Anda di halaman 1dari 44

METALLURGY I

(RM-1420)

LECTURE XII-XIII
Pendahuluan
Heat Treatment
Hardenability
Tempering
Age Hardening

Dosen:
Fahmi Mubarok, ST., MSc.
Metallurgy Laboratory
Mechanical Engineering
ITS- Surabaya http://www.its.ac.id/personal/material.php?id=fahmi
2008
Pendahuluan Fahmi Mubarok

 Sifat mekanik tidak hanya tergantung pada komposisi kimia suatu


paduan, tetapi juga teragntung pada strukturmikronya.
 Suatu paduan dengan komposisi kimia yang sama dapat memiliki
strukturmikro yang berbeda, dan sifat mekaniknya akan berbeda.
 Strukturmikro tergantung pada proses pengerjaan yang dialami,
terutama proses laku-panas yang diterima selama proses pengerjaan.
 Proses laku-panas adalah kombinasi dari operasi pemanasan dan
pendinginan dengan kecepatan tertentu yang dilakukan terhadap
logam/paduan dalam keadaan padat, sebagai suatu upaya untuk
memperoleh sifat-sifat tertentu.
 Proses laku-panas pada dasarnya terdiri dari beberapa tahapan, dimulai
dengan pemanasan sampai ke temperatur tertentu, lalu diikuti dengan
penahanan selama beberapa saat, baru kemudian dilakukan
pendinginan dengan kecepatan tertentu.

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 2


Heat Treatment Fahmi Mubarok

Heat treatment

Dekat Keseimbangan Tidak seimbang


Near-equilibrium Non-equilibrium
Tujuan Umum Tujuan Umum
• Melunakkan Mendapatkan kekerasan dan
• Menghaluskan butir kekuatan yang lebih tinggi
• Menghilangkan tegangan dalam
Macam proces:
• Memperbaiki machine ability
Hardening
Macam Proses: Martempering
Full Annealing (annealing) Austempering
Stress relief Annealing Surface hardening
Process annealing • Carburizing
• Nitriding
Spheroidizing
• Cyaniding
Normalizing • Flame hardening
Homogenizing • Induction hardening
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 3
Heat Treatment Fahmi Mubarok

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 4


Heat Treatment Fahmi Mubarok

• Full annealing (annealing)


– Proses perlakuan panas untuk menghasilkan perlite yang kasar (coarse pearlite),
tetapi lunak dengan pemanasan sampai temperature austenitisasi dan
didinginkan dengan dapur.
– Tujuan  memperbaiki ukuran butir, melunakkan material sehingga
keuletannya naik.
– Diterapkan pada baja yang mengalami deformasi plastis atau proces
maching/forming
• Normalizing
– Process perlakuan panas yang menghasilkan perlite halus, pendinginan dengan
udara, lebih keras dan kuat dari hasil anneal.
• Spheroidizing
– Process perlakuan panas untuk menghasilkan struktur carbida berbentuk bulat
(spheroid) pada matriks ferrite
– Akan memeperbaiki kemampuan di machining pada baja paduan %C tinggi
– Methods:
• 24 hours below A1 line
• Heating and cooling alternately between A1 line
• Heating above A1 line
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 5
Heat Treatment Fahmi Mubarok

• Process Annealing
– Proses perlakuan panas untuk melunakkan dan menaikkan kembali keuletan
benda kerja agar dapat dideformasi lebih lanjut.
– Low %C steel 1 hr @ 600-650°C (no austenizing)
– Recrystallizes cold worked ferrite
– Y.S and UTS drastically reduced
• Stress relief Annealing
– Process perlakuan panas untuk menghilangkan tegangan sisa atau tegangan
dalam akibat proses sebelumnya.
– Low %C Structural

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 6


Normalizing and Full Annealing Fahmi Mubarok

Full annealed - ~1oC/min

Reason for full annealing

Struktur mikro
• Full annealed (1oC/min) • Normalized (10 oC/min)

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 7


Spherodizing Fahmi Mubarok

• 24 hrs @ temp just under A1


- Carbides will spherodize if held for long time <723oC
- Softens and puts steel in free machining condition
• Sometimes buy steel in spherodized condition for good dimensioning on machining
and then heat treat later to increase its strength

Spheroidizing microstructure
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 8
Process Anneal Fahmi Mubarok

• 1 hr @ 600-650oC
• Recrystallizes cold worked ferrite
• Yield Strength and UTS drastically reduced
• Sometimes used to selectively treat localized cold worked areas
• Used in production of steel wire, nails etc.

