point (5, 3) on a coordinate grid.

8. In which quadrant is the point (5, 3)?

Helping You Remember


9. Work with a partner. Draw a coordinate system that can be used to locate objects in your classroom. Have one person say the ordered pair of a location and the other say what object is located at that point.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

411

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 86

3. Write a sentence that explains how to locate a specific place on the map shown.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Creative Coordinates
Graph each set of points on the coordinate grid below. Then use line segments to connect the points in order from left to right. 1. (2, 5); (0, 7); (2, 9); (5, 7); (5, 4); (2, 5); (1, 4); (3, 1); (7, 5); (1, 5); (2, 5); (3, 8); (6, 6); (5, 3); (1, 2); (2, 5); (2, 3); (1, 5);
y

(2, 6); (1, 8); (2, 5); (5, 5); (4, 2); (0, 2); (2, 3); (1, 5); (3, 8)

(1, 7); 2. (1, 6); (1, 9); (3, 6); (4, 7); (2, 0); (2, 5); (4, 6); (3, 2); (9, 7); (1, 3); (7, 7); (0, 0); (4, 3); (5, 4); (4, 2); (2, 8);
y

(1, 6); (4, 5); (3, 1); (2, 8); (11, 4); (3, 7); (3, 1); (4, 5); (1, 6)

(2, 8); (4, 2); (4, 3); (7, 8); (9, 5); (4, 6); (2, 0); (3, 6);

8 6 4 2
O

8 6 4 2 2 4x 4 2 2 4 6 8 10
x

2 2 4 6 8

2 4 6 8

3. In the figure for Exercise 2, draw a line segment connecting each of the following pairs of points. a. (2, 2) and (5, 1) b. (2, 2) and (5, 1) c. (5, 3) and (2, 2) e. (2, 2) and (6, 2) d. (5, 3) and (2, 2) f. (6, 2) and (2, 2)

4. On a sheet of graph paper, create your own figure. Then record the coordinates of the points that form the figure.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Chapter Chapter 9 9 Resource Resource Masters Masters

Course 1 1 Course

Consumable Workbooks
Many of the worksheets contained in the Chapter Resource Masters booklets are available as consumable workbooks in both English and Spanish. Study Guide and Intervention Workbook Study Guide and Intervention Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Skills Workbook Practice: Skills Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Word Problems Workbook Practice: Word Problems Workbook (Spanish) Reading to Learn Mathematics Workbook 0-07-860085-5 0-07-860091-X 0-07-860086-3 0-07-860092-8 0-07-860087-1 0-07-860093-6 0-07-861057-5

Answers for Workbooks The answers for Chapter 9 of these


workbooks can be found in the back of this Chapter Resource Masters booklet.

Spanish Assessment Masters Spanish versions of forms 2A and 2C of


the Chapter 9 Test are available in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts Spanish Assessment Masters, Course 1 (0-07-860095-2).

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teacher, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1 Chapter 9 Resource Masters 024 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03

ISBN: 0-07-860072-3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

CONTENTS
Vocabulary Builder .............................vii Family Letter ............................................ix Family Activity ........................................x Lesson 9-1
Study Guide and Intervention ........................433 Practice: Skills ................................................434 Practice: Word Problems................................435 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................436 Enrichment .....................................................437

Lesson 9-6
Study Guide and Intervention ........................458 Practice: Skills ................................................459 Practice: Word Problems................................460 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................461 Enrichment .....................................................462

Lesson 9-7
Study Guide and Intervention ........................463 Practice: Skills ................................................464 Practice: Word Problems................................465 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................466 Enrichment .....................................................467

Lesson 9-2
Study Guide and Intervention ........................438 Practice: Skills ................................................439 Practice: Word Problems................................440 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................441 Enrichment .....................................................442

Chapter 9 Assessment
Chapter 9 Test, Form 1 ..........................469470 Chapter 9 Test, Form 2A ........................471472 Chapter 9 Test, Form 2B ........................473474 Chapter 9 Test, Form 2C........................475476 Chapter 9 Test, Form 2D........................477478 Chapter 9 Test, Form 3 ..........................479480 Chapter 9 Extended Response Assessment .481 Chapter 9 Vocabulary Test/Review.................482 Chapter 9 Quizzes 1 & 2................................483 Chapter 9 Quizzes 3 & 4................................484 Chapter 9 Mid-Chapter Test ...........................485 Chapter 9 Cumulative Review........................486 Chapter 9 Standardized Test Practice....487488 Unit 4 Test/Review..................................489490 Standardized Test Practice Student Recording Sheet ..............................A1 Standardized Test Practice Rubric...................A2 ANSWERS .............................................A3A31

Lesson 9-3
Study Guide and Intervention ........................443 Practice: Skills ................................................444 Practice: Word Problems................................445 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................446 Enrichment .....................................................447

Lesson 9-4
Study Guide and Intervention ........................448 Practice: Skills ................................................449 Practice: Word Problems................................450 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................451 Enrichment .....................................................452

Lesson 9-5
Study Guide and Intervention ........................453 Practice: Skills ................................................454 Practice: Word Problems................................455 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................456 Enrichment .....................................................457

iii

Teachers Guide to Using the Chapter 9 Resource Masters


The Fast File Chapter Resource system allows you to conveniently file the resources you use most often. The Chapter 9 Resource Masters includes the core materials needed for Chapter 9. These materials include worksheets, extensions, and assessment options. The answers for these pages appear at the back of this booklet. All of the materials found in this booklet are included for viewing and printing in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1, TeacherWorks CD-ROM.

Vocabulary Builder Pages vii-viii include a student study tool that presents up to twenty of the key vocabulary terms from the chapter. Students are to record definitions and/or examples for each term. You may suggest that students highlight or star the terms with which they are not familiar.
When to Use Give these pages to students before beginning Lesson 9-1. Encourage them to add these pages to their mathematics study notebook. Remind them to add definitions and examples as they complete each lesson.

Practice: Skills

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice that more closely follows the structure of the Practice and Applications section of the Student Edition exercises. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Practice: Word Problems

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice in solving word problems that apply the concepts of the lesson. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Family Letter and Family Activity


Page ix is a letter to inform your students families of the requirements of the chapter. The family activity on page x helps them understand how the mathematics students are learning is applicable to real life. When to Use Give these pages to students to take home before beginning the chapter.

Study Guide and Intervention


There is one Study Guide and Intervention master for each lesson in Chapter 9. When to Use Use these masters as reteaching activities for students who need additional reinforcement. These pages can also be used in conjunction with the Student Edition as an instructional tool for students who have been absent.

Reading to Learn Mathematics One master is included for each lesson. The first section of each master asks questions about the opening paragraph of the lesson in the Student Edition. Additional questions ask students to interpret the context of and relationships among terms in the lesson. Finally, students are asked to summarize what they have learned using various representation techniques.
When to Use This master can be used as a study tool when presenting the lesson or as an informal reading assessment after presenting the lesson. It is also a helpful tool for ELL (English Language Learner) students.

iv

There is one extension master for each lesson. These activities may extend the concepts in the lesson, offer an historical or multicultural look at the concepts, or widen students perspectives on the mathematics they are learning. These are not written exclusively for honors students, but are accessible for use with all levels of students. When to Use These may be used as extra credit, short-term projects, or as activities for days when class periods are shortened.

Enrichment

A Vocabulary Test, suitable for all students, includes a list of the vocabulary words in the chapter and ten questions assessing students knowledge of those terms. This can also be used in conjunction with one of the chapter tests or as a review worksheet.

Intermediate Assessment
Four free-response quizzes are included to offer assessment at appropriate intervals in the chapter. A Mid-Chapter Test provides an option to assess the first half of the chapter. It is composed of both multiple-choice and freeresponse questions.

Assessment Options
The assessment masters in the Chapter 9 Resources Masters offer a wide range of assessment tools for intermediate and final assessment. The following lists describe each assessment master and its intended use.

Continuing Assessment
The Cumulative Review provides students an opportunity to reinforce and retain skills as they proceed through their study of Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. It can also be used as a test. This master includes free-response questions. The Standardized Test Practice offers continuing review of pre-algebra concepts in various formats, which may appear on the standardized tests that they may encounter. This practice includes multiplechoice, short response, grid-in, and extended response questions. Bubble-in and grid-in answer sections are provided on the master.

Chapter Assessment
Chapter Tests Form 1 contains multiple-choice questions and is intended for use with basic level students. Forms 2A and 2B contain multiple-choice questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Forms 2C and 2D are composed of freeresponse questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Grids with axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. Form 3 is an advanced level test with free-response questions. Grids without axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. All of the above tests include a free-response Bonus question. The Extended-Response Assessment includes performance assessment tasks that are suitable for all students. A scoring rubric is included for evaluation guidelines. Sample answers are provided for assessment.

Answers
Page A1 is an answer sheet for the Standardized Test Practice questions that appear in the Student Edition on pages 374375. This improves students familiarity with the answer formats they may encounter in test taking. Detailed rubrics for assessing the extended response questions on page 375 are provided on page A2. The answers for the lesson-by-lesson masters are provided as reduced pages with answers appearing in red. Full-size answer keys are provided for the assessment masters in this booklet.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
This is an alphabetical list of new vocabulary terms you will learn in Chapter 9. As you study the chapter, complete each terms definition or description. Remember to add the page number where you found the term. Add this page to your math study notebook to review vocabulary at the end of the chapter. Vocabulary Term Addition Property of Equality Found on Page Definition/Description/Example
Vocabulary Builder

Additive Identity

Associative [uh-SOH-shee-AY-tihv] Property

coefficient

Commutative [kuh-MYOO-tuh-tihv] Property

Distributive [dih-STRIH-byuh-tihv] Property

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

vii

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
Vocabulary Term function Found on Page

(continued)
Definition/Description/Example

function rule

function table

inverse operations

Multiplicative Identity

Subtraction Property of Equality

two-step equation

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

viii

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Letter

Dear Parent or Guardian: t the day without knowing We may solve equations throughou how much more money we it. We solve equations to determine ch time we need to finish need to purchase an item or how mu to make these decisions our work. The thought process we use equations. is the same process we use to solve uations, your child will In Chapter 9, Algebra: Solving Eq n, and division to solve use addition, subtraction, multiplicatio solve two-step equations equations. Students will also learn to study of this chapter, your and how to graph functions. In the classroom assignments and child will complete a variety of daily pter project . activities and possibly produce a cha it with your child, you By signing this letter and returning ting involved. Enclosed is agree to encourage your child by get ld that also relates the an activity you can do with your chi 9 to the real world. You math we will be learning in Chapter line Study Tools for selfmay also wish to log on to the On dy Guide pages, and check quizzes, Parent and Student Stu et. If you have any quesother study help at www.msmath1.n t me at school. tions or comments, feel free to contac Sincerely,

Signature of Parent or Guardian ______________________________________ Date ________

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ix

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Family Letter

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Activity
Using Patterns
Watch the news on television, consult the weather section of a newspaper, or visit a weather-related website. Then work with a family member to collect the high and low temperatures for at least nine cities. Write and solve an equation to find how much warmer the high temperature is than the low temperature.

City

Low Temperature

High Temperature

Equation

Solution

1. Austin

72

91

72 t 91

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

1. The high temperature was 19 warmer.


Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

210. Answers will vary

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Properties
The Distributive Property To multiply a sum by a number, multiply each addend of the sum by the number outside the parentheses. 2(3 4) 2 3 2 4 (4 5)2 4 2 5 2 Commutative Properties of Addition and Multiplication The order in which numbers are added or multiplied does not change the sum or product. 2332 4554 Associative Properties of Addition and Multiplication The way in which numbers are grouped when added or multiplied does not change the sum or product. (2 3) 4 2 (3 4) (5 6) 2 5 (6 2) Additive Identity The sum of any number and 0 is the number. a0a 505 Multiplicative Identity The product of any number and 1 is the number. 717 1nn

You can use the Distributive, Commutative, and Associative Properties to make your calculations easier to do mentally.

Find 5 32 mentally using the Distributive Property. 5 32 5(30 2) 5(30) 5(2) 150 10 160
Write 32 as 30 2. Distributive Property Multiply 5 and 30 mentally. Multiply 5 and 2 mentally. Add 150 and 10 mentally.

So, 5 32 160. Find 12 27 18 mentally. You can add 12 and 18. So, change the order of the numbers to be added. 12 27 18 12 18 27 Commutative Property Now group the numbers using the Associative Property. The parentheses tell you what to do first. 12 18 27 (12 18) 27 Associative Property 30 27 Add 12 and 18 mentally. 57 Add 30 and 27 mentally.

Find each product mentally. Use the Distributive Property. 1. 5 42 2. 2 55 3. 3 84

Rewrite each expression using the Distributive Property. Then evaluate the expression. 4. 2(10 3) 5. (30 4)5 6. 11(10 2)

Find each sum or product mentally. 7. 55 16 5


Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

8. 17 21 13

9. 5 18 2
Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

433

Lesson 91

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Properties
Find each product mentally. Use the Distributive Property. 1. 5 15 4. 6 51 7. 20 1.7 2. 7 12 5. 3 81 8. 11 2.1 3. 4 24 6. 2 72 9. 15 3.4

Rewrite each expression using the Distributive Property. Then evaluate. 10. 5(20 8) 12. (30 5)6 14. 11(20 5) 16. (10 50) (10 9) 11. 3(50 8) 13. (40 5)6 15. 13(30 4) 17. (12 40) (12 2)

Identify the property shown by each equation. 18. 7 8 8 7 20. 14 27 16 14 16 27 22. (7 2) 4 7 (2 4) 24. 0 11 11 26. 15(5 7) 15 5 15 7 Find each sum or product mentally. 28. 5 19 2 31. 15 17 15 34. 25 26 15
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

19. 4 5 5 4 21. 9 1 = 9 23. 2 3 4 2 4 3 25. (6 4) 2 2 (6 4) 27. 5 (15 9) (15 9) 5

29. 12 14 8 32. 4 27 25 35. 25 6 2

30. 5 23 20 33. 14 37 26 36. 13 6 17


Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

434

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Properties
1. HOMEWORK Jacy spends half an hour every night studying math and an hour every night studying science. Over five days, how much time does Jacy spend on his homework? Write two expressions you can use to find the answer. Then answer the question. 2. COMPUTER GAMES In Carlotas computer game, she goes up one level every time she earns 210 points. Carlota has just gone up a level for the eighth time. Use the Distributive Property to calculate mentally how many points Carlota has.

5. SPORTS CARS Every day for 11 days, Tylia saw 23 sports cars pass her bedroom window. Write a numerical expression to describe how many sports cars she saw in all. Rewrite the expression using the Distributive Property so that you can mentally calculate how many sports cars she saw.

6. MARBLES Devon has 16 blue marbles, 22 green marbles, and 14 red marbles in a bag. Write a numerical expression to describe the total number of marbles in the bag in the order given in the problem. Then rewrite the expression to make it easier to mentally calculate how many marbles are in the bag.

7. BOWLING It costs $5.75 per person for one game of bowling and $2.25 to rent one pair of shoes. What does it cost for five friends to go bowling? Write two different numerical expressions to describe the cost for five friends. Then use one to calculate the total cost for five friends.

8. GIFTS Ms. Bautista made 22 gift baskets for her students. Each basket had 5 apples and 3 oranges. How many pieces of fruit did Ms. Bautista use?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

435

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 91

3. ENROLLMENT The sixth grade class at Parkview Middle School has 25 blondes, 18 redheads, and 25 brunettes. Use mental math to figure out how many students are in the sixth grade.

4. GYM CLASS In gym class, students were put into groups. Each group had 4 boys and 3 girls. If 7 groups were formed, how many students were in the class?

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Properties
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 333 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Complete the table at the right. a. b. c. multiplication expression 58 5 40 5 48 product multiplication expression 6 12 6 200 6 212 product

2. What do you notice about each set of expressions?

3. How does each product in row c compare to the sum of the products in rows a and b?

Reading the Lesson


4. Complete the table below by naming and describing the property shown by each example. Examples 5(7 8) 5 7 5 8 25 7 5 25 5 7 5 36 2 5 2 36 (16 15) 4 16 (15 4) (4 13) 3 4 (13 3) 12 0 12 17 1 17 Properties

Distributive Property; to multiply a sum by a number, multiply each addend of the sum by the number outside the parentheses. Commutative Property; the order in which numbers are added or multiplied does not affect the sum or product. Associative Property; the way in which numbers are grouped when added or multiplied does not affect the sum or product. Identity Property; the sum of any number and 0 is the number. The product of any number and 1 is the number.

5. In this lesson, how are the properties used?

Helping You Remember


6. Look up in a dictionary the words distribute, commute, identity, and association. Choose a meaning for each that will help you remember the meanings of Distributive Property, Addititive Identity, Multiplicative Identity, Commutative Property, and Associative Property. Write phrases or sentences or draw pictures that will help you remember.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

436

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Modeling Properties
Just as you can model numbers, you can also model operations. For example, here is a model of the operations in the Distributive Property.

32

35

3(2 5)

Write a Distributive Property statement for each model. 1.

2.

Make a model for each statement. 3. 2 4 2 5 2(4 5) 4. 6(1 4) 6 1 6 4

Write a statement for each model using one of the properties of equality. 5. 6.

7.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

437

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 91

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Solving Addition Equations
Subtraction Property of Equality If you subtract the same number from each side of an equation, the two sides remain equal. 5 5 3 3 2 2

Solve x 2 7 using models.


Model the equation.

x2

72

Remove 2 counters from each side of the mat.

x22

The counters remaining on the right side of the mat represent the solution or value of x.

The solution is 5. 5 2 7  5 substituted in the original equation is correct. Solve b 3 2. b3 2 3 3 b 0 1 b 1 Check


Write the equation. Subtract 3 from each side to undo the addition of 3 on the left. Simplify.

The solution is 1. b32 1 3 2 22 


Write the original equation. Replace b with 1. This sentence is true.

Solve each equation. Use models if necessary. Check your solution. 1. a 1 7 4. 9 x 4 2. 3 b 8 5. g 8 2 3. c 7 4 6. d 6 5

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

438

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Solving Addition Equations
Solve each equation. Use models if necessary. Check your solution. 1. x 8 10 2. y 3 7

3. z 4 6

4. 1 a 9

5. b 2 4

6. 5 c 1

7. g 5 2

8. 6 h 3

9. k 7 5

10. 8 m 2

11. 5 2 n

12. 4 s 1

13. 6 z 4

14. b 6 7

15. 7 g 4

16. n 6 4

17. s 5 9

18. 4 x 3

19. 5 1 k

20. 8 c 3

21. 9 m 5

22. 2 7 a

23. h 3 3

24. 5 y 4

25. Find the value of r if r 7 2.

26. If z 5 1, what is the value of z?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

439

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 92

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Solving Addition Equations
1. BIRTHDAYS Albertos birthday is 7 days after Coreys birthday. Albertos birthday is on the 9th. Write and solve an equation to find the day of Coreys birthday. 2. AGE Megan and Jason are brother and sister. Jason is 4 years older than Megan. If Jason is 16 years old, write and solve an equation to find Megans age.

3. PAPER AIRPLANES Rebecca and Ricardo are both testing their paper airplanes. Rebeccas plane flew 6 feet further than Ricardos plane. If Rebeccas plane flew 10 feet, write and solve an equation to find how far Ricardos plane flew.

4. BASEBALL CARDS Ren and Chet have just started collecting baseball cards. Ren has 13 more baseball cards than Chet. Ren has 27 cards. Write and solve an equation to find how many baseball cards Chet has.

5. SKATING Susan and Ruby went skating. Ruby skated 30 minutes longer than Susan. If Ruby skated for 45 minutes, write and solve an equation to find how long Susan skated.

6. STUNT FLYER A stunt airplane is flying at 150 feet. It ascends to 325 feet. Write and solve an equation to find the change in altitude of the airplane.

7. SAVINGS Oscar is saving money to buy a jacket that costs $47. He has already saved $25. Write and solve an equation to find how much more money Oscar needs to save.

8. RECYCLING Bonnie has 27 more cans than Jackie. If she has 56 cans, write and solve an equation to find how many cans Jackie has.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

440

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Solving Addition Equations
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 339 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Write an expression to represent 3 more inches of rain.

2. Write an addition equation you could use to find the rainfall before the additional 3 inches.

3. You could solve the addition equation by counting back on the number line. What operation does counting back suggest?

Reading the Lesson


For Exercises 47, look at Example 2 at the top of page 340. 4. What is the inverse operation and why is it used?

6. What is the additive identity (Identity Property of Addition) and how is it used in the solution?

7. What does the checkmark at the end of the example indicate?

Helping You Remember


8. In your own words, describe what inverse means. Discuss your idea with a partner. How does the concept of inverse operations compare to your understanding of inverse?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

441

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 92

5. How is the Subtraction Property of Equality used in the solution?

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Try This Balancing Act!
Do you think you can choose four of these numbers and place them on the balance scale at the right so that the two sums are equal? 32, 43, 44, 54, 55 Experiment. Put 32 and 43 on the left part of the scale. The sum is 75. Now try to pick two of the remaining numbers to make a sum of 75. Each pair of numbers you pick will total more than 75. You have to start over again. This time put 43 and 44 on the left part of the scale. The sum is 87. Put 32 and 55 on the right part of the scale. That sum is also 87. You succeeded on the second try! 43 44 87 32 55 87

Choose two numbers for the left part of the scale and two numbers for the right part so that the two sums are equal. 1. 12, 19, 36, 43 2. 42, 44, 63, 65

3. 12, 28, 51, 54, 67

4. 96, 101, 108, 112, 113

5. Balance the four parts of the scale at the right by choosing two of the numbers for each part of the scale. 4, 12, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 28

12, 20 4, 28 13, 19

15, 17

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

442

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Solving Subtraction Equations
Addition Property of Equality If you add the same number to each side of an equation, the two sides remain equal. 5 5 3 3 8 8

Solve x 2 1 using models.


Model the equation. 1

x2

12 3

Add 2 positive counters to each side of the mat.

x22

Remove the zero pairs.

The solution is 3. Solve b 3 5. b 3 2 3 3 b 0 2 b 2 Check


Write the equation. Add 3 from each side to undo the addition of 3 on the left. Simplify.

Solve each equation. Use models if necessary. Check your solution. 1. a 2 3 4. 2 x 4 7. 9 w 1 10. u 3 4 2. b 1 7 5. z 6 3 8. v 8 5 11. 2 t 9 3. c 4 4 6. g 3 4 9. 7 y 5 12. f 6 3

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

443

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 93

b 3 5 2 3 5 5 5 

Write the original equation. Replace b with 2. This sentence is true.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Solving Subtraction Equations
Solve each equation. Use models if necessary. Check your solution. 1. a 1 7 2. b 2 1

3. 3 c 1

4. x 3 1

5. 3 y 4

6. 2 k 4

7. m 5 6

8. n 6 9

9. 10 s 8

10. t 9 1

11. v 9 5

12. 6 v 7

13. 3 g 6

14. 3 h 8

15. 5 z 7

16. z 3 7

17. 5 f 1

18. 1 d 2

19. e 9 6

20. 1 t 8

21. i 5 4

22. g 4 1

23. 3 x 2

24. y 4 7

25. If r 7 7, what is the value of r?

26. Find the value of b if b 2 5.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

444

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Solving Subtraction Equations
1. BIRDS A house cat, Sophie, scared away 5 birds when she arrived on the porch. If 3 birds remain, write and solve an equation to find how many birds were on the porch before Sophie arrived. 2. APPLES David brought apples to school one day. After giving one to each of his 5 closest friends, David had 6 apples left. Write and solve an equation to find how many apples David brought to school.

3. BASKETBALL The basketball team is practicing after school. Four students have to leave early. If 12 basketball players remain, write and solve an equation to find how many students are on the basketball team.

4. MARBLES Virginias mother gave her marbles for her birthday. Virginia lost 13 of them. If she has 24 marbles left, write and solve an equation to find how many her mother gave her.

5. MONEY Claudio went for a walk. While he was walking, $1.35 fell out of his pocket. When he returned home, he counted his money and had $2.55 left. Write and solve an equation to find how much money was in Claudios pocket when he started his walk.

6. HANG GLIDING Aida was hang gliding. After losing 35 feet in altitude, she was gliding at 125 feet. Write and solve an equation to find her height when she started hang gliding.

7. SHARKS The average great hammerhead shark is 11.5 feet long. The average great hammerhead shark is 13.5 feet shorter than the average whale shark. Write and solve an equation to find the length of the average whale shark.

8. JOKES At a party, Tex told 17 fewer knock-knock jokes than he did riddles. If he told 23 knock-knock jokes, write and solve an equation to find how many riddles Tex told at the party.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

445

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 93

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Solving Subtraction Equations
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 344 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Let h represent Lucas height. Write an expression for 5 inches shorter than Lucas. 2. Write an equation for 5 inches shorter than Lucas is equal to 59 inches.

3. You could find Lucass height by counting forward. What operation does counting forward suggest? 4. How tall is Lucas?

Reading the Lesson


5. In modeling a subtraction equation, how and why are zero pairs used?

For Exercises 6 and 7, look at Example 2 on page 345. 6. What is the inverse operation and why is it used?

7. How is the Addition Property of Equality used in the solution?

8. In the equation y 4 10, how could you get the variable alone on one side of the equation?

Helping You Remember


9. Work with a partner. Pretend your partner missed this lesson on subtraction equations. Make up a subtraction equation and solve it for your partner on a piece of paper. Show each step and explain how an inverse operation, the Addition Property of Equality, and the Additive Identity are used.
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

446

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Clock Arithmetic
Did you realize that, when you work with elapsed time, you use a special kind of arithmetic that is called clock arithmetic? In clock arithmetic, you use the symbols for addition and for subtraction. Here are two examples.
11 12 1 2 10 9 3 8 7 6 5 4 11 12 1 2 10 9 3 8 7 6 5 4

8 oclock plus 5 hours is 1 oclock. 851 1. 11 3 5. 2 12 2. 7 9 6. 2 12

4 oclock minus 7 hours is 9 oclock. 479 3. 3 10 7. 4 6 4. 7 8 8. 9 4

Add or subtract using the 12-hour clock above.

To solve clock equations involving the 12-hour clock, use inverse operations. d52 d5525 d9 9. r 7 5 12. t 12 4 j 4 10 j 4 4 10 4 j2 10. x 9 11 13. n 4 3 11. b 6 7 14. y 6 1

Solve each equation using the 12-hour clock above.

Challenge In clock arithmetic, you often work with clocks that have different numbers of hours. For example, the clock shown at the right is an 8-hour clock.

7 6 5

1 2

Solve each equation using the 8-hour clock at the right. 15. m 5 2 18. c 8 6 16. z 4 7 19. w 4 8

17. p 8 1 20. k 6 3

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

447

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 93

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Solving Multiplication Equations
In a multiplication equation, the number by which a variable is multiplied is called the coefficient. In the multiplication equation, 2x 8, the coefficient is 2.

Solve 2x 6 using models.

2x

Model the equation.

6 Divide the 6 counters equally into 2 groups. There are 3 in each group.

2x 2

6 2 3

Check 2x 6 2(3) 6 66 The solution is 3.

Write the original equation. Replace x with 3. This sentence is true. 

Solve 4b 12. 4b 12
12 4b 4 4
Write the equation. Divide each side by 4 to get a single positive variable by itself. Simplify.

1b 3 b 3

Check 4b 12 4(3) 12 12 12 The solution is 3.

Write the original equation. Replace b with 3. This sentence is true. 

Solve each equation. Use models if necessary. Check your solution. 1. 5a 25 4. 2x 8 7. 18 3z 10. 24 8f
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

2. 7c 49 5. 18 9y 8. 4w 36 11. 3u 27

3. 24 6d 6. 8g 16 9. 56 7v 12. 42 6t
Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

448

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Solving Multiplication Equations
Solve each equation. Use models if necessary. Check your solution. 1. 3a 9 2. 7b 14

3. 36 9c

4. 15 5x

5. 42 6y

6. 8z 16

7. 4m 28

8. 2n 8

9. 21 7s

10. 25 5r

11. 18 6t

12. 9p 18

13. 2x 18

14. 4w 24

15. 6g 9

16. 32 2v

17. 18 3b

18. 7h 35

19. 8k 20

20. 14 4d

21. 72 9r

22. 3z 27

25. Solve the equation 9y 81.

26. What is w if 2w 16?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

449

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 94

23. 5x 35

24. 28 8y

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Solving Multiplication Equations
1. BAND SOLO Kais solo in the next school band performance is 4 times as long as Denas solo. Kais solo is 12 minutes long. Write and solve an equation to find the length of Denas solo. 2. CATS Steves tabby cat eats 5 times as often as his black cat. The tabby cat ate 10 times yesterday. Write and solve an equation to find how many times the black cat ate.

3. FOOTBALL In last nights football game, the home team earned 3 times as many points as the visiting team. They won the game with 21 points. Write and solve an equation to find how many points the visiting team had.

4. MONEY Paz has 3 times as much money in her wallet as in her pocket. There is $18 in her wallet. Write and solve an equation to find how much money is in her pocket.

5. MORNINGS It takes Jun 3 times as long as it takes Kendra to get ready in the morning. It takes Jun 45 minutes to get ready. Write and solve an equation to find how long it takes Kendra.

6. FISH In his home aquarium, Enli has 12 times as many guppies as he has goldfish. Enli just counted 72 guppies. Write and solve an equation to find how many goldfish he has.

7. MUSIC Rays favorite song is 2 times longer than Melis favorite song. Write and solve an equation to find the length of Melis favorite song if Rays lasts 6 minutes.

8. TRAILS The forest trail to Round Lake is 3 times longer than the rocky trail to Round Lake. The forest trail is 15 miles long. Write and solve an equation to find the length of the rocky trail.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

450

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Solving Multiplication Equations
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 350 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Let x the amount Kara earns each hour. Write an expression for the amount Kara earns after x hours. 2. Explain how the equation 3x = 12 represents the situation.

