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STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS

FAADE NOTES


PART I
EUROCODE

PART II
BRITISH STANDARDS

PART III
AMERICAN STANDARDS

ANNEX
DESIGN AIDES

3
RD
EDITION 2014
LARRY M. CASTAEDA
DISCLAIMER
This compendium of international building codes and standards for faade construction is compiled as private property for
the purposes of personal notes only. The compiler does not claim ownership specifically where data or content is
referenced to a source.

If this faade notes reaches the hands of another person aside from the compiler, it should not be distributed, copied or
published in any form or manner. If information contained in this notes are used as reference, the compiler does not
guarantee or warrant the accuracy, reliability, completeness or currency of the information nor its usefulness in achieving
any purpose. Readers are responsible for assessing the relevance and accuracy of the content of these notes. The
compiler will not be liable for any loss, damage, cost or expense incurred or arising by reason of any person using or
relying on information in these notes.





















LARRY M. CASTAEDA
PE Board Examination Topnotcher, 2
nd
Place 1998
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering - Saint Louis University 1993 1998
Master of Science in Structural Engineering - University of the Philippines 1999 2001
______________________
Structural Engineer/Faade Specialist Structures & Facades, Switzerland 2014
Structural Engineer - LINDNER-SCHMIDLIN, Switzerland 2008 2014
Faade Engineer - SCHMIDLIN TSK, Switzerland 2006 2008
Faade Engineer - SCHMIDLIN LLC, Dubai 2005 2006
Faade Engineer - ARUP, Singapore 2004 2005
Structural Engineer - United Reliance Engineering Pte. Ltd., Singapore 2001 2004
Civil Engineering Instructor - Mapua Institute of Technology, Philippines 2001 2001
Design Engineer - Sumitomo Construction Co. Ltd., Philippines 1999 2001



STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS
FAADE NOTES


PART I
EUROCODE
3
RD
EDITION 2014
LARRY M. CASTAEDA



































STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
PART 1 EUROCODE 3
Table of Contents
I-1 LOADS 5
1.1 Dead load (D) 5
1.2 Imposed/live load, (L) 6
1.3 Snow load (S) 12
1.4 Wind load (W) 14
1.5 Load combinations 25
I-2 DEFLECTION & STRUCTURAL MOVEMENTS 26
2.1 Deflection limits 26
2.2 Structure tolerance 27
I-3 DESIGN ASSISTED BY TESTING 31
3.1 Assessment via the characteristic value (5% Fractile) 31
3.2 Direct assessment of the design value for ULS verifications 32
I-4 STEEL DESIGN 33
4.1 Properties of steel 33
4.2 Properties of stainless steel 35
4.3 Resistance of steel cross-sections 36
4.4 Sheets as diaphragms 39
4.5 Cold-formed members 40
I-5 ALUMINIUM DESIGN 41
5.1 Properties of aluminium structures 41
5.2 Definitions 42
5.3 Protection at metal-to-metal contacts 43
5.4 Cross-sectional properties 44
5.5 Resistance of aluminium cross-sections 47
5.6 Cold formed members 50
I-6 CONCRETE DESIGN 51
6.1 Properties of concrete 51
6.2 Concrete design 52
6.3 Anchorage design 52
I-7 TIMBER DESIGN 53
7.1 Strength grade 53
7.2 Service class 54
7.3 Design of Solid, Glulam and LVL 55
I-8 GLASS DESIGN 59
8.1 Properties 59
8.2 Glass sizes 59
8.3 Glass holes 59
8.4 Structural design of glass 60
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
4 PART 1 EUROCODE

8.5 Glass stress and deflection 64
8.6 Climatic effects 67
8.7 Structural silicone glazing (SSG) 69
8.8 Safety glass TRAV Requirements 71
8.9 Glass fins 73
I-9 STONE DESIGN 75
9.1 Properties 75
I-10 CURTAIN WALL TESTING 77
10.1 Testing overview 77
10.2 Weather performance tests 78
10.3 Impact resistance tests 82
10.4 Glass safety tests 84
10.5 Fire classification 85
I-11 CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS 86
11.1 Bolted connections 86
11.2 Pin connections 93
11.3 Tapping screws and rivets 94
11.4 Stud welds 97
11.5 Weld 98
11.6 Plate bracket resistance 103
11.7 Anchors in Concrete 104
I-12 BUILDING PHYSICS 105
12.1 Thermal Performance 105
12.2 Acoustic Performance 105
12.3 Fire Performance 105


STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
PART 1 EUROCODE 5
I-1 LOADS
1.1 Dead load (D)
Group Material Density,
[kg/m]
Group Material Density,
[kg/m]
Metal Aluminium 2 700 Concrete Normal weight 2 450
Bronze 8 450 Light weight 900 2 000
Copper 9 100 Heavy weight > 2 000
Iron, cast 7 400 Natural Stone Granite 2 750 3 000
Iron, wrought 7 750 Basalt, diorite, gabbro 2 750 3 150
Lead 11 600 Tachylyte 2 650
Steel 7 850 Sandstone, gray wacke 2 100 2 750
Stainless Steel 7 850 Dense limestone 2 000 2 950
Zinc 7 340 Slate 2 850
Glass Glass (annealed) 2 500 Aggregates Light weight 900 2 000
Plastic ETFE film - Normal weight 2 000 3 050
PVC-U 250 1 400 Heavy weight > 3 050
Terra Cotta 2 100 Sand 1 400 1 950
Insulation Rockwool (Loose) 25 Gravel & sand 1 500 2 000
Rockwool (Medium) 51 Wood Timber 350 1 100
Rockwool (Dense) 70 Plywood 500 700
FRC GRC 2 680 Particle board 700 1 200
Fibre board 800 1 000

Density of materials EN 1991-1-1:2010, Table A.3
LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
6 PART 1 EUROCODE

1.2 Imposed/live load, (L)
1.2.1 Occupancy live load, L
V

Load Description EN 1991-1-1
Table 6.2
UK NA
Table NA.3
q
k
[kN/m] Q
k
[kN] q
k
Q
k

A
Domestic
and
residential
activities
A1/A2 Single family dwelling units incl. communal areas
1.5 2.0 2.0 3.0
1.5 2.0
A3 Hotels, motels, hospital wards, toilet areas 2.0 2.0
A4 Billiard, snooker rooms 2.0 2.7
A5 Balconies in single family dwelling units
2.5 4.0 2.0 3.0
2.5 2.0
A6 Balconies in hostel, guests house, residential club 3.0 2.0*
A7 Balconies in hotels and motels 4.0 2.0
B
Offices
B1 General use above ground level
2.0 3.0 1.5 4.5
2.5 2.7
B2 Ground level or below 3.0 2.7
C1
Areas with
tables
C11 Public, institutional and communal dining rooms and
lounges, cafes and restaurants
2.0 3.0 3.0 4.0
2.0 3.0
C12 Reading rooms with no book storage 2.5 4.0
C13 Classrooms 3.0 3.0
C2
Areas with
fixed seats
C21 Assembly areas with fixed seating
3.0 4.0 2.5 7.0(4.0)
4.0 3.6
C22 Places of worship
3.0 2.7
C3
Areas
without
obstacles
for moving
people
C31 Corridors, hallways, aisles in institutional type buildings not
subjected to crowds or wheeled vehicles, hostels, guest
houses, residential clubs, and communal areas in blocks of flats
3.0 5.0 4.0 7.0
3.0 4.5
C32 Stairs, landings in institutional type buildings not subjected
to crowds or wheeled vehicles, hostels, guest houses,
residential clubs, and communal areas in blocks of flats
3.0 4.0
C33 Corridors, hallways, aisles in all buildings not covered by
C31 and C32, including hotels and motels and institutional
buildings subjected to crowds
4.0 4.5
C34 Corridors, hallways, aisles in all buildings not covered by
C31 and C32, including hotels and motels and institutional
buildings subjected to wheeled vehicles, including trolleys
5.0 4.5
C35 Stairs, landings in all buildings not covered by C31 and
C32, including hotels and motels and institutional buildings
subjected to crowds
4.0 4.0
C36 Light duty walkways- access for one person, width 600
mm
3.0 2.0
C37 General duty walkways- regular two-way pedestrian traffic 5.0 3.6
C38 Heavy duty walkways- high density pedestrian traffic incl.
escape routes
7.5 4.5
C4
Physical
activities
C41 Dance halls and studios, gymnasia, stages
4.5 5.0 3.5 7.0
5.0 3.6
C42 Drill halls and drill rooms
5.0 7.0
C5
Susceptible
to large
crowds
C51 Assembly areas without fixed seating, concert halls, bars
and places of worship
5.0 7.5 3.5 4.5
5.0 3.6
C52 Stages in public assembly areas
7.5 4.5
D
Shopping/
Retail areas
D1 General retail shops 4.0 5.0 3.5 7.0(4.0)
4.0 3.6
D2 Department stores
4.0 5.0 3.5 7.0
Note: * Concentrated at the outer edge
Imposed load balconies including floors and stairs EN 1991-1-1:2010
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
PART 1 EUROCODE 7
1.2.2 Barrier loads, L
H

Claddings shall be designed to sustain safely the characteristic values of the line load qk acting at the height
of the partition wall or parapets but not higher than 1.20 m
Category Sub-category examples EN 1991-1-1
Table 6.12
UK NA
Table NA.8
A
Domestic and
residential activities
(i) All areas within or serving exclusively one dwelling including
stairs, landings etc. but excluding external balconies and edges
of roofs [see (vii)]

0.20 - 1.0
(0.5)
0.36
(ii) Residential areas not covered by (i) 0.74
B and C1
Offices areas

(iii) Areas not susceptible to overcrowding in office and
institutional buildings, reading rooms and classrooms including
stairs
0.74
(iv) Restaurants and cafes 1.5
C2, C3 & C4
Areas where people
may congregate
(v) Areas having fixed seating within 530 mm of the barrier,
balustrade or parapet
0.8 1.0
1.5
(vi) Stairs, landings, balustrades, corridors and ramps 0.74
(vii) External balconies and edges of roofs
Footways within building curtilage and adjacent to
basement/sunken areas
0.74
D (viii) All retail areas 1.5
C5
Areas susceptible to
large crowds
(ix) Footways or pavements less than 3 m wide adjacent to
sunken areas
3.0 5.0
1.5
(x) Theatres, cinemas, discotheques, bars, auditoria, shopping
malls, assembly areas, studios
Footways or pavements greater than 3 m wide adjacent to
sunken areas
3.0
(xi) Grandstands and stadia (See requirements of appropriate
certifying authority)
-
E
Storage and
industrial areas
(xii) Industrial; and storage buildings except as given by (xiii)
and (xiv)
0.8 2.0
0.74
(xiii) Light pedestrian traffic routes in industrial and storage
buildings except designated escape routes
0.36
(xiv) Light access stairs and gangways not more than 600 mm
wide
0.22
F and G
Garages and
vehicle traffic areas
(xv) Pedestrian areas in car parks including stairs, landings,
ramps, edges or internal floors, footways, edges of roofs
See Annex B
1.5
(xvi) Horizontal loads imposed by vehicles See Annex B
Horizontal loads on partition walls and parapets, q
k
[kN/m] EN 1991-1-1:2010
LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
8 PART 1 EUROCODE

1.2.3 Maintainance load, L
M

Roof live load
Roofs shall be designed to sustain safely the characteristic uniformly distributed load q
k
and concentrated
load Q
k
acting independently.
H
Roofs not accessible except for
normal maintenance and repair
EN 1991-1-1
Table 6.10
UK NA
Table NA.7
q
k
,[kN/m
2
] Q
k
,[kN] Slope, q
k
,[kN/m
2
] Q
k
,[kN]
0 1.0
(0.4)
0.9 1.5
(1.0)
30 0.6
0.90 30 < < 60 0.6[(60-)/30]
> 60 0
I
Roofs accessible by occupants
Consider appropriate imposed loads according to categories A to D
Actions during execution EN 1991-1-6, Table 4.1
Working personnel, staff and visitors, with hand tools or other small site equipment shall be min. 1.0 kN/m
2
.
Roof other than those with roof sheeting EN 1991-1-1, 6.3.4.2 (4)
Roofs, other than those with roof sheeting, should be designed to resist 1,5 kN on an area based on a 50 mm
sided square. Roof elements with a profiled or discontinuously laid surface, should be designed so that the
concentrated load Qk acts over the effective area provided by load spreading arrangements.
Imposed loads on roofs EN 1991-1-1:2010
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
PART 1 EUROCODE 9
BMU Loading
Definition acc. to EN 1808:1999
1 Trolley unit
2 Monorail track
3 Traversing trolley
4 Single point suspended platform
5 Carriage
6 Fixed davit
7 Counterweight suspension beam
8 Suspended platform
9 Parapet clamp
10 Suspended chair
Description Wind speed Wind pressure
Wind load
for 3m long BMU*
Impact energy**
Normal operation (25mph) 11.2 m/s 0.08 kN/m
2
0.29 kN 280 Nm or J
Unrestrained (H 40 m) 14 m/s 0.125 kN/m
2
0.46 kN 690 Nm or J
Restrained (H > 40 m) 20 m/s 0.25 kN/m
2
1.00 kN 1400 Nm or J
Notes: * The exposed area of one person standing on a work platform behind
an imperforate section of fencing 1 m high is 0,35 m
2
with the centre of area
1,45 m above the platform floor. The full area of one person is 0,7 m
2
with the
centre of area 1,0 m above the platform floor.
** Impact energy of the suspended platform when allowed to be drawn
or sucked from faade by negative gust wind pressures acting on the
suspended platform, and then released to impact into faade.
Minimum restraint force
EN 1808 Cl. 6.7: The mullion guide and anchor points shall be adequately
attached to the building and capable of withstanding the operational and
wind loads imposed upon them with the platform in any position. The
members linking the platform to the mullions or anchor points shall be
capable of withstanding the operational and wind loads imposed upon them.
For the calculation, the minimum value of the effort applied to the
restraint system shall be 1 kN.
Restraint system
EN 1808 Cl. 7.7.3: The lowest restraint point shall not be more than 40 m above
the lowest working level. The distance between restraints above 40 m shall not
exceed 20 m.
1 Anchor point
2 Member linking the platform to the anchor point
3 Suspension wire ropes
Load
case
Condition Allowable
yield stress,

E
/
E

Allowable
breaking stress,

R
/
R

1 In service conditions, SAE with RL affected by wind. F
y
/1.5 F
u
/4.0
2
Occasional conditions (e.g. static and dynamic tests,
tripping of overload detection device)
F
y
/1.33
F
u
/2.2
3
Extreme conditions (e.g. operation of secondary
device, out-of-service wind)
F
y

F
u
/1.5
Wind loads EN 1808:1999 Cl. 6.3.3
Allowable stresses EN 1808:1999 Cl. 6.2.1.1
LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
10 PART 1 EUROCODE


Fall Arrest Protection against fall from a height
Class Diagram Static load Dynamic test
Class A1 - Vertical, horizontal and inclined surface anchor devices 10 kN [4.3.1.1]

100 kg mass at a
maximum of 300
mm horizontal
eccentricity from
the anchor point to
freely fall at a
height of 2500
50 mm.
1 Structural
anchors
2 Anchor point

Class A2 - Inclined roof anchor devices 10 kN [4.3.1.2]

1 Structural
anchors
2 Anchor point

Class B - Transportable temporary anchor devices 10 kN [4.3.2]

1 Anchor point

Class C - Horizontal flexible anchor line 6 kN [5.3.4.1] 100 kg mass at a
maximum of 300
mm horizontal
eccentricity from
the anchor point to
freely fall
Dynamic
performance test:
at a height to
provide sufficient
fall energy to
develop at least 6
kN.
1 Structure
2 Extremity
structural anchor
3 Intermediate
structural anchor
4 Anchor line
5 Mobile anchor
point

Class D - Horizontal rigid anchor lines One person: 10 kN
Multiple person:
10 kN + 1 kN for
each additional
person. [4.3.4]



1 Anchor rail
2 Mobile anchor
point


Class E - Dead weight anchors
1 Anchor point


Anchor Devices EN 795:1997 Cl. 5
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
PART 1 EUROCODE 11

Temporary Edge Protection
Class Inclination Verification
A < 10
Static loads:

- Maximum lateral deflection of 55mm under
horizontal loads F
T1
& F
T2
for boards and F
H1
for
posts
- No material failure under vertical load F
D
(
F
= 1.0)
- No material failure under horizontal loads F
H1
& F
H2

(
F
= 1.5)
All
components
are capable of
resisting 30 kg
upward force
B 10 - 30 Pendulum test:
200mm: 1100 J
> 200mm: 500 J
-
C 30 - 60
Rolling Test:
- 75 kg roller
- Impact points (worst location): midspan and post

Sample of temporary edge protections Class A
Static load



Class B & C Class C
Pendulum Test Rolling Test

Temporary edge protection EN 13374:2004
LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
12 PART 1 EUROCODE

1.3 Snow load (S)
Snow load on roof is considered as medium term load, i.e., to have a notional duration of one month acc. to
EN 1991-1-3 Cl. 5.
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data


Z
A
Characteristic snow load, S
k
:
Region S
k

UK [NA.2.8] ( (( ( ) )) ) 0.1Z 0.2 A 100 525 + + + + + + + +
Alpine Region ( (( ( ) )) )
2
( 0.642Z 0.009 ) 1 A 728
( ( ( (
+ + + + + + + +


