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CHRONIC

SPORTS
INJURIES
GROUP 2 PPPHC
500L MB;BS/BDS
OUTLINE
 INTRODUCTION
 TYPES OF SPORTS INJURIES
 CHRONIC SPORTS INJURIES: TYPES
 INVESTIGATION OF CHRONIC SPORTS
INJURIES
 PREVENTION OF CHRONIC SPORTS
INJURIES
 CONCLUSION
 REFERENCES


INTRODUCTION
 What is a sport?
§ any individual or group competitive
activity involving physical exertion or
skill, governed by rules, and sometimes
engaged in professionally. Examples
include tennis, hockey, boxing,
gymnastics, athletics and of course
football.
§
 What is an injury?

 physical damage to the body or a body


part.
INTRODUCTION contd
 What Are Sports Injuries?
 The term sports injury, in the broadest
sense, refers to the kinds of injuries that
most commonly occur during sports or
exercise. Some sports injuries result from
accidents; others are due to poor training
practices, improper equipment, lack of
conditioning, or insufficient warm up and
stretching.
 Common types of sports injuries include
muscle sprains and strains, tear of
tendons and ligaments, dislocations
and fractures.
TYPES OF SPORTS INJURY
 There are two broad
categories of sports-
related injuries —
acute and chronic
 Acute injuries occur
from a single, well-
defined incident, such
as dislocating your
shoulder during a fall
or twisting your ankle
while running. Sprains
and dislocations are
TYPES OF SPORTS INJURY
contd
 Chronic injuries result from an
accumulation of damage to the bones,
joints, muscles, ligaments and tendons.
Chronic injuries are generally
considered lifestyle-threatening injuries
— that is, they inhibit your ability to
perform many of your normal activities.
 Tennis elbow and stress fractures (a
fracture caused by repeated stress on the
bone) are
 both examples of chronic injuries.
TYPES OF SPORTS INJURY
contd
 Signs of acute sports injury include
sudden severe pain, swelling, inability
to place weight on a lower limb,
extreme tenderness in an upper limb,
visible dislocation or break of bone.
 Signs of chronic sports injury include pain
when performing activity, dull ache at
rest and swelling.
CHRONIC SPORTS INJURY (CSI)
 Chronic injuries usually result from overusing
one area of the body while playing a sport or
exercising over a long period.
 Often overuse injuries seem less important than
acute injuries.
 If left untreated, a chronic injury will probably
get worse over time.
TYPES OF CSI
 These include:
 stress fractures — tiny cracks in the
bone's surface often caused by
repetitive overloading (such as in the
feet of a basketball player who is
continuously jumping on the court)
 tendinitis — inflammation of the tendon
caused by repetitive stretching
 epiphysitis or apophysitis — growth
plate overload injuries.


INVESTIGATIONS
 There are several investigative modalities
used in sports medicine. However, the
most useful in evaluating CSIs include:
 X-rays
 MRI
 Ultrasonography
 Electromyography
 Bone scan
 Arthrography
TREATMENT
 Treatment of chronic sports injury is in
two phases, short term and long term

 Short term
i. Relative or complete rest
ii. Drugs e.g. NSAIDS, topical anaesthetics,
steroids
iii.Electrical stimulation
iv.Muscle stretching
v. Iontophoresis, phonophoresis, ice
vi.

TREATMENT contd
 Long term
i. Proper shoe wearing
ii. Strength training
iii.Activity modification
iv.Orthototic intervention
v. Nutrition counselling and weight
management
vi.Surgery for refractory cases
PREVENTION
 Like most other pathologies, CSIs can be
prevented by several measures which
include:
 Avoid bending knees past 90 degrees when
 doing half knee bends.
 Avoid twisting knees by keeping feet as flat
 as possible during stretches.
 When jumping, land with your knees bent.
 Do warm up exercises not just before
vigorous
 activities like running, but also before less
 vigorous ones such as golf.
 Don’t overdo.
PREVENTION contd
 Do warm up stretches before activity.
Stretch
 the Achilles tendon, hamstring, and
quadriceps
 areas and hold the positions. Don’t
bounce.
 Cool down following vigorous sports. For

 example, after a race, walk or walk/jog


for
 five minutes so your pulse comes down
 gradually.
PREVENTION contd
 Wear properly fitting shoes that provide
 shock absorption and stability.
 Use the softest exercise surface available,

and
 avoid running on hard surfaces like
asphalt
 and concrete. Run on flat surfaces.
Running
 uphill may increase the stress on the
Achilles
tendon and the leg itself.
CONCLUSION
 The unprecedented level in popularity
 over the last few decades of increased
participation in athletic sporting events has
 led directly to an increase in chronic overuse
 sports injuries.
 It remains in the medical/health personnel’s
domain to properly identify and assist the
athlete in correcting these conditions to
treat, prevent, and possibly reverse the
detrimental effects. As always, prevention
is always the best treatment but, failing
that, the next best thing is proper and
successful
 rehabilitation.
REFERENCES
1. Microsoft Encarta 2009
2. Tri Rivers surgical associates inc.
3. U.S department of health and human
services.
4. Chronic overuse sports injuries by Dr.
Elmer Pinzon
5.


THANK YOU FOR
LISTENING
X-ray
showing
periosteal
new bone
formation
indicative of a
stress fracture