Reading the Lesson


3. In the equation 3x = 12, what is the coefficient?

4. In the equation 3x = 12, what is the operation? How do you know?

5. In Example 1 on page 350, why are both sides of the equation divided by 3?

6. In Example 3 on page 351, why is the equation 3.6 = 0.4?

7. Describe what is happening in each step. 3x 27


27 3x 3 3

1x 9 x 9

Helping You Remember


Lesson 94
8. Work with a partner. Explain how you use division to solve a multiplication problem. Describe an example from real life where you would use division in this way.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

451

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Patterns in Equations
On this page, you will explore patterns of change in equations. For each table: a. Describe how the equation changes from row to row. b. Complete the Solution column. c. Describe how the solution changes from row to row. 1. Equation t34 t33 t32 t31 Solution 2. Equation 3x 6 3x 3 3x 0 3x 3 Solution

3.

Equation r 3 2 r 3 1 r30 r31

Solution

4.

Equation m87 m77 m67 m57

Solution

5.

Equation
1 j 5 1 j 5 1 j 5 1 j 5

Solution

6.

Equation
1 c 4 1 c 3 1 c 2 1 c 1

Solution

1 0 1 2

1 1 1 1

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

452

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Solving Two-Step Equations
Equations that have two different operations are called two-step equations. You can work backward using the reverse of the order of operations to solve a two-step equation.

Solve 2x 4 10 using models.


10 10 4

Model the equation.

2x 4

Remove 4 counters from each side to get the variable by itself.

2x 4 4

2x x 6 3

Divide the 6 counters equally into 2 groups. There are 3 in each group.

Solve 3z 4 8. Check your solution. 3z 4 8 44 3z 12


Write the equation. Add 4 to each side. Simplify. Divide each side by 3.

z 4 Simplify. The solution is 4.

12 3z 3 3

Check 3z 4 8 3(4) 4 8 12 4 8 88 

Write the original equation. Replace z with 4. Multiply. Simplify.

Solve each equation. Use models if necessary. 1. 4m 5 9 4. 5 7 4b 2. 3n 4 2 5. 6a 5 7 3. 3 2s 5 6. 13 3c 8

7. One more than four times a number is thirteen. What is the number? 8. Three is seven less than two times a number. What is the number?
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

453

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 95

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Solving Two-Step Equations
Solve each equation. Use models if necessary. 1. 2a 4 6 2. 3b 4 10

3. 7 4c 5

4. 3x 3 6

5. 4y 2 14

6. 3 2g 5

7. 1 2f 7

8. 2 3h 8

9. 5z 1 16

10. 7m 5 9

11. 1 8n 7

12. 11 9s 7

13. 4t 7 5

14. 4v 10 6

15. 6 2x 10

16. 3w 5 7

17. 2r 5 3

18. 5 2z 9

19. Fourteen less than four times a number is six. What is the number?

20. Two is four more than twice a number. What is the number?

21. Nine less than three times a number is zero. What is the number?

22. Two is seventeen more than three times what number?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

454

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Solving Two-Step Equations
1. FIRE TRUCKS Fire Station A has one more than twice as many fire trucks as Fire Station B. If Fire Station A has three fire trucks, write and solve an equation to find how many fire trucks Fire Station B has. 2. TOY CARS Tanisha has 7 less than 4 times as many toy cars as Fernando. If Tanisha has 9 cars, write and solve an equation to find how many toy cars Fernando has.

3. ADDRESS Danielle and Erin live on the same street. Danielle lives at number 13. If Danielles house number is 5 less than 3 times Erins house number, write and solve an equation to find Erins house number.

4. BIRTHDAY CAKE Mrs. Zeng is slicing her sons birthday cake. To make sure everyone will have enough, she slices the cake so that the number of slices is 6 more than twice the number of people at the party. If she slices the cake into 20 slices, write and solve an equation to find how many people are at the party.

5. DINOSAURS The largest complete dinosaur we know of was a Brachiosaurus. It reached a length of 23 meters. Its length was one less than twice its height. Write and solve an equation to find the height of the Brachiosaurus.

6. BABY-SITTING Last week, Enrique earned $30.00 baby-sitting. Enrique earned $5.00 less than 7 times what Rhea earned. Write and solve an equation to find how much money Rhea earned baby-sitting last week.

7. ELECTION Raj received 8 more than 3 times as many votes as Vinny in a school election. Raj received 44 votes. Write and solve an equation to find how many votes Vinny received.

8. JACK-O-LANTERN It took Suki 127 minutes from start to finish to carve her pumpkin. Carving the pumpkin took her 13 fewer minutes than 10 times as long as it took her to pick the pumpkin out at the pumpkin patch. Write and solve an equation to find how long it took Suki to pick out her pumpkin.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

455

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 95

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Solving Two-Step Equations
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 355 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Let x the cost of one book. How does the equation 2x 3 11 represent the situation?

2. Subtract 3 from each side of the equation. Write the equation that results. 3. Divide each side of the equation you wrote by 2. Write the result. What is the cost of each book?

Reading the Lesson


4. In the paragraph before Example 1 on page 355, it says that to solve a two-step equation you need to work backward using the reverse of the order of operations. What is the order of operations in the equation 2x 3 11? Tell how you would solve each of the following equations. 5. 2y 14 36

6. 25 2 3x

7. The last sentence of Example 3 on page 356 asks the question, Is this answer reasonable? Tell how you would find the answer to that question. Show your results.

Helping You Remember


8. Work with a partner. Think of two situations similar to the one described in Example 3 on page 356. Each of you chooses one of the situations and writes a word problem that describes the situation. Exchange word problems with your partner. Write an equation for the word problem you receive, and solve the equation.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

456

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Lesson 95

Chunking
Have you ever seen an equation like 3(t 1) 18? The expression inside parentheses might make you think that solving this equation is going to be difficult. But, if you can solve 3t 18, you probably can solve this equation, too. The trick is to think of the expression (t 1) as a chunk. Heres how. 3(t 1) 18 means the same as (t 1) 18 3. (t 1) 18 3 (t 1) 6 You know 5 1 6, so t 5. Solve each equation by chunking. 1. 4(a 3) 40 2. 2(m 5) 8 3. 3(c 2) 18

4. 25 5(z 4)

5. 14 7(k 4)

6. 20 4(x 1)

7. 6(1 x) 24

8. 3(12 r) 30

9. 8(9 t) 104

10. 8 8(b 5)

11. 2(6 q) 0

12. 0 6(10 a)

13. 1.3(x 1) 6.5

14. 0.4(j 9) 0.8

15. 1.5(k 6) 9

16. 0.2 0.05(y 2)

17. 0.24(d 5) 2.16

18. 0.12(e 2) 0.36

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

457

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Functions
A function rule describes the relationship between the input and output of a function. The inputs and outputs can be organized in a function table.

Complete the function table. Input (x) Output (x 7) 9 8 6 The function rule is n 7. Subtract 7 from each input. Input 9 8 6 Output 7 2 7 1 7 2 Input (x) Output (x 7) 9 2 8 1 6 1

Find the rule for the function table. Input (x) Output () 3 12 1 4 2 8 Study the relationship between each input and output. Input 3 1 2 Output 4 12 4 4 4 8

The output is four times the input. So, the function rule is 4n.

Complete each function table. 1. Input (x) 1 2 4 Output (2x)

2. Input (x) Output (4 x) 3 1 4

Find the rule for each function table. 3. Input (x) 4 2 5 Output 2 4 7 4. Input (x) 4 2 6 Output 2 1 3

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

458

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Functions
Complete each function table. 1. Input (x) Output (x 3) 0 2 4 2. Input (x) 1 1 2 Output (3x)

3. Input (x) Output (x 1) 5 1 4

4. Input (x) 8 0 8

1x Output

5. If a function rule is 2x 3, what is the output for 3? 6. If a function rule is 4 x, what is the output for 2?

Find the rule for each function table. Write the rule in the table. 7. x 1 0 2 4 3 1 8. x 3 0 4 12 9 5

9.

x 3 2 3 15 10 15

10. x 12 1 6 6
1 2

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

459

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 96

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Functions
1. DRAGONS The Luck Dragons that live in the Enchanted Forest weigh 4 x pounds when they are x years old. Write a function table that can be used to find the weights of 6-year old, 8-year old, and 10-year old Luck Dragons. 2. ROLLER COASTER Twelve people are able to ride the Serpent of Fire roller coaster at one time. Write a function table that shows the total number of people that have been on the roller coaster after 1, 2, 3, and 4 rides.

3. MOVIES At the local movie theater it costs $10.00 for 2 students to see a movie. It costs $15.00 for 3 students, and it costs $20.00 for 4 students. Let the number of students be the input. What is the function rule that relates the number of students to the cost of tickets?

4. HOMEWORK At Elmwood Middle School, sixth graders spend 1 hour every night doing homework. Seventh graders spend 2 hours, and eighth graders spend 3 hours. Let the students grade be the input. What is the function rule between the students grade and the amount of time the students spend on homework every night?

5. BEADS A bead shop sells wooden beads for $3 each and glass beads for $7 each. Write a function rule to represent the total selling price of wooden (w) and glass (g) beads.

6. Use the function rule in Exercise 5 to find the selling price of 20 wooden beads and 4 glass beads.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

460

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Functions
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 362 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Write an expression to represent the number of mosquitoes a brown bat can eat in 2 hours.

3. Write an expression to represent the number of mosquitoes a brown bat can eat in t hours.

Reading the Lesson


4. If you look up the word function in a dictionary, you might find a definition like the following: a quantity whose value depends on that of another quantity or quantities. In the function 600t, what does the value of 600t depend on?

5. Find the function rule for the table below. Input (x) 2 0 2 Output () 1 3 5

Helping You Remember


6. Work with a partner. Each of you creates a table like the one in Exercise 5 above. Decide on a function rule to use for the output quantities, but do not write the rule. Exchange tables with your partner. Identify the function rule that expresses the relationship between the input quantity and the output quantity.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

461

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 96

2. Write an expression to represent the number of mosquitoes a brown bat can eat in 5 hours.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Function Rules and Dot Patterns
Function rules are often used to describe geometric patterns. In the pattern at the right, for example, do you see this relationship? 1st figure: 2nd figure: 3rd figure: 4th figure: 3 3 3 3 1 2 3 4 3 dots 6 dots 9 dots 12 dots
1st 3 dots

2nd

6 dots

3rd

9 dots

So the nth figure in this pattern would have 3 n, or 3n, dots. A function rule that describes the pattern is 3n. Write a function rule to describe each dot pattern. 1. 1st
2nd 4th 12 dots

2. 1st
2nd

3. 1st
2nd

3rd

3rd

3rd

4th
4th 4th

4. 1st
2nd

5. 1st
2nd

6. 1st
2nd

3rd

3rd

3rd

4th

4th

4th

7. CHALLENGE Create your own dot pattern. Then exchange patterns with a classmate. Try to find the function rule for each others patterns.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

462

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Graphing Functions
Make a function table for the rule y x 2. Use input values of 2, 0, and 2. Then graph the function. Step 1 Record the input and output in a function table. List the input and output as ordered pairs. Graph the ordered pairs on the coordinate plane. The points appear to lie on a line. Draw the line that contains these points. The line is the graph of y x 2. Input Function Rule Output Ordered Pairs (x) (x 2) (y) (x, y) 0 2 2 2 (2, 0) 0 2 (0, 2) 02 2 4 (2, 4) 22
The y-coordinates represent the output values. (2, 0)
432

Step 2 Step 3

y 4 (2, 4) 3 2 1 (0, 2)
O 1 2 3 4x

The x-coordinates represent the output values.

Make a function table for the graph. Then determine the function rule. Input (x) Output (y) 2 1 1 2 2 4 Input Output 1 (2) 2 1 (2) 2 2 (2) 4 (x, y) (1, 2) (1, 2) (2, 4)

(1, 2)
432

O 2 3 4

1 2 3 4x

(1, 2) (2, 4)

2 is multiplied by each input to get the output. The function rule is y 2x.

1. Complete the function table. Then graph the function. Input (n) 1 0 1
y 4 3 2 1
432 O 2 3 4 1 2 3 4x

2. Make a function table for the graph. Then determine the function rule.
y 4 3 2 1
432 O 1 2 3 4x

Output (4n)

2 (1, 2) 3 ( 0, 3) 4

(2, 1)

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

463

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 97

y 4 3 2 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Graphing Functions
Complete each function table. Then graph the function. 1. Input (x) 5 3 0
y 4 3 2 1
65432 O 2 3 4 1 2x 432

Output (x 4)

2.

Input (x) 2 3 4
y 4 3 2 1
O 2 3 4

Output (3 x)

3.

Input (x) 3 0 3

1 Output x

y 4 3 2 1
1 2 3 4x 432 O 2 3 4 1 2 3 4x

Make a function table for each graph. Then determine the function rule. 4.
(4, 2)
y 4 3 2 1 (0, 0)
O 1 2 3 4x 2 (2, 1) 3 4

5.

y 4 3 2 1
432 O 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

6.

y (5, 5) 5 (4, 4) 4

432

(2, 2)
5 432

3 2 1 O 2 3 1 2 3

(4, 1) (2, 3) (1, 4)

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

464

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Graphing Functions
1. LIBRARY Tia visited the library 3 times. The first time, she spent 1 hour and checked out 4 books. Then she spent 2 hours and checked out 5 books. On her last visit, she spent 3 hours and checked out 6 books. Let the number of y hours be the input 7 and the number 6 5 of books be the 4 output. Graph the 3 function. 2
1 O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7x

2. CD RACK A CD rack fits 3 CDs across. When one shelf is full, the shelf has 3 CDs on it. When two shelves are full, it has 6 CDs, and when three shelves are full it has 9 CDs. Let the number of full shelves be the input and the number of CDs be the output. y 14 Graph the function. 12
10 8 6 4 2 O 2 4 6 8 10 12 14x

3. TELEPHONE Althea made a graph of how many friends call her after school. She let the number of hours that passed be the input and the number of people who called be the output. Look at her graph and determine the function rule. y
7 6 5 4 3 2 1

(2, 4) (1, 2) (0, 0)


1 2 3 4 5 6 7x

4. DOLPHINS The more dolphins Toni uses in the dolphin show, the more people attend the show. She let the number of dolphins be the input and the number of attendees be the output, and made a graph of the function. Look at her graph and y 70 determine the 60 function rule. 50 (5, 50)
40 30 20 10 O

(3, 30) (1, 10)


1 2 3 4 5 6 7x

5. BOTANY Jessie planted a bean plant that was 2 inches tall. Each day it grew 1 inch. Tanya planted a bean plant that was 1 inch tall. It grew 2 inches per day. Write the function rule for each bean plant.

6. BOTANY Graph each function from Exercise 5 on the same coordinate plane. What does the intersection of the two graphs represent?
y

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

465

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 97

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Graphing Functions
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 366 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Complete the table below to find the amount you would save in 2, 3, and 6 weeks. Savings Number of Weeks 1 2 3 6 2. Graph the ordered pairs (number, amount saved). Describe how the points appear on the grid.
12 10 8 6 4 2

Multiply by 2. 21

Amount Saved $2

3. What happens to the amount saved as the number of weeks increases?

1 2 3 4 5 6x

Reading the Lesson


4. Example 1 on page 366 uses the term ordered pairs and lists input and output data as ordered pairs in the function table. What is an ordered pair?

5. Complete the function table. Then graph the function. Input Function Rule Output Ordered Pairs (x) (x 2) (y) (x, y) 2 0 2
432

y 4 3 2 1
O 2 3 4 1 2 3 4x

Helping You Remember


6. Draw a line on grid paper. It can be in any direction. Make a function table for the line you graphed. Then determine the function rule.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

466

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Interpreting Graphs of Functions
An everyday example of a function is the relationship between distance and time. You can picture this relationship in a graph like the one at the right. This particular graph pictures a situation in which a person travels at a constant rate, and so the graph is a straight line segment. In reality, you seldom travel at a constant rate during an entire trip. You might switch from running to walking, for example, or you might stop to rest. On this page, you will work with graphs that represent situations like these. Refer to the graphs below. Write the letter of the graph that best pictures each of these situations. 1. Patty ran for 15 minutes, then walked for 15 minutes. 3. Dale ran for 10 minutes, stopped to rest for 10 minutes, then walked for 10 minutes. 5. Janette ran for 10 minutes, walked for 10 minutes, then ran for 10 more minutes.
A
distance

distance

time

2. Helmer walked for 15 minutes, then ran for 15 minutes. 4. Josita ran for 10 minutes, stopped to rest for 10 minutes, then ran for 10 more minutes. 6. Ralph ran for 15 minutes, walked for 10 minutes, then ran for 5 more minutes.
C
distance distance

time

time

time

D
distance

E
distance

F
distance

time

time

time

7. CHALLENGE Assume that all the people described in Exercises 16 ran at the same rate, and they all walked at the same rate. Who traveled farthest in 30 minutes?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

467

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 97

Chapter Chapter 10 X Resource Resource Masters Masters

Course 1 1 Course

Consumable Workbooks
Many of the worksheets contained in the Chapter Resource Masters booklets are available as consumable workbooks in both English and Spanish. Study Guide and Intervention Workbook Study Guide and Intervention Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Skills Workbook Practice: Skills Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Word Problems Workbook Practice: Word Problems Workbook (Spanish) Reading to Learn Mathematics Workbook 0-07-860085-5 0-07-860091-X 0-07-860086-3 0-07-860092-8 0-07-860087-1 0-07-860093-6 0-07-861057-5

Answers for Workbooks The answers for Chapter 10 of these


workbooks can be found in the back of this Chapter Resource Masters booklet.

Spanish Assessment Masters Spanish versions of forms 2A and 2C of


the Chapter 10 Test are available in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts Spanish Assessment Masters, Course 1 (0-07-860095-2).

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teacher, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1 Chapter 10 Resource Masters 024 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03

ISBN: 0-07-860073-1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

CONTENTS
Vocabulary Builder .............................vii Family Letter ............................................ix Family Activity ........................................x Lesson 10-1
Study Guide and Intervention ........................491 Practice: Skills ................................................492 Practice: Word Problems................................493 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................494 Enrichment .....................................................495

Lesson 10-6
Study Guide and Intervention ........................516 Practice: Skills ................................................517 Practice: Word Problems................................518 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................519 Enrichment .....................................................520

Lesson 10-7
Study Guide and Intervention ........................521 Practice: Skills ................................................522 Practice: Word Problems................................523 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................524 Enrichment .....................................................525

Lesson 10-2
Study Guide and Intervention ........................496 Practice: Skills ................................................497 Practice: Word Problems................................498 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................499 Enrichment .....................................................500

Lesson 10-8
Study Guide and Intervention ........................526 Practice: Skills ................................................527 Practice: Word Problems................................528 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................529 Enrichment .....................................................530

Lesson 10-3
Study Guide and Intervention ........................501 Practice: Skills ................................................502 Practice: Word Problems................................503 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................504 Enrichment .....................................................505

Chapter 10 Assessment
Chapter 10 Test, Form 1 ........................531532 Chapter 10 Test, Form 2A ......................533534 Chapter 10 Test, Form 2B ......................535536 Chapter 10 Test, Form 2C......................537538 Chapter 10 Test, Form 2D......................539540 Chapter 10 Test, Form 3 ........................541542 Chapter 10 Extended Response Assessment .................................................543 Chapter 10 Vocabulary Test/Review...............544 Chapter 10 Quizzes 1 & 2..............................545 Chapter 10 Quizzes 3 & 4..............................546 Chapter 10 Mid-Chapter Test .........................547 Chapter 10 Cumulative Review......................548 Chapter 10 Standardized Test Practice..549550 Standardized Test Practice Student Recording Sheet ..............................A1 Standardized Test Practice Rubric...................A2 ANSWERS .............................................A3A32

Lesson 10-4
Study Guide and Intervention ........................506 Practice: Skills ................................................507 Practice: Word Problems................................508 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................509 Enrichment .....................................................510

Lesson 10-5
Study Guide and Intervention ........................511 Practice: Skills ................................................512 Practice: Word Problems................................513 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................514 Enrichment .....................................................515

iii

Teachers Guide to Using the Chapter 10 Resource Masters


The Fast File Chapter Resource system allows you to conveniently file the resources you use most often. The Chapter 10 Resource Masters includes the core materials needed for Chapter 10. These materials include worksheets, extensions, and assessment options. The answers for these pages appear at the back of this booklet. All of the materials found in this booklet are included for viewing and printing in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1, TeacherWorks CD-ROM.

Vocabulary Builder Pages vii-viii include a student study tool that presents up to twenty of the key vocabulary terms from the chapter. Students are to record definitions and/or examples for each term. You may suggest that students highlight or star the terms with which they are not familiar.
When to Use Give these pages to students before beginning Lesson 10-1. Encourage them to add these pages to their mathematics study notebook. Remind them to add definitions and examples as they complete each lesson.

Practice: Skills

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice that more closely follows the structure of the Practice and Applications section of the Student Edition exercises. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Practice: Word Problems

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice in solving word problems that apply the concepts of the lesson. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Family Letter and Family Activity


Page ix is a letter to inform your students families of the requirements of the chapter. The family activity on page x helps them understand how the mathematics students are learning is applicable to real life. When to Use Give these pages to students to take home before beginning the chapter.

Study Guide and Intervention


There is one Study Guide and Intervention master for each lesson in Chapter 10. When to Use Use these masters as reteaching activities for students who need additional reinforcement. These pages can also be used in conjunction with the Student Edition as an instructional tool for students who have been absent.

Reading to Learn Mathematics One master is included for each lesson. The first section of each master asks questions about the opening paragraph of the lesson in the Student Edition. Additional questions ask students to interpret the context of and relationships among terms in the lesson. Finally, students are asked to summarize what they have learned using various representation techniques.
When to Use This master can be used as a study tool when presenting the lesson or as an informal reading assessment after presenting the lesson. It is also a helpful tool for ELL (English Language Learner) students.

iv

There is one extension master for each lesson. These activities may extend the concepts in the lesson, offer an historical or multicultural look at the concepts, or widen students perspectives on the mathematics they are learning. These are not written exclusively for honors students, but are accessible for use with all levels of students. When to Use These may be used as extra credit, short-term projects, or as activities for days when class periods are shortened.

Enrichment

A Vocabulary Test, suitable for all students, includes a list of the vocabulary words in the chapter and ten questions assessing students knowledge of those terms. This can also be used in conjunction with one of the chapter tests or as a review worksheet.

Intermediate Assessment
Four free-response quizzes are included to offer assessment at appropriate intervals in the chapter. A Mid-Chapter Test provides an option to assess the first half of the chapter. It is composed of both multiple-choice and freeresponse questions.

Assessment Options
The assessment masters in the Chapter 10 Resources Masters offer a wide range of assessment tools for intermediate and final assessment. The following lists describe each assessment master and its intended use.

Continuing Assessment
The Cumulative Review provides students an opportunity to reinforce and retain skills as they proceed through their study of Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. It can also be used as a test. This master includes free-response questions. The Standardized Test Practice offers continuing review of pre-algebra concepts in various formats, which may appear on the standardized tests that they may encounter. This practice includes multiplechoice, short response, grid-in, and extended response questions. Bubble-in and grid-in answer sections are provided on the master.

Chapter Assessment
Chapter Tests Form 1 contains multiple-choice questions and is intended for use with basic level students. Forms 2A and 2B contain multiple-choice questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Forms 2C and 2D are composed of freeresponse questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Grids with axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. Form 3 is an advanced level test with free-response questions. Grids without axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. All of the above tests include a free-response Bonus question. The Extended-Response Assessment includes performance assessment tasks that are suitable for all students. A scoring rubric is included for evaluation guidelines. Sample answers are provided for assessment.

Answers
Page A1 is an answer sheet for the Standardized Test Practice questions that appear in the Student Edition on pages 422423. This improves students familiarity with the answer formats they may encounter in test taking. Detailed rubrics for assessing the extended response questions on page 423 are provided on page A2. The answers for the lesson-by-lesson masters are provided as reduced pages with answers appearing in red. Full-size answer keys are provided for the assessment masters in this booklet.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading To Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
This is an alphabetical list of new vocabulary terms you will learn in Chapter 10. As you study the chapter, complete each terms definition or description. Remember to add the page number where you found the term. Add these pages to your math study notebook to review vocabulary at the end of the chapter. Vocabulary Term cross products Found on Page Definition/Description/Example
Vocabulary Builder

equivalent ratios

percent

proportion

rate

ratio

scale

scale drawing

scale model

unit rate

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

vii

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Letter

Dear Parent or Guardian: ns help us to make Ratios, rates, percents, and proportio models of objects and to decisions. We can use them to make can also use them to make determine distances on a map. We ter buy at a grocery budget decisions, to determine the bet store, and to calculate sales tax. and Percent, your child In Chapter 10: Ratio, Proportion, rates as fractions, to solve will learn how to express ratios and by drawing a diagram. Your proportions, and to solve problems percents as fractions and child will also learn how to express a number. Your child will decimals and to find the percent of assignments and activities complete a variety of daily classroom . and possibly produce a chapter project it with your child, you By signing this letter and returning ting involved. Enclosed is agree to encourage your child by get ld that also relates the an activity you can do with your chi 10 to the real world. You math we will be learning in Chapter line Study Tools for may also wish to log on to the On t Study Guide pages, and self-check quizzes, Parent and Studen et. If you have any other study help at www.msmath1.n contact me at school. questions or comments, feel free to Sincerely,

Signature of Parent or Guardian ________________________________________DATE ________

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ix

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Family Letter

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Activity
Cars, Trucks, and Percents
Work with a family member to answer the following questions. Ask ten family members or friends what kind of cars they drive: sports utility, truck, sedan, van, convertible, or other. Record the results in the space below. 1. a. What percent of these people drive sports utility vehicles?

b. Express the percent as a decimal.

2. a. What percent of these people drive trucks?

b. Express the percent as a decimal.

3. a. What percent of these people drive sedans?

b. Express the percent as a decimal.

4. a. What percent of these people drive vans?

b. Express the percent as a decimal.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Ratios
A ratio is a comparison of two numbers by division. A common way to express a ratio is as a fraction 2 in simplest form. Ratios can also be written in other ways. For example, the ratio can be written as 3 2 to 3, 2 out of 3, or 2:3.

Refer to the diagram at the right. Write the ratio that compares the number of circles to the number of triangles.
circles triangles

4 So, the ratio of circles to triangles is , 4 to 5, or 4:5. 5 For every 4 circles, there are 5 triangles.

4 The GCF of 4 and 5 is 1. 5

Write the ratio that compares the number of circles to the total number of figures.
2

circles total figures

4 2 The GCF of 4 and 10 is 2. 1 0 5


2

2 The ratio of circles to the total number of figures is , 2 to 5, or 2:5. 5 For every two circles, there are five total figures.

A rate is a ratio of two measurements having different kinds of units. When a rate is simplified so that it has a denominator of 1, it is called a unit rate.

Write the ratio 20 students to 5 computers as a unit rate.


5

4 students 1 computer
Divide the numerator and the denominator by 5 to get a denominator of 1.

20 students 5 computers

The ratio written as a unit rate is 4 students to 1 computer.

Write each ratio as a fraction in simplest form. 1. 2 guppies out of 6 fish 2. 12 puppies to 15 kittens 3. 5 boys out of 10 students

Write each ratio as a unit rate. 4. 6 eggs for 3 people 5. $12 for 4 pounds 6. 40 pages in 8 days

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

491

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 101

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Ratios
Write each ratio as a fraction in simplest form. 1. 3 sailboats to 6 motorboats 2. 4 tulips to 9 daffodils

3. 5 baseballs to 25 softballs

4. 2 days out of 8 days

5. 6 poodles out of 18 dogs

6. 10 yellow eggs out of 12 colored eggs

7. 12 sheets of paper out of 28

8. 18 hours out of 24 hours

9. 16 elms out of 20 trees

10. 15 trumpets to 9 trombones

11. 5 ducks to 30 geese

12. 14 lions to 10 tigers

13. 6 sodas out of 16 drinks

14. 20 blue jays out of 35 birds

Write each ratio as a unit rate. 15. 14 hours in 2 weeks 16. 36 pieces of candy for 6 children

17. 8 teaspoons for 4 cups

18. 8 tomatoes for $2

19. $28 for 4 hours

20. 150 miles in 3 hours

21. $18 for 3 CDs

22. 48 logs on 6 trucks

23. Write the ratio 21 wins to 9 losses as a fraction in simplest form.

24. Write the ratio $12 dollars for 3 tickets as a unit rate.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

492

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Ratios
1. FOOTBALL In the NFL 20012002 season, the Miami Dolphins won 11 games and the Oakland Raiders won 10 games. What is the ratio of wins for the Dolphins to wins for the Raiders? 2. GARDENING Rod has 10 rosebushes, 2 of which produce yellow roses. Write the ratio 2 yellow rosebushes out of 10 rosebushes in simplest form.

1 5

3. TENNIS Nancy and Lisa played 20 sets of tennis. Nancy won 12 of them. Write the ratio of Nancys wins to the total number of sets in simplest form.

9 7

5. MOVIES Four friends paid a total of $32 for movie tickets. What is the ratio $32 for 4 people written as a unit rate?

6. WORKING At a warehouse, the employees can unload 18 trucks in 6 hours. What is the unit rate for unloading trucks?

7. ANIMALS A reindeer can run 96 miles in 3 hours. At this rate, how far can a reindeer run in 1 hour? Explain.

8. SHOPPING Jenny wants to buy cereal that comes in large and small boxes. The 32-ounce box costs $4.16, and the 14-ounce box costs $2.38. Which box is less expensive per ounce? Explain.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

493

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 101

4. AGES Oscar is 16 years old and his sister Julia is 12 years old. What will be the ratio of Oscars age to Julias age in 2 years? Write as a fraction in simplest form.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Ratios
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 380 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Write a sentence that compares the number of navy socks to the number of white socks. Use the word less in your sentence.