Central East ( (( ( ) )) )
2
( 0.264Z 0.002 ) 1 A 256
( ( ( (
+ + + + + + + +


Central West
0.164Z 0.082 A 966 + + + +

Zone
Site altitude, [m]

Characteristic snow load on ground,
[kN/m
2
]
Fig. C.1
through
C1.13

Table C.1

Roof
Shape
coefficient


Case (i): Undrifted load
a) 0 30:

1
= 0.8
b) 30 < < 60:
1
60
= 0.8
30
( ( ( (
( ( ( (


c) > 60

1
= 0
Case (ii): Drifted load
a) 0 30:
2

= 0.8 + 0.8
30
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

b) 30 < < 60:

2
= 1.6
c) > 60

2
= --

Angle of pitch of roof, []
(a) Flat or monopitch roof undrifted
& drifted load


(b) Duopitch Roof undrifted (case i)
and drifted load (cases ii & iii)

Fig. 5.2


Table 5.2







Fig. 5.3

Table 5.2

Canopy
Shape
coefficient
b
1
b
2

h
b
1
5m or { b
1
> 5m; h 1m}:
l
s
= min { 5h; b
1
; 15m}

3
= min { 2h/S
k
; 2b
max
/l
s
; 5.0}

b
1
> 5m:
l
s
= min { 5h; b
1
; 15m}
a) 0 30:

3
= min { 2h/S
k
; 2b
max
/l
s
; 8.0}
b) 30 < < 60:
{ {{ { } }} }
3 k max s
60
= min 2h S , 2b l , 8.0
30
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

Width of canopy projection
Width of abutting taller building
Differential height


5.3.6



Fig. B3
B4 (d)
B4 (c)

Fig. B2

B3 (3)

Table B1
Snow load Case (i) Undrifted snow load
s = C
e

1
s
k

Case (ii) Drifted snow load
s = C
e

2
s
k

case (iii) Exceptional snow drift
s =
3
s
k

Characteristic snow load, [kN/m
2
]
Exposure coefficient, C
e
:
Topography C
e

Windswept 0.8
Normal 1.0
Sheltered 1.2

5.2 (3)P

Table 5.1
Snow load on monopitch roof EN 1991-1-3:2003
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
PART 1 EUROCODE 13



Figure 1.3-1 Characteristic ground snow load map Fig. NA.1 UK NA to BS EN 1991-1-3:2003
LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
14 PART 1 EUROCODE

1.4 Wind load (W)
1.4.1 Relevant dimensions
For low-rise buildings (h/d 0.25), according to EN 1991-1-4, Table 7.1 the effect of building plan dimension
is more severe on the positive pressure of the windward face when the inwind depth d is the longer
dimension. Albeit, the directional factor is conservatively assumed unity.
1.4.2 Directional factor, c
dir

Directional factor, c
dir
EN 1991-1-4:2005 Clause 4.2
EN 1991-1-4 UK NA [Table NA.1]
Direction - 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330
c
dir
1.0 0.78 0.73 0.73 0.74 0.73 0.80 0.85 0.93 1.00 0.99 0.91 0.82
1.4.3 Seasonal factor, c
season

These factors provide the 0.02 probability of exceedence for the period given.
Seasonal factor, c
season
EN 1991-1-4:2005 clause 4.2
Months
EN 1991-1-4 UK NA [Table NA.2]
- 1 month 2 months 4 months 6 months
January
1.0
0.98
0.98

0.98


February 0.83
0.86
0.87
March 0.82
0.83
0.83
April 0.75
0.75
0.76
0.84
May 0.69
0.71
0.73
June 0.66
0.67
0.83
July 0.62
0.71
0.86
August 0.71
0.82
0.90
September 0.82
0.85
0.96
October 0.82
0.89
1.00
1.00
November 0.88
0.95
1.00
December 0.94
1.00
1.00
January 0.98
0.98
February 0.83
0.86
March 0.82
1.4.4 Probability factor, c
prob

The basic values of wind velocity or the velocity pressure determined using EN 1991-1-4 are characteristic
values having annual probabilities of exceedence of 0.02, which is equivalent to a mean return period of 50
years (it should not be interpreted as occurring regularly every 50 years).
EN 1991-1-4 UK NA [NA.2.8]
Probability of exceeding a given R-return period
wind speed in L years
-
( (( ( ) )) )
R L
p 1 1 1 R = = = =
Probability factor
( (( ( ) )) )
( (( ( ) )) )
( (( ( ) )) )
prob
1 0.2 ln ln 1 p 1 0.2 ln ln 1 p
c = =
1.3343 1 0.2 ln ln 1 1 50
( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

( ( ( (




Return periods for climatic actions EN 1991-1-6:2005, 4.7 Table 3.1
Duration
of execution
Target return period
L
Probability of exceeding
in any one year, p
Probability factor
c
prob

Wind load

Rec. basic value
v
b
= c
prob
v
b
3 days 2 years 0.40 0.7982 0.64q
p
v
b
20 m/s
1 month 3.5 years 0.25 0.8376 0.70q
p
v
b
20 m/s
3 months 5 years 0.18 0.8622 0.74q
p
v
b
20 m/s
1 year 10 years 0.10 0.9025 0.81q
p
-
> 1 year 50 years 0.02 1.0 q
p
-
Probability factor EN 1991-1-4:2005 Cl. 4.2
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
PART 1 EUROCODE 15
1.4.5 Calculating peak velocity pressure
Action Values Notes Clause
Data

Factors





Basic velocity
pressure
v
b,0

c
dir
= 1.00 [See section 1.4.2.1.4.2]
c
season
= 1.00 [See section 1.4.2.1.4.3]
prob
c = 1.00 [See section 1.4.2.1.4.4]

= 1.25 kg/m
3


v
b
= c
prob
c
season
c
dir
v
b,0
q
b
= v
b
2

Fundamental value of basic wind velocity (10 min.
mean), [m/s]
Directional factor, [-]
Seasonal factor, [-]
Probability factor, [-]

Air density

Basic wind velocity, [m/s]
Basic velocity pressure, [N/m
2
]
4.2 (1)P

4.2 (2)P





4.5 (1)
Peak velocity
pressure

z

c
e
(z) [See Figure 1.4-1]

q
p
(z) = c
e
(z)q
b



Height considered above terrain, [m]
Exposure factor, [-]
Peak velocity pressure, [N/m
2
]
Land category:
Land Category
0 Sea or coastal area
I Flat country without obstacles
II Farmland with boundary hedges
III Suburban or industrial areas
IV Densely built-up urban areas

7.2.2
Fig. 4.2
4.5 (1)

Figure 1.4-1 Exposure factor, c
e(z)
EN 1991-1-4:2005, Fig. 4.2
Wind load calculation for EU EN 1991-1-4:2005
LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
16 PART 1 EUROCODE


Figure 1.4-2 EU Fundamental basic wind velocity v
b,map
[m/s]
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
PART 1 EUROCODE 17

Action Values Notes Clause
Data





Factors


Basic velocity
pressure
v
b,map
[see Figure 1.4-3]

0.2
alt
10
c = 1 0.001 A
z
| | | | | | | |
+ + + +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

v
b,0
= v
b,map
c
alt

c
dir
= 1.00 [See section 1.4.2.1.4.2]
c
season
= 1.00 [See section 1.4.2.1.4.3]
prob
c = 1.00 [See section 1.4.2.1.4.4]

v
b
= c
season
c
dir
c
prob
v
b,0

q
b
= 0.613 v
b
2

Basic wind velocity (10 min. mean), [m/s]

Altitude factor for z 10 m., [-]
Fundamental value of basic wind velocity, [m/s]
Directional factor, [-]
Seasonal factor, [-]
Probability factor, [-]

Basic wind velocity, [m/s]

Basic velocity pressure, [N/m
2
] = 1.226 kg/m
3

Fig. NA.1

NA.2.5

4.2 (2)P



4.2 (2)P

4.5(1)P
Displacement
height
- for Town
terrain (IV)



h
h
ave
= 15 m (if no available data)
x
values of h
dis
:
h
dis
(lesser of)
x 2h
ave
0.8h
ave
; 0.6h
2h
ave
< x < 6have 1.2h
ave
0.2x; 0.6h
x 6have 0

Building height, [m]
Average height of neighbouring structures, [m]
Site horizontal distance to other structures, [m]
Effective height, [m]


A.5 (1)



Orography is
not significant

c
e(z)
[see Figure 1.4-4]


a) Country terrain (I & II)
q
p
= c
e(z)
q
b

b) Town terrain (III & IV)
c
e,T
[see Figure 1.4-5]

q
p
= c
e(z)
c
e,T
q
b
Exposure factor, [-]


Peak velocity pressure, [N/m
2
]

Exposure correction factor for Town terrain, [-]

Fig. NA.7


NA.2.17

Fig. NA.8

Orography is
significant









c
o(z)
= v
m
/v
mf
z 50 m
2
o( z )
p b
c 0.6
q = ce( z ) q
1.6
+ ++ + | | | | | | | |

| | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

z > 50 m
c
r(z)


a) Country terrain (I & II)
v
m
= c
o(z)
c
r(z)
v
b

b) Town terrain (III & IV)
c
r,T
v
m
= c
o(z)
c
r(z)
c
r,T
v
b

I
v(z)flat
v( z ) flat
v(z)
o( z )
I
I =
c

( (( ( ) )) )
2
2
p v( z ) m
q = 1 3I 0.613 v + + + +
Orography factor, [-]


Peak velocity pressure, [N/m
2
]


Roughness factor, [-]

Mean wind velocity, [m/s]

Roughness correction factor for Town terrain, [-]

Turbulence intensity for flat terrain, [-]

Turbulence intensity factor, [-]

Peak velocity pressure for = 1.226 kg/m
3
,
[kN/m
2
]
A.3


NA.2.17


Fig. NA.3

NA.2.11

Fig. NA.4

Fig. NA.5

NA.2.16

NA.2.17
Wind load calculation for UK UK NA to BS EN 1991-1-4:2005
LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
18 PART 1 EUROCODE

1.4.6 Factors and coefficients

Figure 1.4-3 UK Fundamental basic wind velocity v
b,map
[m/s] UK NA to BS EN 1991-1-4:2005, Fig. NA.1
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
PART 1 EUROCODE 19



Figure 1.4-4 Exposure factor, c
e(z)
UK NA to BS EN 1991-1-4:2005, Fig. NA.7
Figure 1.4-5 Exposure correction factor for Town terrain, c
e,T
UK NA to BS EN 1991-1-4:2005, Fig. NA.8



5




























2
0





3
0





5
0




7
0



2





















5


LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
20 PART 1 EUROCODE


1.4.7 Wind load on cladding elements
The coefficients may be applied to non-vertical walls within 15 of vertical acc. to UK NA.2.27.
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data
h, b, d
h/d
Building height, crosswind breadth, inwind depth, [m]
Slenderness ratio, [-]

External
pressure
coefficient
e = min{b; 2h}
gap
values of C
pe
:
Side wall
Zone
Isolated Funnelling
1m > 1m b/4 gap b
A -1.4 -1.2 - 1.6
B -1.1 -0.8 - 0.9
C -0.5 -0.5 - 0.9
Windward wall
D
h/d 0.25 h/d > 0.25
+1.0 +0.7 +1.0 +0.8
Leeward wall
E
h/d
0.25
1 h/d
> 0.25
h/d
> 1
- 0.30 - 0.5 - 0.7

Scaling length, [m]
Gap to adjacent building, [m]
External pressure coeff. for isolated & funnelling, [-]

Fig. 7.5


Table 7.1
NA.2.27


Table 7.1


Internal
pressure coeff.
c
pi
(+) = +0.2
c
pi
() = 0.3
Internal pressure coeff. for uniformly distributed
opening, [-]
7.2.9
Net wind
Pressure
Zones A, B, C & E:
w

= q
p
[c
pe
c
pi
(+)]
Zone D:
w

= q
p
[c
pe
c
pi
()]
Maximum net wind suction, [kN/m
2
]

Maximum net wind pressure, [kN/m
2
]

5.2
1.4.8 Pressure on walls with more than one skin
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data = (area of opening)/(area of skin) Permeability of a skin 7.2.10
Case 1:

Permeable outside skin,
o
0.001:
w+ = q
p
(2/3C
pe
+); w = q
p
(1/3

C
pe
)
Impermeable inside skin,
i
< 0.001:
w = q
p
(C
pe
C
pi
)
Applicable when extremities of the layer between
skins are closed

Case 1 Case 2


Case 3 Case 4
7.2.10
Case 2:

Impermeable outside skin,
o
< 0.001:
w = q
p
(C
pe
)
Impermeable more rigid inside skin,
i
>
o

w = q
p
(C
pe
C
pi
)
Case 3:

Impermeable outside skin,
o
< 0.001:
w = q
p
(C
pe
C
pi
)
Permeable inside skin,
i
0.001:
w = q
p
(1/3C
pi
)
Case 4:

Impermeable more rigid outside skin,
o
>
i
:
w = q
p
(C
pe
C
pi
)
Impermeable inside skin,
i
< 0.001:
w = 0
Note:

2/3 according to CWCT 2.2.5.1.


Characteristic wind load for walls of rectangular plan buildings UK NA to BS EN 1991-1-4:2005, 7.2.2
Walls with more than one skin EN 1991-1-4:2005, 7.2.10
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
PART 1 EUROCODE 21
1.4.9 Wind load for walls of rectangular plan building in London
Suction Local Suction Local
Low-rise bldg. 10 0,89 -0,77 -1,16 -0,85 -1,39
Intermediate 25 1,15 -1,00 -1,50 -1,10 -1,81
Medium-rise 50 1,31 -1,14 -1,71 -1,25 -2,05
High-rise 100 1,43 -1,25 -1,87 -1,37 -2,24
Skyscraper 200 1,57 -1,37 -2,05 -1,51 -2,46
Funnelling [kN/m]
LONDON
Building height
[m]
Pressure
[kN/m]
Isolated [kN/m]
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
-2.5 -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5
B
u
i
l
d
i
n
g

H
e
i
g
h
t

[
m
]
Wind Load [kN/m]

Wind Load in London
LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
22 PART 1 EUROCODE

1.4.10 Wind load on free-standing walls
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data

h, L

Height and length of free-stand wall, [m]
Solidity ratio, [-]
Fig. 7.19
7.4 (1)
Pressure
coefficients

values of C
p
:
Zone = 1.0 = 0.8
Without return corners*

C
p3

L/h 3
C
p5

L/h = 5
C
p10

L/h 10

A 2.3 2.9 3.4
1.2
B 1.4 1.8 2.1
C 1.2 1.4 1.7
D 1.2
With return corners h
A 2.1
1.2
B 1.8
C 1.4
D 1.2
* Intermediate values of Cp
3 < L/h < 5
( (( ( ) )) )
p5 p3
p5
c c
L
c 5
h 2

| | | | | | | |

| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

5 < L/h < 10
( (( ( ) )) )
p10 p5
p10
c c
L
c 10
h 5

| | | | | | | |

| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

< 0.8:
Treat as plane lattices acc. to 7.11









Table 7.9

Fig. 7.19









7.4.2
Fig. 7.20
Fin features Corner fins:
c
p,net
= 2.0

Series of fins:
x

s

c
p,net
= max{
s
c
p
; 0.4}


Net pressure coefficient [-]

Dist. of sheltering upwind fin h, [m]
Shelter factor, [-]
Net pressure coefficient [-]
[BRE
NJCook
cl. 20.8.3]
7.4.2
Fig. 7.20

Net pressures
w = c
p,net
q
p



Action Values

Notes Clause
Data

h
b
z
g

Height of signboard, [m]
Width of signboard, [m]
Separation height of signboard from ground, [m]
Fig. 7.21
7.4 (1)
Net pressure
coefficients
values of c
f
:
z
g
h/4 c
f
= 1.8
z
g
< h/4
b/h 1 c
f
= 1.8
b/h > 1
Treat at parapet
acc. to 7.4.1


Fig 7.21
Net pressure
w = c
f
q
p



Wind load on free-standing walls EN 1991-1-4:2005, 7.4
Wind load on signboards EN 1991-1-4:2005, 7.4.3
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
PART 1 EUROCODE 23
1.4.11 Wind load on long elements
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data

b, d, L

Width, depth and length of element, [m]
Solidity ratio, [-]
Fig. 7.23

Force
coefficient
values of c
f,0
:
Structural
(sharp edge)
c
f,0
= 2.0
Circular c
f,0
= 1.0
Rectangular See Fig. 7.23
Square c
f,0
= 2.1












Reduction factor for square sections
with radius:

r




Force coefficients, [-]


Reduced force coefficient, [-]

7.6
Fig. 7.23
7.7

Fig. 7.28

















Fig. 7.24

End-effect
reduction factor











Free-end polygon & sharp edged
sections:
a) L < 15 m
= 2L/b or 70(lesser of)
b) L 50 m
= 1.4L/b or 70(lesser of)
Free-end circular sections &
Ends connected to structure:
a) L < 15 m
= L/b or 70(lesser of)
b) L 50 m
= 0.7L/b or 70(lesser of)
values of c
f,0
:
Free-end
Structural,
polygon &
lattice
= min
{2L/b;70}
Circular c
f,0
= 1.0
Abutted
ends
Any
section
See Fig. 7.23


Effective slenderness ratio, [-]