Stress relief

• Up to 678oC with times up to 24 hrs; (use thermal blankets)


• Done to relieve residual or internal stresses
– @ high temperature dislocations rearrange to relieve stresses (easier mobility @high
Temp -> lower Y.S)
– After cooling residual stress is reduced
• Less chance of fatigue, stress corrosion, etc.
• Digestors and other pressure vessels have to be stress relieved to remove residual
stresses associated with welds

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 9


Full Annealing, Normalizing , Process Anneal and Spheroidize Fahmi Mubarok

©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 10


Hardening Fahmi Mubarok

Hardening/ Pengerasan
• Proses pelakuan panas untuk meningkatkan kekerasan, ketahanan aus atau
ketangguhan dengan kombinasi kekerasan
• Kekerasan sangat tergantung dari:
– Temperatur pemanasan (Austenitizing Temperature)
– Lama pada temperatur tersebut (Holding Time)
– Laju pendinginan (Cooling Rate)
– Komposisi kimia (%C and Alloying)
– Kondisi Permukaan (Surface Condition)
– Ukuran dan berat benda kerja (Size and Mass)
• Kekerasan maksimum didapatkan dari pembentukan fase martensite atau
atau fase karbida pada struktur mikro baja

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 11


Austenitizing Temperature Fahmi Mubarok

• Pemanasan pada temperatur austenitisasi:


– 25-50 oC diatas temperatur A3 untuk baja hypoeutectoid
– 25-50 oC diatas temperatur A1 untuk baja hypereutectoid
• Homogenity austenite, dilakukan dengan memberikan holding time pada
temperature austenitisasi
• Laju pendinginan
– Brine (air + 10 % garam dapur)
– Air
– Salt bath
– Larutan minyak dalam air
– Udara
• Komposisi Kimia
• Kondisi permukaan
• Ukuran dan berat benda kerja

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 12


Cooling Rate Fahmi Mubarok

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 13


Cooling Rate Fahmi Mubarok

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 14


Size and Mass Fahmi Mubarok

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 15


Size and Mass Fahmi Mubarok

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 16


Hardenability Fahmi Mubarok

• Kekerasan baja sangat ditentukan oleh


jumlah relatif martersite didalam
strukturmikro dan juga ditentukan oleh
kekerasan martensite
• Hardenability adalah kemampuan baja
untuk dikeraskan dengan membentuk
martensite dengan proses heat-treatment
• Metode Pengujian hardenability
– Jominy End Quench Test
– Grossman

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 17


Parameter yang berpengaruh terhadap hardenability Fahmi Mubarok

1. The chemical composition (carbon + other elements)


- increasing wt.%C increases hardenability
- of the common alloying elements, only Co is known to decrease
hardenability
2. The austenite grain size at the instant of quenching
- the larger the grain, the better (due to reduction in pearlite
nucleation sites).  depend on heating rate, holding time and cooling
rate But, beware of growing the austenite grain!
3. The shape, size (thickness) and geometry of the part being quenched;
4. The quenchant used

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 18


Procedure of Jominy Test Fahmi Mubarok

1. Prepare specimen with 1 inch round and 4 inch long


2. Pre-heat the furnace to about 925 °C.
3. Place the Jominy specimen in the furnace and soak for one hour.
4. Turn the water on at the Jominy sink. Adjust the free water column to about ½ inch.
5. Remove the Jominy specimen from the furnace and place it in the fixture. Swivel
the baffle out of position so that the water impinges on the bottom of the specimen
without wetting the sides of the specimen. Leave water to run for about 15 minutes.
6. Remove the Jominy specimen from the fixture and grind a smooth flat on the side
of the specimen.
7. Mark points on the ground surface at an interval of 1/16 in. up to 2 in. distance
from the quenched end.
8. Take readings at an interval of 1/16 in. by measuring the Rockwell C hardness at
each point marked in the previous step.
9. Plot the data for Rockwell Hardness versus Distance from quenched end as shown
in Page 21

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 19


Jominy Test Fahmi Mubarok

A standard simple test adopted by the ASTM and the SAE


- ASTM Method A255
- SAE Standard J406

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 20


Jominy Test Fahmi Mubarok

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 21


Jominy Test Fahmi Mubarok

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 22


Jominy Test Fahmi Mubarok

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 23


Jominy Test Fahmi Mubarok

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 24


Grossman Test Fahmi Mubarok

Hardenability suatu baja diukur oleh diamater suatu baja yang


strukturmikro tepat di intinya adalah 50 % martensite setelah
dilakukan proses hardening dengan pendinginan tertentu.