2. Write a sentence that compares the number of black socks to the number of white socks. Use the word half in your sentence.

3. Write a sentence comparing the number of white socks to the total number of socks. Use a fraction in your sentence.

Reading the Lesson


4. A ratio compares amounts of two different things by division. Tell what different things are compared in the examples in your textbook. Example 1 Example 2 5. Write the ratio of 2 pens out of a total of 3 pens 4 different ways.

6. What is the denominator in a unit rate?

Helping You Remember


7. Go to your local grocery store and make a list of unit rates that are used to price items in the store. Also, compare prices for different brands of a certain product. How can you find out which brand provides the best value? Does the store help you to make the comparison? If so, how?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

494

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Ratios and Rectangles
1. Use a centimeter ruler to measure the width and the length of each rectangle. Then express the ratio of the width to the length as a fraction in simplest form.

B A C

E D

2. Similar figures have the same shape, but not necessarily the same size. Two rectangles are similar if the ratio of the width to the length is the same for each. Which rectangles in Exercise 1 are similar? 3. For centuries artists and architects have used a shape called the golden rectangle because people seem to find it most pleasant to look at. In a golden rectangle, the ratio of the width to the length is a little less than
5 . Which rectangle in Exercise 1 is most nearly a golden rectangle? 8

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

495

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 101

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Solving Proportions
1 3 A proportion is an equation stating that two ratios are equivalent. For example, the ratios and are 1 3 equivalent, so the equation is a proportion. In order for two ratios to form a proportion, their 2 6 2 6

cross products must be equal.


1 6 is one cross product 1 3 2 6 1623 66 The cross products are equal 2 3 is the other cross product

When one value in a proportion is unknown, you can use cross products to solve the proportion.
2 4 Solve . 5 n 3 b Solve . 4 12

2 n 5 4 Cross products 2n 20 Multiply.


2n 20 2 2
Divide each side by 2.

3 12 4 b 36 4b
36 4b 4 4

Cross products Multiply. Divide each side by 4.

n 10 The solution is 10.

9b The solution is 9.

Determine whether each pair of ratios form a proportion. Explain your reasoning.
3 6 1. , 5 10 2 4 2. , 9 16

Solve each proportion.


8 2 3. 3 n 3 12 4. 4 x y 2 5. 4 8

b 3 6. 5 15

c 1.2 7. 9 1.5

d 3 8. 16 8

1.5 x 9. 2.6 1.3

2 6 10. y 9

0.1 0.5 11. 2.6 z

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

496

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Solving Proportions
Solve each proportion.
2 8 1. 5 x 2 4 2. 7 y b 3 3. 5 30

2 c 4. 9 36

4 d 5. 5 25

20 10 6. 4 f

g 28 7. 2 14

2 10 8. x 25

h 4 9. 3 18

10 2 10. 30 r

3 11. t 18 6

6 2 12. 3 m

9 s 13. 2 6

2 n 14. 36 6

12 4 15. u 21

m 5 16. 6 12

d 4 17. 27 9

5 15 18. 8 q

15 5 19. 27 k

4 20 20. x 30

b 24 21. 3 9

4 z 22. 35 7

6 24 23. c 28

6 x 24. 8 24

14 b 25. 16 8

8 24 26. r 27

t 16 27. 36 9

1.2 2.4 28. 2.4 n

s 0.5 29. 1.8 9

8 1.6 30. w 16

3 2 31. What is the solution of ? Round to the nearest tenth. 5 k

4.3 n 32. Find the solution of to the nearest tenth. 3 2.2

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

497

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 102

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Solving Proportions
1. SCHOOL The ratio of boys to girls in history class is 4 to 5. How many girls are in the class if there are 12 boys in the class? Explain. 2. FACTORIES A factory produces 6 motorcycles in 9 hours. Write a proportion and solve it to find how many hours it takes to produce 16 motorcycles.

6 16 ; 24 h x 9

3. READING James read 4 pages in a book in 6 minutes. How long would you expect him to take to read 6 pages?

4. COOKING A recipe that will make 3 pies calls for 7 cups of flour. Write a proportion and solve it to find how many pies can be made with 28 cups of flour.

p 3 ; 12 pies 28 7

5. TYPING Sara can type 90 words in 4 minutes. About how many words would you expect her to type in 10 minutes?

6. BASKETBALL The Lakewood Wildcats won 5 of their first 7 games this year. There are 28 games in the season. About how many games would you expect the Wildcats to win this season? Explain your reasoning.

20 games; Sample answer: If

5 x the season, . 7 28
7. FOOD Two slices of Dans Famous Pizza have 230 Calories. How many Calories would you expect to be in 5 slices of the same pizza? 8. SHOPPING Andy paid $1.40 for 4 grapefruits. Write a proportion and solve it to find how many grapefruits he can purchase for $2.10.

$1.40 $2.10 ; 6 grapefruits 4 x

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

498

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Solving Proportions
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 386 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Complete each ratio so that the ratios comparing the areas are equivalent. a. b.

2. How did you find which figure made the ratios equivalent?

3. Suppose a green block equals 2, a blue block equals 4, a yellow block equals 6, and a red block equals 3. Write a pair of equivalent ratios. 4. What relationship exists in these equivalent ratios?

5. Look at the arithmetic example in the Key Concept box on page 386. What is the significance of the two instances of 3?

6. If two ratios are equivalent, and therefore form a proportion, what do you know about the cross products? 7. Look at the final sentence in Example 3 on page 387So, 375 students can be expected to prefer gel toothpaste. Why is it important to use can be expected in this answer?

Helping You Remember


8. Work with a partner. Study Example 1 on page 387. Write a proportion that needs to be solved for an unknown value. Exchange proportions and solve for the unknown value. Explain how you arrived at your solution.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

499

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 102

Reading the Lesson

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Ada
Did you know that a woman wrote the first description of a computer programming language? She was the daughter of a famous English lord and was born in 1815. She had a deep understanding of mathematics and was fascinated by calculating machines. Her interests led her to create the first algorithm. In 1843, she translated a French version of a lecture by Charles Babbage. In her notes to the translation, she outlined the fundamental concepts of computer programming. She died in 1852. In 1979, the U.S. Department of Defense named the computer language Ada after her. To find out this womans full name, solve the proportion for each letter.
28 7 1. A 40 5 35 4. D 63 6 12 7. N 14 25 5 10. V 30 5 B 2. 4 36 E 2 5. 5 20 9 O 8. 11 44 7 Y 11. 4 28 1 C 3. 3 15 2 L 6. 18 27 2 R 9. 8 4

Now look for each solution below. Write the corresponding letter on the line above the solution. If you have calculated correctly, the letters will spell her name.


10 9 10


45 49 1 36 7

36


10 5 8

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

500

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Scale Drawings and Models
Scale drawings and scale models are used to represent objects that are too large or too small to be drawn or built at actual size. The scale gives the ratio that compares the measurements on the drawing or model to the measurements of the real object. The measurements on a drawing or model are proportional to the measurements of the actual object. RACE CARS A model of a race car has a width of 3.5 inches. The scale

is 1 inch 2 feet. Find the actual width of the race car. Let w represent the actual width. Scale
model width actual width

Race Car
1 3.5 model width 2 w actual width

1 w 2 3.5 w7

Find the cross products. Multiply.

The actual width of the race car is 7 feet.


HIKING On a map, the distance between Round Lake and June Lake is 6 inches. The scale on the map is 3 inches 5 miles. Find the actual distance between the two lakes.

Let d represent the actual distance. Map Scale


map distance actual distance

Actual Distance

map distance 3 6 d actual distance 5 3 d 5 6 Find the cross products. 3d 30 Multiply.

3d 30 3 3

Divide.

d 10

DRAFTING For Exercises 14, use the following information.

On a set of drawings, the scale is 2 inch 4 feet. Find the actual measurements. 1. 2. 3. 4. Object door wall tree computer Drawing Actual Size 4 inches 6 inches 12 inches 1 inch 5. MAPS A map has a scale of 2 inches 7 miles. The distance between Pirates Cove and Midnight Lagoon on the map is 12 inches. What is the actual distance between the two places?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

501

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 103

The distance between the two lakes is 10 miles.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Scale Drawings and Models
DRAFTING On a set of drawings, the scale is 2 inches 5 3 feet. Find the actual measurements.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Object table wall road door computer lamp

Drawing 4 inches 10 inches 18 inches 5 inches 1 inch 0.5 inch

Actual Size

LIZARDS Models of lizards were made using the given scales. Find the actual measurements.
1 Scale: 1 inch inch 2

7. 8.

Whiptail Lizard body length tail length

Model 6 inches 12 inches

Actual Size

Scale: 2 inches 3 inches 9. 10. Desert Iguana body length tail length Model 9 inches 18 inches Actual Size

Scale: 4 inches 5 inches 11. 12. Ground Gecko body length tail length Model 3.6 inches 2 inches Actual Size

MAPS A map has a scale of 3 inches 7 miles. Find the actual distance between the cities with the map distances given.

13. 8.4 inches between Fall City and Summit

14. 2 inches between Potter and Green River

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

502

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Scale Drawings and Models
1. MAPS On a map with a scale of 1 inch 9 miles, the distance between two towns is 3 inches. What is the actual distance between the two towns? 2. BLUEPRINTS On an architects blueprint, the front of a building measures 27 inches. The scale of the blueprint is 1 inch 2 feet. How wide will the front of the actual building be?

3. MODELS The model of an airplane has a wingspan of 20 inches. The model has a scale of 1 inch 4 feet. What is the wingspan of the actual airplane?

4. ARCHITECTURE The drawing for a building has a scale of 1 inch 3 feet. The building in the drawing has a height of 14 inches. How tall will the actual building be?

5. ROCKETS A model of the Saturn V rocket has a scale of 1 inch 12 feet. If the model rocket is 30 inches tall, how tall was the actual Saturn V rocket?

6. CARS Ron took a photograph of his car and then measured the length of the car in the photograph. The length was
1 4 inches. If the scale of the 2

photograph is 1 inch 4 feet, how long is Rons actual car?

7. MODELS A model of a 4-cylinder gasoline engine is built on a scale of 1 inch 6 inches. If the length of the model engine is 9 inches, how long is the actual engine?

8. PHOTOGRAPHY A photo lab technician is going to reduce a photograph that is 9 inches wide using a scale of
2 1 inch inch. How wide will the 3

reduced photo be?

6 in.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

503

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 103

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Scale Drawings and Models
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 391 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Explain how you would use a ruler to find the number of miles between any two cities on the map.

2. Use the method you described in Exercise 1 to find the actual distance between Haletown and Jasper. 3. What is the actual distance between Kimball and Signal Mountain?

Reading the Lesson


4. Look up the word scale in a dictionary. Write the meaning that matches the way the word is used in this lesson.

5. Look at Example 1 at the bottom of page 391. Then tell what is happening at each step of the process below.
1 23 8 h

1 h 8 23 h 184 6. Look at Example 2 at the top of page 392. What do you need to know in order to solve for d, the actual distance?

7. Bring a map or set of maps to school (for example, maps of the world as found in an almanac). Using the scale on the map, practice measuring distances between objects on the map.

Helping You Remember


8. Make a scale drawing of some object with which you are familiar. Take the actual measurements of the object. Decide on a scale. Create the drawing. Be sure to put the scale somewhere on your drawing so a reader will be able to tell the size of the actual object.
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

504

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Planning a Room
Before moving furniture into a room, many people plan an arrangement by making a scale drawing. This makes it possible to find the best arrangement for the room without actually moving heavy furniture. For each piece of furniture, actual measurements are given. Compute 1 scale measurements using the scale inch 1 foot.
2 1 1. bed: 6 feet long, 3 feet wide 2 1 1 2. bedside table: 1 feet long, 1 feet wide 2 2 1 3. bookcase: 3 feet long, 1 foot wide 2

4. desk: 42 inches long, 18 inches wide 5. chest of drawers: 39 inches long, 18 inches wide 6. Use your answers from Exercises 15. Show how the furniture might be arranged in the bedroom shown below.
WINDOW

Scale:

1 inch = 1 foot 2

DOOR

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

505

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 103

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Modeling Percents
Ratios like 41 out of 100, 25 out of 100, or 2 out of 100 can be written as percents. A percent (%) is a ratio that compares a number to 100. Since the word percent means out of one hundred, you can use a 10 10 grid to model percents.

Model 10%. 10% means 10 out of 100. So, shade 10 of the 100 squares.

Model 78%. 78% means 78 out of 100. So, shade 78 of the 100 squares.

You can use what you know about decimal models and percents to identify the percent of a model that is shaded.

Identify each percent that is modeled.

There are 30 out of 100 squares shaded. So, the model shows 30%.

There are 43 out of 100 squares shaded. So, the model shows 43%.

Model each percent. 1. 20% 2. 55% 3. 12%

Identify each percent that is modeled. 4. 5. 6.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

506

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Modeling Percents
Model each percent. 1. 15% 2. 50% 3. 75%

4. 80%

5. 21%

6. 48%

Identify each percent that is modeled. 7. 8. 9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

507

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 104

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Modeling Percents
1. FOOTBALL In the 20012002 season, the Dallas Cowboys football team won 45% of their games. Make a model to show 45%. 2. LANDSCAPING Jacob is making a 10 foot by 10 foot patio in his backyard using paving stones that are 1 foot square. The shaded area of the model indicates the finished part of the patio. What percent of the patio has Jacob finished?

55%

3. ART Lydia is making a collage using 100 photographs arranged in a square pattern. The shaded area in the model indicates the part of the collage already covered by photos. What percent of the collage is finished?

4. ENERGY In the year 2000, nuclear energy accounted for 8% of the energy used in the U.S. Make a model to show 8%.

5. GAMES The figure shows the starting position for a game played on a 10 by 10 board. The shaded squares contain game pieces. What percent of the squares on the board contain game pieces?

6. MUSIC In the school chorus, 52% of the girls sing soprano and 44% sing alto. Which of these two sections of the chorus has more girls? Explain using models.

Sample answer: There are more

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

508

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Modeling Percents
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 395 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. What ratio compares the number of students who prefer grape flavored lollipops to the total number of students?

2. What decimal represents this ratio? 3. Use a decimal model to represent this ratio.

Reading the Lesson


4. Explain why a 10 10 grid is a good way to model percents.

5. Complete the table. 75% 37 out of 100 6. Look at the model in Example 3 on page 396. What is another way to model 25%?

Helping You Remember


Lesson 104
7. Look at the nutrition facts on any food label. Which item contains the highest percent of daily value per serving? Make a model to represent that amount. Label the model to indicate what the model shows.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

509

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
We the People
Who are the people of the United States? The graphs at the right show just a small part of the data gathered in the 2000 Census of the Population. Using the data shown on these graphs, decide whether each statement is true or false. 1. About 12% of all the people counted in the census responded that they are black.
Total Population: 281,421,906

Population of the United States, 2000


American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut 1%

Black 12% White 75%

Asian and Pacific Islander 4% Other Races 8%

2. About 5% of all the people counted in the census identified their national origin as Cuban.

Hispanic or Latino Americans: National Origin, 2000


Puerto Rico 10% Cuba 4%

3. About 58% of the Hispanic Americans counted in the census identified their national origin as Mexican.

Mexico 58%

Other 28%

4. The number of people who identified themselves as white is about 120 million.

Total Population: 35,305,818

5. How well can you picture data? In the space at the right, sketch a circle graph to show the data below. Americans Region of Residence, 2000 Northeast Midwest South West 19% 23% 35% 23%

, Americans Region of Residence, 2000

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

510

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Percents and Fractions
To write a percent as a fraction, write it as a fraction with a denominator of 100. Then simplify.

Write 15% as a fraction in simplest form. 15% means 15 out of 100.


15 15% 100
3

Write the percent as a fraction with a denominator of 100. Simplify. Divide the numerator and denominator by the GCF, 5.

3 15 or 20 100
20

Write 180% as a fraction in simplest form. 180% means 180 out of 100.
180 180% 100
4

Write the percent as a fraction with a denominator of 100. Simplify.

4 180 or 1 5 100
5

You can also write fractions as percents. To write a fraction as a percent, write a proportion and solve.
2 Write as a percent. 5 2 n 5 100
Set up a proportion. Write the cross products. Multiply. Divide each side by 5.

9 Write as a percent. 8 p 9 8 100


Set up a proportion. Write the cross products. Multiply. Divide each side by 8.

2 100 5 n 200 5n
200 5n 5 5

9 100 8 p 900 8p
8p 900 8 8

40 n
2 So, is equivalent to 40%. 5

112.5 p
9 So, is equivalent to 112.5%. 8

Write each percent as a fraction in simplest form. 1. 20% 4. 60% 2. 35% 5. 150% 3. 70% 6. 225%

Write each fraction as a percent.


3 7. 10 5 1 10.
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

2 8. 100 8 10 11.

8 9. 5 13 12. 100

511

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 105

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Percents and Fractions
Write each percent as a fraction in simplest form. 1. 40% 2. 30% 3. 55%

4. 75%

5. 140%

6. 175%

7. 24%

8. 68%

9. 44%

10. 92%

11. 110%

12. 155%

13. 18%

14. 74%

15. 43%

Write each fraction as a percent.


4 16. 5 3 17. 20 7 18. 10

3 19. 5

3 20. 2

5 21. 4

6 22. 5

9 23. 20

13 24. 20

17 25. 20

9 26. 5

11 27. 10

19 28. 20

13 29. 10

21 30. 100

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

512

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Percents and Fractions
1. TOYS The Titanic Toy Company has a 4% return rate on its products. Write this percent as a fraction in simplest form. 2. MUSIC There are 4 trombones out of 25 instruments in the Landers town band. What percent of the instruments are trombones?

3. SHOPPING Alicias favorite clothing store is having a 30% off sale. What fraction represents the 30% off sale?

4. FOOD At Bens Burger Palace, 45% of the customers order large soft drinks. What fraction of the customers order large soft drinks?

9 20

5. BASKETBALL In the 20012002 NBA season, Shaquille ONeal of the Los Angeles Lakers made 60% of his field goals. What fraction of his field goals did Shaquille make?

6. SCHOOL In Janies class, 7 out of 25 students have blue eyes. What percent of the class has blue eyes?

17 7. TESTS Michael answered questions 20

8. RESTAURANTS On Saturday afternoon,


41 telephone calls taken at The 50

correctly on his test. What percent of the questions did Michael answer correctly?

Overlook restaurant were for dinner reservations. What percent of the telephone calls were for dinner reservations?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

513

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 105

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Percents and Fractions
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 400 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. What was the second most popular reason? 2. What percent represents this section of the graph?

3. Based on the meaning of 22%, make a conjecture as to how you would write this percent as a fraction.

Reading the Lesson


4. Write the two steps to use to write a percent as a fraction.

5. Look at the graphic at the top of page 400. What is the sum of the percents? Look at the table at the top of page 401. What is the sum of the percents? Why is this important?

6. Look at Example 2 on page 400. Why is 125% written a mixed number?

Helping You Remember


7. Write a fraction as a percent using the steps shown in Examples 4 and 5 on page 401. Choose any fraction you like different from those in the Examples. Step Set up a proportion. Write the cross products. Multiply. Divide. Conclusion.
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Equation(s)

So, ___________ is equivalent to ____________.

514

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Lesson 105

Percent and the Hundred Chart


The chart at the right shows all the whole numbers from 1 through 100. This page challenges you to connect percents to what you know about number theoryfactors, multiples, divisibility, and so on. Whenever you can, use a pattern in the chart to make your work easier. For example, the multiples of 5 make up two columns of the chartthe fifth column and the tenth. So, 20 out of 100 numbers, or 20% of the numbers, are multiples of 5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

Use the hundred chart above. Find the percent of the numbers that: 1. are even numbers. 3. are multiples of 9. 5. are divisible by 5. 7. are divisible by 2 and divisible by 5. 9. contain only even digits. 11. have digits whose sum is 10. 13. contain the digit 0. 15. are factors of 100. 17. are prime. 2. are odd numbers. 4. are multiples of 11. 6. are divisible by 3. 8. are divisible by 2 and divisible by 3. 10. contain only odd digits. 12. have digits whose sum is 5. 14. contain the digit 5. 16. are factors of 101. 18. are composite.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

515

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Percents and Decimals
To write a percent as a decimal, first rewrite the percent as a fraction with a denominator of 100. Then write the fraction as a decimal.

Write 23% as a decimal.


23 23% 100
Rewrite the percent as a fraction with a denominator of 100. Write the fraction as a decimal.

0.23

Write 127% as a decimal.


127 127% 100
Rewrite the percent as a fraction with a denominator of 100. Write the fraction as a decimal.

1.27

Write 0.8% as a decimal.


0.8 0.8% 100 1 10 0.8 10 100
10

Rewrite the percent as a fraction with a denominator of 100.


10 Multiply by to eliminate the decimal in the numerator. 10

0.008

Write the fraction as a decimal.

To write a decimal as a percent, first write the decimal as a fraction with a denominator of 100. Then write the fraction as a percent.

Write 0.441 as a percent.


441 0.441 1,000 441 10 1,000 10 44.1 or 44.1% 100
Write the decimal as a fraction. Divide by 10 to get a denominator of 100. Write the fraction as a percent.

Write each percent as a decimal. 1. 39% 4. 135% 2. 57% 5. 112% 3. 82% 6. 0.4%

Write each decimal as a percent. 7. 0.86 10. 0.2 8. 0.36 11. 0.148 9. 0.65 12. 0.217

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

516

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Percents and Decimals
Write each percent as a decimal. 1. 5% 3. 37% 5. 29% 7. 48% 9. 0.1% 11. 0.2% 13. 123% 15. 135% Write each decimal as a percent. 17. 0.3 19. 0.19 21. 0.66 23. 0.21 25. 0.13 27. 0.528 29. 0.194 31. 0.426 18. 0.7 20. 0.74 22. 0.52 24. 0.81 26. 0.362 28. 0.245 30. 0.334 32. 0.059 2. 8% 4. 12% 6. 54% 8. 79% 10. 0.6% 12. 0.5% 14. 102% 16. 310%

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

517

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 106

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Percents and Decimals
1. COMMUTING According to the 2000 U.S. census, 76% of U.S. workers commute to work by driving alone. Write 76% as a decimal. 2. BASEBALL Barry Bondss batting average for the 2002 season was 0.370. Write 0.370 as a percent.

3. ELECTIONS In the 2002 U.S. midterm elections, 39% of eligible adults voted. What is 39% written as a decimal?

4. BASKETBALL In the 20012002 season, Jason Kidd of the New Jersey Nets had a field goal average of 0.391. What is 0.391 written as a percent?

5. SPORTS When asked to choose their favorite sport, 27% of U.S. adults who follow sports selected professional football. What decimal is equivalent to 27%?

6. AGE Lawrence is 18 years old and his brother Luther is 12 years old. This means that Lawrence is 1.5 times older than Luther. What percent is equivalent to 1.5?

7. WATER About 5% of the surface area of the U.S. is water. What decimal represents the amount of the U.S. surface area taken up by water?

8. POPULATION China accounts for 0.207 of the worlds population. What percent of the worlds population lives in China?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

518

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Percents and Decimals
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 404 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. What percent does the circle graph represent?

2. What fraction represents the section of the graph labeled rent?

3. Write the fraction from Exercise 2 as a decimal.

Reading the Lesson


Complete each of the following sentences. 4. To rewrite a fraction with a denominator of 100 as a decimal, move the decimal point of the numerator __________ places to the __________.

5. To rewrite a fraction with a denominator of __________ as a decimal, move the decimal point of the numerator 3 places to the left.

6. Look at Example 3 on page 404. Why does the denominator change from 100 to 1,000?

Helping You Remember


7. Look at Example 5 on page 405. Explain why the first fraction has a denominator of 1,000. Then explain what happens at the next step.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

519

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 106

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Percent and Per Mill
A percent is a ratio that compares a number to 100.
83 83 percent 83% 0.83 100

A ratio that compares a number to 1,000 is called a per mill. Just like percent, the ratio per mill has a special symbol, .
83 83 per mill 83 0.083 1,000

Throughout the world, the ratio that is used most commonly is percent. However, in some countries, you will find both ratios in use. Express per mill as a decimal. 1. 325 2. 71 3. 6

4. 900

5. 20

6. 100

Express each per mill as a fraction in simplest form. 7. 47 8. 400 9. 100

10. 25

11. 150

12. 30

Express each fraction as a per mill.


729 13. 1,000 58 14. 100 7 15. 10

1 16. 2

3 17. 4

5 18 8

4 19. 5

17 20. 20

1 21. 3

22. CHALLENGE In the United States, you will sometimes find the mill used as a monetary unit. What amount of money do you think is represented by 1 mill?
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

520

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Percent of a Number
One way to find the percent of a number is to write the percent as a fraction and then multiply. Another way is to write the percent as a decimal and then multiply.

Find 70% of 40. Method 1 Write the percent as a fraction.


70 7 70% or 100 10 7 7 of 40 40 or 28 10 10

Method 2 Write the percent as a decimal.


70 70% or 0.7 100

0.7 of 40 0.7 40 or 28

So, 70% of 40 is 28. Use a model to check the answer.


0% 0 10% 4 20% 8 30% 12 40% 16 50% 20 60% 24 70% 28 80% 32 90% 36 100% 40

The model comfirms that 70% of 40 is 28.

Find 120% of 25. Method 1 Write the percent as a fraction.


120 6 120% or 100 5 6 6 of 25 25 or 30 5 5

Method 2 Write the percent as a decimal.


120 120% or 1.2 100

1.2 of 25 1.2 25 or 30

So, 120% of 25 is 30.

Find the percent of each number. 1. 10% of 120 2. 60% of 25 3. 75% of 24

4. 90% of 40

5. 120% of 20

6. 150% of 2

7. 15% of 40

8. 30% of 70

9. 150% of 6

10. 165% of 20

11. 8% of 15

12. 6% of 6

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

521

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 107

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Percent of a Number
Find the percent of each number. 1. 25% of 16 2. 50% of 70 3. 10% of 30

4. 60% of 40

5. 75% of 20

6. 20% of 90

7. 30% of 110

8. 50% of 140

9. 25% of 80

10. 4% of 100

11. 75% of 36

12. 90% of 120

13. 125% of 40

14. 8% of 25

15. 150% of 22

16. 110% of 50

17. 125% of 60

18. 0.4% of 5

19. 6.5% of 40

20. 0.5% of 14

21. 0.1% of 29

22. 130% of 80

23. 4.5% of 60

24. 0.5% of 34

25. 14.5% of 60

26. 14% of 30

27. 24% of 15

28. 140% of 30

29. 6% of 55

30. 160% of 22

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

522

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Percent of a Number
1. SCHOOL There are 520 students at Northridge High School. 80% of these students take the bus. How many students take the bus? 2. AGE Theresa is 60% as old as her sister Mala, who is 20 years old. How old is Theresa?

3. TIPPING Charlie wants to leave a 15% tip for a meal that costs $40. How much should Charlie leave for a tip?

4. SALES TAX Charmaine wants to buy a shirt for $15. If the sales tax is 4% of $15, how much will she pay in sales tax?

5. FOOTBALL In the 20012002 regular season, the Green Bay Packers won 75% of their games. There were 16 regular season games. How many games did Green Bay win?

6. BASEBALL During the 2002 World Series, Rich Aurilia of the San Francisco Giants had a batting average of 250 or 25%. He was at bat 32 times. How many hits did he get?

7. RUNNING Thomas finished the race in 120 minutes. James took 95.5% as long as Thomas to finish the race. How long did it take James to finish the race?

8. SHOPPING A DVD player that normally costs $160 is on sale for 70% of its normal price. What is the sale price of the DVD player?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

523

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 107

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Percent of a Number
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 409 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. What percent of the cars were traveling 20 miles per hour over the speed limit?

2. Write a multiplication sentence that involves a percent that could be used to find the number of cars out of 300 that were traveling 20 miles an hour over the speed limit.

Reading the Lesson


3. What are two different methods you can use to find the percent of a number?

4. Complete the statement: 12% of 48 has the same meaning as 12% 48.

Helping You Remember


5. Work with a partner. Make up a problem in which you can find the percent of a number as in Examples 1 and 2. One person uses Method 1, writing the percent as a fraction. The other person uses Method 2, writing the percent as a decimal. Compare your results. Make up another problem and have each person use the other method. Again, compare your results. Do you prefer one method over the other? Explain.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

524

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Estimating Sales Tax
Many states charge a sales tax on purchases. To be sure that you have enough money, you should be able to estimate the amount of sales tax and the total cost of an item. For example, this is how you can estimate the total cost of the purchase shown at the right. First, round the price and the rate. $10.95 $11 6.75% 7%

5 0.9 1 $
sales tax rate: 6.75%

Multiply the rounded numbers. 11 dollars


7 per dollar 77 80
7% means 7 per 100, or 7 per dollar.

So, the total cost is close to $11 80, or $11.80. Estimate the total cost of each purchase. 1. 2. 3.

$6
sales tax rate: 5% 4.

.9 8

$1

1 .9

$1 7

9 .8

sales tax rate: 5.75% 5. 6.

sales tax rate: 4.255%

$2

9 .9

$7 5
sales tax 1 rate: 8 %
4

9 .0

$1 0

17

.9 9

sales tax 1 rate: 6 %


2

sales tax rate: 6.25%

Will $50 be enough money to make such purchase? 7. 8. 9.

$4

8 .9

$4 5

6 .9

$4 9
sales tax 1 rate: 8 %
4

6 .9

sales tax rate: 3%

sales tax rate: 4.75%

10. CHALLENGE The price marked on a cassette tape is $8.99. With the sales tax, the total cost of the tape is $9.37. Estimate the sales tax rate.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

525

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 107

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Estimating with Percents
The table below shows some commonly used percents and their fraction equivalents.