End-effect factor, [-]
Table 7.16







Fig. 7.36
Net pressure
w

= c
f,0

q
p

Net wind pressure

Design wind loads on long elements EN 1991-1-4:2005, 7.6, 7.7 & 7.8
LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
24 PART 1 EUROCODE

1.4.12 Wind load on parapet attached to curtain wall

max, w
C
B
A
C C
parapet
min, w
parapet
max, w
cw
min, w
cw
a
L

Case-1:
max, w
parapet
= C
p,A
q
s

min, w
cw
= [C
pe,E
C
pi(-)
]q
s
Case-2:
min, w
parapet
= C
p,D
q
s

max, w
cw
= [C
pe,A
C
pi(+)
]q
s



STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
PART 1 EUROCODE 25
1.5 Load combinations
1.5.1 Faming member design
The most unfavourable effect of the following load combinations should be considered for characteristic
serviceability evaluations.
Serviceability Ultimate limit state Description Occupancy
CO100: D CO200: 1.35D Dead incl. member self-weight all
CO101: D + W
p
CO201: 1.35D + 1.5W
p
Dead + wind pressure all
CO102:

D + W
s
+ 0.7L

CO202:

1.35D + 1.5W
s
+ 0.71.5L

Dead + wind suction + imposed all
CO103: D + L + *0.6W
s
CO203: 1.35D + 1.5L + *0.61.5W
s
Dead + imposed + wind suction all
Note: *0.5W
s
acc. to UK NA Table NA.A1.1

Serviceability Ultimate limit state Description Occupancy
CO100: D CO200: 1.35D Dead incl. member self-weight all
CO101: D + W
p
+ **0.7S CO201: 1.35D + 1.5W
p
+ **0.71.5S
D + W
p
+ 0.7S
A

Dead + wind downforce + snow
Dead + wind downforce + snow drift
all
CO102: D + S + *0.6W
p
CO202:

1.35D + 1.5S + *0.61.5W
p
D + S
A
+ 0.7W
p
Dead + snow + wind downforce
Dead + snow drift + wind downforce
all
CO103:

D + W
s
CO203: D + 1.5W
s
Dead + wind uplift all
CO104: D + L CO204: 1.35D + 1.5L Dead + imposed H
Note: *0.5W
p
for UK NA:2005 Table NA.A1.1
**0.7S for H >1000m a.s.l; 0.5S for H 1000m a.s.l.
1.5.2 Glass design
Serviceability Description
Single glass
CO301: D + W + 0.5L Dead + wind in the direction of the imposed load
CO302: D + L + 0.5W Dead + imposed + wind in the direction of the imposed load
Multiple glazing
CO311: D + W + 0.5L Dead + wind in the direction of the imposed load
CO312: D + L + 0.5W Dead + imposed + wind in the direction of the imposed load
CO313: D + W
p
+ H
w
Dead + wind pressure + winter climate
CO314: D + W
s
+ H
w
Dead + wind suction + winter climate
CO315: D + L + H
w
Dead + imposed + winter climate
CO316: D + W
p
+ H
s
Dead + wind pressure + summer climate
CO317: D + W
s
+ H
s
Dead + wind suction + summer climate
Vertical facades EN 1990:2005 6.5.3
Sloped faade ( 10) or overhead glazing EN 1990:2005 6.5.3
Vertical facades TRAV:2003 4.2
DEFLECTION & STRUCTURAL MOVEMENTS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
26 PART 1 EUROCODE

I-2 DEFLECTION & STRUCTURAL MOVEMENTS
2.1 Deflection limits
EN 1990:2002 cl. 3.4, states that serviceability requirements are agreed for each individual project.
2.1.1 Primary Structure

Component Deflection Description EN UK NA
Steel
EN 1993-1-1
Vertical
deflection
Carrying brittle finish - L/360
Other beams - L/200
Cantilevers - L/180
Horizontal
deflection
Tops of columns in single-storey buildings except portal
frames
- H/300
In each storey of a building with more than one storey - H
i
/300
Concrete
EN 1992-1-1
Vertical
deflection
Beam, slab or cantilever under quasi-permanent loads span/250 -
Deflection after construction to prevent damage to adjacent
parts of the structure under quasi-permanent loads
span/500 -
EN 1995-1-1 Table 7.2 UK NA:2008 Table NA.5
Instantaneous, w
inst
Net final, w
net,fin
= w
inst
+ w
creep
- w
camber

Final, w
fin
= w
inst
+ w
creep

Net final, w
net,fin
= w
inst
+ w
creep
- w
camber

No plaster* With plaster*
Simple beam L/300 to L/500 L/250 to L/350 L/150 to L/300 L/150 L/250
Cantilever L/150 to L/250 L/125 to L/175 L/75 to L/150 L/75 L/125
Note: * Roof or floor members with or without a plastered or plasterboard ceiling.
2.1.2 Facade
Component Limit Clause
Frontal deflection under wind load L/200 or 15mm 4.1; EN 13116:01, 4.3.1
Horizontal framing under vertical loads L/500 or 3mm 4.2
Steel and Concrete design EN 1993:2005 & EN 1992:2004
Timber design EN 1995-1-1:2004
Curtain wall EN 13830:2003
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES DEFLECTION & STRUCTURAL MOVEMENTS
PART 1 EUROCODE 27

2.2 Structure tolerance
2.2.1 Concrete Structures
Permitted deviation is the permitted algebraic differences between the limits of size and the corresponding
reference size (unless is stated). See EN 13670:2009 cl. 3.13, also ISO 1803:1997 cl. 3.8.
The "box principle" will require that all points of the structure are within the specified theoretical position with
a margin in any direction corresponding to the permitted deviation. A recommended value when applying the
box principle is 20 mm.
Structure Type

Description Permitted Deviation [mm] Clause
Base
supports
Foundations
Plan section Position in plan of a base
support relative to the
secondary lines
25 = G.10.3.a
Vertical section Position in vertical
direction of a base support
relative to the secondary
level
20 = G.10.3.b
Columns and
walls

Verticality by storey Inclination of a column or
wall at any level
{ }
{ }
h 10m : = max h 400;15
h 100m : = max h 600;25

>

h in mm
10.4.a
Offset between floors Deviation between
centrelines at floor level
( ) { }
1 2
max t t 30;15 30 = +
10.4.b
Curvature between adjacent
floors
Curvature of a column or
wall between adjacent
storey levels
{ } = max h 300;15 30
h in mm
10.4.c
Tolerances EN 13670:2009
DEFLECTION & STRUCTURAL MOVEMENTS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
28 PART 1 EUROCODE

Inclination Location of any column,
wall or floor edge, at any
storey level from any
vertical plane through its
intended design centre at
base level
i
h
min ; 50
200 n



=
`

)


H in metres
10.4.d
Position on plan of a column Position in plane of a
column relative to the
secondary lines
= 25 G.10.4.a
Position on plan of a wall Position in plane of a wall
relative to the secondary
line
= 25 G.10.4.b
Distance apart Free space between
adjacent columns or walls
{ } max l 600;20 60 =
G.10.4.c
Beams and
slabs
Location of beam to column
connection
Measured relative to the
column
{ } max b 30;20 =
10.5.a
Bearing Position of bearing axis
support

{ } max l 20;15 =
10.5.b
Straightness of beam Horizontal straightness of
beams
{ } max l 600;20 =
G.10.5.a
Distance apart Between adjacent beams,
measured at
corresponding points
{ } max l 600;20 40 =
G.10.5.b
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES DEFLECTION & STRUCTURAL MOVEMENTS
PART 1 EUROCODE 29
Inclination of beam or slab Difference in level across a
beam or slab at
corresponding points in
any direction
( ) 10 + l 500 =
G.10.5.c
Level of adjacent beams Measured at
corresponding points
( ) 10 + l 500 =
G.10.5.d
Level per storey Level of adjacent floors at
supports
20 = G.10.5.e
Level Level of floors measured
relative to the intended
design level at the
reference level
H 20m : = 20
H 20m : = 0.5(H+20) 50

>

H in metres
G.10.5.f
Sections Cross-section dimension of
elements
Tolerance Class 1

( )
l 150 : = 10
150<l 400 : = 7+l 50
l 400
400<l 2500: = 15+
140
l 2500 : = 30

<


10.6.a
Tolerance Class 2
See cl. 10.1(2)Notes

( )
l 150 : = 5
150<l 400 : = 2+l 50
l 400
400<l 2500: = 10+
105
l 2500 : = 30

<


Location of reinforcement Tolerance Class 1

( )
h 150 : = +10
150<h 400 : = +7+l 50
l 400
400<h 2500: = +15+
210
h 2500 : = +25

<


10.6.b
Tolerance Class 2

( )
h 150 : = +5
150<h 400 : = +7+l 50
l 400
400<h 2500: = +10+
210
h 2500 : = +20

<



Lap joints Length of reinforcement 0.06 l = 10.6.c
Squareness of element Orthogonality of a cross-
section
{ } max a 25;10 20 =
G.10.6.a
Surface
straightness
Flatness Moulded or smoothed
surface
global global
local local
l = 2.0 m ; = 9
l = 0.2 m ; = 4

G.10.7.a
DEFLECTION & STRUCTURAL MOVEMENTS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
30 PART 1 EUROCODE

Not moulded surface
global global
local local
l = 2.0 m ; = 15
l = 0.2 m ; = 6

Skewness

Skewness of cross-section a 25 30 =
b 25 30 =
G.10.7.b
Edge straightness Floor slab or element
{ }
l 1000 : = 8
l 1000 : = min 8l;20

>

G.10.7.c
Holes and
inserts
Holes and conduit inserts Deviation from secondary
line
x y
D
, 25
= 10


G.10.8.a
Blockout and recesses Deviation from secondary
line
x y 1 2
, , , 25 =

G.10.8.b
Anchor bolts and similar
inserts
Placing of bolts and centre
of a bolt group

1
10 = G.10.8.c
Internal distance between
bolts in a group

2
3 =
Protrusion and inclination
3
+25/ 5 =
{ }
s 3
max l 200; 5 =
Anchoring plates and similar
inserts
Deviation in plane
x y
, 20 =


G.10.8.d
Deviation in depth
z
10 =


STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES DESIGN ASSISTED BY TESTING
PART 1 EUROCODE 31
I-3 DESIGN ASSISTED BY TESTING
3.1 Assessment via the characteristic value (5% Fractile)
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data
x
1
, x
2
.., x
i
.., x
n

n

m

Measured values [kN]
Number of measured values [-]
Design value of the conversion factor [-]
Partial safety factor of the material [-]
D7.2
Normal
distribution
x i
i
1
m = x
n


( ) ( )
2
x i x
s = x m n 1


x
x
x
s
V =
m

( )
k x n x
X = m 1 k V
Mean value [kN]


Standard deviation [kN]

Coefficient of variation [-]

Characteristic value [kN]
D7.2
Log-normal
distribution
( )
y i
i
1
m = ln x
n


V
x
is known from previous knowledge:
( )
2
y x x
s = ln V 1 V +
V
x
is unknown from previous knowledge:
( ) ( )
2
y i y
s = ln x m n 1 (


( )
m k s
y n y
k
X = e

Logarithmic mean value [kN]

Logarithmic standard deviation [kN]





Characteristic value [kN]

5% Fractile
values of k
n
:
n V
x
known* V
x
unknown*
1 2.31 -
2 2.01 -
3 1.89 3.37
4 1.83 2.63
5 1.80 2.33
6 1.77 2.18
8 1.74 2.00
10 1.72 1.92
20 1.68 1.76
30 1.67 1.73
1.64 1.64
Values of k
n
for the 5% characteristic
value based on the normal distribution of
xs.


Table D1
Design value
d
d k
m
X =




Design value [kN]
Note: * Prior knowledge come from the evaluation of previous tests in comparable situations. What is comparable
needs to be determined by engineering judgement.



Statistical evaluation of test result EN 1990:2002 Annex D7.2
DESIGN ASSISTED BY TESTING STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
32 PART 1 EUROCODE

3.2 Direct assessment of the design value for ULS verifications
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data
x
1
, x
2
.., x
i
.., x
n

n

d
Measured values [kN]
Number of measured values [-]
Design value of the conversion factor
which should cover all uncertainties not
covered by the tests [-]
D7.3
Normal
distribution
x i
i
1
m = x
n


( ) ( )
2
x i x
s = x m n 1


x
x
x
s
V =
m

( )
d d x d ,n x
X = m 1 k V
Mean value [kN]


Standard deviation [kN]

Coefficient of variation [-]

Design value [kN]
D7.3
Log-normal
distribution
( )
y i
i
1
m = ln x
n


V
x
is known from previous knowledge:
( )
2
y x x
s = ln V 1 V +
V
x
is unknown from previous knowledge:
( ) ( )
2
y i y
s = ln x m n 1 (


( )
m k s
y d ,n y
d d
X = e



Logarithmic mean value [kN]

Logarithmic standard deviation [kN]





Design value [kN]

0.1% lower value
values of k
d,n
:
n V
x
known* V
x
unknown*
1 4.36 -
2 3.77 -
3 3.56 -
4 3.44 11.4
5 3.37 7.85
6 3.33 6.36
8 3.27 5.07
10 3.23 4.51
20 3.16 3.64
30 3.13 3.44
3.04 3.04
Values of k
d,n
for a probability of
observing a lower value of about 0.1%
based on normal distribution of xs.


Table D2
Note: * Prior knowledge come from the evaluation of previous tests in comparable situations. What is comparable
needs to be determined by engineering judgement.

Statistical evaluation of test result EN 1990:2002 Annex D7.3
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES STEEL DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 33
I-4 STEEL DESIGN
4.1 Properties of steel
Form Density,

[kN/m]
Unit weight,
[kg/m]
Youngs
modulus, E
[N/mm
2
]
Modulus of rigidity,
G = E/[2(1+)]
[N/mm
2
]
Poissons
ratio,
[-]
Thermal
coefficient,
[/C]
All 77.0 7 850 210 000 81 000 0.30 1210
-6

Form Process Grade Yield strength,
f
y
[N/mm
2
]
Min. tensile
strength,
f
t
[N/mm
2
]
Fillet weld
correlation
factor,
w
[-]
Reference
3 t 16 t 40
Sections,
plates,
bars and rods
Non-alloy S235JR/J0/J2 235 225 360 0.80 [EN 10025-2]
S275JR/J0/J2 275 265 430 0.85
S355JR/J0/J2/K2 355 345 510 0.90
Normalized/
Normalized
rolled weldable
fine grain
S275N/NL 275 265 370 [EN 10025-3]
S355N/NL 355 345 470
S420N/NL 420 400 520
S460N/NL 460 440 540
Thermo-
mechanical
rolled weldable
fine grain
S275M/ML 275 265 370 [EN 10025-4]
S355M/ML 355 345 470
S420M/ML 420 400 520
S460M/ML 460 440 540
Improved
atmospheric
corrosion
resistance
S235J0W/J2W 235 225 360 [EN 10025-5]
S355J0W/J2W
S355J0WP/J2WP
355 345 470
Quenched and
tempered
S460Q/QL/QL1 460 550 [EN 10025-6]
S500Q/QL/QL1 500 590
S550Q/QL/QL1 550 640
S620Q/QL/QL1 620 700
S690Q/QL/QL1 690 770
S890Q/QL/QL1 890 940
S960Q/QL/QL1 960 980
Hollow sections Hot finished S 235 H 235 235 360 0.80 [EN 10210-1]
S 275 H 275 275 430 0.85
S 355 H 355 355 510 0.90
S 460 NH 460 460 560 1.00
Cold formed S 235 H 235 235 360 0.80 [EN 10219-1]
S 275 H 275 275 430 0.85
S 355 H 355 355 510 0.90
S 460 NH 460 460 550 1.00

Material constants of structural steel EN 1993-1-1:2005, Cl. 3.2.6
Characteristic values of structural steel (3mm t 40mm) EN 1993-1-1:2005, Table 3.1
STEEL DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
34 PART 1 EUROCODE


Form Process Grade Yield strength,
f
y

[N/mm
2
]
Min. tensile
strength,
f
t
[N/mm
2
]
Remarks
Sheets for
Constuction
Pre-galvanized S220GD 220 300 [EN 10346:2009
superseded EN 10326]
S250GD 250 330
S280GD 280 360
S320GD 320 390
S350GD 350 420
Hot rolled S235JR 210 320 [EN 10025-2:2004]
Hot rolled
weldable
S275N/NL 220 330 [EN 10025-3:2004]
Sheets for
Cold forming
Pre-galvanized
Low carbon
mild steel
DX51D - 270 [EN 10346:2009
superseded EN 10327]
DX52D/53D/55D 140 270
DX54D/56D/57D 120 260
Pre-galvanized
High strength
HX160YD 160 300 [EN 10346:2009
superseded EN 10292]
HX180YD/BD 180 330/290
HX220YD/BD 220 340/320
HX260YD/BD/LAD 260 380/360/350
HX300YD/BD/LAD 300 390/400/380
HX340BD/LAD 340 440/410
HX380LAD 380 440
HX420LAD 420 470
Pre-galvanized
Cold rolled
HCT450X 260 450 [EN 10346:2009]
HCT500X 300 500
HCT600X 340 600
Pre-galvanized
Hot rolled
HDT450F 320 450 [EN 10346:2009]
HDT560F 460 560
HDT580X 330 580
Cold-rolled

DC01/03/04/05 140 270 [EN 10130:1999]
DC06 120 270
Hot-rolled DD11 170 440 [EN 10111:1998]
DD12 170 420
DD13 170 400
DD14 170 380

Characteristic values of steel sheets (t 3mm ) EN 1993-1-3:2006, Table 3.1
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES STEEL DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 35
4.2 Properties of stainless steel
Microstructure Density,

[kN/m]
Unit weight,

[kg/m]
Youngs
modulus, E
[N/mm
2
]
Modulus of rigidity,
G = E/[2(1+)]
[N/mm
2
]
Poissons
ratio,
[-]
Thermal
coefficient,
[/C]
Austenitic
1.4539, 1.4529 & 1.4547
77.0 7 850
195 000
77 000 0.30 1610
-6
Austenitic
Others
200 000
Ferritic 220 000

Grade

AISI Cold rolled sheet,
strip & plates
t 6 mm
Hot rolled sheet,
strip & plates
t 12 mm ( 75mm)
Bars, rods
& sections
t 250 mm
Secant Modulus
Coeff., n
[Rolling direction]
Bend
radius

f
y

[N/mm
2
]
f
u

[N/mm
2
]
f
y

[N/mm
2
]
f
u

[N/mm
2
]
f
y

[N/mm
2
]
f
u

[N/mm
2
]
Long. Trans. [EN 1090-2]
1.4301 304 230 540 210 520 190 500 6 8 2t
1.4306, 1.4307 304L 220 520 200 520 (500) 175 450 6 8 2t
1.4401 316 240 530 220 530 (520) 200 500 7 9 2t
1.4404, 1.4435 316L 240 530 220 530 (520) 200 500 7 9 2t
1.4462 Duplex 480 660 460 660 (640) 450 650 5 5 2.5t
Note: Fillet weld correction factor,
w
= 1.0 for Stainless steel.