Baja berbentuk silinder (panjang min 5xD) dengan variasi diameter


dilakukan pengerasan dengan media pendingin tertentu.
Hasil pengersan diuji metallography dan kekerasan, diameter baja
tersebut yang intinya tepat 50 % martensite dianyatakan sebagai
diameter kritis (D0), pada suatu laju pendinginan tertentu

Laju pendinginan dinyatakan dengan koefisien of severity (H)

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 25


Grossman Test Fahmi Mubarok

Karena harga Do masih tergantung dengan laju pendinginan


tertentu maka dirumuskan Harga diameter baja tersebut (50%
martensite) dengan pendinginan Ideal (H=tak Hingga) yang disebut
sebagai diameter ideal (Di)

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 26


Grossman Test Fahmi Mubarok

Harga Di dapat di bandingkan antara satu baja dengan baja yang


lainnya, harga ini menyatakan hardenability suatu baja dengan
komposisi kimia tertentu
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 27
Grossman Test Fahmi Mubarok

(a) Radial hardness


for two alloys
quenched in
agitated water.
(b) Radial hardness
for different
diameters of
SAE4140 steel
quenched in
agitated water.

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 28


Tempering: Austempering and Martempering Fahmi Mubarok

• Hasil quench hardening -> menghasilkan produk yang keras tetapi getas
• Menghasilkan tegangan sisa
• Keuletan dan ketangguhan turun
Martempering (Marquenching)
1. Austenitize the steel at the appropriate temperature
2. Quench to a temperature just above the Ms
(usually, into an oil or molten salt bath)
3. Hold in the quenchant to obtain uniform
temperature throughout the steel
4. Cool at a moderate rate through the martensite
transformation region.

Mechanical properties of 1095 steel heat-treated by


martempering and conventional quenching
Heat Treatment Hardness (HRC) Impact (ft-lb) Elongation in 1in (%)
Water quench and temper 53.0 12 0
Martemper and temper 53.0 28 0

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 29


Martempering Fahmi Mubarok

Procedure Microstructure Result

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 30


Temper Martensite Fahmi Mubarok

Perubahan sifat mekanik

Microstrukture Transformation

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 31


Microstructure Temper Martensite Fahmi Mubarok

Pengaruh kadar karbon


pada kekerasan
martensit

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 32


Austempering Fahmi Mubarok

• An isothermal heat treatment designed to produce


bainite in plain-carbon steels
• Purposes:
o improves strength and toughness
o decreases cracking and distortion
o but takes a long time to complete
• Steps:
1. Austenitize the steel at the appropriate
temperature
2. Quench to a temperature just above the Ms
3. Hold isothermally in the quenching media
until graphite → bainite transformation is
complete
4. Cool to room temperature in air

Mechanical properties of 1095 steel heat-treated by austempering and conventional quenching.


Heat Treatment Hardness (HRC) Impact (ft-lb) Elongation in 1in (%)
Austemper 52.0 45 11
Water quench and temper 53.0 12 0

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 33


Austempering Fahmi Mubarok

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 34


Age Hardening Fahmi Mubarok

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 35


Age Hardening Fahmi Mubarok

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 36


Age Hardening Fahmi Mubarok

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 37


Age Hardening Fahmi Mubarok

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 38


Age Hardening Fahmi Mubarok

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 39


Age Hardening Fahmi Mubarok

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 40


Age Hardening Fahmi Mubarok

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 41


Surface Hardening Fahmi Mubarok

Harden surface layers (0.1mm – 5mm)


- To improve wear resistance
- To improve resistance to high contact stresses
- To improve fracture toughness
- To improve fatigue resistance

Heat: Case Hardening:


• Induction • Carburizing
• Flame • Cyaniding
• Laser • Carbonitriding
• Light • Nitriding

Components usually surface-hardened


-Gears bearings -Valves -Shafts
-Bearing races -Cams -Hand tools
-Rolls -Machine tools -Sprockets
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 42
Surface Hardening Fahmi Mubarok

Induction Hardening

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya xi 43


METALLURGY I
(RM-1420)

LECTURE XIV
Surface Hardening
-Methods
-Applications

Dosen:
Fahmi Mubarok, ST., MSc.
Metallurgy Laboratory
Mechanical Engineering
ITS- Surabaya
2008