Percent-Fraction Equivalents
1 20% 5 3 30% 10 2 40% 5 1 50% 2 3 60% 5 7 70% 10 4 80% 5 9 90% 10 4 3 75% 4 1 25% 1 1 33 % 3 3 3 3 2 2 66 %

100% 1

Estimate each percent. 20% of 58


1 20% is . 5

76% of 25.
3 76% is close to 75% or . 4

Round 58 to 60 since it is divisible by 5.


1 1 60 60 5 5 1
1 12

Round 25 to 24 since it is divisible by 4.


3 4

3 24 24 4 1
1

12 So, 20% of 58 is about 12.

18 So, 76% of 25 is about 18.

Estimate the percent of the figure that is shaded. 2 out of 9 circles are shaded.
2 3 1 is about or 9 9 3 1 1 33% 3 3 1 So, about 33 % of the figure is shaded. 3

Estimate each percent. 1. 49% of 8 2. 62% of 20 3. 40% of 51

4. 24% of 27

5. 81% of 32

6. 19% of 46

Estimate the percent that is shaded in each figure. 7. 8. 9.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

526

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Estimating with Percents
Estimate each percent. 1. 58% of 5 2. 41% of 10 3. 75% of 17

4. 50% of 39

5. 24% of 13

6. 82% of 24

7. 19% of 31

8. 73% of 61

9. 62% of 34

10. 49% of 71

11. 38% of 42

12. 27% of 81

13. 79% of 16

14. 52% of 118

15. 19% of 94

16. 33% of 61

17. 91% of 82

18. 67% of 241

Estimate the percent of the figure that is shaded. 19. 20. 21.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

527

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 108

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Estimating with Percents
1. SCHOOL At Westside High School, 24% of the 225 sixth grade students walk to school. About how many of the sixth grade students walk to school? 2. BASKETBALL In the 2002 regular season the WNBA Cleveland Rockers won 31.25% of their games. They had 32 games in their regular season. About how many games did they win?

3 30 9 games 10

3. SALES TAX The sales tax rate in Lacon is 9%. About how much tax would you pay on an item that costs $61?

4. SPORTS The concession stand at a football game served 178 customers. Of those, about 52% bought a hot dog. About how many customers bought a hot dog?

1 180 90 customers 2

5. READING Max has completed 39% of his reading assignment. If there are 303 pages in the assignment, about how many pages has Max read?

6. SHOPPING A store is having a 20% sale. That means the customer pays 80% of the regular price. About how much would you pay for an item that regularly sells for $44.99?

4 answer: 45 $36 5

7. SLEEP A recent study shows that people spend about 31% of their time asleep. About how much time will a person spend asleep during an average 78 year lifetime?

8. BIOLOGY The human body is 72% water, on average. About how much water will be in a person that weighs 138 pounds?

7 140 98 lb water 10

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

528

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Estimating with Percents
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 415 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. What would be the cost of the notebook at 10% off? 2. What would be the cost of the pencils at 25% off? Round to the nearest cent. 3. Explain how you might estimate the cost of the notebook at 10% off and the cost of the pencils at 25% off.

Reading the Lesson


4. Write the fraction for each percent. 20% 40% 60% 80%

25%

1 2 33 % 66% 3 3

1 3

2 3

5. Complete the sentence. When you estimate with percents, you round to numbers that are _______________.

Helping You Remember


6. Work with a partner. Using the fractions and percents in the table you completed for Exercise 4, take turns saying either a fraction or percent. If you say a fraction, your partner writes the corresponding percent. If you say a percent, your partner writes the corresponding fraction. Make sure your partner cannot see the table above. Continue with your practice until you can remember all the fractions and percents.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

529

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 108

1 4

50%

1 2

75%

3 4

100% 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Using 100%, 10%, and 1%
Many people think of 100%, 10%, and 1% as key percents. 100% is the whole. 10% is one tenth of the whole. 1% is one hundredth of the whole. Find the percent of each number. 1. 100% of 8,000 3. 1% of 8,000 5. 100% of 720 7. 1% of 50 9. 10% of 14 11. 1% of 9 2. 10% of 8,000 4. 10% of 640 6. 1% of 290 8. 100% of 33 10. 100% of 2 12. 10% of 7 100% of 24 1 24, or 24. 10% of 24 0.1 24, or 2.4. 1% of 24 0.01 24, or 0.24.

This is how you can use the key percents to make some computations easier. 3% of 610 ? . 5% of 24 ? . 1% of 610 6.1, so 3% of 610 3 6.1, or 18.3. Find the percent of each number. 13. 2% of 140 15. 4% of 9 17. 70% of 90 19. 5% of 160 21. 50% of 612 23. 2.5% of 320 14. 8% of 2,100 16. 20% of 233 18. 30% of 4,110 20. 5% of 38 22. 25% of 168 24. 2.5% of 28 10% of 24 2.4,
1 so 5% of 24 of 2.4, or 1.2. 2

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

530

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Chapter Chapter 11 11 Resource Resource Masters Masters

Course 1 1 Course

Consumable Workbooks
Many of the worksheets contained in the Chapter Resource Masters booklets are available as consumable workbooks in both English and Spanish. Study Guide and Intervention Workbook Study Guide and Intervention Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Skills Workbook Practice: Skills Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Word Problems Workbook Practice: Word Problems Workbook (Spanish) Reading to Learn Mathematics Workbook 0-07-860085-5 0-07-860091-X 0-07-860086-3 0-07-860092-8 0-07-860087-1 0-07-860093-6 0-07-861057-5

Answers for Workbooks The answers for Chapter 11 of these


workbooks can be found in the back of this Chapter Resource Masters booklet.

Spanish Assessment Masters Spanish versions of forms 2A and 2C of


the Chapter 11 Test are available in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts Spanish Assessment Masters, Course 1 (0-07-860095-2).

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teacher, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1 Chapter 11 Resource Masters 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03

ISBN: 0-07-860074-X
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 024

CONTENTS
Vocabulary Builder .............................vii Family Letter ............................................ix Family Activity ........................................x Lesson 11-1
Study Guide and Intervention ........................551 Practice: Skills ................................................552 Practice: Word Problems................................553 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................554 Enrichment .....................................................555

Lesson 11-5
Study Guide and Intervention ........................571 Practice: Skills ................................................572 Practice: Word Problems................................573 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................574 Enrichment .....................................................575

Chapter 11 Assessment
Chapter 11 Test, Form 1 ........................577578 Chapter 11 Test, Form 2A ......................579580 Chapter 11 Test, Form 2B ......................581582 Chapter 11 Test, Form 2C......................583584 Chapter 11 Test, Form 2D......................585586 Chapter 11 Test, Form 3 ........................587588 Chapter 11 Extended Response Assessment ...............................................589 Chapter 11 Vocabulary Test/Review...............590 Chapter 11 Quizzes 1 & 2..............................591 Chapter 11 Quizzes 3 & 4..............................592 Chapter 11 Mid-Chapter Test .........................593 Chapter 11 Cumulative Review......................594 Chapter 11 Standardized Test Practice..595596 Unit 5 Test/Review..................................597598 Standardized Test Practice Student Recording Sheet ..............................A1 Standardized Test Practice Rubric...................A2 ANSWERS .............................................A3A26

Lesson 11-2
Study Guide and Intervention ........................556 Practice: Skills ................................................557 Practice: Word Problems................................558 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................559 Enrichment .....................................................560

Lesson 11-3
Study Guide and Intervention ........................561 Practice: Skills ................................................562 Practice: Word Problems................................563 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................564 Enrichment .....................................................565

Lesson 11-4
Study Guide and Intervention ........................566 Practice: Skills ................................................567 Practice: Word Problems................................568 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................569 Enrichment .....................................................570

iii

Teachers Guide to Using the Chapter 11 Resource Masters


The Fast File Chapter Resource system allows you to conveniently file the resources you use most often. The Chapter 11 Resource Masters includes the core materials needed for Chapter 11. These materials include worksheets, extensions, and assessment options. The answers for these pages appear at the back of this booklet. All of the materials found in this booklet are included for viewing and printing in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1, TeacherWorks CD-ROM.

Vocabulary Builder Pages vii-viii include a student study tool that presents up to twenty of the key vocabulary terms from the chapter. Students are to record definitions and/or examples for each term. You may suggest that students highlight or star the terms with which they are not familiar.
When to Use Give these pages to students before beginning Lesson 11-1. Encourage them to add these pages to their mathematics study notebook. Remind them to add definitions and examples as they complete each lesson.

Practice: Skills

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice that more closely follows the structure of the Practice and Applications section of the Student Edition exercises. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Practice: Word Problems

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice in solving word problems that apply the concepts of the lesson. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Family Letter and Family Activity


Page ix is a letter to inform your students families of the requirements of the chapter. The family activity on page x helps them understand how the mathematics students are learning is applicable to real life. When to Use Give these pages to students to take home before beginning the chapter.

Study Guide and Intervention


There is one Study Guide and Intervention master for each lesson in Chapter 11. When to Use Use these masters as reteaching activities for students who need additional reinforcement. These pages can also be used in conjunction with the Student Edition as an instructional tool for students who have been absent.

Reading to Learn Mathematics One master is included for each lesson. The first section of each master asks questions about the opening paragraph of the lesson in the Student Edition. Additional questions ask students to interpret the context of and relationships among terms in the lesson. Finally, students are asked to summarize what they have learned using various representation techniques.
When to Use This master can be used as a study tool when presenting the lesson or as an informal reading assessment after presenting the lesson. It is also a helpful tool for ELL (English Language Learner) students.

iv

There is one extension master for each lesson. These activities may extend the concepts in the lesson, offer an historical or multicultural look at the concepts, or widen students perspectives on the mathematics they are learning. These are not written exclusively for honors students, but are accessible for use with all levels of students. When to Use These may be used as extra credit, short-term projects, or as activities for days when class periods are shortened.

Enrichment

A Vocabulary Test, suitable for all students, includes a list of the vocabulary words in the chapter and ten questions assessing students knowledge of those terms. This can also be used in conjunction with one of the chapter tests or as a review worksheet.

Intermediate Assessment
Four free-response quizzes are included to offer assessment at appropriate intervals in the chapter. A Mid-Chapter Test provides an option to assess the first half of the chapter. It is composed of both multiple-choice and freeresponse questions.

Assessment Options
The assessment masters in the Chapter 11 Resources Masters offer a wide range of assessment tools for intermediate and final assessment. The following lists describe each assessment master and its intended use.

Continuing Assessment
The Cumulative Review provides students an opportunity to reinforce and retain skills as they proceed through their study of Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. It can also be used as a test. This master includes free-response questions. The Standardized Test Practice offers continuing review of pre-algebra concepts in various formats, which may appear on the standardized tests that they may encounter. This practice includes multiplechoice, short response, grid-in, and extended response questions. Bubble-in and grid-in answer sections are provided on the master.

Chapter Assessment
Chapter Tests Form 1 contains multiple-choice questions and is intended for use with basic level students. Forms 2A and 2B contain multiple-choice questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Forms 2C and 2D are composed of freeresponse questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Grids with axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. Form 3 is an advanced level test with free-response questions. Grids without axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. All of the above tests include a free-response Bonus question. The Extended-Response Assessment includes performance assessment tasks that are suitable for all students. A scoring rubric is included for evaluation guidelines. Sample answers are provided for assessment.

Answers
Page A1 is an answer sheet for the Standardized Test Practice questions that appear in the Student Edition on pages 458459. This improves students familiarity with the answer formats they may encounter in test taking. Detailed rubrics for assessing the extended response questions on page 459 are provided on page A2. The answers for the lesson-by-lesson masters are provided as reduced pages with answers appearing in red. Full-size answer keys are provided for the assessment masters in this booklet.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
This is an alphabetical list of new vocabulary terms you will learn in Chapter 11. As you study the chapter, complete each terms definition or description. Remember to add the page number where you found the term. Add this page to your math study notebook to review vocabulary at the end of the chapter. Vocabulary Term complementary events Found on Page Definition/Description/Example
Vocabulary Builder

event

independent events

outcomes

population

random

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
Vocabulary Term sample Found on Page

(continued)
Definition/Description/Example

sample space

survey [sir-vay]

theoretical probability [THEE-uh-REHT-uh-kuhl] [prah-buh-BILL-uh-tee]

tree diagram

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Letter

Dear Parent or Guardian: ermine how likely We can use probability to help us det we know that when we something is to occur. For example, l land faceup is toss a coin, the probability that it wil 1 bability and analyze likely . Knowing how to calculate pro 2 rmed decisions. outcomes will help us make more info ld will learn how to find In Chapter 11, Probability, your chi nt, to predict actions of a and interpret the probability of an eve find outcomes using lists, larger group using a sample, and to the study of this chapter, tree diagrams, and combinations. In daily classroom your child will complete a variety of ly produce a chapter assignments and activities and possib project . it with your child, you By signing this letter and returning ting involved. Enclosed is agree to encourage your child by get ld that also relates the an activity you can do with your chi 11 to the real world. math we will be learning in Chapter Online Study Tools for You may also wish to log on to the t Study Guide pages, self-check quizzes, Parent and Studen 1.net. If you have any and other study help at www.msmath contact me at school. questions or comments, feel free to Sincerely,

Signature of Parent or Guardian ______________________________________ Date ________

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Family Letter

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Activity
Whats Your Preference?
Work with a family member to answer the following questions. 1. Determine the number of parents, siblings, grandparents, aunts, uncles, and close friends you have. Record the number below.

2. Write the name of each family member or friend on a separate piece of paper. Place all of the papers in a hat. Without looking, select five pieces of paper. Record the names of those family members or friends selected in the space below.

3. Ask those five family members or friends what color they prefer. Record the results in the space below.

4. What fraction of your family members or friends selected in Exercise 2 prefers red? blue? yellow? green?

5. Based on your sample, predict how many of your family members and friends listed in Exercise 1 prefer blue.

6. Based on your sample, predict how many of your family members and friends listed in Exercise 1 prefer yellow.

7. Based on your sample, predict how many of your family members and friends listed in Exercise 1 prefer red.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Theoretical Probability
When tossing a coin, there are two possible outcomes, heads and tails. Suppose you are looking for heads. If the coin lands on heads, this would be a favorable outcome or event. The chance that some event will happen (in this case, getting heads) is called theoretical probability. You can use a ratio to find probability. The probability of an event is a number from 0 to 1, including 0 and 1. The closer a probability is to 1, the more likely it is to happen.
impossible to occur 0 0% equally likely to occur
1 or 0.25 4 1 or 0.50 2 3 or 0.75 4

certain to occur 1 100%

25%

50%

75%

There are four equally likely outcomes on the spinner. Find the probability of spinning green or blue.
number of favorable outcomes P(green or blue) number of possible outcomes 2 1 or 4 2

red

blue

green

yellow

1 The probability of landing on green or blue is , 0.50, or 50%. 2

Complementary events are two events in which either one or the other must happen, but both cannot happen at the same time. The sum of the probabilities of complementary events is 1.

There is a 25% chance that Sam will win a prize. What is the probability that Sam will not win a prize? P(win) P(not win) 1 0.25 P(not win) 1 0.25 0.25 P(not win) 0.75
Replace P (win) with 0.25. Subtract 0.25 from each side.

3 So, the probability that Sam wont win a prize is 0.75, 75%, or . 4

1. There is a 90% chance that it will rain. What is the probability that it will not rain?

One pen is chosen without looking from a bag that has 3 blue pens, 6 red, and 3 green. Find the probability of each event. Write each answer as a fraction, a decimal, and a percent. 2. P(green) 3. P(blue or red) 4. P(yellow)

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 111

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Theoretical Probability
A card is randomly chosen. Find each probability. Write each answer as a fraction, a decimal, and a percent. 1. P(B)

A K O R Q

B S E

2. P(Q or R)

3. P(vowel)

4. P(consonant or vowel)

5. P(consonant or A)

6. P(T) The spinner shown is spun once. Write a sentence explaining how likely it is for each event to occur. 7. P(dog)
hamster
cat cat

dog

dog

8. P(hamster)

dog

9. P(dog or cat)

10. P(bird)

11. P(mammal)

WEATHER The weather reporter says that there is a 12% chance that it

will be moderately windy tomorrow. 12. What is the probability that it will not be windy?

13. Will tomorrow be a good day to fly a kite? Explain.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Theoretical Probability
Write each answer as a fraction, a decimal, and a percent.
PARTY For Exercises 1 and 2, the spinner shown is spun once. yo-yo whistle

The spinner shows the prizes a person can win at a party.

cap
cap key cap ring

cap yo-yo

1. What is the probability that a person will spin a cap? a whistle? a cap or yo-yo?

2. What is the probability that a person will spin a stuffed animal? Explain. What is the probability that a person will win a prize?

3. WEATHER The weather report says there is an 85% chance it will be very hot tomorrow. Should you get ready to use the air conditioner? Explain.

4. EATING HABITS 7% of Americans are vegetarians. If you ask a random person whether he or she is a vegetarian, what is the probability that the person is not a vegetarian? Explain.

5. SCHOOL Theresa is taking a multiplechoice test and does not know an answer. She can guess answer A, B, C, D, or E. What is the probability that Theresa will guess correctly? incorrectly?

6. NUMBER CUBE You roll a number cube. How likely is it that you will roll a number less than 1? less than 7? Explain.

7. FOOD Mrs. Phillips has 10 identical cans without labels. She knows that she had 1 can of peas, 5 cans of corn, 1 can of carrots, and 3 cans of beets. She opens one can. What is the probability it is carrots? corn or beets?

8. In Exercise 7, how likely is it Mrs. Phillips will open a can of corn? a can of peas? Explain.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 111

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Theoretical Probability
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 428 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Write a ratio that compares the number of cards numbered 3 to the total number of cards. 2. What percent of the cards are numbered 3? 3. Does Morgan have a good chance of winning? Explain.

4. What would happen to her chances of winning if cards 1, 4, 7, 9, and 10 were added to the cards shown?

5. What happens to her chances if only cards 3 and 8 are facedown on the table?

Reading the Lesson


For Exercises 68, see the Key Concept box at the bottom of page 428. 6. In the equation, how is P(event) read? In terms of the game at the top of the page, what is the event?

7. In terms of the game, what are the favorable outcomes? 8. In terms of the game, what are the possible outcomes? 9. In Example 3 at the bottom of page 429, how do you read the equation P(snow) P(not snowing) 1? What are snowing not snowing called?

Helping You Remember


10. A deck of cards contains 52 cards divided equally into four suitsspades, hearts, diamonds, clubs. What is the probability that a player will draw a spade from a facedown deck? Write an equation using the symbols from this lesson.

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Enrichment
Working Backward with Probabilities
Suppose that you are given this information about rolling a number cube.
1 P (1) 2 1 P (3) 3 1 P (5) 6

Can you tell what numbers are marked on the faces of the cube? Work backward. Since a cube has six faces, express each probability as a fraction whose denominator is 6.
3 P (1) 6 2 P (3) 6 1 P (5) 6

So, the cube must have three faces marked with the number 1, two faces marked 3, and one face marked 5.

1 1. P(2)

3 1 P (4) 3 1 P (6) 3

1 2. P(1)

6 1 P (4) 6

5 3. P(1 or 2)

6 2 P (2 or 3) 3

P (factor of 4) 1

P (1, 2, or 3) 1

Each set of probabilities is associated with the spinner shown at the right. How many sections of each color are there?
1 4. P(red) 2 1 P (blue) 4 1 P (green) 8 1 P (black) 8 5 5. P(yellow or purple) 8 3 P (purple or white) 4

? ? ? ?

? ? ? ?

P (green or blue) 0 P (yellow, purple, or white) 1

6. Suppose that you are given this information about pulling a marble out of a bag.
1 P(green) 4 1 P(yellow) 24 1 P(blue) 6 1 P(white) 24 3 P(red) 8 1 P(black) 8

If the bag contains 48 marbles, how many marbles of each color are there?

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 111

Each set of probabilities is associated with rolling a number cube. What numbers are marked on the faces of each cube?

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Outcomes
The set of all possible outcomes is called the sample space. A tree diagram is a diagram used to show the total number of possible outcomes. It can be used to show the sample space. When you make a tree diagram, you have an organized list of outcomes. When you know the number of outcomes, you can easily find the probability that an event will occur.

How many sandwiches are possible from a choice of turkey or ham with jack cheese or Swiss cheese? Draw a tree diagram. Sandwich
turkey (T) Swiss (S) jack (J) ham (H) Swiss (S) HS TS HJ

Cheese
jack (J)

Outcome
TJ

There are four possible sandwiches. Use the tree diagram from Example 1. Find the probability of choosing a ham with jack cheese sandwich. The outcome column of the tree diagram shows there is one possible outcome for ham with 1 jack cheese. There are 4 possible outcomes. So, P(ham, jack) , 0.25, or 25%.
4

Draw a tree diagram to show the sample space for each situation. Then tell how many outcomes are possible and find the probability. 1. buy a can or a bottle of grape or orange soda Find P(bottle, grape). 2. toss a coin and roll a number cube Find P(4, tails).

3. wear jeans or shorts with a blue, white, black, or red T-shirt. Find P(jeans, white T-shirt).

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Outcomes
1. In how many ways can 2 coins be chosen from a set of 1 penny, 1 nickel, 1 dime, and 1 quarter? Make a list to show the sample space. Draw a tree diagram to show the sample space for each situation. Then tell how many outcomes are possible and find the given probability. 2. Each spinner is spun once. How many outcomes are possible? Find P(pink, Z).
X pink green

3. chocolate, vanilla, strawberry, or mint ice cream with sugar or waffle cone How many outcomes are possible? Find P(vanilla, waffle).

4. paint room cream, violet, or blue with red, white or gold trim How many outcomes are possible? Find P(blue, red).

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 112

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Outcomes
1. OUTINGS Olivia and Candace are deciding between Italian or Chinese food and then whether to go to a movie, walk in the park, or go for a bike ride. Draw a tree diagram to show the sample space. How many choices do they have?
Outcome
IM IW IB CM CW CB

2. PETS Terence is going to get a parrot. He can choose among a yellow, green, or multi-colored female or male parrot. Draw a tree diagram showing all the ways Terence can choose. What is the probability he will choose a yellow female?

3. CAKE Julia is ordering a birthday cake. She can have a circular or rectangular chocolate or vanilla cake with chocolate, vanilla, or maple frosting. Draw a tree diagram showing all the possible ways Julia can order her cake. How many options does she have?

4. GAMES Todd plays a game in which you toss a coin and roll a number cube. Draw a tree diagram to find all possible outcomes. What is P(heads, odd number)?

5. SCHOOL Melissa can choose two classes. Her choices are wood shop, painting, chorus, and auto shop. List all the ways two classes can be chosen.

6. SHOPPING Kaya has enough allowance to purchase two new baseball caps from the five he likes. How many ways can he choose?

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Outcomes
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 433 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. List the possible ways to choose a soft drink, a popcorn, and a candy.

2. How many different ways are possible?

Reading the Lesson


Lesson 112
3. Braces { } are used beside the number cube and spinner on page 433. What do these braces indicate? What is each set called?

4. In the tree diagram in Example 1 on page 433, which part of the diagram shows the sample space? 5. In the tree diagram at the right, find the sample space.
A

C D E C B D E

6. In Example 3 on page 434, why are there three ways to choose two of the puppies and not six ways?

Helping You Remember


7. Work with a partner. Think up a situation for which you could make a tree diagram to show all possible outcomes. Make the diagram. Then choose one or more desired outcomes and show how to determine the P(desired outcome).
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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Listing Outcomes in a Table
Suppose that you spin the two spinners below. What is the probability that the sum of the numbers you spin is 5?
1 4 2 3 2 1 6 5 3 4

First Spinner

1 2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3 4 5 6 7 8 9

4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Second Spinner

3 4 5 6

To find this probability, you first need to count the outcomes. One way to do this is to use a table of sums like the one at the right. From the table, it is easy to see that there are 24 outcomes. It is also easy to see that, in 4 of these outcomes, the sum of the numbers is 5. So, the probability that the sum of the numbers 1 4 is 5 is , or .
24 6

Use the spinners and the table above. Find each probability. 1. P(sum is 8) 3. P(sum is greater than 6) 2. P(sum is 12) 4. P(sum is less than or equal to 10)

Suppose you roll two number cubes. Each cube is marked with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 on its faces. Find each probability. (Hint: On a separate sheet of paper, make a chart like the one above.) 5. P(sum is 9) 7. P(sum is an even number) 9. P(sum is a prime number) 11. P(sum is greater than 12) 6. P(sum is 3) 8. P(sum is a multiple of 3) 10. P(sum is a factor of 12) 12. P(sum is less than 6)

13. CHALLENGE Here is a set of probabilities associated with two spinners.


1 P(sum is 4) 6 1 P(sum is 8) 3 1 P(sum is 6) 3 1 P(sum is 10) 6

In the space at the right, sketch the two spinners.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Making Predictions
A survey is a method of collecting information. The group being surveyed is the population. To save time and money, part of the group, called a sample, is surveyed. A good sample is:

selected at random, or without preference, representative of the population, and large enough to provide accurate data.
Every sixth student who walked into the school was asked how he or she got to school. Determine whether the sample is a good sample. This sample is good because it is random (every sixth student), representative of the population (students coming to school), and large enough to provide accurate information. School Transportation Method Students walk 10 ride bike 10 ride bus 15 get ride 5

Using the information from Example 1, what is the probability that a student at the school rode a bike to school?
number of students that rode a bike P(ride bike) number of students surveyed 10 1 1 or So, P(ride bike) , 0.25, or 25%. 40 4 4

There are 360 students at the school. Predict how many bike to school. Write a proportion. Let s number of students who will ride a bike. s 10 360 40 You can solve the proportion to find that of the 360 students, 90 will ride a bike to school.

Determine whether the following sample is a good sample. Explain. 1. 300 people at the opera were surveyed to find their favorite type of music.

SCHOOL Use the following information and the table Favorite Subject shown. Every tenth student entering the school was asked Subject Students which one of the four subjects was his or her favorite. Language Arts 10 Math 10 2. Find the probability that any student attending school Science 15 prefers science. Social Studies 5

3. There are 400 students at the school. Predict how many students would prefer science.
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 113

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Making Predictions
Determine whether each sample is a good sample. Explain. 1. 250 people at the beach in the summer are asked to name their favorite vacation spot.

2. Every fourth shopper at a grocery store is asked whether or not he or she owns a pet.

For Exercise 36, use the table and the following information. A survey of students favorite sports was taken from a random sample of students in a school. The results are shown in the table. 3. What is the size of the sample?

Students Favorite Sports Soccer 8 Baseball /Softball 3 Volleyball 5 Track & Field 4

4. What is the probability that a student will prefer soccer?

5. What is the probability that a student will prefer volleyball?

6. There are 550 students in the school. Predict how many students at the school prefer track and field.

For Exercises 710, use the table and the following information. A random sample of 40 flower shop customers was surveyed to find customers favorite flowers. The table shows the results. The shop expects to sell 50 bunches of flowers on Sunday. How many bunches of each flower should the shop order? 7. daisy 8. rose 9. mum 10. gardenia

Favorite Flower Type Shoppers Daisy 8 Gardenia 4 Mum 8 Rose 20

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Making Predictions
MOVIES For Exercises 13, use SLEEP For Exercises 47, use the table

the table of results of Jeremys survey of favorite kinds of movies. Favorite Movie Type Type People Drama 12 Foreign 3 Comedy 20 Action 15

of results of the Better Sleep Councils survey of Americans to find the most important factors for good sleep. Most Important Factors for Good Sleep Good Mattress 32 Daily Exercise 20 Good Pillows 8 Healthy Diet 11 Other Factors 29 2. If Jeremy were to ask any person to name his or her favorite type of movie, what is the probability that it would be comedy?

1. MOVIES How many people did Jeremy use for his sample?

2 , 0.4, or 40% 5

3. If Jeremy were to survey 250 people, how many would you predict would name comedy?

4. SLEEP Predict how many people out of 400 would say that a good mattress is the most important factor.

5. What is the probability that any person chosen at random would not say that a healthy diet is the most important factor?

6. Suppose 250 people were chosen at random. Predict the number of people that would say good pillows are the most important factor.

7. What is the probability that any person chosen at random would say that daily exercise is the most important factor for a good night sleep?

8. ICE CREAM Claudia went to an ice cream shop to conduct a survey. She asked every tenth person who entered the shop to name his or her favorite dessert. Did Claudia select a good sample? Explain.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 113

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Making Predictions
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 438 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. When working in a group, how did your group predict the number of left-handed and right-handed students in your school?

2. Compare your groups prediction with the class prediction. Which do you think is more accurate? Explain.

Reading the Lesson


3. Write the three characteristics of a good sample.

4. Using the characteristics listed in the table above, do you think that a classroom is a good sample of an entire school? Explain.

5. If the question of the survey is, What is your favorite television program? would you change the sample in any way? If so, how would you change it?

6. In Examples 2 and 3 on page 439, how is the prediction used?

Helping You Remember


7. Work with a partner. Find the results of a survey that is of interest to you. For example, to find surveys on favorite TV programs, go to a search engine on the Internet and enter survey TV programs. Choose one survey. Do you think the survey is a good survey? If so, why? If not, why not and how would you change it?
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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Odds
People who play games of chance often talk about odds. You can find the odds in favor of an event by using this formula.
number of ways an event can occur odds in favor number of ways the event cannot occur

With the spinner shown at the right, for example, this is how you would find the odds in favor of the event prime number.
There are four prime numbers (2, 3, 5, 7). Six numbers are not prime (1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10).

2 3 4 1 5 6 10 9 8 7

4 2 6 3
3

2 The odds in favor of the event prime number are or 2 to 3.

Suppose that you spin the spinner shown above. Find the odds in favor of each event. 1. number greater than 3 2. number less than or equal to 6

3. even number

4. odd number

5. multiple of 3

6. factor of 10

To find the odds against an event, you use this formula.


number of ways an event cannot occur odds against number of ways the event can occur

Suppose that you roll a number cube with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 marked on its faces. Find the odds against each event.