Microstructure Symbol 0.2% proof strength level,
R
p0.2
[N/mm
2
]
Tensile strength level,
R
m
[N/mm
2
]
Austenitic steels +C700 - 700 850
+C850 - 850 1000
+C1000 - 1000 1150
+CP350 350 500 -
+CP500 500 700 -
+CP700 700 900 -
4.2.1 Secant modulus of stainless steel
s,1 s,2
s,ser
(E +E )
E =
2

s,i n
i,Ed,ser
i,Ed,ser y
E
E =

E
1+0.002
f
| |
|
|
\ .

where: Es,1 is the secant modulus corresponding to the stress 1 in the tension flange.
Es,2 is the secant modulus corresponding to the stress 2 in the compression flange.
Material constants of stainless steel EN 1993-1-4:2006 Cl. 2.1.3
Characteristic values of stainless steel EN 1993-1-4:2006 Table 2.1
Work hardened condition (process route 2H) EN 1993-1-4:2006 Table B.1; EN 10088-2:2005 Table 17
STEEL DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
36 PART 1 EUROCODE

4.3 Resistance of steel cross-sections
4.3.1 Partial safety factors
Part Steel Stainless steel
[EN 1993-1-1] UK NA.2.15 [EN 1993-1-4]
Resistance of cross-section whatever class

M0
1.0 1.0 1.1
Resistance of members to instability

M1
1.0 1.0 1.1
Resistance of cross-section in tension to fracture

M2
1.25 1.1 1.25
4.3.2 General cross-sections
Mode Values Notes Clause
Shear
Ed
c ,Rd
V
1.0
V

{ {{ { } }} } c,Rd pl,Rd c,Rd
V = min V ; V
Plastic shear resistance
v
pl,Rd y M0
A
V = f
3

Elastic shear resistance(horizontal shear)
c,Rd y M0
It 1
V = f
Q
3

Design shear resistance [kN]
Shear area, A
v
:
I, H, C, T
v w w
A = h t
RHS // to h ( (( ( ) )) )
v
A = A h b+h
RHS to h ( (( ( ) )) )
v
A = A b b+h
CHS
v
A = 2A
Flat bar
v
A = 0.8A
Round bar
v
A = 0.6A

6.2.6



Torsional shear
( (( ( ) )) )
t
Rd y M0 Ed
I c
T = f T
3

( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
2 2
t
I c b t 3b 1.8t + + + +


Torsional resistance [kNm]
Approx. non-linear torsional constant [mm]
(refer to design aide formulas for exact value)
Bending Pure bending:
Ed
c ,Rd
M
1.0
M

{ {{ { } }} }
Rd c ,Rd u,Rd
M = min M ; M
c,Rd y M0
M =W f
u,Rd el,net u M2
M = W f
Lateral-torsional buckling:
Ed
b,Rd
M
1.0
M

b,Rd LT cy,Rd
M = M
where:
z t
cr
EI GI
M =
L


LT y y cr
= W f M
( (( ( ) )) )
2
LT LT LT LT
= 0.5 1 0.2
( ( ( (
+ + + + + + + +


LT
2 2
LT LT LT
1
= 1.0


+ + + +



Design tension resistance [kNm]

General yielding along the member [kNm]
Local failure at a section with holes [kNm]
Section modulus, W:
Class 1 & 2

pl
W= W
Class 3

el
W= W
Class 4

eff
W= W
Design buckling resistance moment [kNm]

Elastic critical moment (conservative) [kNm]
Slenderness [-]
Initial sway inperfection [-]
Reduction factor for buckling [-]
Imperfection factor,
LT
:
Rolled I, h/b 2 a
LT
= 0.21
Rolled I, h/b > 2 b
LT
= 0.34
Welded I, h/b 2 c
LT
= 0.49
Welded I, h/b > 2
Other sections
d
LT
= 0.76

6.2.5(1)



6.2.5(4)
6.2.5(2)


6.3.2.1(1)

6.3.2.1(3)



6.3.2.2

6.3.2.2

6.3.2.2


6.3.2.1

Partial material safety factors for ultimate limit states
Design resistance of steel structures EN 1993-1-1:2005
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES STEEL DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 37

Mode Values Notes Clause
Tension
A
A
net
Basis:
Ed
t ,Rd
N
1.0
N

Where:
{ {{ { } }} }
t,Rd pl ,Rd u,Rd
N = min N ; N
pl,Rd y M0
N = A f
u,Rd net u M2
N = 0.9A f
Gross section area [mm
2
]
Net section area [mm
2
]




Design tension resistance [kN]
Design plastic resistance of gross section [kN]
Local failure at a section with holes [kN]
6.2.3


Compression Local squashing
Ed
c ,Rd
N
1.0
N

Class 1, 2 or 3 cross sections:
c,Rd y M0
N = A f
Class 4 cross sections:
c,Rd eff y M0
N = A f

Flexural buckling, 0.2 > :
Ed
b,Rd
N
1.0
N

b,Rd y M1
N = A f
a) Critical flexural buckling:
( (( ( ) )) )
y
cr,y
2
y
EI
N =
k L

;
( (( ( ) )) )
z
cr,z
2
z
EI
N =
k L


a) Critical torsional buckling:
w
cr,T
2 2 2 2
y z o cr
EI 1
N = GIt
i i y L
| | | | | | | |
+ ++ + | | | |
| | | |
+ + + + + + + +
\ . \ . \ . \ .


y
cr
A f
=
N


( (( ( ) )) )
2
= 0.5 1 0.2
( ( ( (
+ + + + + + + +


2 2
1
= 1.0


+ + + +


Effective length factor, k:
0.7 0.85 0.85 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.0





Design compression resistance [kN]


Design buckling resistance of compression
member without welding [kN]






Elastic critical force [kN]



y
o
is the distance from the shear centre to the
centroid of the gross cross section along the y-y
axis (zero for doubly symmetric sections)

Slenderness [-]

Initial sway inperfection [-]

Reduction factor for buckling [-]

Imperfection factor, :
RHS, CHS (HF) a = 0.21
Rolled I, h/b > 1.2
L
b = 0.34
RHS, CHS (CF)
Rolled I, h/b 2
Welded I
Solid, C, T
c = 0.49
Welded I, h/b > 2
Other sections
d = 0.76

6.2.4






6.3.1.1








6.3.1.2






6.3.1.2

6.3.1.2



Table 6.2



Design resistance of steel structures EN 1993-1-1:2005
STEEL DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
38 PART 1 EUROCODE

4.3.3 Buckling resistance of steel cross-sections
d h
T
t
y

y
h

Clause
b,Rd LT y y M1
M = W f
Section modulus:
Section web d/t flange b/2T W
y

Class 1 & 2 83 10 pl , y
W
Class 3 124 14 el , y
W

Buckling factors [kN,cm]:
y y
LT
z t
W f L
= 0.00494
I I

( (( ( ) )) )
2
LT LT LT ,0 LT
= 0.5 1 0.76
( ( ( (
+ + + + + + + +


values of
LT,0
:
Rolled

LT,0
= 0.4
= 0.75
c z t y y
L = 6556.4 I I W f
Welded

LT,0
= 0.2
= 1.0
c z t y y
L = 1638.9 I I W f
LT
2 2
LT LT LT
1
= 1.0


+ + + +

b,Rd LT y y M1
M = W f
Section modulus:
Section h/b W
y

Class 1 & 2 20

2
pl , y
W = bh 4
Class 3 42

2
el , y
W = bh 6

Buckling factors [kN,cm]:
Class 1 & 2
c y
L = 1092.8 b f
LT y
= 0.00605 f L / b
Class 3
c y
L = 1639.1 b f
LT y
= 0.00494 f L / b

( (( ( ) )) )
2
LT LT LT
= 0.5 1 0.76 0.2
( ( ( (
+ + + + + + + +


LT
2 2
LT LT LT
1
= 1.0


+ + + +

where:
y
235
=
f

6.3.2.1

Table 5.2




6.3.2.2



Tables
6.3 & 6.4

6.3.2.2





6.3.1.3

h
t
t
y
c
d
t
z
y

y
h

d
y

Clause
b,Rd y M1
N = A f
Buckling about y-y:
( (( ( ) )) )
y
cr,y
2
y
EI
N =
k L


Buckling about z-z:
( (( ( ) )) )
z
cr,z
2
z
EI
N =
k L


y
cr
A f
=
N


( (( ( ) )) )
2
= 0.5 1 0.2
( ( ( (
+ + + + + + + +


values of :
Hot finished = 0.21
Cold formed = 0.49
2 2
1
= 1.0


+ + + +

b,Rd y M1
N = b h f
Buckling about y-y:
y
y
k L
= 0.004265 f
h

Buckling about z-z:
z
y
k L
= 0.004265 f
b

( (( ( ) )) )
2
= 0.5 1 0.49 0.2
( ( ( (
+ + + + + + + +


2 2
1
= 1.0


+ + + +

b,Rd y M1
N = A f
y
y
k L
= 0.009849 f
d

( (( ( ) )) )
2
= 0.5 1 0.49 0.2
( ( ( (
+ + + + + + + +


2 2
1
= 1.0


+ + + +

6.3.1.1

6.3.1.2
Lateral-torsional buckling EN 1993-1-1:2005
Compression buckling EN 1993-1-1:2005
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES STEEL DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 39

4.4 Sheets as diaphragms
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data

h
w

a
t
w

E
f
yw
= 1.2
Height of sheet parallel to direction of shear [mm]
Width of sheet [mm]
Sheet thickness [mm]
Modulus of elasticity [N/mm
2
]
Yield strength of sheet [-]
For steel grades up to S460





5.1 (2)
Shear buckling
Criteria for slender web:
w
w
h
72
t

> >> >


k

= 5.34
2
w
cr
w
t
= 190 000 k
h

| | | | | | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

yw
w
cr
f
= 0.76

w
w
0.83
=

yw
w w
bw ,Rd w
f
h t
V =
1.1
3


Slender web

Shear buckling coefficient [-]
For plates without transverse and longitudinal stiffeners
Critical shear stress, [N/mm
2
]


Slenderness parameter [-]

Shear buckling factor

Design shear buckling resistance [N]
w h
a
V V
H
c


5.1 (2)

A.3 (1)
5.3 (3) &
A.1 (2)


5.3 (3)

Table 5.1

5.2 (1)






( (( ( ) )) )
w w
2a 1+v
c =
1000Et h

Shear stiffness [mm/kN] BS5950
Table 9

Shear buckling resistance of sheets EN 1993-1-5:2006 Cl. 5
STEEL DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
40 PART 1 EUROCODE

4.5 Cold-formed members
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data
y
235
=
f

p
b t
=
28.4 k





Yield constant [-]

Slenderness [-]




4.4
Single
edge fold

( ) b = b 0.586r 1.293t +
k = 4.0


p
2
p
0.22
=



1.0
=
eff
b
b
2

Grade Approx. b
eff

S235
2
28.4t 354.9 t b
S275
2
26.2t 303.2 t b
S280GD
2
26t 297.8 t b
S320GD
2
24.3t 260.6 t b


Buckling factor for uniform compression, = 1.0 [-]

Reduction factor for plate buckling [-]

Effective width [mm]












Buckling factor for stress gradient, 0 [-]

Effective return depth [mm]

Table 4.1
4.4


Table 4.1
( ) c = c 0.293r 0.646t +
k = 0.5


p
2
p
0.188
=



1.0
=
eff
c c
Grade Approx. c
eff

S235
2
20.1t 75.8 t c
S275
2
18.6t 64.8 t c
S280GD
2
18.4t 63.6 t c
S320GD
2
17.2t 55.7 t c


Table 4.2

4.4

Table 4.2
Double
edge fold

( ) d = d 0.293r 0.646t +
k = 0.43


p
2
p
0.188
=



1.0
eff
d d =


Buckling factor for uniform
compression, = 1.0 [-]

Effective lip [mm]

Table 4.2

4.4

Table 4.2


Panel edge stiffeners EN 1993-1-5:2006
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ALUMINIUM DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 41
I-5 ALUMINIUM DESIGN
5.1 Properties of aluminium structures
Form Density,

[kN/m]
Unit weight,
[kg/m]
Modulus of
elasticity, E
[N/mm
2
]
Modulus of rigidity,
G = E/[2(1+)]
[N/mm
2
]
Poissons
ratio,
[-]
Coef. of linear
thermal exp.,
[/C]
All 26.6 2 700 70 000 27 700 0.30 2310
-6

Form Alloy Temper Thickness
t [mm]
R
p0.2

[N/mm
2
]
R
m

[N/mm
2
]
HAZ-factor Bend radius*

o,haz

u,haz
180 90
Site
formed
sheets
1050A
[Al 99.5]
O/H111 3612.5 20 65 1 1 00.5tt
H14/H24 3612.5 75 105 t-- t1.5t2.5t
Pre-
formed
Sheets
or
Plates

3003
[AlMn1Cu]
O/H111 3612.5 35 95 1 1 0t- 0t1.5t
H14/H24 3612.5 115 145 2t-- t2t2.5t
5005/5005A
[AlMg1]
O/H111 3612.5 35 100 1 1 0.5tt- 0t1.5t
H22/H32 3612.5 80 125 0.55 0.80 1.5t-- tt2t
H14/H24 3612.5 110 145 0.37 0.69 2.5t-- t2t2.5t
5754
[AlMg3]
O/H111 3612.5 80 190 1 1 tt- tt2t
H24/H34 3612.5 160 240 0.63 0.79 2.5t-- 2t2.5t3t
6082
[AlSi1MgMn]
T6/T651 3612.5 255 300 0.48 0.60 - 3.5t4.5t6t
Plates 5083
[Al Mg4,5
Mn0,7]
O/H111 625 125 190 1 1 - 1.5t-
H22/H32 625 215 305 0.72 0.90 - 2.5t-
H24/H34 625 250 400 0.62 0.81 - 3.5t-
Note: * For information only.
Form Grade Chemical
symbol
Temper Thickness
t
[mm]
0.2% proof
strength, f
o

[N/mm
2
]
Tensile
strength, f
u

[N/mm
2
]
HAZ-
factor,

o,haz

HAZ-factor,

u,haz

Buckling
class
Extrusion 6060 [AlMgSi] T5 t 5 25 120100 160140 0.420.50 0.500.57 B
T6 t 15 140 170 0.43 0.59 A
T66 t 3 25 160150 215195 0.410.43 0.510.56 A
6061 [AlMg1SiCu] T6 t 20 240 260 0.48 0.67 A
6063 [AlMg0,7Si] T5 t 3 25 130110 175160 0.460.55 0.570.63 B
T6 t 25 160 195 0.41 0.56 A
6005A [AlSiMg] T6
Open section
t 5 10 225215 270260 0.510.53 0.610.63 A
10 < t 25 200 250 0.58 0.66 A
Hollow section t 5 10 215200 255250 0.530.58 0.650.66 A
6082 [AlSi1MgMn] T6 t 5 15 250260 290310 0.500.48 0.640.60 A
7020 [AlZn4,5Mg1] T6 t 15 40 290275 350 0.710.75 0.80 A
Cast 42100 [AlSi7Mg0.3] T6 - 147 203 - - A
42200 [AlSi7Mg0.6] T6 - 168 224 - - A
Material constants of aluminium EN 1999-1-1:2007 Cl. 3.2.5
Aluminium sheet, strip and plate EN 485-2:2007
Characteristic values of aluminium EN 1999-1-1:2007 Table 3.2
ALUMINIUM DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
42 PART 1 EUROCODE


Form Grade Chemical symbol
(Designation to
EN28839)
Tempering Diameter,
d
[mm]
0.2% proof strength
f
o

