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The Plasma Membrane

The Plasma Membrane

Also called the cell membrane

Plasma Membrane Function

Support Regulates what enters and leaves the cell

Plasma Membrane - Function

Some things can cross, others cant


Non-polar substances


Polar substances (Hydrophilic)

Small molecules

Large molecules

Fat sandwich

PHOSPHOLIPIDS (<- Draw the pic!)
Polar head: PHOSPHATE
Interacts with water (hydrophilic head)

2 non-polar tails: FATTY ACIDS

Avoids water (hydrophobic tails)

Keeps membrane fluid

Carbohydrate chains attached to the end of membrane proteins form complexes are called glycoproteins act as cell identifiers (I.D. tag)


Types of Proteins
Permanently open tunnel for certain molecules to move through
Only lets one type of thing through

Doors that open an close in response to a particular molecule Change shape to let molecules through

Name for membrane model Fluid flexible, movable membrane Mosaic different structures imbedded within

Identify the structures in the membrane below.


Phosphate Head

C Phospholipid Bilayer

Fatty Acid Tail



Cell Transport
Certain molecules can pass easily through the membrane while others cant
Pass without help Require Help

Small molecules
Neutral molecules (no charge) Non-polar/hydrophobic molecules

Big molecules
Charged molecules Polar/hydrophilic molecules

What will happen to the molecules?

What will happen to the molecules?

What did the molecules do?

DIFFUSION (Passive Transport)
Moved from a highly concentrated area to one with a lower concentration
High -> low

Eventually reach EQUILIBRIUM

Concentration is same in all places Molecules keep moving but they move equally back and forth

Molecular Movement
Molecules can DIFFUSE into or out of a cell through the membrane

O2 CO2 CO2 CO2 O2 O2

Molecular Movement
Molecules move directly through lipid bilayer No help
No proteins; no energy

Move from high to low until equilibrium is reached

Molecular Movement
Molecules move through membrane with help from facilitator protein
Large molecules, charged molecules, polar molecules Move from high to low until equilibrium is reached

Molecular Movement
Simple and facilitated diffusion do NOT require energy
Considered forms of PASSIVE TRANSPORT
No energy required Molecules move from high to low until they reach equilibrium

Molecular Movement
Requires energy Move molecules opposite of the concentration gradient
Moves from low to high!

Predict what would happen.

Salt (NaCl) Sugar (Glucose) Where is the salt more concentrated? Where is the sugar more concentrated? What direction will the molecules move?

Predict what would happen.

In the beaker:
Salt Sugar

BUT the tube is IMPERMEABLE to sugar What direction will the molecules move?

Copy down the following on a blank sheet of paper (in notes) and fill it in for a stamp.
Types of Molecular Transport
Simple Direction of movement High -> Low No Does is require energy? (Yes/No) No No Yes High -> Low Yes Low -> High Yes FACILITATED


Does is use a protein? (Yes/No)

Solutions Vocab to Know

SOLUTE substance being dissolved SOLVENT substance doing the dissolving

Predict what way the molecules will move.

Water Salt Sugar Water -> IN Salt -> Equal in & out Sugar -> OUT


Solution Terms to Know

SOLUTE particle dissolved in solution
Examples: Glucose, sodium, starch Usually less of it in a solution

SOLVENT - material doing the dissolving

Usually water but doesnt have to be Usually more of it in a solution

*Remember Diffusion?
Movement of a molecule from high concentration to low concentration
Applies to any molecule
Salt Sugar Dye Water

Movement of Water
OSMOSIS diffusion of water
Movement of water from an area of high water concentration to one of low water concentration

Where will water go?


Water + Sugar

Where will water go?

Movement of Water
Solute Sucks
Water moves toward solute

Movement of Water
Water moves by osmosis until EQUILIBRIUM is reached
Same concentration of water on both sides

Types of Solutions
Refers to the concentration of solutes on either side of a membrane

Types of Solutions
ISOTONIC (same strength)
Concentration of water and solutes is the same on both sides
Water moves equally in and out

Types of Solutions
HYPERTONIC (above strength)
Solution is highly concentrated with solutes More solute; less water Water moves toward a hypertonic solution
Solute Sucks!

Types of Solutions
HYPOTONIC (below strength)
Solution is less concentrated with solutes than another Less solutes; more water
Water moves away from a hypotonic solution
High water conc. -> low water conc.

How to Predict Water Movement

Figure out which area has more water by:
Find the side with more water
Water will move away from the side with more water

Find the side with more solute

Water will move toward the side with more solute

Water always moves from:

Hypotonic -> Hypertonic High water conc. -> Low water conc.

Animation 1 Animation 2 Animation 3

What will happened to the red blood cell if?

RBCs = High in solute concentration

Water leaves the cell. The cell crenates (shrinks).

Water enters and exits the cell at the same rate. Equilibrium no change to the cell

Water enters the cell and the cell swells. It may burst open (lysis) and destroy the cell

What about plant cells?

Difference PLASMOLYSIS loss plant of water from a plant between and animal cellscells is that cytoplasm WALL so they cant explode! plants have a CELL ______ Causes cytoplasm to shrink and plant wilts

Transport of Large Molecules

Transport of Large Molecules

Some molecules are too large to go through membrane proteins
Ex: bacterial cells, food particles, etc

Cell uses different methods to ingest and expel these particles

Transport of Large Molecules

ENDOCYTOSIS process by which large particles are taken into a cell The cell membrane envelopes the object to be transported and creates a vesicle inside the cell 2 Types:
Pinocytosis (cell drinking): the cell takes in liquids (ex: dissolved nutrients) Phagocytosis (cell eating): the cell takes in solid particles

Transport of Large Molecules

EXOCYTOSIS process by which large particles are released from the cell A vesicle from inside the cell fuses with the cell membrane to release the contents to outside the cell

Endocytosis and exocytosis