9. even number

10. odd number

11. number divisible by 3

12. factor of 12

2 13. CHALLENGE The probability of an event is . What are the odds in favor 3

of the event? the odds against the event?

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 113

7. number less than 5

8. number greater than or equal to 2

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Probability and Area
Probability can be expressed as the ratio of areas. The probability of landing in a specific region of a target is the ratio of the area of the specific region to the area of the target.
area of specific region P(specific region) area of the target

Find the probability that a randomly thrown dart will land in the shaded region of the dartboard. Assume it is equally likely for a dart to land anywhere in the rectangle.
area of shaded region P(shaded region) area of the target

15 in. 35 in. 100 in. 50 in.

Area of shaded region w 15 100 1,500 sq in.


3 1,500 P(shaded region) or 5,000 10

Area of dartboard w 50 100 5,000 sq in.

So, the probability that a randomly thrown dart will land in the shaded region 3 is , 0.30, or 30%.
10

Predict how many times a dart will land in the shaded area above if 30 darts are randomly thrown. Write a proportion that compares the number of darts landing in the shaded region to the number of darts thrown. Let n the number of darts landing in the shaded region.
n 3 30 10

darts landing in the shaded region darts thrown Write the cross products. Multiply. Divide each side by 10.

n 10 30 3 10n 90
10n 90 10 10

n 9

So, if 30 darts are randomly thrown, 9 darts will land in the shaded region.

Use the dartboard from Example 1. 1. What is the probability that a randomly thrown dart will land in the region that is not shaded? 2. Predict the number of darts that will land in the region that is not shaded if 40 darts are randomly thrown.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Probability and Area
Find the probability that a randomly thrown dart will land in the shaded region of each dartboard. 1. 2. 3.

Suppose you randomly throw 10 darts at each dartboard below. How many darts would you expect to land in each shaded area? 4.
2 ft 3 ft 10 ft

5.

10 yd 8 yd 5 yd 10 yd

6.

6m 3m 2m 10 m

Use the dartboard at the right. 7. What is the probability of a randomly thrown dart landing on a consonant?

V Q W O E Z I X

8. If 40 darts are randomly thrown, how many would you predict to land on a consonant?

9. What is the probability that a randomly thrown dart would land on a


vowel?

10. If 200 darts are randomly thrown, how many would you predict to land on a vowel?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 114

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Probability and Area
GAMES For Exercises 15, use the following information and the game boards below. Game Board 1 is for a beanbag toss game in which you are blindfolded and toss a beanbag at the board. The game board shows a birds head with eyes, beak, and a hole for a mouth. Game Board 2 is for a dart game in which you randomly throw a dart at the board. Game Board 1 Game Board 2
12 in. 30 in. 18 in. 30 in.

1. Refer to Game Board 1. The shaded region represents the mouth hole. Dawn will randomly throw a beanbag at the board. What is the probability that the beanbag will go into the mouth hole? What is the probability that the beanbag will not go into the mouth hole?

2. Use your answer from Exercise 1. Predict how many beanbags will go into the mouth hole if Dawn throws 20 beanbags. Explain.

be the same for 20 bags, or 4 . So, 4 out of the 20 beanbags


20

1 for one bag, and the ratio must 5

will go into the mouth.


3. Use your answer from Exercise 1. Predict how many beanbags will not go into the mouth hole if Dawn throws 40 beanbags. 4. Refer to Game Board 2. Pam will randomly throw a dart at the dartboard. What is the probability that her dart will land in the shaded region? Explain.

Since the shaded region is


2 whole is . 5
5. Use your answer from Exercise 4. Predict the number of darts that will land in the shaded area if Pam randomly throws 60 darts.

2 , 0.4, or 40%; Sample answer: 5

6. SKYDIVING A skydiver is dropped from a plane above a field that is 35 yards by 16 yards. In the center is a region of sand that is 7 yards by 7 yards. What is the probability that the skydiver will land in the sandy region?

7 , 0.0875, or 8.75% 80

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

568

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Probability and Area
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 444 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Find P(a piece of rice lands in blue region).

area of blue region 2. How does this ratio compare to the ratio ? Explain. area of target

Reading the Lesson


3. Is experimental or theoretical probability used in Examples 1 and 2? How do you know?

4. Find P(black region) and P(gray region).

5. Explain how you used area when you found the answers to Exercise 4 above.

6. Use grid paper to make two models to illustrate probability and area one model with a large shaded area and one with a small shaded area. Find the percent probabilities for each model.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

569

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 114

Helping You Remember

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Spinners and More Spinners
When you spin a spinner, it is not necessarily true that all outcomes are equally likely. With the spinner shown at the right, for example, you can see it is most likely that the pointer will stop in region A. To find probabilities on a spinner like this, you need to consider what fraction of a complete turn of the pointer is associated with each region. In the spinner at the right, region
1 1 A involves about of a complete turn, so P(A) is about . Using the 1 1 1 same reasoning, P (B) is about , P(C) is about , and P(D) is about . 4 8 8 2 2
B A D C

Estimate each probability. 1.


A D C B D

2.
A B C

3.
D C A B

P(A): P(B): P(C): P(D):

P(A): P(B): P(C): P(D):

P(A): P(B): P(C): P(D):

Sketch a spinner that satisfies the given conditions.


1 4. P(A) 2 1 P(B) 3 1 P(C) 12 1 P(D) 12 1 5. P(A) 4 1 P(B) 4 1 P(C) 3 1 P(D) 6 1 6. P(A) 8 5 P(B) 8 3 P(C) 16 1 P(D) 16
A C B D

7. CHALLENGE Use the spinner at the right. Estimate each probability. P(A): P(C): P(B): P(D):

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

570

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Probability of Independent Events
If the outcome of one event does not affect the outcome of a second event, the two events are independent events. The probability of two independent events is found by multiplying the probability of the first event by the probability of the second event.

A spinner is spun and a number card is chosen at random. What is the probability that red is spun and a 4 is chosen?
1 P(red) 2 3 1 P(4) or 6 2 1 1 1 P(red and 4) 2 2 4 1 So, the probability is , 0.25, or 25%. 4

4
red blue

2 4

1 4

A spinner is spun and a number card is chosen at random. Find the probability of each event.

1
R M

3 6

4 3

3
E R A

1. P(M and 3)

2. P(R and 3)

3. P(consonant and odd)

4. P(consonant and 3)

5. P(vowel and less than 7)

6. P(vowel and even)

A coin is tossed and a number cube is rolled. Find the probability of each event. 7. P(tails and even) 8. P(heads and less than 4)

9. P(heads and greater than 2)

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

571

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 115

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Probability of Independent Events
The two spinners shown are spun. Find the probability of each event.

blue

red blue red

red
2 3 white

1. P(1 and white) 3. P(2 and blue) 5. P(4 and white)

2. P(3 and red) 4. P(odd and red) 6. P(even and any color other than white)

Suppose you select a card from the pile shown and then roll a number cube. Find the probability of each event.

P B E
7. P(B and 4)

T
8. P(B and even)

9. P(consonant and 5)

10. P(vowel and odd)

11. P(E and number less than 7)

12. P(5 and odd)

13. NATURE The table lists the autumn leaves each girl collected. Each girl reaches into her own bag and randomly selects a leaf. Find the probability that Jane chooses a maple and Mary chooses an aspen leaf. Name Jane Mary Maple 14 8 Cottonwood 8 10 Aspen 6 2

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

572

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Probability of Independent Events
following information. Brad is playing a game with his little sister in which you spin the spinner and randomly choose a letter card. The spinner tells how many words you must name that begin with the letter on the letter card you choose.

M U

K E K L

1. What is the probability of spinning an even number and choosing a vowel?

2. What is the probability of spinning an even number and a consonant? Explain.

1 , 0.5, or 50%; Sample answer: 2

There are 3 out of 4 chances to

3. Find P(even and M). What are the possible numbers of words beginning with M that Brad or his sister will have to name?

4. WEATHER The probability of snow on Monday is 0.2. The probability of snow on Tuesday is 0.4. What is the probability that it will snow on both days?

2 , 0.08, or 8% 25

5. GAMES Stephen is playing a game with two coins. In order to score points, both coins must land on heads or both must land on tails. What is the probability that Stephen will score points on one toss?

6. FOOD A bakery sells muffins and beverages. The beverages are coffee, tea, orange juice, and milk. There are five kinds of muffins. If a customer chose a beverage and a muffin at random, what is the probability the customer would choose a milk and a blueberry muffin?

1 , 0.05, or 5% 20

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

573

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 115

GAMES For Exercises 13, use the spinner and the letter cards and the

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Probability of Independent Events
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 450 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. How many outcomes are in the sample space?

2. What is the probability of rolling a 5 on the number cube?

3. Find the probability of selecting a yellow marble.

4. Use the tree diagram to find P(5 and yellow).

5. Describe the relationship between P(5), P(yellow), and P(5 and yellow).

Reading the Lesson


6. Why are rolling a number cube and choosing a marble considered to be independent events?

7. Complete the equation: P(first event and second event) ____________. 8. Look at Example 2 on page 451. What is the relationship between red and not yellow?

Helping You Remember


9. Look at Example 1 on page 450. Explain each equation.
1 P(heads) 2

1 P(3) 4

1 1 1 P(heads and 3) or 2 4 8

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

574

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Lesson 115

Dependent Events
If the result of one event affects the result of a second event, the events are called dependent. For example, suppose you draw one card from the set of cards shown at the right, but do not replace it. Then you draw a second card. What is the probability that you will draw the T, then an L? First find the probability of drawing the T.
1 There is 1 card marked T. P(T) 10 There are 10 cards in all.

R
R

Then find the probability of drawing an L after drawing the T. 3 There are 3 cards marked L. P(L after T) 9 There are 9 cards left. Now multiply. P(T, then L) P(T) P(L after T)
9 10 3 1 or 90 30 1 The probability of drawing the T, then an L, is . 30 3 1

L
L

T M

A card is drawn from the set of cards above, and it is not replaced. Then a second card is drawn. Find each probability. 1. P(A, then M) 3. P(L, then R) 5. P(L, then L) 2. P(T, then R) 4. P(R, then L) 6. P(M, then M)

A bag contains two red marbles and four blue marbles. Three marbles are pulled from the bag, one at a time, and they are not replaced. Find each probability. 7. P(blue, then red, then blue) 9. P(three blue marbles) 8. P(red, then blue, then red) 10. P(three red marbles)

11. CHALLENGE Refer to the cards at the top of the page. Suppose you draw two cards at once. What do you think is the probability that you draw an R and an L?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

575

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Chapter Chapter 12 X Resource Resource Masters Masters

Course 1 1 Course

Consumable Workbooks
Many of the worksheets contained in the Chapter Resource Masters booklets are available as consumable workbooks in both English and Spanish. Study Guide and Intervention Workbook Study Guide and Intervention Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Skills Workbook Practice: Skills Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Word Problems Workbook Practice: Word Problems Workbook (Spanish) Reading to Learn Mathematics Workbook 0-07-860085-5 0-07-860091-X 0-07-860086-3 0-07-860092-8 0-07-860087-1 0-07-860093-6 0-07-861057-5

Answers for Workbooks The answers for Chapter 12 of these


workbooks can be found in the back of this Chapter Resource Masters booklet.

Spanish Assessment Masters Spanish versions of forms 2A and 2C of


the Chapter 12 Test are available in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts Spanish Assessment Masters, Course 1 (0-07-860095-2).

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teacher, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1 Chapter 12 Resource Masters 024 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03

ISBN: 0-07-860075-8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

CONTENTS
Vocabulary Builder .............................vii Family Letter ............................................ix Family Activity ........................................x Lesson 12-1
Study Guide and Intervention ........................599 Practice: Skills ................................................600 Practice: Word Problems................................601 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................602 Enrichment .....................................................603

Lesson 12-5
Study Guide and Intervention ........................619 Practice: Skills ................................................620 Practice: Word Problems................................621 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................622 Enrichment .....................................................623

Lesson 12-6
Study Guide and Intervention ........................624 Practice: Skills ................................................625 Practice: Word Problems................................626 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................627 Enrichment .....................................................628

Lesson 12-2
Study Guide and Intervention ........................604 Practice: Skills ................................................605 Practice: Word Problems................................606 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................607 Enrichment .....................................................608

Chapter 12 Assessment
Chapter 12 Test, Form 1 ........................629630 Chapter 12 Test, Form 2A ......................631632 Chapter 12 Test, Form 2B ......................633634 Chapter 12 Test, Form 2C......................635636 Chapter 12 Test, Form 2D......................637638 Chapter 12 Test, Form 3 ........................639640 Chapter 12 Extended Response Assessment ...............................................641 Chapter 12 Vocabulary Test/Review...............642 Chapter 12 Quizzes 1 & 2..............................643 Chapter 12 Quizzes 3 & 4..............................644 Chapter 12 Mid-Chapter Test .........................645 Chapter 12 Cumulative Review......................646 Chapter 12 Standardized Test Practice..647648 Standardized Test Practice Student Recording Sheet ..............................A1 Standardized Test Practice Rubric...................A2 ANSWERS .............................................A3A27

Lesson 12-3
Study Guide and Intervention ........................609 Practice: Skills ................................................610 Practice: Word Problems................................611 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................612 Enrichment .....................................................613

Lesson 12-4
Study Guide and Intervention ........................614 Practice: Skills ................................................615 Practice: Word Problems................................616 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................617 Enrichment .....................................................618

iii

Teachers Guide to Using the Chapter 12 Resource Masters


The Fast File Chapter Resource system allows you to conveniently file the resources you use most often. The Chapter 12 Resource Masters includes the core materials needed for Chapter 12. These materials include worksheets, extensions, and assessment options. The answers for these pages appear at the back of this booklet. All of the materials found in this booklet are included for viewing and printing in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1, TeacherWorks CD-ROM.

Vocabulary Builder Pages vii-viii include a student study tool that presents up to twenty of the key vocabulary terms from the chapter. Students are to record definitions and/or examples for each term. You may suggest that students highlight or star the terms with which they are not familiar.
When to Use Give these pages to students before beginning Lesson 12-1. Encourage them to add these pages to their mathematics study notebook. Remind them to add definitions and examples as they complete each lesson.

Practice: Skills

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice that more closely follows the structure of the Practice and Applications section of the Student Edition exercises. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Practice: Word Problems

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice in solving word problems that apply the concepts of the lesson. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Family Letter and Family Activity


Page ix is a letter to inform your students families of the requirements of the chapter. The family activity on page x helps them understand how the mathematics students are learning is applicable to real life. When to Use Give these pages to students to take home before beginning the chapter.

Study Guide and Intervention


There is one Study Guide and Intervention master for each lesson in Chapter 12. When to Use Use these masters as reteaching activities for students who need additional reinforcement. These pages can also be used in conjunction with the Student Edition as an instructional tool for students who have been absent.

Reading to Learn Mathematics One master is included for each lesson. The first section of each master asks questions about the opening paragraph of the lesson in the Student Edition. Additional questions ask students to interpret the context of and relationships among terms in the lesson. Finally, students are asked to summarize what they have learned using various representation techniques.
When to Use This master can be used as a study tool when presenting the lesson or as an informal reading assessment after presenting the lesson. It is also a helpful tool for ELL (English Language Learner) students.

iv

There is one extension master for each lesson. These activities may extend the concepts in the lesson, offer an historical or multicultural look at the concepts, or widen students perspectives on the mathematics they are learning. These are not written exclusively for honors students, but are accessible for use with all levels of students. When to Use These may be used as extra credit, short-term projects, or as activities for days when class periods are shortened.

Enrichment

A Vocabulary Test, suitable for all students, includes a list of the vocabulary words in the chapter and ten questions assessing students knowledge of those terms. This can also be used in conjunction with one of the chapter tests or as a review worksheet.

Intermediate Assessment
Four free-response quizzes are included to offer assessment at appropriate intervals in the chapter. A Mid-Chapter Test provides an option to assess the first half of the chapter. It is composed of both multiple-choice and freeresponse questions.

Assessment Options
The assessment masters in the Chapter 12 Resources Masters offer a wide range of assessment tools for intermediate and final assessment. The following lists describe each assessment master and its intended use.

Continuing Assessment
The Cumulative Review provides students an opportunity to reinforce and retain skills as they proceed through their study of Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. It can also be used as a test. This master includes free-response questions. The Standardized Test Practice offers continuing review of pre-algebra concepts in various formats, which may appear on the standardized tests that they may encounter. This practice includes multiplechoice, short response, grid-in, and extended response questions. Bubble-in and grid-in answer sections are provided on the master.

Chapter Assessment
Chapter Tests Form 1 contains multiple-choice questions and is intended for use with basic level students. Forms 2A and 2B contain multiple-choice questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Forms 2C and 2D are composed of freeresponse questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Grids with axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. Form 3 is an advanced level test with free-response questions. Grids without axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. All of the above tests include a free-response Bonus question. The Extended-Response Assessment includes performance assessment tasks that are suitable for all students. A scoring rubric is included for evaluation guidelines. Sample answers are provided for assessment.

Answers
Page A1 is an answer sheet for the Standardized Test Practice questions that appear in the Student Edition on pages 502503. This improves students familiarity with the answer formats they may encounter in test taking. Detailed rubrics for assessing the extended response questions on page 503 are provided on page A2. The answers for the lesson-by-lesson masters are provided as reduced pages with answers appearing in red. Full-size answer keys are provided for the assessment masters in this booklet.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
This is an alphabetical list of new vocabulary terms you will learn in Chapter 12. As you study the chapter, complete each terms definition or description. Remember to add the page number where you found the term. Add this page to your math study notebook to review vocabulary at the end of the chapter. Vocabulary Term centimeter Found on Page Definition/Description/Example
Vocabulary Builder

cup

fluid ounce

foot

gallon

gram

hour

inch

kilogram

kilometer

liter

meter

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

vii

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
Vocabulary Term metric system Found on Page

(continued)
Definition/Description/Example

mile

milligram

milliliter

millimeter

minute

ounce

pint

pound

quart

second

ton

yard

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

viii

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Letter

Dear Parent or Guardian: ly lives, from estimating the We use measurement skills in our dai to actually calculating its length, weight, or capacity of an object ents of multiple objects. measurements or comparing measurem are feet can be ny squ For example, understanding how ma y be helpful when deciding painted using one gallon of paint ma ded to paint a wall that is how many gallons of paint will be nee often helpful to be able to 12 feet long by 9 feet wide. It is also to another. convert from one measurement unit child will learn the various In Chapter 12, Measurement, your t, and capacity in both the measurement units for length, weigh dents will also learn how customary and the metric systems. Stu tem, estimate the metric to change units within the metric sys tract measures of time. In measure of objects, and add and sub will complete a variety of the study of this chapter, your child ivities and possibly produce daily classroom assignments and act a chapter project . with your child, you agree By signing this letter and returning it olved. Enclosed is an to encourage your child by getting inv ld that also relates the activity that you can do with your chi 12 to the real world. You math we will be learning in Chapter Study Tools for may also wish to log on to the Online dy Guide pages, and t Stu self-check quizzes, Parent and Studen et. If you have any questions other study help at www.msmath1.n at school. or comments, feel free to contact me Sincerely,

Signature of Parent or Guardian ______________________________________ Date ________

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ix

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Family Letter

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Activity
Travel Times
Work with a family member to answer the following questions. 1. How long does it take you to travel from your home to your school? Record the time you leave home and the time you arrive at school in the space below. Calculate how many minutes it takes to get from your home to school.

2. How long does it take you to travel from your school to your grocery store? Record the time you leave school and the time you arrive at the grocery store in the space below. Calculate how many minutes it takes to get from your school to the grocery store.

3. How long does it take you to travel from your home to a movie theater? Record the time you leave home and the time you arrive at the theater in the space below. Calculate how many minutes it takes to get from your home to a movie theater.

4. How long does it take you to travel from the movie theater to a favorite restaurant? Record the time you leave the theater and the time you arrive at the restaurant in the space below. Calculate how many minutes it takes to get from the movie theater to a favorite restaurant.

5. Using your answers from above, how many minutes would it take you to travel from home to school to the grocery store?

6. Using your answers from above, how many minutes would it take you to travel from home to the movie theater to a favorite restaurant?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Length in the Customary System
The most commonly used customary units of length are shown below. Customary Units Of Length Unit 1 inch (in.) 1 foot (ft) 12 in. 1 yard (yd) 3 ft 1 mile (mi) 1,760 yd Model width of a quarter length of a large adult foot length from nose to fingertip 10 city blocks

To change from larger units of length to smaller units, multiply. To change from smaller units of length to larger units, divide.

Complete. 3 yd ? ft 24 in. ? ft

Most rulers are divided into eighths of an inch, so you can measure to the nearest eighth inch.

Draw a line segment


5 measuring 1 inches. 8

Measure the length of the nail to the nearest half, fourth, or eighth inch.

in.

2 in. 1 2 3

5 Draw a line segment from 0 to 1 . 8

7 The nail is between 2 inches and 3 inches. 7 It is closer to 2 inches. 7 The length of the nail is about 2 inches. 8 8 8

Complete. 1. 3 ft ? in. 2. 15 ft
4

yd

3. 2 mi

yd

3 4. Draw a line segment that is in. long.

5. Measure the length of the object to the nearest half, fourth, or eighth inch.
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

599

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 121

Since 1 yard 3 feet, multiply by 3. 339 So, 3 yards 9 feet.

Since 1 foot 12 inches, divide by 12. 24 12 2 So, 24 inches 2 feet.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Length in the Customary System
Complete. 1. 2 ft ? in. 2. 5 yd ? ft 3. 18 ft ? yd

4. 60 in.

ft

5. 3,520 yd
1 8. 3 yd 2

mi

6. 36 in.

yd

7. 3 yd

in.

ft

9. 2 mi

ft

Draw a line segment of each length.


1 10. 3 in. 2 3 11. 1 in. 4 1 12. 2 in. 8

7 13. 1 in. 8

1 14. 2 in. 4

5 15. in. 8

For Exercises 1618, find the length of each line segment or object to the nearest half, fourth, or eighth inch. 16. 17.

18.

1 19. Which is greater: 2 feet or 26 inches? Explain. 4

1 20. Which is greater: 3 yards or 12 feet? Explain. 3

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

600

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Length in the Customary System
1. WOODWORKING Anthony is building a
1 toolbox with length 2 feet, width 1 feet, 2

and height 3 feet. What are the dimensions of Anthonys box in inches?

2. TRIATHLON Julie is training for a small triathlon where she will run 3 miles, bike 10 miles, and swim 150 yards. How many yards will Julie run? How many feet will she swim?

3. WEATHER Raquel and her family are moving from Portland, Oregon, to Seattle, Washington. She is comparing annual rainfall to prepare for her move.
1 Portlands annual rainfall is 3 feet. 12

4. SEWING Abe needs 13.5 feet of fabric to make a bedspread. How many yards does he need?

Seattles annual rainfall is 37 inches. Which city gets more rain?

5. TRAVEL On her trip to New York City, Celia read that the famous Woolworth building was built in 1913 and stands 792 feet tall. How high is the building in yards?

6. FOOTBALL The length of a football field is 100 yards. How many feet is that? How many inches?

1 7. SCHOOL Krista lives mile from school. 2

Desiree lives 872 yards away from school. Who lives closer? Explain.

8. CRAFTS David is making a pattern for the mouth of a puppet. The mouth will be a rectangle of red felt fabric. The
3 rectangle will be inch wide and 8 1 2 inches long. Draw a pattern for 4

David.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

601

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 121

1 4 yd

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Length in the Customary System
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 465 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Compare your nonstandard and standard measures with the measures of other groups. Are they similar? Explain.

2. Explain the advantages and the disadvantages of using nonstandard measurement and standard measurement.

Reading the Lesson


3. In the Mini Lab, four units of length are used. What are the units?

4. If someone told you that something was 3.5 units long, what else would you need to know in order to determine the length?

5. Explain in your own words what the word customary means.

6. If a mile is 1,760 yards, how many feet are in a mile? Explain.

Helping You Remember


7. Work with a partner. Using a customary ruler or measuring tape, provide the lengths of each object. Once you have one actual measure for an object, you can use multiplication or division to find the other units of measure for that same object. a. your arms length in inches _________ b. your classrooms width in yards _________ c. your arms length in feet _________ e. your foots length in inches _________ g. your foots length in feet _________
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

d. your classrooms length in yards _________ f. your classrooms length in feet _________ h. your classrooms length in inches _________

602

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Estimating Lengths
Many people estimate lengths using rules of thumb like those you see at the right. An inch is about the width of a quarter. A foot is about the length of a sheet of notebook paper. A yard is about the distance from the floor to a doorknob. A mile is about the length of ten city blocks.

Use the rules of thumb to estimate. Circle the most reasonable measure. 1. length of a bus 2. length of a baseball bat 3. height of a flagpole 4. height of a table 5. distance across a street 6. length of one city block 7. width of a door 8. height of the worlds tallest building 40 in. 15 in. 30 in. 36 in. 20 ft 30 ft 15 in. 50 ft 40 ft 1 ft 3 ft 10 ft 200 yd 180 yd 15 ft 100 yd 40 yd 1 yd 5 yd 2 yd 1 mi
1 mi 2

1 yd
1 mi 4

9. Estimate the length of the path from A to B. Then measure. How close was your estimate?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

603

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 121

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Capacity and Weight in the Customary System
The most commonly used customary units of capacity are shown below. Customary Units Of Capacity Unit 1 fluid ounce (fl oz) 1 cup (c) 8 fl oz 1 pint (pt) 2 c 1 quart (qt) 2 pt 1 gallon (gal) 4 qt Model 2 tablespoons of water coffee cup small ice cream container large measuring cup large plastic jug of milk

To change from larger units of length to smaller units, multiply. To change from smaller units of length to larger units, divide.

Complete. 2 gal ? qt
THINK 1 gallon = 4 quarts

248 Multiply to change a larger unit to a smaller unit. So, 2 gallons 8 quarts.
The most commonly used customary units of weight are shown below. Customary Units Of Weight Unit 1 ounce (oz) 1 pound (lb) 16 oz 1 ton (T) 2,000 lb pencil package of notebook paper small passenger car Model

FOOD A box of cereal weighs 32 ounces. How many pounds is this?

32 oz

lb

THINK 16 ounces = 1 pound Divide to change ounces to pounds.

32 16 2 So, 32 ounces 2 pounds.

Complete. 1. 2 pt 4. 16 qt 7. 16 c ? ? ? c gal qt 2. 32 fl oz
1 5. 1 qt 2

? ? ?

c pt pt

3. 3 lb 6. 3 T 9. 64 oz

? ? ?

oz lb lb

8. 2 gal

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

604

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Capacity and Weight in the Customary System
Complete. 1. 2 lb = ? oz 2. 3 gal = ? qt 3. 40 fl oz = ? c

4. 32 oz =

lb

5. 4 pt =

6. 16 pt =

qt

1 7. 2 pt = 2

8. 6 c =

pt

1 9. 1 T= 2

lb

10. 44 qt =

gal

3 11. 3 pt = 4

12. 3 gal =

pt

13. 10,000 lb =

14. 2 T =

oz

1 15. 1 qt = 2

1 16. 3 c= 2

fl oz

17. 96 oz =

lb

18. 64 fl oz =

19. 32,000 oz =

1 20. 2 lb = 2

oz

21. 11 qt =

gal

Choose the better estimate for each measure. 22. the weight of a bag of potatoes: 5 tons or 5 pounds

23. the amount of water in a sports bottle: 16 fluid ounces or 4 pints

1 24. the weight of an apple: pound or 32 ounces 2

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

605

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 122

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Capacity and Weight in the Customary System
1. COOKING Sylvia is making a pot of stew that needs 1 quart of beef broth. How many cups of beef broth does she need? 2. CANDY Wade works at the candy shop. He wrapped 56 pieces of fudge to sell. How many total pounds of fudge did he wrap if each piece weighed 1 ounce?

1 3 lb 2

3. TRUCKS Shaunas truck can handle up to 4. GIFTS Jason made 34 bottles of flavored 2 tons of weight. She wants to haul olive oil to give to his class. How many 3,500 pounds of wood. How many tons of pints of flavored olive oil did Jason make wood is that? Can she haul all of it at if each bottle holds 8 fluid ounces? once?

5. CIDER Mary bought five gallons of apple cider for her birthday party. She expects 20 guests. How many cups of cider will each guest get?

6. PETS Pam has a 4-pound bag of dry cat food. Every day she puts out 4 ounces of dry cat food for her cat. For how many days will the bag of cat food be enough to feed her cat? Explain.

7. LUNCH Suzie fills a 1-pint thermos with milk each day for lunch. How many times will she be able to fill her thermos
1 with gallon of milk? Explain how you 2

found your answer.

8. COOKING James is making a quart of won ton soup using canned chicken broth. A can of chicken broth holds 14 fluid ounces. How many cans will James need to buy? Explain how you found your answer.

Sample answer: 1 qt 4 c, 4 c

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

606

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Capacity and Weight in the Customary System
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 470 in your textbook.
Write your answers below. Complete.
1. 1 quart 3. 1 gallon pints quarts 2. 2 quarts 4. 1 gallon pints pints

5. What fractional part of 1 gallon would fit in 1 pint?

6. How many gallons are equal to 12 quarts? Explain.

Reading the Lesson


7. Describe how you could determine the liquid capacity of a waterproof container.

For Exercises 8 and 9, write a word in the blank to make the sentence true. 8. To change a larger unit of capacity to a smaller unit of capacity, you 9. To change a smaller unit of capacity to a larger unit of capacity, you 10. What are the three most commonly used units of weight in the customary system? . .