[N/mm
2
]
Tensile strength
f
u

[N/mm
2
]
Solid
rivets
5019 AlMg5 H111 20 110 250
H14,H34 18 210 300
5754 AlMg3 H111 20 80 180
H14/H34 18 180 240
6082 AlSi1MgMn T4 20 110 205
T6 20 240 300
Bolts 5754 AlMg3 (AL1) - 10 20 230180 270250
5019 AlMg5 (AL2) - 14 36 205205 310280
6082 AlSi1MgMn (AL3) - 6 36 250260 320310
5.2 Definitions
5.2.1 H Tempers
Work hardening is used extensively to produce strain-hardened tempers of the non-heat-treatable alloys.
H X Y
H Strain hardened by cold working
X = 1 for strain hardened only.
= 2 for strain hardened and partially annealed. The products are strain hardened more than is required to achieve
the desired properties and then are reduced in strength by partial annealing.
= 3 for strain hardened and stabilized. In the strain-hardened condition, these alloys tend to age soften at room
temperature. Therefore, they are usually heated at a low temperature to complete the age-softening process and to
provide stable mechanical properties and improved working characteristics.
Y = 2 for quarter-hard cold work condition.
= 4 for half-hard cold work condition.
= 6 for three-quarter cold work condition.
= 8 for full-hard cold work condition.
= 9 for extra-hard cold work condition.
5.2.2 T Tempers
The complete heat-treatment consists of a solution heat-treatment, a quenching process and subsequent
ageing, where the actual hardening occurs. It must be said that, unlike steel, aluminium alloys are definitely
not hard after quenching.
To get the highest strength values it is important to keep the material for sufficient time at the correct solution
heat temperature and to follow the correct quenching procedure. Depending on the alloy this may be carried
out using water or moving air. Quenching with water produces distortion and residual stresses. Alloys
quenchable with air have some technical and economical advantages, but the most of the high strength
alloys need to be water quenched. If the solution heat-treatment or the quenching process is not properly
executed this will result in lower values with respect to mechanical strength and elongation (ductility).
Symbol Description
T4 = Solution heat-treated and then naturally aged
T5 = Cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process and then artificially aged
T6 = Solution heat-treated and then artificially aged
T61, T64 = Solution heat-treated and then artificially aged in underageing conditions in order to improve formability (T64
between T61 and T6)
T66 = Solution heat-treated and then artificially aged mechanical property level higher than T6 achieved through special
control of the process 6000 series alloys
T7 = Solution heat-treated and artificially over-aged
Characteristic values of aluminium fasteners EN 1999-1-1:2007 Table 3.4
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ALUMINIUM DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 43
5.3 Protection at metal-to-metal contacts
Additional protection at metal-to-metal contacts to take precautions against crevice and galvanic effects.
Metal to be joined
to aluminium
Bolt/rivet
material
Rural Industrial urban
Dry, unpolluted Mild Moderate Severe
(M) (B/R) (M) (B/R) (M) (B/R) (M) (B/R) (M) (B/R)
Aluminium
Aluminium
0
0
0
0
0/X
0
X
a
1
Stainless steel 0 0 0 1
Zinc-coated steel 0 (2) (1) (2) 1 (2)
Painted steel

Zinc-coated steel
Aluminium
0
0
0
0
0/X
a
0
X
a
z
1
Stainless steel 0 0 0 1
Zinc-coated steel 0 (2) (2) 1 (2)
Stainless steel
Aluminium
0
0
0
0
0/X
a
0
X
a
z
1
Stainless steel 0 0 0 1
Zinc-coated steel 0 (2) (2) 1 (2)
Treatments applied to the contact areas of structural members
Procedure 0
A treatment is usually unnecessary for causes of corrosion
Procedure 0/X
Treatment depends on structural conditions. Small contact areas and areas which dry quickly may be assembled
without sealing (see procedure X)
Procedure X
Both contact surfaces should be assembled so that no crevices exist where water can penetrate. Both contact
surfaces, including bolt and rivet holes should, before assembly, be cleaned, pre-treated and receive one priming
coat, see prEN 1090-3, or sealing compound, extending beyond the contact area. The surfaces should be brought
together while priming coat is still wet. Where assembling pre-painted or protected components sealing of the
contact surfaces might be unnecessary, dependant on the composition of the paint or protection system employed,
the expected life and the environment.

Treatment applied to bolts and rivets
Procedure 0
No additional treatment is usually necessary.
Procedure 1
Inert washers or jointing compound should be applied between the bolt heads, nuts, washers and connected
materials to seal the joint and to prevent moisture entering the interface between components and fixings. Care
should be employed to ensure that load transfer through the joint is not adversely affected by the washers or
jointing compounds.
Procedure 2
Where the joint is not painted or coated for other reasons, the heads of bolts, nuts and rivets should be protected
with at least one priming coat (see prEN 1090-3;), care being taken to seal all crevices.
Note: Similar coating on aluminium and zinc-coated steel parts around the stainless steel bolts is required only for
immersed structures.

Further treatments
Procedure a
If not painted for other reasons it may be necessary to protect the adjacent metallic parts of the contact area by a
suitable paint coating in cases where dirt may be entrapped or where moisture retained.
Procedure z
Additional protection of zinc-coated structural parts as a whole may be necessary
Characteristic values of aluminium fasteners EN 1999-1-1:2007 Table D.2
ALUMINIUM DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
44 PART 1 EUROCODE

5.4 Cross-sectional properties
5.4.1 Section Classification
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data



b, t
c
y
c
y
o
f
o

Width and thickness of critical part [mm]
Length of reinforcement leg (if any) [mm]
Dist. to n.a. of more heavily compressed edge [mm]
Dist. to n.a. of other edge [mm]
Tensile yield strength of alloy [N/mm2]
Fig. 6.1
Fig. 6.4
Fig. 6.2

Table 3.2
o
250 / f = == =
( (( ( ) )) ) b t = = = =
Yield point constant [-]
Effective slenderness ratio [-]
Table 6.2
6.1.4.3
Internal Unreinforced:
a) uniform compression
= 1.0
b) stress gradient, y
o
/y
c
1.0
( (( ( ) )) )
o c
0.7 + 0.3 y y = == =
c) stress gradient, y
o
/y
c
< 1.0
( (( ( ) )) )
o c
0.8 1 y y ( ( ( ( = = = =


Singly-reinforced:
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
2
1
0.5
1 2.5 c t 1 b t
= = = =
+ + + +

Doubly-reinforced:
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
2
1
0.33
1 4.5 c t 1 b t
= = = =
+ + + +

Classification of cross-section part:
Class Local buckling factor
1 11

c
= 1.0

2 11 < 16
3 16 < 22
4 > 22
( (( ( ) )) )
( (( ( ) )) )
c
2
32 220
= == =






(a) singly-reinforced (b) doubly-reinforced
Fig. 6.2







Fig. 6.4







6.1.4.4

Table 6.2

Table 6.3
Outstand Unreinforced:
a) y
c
is free-end/toe
= 1.0
b) y
c
is fixed-end, y
o
/y
c
1.0
( (( ( ) )) )
o c
0.7 + 0.3 y y = == =
c) y
c
is fixed-end, y
o
/y
c
< 1.0
( (( ( ) )) )
o c
0.8 1 y y ( ( ( ( = = = =


Reinforced:
3
e c
c t t c = = = =
( (( ( ) )) )
2
e
1

1 0.1 c t 1
= == =
+ + + +

Classification of cross-section part:
Class Local buckling factor
1 3

c
= 1.0

2 3 < 4.5
3 4.5 < 6
4 > 6
( (( ( ) )) )
( (( ( ) )) )
c
2
10 24
= == =












(a) Uniform thickness (b) Non-uniform thickness
Reinforced outstand
Fig. 6.2







Fig. 6.4




6.1.4.4

Table 6.2

Table 6.3

eff c
t t = = = = Effective thickness [mm] 6.1.5
Classification of cross-sections EN 1999-1-1:2007 Cl. 6.1.4, 6.1.5
y
o
/y
c

(y
o
/y
c
)


STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ALUMINIUM DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 45

5.4.2 Local buckling
The table below is a guide for minimum thickness for a class 3 cross-section part and prevent local buckling.
peak comp. @ toe peak comp. @ root
O0 O1 O2 O3 O5 I0 I1 I2 I3 I5
= 0.7+0.3(y
o
/y
c
) = 1,0 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,4 1,0 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,4
T5 (t 5) B 1,44 b/7,2 b/9 b/10,3 b/12 b/18 b/26 b/32,5 b/37,1 b/43,3 b/65
T6 (t 15) A 1,34 b/8 b/10 b/11,5 b/13,4 b/20 b/29,4 b/36,7 b/42 b/49 b/73,5
T66 (t > 3) A 1,29 b/7,7 b/9,7 b/11,1 b/12,9 b/19,4 b/28,4 b/35,5 b/40,6 b/47,3 b/71
T5 (t > 3) B 1,51 b/7,5 b/9,4 b/10,8 b/12,6 b/18,8 b/27,1 b/33,9 b/38,8 b/45,2 b/67,8
T6 (t 25) A 1,25 b/7,5 b/9,4 b/10,7 b/12,5 b/18,8 b/27,5 b/34,4 b/39,3 b/45,8 b/68,8
Internal
6060
6063
Outstand



Non-welded aluminium profile Class 3 minimum thickness EN 1999-1-1:2007 Cl. 6.1.4
Local buckling factor for class 4 cross-section part EN 1999-1-1:2007 Cl. 6.1.4
ALUMINIUM DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
46 PART 1 EUROCODE

5.4.3 Effective section properties of thermally separated profiles
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data
A
1
, I
1
a
1,i

A
2
, I
2
a
2,o

E
L


F
c =
L

Area and moment of inertia of inner profile [mm,mm
4
]
Distance of inner profile centroid to inner edge [mm]
Area and moment of inertia of outer profile [mm,mm
4
]
Distance of outer profile centroid to outer edge [mm]
Modulus of elasticity of the profiles [N/mm]
Length of member [mm]
Elasticity constant determined from test [N/mm/mm]







5.4.3
Centroid
distances

( ) ( )
(
+ +

1 1,i 2 2,o 1 2
z = A a A h a A A

1 1,i
a = z a

2 2 ,o
a = h z a
Location of centroid [mm]



Annex
C
Moments
of intertia

2 2
s 1 2 1 1 2 2
I = I +I +A a +A a
2 2
1 1 2 2
s
A a +A a
=
I

( )


2 2
s
c a L
=
E I 1



+
2
2 2
C =



ef s
1
I = I
1 C




Rigid moment of inertia [mm
4
]

Compound part of the rigid moment of inertia [mm
4
]

Effect of elastic connection [-]


Partial solution constant [-]


Effective moment of inertia [mm
4
]
Annex
C
Section
modulus
( ) ( )
+
+
+
e,1
1 1,i 1,i
s 1 2
1
W =
C a a 1 C a
I I I

( ) ( )
+
+
+
e,2
2 2,o 2,o
s 1 2
1
W =
C a a 1 C a
I I I


Effective section modulus for inner profile [mm
3
]


Effective section modulus for inner profile [mm
3
]


Effective properties of thermally broken profiles EN 14024:2004 Annex C
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ALUMINIUM DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 47
5.5 Resistance of aluminium cross-sections
5.5.1 Partial safety factors
Part Example

EN 1999

UK NA
Resistance of member to instability Bending and overall yielding

M1
= 1.1
M1
= 1.1
Resistance of cross-section in tension to fracture Local capacity in net tension

M2
= 1.25
M2
= 1.25
EN 1999-1-1 clause 1,1,2(1) The following design applies to material thickness not less than 0.6mm, steel
bolts not less than 5mm, rivets and tapping screws not less than 4.2mm.
5.5.2 General cross-sections
Mode Values Notes Clause
Shear
A
v
, A
e

Utilization grade:
Ed
Rd
V
1.0
V

General, h
w
/t
w
< 39:
Rd v o M1
V = A 3 f
values of A
v
:
Solid bar
v e
A = 0.8 A
Round tubes
v e
A = 0.6 A

Shear area and effective shear area [mm
2
]
k F
k M
E
U =
R


Design shear resistance for sections containing
shear webs [kN]



6.2.6
(A.1)



Torsional shear
( (( ( ) )) )
Rd t o M1 Ed
T = I c 3 f T


Design torsional shear resistance [kN]

6.2.7
Bending
W
el
W
net
Pure bending:
Ed
Rd
M
1.0
M

{ {{ { } }} }
Rd c ,Rd u,Rd
M = min M ; M
c,Rd el o M1
M = W f
u,Rd net u M2
M = W f
values of :
Class 1 & 2 pl el
= W W
Class 3 & 4 = 1.0
Lateral-torsional buckling:
Ed
b,Rd
M
1.0
M

b,Rd LT cy,Rd
M = M
where:
cr z t
M = EI GI L
LT el , y o cr
= W f M
( (( ( ) )) )
2
LT LT LT 0 ,LT LT
= 0.5 1
( ( ( (
+ + + + + + + +


LT
2 2
LT LT LT
1
= 1.0


+ + + +

values of
LT
&
0,LT
:
Class 1 & 2
LT
= 0.1
0 ,LT
= 0.6
Class 3 & 4
LT
= 0.2
0 ,LT
= 0.4

Elastic modulus of the gross section [mm
3
]
Elastic modulus of the net section allowing for
holes and reduced thickness of
u,haz
[mm
3
]


Design tension resistance [kNm]
General yielding along the member [kNm]
Local failure at a section with holes [kNm]
Shape factor [-]



Design buckling resistance of compression
member without welding

Elastic critical moment (conservative) [kNm]

Slenderness [-]

Initial sway inperfection [-]

Reduction factor for buckling [-]

Imperfection factor [-]
Limit of the horizontal plateau [-]
6.2.5











Table 6.4

6.3.2.1

6.3.2.1

I.1

6.3.2.3

6.3.2.1

6.3.2.1


6.3.2.1

Partial safety factors for ultimate limit states EN 1999-1-1:2007 Table 6.1
Design resistance of aluminium structures EN 1999-1-1:2007
ALUMINIUM DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
48 PART 1 EUROCODE

Mode Values Notes Clause
Tension
A
g

A
net
A
eff

Basis:
Ed
t ,Rd
N
1.0
N

Where:
{ {{ { } }} }
t,Rd o,Rd u,Rd
N = min N ; N
o,Rd g o M1
N = A f
u,Rd net u M2
N = 0.9A f
u,Rd eff u M2
N = A f
Gross section area [mm
2
]
Net section area [mm
2
]
Effective area based on the reduced thickness of

u,haz
[mm
2
]



Design tension resistance [kN]
General yielding along the member [kN]
Local failure at a section with holes [kN]
Local failure at a section with holes [kN]
6.2.3

Compression
A
net
A
eff

Local squashing
Ed
c ,Rd
N
1.0
N

{ {{ { } }} }
c,Rd c ,Rd u,Rd
N = min N ; N
c,Rd eff o M1
N = A f
u,Rd net u M2
N = A f
Flexural buckling,
o
> :
Ed
b,Rd
N
1.0
N

b,Rd eff o M1
N = A f
a) Doubly symmetrical cross-sections:
( (( ( ) )) )
y
cr,y
2
y
EI
N =
k L

;
( (( ( ) )) )
z
cr,z
2
z
EI
N =
k L


eff o
cr
A f
=
N

( (( ( ) )) )
2
o
= 0.5 1
( ( ( (
+ + + + + + + +


2 2
1
= 1.0


+ + + +

values of k:
0.7 0.85 0.85 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.0

values of &
0
:
Class A = 0.2
o
= 0.1
Class B = 0.32
o
= 0.0
Torsional-flexural buckling,
T
o
> :
See I.3& I.4
Net section area [mm
2
]
Effective area based on the reduced thickness of

u,haz
[mm
2
]



Design tension resistance [kN]
General yielding along the member [kN]
Local failure at a section with holes [kN]


Design buckling resistance of compression
member without welding [kN]

Elastic critical force [kN]


Slenderness [-]

Initial sway inperfection [-]

Reduction factor for buckling [-]








Imperfection factor [-]
Limit of the horizontal plateau [-]
See section 5.1 for buckling class


6.2.4







6.3.1.1






I.3


6.3.1.2

6.3.1.2

6.3.1.2


Table 6.8




Table 6.6



Design resistance of aluminium structures EN 1999-1-1:2007
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ALUMINIUM DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 49

Mode Values Notes Clause
Bending and
high shear
General:
Ed
o,V Rd
M
1.0
f M



For V
Ed
> V
Rd
/2:
2
Ed
o,V o
Rd
2V
f = f 1 1
V
( ( ( (
| | | | | | | |

( ( ( ( | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
( ( ( (







Moment resistance reduction factor [-]
6.2.8




(6.38)
Bending and
tension
General:
y,Ed z,Ed Ed
Rd y,Rd z,Rd
M M N
+ 1.0
N M M
+ + + +
Hollow sections:
0.6
1.7 1.7
1.3
y,Ed z,Ed Ed
Rd y,Rd z,Rd
M M N
+ 1.0
N M M
( ( ( (
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
( ( ( (
+ + + + | | | | | | | |
| | | |
| | | | | | | | ( ( ( (
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .


Solid sections:
0.6
1.7 1.7
2.0
y,Ed z,Ed Ed
Rd y,Rd z,Rd
M M N
+ 1.0
N M M
( ( ( (
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
( ( ( (
+ + + + | | | | | | | |
| | | |
| | | | | | | | ( ( ( (
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .




