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Italian Government Weekly Newsletter

History of Government of Italy: In ancient times Italy was under the rule of the Roman Empire. This empire was run by a dictator run senate or two censors, which then fed into 2 consuls. These consuls had 8 Propraetors which helped decide rules for the government. This broke up into two different groups of Plebeians and Patricians, which were the poor people and the rich people of Rome. The Plebeians made up the tribune of the government and there were only 10 of them. The Patricians had the Quaestor which was made up of 20 members to the 10 in the Plebeians group. The only way that the leader of the Roman Empire changed hands was if the Dictator died or was assassinated. One of the most famous Roman dictators was Julius Caesar who was born 100 B.C. He started as a military leader and was very successful in the battlefield and was soon to get a government position of quaester. He then obtained a seat in the senate and was given more power in the government. Then he was elected curule aedile and won more favor with the current dictator. Caesar left Rome to go to Gaul and not return to Rome for 9 years and would conquer most of Europe in the name of Rome. Caesar had reign over Rome along with Pompey and Crassus. After many years Crassus expedition with one of the armies he ended up dying at the hands of Romes enemies just leaving Pompey

Men in general are quick to believe that they wish is true -Julius Caesar
and Julius to lead Rome. After Juliuss superior leadership was shown in all the territories he had gained under the name of Rome he was seen as the only Dictator. Caesar kept making more conquests and taking more land in the name of Rome. However he was feared by the other politicians of Rome and an uprising developed. He was assassinated by Mark Anthony thus ending his reign over Rome. Creation of Current Government of Italy: The current government of Italy was started on June 2, 1946 which happened after the monarchy was rid of after the Second World War. The new constitution came into effect January first 1948. Before this government Italy was ruled by kings and dictators and lead to them being on the losing side of World War Two. Current Government of Italy: Italys Democratic Republic Chief of State is President Giorgio Napolitano, and Head of Government is Prime Minister Enrico Letta. Italy is divided up into 20 different Regions of the state that are governed within each other and then governed also by the total government. The constitution states that there will be a bicameral Parliament; which is a senate and chamber of deputies, there is also an

independent judiciary, and an executive branch composed of cabinet. The president that is elected by the Parliament has a term of seven years. The president controls the prime minister, and the prime minister chooses the other ministers for the regions of Italy. Italys Parliament: Italys Parliament is a Bicameral part of the government which is made up of 945 members. The Chamber of Deputies is made of 630 members and is traditionally the lower house. The Senate of the Republic has 315 members and when the president needs to be replaced the head of the senate fills his roll. Parliament has the ability to enact laws that the different regions of Italy need to follow; this is Italys Legislative branch. Senate can always ask for a second vote on the Deputies laws that have been enacted. Italys Executive Branch: The Executive Branch is lead by the Chief of State, and he runs the Prime Minister. The cabinet elects the president to lead the country. Italys Judiciary Branch: This is the part of Italys government that handles the enforcement of laws. There are 3 levels to Italys Judiciary system that deal with the different severities of crimes. Inferior courts handle general jurisdiction within a region. Intermediate Appellate courts hear cases that have been appealed by the Inferior courts. The final level courts are the Courts on Interpretation of Law, these are cases that have been appealed by all other courts.