Helping You Remember


11. What measuring devices do you have in your home that you can use to determine the capacity or weight of an object? Using each device, complete a table like the following. Find measures for several objects. Object Capacity Capacity Capacity Capacity or Weight or Weight or Weight or Weight Measuring Device Measure

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

607

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 122

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Relating Customary and Metric Units
Both customary and metric measurements are used in the United States. Therefore, it is a good idea to develop some sense of the relationships between the two systems. Here are some rules of thumb that are commonly used. An inch is about equal to 2.5 centimeters. A yard is a little less than a meter. A mile is a little more than 1.5 kilometers. A kilogram is a little more than 2 pounds. A liter is a little more than 1 quart. Use the relationships given above. Tell whether each statement is true or false. 1. A length of 4 meters is longer than 4 yards.

2. A weight of 10 pounds is more than 5 kilograms.

3. A capacity of 1 gallon is more than 4 liters.

4. A length of 1 foot is about the same as 30 centimeters.

5. A kilometer is more than half a mile.

6. A pound is a little more than half a kilogram.

7. On a road in Canada, the posted speed limit is 45 kilometers per hour. Aime is driving at a speed of 40 miles per hour. Is this above or below the speed limit?

8. Sean has a recipe that calls for 0.25 L of milk. He has a one-cup container of milk in the refrigerator. Is this enough milk for the recipe?

9. The posted load limit for a bridge is 5 tons. The mass of Darryls truck is 1,500 kilograms, and it is holding cargo that weighs a half ton. Can Darryl drive his truck across the bridge?
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

10. Leah is pouring paint from a 5-gallon can into some jars. She has twelve jars that each hold 1 liter and six jars that each hold 1.25 liters. Does she have enough jars for all the paint?

608

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Length in the Metric System
The meter is the basic unit of length in the metric system. The most commonly used metric units of length are shown below.

Metric Units of Length Unit


1 millimeter (mm) 1 centimeter (cm) 1 meter (m) 1 kilometer (km)

Model
thickness of a dime half the width of a penny width of a doorway six city blocks

Benchmark
25 mm 1 inch 2.5 cm 1 inch 1 m 1.1 yard 1.6 km 1 mile

Write the metric unit of length that you would use to measure each of the following. height of a box of popcorn The height of a box of popcorn is more than the width of a penny, but less than the width of a doorway. So, the centimeter is an appropriate unit of measure. length of a car Since the length of a car is greater than the width of a doorway, but less than six city blocks, the meter is an appropriate unit of measure. Measure the length of the line segment in centimeters. The line segment is 5 cm.
5 cm

cm

Write the metric unit of length that you would use to measure each of the following. 1. height of a mountain 3. length of a pen 2. thickness of a dried bean 4. height of a table

Measure each line segment in centimeters and millimeters. 5. 6.

7.

8.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

609

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 123

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Length in the Metric System
Write the metric unit of length you would use to measure each of the following. 1. depth of an ocean 2. length of an eyelash

3. length of your bedroom

4. length of the Panama Canal

5. height of a can of soup

6. depth of a swimming pool

7. length of the eye of a needle

8. height of a washing machine

9. length of a pencil

10. width of a pencil

Measure each line segment or side of each figure in centimeters and millimeters. 11. 12. 13.

14.

15.

16.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

610

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Length in the Metric System
TRAVEL For Exercises 1 and 2, use the figures below.

To

pa oth
?

ste
?

1. Gabe is going on a trip to San Diego. He is taking a tube of toothpaste and a toothbrush holder. How long is the tube of toothpaste in centimeters and in millimeters?

2. How long is the toothbrush holder in centimeters and in millimeters?

3. SWIMMING Harry takes diving lessons at the community pool. He is trying to estimate the depth of the deepest part of the pool. Which is the most likely estimate: 3.5 centimeters, 3.5 meters, or 3.5 kilometers? Explain.

4. INSECTS Michaela is an entomologist, a scientist who studies insects. When she measures the length of the leg of a fly, what metric unit of measure does she most likely use?

5. SCHOOL Roshawn rides his bike


1 2 miles to and from school. What type 2

of measurement would he use if he were to convert the distance to metric units? Explain.

6. BRIDGES Paula noticed an error in the following statement, The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, California, is the second longest suspension bridge in North America spanning 1,260 kilometers. What is the error Paula found? Explain.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

611

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 123

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Length in the Metric System
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 476 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. What unit of measure is used?

2. What is the depth of the deepest point?

3. Use the Internet or another source to find the meaning of meter. Then write a sentence explaining how a meter compares to a yard.

Reading the Lesson


4. Look up the word decimeter in a dictionary. How long is a decimeter?

5. Complete the following table. Unit meter Abbreviation Number of Meters Number of Units in a Meter km

millimeter

m dm cm mm

1,000 1
0.1

0.001 1 10
100

0.01 0.001

1,000

6. Using information in the table above, explain what it means to say that the metric system is a decimal system.

Helping You Remember


7. Work with a partner. Kilo-, deci-, centi-, and milli- are combining forms. They are found combined with other words. In a dictionary, look up the meanings for kilo-, deci-, centi-, and milli-. Then explain the meanings of kilometer, decimeter, centimeter, and millimeter.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

612

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
A Metric Crossword Puzzle
Here is a crossword puzzle with a twist. To locate the first letter of each word, you have to measure from the upper left corner of the puzzle. Each square of the puzzle measures 1 cm on each side. The first word has been entered for you, to help you get started. Good luck! Across 2.5 cm across, 25 mm down Ask 6.5 cm across, 35 mm down Compact disc (abbreviation) 0.5 cm across, 55 mm down Thin, pointed piece of metal 3.5 cm across, 15 mm down Light Red 4.5 cm across, 65 mm down Customary unit of length 6.5 cm across, 5 mm down Opposite of P.M. 5.5 cm across, 55 mm down Boys name 3.5 cm across, 35 mm down New Hampshire (abbreviation) 0.5 cm across, 5 mm down Yellow, egg-shaped fruit 6.5 cm across, 45 mm down Greeting 0.5 cm across, 35 mm down Face- ? -face 0.5 cm across, 45 mm down Kind of tree 0.5 cm across, 75 mm down Saturday and Sunday
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Down 65 mm across, 3.5 cm down Young person 35 mm across, 0.5 cm down Opposite of closed 75 mm across, 3.5 cm down Ten cents 15 mm across, 3.5 cm down Wave in Spanish 65 mm across, 0.5 cm down Alaska (abbreviation) 25 mm across, 4.5 cm down Belonging to me 45 mm across, 0.5 cm down Opposite of day 55 mm across, 5.5 cm down Type of metal 5 mm across, 0.5 cm down Pay attention 45 mm across, 6.5 cm down Maine (abbreviation)

613

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 123

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Mass and Capacity in the Metric System
In the metric system, the most commonly used units of mass are the milligram (mg), gram (g), and kilogram (kg). One milligram is 0.001 gram and 1 kilogram is 1,000 grams. Metric Units of Mass Unit 1 milligram (mg) 1 gram (g) 1 kilogram (kg) Model grain of salt small paper clip six medium apples Benchmark 1 mg 0.00004 oz 1 g 0.04 oz 1 kg 2 lb

Write the metric unit of mass that you would use to measure a portable radio. Then estimate the mass. A portable radio has a mass greater than six apples. So, the kilogram is the appropriate unit. Estimate Since a portable radio is about three times heavier than six apples, the mass of a portable radio is about 3 kilograms.
The basic unit of capacity in the metric system is the liter (L). One milliliter (mL) is 0.001 liter. Metric Units of Capacity Unit 1 milliliter (mL) 1 liter (L) Model eyedropper small pitcher Benchmark 1 mL 0.03 fl oz 1 L 1 qt

Write the metric unit of capacity that you would use to measure a mug of soup. Then estimate the capacity. A mug of soup is greater than an eyedropper and less than a small pitcher. So, the milliliter is the appropriate unit. Estimate There are 1,000 milliliters in a liter. A small pitcher can fill about 4 mugs. So, a mug of soup is about 1,000 4 or about 250 milliliters.

Write the metric unit of mass or capacity that you would use to measure each of the following. Then estimate the mass or capacity. 1. peanut 3. eyelash 5. bottle of milk 7. screw
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

2. serving of salad dressing 4. large soda bottle 6. house cat 8. pencil

614

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Mass and Capacity in the Metric System
Write the metric unit of mass or capacity that you would use to measure each of the following. Then estimate the mass or capacity. 1. leaf 2. large cup of hot chocolate

3. home aquarium

4. feather

5. crayon

6. water in a plastic wading pool

7. mosquito

8. penny

9. spaghetti sauce in a saucepan

10. bowling ball

11. liquid in a thermometer

12. teaspoon of vanilla extract

13. rectangular eraser

14. grain of sand

15. wheat bread sandwich

16. banana

17. pot of tea

18. calculator

19. house cat

20. car key

21. small glass of juice

22. pair of skis

23. water in a washing machine for large load

24. piano

27. feather pillow

28. hammer

29. surfboard
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

30. can of soup

615

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 124

25. tube of oil paint

26. small bucket of soapy water

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Mass and Capacity in the Metric System
1. ANTS Earl has an ant farm. What metric unit of mass would Earl use to measure one of his ants? 2. MEDICINE Garry is taking a tablespoonful of cough syrup for his cold. What is the metric unit of measure most likely used for his recommended dosage? Estimate the amount.

3. WEIGHTLIFTING Amy does three sets of squats with 85 pounds at the gym. What metric unit of measure would Amy use to measure the weight she lifts?

4. FISHING Which is the most likely unit of measure Jacob finds on his fishing weights: milligram, gram, or kilogram?

5. DOGS What metric unit of mass would Toni most likely use to measure the mass of her dog?

6. AQUARIUMS Sage is making a fish tank out of an old 5-gallon glass water bottle. What unit of metric measure should she use to decide how much water the bottle will hold? Estimate the amount.

7. PETS Carlas dog eats 321 grams of beef chow and 410 grams of chicken chow each day. Medas dog eats 1 kilogram of mixed chow each day. Whose dog eats more chow each day? Explain your reasoning.

8. SHOPPING Liquid detergent comes in 1.62-liter bottles and 1,500-milliliter bottles. Which bottle contains more detergent? Explain your reasoning.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

616

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Mass and Capacity in the Metric System
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 484 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. How does the number of paper clips needed to balance the roll of breath mints compare to the mass of the roll in grams? 2. Estimate the mass of one paper clip. 3. How many paper clips were needed to balance 2 pencils? 4. What is the mass of 1 pencil in grams?

Reading the Lesson


5. In your own words, describe the difference between mass and capacity.

6. Complete the following table. Unit gram Abbreviation Number of Grams kg Number of Units in a Gram

g mg

1,000 1
0.001

0.001 1 1,000

7. Tell which of the following are units of mass and which are units of capacitygram, liter, milliliter, milligram, kilogram.

Helping You Remember


8. Look at the labels on various products you have in your home. List three items that have a mass greater than 1 kilogram, three items that have a mass between 1 gram and 1 kilogram, and three items that have a mass less than 1 gram. Identify each item by name and list its actual metric mass as given on the label. Do the same for capacity, listing three items that are 1 liter or greater, and three that are less than 1 liter.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

617

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 124

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Length, Mass, or Capacity?
When you encounter a problem about measurement, you wont necessarily see or hear one of the words length, mass, or capacity. Often you need to decide what type of measurement is involved, then choose the best unit of measure. Tell whether each question most likely involves length, mass, or capacity. 1. Do I have enough milk to make this recipe? 2. Do I have enough string to tie around this package?

3. Will this punch bowl fit inside that box?

4. Will this amount of punch fit inside that bowl?

5. Is that tunnel high enough for this truck to drive through it?

6. Is that bridge strong enough for this truck to drive over it?

Circle the most reasonable measure for each object. 7. height of a doorway 2g 2 kg 2L 2 mL 2m 2 cm

8. load limit of an elevator 1,000 g 1,000 kg 1,000 L 1,000 mL 1,000 m 1,000 cm

9. amount of water in a bathtub 150 g 1.5 kg 150 L 15 mL 1.5 m 150 cm

10. amount of cereal in a cereal box 400 g 4 kg 4,000 mL 4L 0.4 m 400 cm

Name an item that you think has the given measure. 11. about 2 kg 12. about 250 mL

13. about 30 cm

14. about 25 g

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

618

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Changing Metric Units
To change from one unit to another within the metric system, you can either multiply or divide by powers of ten. 1,000 100 thousands hundreds 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 thousandths hundredths Each place value is 10 times the place value to its right.

hecto

tenths

ones

tens

basic unit

deka

centi

deci

To change from larger units to smaller units, multiply. To change from smaller units to larger units, divide.
Multiply larger unit

1,000 km 1,000 m

100 cm 100

10 mm 10
smaller unit Divide

Complete. 650 cm = ? m ? mL = 3.2 L

Since 1 meter 100 centimeters, divide by 100. 650 100 6.5 So, 650 cm 6.5 m. 9,100 g = ? kg

Since 1 liter 1,000 milliliters, multiply by 1,000. 3.2 1,000 3,200 So, 3,200 mL 3.2 L.

CHECK Since a kilogram is a larger unit than a gram, Since 1 kilogram 1,000 grams, divide by 1,000. 9,100 1,000 9.1 the number of kilograms should be less than So, 9,100 g 9.1 kg. the of grams. The answer seems reasonable.

Complete. 1. 2.5 L 4. 25 cm 7. ? ? ? mL mm 2. 400 mm 5. 4,100 cm 8. 1,900 g 11. 900 mg ? ? ? ? cm m kg g 3. 8.4 g 6. 3.2 m 9. 0.6 kg 12. ? ? ? ? mg mm g

m 5.6 km ? mL

10. 6.21 L

milli

kilo

km 500 m

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

619

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 125

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Changing Metric Units
Complete. 1. 530 mm = ? cm 2. 23 kg = ? g

3. 1,500 mL =

4.

m = 340 cm

5. 13 cm =

mm

6. 16 g =

mg

7. 3.72 L =

mL

8.

cm = 9.75 m

9. 149 cm =

10.

m = 524 cm

11.

g = 0.56 kg

12. 3 mm =

cm

13. 1.5 km =

14. 4,200 mm =

15.

L = 650 mL

16. 2.5 L =

mL

17. 13.2 m =

cm

18.

mm = 8.3 m

19. 2 kg =

mg

20. 6,000,000 mm =

km

21. 0.89 m =

cm

22. 0.085 g =

mg

23.

m = 4,600 mm

24.

kg = 7,124 g

25.

cm = 40 mm

26.

m = 7 km

27.

mL = 0.0817 L

28. 480 mL =

29. 5,000 mg =

kg

30. 4.8 km =

cm

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

620

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Changing Metric Units
1. MEDICINE Stephanos got a travel pack of 4 aspirin, each 500 milligrams. How many total grams are in the pack? 2. SNAILS While doing a report on snails, Kay learned that the average snail moves about 0.013 meter per second. How many centimeters per second does a snail move?

3. SPORTS The Wildcats water cooler holds 15.3 liters of sports drink. How many milliliters is that?

4. BAKING A box of specialty baking flour holds 1.8 kilograms. How many angel food cakes can be made with a recipe that calls for 100 grams of flour?

5. WRESTLING As a Sumo wrestler, Ishi must weigh a minimum of 70 kilograms. How many grams is that?

6. SOCCER Joey walks 4.2 kilometers to soccer practice. How many meters does he walk?

7. MILK Each week Mrs. Lopez has six 946-milliliter bottles of milk delivered to her home. How many liters is each bottle?

8. EARTH Beths class is studying earthquakes. They learned that the Pacific plate, a huge section of the Earths crust, moves 45 millimeters per year. How many centimeters per year is that?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

621

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 125

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Changing Metric Units
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 490 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. How many cans did it take to fill the 2-liter bottle? 2. If the capacity of a soda can is 355 milliliters, how would you find the number of milliliters in the 2-liter bottle? 3. How many milliliters are in 2 liters? 4. Based on this information, how could you find the number of milliliters in one liter? 5. How many milliliters are in one liter?

Reading the Lesson


Write the name for each of the following amounts. 6. one thousand grams 8. one hundred meters 10. ten liters 7. one thousandth of a gram 9. one hundredth of a meter 11. one tenth of a liter

12. Look at the illustration at the bottom of page 490. Explain each operation.

13. Circle the underlined word that makes the sentence true. To divide by 100, move the decimal point two places to the (left, right).

Helping You Remember


14. Make a copy of the place-value chart on page 490. Using numerals, explain to someone else how to use the diagram to indicate various metric units of measure.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

622

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Lesson 125

Other Metric Units


Meters, millimeters, centimeters, and kilometers are the most commonly used metric units of length. But did you know that there are other units, like decimeters, dekameters, and hectometers? This table shows how all these units are related to the meter. Unit kilometer (km) hectometer (hm) dekameter (dam) meter (m) decimeter (dm) centimeter (cm) millimeter (mm) Number of Meters 1,000 m 100 m 10 m 1m 0.1 m 0.01 m 0.001 m Each unit in the table is ten times as large as the unit below it. So, 1 km 10 hm, and 1 hm 10 dam. It follows that 1 km (10 10) dam, or 1 km 100 dam.

Use the table to complete each statement. 1. 1 dm 4. 12 km 7. 1 m 8. 1 km cm dam dm hm 2. 1 dm 5. 8.5 km cm dam mm m mm hm 3. 5 hm 6. 3.2 dam dam dm

Complete each table, modeling it on the table above. 9. Unit kilogram (kg) Number of Grams 1,000 g 10. Unit Number of Liters

gram (g)

1g

liter (L)

1L

milligram (mg)
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

0.001 g

623

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Measures of Time
Units of Time Unit 1 second (s) 1 minute (min) 60 seconds 1 hour (h) 60 minutes Model time needed to say 1,001 time for 2 average TV commercials time for 2 weekly TV sitcoms

To add or subtract measures of time, first add or subtract the seconds, next add or subtract the minutes, and then add or subtract the hours. Rename if necessary in each step.

Find the sum of 3 h 14 min 12 s and 4 h 48 min 3 s. Estimate 3 h 14 min 12 s is about 3 h, and 4 h 48 min 3 s is about 5 h. 3 h 5 h 8 h. 3 h 14 min 12 s Add seconds first, then 4 h 48 min 3 s minutes, and finally hours. 7 h 62 min 15 s 62 minutes equals
1 hour 2 minutes.

Find the difference of 5 h 7 min 20 s and 2 h 25 min 12 s. Estimate 5 h 7 min 20 s is about 5 h, and 2 h 25 min 12 s is about 2 h. 5 h 2 h 3 h. 5 h 7 min 20 s Since you cannot subtract 2 h 25 min 12 s 25 minutes from 7 minutes, you
must rename 5 hours 7 minutes as 4 hours 67 minutes.

So, the sum is 8 h 2 min 15 s. Compare the answer to the estimate.

4 h 67 min 20 s 2 h 25 min 12 s 2 h 42 min 8 s Compare the answer to the estimate.

5 h 7 min 20 s 2 h 25 min 12 s

Gloria practiced on her flute from 11:40 A.M. until 1:52 P.M. How long did she practice? You need to find how much time has elapsed. Glorias practice time is 20 minutes 1 hour 52 minutes or 1 hour 72 minutes. Now rename 72 minutes as 1 hour 12 minutes. 1 h 1 h 12 min 2 h 12 min. Gloria practiced for 2 hours 12 minutes.

11:40 A.M. to 12:00 noon is 20 minutes.

12:00 noon to 1:52 P.M. is 1 hour 52 minutes.

Add or subtract. 1. 4 h 18 min 11 s 3 h 15 min 4 s 2. 6 h 7 min 42 s 2 h 12 min 38 s 3. 5 h 18 min 12 s 2 h 6 min 41 s

Find each elapsed time. 4. 4:25 P.M. to 11:55 P.M.


Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

5. 9:20 A.M. to 5:05 P.M.

6. 10:30 A.M. to 1:43 P.M.

624

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Measures of Time
Add or subtract. 1. 23 min 16 s 12 min 34 s 2. 9 h 42 min 3 h 18 min 3. 6 h 38 min 5 h 22 min

7.

21 min 54 s 26 min 19 s

8.

14 h 9 h 43 min

9.

2 h 13 min 28 s 8 h 20 min 15 s

10.

12 h 20 min 38 s 7 h 13 min 20 s

11.

2 h 15 min 2 s 4 h 48 min 9 s

12.

11 h 14 min 27 s 2 h 13 min 45 s

13.

11 h 23 min 6 s 5 h 36 min 29 s

14.

6 h 10 min 47 s 2 h 51 min 28 s

15.

20 h 8 h 33 min 18 s

Find each elapsed time. 16. 6:35 A.M. to 9:55 A.M. 17. 12:20 P.M. to 3:05 P.M.

18. 11:05 A.M. to 4:37 P.M.

19. 10:45 A.M. to 5:25 P.M.

20. 9:18 P.M. to 1:33 A.M.

21. 9:52 A.M. to 5:20 P.M.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

625

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 126

4.

6 min 15 s 2 min 32 s

5.

4 h 43 min 11 h 27 min

6.

12 min 43 s 9 min 58 s

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Measures of Time
1. BUS RIDES Cheryl rides the city bus to and from ballet practice. Her ride to the dance studio takes 48 minutes. Her ride home takes 1 hour 7 minutes. What is the total time Cheryl rides the bus? 2. ECLIPSES Heather has seen two solar eclipses; one on June 21, 2001, which took 4 min 57 s and the other on August 11, 1999, which took 2 min 23 s. How much longer did the Sun take to complete the eclipse in 2001?

3. TRAVEL The Rosenberg family is taking a road trip. First they will drive 9 hours 53 minutes to camp in the Red Rock Canyons. Then they will drive 8 hours 21 minutes to ski near Salt Lake City. What will be their total driving time?

4. RUNNING The Boston Marathon course record holder in the Womens Open is Margaret Okayo. She ran the course in 2 hours, 20 minutes, and 43 seconds. Jean Driscoll is the record holder in the Womens Wheelchair division with a time of 1 hour 34 minutes 22 seconds. How much longer did it take Okayo to finish the course?

5. BEACH Toni left at 6:45 A.M. to go surfing. She got home 7 hours and 26 minutes later. What time did she get home?

6. HOMEWORK James started doing his homework at 10:35 A.M. and stopped at 1:17 P.M. What was the total time he spent on homework?

7. TRAVEL Kevin is flying from San Francisco, California, to Hartford, Connecticut, with a layover in New York. His flight from California to New York will take 5 hours and 22 minutes. His flight from New York to Connecticut will take 53 minutes. What is his total flying time?

8. PAINTING Geri worked on her painting this morning from 10:15 A.M. to 12:32 P.M., then again in the afternoon from 4:45 P.M. to 6:30 P.M. How much time did she spend total working on her painting?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

626

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Measures of Time
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 494 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. How long did Bethany take to wash the car? 2. How long did Bethany take to fold laundry? 3. What is the sum of the minutes? 4. What is the sum of the hours? 5. How long did it take to wash the car and fold the laundry?

Reading the Lesson


6. In Example 1 on page 494, why is it necessary to rename?

7. In Example 2 on page 495, why is it necessary to rename?

8. Write each of the following in simplest form. Remember to rename as needed. 1 hr 67 min 12 s 3 hr 59 min 78 s 4 hr 47 min 13 s

9. Look at Example 3 on page 495. What if the plane left Boston at 9 A.M. and the flight took the same length of time? What time would the plane land in Miami?

Helping You Remember


10. Work with a partner. One partner finds the sum of 3 h 15 min 37 s and 1 h 50 min 45 s. The other partner finds the difference. Show all computation and explain each step to your partner.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

627

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 126

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Fractions of Time
Denise organized information about some of her activities into the chart you see at the right. Then she decided to estimate what fraction of the school day she spends studying. This is how she did it. 4:00 P.M.5:15 P.M. 7:00 P.M.8:00 P.M. Total 1 h 15 min 1h 2 h 15 min breakfast classes lunch classes swimming studying dinner studying watching TV sleeping 7:15 A.M. 7:30 A.M. 8:05 A.M. 11:30 A.M. 11:30 A.M. 12:20 P.M. 12:20 P.M. 2:15 P.M. 2:25 P.M. 3:30 P.M. 4:00 P.M. 5:15 P.M. 5:30 P.M. 6:30 P.M. 7:00 P.M. 8:00 P.M. 8:00 P.M. 9:55 P.M. 10:30 P.M. 6:45 A.M.

Then she rounded 2 h 15 min to 2 h.


2 Denise estimated that she spends about , or 24 1 , of her day studying. 12

Use the chart above. Estimate what fraction of a school day Denise spends on each activity. 1. swimming 2. watching TV

3. classes

4. eating

5. sleeping

6. at school (classes and lunch)

7. Denise sleeps from 11:30 P.M. until 8:30 P.M. on Saturday and Sunday. About what fraction of the seven-day week does she spend sleeping?

8. Denise studies about 4 hours on Saturday and about 2 hours on Sunday. About what fraction of the seven-day week does she spend studying?

9. Denise goes to school 180 days of the year. About what fraction of the 365-day year does she spend in classes?

10. Denise tries to swim every day at the same time, Monday through Friday, all through the year. About what fraction of the year does she spend swimming?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

628

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Chapter Chapter 13 X Resource Resource Masters Masters

Course 1 1 Course

Consumable Workbooks
Many of the worksheets contained in the Chapter Resource Masters booklets are available as consumable workbooks in both English and Spanish. Study Guide and Intervention Workbook Study Guide and Intervention Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Skills Workbook Practice: Skills Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Word Problems Workbook Practice: Word Problems Workbook (Spanish) Reading to Learn Mathematics Workbook 0-07-860085-5 0-07-860091-X 0-07-860086-3 0-07-860092-8 0-07-860087-1 0-07-860093-6 0-07-861057-5

Answers for Workbooks The answers for Chapter 13 of these


workbooks can be found in the back of this Chapter Resource Masters booklet.

Spanish Assessment Masters Spanish versions of forms 2A and 2C of


the Chapter 13 Test are available in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts Spanish Assessment Masters, Course 1 (0-07-860095-2).

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teacher, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1 Chapter 13 Resource Masters 024 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03

ISBN: 0-07-860076-6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

CONTENTS
Vocabulary Builder .............................vii Family Letter ............................................ix Family Activity ........................................x Lesson 13-1
Study Guide and Intervention ........................649 Practice: Skills ................................................650 Practice: Word Problems................................651 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................652 Enrichment .....................................................653

Lesson 13-5
Study Guide and Intervention ........................669 Practice: Skills ................................................670 Practice: Word Problems................................671 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................672 Enrichment .....................................................673

Lesson 13-6
Study Guide and Intervention ........................674 Practice: Skills ................................................675 Practice: Word Problems................................676 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................677 Enrichment .....................................................678

Lesson 13-2
Study Guide and Intervention ........................654 Practice: Skills ................................................655 Practice: Word Problems................................656 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................657 Enrichment .....................................................658

Chapter 13 Assessment
Chapter 13 Test, Form 1 ........................679680 Chapter 13 Test, Form 2A ......................681682 Chapter 13 Test, Form 2B ......................683684 Chapter 13 Test, Form 2C......................685686 Chapter 13 Test, Form 2D......................687688 Chapter 13 Test, Form 3 ........................689690 Chapter 13 Extended Response Assessment ...............................................691 Chapter 13 Vocabulary Test/Review...............692 Chapter 13 Quizzes 1 & 2..............................693 Chapter 13 Quizzes 3 & 4..............................694 Chapter 13 Mid-Chapter Test .........................695 Chapter 13 Cumulative Review......................696 Chapter 13 Standardized Test Practice..697698 Standardized Test Practice Student Recording Sheet ..............................A1 Standardized Test Practice Rubric...................A2 ANSWERS .............................................A3A27

Lesson 13-3
Study Guide and Intervention ........................659 Practice: Skills ................................................660 Practice: Word Problems................................661 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................662 Enrichment .....................................................663

Lesson 13-4
Study Guide and Intervention ........................664 Practice: Skills ................................................665 Practice: Word Problems................................666 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................667 Enrichment .....................................................668

iii

Teachers Guide to Using the Chapter 13 Resource Masters


The Fast File Chapter Resource system allows you to conveniently file the resources you use most often. The Chapter 13 Resource Masters includes the core materials needed for Chapter 13. These materials include worksheets, extensions, and assessment options. The answers for these pages appear at the back of this booklet. All of the materials found in this booklet are included for viewing and printing in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1, TeacherWorks CD-ROM.

Vocabulary Builder Pages vii-viii include a student study tool that presents up to twenty of the key vocabulary terms from the chapter. Students are to record definitions and/or examples for each term. You may suggest that students highlight or star the terms with which they are not familiar.
When to Use Give these pages to students before beginning Lesson 13-1. Encourage them to add these pages to their mathematics study notebook. Remind them to add definitions and examples as they complete each lesson.

Practice: Skills

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice that more closely follows the structure of the Practice and Applications section of the Student Edition exercises. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Practice: Word Problems

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice in solving word problems that apply the concepts of the lesson. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Family Letter and Family Activity


Page ix is a letter to inform your students families of the requirements of the chapter. The family activity on page x helps them understand how the mathematics students are learning is applicable to real life. When to Use Give these pages to students to take home before beginning the chapter.

Study Guide and Intervention


There is one Study Guide and Intervention master for each lesson in Chapter 13. When to Use Use these masters as reteaching activities for students who need additional reinforcement. These pages can also be used in conjunction with the Student Edition as an instructional tool for students who have been absent.

Reading to Learn Mathematics One master is included for each lesson. The first section of each master asks questions about the opening paragraph of the lesson in the Student Edition. Additional questions ask students to interpret the context of and relationships among terms in the lesson. Finally, students are asked to summarize what they have learned using various representation techniques.
When to Use This master can be used as a study tool when presenting the lesson or as an informal reading assessment after presenting the lesson. It is also a helpful tool for ELL (English Language Learner) students.

iv

There is one extension master for each lesson. These activities may extend the concepts in the lesson, offer an historical or multicultural look at the concepts, or widen students perspectives on the mathematics they are learning. These are not written exclusively for honors students, but are accessible for use with all levels of students. When to Use These may be used as extra credit, short-term projects, or as activities for days when class periods are shortened.