Interaction formula (conservative)










6.2.9.1



(6.43)



(6.43)
Bending and
compression
buckling
General:
Major axis (y-axis) bending:
0.8
y,Ed
Ed
b,y,Rd y,Rd
M
N
+ 1.0
N M
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

Minor axis (z-axis) bending:
0.8 0.8
z,Ed Ed
b,z,Rd z,Rd
M N
+ 1.0
N M
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

Hollow sections:
0.6
1.7 0.8 1.7
y,Ed z,Ed Ed
b,Rd y,Rd z,Rd
M M N
+ 1.0
N M M
( ( ( (
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
( ( ( (
+ + + + | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | | ( ( ( (
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .


Solid sections:
0.6
1.7 1.7
2.0
y,Ed z,Ed Ed
Rd y,Rd z,Rd
M M N
+ 1.0
N M M
( ( ( (
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
( ( ( (
+ + + + | | | | | | | |
| | | |
| | | | | | | | ( ( ( (
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .




Interaction formula (conservative)








6.3.3.1

(6.59)



(6.60)



(6.62)




(6.61)

Lateral-torsional
buckling
General:
0.8 1.0 0.8
y,Ed z,Ed Ed
b,z,Rd b,Rd z,Rd
M M N
+ 1.0
N M M
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+ + + + | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .



Interaction formula (conservative)

6.3.3.2

(6.63)


Combined stresses EN 1999-1-1:2007
ALUMINIUM DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
50 PART 1 EUROCODE

5.6 Cold formed members
5.6.1 Effective widths
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data
p
o
p
b
f
1.052
t Ek


Plate slenderness [-] 5.5.2

Single edge
fold

( )
p
b = b 0.586r 1.293t +
k = 4.0


p
2
p
0.22
=



1.0
=
p
eff
b
b
2

Alloy Approx. b
eff

1050A
O/H111
2
p
112t 2783 t b
H14
2
p
58t 742 t b
3003

O/H111
2
p
42t 795 t b
H14
2
p
23t 242 t b
5005A
O/H111
2
p
42t 795 t b
H14
2
p
24t 253 t b


Buckling factor for uniform comp., = 1.0 [-]

Reduction factor for plate buckling [-]


Effective width [mm]











Buckling factor for stress gradient, 0 [-]

Effective return depth [mm]

Table 5.3;

5.5.2

( )
p
c = c 0.293r 0.646t +
k = 0.5


p
2
p
0.188
=



1.0
=
eff p
c c
Alloy Approx. c
eff

1050A
O/H111
2
p
40t 297 t c
H14
2
p
20t 79 t c
3003

O/H111
2
p
30t 170 t c
H14
2
p
17t 52 t c
5005A
O/H111
2
p
30t 170 t c
H14
2
p
17t 54 t c

EN 1993-1-4
Table 4.2

4.4

Table 4.2
Double
edge fold

( )
p
d = d 0.293r 0.646t +
k = 0.43


p
2
p
0.188
=



1.0
=
eff p
d d



Buckling factor for
uniform compression,
= 1.0 [-]

Effective lip [mm]


EN 1993-1-4
Table 4.2

4.4

Table 4.2


Panel edge stiffeners EN 1999-1-4:2007
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CONCRETE DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 51
I-6 CONCRETE DESIGN
6.1 Properties of concrete
Form Density,

[kN/m]
Unit weight,
[kg/m]
Modulus of
elasticity, E
cm

[N/mm
2
]
Modulus of rigidity,
G = E/[2(1+)]
[N/mm
2
]
Poissons
ratio,
[-]
Coef. of linear
thermal exp.,
[/C]
Normal 24.0 2 450
( (( ( ) )) )
0.3
cm
22 f 10 21 000 0.20* 1010
-6

Lightweight 8.8 19.6 900 2 000
Heavy weight > 19.6 > 2 000
Note: * Uncracked. 0 for cracked.
Strength
Class
Characteristic
cylinder
strength
f
ck
[N/mm]
Characteristic
cube
strength
f
ck,cube
[N/mm]
Mean
cylinder
strength
f
cm
[N/mm]
Mean
tensile
strength
f
ctm
[N/mm]
Characteristic
tensile
strength
f
ctk,0.05
[N/mm]
Characteristic
tensile
strength
f
ctk,0.95
[N/mm]
Mean
modulus of
elasticity
E
cm
[N/mm]
C12/15 12 15 20 1.6 1.1 2.0 27 000
C16/20 16 20 24 1.9 1.3 2.5 29 000
C20/25 20 25 28 2.2 1.5 2.9 30 000
C25/30 25 30 33 2.6 1.8 3.3 31 000
C30/37 30 37 38 2.9 2.0 3.8 33 000
C35/45 35 45 43 3.2 2.2 4.2 34 000
C40/50 40 50 48 3.5 2.5 4.6 35 000
C45/55 45 55 53 3.8 2.7 4.9 36 000
C50/60 50 60 58 4.1 2.9 5.3 37 000
C55/67 55 67 63 4.2 3.0 5.5 38 000
C60/75 60 75 68 4.4 3.1 5.7 39 000
C70/85 70 85 78 4.6 3.2 6.0 41 000
C80/95 80 95 88 4.8 3.4 6.3 42 000
C90/105 90 105 98 5.0 3.5 6.6 44 000

Material constants EN 1992-1-1:2004 Cl. 3.1.3
Concrete Strength Class EN 1992-1-1:2004 Table 3.1
CONCRETE DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
52 PART 1 EUROCODE

6.2 Concrete design
Design Situations Concrete

Steel

Prestressing steel
Persistent and Transient

C
= 1.5
S
= 1.15
S
= 1.15
Accidental

C
= 1.2
S
= 1.0
S
= 1.0

6.3 Anchorage design
Type Action

Notes Clause
Bond strength





ctd ct ctk ,0.05 C
f = f
ct
= 1.0
bd 1 2 ctd
f = 2.25 f

Design tensile strength [N/mm]
Long-term and load application effects [-]
Ultimate bond stress for ribbed bars [N/mm]
Coefficients,
Good bond condition
1
= 1.0
Others & built in slip-form
1
= 0.7
32 mm
2
= 1.0
> 32 mm
2
= 1.32 100

3.1.6
3.1.6
8.4.2

Anchorage
length
b,rqd
bd
F
l =
f





{ {{ { } }} }
d 1
c = min a 2; c; c








Bent bars:
b,eq 1 b,rqd
l = l
Effect of the form of bars,
1
:
c
d
< 3
1
1.0 = == =
c
d
3
1
0.7 = == =
Straight bars:
b,eq 2 b,rqd
l = l
( (( ( ) )) )
2 d
= 1 0.15 c
U bars:
b,eq b,rqd
l = 0.7 l

Basic anchorage length [mm]

Edge distance and spacing


Design anchorage length [mm]





8.4.3





8.4.4










Table 8.2
Design
resistance
Tension
bt,Rd bd b,eq
F = f l
Bearing shear
2
bv,Rd yk s ck c
F = f f

Design bonding tensile resistance [N]


Design bearing shear resistance [N]

8.4.3


8.6
Partial safety factors for ultimate limit states EN 1992-1-1:2004 Table 2.1N
Tension anchorage EN 1992-1-1:2004
16mm : r 4
> 16mm : r 7

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES TIMBER DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 53
I-7 TIMBER DESIGN
7.1 Strength grade
7.1.1 Solid timber
A timber population may be assigned to a strength class if its characteristic values of bending strength and
density equal or exceed the values for that strength class, and its characteristic mean modulus of elasticity in
bending equals or exceeds 95 % of the value for that strength class.
Strength grading of solid timber can be achieved in one of two ways:
Visual method: EN 14081-1.
Machine method: EN 14081-1, EN 14081-2, EN 14081-3 & EN 14081-4.
The characteristic values are defined as the population 5th-percentile values obtained from the results of
tests with a duration of approximately 5 min at the equilibrium moisture content of the test pieces relating to a
temperature of 20C and a relative humidity of 65%.
Strength
class
Density Modulus of elasticity
Parallel, 5%, Perpendicular
Shear
modulus
Bending

Tension

Compression

Shear
[kg/m] [N/mm
2
] [N/mm
2
]

k

mean
E
0,mean
E
0,05
E
90,mean
G
mean
f
mean,k
* f
t,0,k
*

f
t,90,k
f
c,0,k
f
c,90,k
f
v,k

Softwood
(Conifer)
1.2
k
- 0.67E
0,m
E
0,m
/30 E0,m/16 - 0.6f
m,k
0.4 5f
m,k
0.45
0.007
k
-
C14 290 350 7 000 4 700 230 440 14 8 0.4 16 2.0 3.0
C16 310 370 8 000 5 400 270 500 16 10 0.4 17 2.2 3.2
C18 320 380 9 000 6 000 300 560 18 11 0.4 18 2.2 3.4
C20 330 390 9 500 6 400 320 590 20 12 0.4 19 2.3 3.6
C22 340 410 10 000 6 700 330 630 22 13 0.4 20 2.4 3.8
C24 350 420 11 000 7 400 370 690 24 14 0.4 21 2.5 4
C27 370 450 11 500 7 700 380 720 27 16 0.4 22 2.6 4
C30 380 460 12 000 8 000 400 750 30 18 0.4 23 2.7 4
C35 400 480 13 000 8 700 430 810 35 21 0.4 25 2.8 4
C40 420 500 14 000 9 400 470 880 40 24 0.4 26 2.9 4
C45 440 520 15 000 10 000 500 940 45 27 0.4 27 3.1 4
C50 460 550 16 000 10 700 530 1000 50 30 0.4 29 3.2 4
Hardwood
(Deciduous)
1.2
k
- 0.84E
0,m
E
0,m
/15 E
0,m
/16 - 0.6f
m,k
0.6 5f
m,k
0.45
0.015
k
-
D18 475 570 9500 8000 630 590 18 11 0,6 18 7.5 3.4
D24 485 580 10000 8500 670 620 24 14 0,6 21 7.8 4
D30 530 640 11000 9200 730 690 30 18 0,6 23 8.0 4
D35 540 650 12000 10100 800 750 35 21 0,6 25 8.1 4
D40 550 660 13000 10900 860 810 40 24 0,6 26 8.3 4
D50 620 750 14000 11800 930 880 50 30 0,6 29 9.3 4
D60 700 840 17000 14300 1130 1060 60 36 0,6 32 10.5 4.5
D70 900 1080 20000 16800 1330 1250 70 42 0,6 34 13.5 5
Note: * For rectangular solid timber, the reference depth in bending or width (max. dim.) in tension is 150 mm. For
depths in bending or widths in tension less than 150 mm the characteristic values for fm,k and ft,0,k may be increased
by the factor kBhB, given in section 0.

Timber strength class Characteristic values EN 338:2009 Table 1
TIMBER DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
54 PART 1 EUROCODE

7.1.2 Glulam
A glued laminated member can be assigned to one of the strength classes if its characteristic bending
strength and modulus of elasticity, derived from tests in accordance with EN 408 and EN 1193, equal or
exceed the values for that strength class.
It is assumed that bending specimens have a depth h 600 mm and thickness b 150 mm. It is assumed
that tension specimens have a width h 600 mm and thickness b 150 mm. If the cross-section dimensions
are lower than these reference values, the test results shall be multiplied by:
0 ,05 0 ,1
size
b h
k
150 600
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
= == =
| | | | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

Strength
class
Density Modulus of elasticity
Parallel, 5%, Perpendicular
Shear
modulus
Bending

Tension

Compression

Shear
[kg/m] [N/mm
2
] [N/mm
2
]

g,k
E
0,g,mean
E
0,g,0.05
E
90,g,m
G
g,mean
f
m,g,k
* f
t,0,g,k
*

f
t,90,g,k
f
c,0,g,k
f
c,90,g,k
f
v,g,k

Homogene
ous
1.1l,k 1.05E0,l,m 0.85E0,l,m 0.035E0,l,m 0.065E0,l,m
7.0 +
1.15ft,0,l,k
5.0 +
0.8ft,0,l,k
0.2 +
0.015ft,0,l,k
7.2ft,0,l,k
0.45
0.7ft,0,l,k
0.45
0.32ft,0,l,k
0.8

GL 24h 380 11 600 9 400 390 720 24 16.5 0.4 24 2.7 2.7
GL 28h 410 12 600 10 200 420 780 28 19.5 0.45 26.5 3.0 3.2
GL 32h 430 13 700 11 100 460 850 32 22.5 0.5 29 3.3 3.8
GL 36h 450 14 700 11 900 490 910 36 26 0.6 31 3.6 4.3
Combined 1.1l,k 1.05E0,l,m 0.85E0,l,m 0.035E0,l,m 0.065E0,l,m
7.0 +
1.15ft,0,l,k
5.0 +
0.8ft,0,l,k
0.2 +
0.015ft,0,l,k
7.2ft,0,l,k
0.45
0.7ft,0,l,k
0.45
0.32ft,0,l,k
0.8

GL 24c 350 11 600 9 400 320 590 24 14 0.35 21 2.4 2.2
GL 28c 380 12 600 10 200 390 720 28 16.5 0.4 24 2.7 2.7
GL 32c 410 13 700 11 100 420 780 32 19.5 0.45 26.5 3.0 3.2
GL 36c 430 14 700 11 900 460 850 36 22.5 0.5 29 3.3 3.8
Note: * For rectangular glued laminated timber, the reference depth in bending or width in tension is 600 mm. For
depths in bending or widths in tension less than 600 mm the characteristic values for fm,k and ft,0,k may be increased
by the factor kBhB, given in section 0.
7.2 Service class
The service class system is mainly aimed at assigning strength values and for calculating deformations under
defined environmental conditions.
Service
class
Examples
acc. to UK NA Table NA.2
Characterised by moisture content
corresponding to a temperature of 20C
EMC = Maximum equilibrium
moisture content for most
softwoods
1
Warm roofs, intermediate
floors, internal walls
and the relative humidity of the
surrounding air only exceeding 65 % for
few weeks per year
12 %
2
Cold roofs, ground floors,
external walls, external
member protected from
weather
and the relative humidity of the
surrounding air only exceeding 85 % for
few weeks per year
20 %
3
External member fully
exposed
Conditions leading to higher moisture
contents than service class 2
> 20 %

Glulam strength class Characteristic values EN 1194:1999 Tables 1, 2 & A.1
Service classes EN 1995-1-1:2008 Cl. 2.3.1.3
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES TIMBER DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 55
7.3 Design of Solid, Glulam and LVL
7.3.1 Serviceability
Mode Values Notes Clause
Stiffness*
mean
E
mean
G
Modulus of elasticity [N/mm]
Modulus of rigidity [N/mm]
2.3.2.2
Deflection
fin fin,G fin,Q fin,Q
1 i
u = u u u + + + + + + + + + + + +
where:
( (( ( ) )) ) fin,G inst,G def
u = u 1 k + ++ +
( (( ( ) )) ) fin,Q inst,Q 2,1 def
1 1
u = u 1 k + ++ +
( (( ( ) )) ) fin,Q inst,Q 0 ,i 2 ,i def
i i
u = u k + ++ +
Deformation factor, k
def

Material
Service
class
k
def

Solid,
Gluelam
and LVL
1 0.6
2 0.8
3 2.0

Total final deformation [mm]

Final deformation due to permanent action [mm]
Final deformation due to leading variable action [mm]
Final deformation due to accompanying variable action
[mm]
Deformation modification factor



2.2.3






Table 3.2
Note: * The moduli given in clause 2.3.2.2 are used only for structure with different materials (i.e. different creep).

