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LAPORAN

PRAKTIKUM FISIKA DASAR II


JUDUL PERCOBAAN
ELEKTROLISA

OLEH :
NAMA

NIM

JURUSAN

HARI / TANGGAL

KELOMPOK

ASISTEN

LABORATORIUM FISIKA DASAR


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM

UNIVERSITAS SRIWIJAYA
2013 / 2014

I. ELEKTROLISA

1.1. TUJUAN PERCOBAAN


Menentukan tara kimia listrik dan muatan elementer dengan cara elektrolisa.

a.

ALAT DAN BAHAN


2. Sel elektrolisa larutan CuSO4.
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3. Elektroda tembaga (Cu).
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4. Catu daya.
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5. Amperemeter.
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6. Pengering elektroda tembaga (Cu).
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7. Amplas.
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8. Neraca Analitis.
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1.3. DASAR TEORI


A. Menentukan Tara Kimia Listrik
Bila arus listrik (DC) dialirkan melalui sel elektrolit yang berisi larutan garam
AB, maka garam tersebut akan terurai sebagai berikut:
AB

A+ + B-

Ion yang bermuatan positif akan menempel pada elektroda negatif (katoda). Dengan
menimbang katoda sebelum dan sesuadah dialiri arus listrik, maka dapat diketahui
jumlah logam yang menempel pada elektroda tersebut, yaitu:
W = z.i.t

...................................................... (1)

dimana:
W = jumlah massa yang diendapkan (kg)
z = tara kimia listrik [kg/(amp)(jam)]
i = kuat arus (ampere)
t = waktu pengaliran arus (jam)

B. Menghitung Besar Muatan Elementer


Percobaan elektrolisa tersebut dapat digunakan untuk menghitung muatan
elementer dari percobaan Millikan. Setiap ion tembaga menerima dua muatan elektron
dari katoda yang mengakibatkan ion itu menjadi atom netral dan menempel pada
elektroda tersebut. Apabila terdapat N atom Cu yang dipindahkan, jumlah muatan listrik
yang pindah adalah 2eN. Maka muatan elementer dapat dihitung:

Ait
2W N o

....................................................... (2)

dimana:
e = muatan elementer (Coulomb)
A = berat atom Cu (63,5 gram/mole)
W = Jumlah massa yang diendapkan (gram)
No = Bilangan Avogadro (6,02 x 1023 atom/mole)

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Gambar 1. Skema rangkaian elektrolisa

1.4. PROSEDUR PERCOBAAN


1. Bersihkan plat katoda dan timbang dengan neraca.
2. Pasang katoda ekstra seperti pada Gambar 1. dan tentukan besar arus (sekitar 2A)
dengan mengatur besar hambatan geser.
3. Ganti katoda ekstra dengan katoda yang sudah ditimbang.
4. Setelah elektrolisa selesai, katoda dicelupkan ke dalam air, supaya larutan CuSO4
yang menempel hilang (jangan digosok supaya Cu yang menempel pada katoda
tidak berkurang).
Kemudian keringkan dengan alat pengering (hair dryer).
5. Timbang katoda tersebut dan catat jumlah massa yang diendapkan.
6. Lakukan percobaan berturut-turut selama 5, 10, dan 20 menit.
Perhatian:
- Jaga arus listrik agar tetap konstan.
- Menimbang katoda harus dalam keadaan kering.

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1.5. TUGAS PENDAHULUAN


2.

Bagaimana pernyataan hukum Faraday untuk elektrolisa.

3.

Apa hubungan tara kimia listrik dengan muatan elementer.

4.

Mengapa dua sel elektrolit pada percobaan ini di hubungkan secara seri?

5.

Tulis definisi tara kimia listrik.

6.

Samakah harga tara kimia listrik perak (Ag) dengan tembaga (Cu). Larutan
apakah yang dapat digunakan untuk mengukur tara kimia listrik perak.

7.

Buktikan rumus (2).

8.

Jelaskan maksud dari tegangan elektrolisa pada sel elektrolit.

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1.6. DATA HASIL PENGAMATAN

No.

t (menit)

1.

2.

10

3.

20

i (A)

Go (gram)

G1 (gram)

Catatan:
Go = massa awal katoda
G1 = massa akhir katoda
W = G1 - Go

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1.7. PENGOLAHAN DATA


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1.8. ANALISA
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1.9. TUGAS AKHIR


1. Hitung besar tara kimia listrik (z) pada percobaan anda dengan menggunakan
persamaan (1).
2. Hitung besar muatan elementer (e) dengan menggunakan persamaan (2),
bandingkan hasil yang didapatkan dengan literatur (e = 1,602 x 10-19 C) .
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1.10. KESIMPULAN
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LAMPIRAN GAMBAR

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