Enrichment

A Vocabulary Test, suitable for all students, includes a list of the vocabulary words in the chapter and ten questions assessing students knowledge of those terms. This can also be used in conjunction with one of the chapter tests or as a review worksheet.

Intermediate Assessment
Four free-response quizzes are included to offer assessment at appropriate intervals in the chapter. A Mid-Chapter Test provides an option to assess the first half of the chapter. It is composed of both multiple-choice and freeresponse questions.

Assessment Options
The assessment masters in the Chapter 13 Resources Masters offer a wide range of assessment tools for intermediate and final assessment. The following lists describe each assessment master and its intended use.

Continuing Assessment
The Cumulative Review provides students an opportunity to reinforce and retain skills as they proceed through their study of Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. It can also be used as a test. This master includes free-response questions. The Standardized Test Practice offers continuing review of pre-algebra concepts in various formats, which may appear on the standardized tests that they may encounter. This practice includes multiplechoice, short response, grid-in, and extended response questions. Bubble-in and grid-in answer sections are provided on the master.

Chapter Assessment
Chapter Tests Form 1 contains multiple-choice questions and is intended for use with basic level students. Forms 2A and 2B contain multiple-choice questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Forms 2C and 2D are composed of freeresponse questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Grids with axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. Form 3 is an advanced level test with free-response questions. Grids without axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. All of the above tests include a free-response Bonus question. The Extended-Response Assessment includes performance assessment tasks that are suitable for all students. A scoring rubric is included for evaluation guidelines. Sample answers are provided for assessment.

Answers
Page A1 is an answer sheet for the Standardized Test Practice questions that appear in the Student Edition on pages 542543. This improves students familiarity with the answer formats they may encounter in test taking. Detailed rubrics for assessing the extended response questions on page 543 are provided on page A2. The answers for the lesson-by-lesson masters are provided as reduced pages with answers appearing in red. Full-size answer keys are provided for the assessment masters in this booklet.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
This is an alphabetical list of new vocabulary terms you will learn in Chapter 13. As you study the chapter, complete each terms definition or description. Remember to add the page number where you found the term. Add these pages to your math study notebook to review vocabulary at the end of the chapter. Vocabulary Term acute [uh-KYOOT] angle angle bisect [BYE-sehkt] complementary congruent [kuhn-GROO-uhnt] congruent figures corresponding parts degree [dih-GREE] equilateral [e-kwuh-LA-tuh-rul] triangle heptagon [HEP-tuh-GAHN] hexagon [HEK-suh-GAHN] isosceles [eye-SAH-suh-LEEZ] triangle line of symmetry [SIH-muh-tree] line symmetry obtuse [ahb-TOOS] angle
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Found on Page

Definition/Description/Example

vii

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Vocabulary Builder

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
Vocabulary Term octagon parallelogram pentagon perpendicular [PUHRpuhn-DIH-kyuh-luhr] polygon quadrilateral [KWAHdruh-LA-tuh-ruhl] rectangle regular polygon rhombus [RAHM-buhs] right angle rotational symmetry scalene [SKAY-LEEN] triangle side similar figures square straight angle supplementary triangle vertex Found on Page

(continued)
Definition/Description/Example

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

viii

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Letter

Dear Parent or Guardian: the geometric principle of Every time we look in a mirror we see asures, lines of symmetry, reflection at work. We use angle me to see our reflection from and reflection when hanging a mirror ror of a car to check other head to toe, when using the side mir traffic, and when building a telescope. and Polygons, your child In Chapter 13, Geometry: Angles re angles, construct will learn how to classify and measu symmetry, congruency, and segments and angles, and determine r, your child will complete a similarity. In the study of this chapte and activities and variety of daily classroom assignments possibly produce a chapter project . it with your child, you agree By signing this letter and returning olved. Enclosed is an to encourage your child by getting inv t also relates the math activity you can do with your child tha the real world. You may we will be learning in Chapter 13 to dy Tools for self-check also wish to log on to the Online Stu ide pages, and other quizzes, Parent and Student Study Gu you have any questions or study help at www.msmath1.net. If school. comments, feel free to contact me at Sincerely,

Signature of Parent or Guardian ________________________________________DATE ________

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ix

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Family Letter

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Activity
Lines of Symmetry
Have a family member name four letters of the alphabet. Write each capital letter below. Then draw all lines of symmetry. Check the symmetry lines with your family member. 1. 2.

3.

4.

Have a family member draw a picture or trace a small object on either side of each line. Then draw the reflection of each figure. Check the reflections together. 5. 6.

7.

8.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Angles
Angles have two sides that share a common endpoint called the vertex.
1 Angles are measured in degrees. One degree is equal to th of a circle. 360 vertex sides

Angles can be classified according to their measure.


right angle symbol Obtuse angles measure between 90and 180. Right angles measure 90. Acute angles measure between 0 and 90.

Straight angles measure 180.

Use a protractor to find the measure of the angle. Then classify the angle as acute, obtuse, right, or straight. To measure an angle, place the center of a protractor on the vertex of the angle. Place the zero mark of the scale along one side of the angle. Then read the angle measure where the other side of the angle crosses the scale. The angle measures 30. It is an acute angle. Two angles are complementary if the sum of their measures is 90. Two angles are supplementary if the sum of their measures is 180.
ALGEBRA Angles A and B are complementary. If mA 25, what is
Align the center of the protractor. This angle measures 30.
70 11 0 60 0 12

80 100

90

100 80

110 70

the measure of B? mA mB 90 25 mB 90 25 mB 25 90 25 mB 65 So, mB 65.


Complementary angles Replace mA with 25. Subtract 25 from each side. Since 25 65 90, the answer is reasonable.

Use a protractor to find the measure of each angle. Then classify each angle as acute, obtuse, right, or straight. 1. 2. 3.

4. ALGEBRA Angles K and L are supplementary. If mL 80, what is mK? 5. ALGEBRA If mC 40 and C and D are complementary, what is mD?
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

649

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

10 170

Lesson 131

40 14 0

50 0 13

12 0 60

13 50 0
14 0
0 15 30

30

40

30

15

160 20

20 160

170 10

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Angles
Use a protractor to find the measure of each angle. Then classify each angle as acute, obtuse, right, or straight. 1. 2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13. ALGEBRA If mK 60 and J and K are complementary, what is mJ?

14. ALGEBRA Angles A and B are supplementary. What is mB if mA 120?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

650

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Angles
SHOPPING For Exercises 13, use the

circle graph that shows preferred shopping days of United States shoppers.

Preferred Shopping Days for United States Shoppers


4% Monday 5% Tuesday 13% no preference 7% Sunday 12% Wednesday 13% Thursday 17% Friday

29% Saturday

3. If the shoppers with no preference could be persuaded to shop on Wednesdays, what would be the new angle measure of the Wednesday section of the graph?

4. CARPENTRY Jorge is building a standard bookshelf. For the books to sit squarely on the shelves, will he be using obtuse, right, or acute angles when placing the shelves in the bookcase?

5. TILING Fatima is tiling her bathroom floor. She cut a square tile along one of the diagonals. What is the angle measure created by the diagonal and a side of the tile?

6. PIZZA Cody has half a pizza to share with two of his friends. What angle measure should Cody use to cut half of the pizza into three equal pieces?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

651

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 131

1. Find the approximate measure of each angle formed by the sections of the circle graph.

2. Find the sum of the measures of the angles of the circle graph.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Angles
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 506 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Mai-Lin planted the most of which food? Explain how you came to this conclusion. 2. Of which did she plant the least? 3. The percents 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, and 10% correspond to the sections in the graph. Explain how you would match each percent with its corresponding section.

Reading the Lesson


4. Complete the following table. Tell how each expression is read. Expression mC 0 90 mC 180 5. Complete the following table. Type of Angle acute right obtuse straight 6. Tell which pair of angles is complementary and which is supplementary. a. 45 and 45 b. 45 and 135 Number of Degrees Example How the Expression is Read

Helping You Remember


7. Work with a partner. Have each person fold a piece of paper several times to form different sizes of angles. Mark each angle and give it a letter designation. Exchange papers with your partner. Measure each marked angle and identify its type.
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

652

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Clock Watching
You probably dont have to look far to find an everyday model for an angle. Just look at a clock like the one at the right, and think of the hour and minute hands as the sides of an angle. Heres how you can find the measure of the angle at 1:00. There are 360 in a circle. There are 12 evenly spaced hours on the clock face. 360 12 30 So the measure of the angle at 1:00 is 30. Find the measure of the angle formed by the hands of the clock at each hour. 1. 2:00 2. 5:00 3. 8:00
11 10 9 8 7 6 5 12 1 2 3 4

4. 11:00

5. 3:00

6. 9:00

7. List all the hours when the hands of the clock form an obtuse angle.

8. How many hours are there when the hands of the clock form an acute angle?

9. A straight angle measures 180. At what hour do the hands of the clock form a straight angle?

10. What is the measure of the angle formed by the hands of the clock at 12:00?

11. How many times between 1:00 and 2:00 do the hands of the clock form a right angle?

12. CHALLENGE How many times each day do the hands of the clock form a right angle?
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

653

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 131

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Using Angle Measures
To estimate the measure of an angle, compare it to an angle whose measure you know. You can use the measures of these angles to estimate measures of other angles. A protractor and a straightedge can be used to draw angles.
45 90 135

Estimate the measure of the angle shown. Compare the given angle to the angles shown above. The angle is a little greater than 45, so a reasonable estimate is about 45. Draw a 140 angle. Step 1 Draw one side. Mark the vertex and draw an arrow. Step 2 Place the center point of the protractor on the vertex. Align the mark labeled 0 on the protractor with the line. Find 140 and make a pencil mark.
50 0 13

Step 3 Use the straightedge to draw the side that connects the vertex and the pencil mark.

70 1 10 60 0 12

80 100

90

100 80

1 10 70

12 0 60

13 50 0
14 0 40

40 14 0

0 15 30

30 15 0

160 20

20 16 0

170 10

Estimate the measure of each angle. 1. 2. 3.

Use a protractor and a straightedge to draw angles having the following measurements. 4. 35 5. 110 6. 15

10 170

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

654

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Using Angle Measures
Estimate the measure of each angle. 1. 2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

Use a protractor and straightedge to draw angles having the following measurements. 7. 105 8. 40 9. 80

10. 64

11. 123

12. 167

13. 93

14. 26

15. 142

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

655

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 132

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Using Angle Measures
1. TIME Marissa started working on her homework at noon. Since then the minute hand has moved 180. What time is it now? 2. BICYCLING Scott went for a bike ride. After heading east for a while he turned left 57. Draw an angle showing Scotts route.

3. PIZZA Rene cut a pizza into eight equal slices. Draw a picture showing how Rene cut the pizza. What is the angle measure of each slice?

4. PIZZA Refer to Exercise 3. What would the angle measure be of three pieces side by side? Draw the angle.

5. CLOCKS Give examples of times when the hour hand and minute hand make a 30 angle, a 60 angle, and a 150 angle. Draw three clocks showing these times.

6. TILING Stasia has 4 pieces of tile. One angle on each piece measures 38, 22, 68, and 51. Which two pieces should she use side by side to make a right angle?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

656

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Using Angle Measures
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 510 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Use the wedges to estimate the measure of each angle shown.

2. How did the wedges help you to estimate each angle?

3. Explain how the 90 and 45 wedges can be used to estimate the angle at the right. What is a reasonable estimate for the angle?

4. How would you estimate the measure of any angle without using the wedges?

Reading the Lesson


5. In this lesson, how do you estimate the measure of an angle?

6. What is one type of a straightedge?

7. Step 2 of Example 2 on page 511 says to find 74 on the correct scale and make a pencil mark. Why does it specify the correct scale?

Helping You Remember


8. Work with a partner. Study Example 2 in your textbook. Practice using the steps to draw angles on your own. Then demonstrate to your partner how to draw an angle. Explain what you are doing at each step.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

657

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 132

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Compass Directions
When a plane is in flight, its direction is expressed as an angle measure. One method of doing this is to give the measure of the angle formed by the planes flight path and one of the directions of the compassnorth, east, south, or west. For example, this is how you express the two flight paths shown in the figure at the right. plane A: west 38 north, or W 38 N plane B: south 72 west, or S 72 W Write an expression for the direction of each flight path. (You will need to measure the angle with your protractor.) 1.
N N

plane A 38
W E

plane B

72
S

2.

3.

Use your protractor to draw each flight path. 4. E 70 S


N

5. E 51 N
N

6. W 75 N
N

7. CHALLENGE The bearing of a plane is the measure of the angle between its flight path and due north, measured in a clockwise direction. For example, in the figure at the top of the page, the bearing of plane B is 90 90 72 252. Give the bearing for each flight path in Exercises 16.
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

658

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Bisectors
To bisect something means to separate it into two equal parts. You can use a straightedge and a compass to bisect line segments and angles.

Use a straightedge and compass to bisect B C . Draw BC . Place the compass at point B. Set the compass greater than C . Draw two arcs as shown. Use the same half the length of B setting to place the compass point at C and draw another pair of arcs. Label the intersections X and Y. Use a straightedge to align the intersections and draw a segment that intersects B C . Label the intersection point M. X Y bisects BC . Use a straightedge and compass to bisect ABC. Draw ABC. Place the compass at point B and draw an arc that intersects B both sides of the angle. Label the intersections X and Y. With the compass at point X, draw an arc as shown. Use the same setting to place the compass point at Y and draw another arc. Label the intersection Z. Use a straightedge to draw BZ . BZ bisects ABC.
B A X Z YC C

X B Y X B M Y C

A X

B A X Z B

Y C

Y C

1. 2 in.

2. 45

3. 4 cm

4. 150

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

659

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 133

Draw each line segment or angle having the given measurement. Then use a straightedge and a compass to bisect the line segment or angle.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Bisectors
Draw each line segment or angle having the given measurement. Then use a straightedge and a compass to bisect the line segment or angle. 1. 80 2. 1 in. 3. 120

4. 40

5. 2 cm

6. 90

7. 3 cm

8. 78

9. 1.25 in.

10. 25

11. 165

12. 2.25 in.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

660

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Bisectors
KITES For Exercises 16, use the design shown. It shows the kite

B E

design Steve is using to build a kite.


A C

1. For which line segment should Steve use B D as a perpendicular bisector when making his kite?

2. Should Steve use C A as a perpendicular bisector for DB ? Why or why not?

3. Which angles, if any, does B D bisect?

4. Should Steve use A E as a bisector for BAD? Why or why not?

5. Use a compass and a straightedge to show where the perpendicular bisector for BD would be. Use a dashed line and label it X Y .

6. Use a compass and a straightedge to bisect BAD. Use a dashed line and label the bisector AZ .

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

661

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 133

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Bisectors
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 515 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Use the Internet or a dictionary to find the meaning of each word.

2. What do the meanings have in common? 3. What does the prefix bi- mean? 4. Make a conjecture about what it means to bisect something.

Reading the Lesson


5. How do you read each of the following? Expression NX NY JKM MKL 6. When you bisect a line segment, what setting should you use for the compass? Why is it important to set the compass this way? Read as

7. In what other way is the bisector of a line segment related to the line segment?

Helping You Remember


8. Work with a partner. Have one partner study Example 1 and demonstrate how to bisect a line segment. Have the other partner study Example 2 and demonstrate how to bisect an angle.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

662

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Creative Constructions
The compass and straightedge are very simple tools, yet they can be used to create some very complex and beautiful designs. It might surprise you to know that the designs on this page involve nothing more complicated than bisecting segments and angles! For instance, the outline of the design at the right was created in just four steps.

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Construct a copy of each design in the empty circle. 1. 2.

Construct a copy of each design on a separate sheet of paper. 3. 4. 5.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

663

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 133

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Two-Dimensional Figures
A polygon is a simple, closed, two-dimensional figure with three or more sides. The number of sides determines a polygons name.

triangle (3 sides)

quadrilateral (4 sides)

pentagon (5 sides)

hexagon (6 sides)

heptagon (7 sides)

octagon (8 sides)

When all of the sides and angles of a polygon are congruent, the polygon is a regular polygon.

Identify the polygon. Then tell if it is a regular polygon. The polygon has 7 sides. So, it is a heptagon. Since the sides and angles are not congruent, it is not a regular polygon.

Identify each polygon. Then tell if it is a regular polygon. 1. 2. 3.

4. Draw a quadrilateral with four equal sides and four equal angles. Identify this quadrilateral.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

664

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Two-Dimensional Figures
Identify each polygon. Then tell if it is a regular polygon. 1. 2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Draw an example of each polygon. 10. pentagon

11. a scalene triangle

12. a quadrilateral that is not a rectangle

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

665

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 134

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Two-Dimensional Figures
STAINED GLASS For Exercises 16,

use the design for a stained glass window shown.

N T M

P Q

1. Find and name two triangles in the design.

2. Is there a regular quadrilateral in the design? If so, where is it?

3. Find and name an octagon in the design.

4. Can you find a parallelogram in the design? Identify it.

5. Is the pentagon CQRST a regular pentagon? Explain.

6. If the perimeter of the window is 8 feet, what is the length of each side? How do you know?

COMMON OBJECTS For Exercises 7 and 8, use the list of polygons you see on a

regular basis. door textbook cover computer screen 7. Which object on the list is not a quadrilateral? What type of polygon is it? stop sign vinyl album cover CD case 8. Are there any objects on the list that are regular? If so, what are they? Explain.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

666

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Two-Dimensional Figures
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 522 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. What is true about the angles and sides of a square?

2. Using two more straws, what changes need to be made to the square to form a rectangle that is not a square?

3. How are rectangles and squares alike? How do they differ?

4. Push on one vertex of the rectangle so it is no longer a rectangle. What is true about the opposite sides?

Reading the Lesson


5. For each polygon, write the number of sides. a. hexagon b. triangle c. pentagon sides sides sides d. heptagon e. octagon f. quadrilateral sides sides sides

6. What do tick marks through the sides of a figure indicate? What do the arcs in the angles of a figure indicate?

Helping You Remember


7. Quadrilaterals can be classified by their sides and their angles. Complete the following table and study it until you can identify quadrilaterals easily.

opposite all opposite all


Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

all all all all

opposites are congruent opposites are congruent all are right angles all are right angles
Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

667

Lesson 134

Identify the Figure

Congruent Sides

Parallel Sides

Angles

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Making Conjectures
A conjecture is an educated guess or an opinion. Mathematicians and scientists often make conjectures when they observe patterns in a collection of data. On this page, you will be asked to make a conjecture about polygons. Use a protractor to measure the angles of each polygon. Then find the sum of the measures. (Use the quadrilateral at the right as an example.) 1. 2.
107 121

89

43

89 107 121 43 360

3.

4.

5.

6.

7. Make a conjecture. How is the sum of the angle measures of a polygon related to the number of sides?

8. Test your conjecture. On a clean sheet of paper, use a straightedge to draw a hexagon. What do you guess is the sum of the angle measures? Measure each angle and find the sum. Was your conjecture true?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

668

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Lines of Symmetry
If a figure can be folded in half so that the two halves match exactly, the figure has line symmetry. The line that separates the figure into two matching halves is a line of symmetry. If a figure can be rotated less than 360 and look exactly as it did before being turned, the figure has rotational symmetry.

Draw all lines of symmetry for each figure. a b c

one line of symmetry

four lines of symmetry

no lines of symmetry

Tell whether each figure has rotational symmetry. a The figure appears as it did before being rotated after being rotated 180. So, the figure has rotational symmetry.
0 90 180 270 360

The figure looks the same only when rotated 360. So, the figure does not have rotational symmetry.
0 90 180 270 360

Draw all lines of symmetry for each figure. 1. 2. 3.

Tell whether each figure has rotational symmetry. Write yes or no. 4. 5. 6.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

669

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 135

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Lines of Symmetry
Draw all lines of symmetry for each figure. 1. 2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Tell whether each figure has rotational symmetry. Write yes or no. 10. 11. 12.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

670

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Lines of Symmetry
Natalie designed a symmetry game for a math assignment. The strategy of the game is for Katie and Natalie to sit on opposite sides of the board and see the exact same thing on the board. 1. The board they designed is shown below. If Katie and Natalie sit where the K and N are placed, will they see the same thing? In other words, does the board have rotational symmetry?
K N

2. The number 1991 is written in each oval of the board. Do Katie and Natalie see the same thing? Explain.

3. Suppose the number 1961 is written instead. Do Katie and Natalie see the same thing? Explain.

4. What are three more numbers that can be used in this game?

5. NUMBERS Frank and Cassandra drew lines of symmetry for the numbers 1 through 6. Frank says that five numbers do not have any lines of symmetry. Cassandra says that only four do not have any lines of symmetry. Who is correct? Explain.

6. NUMBERS Refer to Exercise 5. Are there any numbers with more than 1 line of symmetry? If so, which one(s)? Explain.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

671

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 135

GAMES For Exercises 14, use the following information. Katie and

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Lines of Symmetry
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 528 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Compare the left side of the figure to the right side.

2. Draw another figure that has the same characteristic as a butterfly, a dragonfly, and a lobster.

Reading the Lesson


3. Look up the word symmetry in a dictionary. Write the meaning of the word as it is used in this lesson.

4. Can a figure have a line of symmetry if the figure does not have line symmetry? Explain.

Helping You Remember


5. Find an object that has rotational symmetry and an object that does not have rotational symmetry. Demonstrate to your class how each object either has or does not have rotational symmetry, and explain why.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

672

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Lesson 135

African Weaving
For the people of Africa, weaving is a form of art. They have woven intricate and beautiful designs into fabric for many centuries. As with so many other art forms, the beauty of their designs is based on geometric principles. The designs on this page were created more than one hundred years ago in the region of Africa that today is Zaire. They are examples of strip patterns, which were repetitive patterns used as decorative borders on clothing. In the exercises below, you will take a closer look at the geometry of these patterns. In a strip pattern, the pattern unit is the basic design that is repeated along the strip. For each of these patterns: a. Identify the pattern unit and make a sketch of it in the space at the right. b. Name the type or types of symmetry that the pattern unit has. 1.

2.

3.

4.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

673

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Similar and Congruent Figures
Figures that have the same size and shape are congruent figures. Figures that have the same shape but not necessarily the same size are similar figures.

Tell whether each pair of figures is similar, congruent, or neither. a b c

The parallelograms have the same shape but not the same size, so they are similar.

The triangles have the same shape and size, so they are congruent.

The rectangles are neither the same size nor the same shape, so they are neither congruent nor similar.

Tell whether each pair of figures is congruent, similar, or neither. 1. 2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

674

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Similar and Congruent Figures
Tell whether each pair of figures is similar, congruent, or neither. 1. 2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

675

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 136

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Similar and Congruent Figures
TILING For Exercises 16, use the following
A

information. Amy is using the design at the right to tile a hexagon-shaped floor. Before deciding which colors to use, she wants to identify all similar and congruent shapes.

1. Suppose Amy cut a red tile the size of ACE. What other triangle in the design would that tile fit? In other words, what triangle is congruent to ACE?

2. Amy is looking for congruent quadrilaterals that are neither squares nor rectangles. Can you identify them?

3. Find a triangle that is similar to but not congruent to BCK.

4. Amys friend suggested that she cut four congruent white triangular tiles and place them in the design so that they are not overlapping and do not share common sides. Is that possible? If so, name the four triangles.

5. Can you help Amy find a shape that is either similar or congruent to AKDJ?

6. Is the hexagon GIKNLJ similar to ABCDEF? How do you know?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

676

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Similar and Congruent Figures
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 534 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. How many different-sized triangles are in the pattern? 2. Compare the size and shape of these triangles.

Reading the Lesson


3. Tell whether each characteristic is true for congruent and similar figures. Write congruent, similar, or both. a. have the same shape b. may or may not have the same size c. must have the same size

4. If the perimeters of the four arms of the windmill in Examples 3 and 4 on page 535 are added together, what is the total perimeter?

Helping You Remember


5. Complete the following table. Draw an original figure in the box on the left. Then, for the original figure, draw a figure that is similar, a figure that is congruent, and a figure that is neither similar or congruent. Original Figure Similar Congruent Neither

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

677

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 136

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Rep-Tiles
The word rep-tiles stands for repeating tiles. A geometric figure is a rep-tile if it can be divided into smaller parts according to these rules. 1. All the smaller parts must be congruent to each other. 2. All the smaller parts must be similar to the original tile. Here are two examples of figures that are rep-tiles.

Divide each rep-tile into four congruent parts. 1. 2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7. CHALLENGE Show how to use four figures like the one at the right to make a rep-tile.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

678

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Chapter Chapter 14 X Resource Resource Masters Masters

Course 1 1 Course

Consumable Workbooks
Many of the worksheets contained in the Chapter Resource Masters booklets are available as consumable workbooks in both English and Spanish. Study Guide and Intervention Workbook Study Guide and Intervention Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Skills Workbook Practice: Skills Workbook (Spanish) Practice: Word Problems Workbook Practice: Word Problems Workbook (Spanish) Reading to Learn Mathematics Workbook 0-07-860085-5 0-07-860091-X 0-07-860086-3 0-07-860092-8 0-07-860087-1 0-07-860093-6 0-07-861057-5

Answers for Workbooks The answers for Chapter 14 of these


workbooks can be found in the back of this Chapter Resource Masters booklet.

Spanish Assessment Masters Spanish versions of forms 2A and 2C of


the Chapter 14 Test are available in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts Spanish Assessment Masters, Course 1 (0-07-860095-2).

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teacher, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1 Chapter 14 Resource Masters 024 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03

ISBN: 0-07-860077-4
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

CONTENTS
Vocabulary Builder .............................vii Family Letter ............................................ix Family Activity ........................................x Lesson 14-1
Study Guide and Intervention ........................699 Practice: Skills ................................................700 Practice: Word Problems................................701 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................702 Enrichment .....................................................703

Lesson 14-5
Study Guide and Intervention ........................719 Practice: Skills ................................................720 Practice: Word Problems................................721 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................722 Enrichment .....................................................723

Lesson 14-6
Study Guide and Intervention ........................724 Practice: Skills ................................................725 Practice: Word Problems................................726 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................727 Enrichment .....................................................728

Lesson 14-2
Study Guide and Intervention ........................704 Practice: Skills ................................................705 Practice: Word Problems................................706 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................707 Enrichment .....................................................708

Chapter 14 Assessment
Chapter 14 Test, Form 1 ........................729730 Chapter 14 Test, Form 2A ......................731732 Chapter 14 Test, Form 2B ......................733734 Chapter 14 Test, Form 2C......................735736 Chapter 14 Test, Form 2D......................737738 Chapter 14 Test, Form 3 ........................739740 Chapter 14 Extended Response Assessment ...............................................741 Chapter 14 Vocabulary Test/Review...............742 Chapter 14 Quizzes 1 & 2..............................743 Chapter 14 Quizzes 3 & 4..............................744 Chapter 14 Mid-Chapter Test .........................745 Chapter 14 Cumulative Review......................746 Chapter 14 Standardized Test Practice..747748 Unit 6 Test/Review..................................749750 Second Semester Test ...........................751753 Final Test ................................................755760 Standardized Test Practice Student Recording Sheet ..............................A1 Standardized Test Practice Rubric...................A2 ANSWERS .............................................A3A33

Lesson 14-3
Study Guide and Intervention ........................709 Practice: Skills ................................................710 Practice: Word Problems................................711 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................712 Enrichment .....................................................713

Lesson 14-4
Study Guide and Intervention ........................714 Practice: Skills ................................................715 Practice: Word Problems................................716 Reading to Learn Mathematics......................717 Enrichment .....................................................718

iii

Teachers Guide to Using the Chapter 14 Resource Masters


The Fast File Chapter Resource system allows you to conveniently file the resources you use most often. The Chapter 14 Resource Masters includes the core materials needed for Chapter 14. These materials include worksheets, extensions, and assessment options. The answers for these pages appear at the back of this booklet. All of the materials found in this booklet are included for viewing and printing in the Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1, TeacherWorks CD-ROM.

Vocabulary Builder Pages vii-viii include a student study tool that presents up to twenty of the key vocabulary terms from the chapter. Students are to record definitions and/or examples for each term. You may suggest that students highlight or star the terms with which they are not familiar.
When to Use Give these pages to students before beginning Lesson 14-1. Encourage them to add these pages to their mathematics study notebook. Remind them to add definitions and examples as they complete each lesson.

Practice: Skills

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice that more closely follows the structure of the Practice and Applications section of the Student Edition exercises. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Practice: Word Problems

There is one master for each lesson. These provide practice in solving word problems that apply the concepts of the lesson. When to Use These provide additional practice options or may be used as homework for second day teaching of the lesson.

Family Letter and Family Activity


Page ix is a letter to inform your students families of the requirements of the chapter. The family activity on page x helps them understand how the mathematics students are learning is applicable to real life. When to Use Give these pages to students to take home before beginning the chapter.

Study Guide and Intervention


There is one Study Guide and Intervention master for each lesson in Chapter 14. When to Use Use these masters as reteaching activities for students who need additional reinforcement. These pages can also be used in conjunction with the Student Edition as an instructional tool for students who have been absent.

Reading to Learn Mathematics One master is included for each lesson. The first section of each master asks questions about the opening paragraph of the lesson in the Student Edition. Additional questions ask students to interpret the context of and relationships among terms in the lesson. Finally, students are asked to summarize what they have learned using various representation techniques.
When to Use This master can be used as a study tool when presenting the lesson or as an informal reading assessment after presenting the lesson. It is also a helpful tool for ELL (English Language Learner) students.

iv

There is one extension master for each lesson. These activities may extend the concepts in the lesson, offer an historical or multicultural look at the concepts, or widen students perspectives on the mathematics they are learning. These are not written exclusively for honors students, but are accessible for use with all levels of students. When to Use These may be used as extra credit, short-term projects, or as activities for days when class periods are shortened.