7.3.2 Ultimate limit state
Mode Values Notes Clause
Stiffness
mean
d
M
E
E = == =

;
mean
d
M
G
G = == =


Mean value of modulus of elasticity &
shear modulus
2.4.1
Resistance
k
d mod
M
R
R k = == =


Material safety factor,
M
:
Material
M

Solid timber 1.3
Glued laminated timber 1.25
Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) 1.2
Connections 1.3

Design resistance


Material factor





2.4.3


Table 2.3





Modification factor, k
mod
:
Load-duration class Example
k
mod

Service class
1 & 2 3
Permanent: > 10 yrs self-weight 0.6 0.5
Long term: 0.5-10 yrs storage 0.7 0.55
Medium: 1 wk-6 mos imposed floor 0.8 0.65
Short term: < 1 wk snow, aintenance 0.9 0.7
Instantaneous wind, impact, explosion 1.1 0.9

Table 3.1

Deflection EN 1995-1-1:2008
Timber design EN 1995-1-1:2008
TIMBER DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
56 PART 1 EUROCODE


Mode Values Notes Clause
Tension
t,Rd t ,d
N = A f
Parallel to grain
t ,0 ,k
t ,0 ,d h mod
M
f
f k k

= = = =
Depth factor, k
h
:
Material Criteria k
h

Solid h < 150 mm ( (( ( ) )) )
0.2
150 h 1.3
Glulam h < 600 mm ( (( ( ) )) )
0.1
600 h 1.1
LVL L 3000 mm ( (( ( ) )) )
s 2
3000 l 1.1
Perpendicular to grain
t ,90 ,k
t ,90 ,d mod
M
f
f k

= == =
Design tension resistance [N]

Criteria for design tension stress parallel
to grain[N/mm
2
]

Depth factor:

h = maximum dimension





Criteria for design tension stress parallel
to grain [N/mm
2
]


6.1.2

3.2,
3.3,
3.4





6.1.3
Compression
c,Rd c ,d
N = A f
Parallel to grain
c ,0 ,k
c ,0 ,d mod
M
f
f k

= == =
Perpendicular to grain
c,90,d c,90 c ,90 ,d
f k f = = = =
Load direction factor, k
c,90
:
Support k
c,90
4.0
Intermit
tent
End, a h/3
l h
2.38 1
250 12l
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+ + + +
| | | | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

End, a >h/3 1.0
Internal
l h
2.38 1
250 6l
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+ + + +
| | | | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

Continu
ous &
discrete
support
h 2.5b
ef
l
l
2.38
250 l
| | | | | | | |

| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

h > 2.5b
ef
l

l
; l < h

Design compression resistance [N]

Criteria for design compression stress
parallel to grain[N/mm
2
]


Criteria for design compression stress
parallel to grain [N/mm
2
]


Splitting and comp. deformation factor




6.1.4






6.1.5




Fig. 6.2






Fig. 6.3
b,Rd b,d
N = A f
Compression buckling
z
12
= k L
b

c,0,k z
rel,z
0.05
f
=
E




c ,z
2 2
z z rel,z
1
k
k + k
= == =


( (( ( ) )) )
2
z c rel ,z rel ,z
k 0.5 1 0.3
( ( ( (
= + + = + + = + + = + +


b,d z c ,d
f k f = = = =
values of
c
:
Material
c

Solid timber 0.2
Glulam & LVL 0.1

Design comp. buckling resistance [N]


Slenderness ratio [-]

Relative slenderness ratio [-]




Reduction factor [-]

Compression buckling stress [N/mm]




6.3.2
Timber design EN 1995-1-1:2008
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES TIMBER DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 57

Mode Values Notes Clause
Shear
Rd v ,d
A
V = f
1.5

v ,k
v ,d mod
M
f
f k

= == =
Design shear resistance [N]


Design shear stress [N/mm
2
]


6.1.7
Torsion
Rd tor ,d
J
T =
r

tor ,d shape v ,d
k f
values of
tor
& k
shape
:
Section
tor

k
shape

Circular
tor
3
M
4 D
1.2
Rectangular
tor
2
M h
3 1 0.6
b
h b
| | | | | | | |
+ ++ +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

h
1 0.15 2.0
b
+ + + +

Design torsion resistance [N]

Design torsional shear stress
[N/mm
2
]
6.1.8
Bending
Rd m,d
M = W f
m,k
m,d h mod
M
f
f k k = = = =


values of k
h
:
Material Depth k
h

Solid h < 150 mm ( (( ( ) )) )
0.2
150 h 1.3
Gluelam h < 600 mm ( (( ( ) )) )
0.1
600 h 1.1
LVL h < 300 mm ( (( ( ) )) )
s
300 h 1.2

Design moment resistance [N]

Design bending resistance [N/mm]

Allowance for redistribution of
stresses and the effect of
inhomogeneities in a cross-section


Depth factor



6.1.6


3.2,
3.3,
3.4

Combined
stresses
Bending and tension
y,Ed t ,Ed z,Ed
m
t ,Rd y ,Rd z ,Rd
M F M
+ k 1.0
F M M
+ + + +
y,Ed t ,Ed z,Ed
m
t ,Rd y ,Rd z ,Rd
M F M
k + 1.0
F M M
+ + + +
Bending and compression
2
y,Ed c ,Ed z,Ed
m
c ,Rd y ,Rd z ,Rd
M F M
+ k 1.0
F M M
| | | | | | | |
+ + + + | | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

2
y,Ed c ,Ed z,Ed
m
c ,Rd y ,Rd z ,Rd
M F M
k + 1.0
F M M
| | | | | | | |
+ + + + | | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .


Stress redistribution factor, k
m
:
Section k
m

Rectangular 0.7
Others 1.0

6.1.6
6.2.3



6.2.4
Timber design EN 1995-1-1:2008
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES GLASS DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 59
I-8 GLASS DESIGN
8.1 Properties
8.1.1 Glass
Form Density,

[kN/m]
Unit weight,

[kg/m]
Youngs
modulus, E
[N/mm
2
]
Modulus of rigidity,
G
[N/mm
2
]
Poissons
ratio,
[-]
Thermal
coefficient,
[/C]
All 24.5 2 500 70 000 29 166 0.20 910
-6

8.1.2 Interlayer
Interlayer Thickness [mm]
Shear Modulus [N/mm]
Temp.
Load Duration
3 s 1 m 10 m 1 hr 24 h 1 mo 10 yr
PVB
Polyvinyl
Butyral


xx.1 xx.2 xx.3 xx.4
[mils] 15 30 45 60
[mm] 0.38 0.76 1.14 1.52

30C 0.97 0.75 0.5 0.44 0.28 0.07 0.05
50C 0.44 0.29 0.09 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
SG
Sentryglas


[mils] 35 60 90 120
[mm] 0.89 1.52 2.28 3.05

30C 141 110 65* 59.9 49.7 11.6 5.31
50C 26.4 11.3 4.0* 4.0 2.82 2.18 2.0
60C 8.18 3.64 2.0* 1.7 1.29 1.08 0.97
80C 1.32 0.83 0.4 0.32 0.25 0.21 0.18
Note: *According to DIBt Zulassungnummer: Z-70.3-170, valid until 7 November 2016.
8.2 Glass sizes
Split sizes are delivered in size ranges 3210mm*1000mm to 2550mm.
Jumbo sizes are delivered in sizes 3210mm*4500mm, 5100mm or 6000mm
*The usual width is 3 210 mm. Exceptional production requirements can cause this to be reduced but the
nominal width is never below 3 150 mm
Nominal thickness Tolerances Nominal thickness Tolerances
2, 3, 4, 5, 6 0.2 mm 15 0.5 mm
6, 10, 12 0.3 mm 19, 25 1,0 mm
8.3 Glass holes
EN 12150-1:2000 Design rules for loaded holes:
The distance, a, of the edge of a hole to the glass edge should be not less than 2d.
The distance, b, between the edges of two holes should be not less than 2d.
The distance, c, of the edge of a hole to the cor-ner of the glass should be not less than 6d.

Mechanical properties of glass EN 572-1:2004
Laminated glass interlayer
Tolerance on nominal thickness EN 572-2:2004 Table 1
GLASS DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
60 PART 1 EUROCODE

8.4 Structural design of glass
8.4.1 Allowable stress design (ASD)

max allowable
- Principal stress under 10 minute mean wind velocity.
Form
Four-side supported glass Barrier glass
Wind load only With climatic load combination

Impact load
Vertical
glazing
Overhead

glazing
Vertical glazing
Overhead
glazing
TRAV:2003
cl. 6.4.4
A 1.6m
2
A > 1.6m
2

Float
Annealed 18 12 22.5 20.7 13.8 80
Annealed Laminated

22.5 15 (25) 28.1 25.8 17.25(28.8) 80


Heat strengthened 30 30 37.5 34.5 34.5 120
Toughened with frits 30 30 37.5 34.5 34.5 120
Toughened 50 50 62.5 57.5 57.5 170
Cast
Annealed 10 8 12.5 11.5 9.2 -
Toughened 37 37 46.2 42.5 42.5 -
Note:

Allowable stresses, for checking under combined wind and climatic loading, can be increased by 15% in
general and 25% for float glass for vertical glazing having a surface area of up to 1.6m
2
.

Value in bracket is for the upper ply of the laminated lower pane at the event of upper pane breakage.
8.4.2 Design according to DIN 18008: Limit state design (LRFD)
Mode Values Notes Clause
Design
Ed Rd

{ {{ { } }} }
Ed d G; j k ; j Q;1 k ;1 Q;i 0;1 k ;i
F G Q Q = + + = + + = + + = + +

Design stress, [N/mm
2
]
Resistance
Annealed glass (AN):
mod k
Rd
M
k f


= == =


Thermally toughened glass (HS/TVG, FT/ESG):
k
Rd
M
f
= == =




Design stress resistance, [N/mm
2
]

values of k
mod
&
M
:
Short-term load (wind) k
mod
= 0.7
Medium and long-term load
(dead, snow, climatic load)
k
mod
= 0.4

Design stress resistance under load combination
Float glass
Characteristic
bending tensile
stress,
f
k
[N/mm
2
]
Design stress resistance, f
Rd
[N/mm
2
]
No
short-duration
load
With short-duration load
General
Four-side
supported
vertical glass
M
o
n
l
i
t
h
i
c

Annealed 45 10 17.5 28.64
Heat-strengthened with ceramic frit 45 30 30 40.91
Heat strengthened 70 46.67 46.67 63.64
Toughened with ceramic frit 75 50 50 68.18
Toughened 120 80 80 109.10
L
a
m
i
n
a
t
e
d

Annealed, edge under tension 36 8.8 15.4 -
Annealed 45 11 19.25 31.5
Heat-strengthened with ceramic frit 45 33 33 45
Heat strengthened 70 51.33 51.33 70
Toughened with ceramic frit 75 55 55 75
Toughened 120 88 88 120

Glass design acc. to TRLV TRLV:2006 Table 2
Glass design acc. to DIN 18008 Leichtbau und Glasbau S-5-01/2007
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES GLASS DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 61
8.4.3 Design acc. to prEN 13474
Mode Values Notes Clause
Design
g,d [SLS]
ef,k g,d [ULS]
f
f or
FS

Calculated unfactored stresses
[N/mm]

Resistance
f
g,k
= 45 N/mm
2
0.04
A
k A = == =
Annealed glass (AN):
mod g,k n
g,d
m A
k f
f
k

= == =


;
n
= 1.0
Thermally toughened glass (HS/TVG, FT/ESG):
b,k g,k mod g,k
g,d n
v m A
f f k f
f
k
| | | | | | | |
= + = + = + = +
| | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .



values of k
mod
:
Duration of load Load k
mod

Short wind 0.72
Medium snow, climate 0.36
Permanent Selfweight, altitude 0.27

Generic strength of glass
Size factor

Design stress resistance, [N/mm
2
]
National partial safety factor


Modification factor according to
the duration of the dominant action


6.3.1
6.3.5

6.3.6
Table A.1




Table 6



values of
m
:
Glass

m

v

All
Heat strengthened,
thermally toughened
Chemically
strengthened
ULS SLS ULS SLS ULS SLS
Float and sheet 1.8 1.0 2.3 1.5 2.3 1.5
Enamelled float 1.8 1.0 2.3 1.5 - -
Patterned 2.3 1.3 3.0 2.0 3.0 2.0
Enamelled patterned 2.3 1.3 3.0 2.0 - -
Polished wired 2.3 1.3 - - - -
Patterned wired 3.2 1.8 - - - -
Borosilicate glass 1.8 1.0 2.3 1.5 - -
Glass ceramics 1.8 1.0 - - - -
values of f
b,k
:
Glass
Heat
strengthened
Thermally
toughened
Chemically
strengthened
Float and sheet 70 120 150
Enamelled float 45 75 -
Patterned 55 90 150
Enamelled patterned 45 75 -
Borosilicate glass - 120 -

Table 5














Table 4
Allowable stress for panes up to 4.0 m
2
area (k
A
= 1.057). prEN 13474-2:2000 Table 2
Glass Allowable stress for uniformly distributed load, f
g,d
[N/mm
2
]*
Type Process
Short duration loads
(Wind)
Medium duration
(Snow, climate)
Permanent loads
(Selfweight, altitude)
ULS SLS ULS SLS ULS SLS
Float and
sheet
Annealed (AN) 17.0 30.7 8.5 15.3 6.4 11.5
Heat strengthened (HS) 27.9 47.3 19.4 32.0 17.3 28.2
Thermally toughened (FT) 49.6 80.7 41.1 65.3 39.0 61.5
Chemically strengthened (CS) 62.7 100.7 54.2 85.3 52.0 81.5
Enamelled
Heat strengthened (HS) 17.0 30.7 8.5 15.3 6.4 11.5
Thermally toughened (FT) 30.1 50.7 21.6 35.3 19.4 31.5

Note: * SLS values have to be reduced by appropriate safety factors.
Glass design to Eurocode prEN 13474-1:1999
GLASS DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
62 PART 1 EUROCODE

8.4.4 Design of single glass
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data
a, b
F
d
, F
k
Shorter and longer side of the glass, [mm]
Design and characteristic load, [kN/m
2
]

Monolithic
h
ef,
= h
ef,w
= h
Effective glass thickness, [mm]
Laminated
glass
Shear transfer coefficient, =0:
3
i
i
ef , j
j
h
h
h
= == =




3
3
ef ,w i
i
h h = == =



Effective glass thickness for stress calculation of
individual pane, [mm]

Effective glass thickness for deflection calculation,
[mm]

Table F.1

F.2
Laminated
safety glass

Short duration loads, =1:
h
ef,
= h
ef,w
= (h
i
)
Other loads, =0:
3
i
i
ef , j
j
h
h
h
= == =




3
3
ef ,w i
i
h h = == =


Effective glass thickness with full composite action,
[mm]

Effective glass thickness for stress calculation of
individual pane, [mm]

Effective glass thickness for deflection calculation,
[mm]





Table F.1

F.2
Load combinations**
Ultimate limit state Serviceability limit state Allowable stress criteria
Vertical glazing
1.5W W
ef g ,d(short duration )
f
1. 5(W + 0.7L) (W + 0.7L)
1.5L L
Sloped glazing
1.35D D ef g ,d (permanent )
f
1.35D + 1.5(S + *0.6W
p
) D + (S + *0.6W
p
) ef g ,d (medium duration)
f
1.35D + 1.5(W
p
+ 0.5S) D + (W
p
+ 0.5S)
ef g ,d(short duration )
f
1.35D + 1.5(W
p
+ 0.7L) D + (W
p
+ 0.7L)
1.35D + 1.5(L + *0.6W
p
) D + (L + *0.6W
p
)
D + 1.5W
s
D + W
s

Note: **Load combinations are according to EN 1990. Factors in prEN 13474 are according to the obsolete draft
ENV 1991-1.
*0.5W
p
acc. to UK NA Table NA.A1.1

Design of Single Glass prEN 13474-2:2000 Annex E
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES GLASS DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 63
8.4.5 Design of IGU
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data
h
1
, h
2 Glass thickness, [mm]
Insulating
glass
3
1
1
3 3
1 2
h

h h
= == =
+ ++ +

3
2
2
3 3
1 2
h

h h
= == =
+ ++ +

( (( ( ) )) )
0.25
3 3
1 2
3 3
5 1 2
s h h
a* 28.9
k h h
( ( ( (

( ( ( (
= == =
( ( ( (
+ ++ +


4
1

a
1
a*
= == =
| | | | | | | |
+ ++ +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .


Stiffness of outer pane 1, [-]

Stiffness of inner pane 2, [-]


Characteristic length of the unit, [mm]


Insulating unit factor, [-]



8.3.1




8.3.2


Vertical glazing
Ultimate limit state Serviceability limit state Allowable stress criteria Remarks
Design of outer pane 1:
1.5W
p
(
1
+
2
) W
p
(
1
+
2
) - (p
H
+0.9p
C
)
ef g ,d(short duration )
f

1.5W
s
(
1
+
2
) W
s
(
1
+
2
)

+ (p
H
+0.9p
C
)
1.5[W
p
(
1
+
2
) + 0.7L] [W
p
(
1
+
2
) + 0 .7L] - (p
H
+0.9p
C
)
Live load on outer pane
1.5L L - (p
H
+0.9p
C
)
Design of inner pane 2:
1.5W
p
(1-)
2
W
p,s
(1-)
2
+ (p
H
+0.9p
C
)
ef g ,d(short duration )
f

1.5W
s
(1- )
2
W
p,s
(1- )
2
- (p
H
+0.9p
C
)
1.5[W
s
(1- )
2
+ 0.7L] [W
s
(1- )
2
+0 .7L] - (p
H
+0.9p
C
)
Live load on inner pane
1.5L L - (p
H
+0.9p
C
)
Note: Net wind load is assumed acting on the outer pane only (i.e., including internal pressure).
Sloped glazing
Ultimate limit state Serviceability limit state Allowable stress
Design of outer pane 1:
1.35D
1
(
1
+
2
) +1.35D
2
(1- )
1
D
1
(
1
+
2
) + D
2
(1- )
1
- (p
H
+0.9p
C
) g ,d(permanent )
f
[1.35D
1
+1.5(S+*0.6W
p
)](
1
+
2
)+1.35D
2
(1- )
1
(D
1
+S+*0.6W
p
)(
1
+
2
)+D
2
(1- )
1
- (p
H
+0.9p
C
) g ,d(medium)
f
[1.35D
1
+1.5(W
p
+0.5S)](
1
+
2
)+1.35D
2
(1- )
1
(D
1
+W
p
+0.5S)(
1
+
2
)+D
2
(1- )
1
- (p
H
+0.9p
C
)
g ,d (short)
f
[1.35D
1
+1.5(W
p
+0.7L)](
1
+
2
)+1.35D
2
(1- )
1
(D
1
+W
p
+0.7L)(
1
+
2
)+D
2
(1- )
1
- (p
H
+0.9p
C
)
[1.35D
1
+1.5(L+*0.6W
p
)](
1
+
2
)+1.35D
2
(1- )
1
(D
1
+L+*0.6W
p
)(
1
+
2
)+D
2
(1- )
1
- (p
H
+0.9p
C
)
(D
1
+1.5W
s
)(
1
+
2
)