Enrichment

A Vocabulary Test, suitable for all students, includes a list of the vocabulary words in the chapter and ten questions assessing students knowledge of those terms. This can also be used in conjunction with one of the chapter tests or as a review worksheet.

Intermediate Assessment
Four free-response quizzes are included to offer assessment at appropriate intervals in the chapter. A Mid-Chapter Test provides an option to assess the first half of the chapter. It is composed of both multiple-choice and freeresponse questions.

Assessment Options
The assessment masters in the Chapter 14 Resources Masters offer a wide range of assessment tools for intermediate and final assessment. The following lists describe each assessment master and its intended use.

Continuing Assessment
The Cumulative Review provides students an opportunity to reinforce and retain skills as they proceed through their study of Glencoe Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1. It can also be used as a test. This master includes free-response questions. The Standardized Test Practice offers continuing review of pre-algebra concepts in various formats, which may appear on the standardized tests that they may encounter. This practice includes multiplechoice, short response, grid-in, and extended response questions. Bubble-in and grid-in answer sections are provided on the master.

Chapter Assessment
Chapter Tests Form 1 contains multiple-choice questions and is intended for use with basic level students. Forms 2A and 2B contain multiple-choice questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Forms 2C and 2D are composed of freeresponse questions aimed at the average level student. These tests are similar in format to offer comparable testing situations. Grids with axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. Form 3 is an advanced level test with free-response questions. Grids without axes are provided for questions assessing graphing skills. All of the above tests include a free-response Bonus question. The Extended-Response Assessment includes performance assessment tasks that are suitable for all students. A scoring rubric is included for evaluation guidelines. Sample answers are provided for assessment.

Answers
Page A1 is an answer sheet for the Standardized Test Practice questions that appear in the Student Edition on pages 582583. This improves students familiarity with the answer formats they may encounter in test taking. Detailed rubrics for assessing the extended response questions on page 583 are provided on page A2. The answers for the lesson-by-lesson masters are provided as reduced pages with answers appearing in red. Full-size answer keys are provided for the assessment masters in this booklet.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
This is an alphabetical list of new vocabulary terms you will learn in Chapter 14. As you study the chapter, complete each terms definition or description. Remember to add the page number where you found the term. Add these pages to your math study notebook to review vocabulary at the end of the chapter. Vocabulary Term base Found on Page Definition/Description/Example
Vocabulary Builder

center

cone

cubic units

cylinder [SIH-luhn-duhr]

edge

face

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

vii

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Vocabulary Builder
Vocabulary Term height Found on Page

(continued)
Definition/Description/Example

lateral face

prism [PRIH-zum]

pyramid [PEER-ah-MIHD]

sphere [Sfeer]

surface area

three-dimensional figure

vertex (vertices) [VUHR-tuc-SEEZ]

volume [VAHL-yoom]

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

viii

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Letter

Dear Parent or Guardian: of the things that we do. We use mathematical skills in many w students how the One of the goals of this class is to sho classroom is relevant to the information they are learning in the g area and volume is real world. For example, understandin phy, navigation, sports, and useful in such diverse fields as geogra architecture. ng Area and Volume, your uri eas M y: etr om Ge 14, er apt Ch In of parallelograms, triangles, child will learn how to find the areas e three-dimensional figures and circles. Your child will also explor a of rectangular prisms. In and find the volume and surface are will complete a variety of the study of this chapter, your child ivities and possibly produce daily classroom assignments and act a chapter project . it with your child, you agree By signing this letter and returning olved. Enclosed is an to encourage your child by getting inv ld that also relates the activity that you can do with your chi 14 to the real world. You math we will be learning in Chapter e Study Tools for selfmay also wish to log on to the Onlin dy Guide pages, and check quizzes, Parent and Student Stu et. If you have any other study help at www.msmath1.n tact me at school. questions or comments, feel free to con Sincerely,

Signature of Parent or Guardian ____________________ ____________________ DATE ______

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ix

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Family Letter

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Family Activity
Finding Areas of Triangles
Work with a family member. Find three triangles in your home. For example, you might find triangles on a food container, in a tile pattern, in a wallpaper pattern, or even in a painting. You can also create triangles by drawing the diagonal of a rectangular object. You will need a ruler or tape measure to complete this activity. 1. Describe the first triangle you found. Use a ruler to measure the height and the base of the triangle. Record the measurements. Height: Base:

1 2. The area of a triangle is its base times its height. What is the area of 2 the first triangle?

3. Describe the second triangle you found. Use a ruler to measure the height and the base of the triangle. Record the measurements in the space below. Height: Base:

4. What is the area of the second triangle?

5. Describe the third triangle you found. Use a ruler to measure the height and the base of the triangle. Record the measurements in the space below. Height: Base:

6. What is the area of the third triangle?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Area of Parallelograms
The area A of a parallelogram is the product of any base b and its height h. Symbols A bh Model
height (h ) base (b )

Find the area of each parallelogram. a


2.2 in.

4.5 in.

A47 A 28
The base is 4 units, and the height is 7 units.

A 4.5 2.2 A 9.9 The area is 9.9 square inches or 9.9 in2.

The area is 28 square units or 28 units2.

Find the area of each parallelogram. Round to the nearest tenth if necessary. 1. 2. 3.

4.
3.5 cm

5.
4.2 yd 5.4 yd 1.8 cm

6.
10.2 m

8.7 m

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

699

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 141

A bh

A bh

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Area of Parallelograms
Find the area of each parallelogram. Round to the nearest tenth if necessary. 1. 2. 3.
3 ft

7 ft

4.
7 yd

5.
2.5 cm

6.
5 cm 9 yd

10 yd 9 yd

7.
14 m

8.
10 in.

9.
16 in. 15 1 in.
2

6m
9 in.

10.
5 cm

11.
12.3 cm 9.1 km

12.
5.2 m

11 km

7.3 m

13.
15 1 ft
4

14.

3 1 yd
2

15.
18 1 yd
4

12.6 cm

20 ft 4.1 cm

16. What is the measure of the area of a parallelogram with


2 1 a base of 6 inches and a height of 1 inches? 3 2 1 17. Find the area of a parallelogram with base 7 yards and 1 height 1 yards. 9 5

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

700

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Area of Parallelograms
1. SUNFLOWERS Norman is a sunflower farmer. His farm is in the shape of a parallelogram with a height measuring 3 kilometers and a base measuring 4.2 kilometers. To the nearest tenth of an acre, what is the total land area Norman uses? 2. VOLLEYBALL Ella and Veronica are in charge of making a banner for the volleyball game this Saturday. How much poster paper will they need for a parallelogram-shaped banner with
1 height 3 feet and base 6 feet? Explain

how you found your answer. 21 ft2;

1 height, 3 , to find the area. 2

White Black Yellow 72 in.

8 2 in. 7 2 in.
1

5. QUILTING The pattern shows the dimensions of a quilting square that Sydney will use to make a quilt. How much blue fabric will she need? Explain how you found your answer.
6 in.
red blue 8 in. green 12 in. red pink 3 in.

6. QUILTING Use the quilting pattern from Exercise 5. How much pink fabric will Sydney need?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

701

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 141

3. FLAGS Joseph is painting the flag of Brunei (a country in Southeast Asia) for a geography project at school. How many square inches will he cover with white paint?

4. FLAGS Use the flag from Exercise 3. How many square inches will Joseph cover with black paint?

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Area of Parallelograms
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 546 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. How does a parallelogram relate to a rectangle?

2. What part of the parallelogram corresponds to the length of the rectangle?

3. What part corresponds to the rectangles width?

4. Write a formula for the area of a parallelogram.

Reading the Lesson


5. Look back at Lesson 1-8, Geometry: Area of Rectangles. Write the definition for the area of a figure.

6. Look at the models in the Mini Lab at the top of page 546 in your textbook. How can you tell from the models that the areas of the rectangle and the parallelogram are the same?

7. Look at Examples 2 and 3 on page 547. Explain what the dotted lines in the figures represent.

Helping You Remember


8. Work with a partner. Using models, demonstrate that the area of a parallelogram equals the product of any base of the parallelogram and its height.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

702

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
You Can Count On It!
How many triangles are there in the figure at the right? How many parallelograms? When counting shapes in a figure like this, you usually have to think of different sizes.

There are four small triangles. You also have to think of different positions.

There is one large triangle.

There are five triangles in all.

1. Now its your turn. How many triangles are in the figure below? How many parallelograms? Use the space at the right to organize your counting.

2. A trapezoid is a quadrilateral with only one pair of sides parallel, as shown at the right. How many trapezoids are in the figure in Exercise 1?

3. CHALLENGE How many triangles, parallelograms, and trapezoids are in the figure at the right?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

703

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 141

There are three parallelograms in all.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Area of Triangles
The area A of a triangle is one half the product of any base b and its height h.
1 Symbols A bh 2

Model
height (h ) base (b )

Find the area of each triangle. a b


6m 14.4 m
height

The measure of the base is 5 units, and the height is 8 units.

base

2 1 A (5)(8) 2 1 A (40) 2

1 A bh

Area of a triangle Replace b with 5 and h with 8. Multiply. 5 8 40

2 1 A (14.4)(6) 2

1 A bh

Replace b with 14.4 and h with 6.


ENTER

0.5 14.4 6

43.2

A 20 The area of the triangle is 20 square units. The area of the triangle is 43.2 square meters.

Find the area of each triangle. Round to the nearest tenth if necessary. 1. 2. 3.
5 ft

2 ft

4.

5.

2.3 cm 6 cm

6.
3.2 cm

30 yd

4.5 cm

10 yd
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

704

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Area of Triangles
Find the area of each triangle. Round to the nearest tenth if necessary. 1. 2. 3.

4.
4 ft

5.
25 yd

6.

15 in.

5 in.

12 ft
10 yd

7.
6 km

8.
2.2 cm 9 cm

9.
12 cm

3.1 cm

6 km

10.
12.5 m

11.

10.2 km 3.1 km

12.
8 1 ft
4

24 1 ft
2

15 m

13. base: 4 in. height: 11 in.

3 14. base: 4 yd 4 1 height: 1 yd 3

1 15. base: 5 ft 4 2 height: 2 ft 3

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

705

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 142

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Area of Triangles
For Exercises 16, round to the nearest tenth if necessary. 1. CARPETING Courtney wants to carpet part of her bedroom that is shaped like a right triangle with base 4 meters and height 5.2 meters. How much carpet will she need? 2. LAWN Mrs. Giuntinis lawn is triangleshaped with a base of 25 feet and a height of 10 feet. What is the area of Mrs. Giuntinis lawn? Explain how you found your answer.

1 area of a triangle is bh. So, 1 25 10 125. 2 2

3. BUILDING Norma has an A-frame cabin. The back is shown below. How many square feet of paint will she need to cover the back of the cabin?

15 ft 25 ft

4. SNACKS The dough that will be used to make a pig in a blanket is shown below. Before it is rolled around a sausage, it is brushed with vegetable oil. What is the area that needs to be covered with oil? Explain how you found your answer.
6 cm 14 cm

42 cm2; Sample answer: The

1 6 14 or 42. 2
5. SAILING Daniel just bought a used sailboat with two sails that need replacing. How much sail fabric will Daniel need if he replaces sail A? 6. SAILING Use the picture from Exercise 5. How much sail fabric will Daniel need if he replaces sail B?

1 2 112 ft 2

A
9 4 ft
3

B
12 2 ft
1

18 ft

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Area of Triangles
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 551 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Compare the two triangles.

2. What figure is formed by the two triangles?

3. Make a conjecture about the relationship that exists between the area of one triangle and the area of the entire figure.

Reading the Lesson


4. Look at the figure at the right. Explain how the height can be a, b, or d.
a d b c

5. Using models, demonstrate that congruent triangles have the same area.

6. Look at the illustrations of h on page 551. What is the symbol found where h and b meet? How does that affect the length of h?

Helping You Remember


7. Work with a partner. Using models, demonstrate that the area of a triangle is one-half the product of the base b and the height h of the triangle.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

707

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 142

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Area of Composite Figures
A composite figure is made up, or composed, of other figures. For example, the L-shaped figure at the right is composed of two rectangles. To find the area of the L-shape, find the area of each rectangle, then add. Area of A Aw A 10 6 A 60 Area of B Aw A 20 8 A 160
6 ft 10 ft A B 20 ft 8 ft 20 ft 10 ft 6 ft

So the area of the L-shaped figure is 60 ft2 160 ft2, or 220 ft2.
8 ft

Find the area of each composite figure. 1. 2.


38 cm

24 in. 33 in.

32 cm

17 cm 24 in. 50 cm 15 in.

3.

5 yd

4.

6 yd 3m

5m

7 yd

8m

5. CHALLENGE Find the area of the shaded region in the figure at the right.
35 in.

21 in.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Area of Circles
The area A of a circle is the product of and the square of the radius r. Symbols A r 2 Model
radius (r )

Find the area of the circle to the nearest tenth.

6 yd

A r2 A 3.14 32
The diameter is 6 yards. So, the radius is 6 2 or 3 yards.

Area of a circle Replace with 3.14 and r with 3. Evaluate 3 2. Use a calculator.

A 3.14 9 A 28.26

The area of the circle is about 28.3 square yards.

Find the area of each circle to the nearest tenth. Use 3.14 for . 1.
2 ft

2.

3.

2m

8 in.

4.

5.
1.2 km 5 yd

6.

9 cm

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

709

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 143

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Area of Circles
Find the area of each circle to the nearest tenth. Use 3.14 for . 1.
1 ft 4 cm

2.

3.
12 m

4.
3 cm

5.
10 km

6.

2 1 in.
2

7.

8.
4 1 yd
2

9.
4.1 yd

16 ft

10.

11.

12.
9 in.

18 mm

3.8 yd

13. What is the area of a circle whose radius is 4.2 yards?

14. Find the area of a circle with a diameter of 13 meters.

15. What is the area of a circle whose radius is 6.6 inches?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

710

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Area of Circles
For Exercises 14, find each area to the nearest tenth. Use 3.14 for . 1. SWIMMING POOLS Jensens parents put him in charge of ordering a cover for their new swimming pool. The pool is in the shape of a circle and has a radius of 14 feet. What will the area of the cover need to be? 2. BASKETBALL Thompson School will paint the center circle of the basketball court with yellow paint, one of the school colors. The circle has a radius of 2 feet. What is the area that will be painted yellow?

3. BASEBALL The pitchers mound on a regulation baseball field has a diameter of 18 feet. What is the area of a pitchers mound?

4. CAMPING A group of campers needs to clear away twigs and bark on the ground to make a fire circle for people to safely sit around the campfire. What is the area that they need to clear?

8 ft

201.0 ft2
For Exercises 5 and 6, find each area to the nearest tenth. Use 3.14 for . Use the following information.
SCIENCE Hal and Frank are conducting a science experiment. They drop a pebble into a pond and measure the radius of the circles of waves.
1.25 m

first measurement

second measurement

5. What was the area covered by waves the first time it was measured?

6. What was the area covered by waves the second time it was measured? Explain how you found your answer.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

711

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 143

2.5 m

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Area of Circles
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 556 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. What shape does the figure look like?

2. What part of the circle represents the figures height?

3. Relate the circles circumference to the base of the figure.

4. How would you find the area of the figure?

Reading the Lesson


5. The second sentence below the Mini Lab says, The parts can then be arranged to form a figure that resembles a parallelogram. How is the parallelogram-like figure in the Mini Lab different from a parallelogram?

6. Draw a circle. Label the circumference, radius, and diameter.

Helping You Remember


7. To help yourself practice computing the area of a circle, find a few circular objects such as plates, cups, and tops of cans. Measure each radius or diameter with a ruler and then find the area of the circle.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

712

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Area of Sectors
In the circle at the right, the vertex of AOB is the center of the circle. So, AOB is called a central angle of the circle, and the shaded region is a sector of the circle. When you know the radius of the circle and the measure of the central angle, its easy to find the area of the sector. First find the area of the circle. A r2 A 3.14 (3)2 A 3.14 9 A 28.26 Then find what fractional part of the circle is in the sector.
A

120

O
3 ft

degree measure of central angle degree measure of circle

120 1 = 360 3

1 So, the area of the sector is about of 28.26 ft2, or about 9.42 ft2. 3

Find the area of each shaded sector. Use 3.14 for . 1.


cm 12 60

2.
135

3.
12 cm 12 cm 90

72 5 ft

6 in. 150

45

7. CHALLENGE In the circle at the right, the shaded region is called a segment of the circle. Find the area of the segment.
8

90
in.

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713

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 143

4.

5.

6.
20 cm

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Three-Dimensional Figures
Three-dimensional figures are shapes with length, width, and depth (or height). Some terms associated with three-dimensional figures are face, edge, vertex, and lateral face.
The polygons that form three-dimensional figures are called faces.

The faces intersect to form edges.

Prisms have two parallel bases and at least three lateral faces that are rectangles.

The sides are called lateral faces.

The edges intersect to form vertices.

rectangular prism

triangular prism

square prism or cube

Pyramids are named by their bases and have at least three lateral faces that are triangles.

Some three-dimensional figures have curved surfaces and no edges.

triangular pyramid

square pyramid

cylinder

cone

sphere

Identify each figure. 1. 2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Three-Dimensional Figures
Identify each figure. 1. 2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

715

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 144

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Three-Dimensional Figures
1. TENNIS As professional tennis players, Venus and Serena Williams strike tennis balls with rackets. Draw the figure that represents a tennis ball. What type of figure is this? 2. BACKPACKING Below are pictures of some of the objects Kelly takes with her for backpacking trips. Identify the figure each picture represents.

Tent

triangular prism

Sleeping Bag

cylinder
3. MECHANICS A mechanic uses a funnel when he or she puts fluids into cars. What type of figure does a funnel represent? Draw the figure. 4. DESIGN Rachael Johnson is a toy designer. She uses square blocks of wood to make alphabet blocks. Draw and name the figure that an alphabet block represents.

5. FIGURES Alice and Julie were arguing over the name of this figure. What is the name of the figure? How do you know?

6. CANDLES Kevin arranged several scented candles on his kitchen table before his birthday party started. Use the picture of Kevins arrangement to name the type of figure each candle represents.

a. square
c a

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Three-Dimensional Figures
Pre-Activity Read the introduction at the top of page 564 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. What shape does the delta kite resemble?

2. Name the shape that each side of the box kite resembles.

3. Describe how the shape of the box kite differs from the shape of the delta kite.

Reading the Lesson


For Exercises 411, tell whether each phrase describes a prism, pyramid, cone, cylinder, or sphere. 4. no faces 6. no bases 8. one base 10. two bases 5. curved surface 7. lateral faces that are rectangles 9. lateral faces that are triangles 11. one vertex

12. What determines the name of a prism or pyramid? 13. Compare a triangular pyramid and a square pyramid. How are they similar? How are they different?

Helping You Remember


14. Draw an example of each figure. prism pyramid cone cylinder sphere

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

717

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 144

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Point of View
At the right is a square pyramid as seen from a point of view that is slightly above and to the right. Here is the same pyramid when you look at it from three different points of view.
front view side view top view

Notice that these views appear two-dimensional. Architects, engineers, and designers often use views like these to provide a detailed description of a three-dimensional object. Identify the figure that each set of views represents. 1.
front view side view top view

2.
front view side view top view

3.
front view side view top view

4.
front view side view top view

5. This figure is called a truncated cone. In the space at the right, sketch front, side, and top views of the figure.

6. CHALLENGE At the right, you see three different views of the same cube. What symbol is on the face opposite the plus sign?
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

$ %

718

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Volume of Rectangular Prisms
The amount of space inside a three-dimensional figure is the volume of the figure. Volume is measured in cubic units. This tells you the number of cubes of a given size it will take to fill the prism.

cubic unit

The volume V of a rectangular prism is the product of its length , width w, and height h. Symbols V wh Model
h

You can also multiply the area of the base B by the height h to find the volume V. Symbols V Bh Model
B h

Find the volume of the rectangular prism. Method 1 Use V wh. V wh V 10 5 2 V 100 The volume is 100 ft3. Method 2 Use V Bh. V Bh B, the area of the base, V 50 2 is 10 5 or 50. V 100 The volume is 100 ft3.
10 ft

5 ft 2 ft

Find the volume of each figure. Round to the nearest tenth if necessary. 1.
2 ft 3 ft 4 in. 4 ft 4 in.

2.

4 in.

3.
20 yd

4.

1.5 cm 3 cm 5 cm

5 yd 5 yd Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

719

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 145

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Volume of Rectangular Prisms
Find the volume of each rectangular prism. Round to the nearest tenth if necessary. 1.
4 in. 2 in. 1 in.

2.
7m 4m

3.
9 ft

2m

6 ft 5 ft

4.

1.4 mm 4 mm

5.

6.

1.2 yd 10 mm 1.5 yd 10 in. 1 yd

3 in. 2.5 in.

7.
4.8 in. 3 in. 2 in.

8.
20 ft

2 ft 5 ft

9.
7 mm 6 mm 10 mm

10.

11.

2.2 ft 3.1 ft

12.

8.3 m

6.9 ft 6.7 yd 9.2 yd

1.2 m

4.2 m

3.3 yd

13. Find the volume of a rectangular prism with length 9 meters, width 4 meters, and height 5 meters. 14. What is the volume, to the nearest tenth, of a rectangular prism with length 6.2 yards, width 2.6 yards, and a height of 1.5 yards?
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

720

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Volume of Rectangular Prisms
1. OLYMPICS Olympic gold medal winner Ian Thorp competes in a pool with required dimensions 25 meters by 50 meters by 2 meters. What is the volume of the Olympic-sized pool? Explain how you found your answer. 2. DUMP TRUCKS Raphael drives a standard-sized dump truck. The dimensions of the bed of the truck are length 15 feet, width 8 feet, and height 6 feet. What is the volume of the bed of the dump truck?

3. GIFTS William has some antique bottles. He is going to fill the bottles with bath soap and give them away as gifts. Use the figure to find the volume up to the fill line of a bottle.
Fill Line

4. JEWELRY Janine keeps her jewelry in a jewelry box like the figure below. Find the volume of Janines jewelry box.

3 in. 4.5 in. 9 in. 6 in.

121.5 in3

4 in.

3 in.

5. RECYCLING The town of Riverview provides a rectangular recycling bin for newspapers to each household. What is the greatest volume of newspapers the recycling bin can hold?

6. CANDLE MAKING Kyle will fill the candle mold with liquid candle wax. Find the amount of liquid wax that will be contained in the mold. Explain how you found your answer.

132.9 in3; To find the

NEW SPA PER


20.5 in. 12 in.

11.5 in. 16 in. 3.4 in.

3.4 in.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

721

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 145

Find the volume to the nearest tenth if necessary.

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Volume of Rectangular Prisms
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 570 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. What are the dimensions of the prism?

2. Estimate how many of each group of cubes it will take to fill the prism. Assume that a group of cubes can be taken apart to fill the prism.

3. Use grid paper and tape to construct the prism. Then use centimeter cubes to find out how many of each group of cubes it will take to fill the prism. Compare the results to your estimates.

4. Describe the relationship between the number of centimeter cubes that it takes to fill the prism and the product of the dimensions of the prism.

Reading the Lesson


Explain what each of the following formulas means. 5. V wh 6. V Bh Write the unit of measure for volume for each of the following. 7. inch 8. foot 9. centimeter 10. meter

11. Tell how a cubic meter is different from a cubic centimeter.

12. Look at the formula and explanation at the top of page 571. Explain what the phrase rows of cubes means.

Helping You Remember


13. Take the measurements of a box and calculate its volume. Explain your answer.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Lesson 145

Volume and Liquid Capacity


The volume of a three-dimensional figure is the amount of space it contains. Volume is measured in cubic unitscubic meters, cubic inches, and so on. The liquid capacity of a container is the amount of liquid it can hold. Liquid capacity generally is measured in units like liters, milliliters, cups, pints, quarts, and gallons. The chart at the right shows the relationship between volume and liquid capacity. If a container were shaped like the rectangular prism below the chart, this is how you would find its liquid capacity. Volume V wh V754 V 140 Liquid Capacity 1 in3 0.544 fl oz 140 in3 (140 0.544) fl oz 140 in3 76.16 fl oz
4 in. 5 in.

Volume and Liquid Capacity Metric 1 cm3 1 mL 1 m3 1,000 L Customary 1 in3 0.544 fl oz 1 ft3 7.481 gal

7 in.

So the liquid capacity of the container is about 76 fluid ounces.

For Exercises 14, find the liquid capacity of a container shaped like a rectangular prism with the given dimensions. If necessary, round to the nearest whole number. 1. length, 8 cm width, 4 cm height, 6 cm 2. length, 7 ft width, 2 ft height, 3 ft

3. length, 3.5 m width, 1.5 m height, 5 m

4. length, 5 in.
1 width, 1 in. 2 1 height, 3 in. 2

5. An aquarium is 36 inches long, 18 inches wide, and 18 inches tall. It is filled with water to a height of 12 inches. How many gallons of water are in the aquarium? (Round to the nearest gallon.)

6. CHALLENGE How many cubic inches of space are occupied by one quart of water? Round to the nearest whole number.
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

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Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Study Guide and Intervention


Surface Area of Rectangular Prisms
The surface area S of a rectangular prism with length , width w, and height h is the sum of the areas of the faces. Symbols S 2w 2h 2wh Model
h

Find the surface area of the rectangular prism. Find the area of each face. top and bottom 2(w) 2(8 5) 80 front and back 2(h) 2(8 3) 48 two sides 2(wh) 2(5 3) 30 Add to find the surface area. The surface area is 80 48 30 or 158 square meters.
5m 8m

3m

Find the surface area of each rectangular prism. Round to the nearest tenth if necessary. 1.
2 in.

2.

5 cm 2 cm

3.

10 ft 5 ft 2 ft

2 in. 1 cm

2 in.

4.

5.
6 in. 1.2 m 3m 5.2 in. 6m 10 in.

6.

2.3 yd

5 yd

5 yd

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

724

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Skills
Surface Area of Rectangular Prisms
Find the surface area of each rectangular prism. Round to the nearest tenth if necessary. 1. 2. 3.
4 in. 7 in. 8 ft 9 in.

1 cm 2 cm

5 cm

3 ft 4 ft

4.
2 yd 2 yd 3.5 yd

5.

6.

2 ft 4 ft

7.2 ft

8.6 ft

3 ft 5 ft

7.

8.
3 in.

9.
3.2 mm

9m 6.3 in.

7.2 in. 3.2 mm 3.2 mm

4.4 m 2.1 m

1 1 10. Find the surface area of a rectangular prism that is 3 feet by 4 feet 2 4 by 6 feet.

1 11. What is the surface area of a rectangular prism that measures 2 meters 1 by 2 meters by 4 meters? 2
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

725

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 146

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Practice: Word Problems


Surface Area of Rectangular Prisms
For Exercises 16, round each surface area to the nearest tenth if necessary. 1. GIFTS Fatima is wrapping a gift box for her nephews birthday. The boxs dimensions are 16 inches long by 10 inches wide by 5 inches high. What is the surface area of the box? 2. FOOD Antoine is wrapping a block of cheese that is 22 centimeters long by 6.5 centimeters high by 10 centimeters wide with plastic wrap. What is the surface area of the cheese block?

856 cm2

3. PAINTING Kyle is painting the front door of his house. The dimensions of the door are 80 inches by 30 inches by 2 inches. If he paints all of the surfaces, how much area will he paint? Explain.

4. CARPENTRY Bryan is sanding a set of speaker boxes that he built for his room. What is the surface area of each box?

13 ft2
2 ft

1.5 ft 1 ft

5. CARPENTRY Cindy is putting oak veneer (thin wood covering) on the entire surface of her hope chest. How much veneer will she need?

6. TOY MAKING Trey is covering blocks of wood with wallpaper to make building blocks for his baby sister. If he covers all the surfaces, how much wallpaper will he need? Think of a short way to solve this problem and explain.

3.5 ft 5 ft 2.5 ft 3 in. 3 in. 3 in.

54

in2;

Sample answer: Since a

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

726

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Reading to Learn Mathematics


Surface Area of Rectangular Prisms
Pre-Activity Complete the Mini Lab at the top of page 575 in your textbook.
Write your answers below.
1. Find the area of each face of the prism.

2. What is the sum of the areas of the faces of the prism?

3. What do you notice about the area of opposite sides of the prism? How could this simplify finding the sum of the areas?

Reading the Lesson


4. Describe in words each step shown for finding the surface area of a rectangular prism. S 2w 2h 2wh S 2(17 5) 2(17 6) 2(5 6) S 2(85) 2(102) 2(30) S 170 204 60 S 434 5. What is the unit of measure for surface area?

6. What is the difference between a rectangular prism and a net of the prism?

7. What is the difference between the surface area of a rectangular prism and the volume of the prism?

Helping You Remember


8. Using a net, demonstrate that the surface area of a rectangular prism is equal to 2w 2h 2wh.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

727

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1

Lesson 146

NAME ________________________________________ DATE ______________ PERIOD _____

Enrichment
Nets
A net is a two-dimensional pattern that can be folded to form a threedimensional figure. For example, the figure at the right is a net for a rectangular prism. Identify the figure that would be formed by folding each net. 1. 2. 3. 4.

A cube is a rectangular prism in which all the edges have the same length. A net for a cube is made up of six squares. However, not every pattern of six squares is a net for a cube. For example, it would be impossible to fold the pattern at the right to form a cube. Tell whether each of these patterns is a net for a cube. 5. 6. 7.

8.

9.

10.

11. CHALLENGE In all, there are eleven different patterns of six squares that form a net for a cube. Sketch the eleven patterns in the space below.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

728

Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 1