+ 1.35D
2
(1- )
1
(D
1
+W
s
)(
1
+
2
)

+ D
2
(1- )
1
+ (p
H
+0.9p
C
)
Design of inner pane 2:
1.35D
1
(1- )
2
+ 1.35D
2
(
1
+
2
) D
1
(1- )
2
+ D
2
(
1
+
2
)+ (p
H
+0.9p
C
) g ,d(permanent )
f
[1.35D
1
+1.5(S+*0.6W
p
)] (1- )
2
+1.35D
2
(
1
+
2
) (D
1
+S+*0.6W
p
)(1- )
2
+D
2
(
1
+
2
)- (p
H
+0.9p
C
) g ,d(medium)
f
[1.35D
1
+1.5(W
p
+0.5S)] (1- )
2
+1.35D
2
(
1
+
2
) (D
1
+W
p
+0.5S)(1- )
2
+D
2
(
1
+
2
)- (p
H
+0.9p
C
)
g ,d (short)
f
[1.35D
1
+1.5(W
p
+0.7L)] (1- )
2
+1.35D
2
(
1
+
2
) (D
1
+W
p
+0.7L)(1- )
2
+D
2
(
1
+
2
)- (p
H
+0.9p
C
)
[1.35D
1
+1.5(L+*0.6W
p
)](1- )
2
+1.35D
2
(
1
+
2
) (D
1
+L+*0.6W
p
)(1- )
2
+D
2
(
1
+
2
)- (p
H
+0.9p
C
)
(D
1
+1.5W
s
) (1- )
2
+ 1.35D
2
(
1
+
2
) (D
1
+W
s
)(1- )
2
+ D
2
(
1
+
2
)+ (p
H
+0.9p
C
)

Design of Insulated Glass Unit prEN 13474-2:2000 Annex E
GLASS DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
64 PART 1 EUROCODE

8.5 Glass stress and deflection
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data
a, b
F
d

Shorter and longer side of the glass, [mm]
Design load, [kN/m
2
]

Stress and
deflection
= a/b
4
d
4
ef
F a
p*
E
h
= == =
2
max 1 d
2
ef ,
a
k F
h
= == =


2
ef 2 d
2
ef ,
a
k F
h
= == =


4
d
max 4
3
ef ,w
F a
w k
E
h
= == =
5
d
5
3
ef ,w
F a b
V k
E
h
= == =
Aspect ratio, [-]

Normalised load, [-]

Maximum tensile stress, [N/mm
2
]


Effective glass stress, [N/mm
2
]


Maximum glass deflection, [mm]


Insulating glass change of cavity volume, [mm
3
]
B.1


8.5.1 Coefficients for two-edge supported rectangular glass
k
1
= 0.75
k
2
= 0.699
k
4
= 0.148
8.5.2 Coefficients for three-edge supported rectangular glass

Calculation of glass stress and deflection and cavity volume change prEN 13474-2:2000
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES GLASS DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 65
8.5.3 Coefficients for four-edge supported rectangular glass
The coefficients in the table below are valid for a Poisson number in the range 0.20 to 0.24. For small
deflections (linear theory) the values for p* = 0 apply.



Figure 8.5-1 Calculation of maximum stress, k
1
prEN 13474-2:2000 Table B.1
Figure 8.5-2 Calculation of effective stress, k
2
prEN 13474-2:2000 Table B.2
GLASS DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
66 PART 1 EUROCODE



Figure 8.5-3 Calculation of maximum deflection, k
4
prEN 13474-2:2000 Table B.3
Figure 8.5-4 Calculation of volume change, k
5
prEN 13474-2:2000 Table B.4
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES GLASS DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 67
8.6 Climatic effects
8.6.1 IGU Internal actions
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data
W
c
1
= 0.34 kPa/K
T
c
2
= 0.012 kPa/m
H

Wind load [kN/m
2
]
Thermal unit pressure
Temperature difference from glass production to site [K]
Altitude unit pressure
Altitude difference from glass production to site [m]
Glass production altitudes:
Producer Location Altitude
Sunglass (Guardian) Villafranca, Italy + 20 m
Polypane (Guardian) Temse, Belgium + 23 m
Interpane (AGC) Lauenfrde, GErmany + 98 m
Schllglas Nossen, Germany + 273 m

Isochoric
pressure
0 1 met 2
p c T p c H = + = + = + = +



Condition Site Production

T
[C]


p
met
[kN/m
2
]


H
[m]
Isochore
pressure
p
0

[kN/m
2
]
Temp.
[C]
p
met

[kN/m
2
]
Temp.
[C]
p
met

[kN/m
2
]
Summer Glass absorptance 30% +39 101 +19 103 +20 -2 +600 +16.0
30% < absorptance 50% +48 +29 +19.0
absorptance > 50% +57 +38 +22.0
Internal sunscreen (ventilated) +48 +29 +19.0
Internal sunscreen (non-ventilated) +57 +38 +22.0
Shadow box panel +74 +55 +28.0
Winter Heated building +2 103 +27 99 -25 +4 -300 -16.0
Unheated building -10 -37 -20.0

Condition Site Production

T
[C]


p
met
[kN/m
2
]
Climatic
action
p
C,0

[kN/m
2
]
Altitude action p
H,0
[kN/m
2
]
Temp.
[C]
Met. pressure
[kN/m
2
]
Temp.
[C]
Met. Pressure
[kN/m
2
]
Site altitude
400m
Site altitude
700m
Summer +45 100 +18 103 +27 -3 +12.0 +3.6 +8.4
Winter +3 104 +30 98 -27 +6 -15.0 -3.6 -8.4
Note:
*These recommendations can be used when exact values of internal loads cannot be determined provided that:
1) The IGU is manufactured from clear glass or has an overall absorptance not exceeding 35%;
2) Heat build up by other structure elements or sun protection devices is prevented; and
3) If the altitude of the place of production (final sealing) is unknown.
Insulating glass TRLV:2006
Recommended isochoric pressure TRLV:2006 Table 1 & Annex B1
Recommended isochoric pressure* prEN 13474-1:1999 Table 1 & Table B.1
GLASS DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
68 PART 1 EUROCODE

8.6.2 Thermal stress/shock
Glass can break as a result of excessive thermal stress. Thermally induced stress within a pane of glass
results from a temperature differential between two areas of the pane. For instance, in hot weather, the
centre of the glass warms up faster than the edge, because the edge is within the glazing rebate and shaded
from direct solar radiation. Assuming the area of glass within the frame is insignificant compared with that
exposed to solar radiation, as the centre of the pane expands due to the increase in temperature, the edge
will be forced to expand by a similar amount inducing a tensile stress.
Action Values

Notes
Data
L
E

T

Glass original length [mm]
Glass modulus of elasticity [N/mm
2
]
Glass coefficient of thermal expansion [-]
Temperature difference between the edge and centre of the pane [K]

Thermal
stress
L = L T

T
= ( L/L)E
Expansion of glass [mm]
Induced stress [N/mm
2
]




Thermal induced stress
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES GLASS DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 69
8.7 Structural silicone glazing (SSG)
Sealant Elastic
modulus*

E
0

[N/mm
2
]
Shear
modulus*

G
0

[N/mm
2
]
Allow.
strain


[%]
Short term load Long term load,
c
= 10
Tension,

des


[kN/m
2
]
Shear,

des

[kN/m
2
]
Tension,


[kN/m
2
]
Shear,


[kN/m
2
]
Structural
glazing
Two-
part
Sika SG 500 140 105 14 10.5
DC 993 0.47 10 140 110 14 11.0
One-
part
Sika SG 20 1.05 0.35 12.5 170 128 17 12.8
DC 995 15
Sika SG 18 12.5 170 95 17 9.5
DC 895
Insulating
glass
Two-
part
Sika IG 25 140 101 14 10.1
Sika IG 25H 150 83 15 8.3
DC 3362
One-
part
Sika IG 16
DC 3793
Note: * Modulus tangential to the origin.

Design stress is based on the R
u,5
value with a safety factor of 6. The R
u,5
value is the probability at 75% that
95% of the population will have a breaking strength above this value.
8.7.1 Types of SSG
Type 1: Mechanical transfer of the self weight of the infill to
the sealant-support frame and thence to the structure. The
structural seal transfers all other actions. Devices are used
to reduce danger in the event of a bond failure.
Type II: Mechanical transfer of the self weight of the infill to
the sealant-support frame and thence to the structure. The
structural seal transfers all other actions and no devices are
used to reduce danger in the event of bond failure.
Type III: The structural seal transfers all actions including
the self-weight of the infill to the sealant support frame and
thence to the structure. Devices are used to reduce danger
in the event of a bond failure.
Type IV: The structural seal transfers all actions, including
self-weight of the infill to the sealant support frame and
thence to the structure. No devices are used to reduce danger in the event of bond failure.

EN 13022-1:2006 Retaining devices may be required by national regulations. SSGS types III & IV may be
forbidden by national regulation for laminated glass and laminated safety glass.
ETAG 002-1:2001 Types III and IV SSGS are only applicable for single glass units. For insulating glass units
or laminated glass, each pane of glass must be supported (type I or II).
Properties of structural sealant ETAG 002-1:2001
GLASS DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
70 PART 1 EUROCODE

8.7.2 Structural silicone design (ASD)
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data
b, h

g

W

Glass width and height [m]
Unit weight of glass [kN/m
2
]
Wind load [kN/m
2
]
Allowable strain [%]

Types I, II & III
Supported
system

Structural bite
{ {{ { } }} }
c
des
min b; h W
h
2



6mm

Structural bite, minimum [mm]

A2.3.1
Sealant thickness
2 2
1
S b 4h
2
= + = + = + = +
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
S f f 0 g g 0
T T T T S
( ( ( (
= = = =


values of & T:


[/K]
Condition
T
f,g
T
0
[C]
ETAG SIKA
Alu. 2410
-6
Internal

Exposed
55 - 20

80 - 20


60
Steel 1210
-6

S/S 1610
-6

Glass 910
-6
Clear 55 - 20 30
Opaque 100 - 20 -
S S
2
des
G
e min ; ; 6mm
2



` ` ` `
+ ++ + ) ) ) )





Expansion length [mm]

Differential expansion [mm]


Coefficient of thermal expansion of
frame and glass

Temperature difference





Sealant thickness, minimum [mm]

A2.3.2



4.4.4.1
IGU hermetic seal*
{ {{ { } }} }
des
min b; h W
r
2



6mm
values of :
Glass thickness
d
o
d
i
0.5
d
o
d
i
1.0

Seal height in non-stepped IGU [mm] A2.3.4
Type IV
Unsupported
system

Structural bite
g
c ,min
b
h
2


= == =


6mm

Structural bite, minimum [mm]

A2.4.3
Sealant thickness
2 2
1
S b h
2
= + = + = + = +
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
S f f 0 g g 0
T T T T S
( ( ( (
= = = =


S S
2
des
G
e min ; ; 6mm
2



` ` ` `
+ ++ + ) ) ) )





Expansion length [mm]

Differential expansion [mm]

Sealant thickness, minimum [mm]

A2.4.2



A2.4.1

Relationship
c
e h 3 e A2.3.3
Note: * For small units or non-rectangular shapes climatical effects must be taken into account.

Structural glazing ETAG 002-1:2001
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES GLASS DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 71
8.8 Safety glass TRAV Requirements
8.8.1 Categories [TRAV:2003 cl.6.2.2 & Appendix A]

Category A (VSG or ESG) Category B (VSG only)
Pendulum height = 900mm Pendulum height = 700mm



Category C1 (VSG or ESG) Category C2 (VSG or ESG) Category C3 (VSG or ESG)
Pendulum height = 450mm Pendulum height = 450mm

8.8.2 Balustrade construction (Category B)
Handrail design features
Cl. 5.5.1 - The continuous handrail should be attached to the glass in such a manner
that, should a glass panel fracture, the handrail will remain in position and will not fail if
the design load is applied across the resulting gap, transferring the loads to adjacent
glass panes, end posts or anchorage to building.
- Handrail with structural or non-structural capping integrated with structural U-profile
- Prevent glass-to-metal contact by inserting u-profile non-flammable elastomeric strip
(distance 200 to 300 mm)
- Filler in the gap between the handrail u-profile and glass shall be sealant in
accordance with DIN 18545-2 Group E
- Glass rebate in the u-profile 15 mm
Support design features
- Clamping height 100 mm
- Clamping steel plate 12 mm
- Clamping fastener spacing 300 mm
- Setting block at the bottom of glass
- Bush sleeve around fasteners
- Glass holes (25 to 35 mm) centred to the clamping plate
- Non-compressible elastomer filler along the glass-to-metal contacts
- The clamping may also be rigidly fixed to the supporting structure.
Impact area

GLASS DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
72 PART 1 EUROCODE

8.8.3 Balustrades - Free-standing balustrades or juliet balconies
Deflection of free-standing glass balustrade is limited to L/100 or 15 mm, whichever is smaller in relation to
TRLV:2006. Glass design tensile stress resistances in accordance with DIN 18008.
Barrier loads are combined with half wind loads in accordance with TRAV:2003 cl. 4.2.
Glass
Barrier load ( 10 min. duration load)
Barrier[kN/m] 0.8 1.0 2.0 3.0
Wind [kN/m] 0.8 1.4 2.0 0.8 1.4 2.0 0.8 1.4 2.0 0.8 1.4 2.0
Laminated glass with PVB interlayer (G = 0.5 N/mm @ 30C)*
12.76 mm
6/0.76/6
HS
FT
0.70
0.70
0.65
0.70
0.59
0.69
0.57
0.63
0.52
0.63
0.48
0.63

17.52 mm
8/1.52/8
AN
HS
FT
0.27
0.89
"
0.26
0.89
"
0.25
0.88
"
0.21
0.81
"
0.21
0.81
"
0.20
0.79
0.80

21.52 mm
10/1.52/10
AN
HS
FT
0.44
1.14
"
0.41
1.13
"
0.38
1.13
"
0.34
1.04
"
0.33
1.03
"
0.75
1.03
"
-
0.72
0.77
-
0.67
0.76
-
0.64
0.76

25.52 mm
12/1.52/12
AN
HS
FT
0.66
1.39
"
0.59
1.38
"
0.54
1.37
"
0.52
1.27
"
0.48
1.26
"
0.45
1.25
"
0.24
0.94
"
0.24
0.93
"
0.23
0.93
"
-
0.66
0.79
-
0.63
0.79
-
0.60
0.78
31.52 mm
15/1.52/15
AN
HS
FT
1.08
1.78
"
0.92
1.76
"
0.82
1.74
"
0.86
1.62
"
0.76
1.61
"
0.69
1.60
"
0.39
1.20
"
0.38
1.20
"
0.37
1.19
"
0.25
1.01

0.25
1.01

0.24
1.00

Laminated glass with Sentryglas interlayer (G = 65.0 N/mm @ 30C)*
17.52 mm
8/1.52/8
AN
HS
FT
0.55
1.19
"
0.51
1.18
"
0.48
1.18

0.45
1.11
"
0.43
1.10
"
0.41
1.09
1.10
0.23
0.78
0.88
0.22
0.74
0.88
0.22
0.71
0.88
-
0.54
0.77
-
0.52
0.77
-
0.51
0.76
21.52 mm
10/1.52/10
AN
HS
FT
0.79
1.46
"
0.72
1.45
"
0.67
1.44
"
0.67
1.36
"
0.62
1.35
"
0.58
1.35
"
0.35
1.08

0.34
1.07
1.08
0.34
1.01
1.08
0.23
0.80
0.94
0.22
0.77
0.94
0.22
0.75
0.94
22.28 mm
10/2.28/10
AN
HS
FT
0.84
1.51
"
0.76
1.50
"
0.70
1.49

0.71
1.41
"
0.65
1.40
"
0.61
1.39
"
0.37
1.12

0.36
1.11

0.35
1.07
1.11
0.24
0.85
0.97
0.23
0.82
0.97
0.23
0.80
0.97
25.52 mm
12/1.52/12
AN
HS
FT
1.06
1.73
"
0.95
1.72
"
0.87
1.71
"
0.91
1.61
"
0.83
1.60
"
0.77
1.59
"
0.50
1.28
"
0.48
1.28
"
0.47
1.28

0.33
1.11
1.12
0.33
1.06
1.12
0.32
1.02
1.12
26.28 mm)
12/2.28/12
AN
HS
FT
1.11
1.78
"
0.99
1.77
"
0.90
1.75
"
0.95
1.66
"
0.87
1.65
"
0.80
1.64
"
0.52
1.32
"
0.51
1.32
"
0.49
1.31

0.34
1.15

0.34
1.12
1.15
0.33
1.07
1.15
31.52 mm
15/1.52/15
AN
HS
FT
1.50
2.14
"
1.30
2.12
"
1.18
2.10
"
1.30
1.99
"
1.16
1.93
"
1.07
1.93
"
0.75
1.59
"
0.72
1.58
"
0.69
1.58

0.51
1.39

0.50
1.39

0.49
1.38

31.52 mm
15/2.28/15
AN
HS
FT
1.55
2.18
"
1.35
2.16
"
1.22
2.14
"
1.35
2.03
"
1.20
2.02
"
1.11
2.00
"
0.78
1.62
"
0.75
1.61
"
0.71
1.61

0.53
1.41

0.52
1.41

0.51
1.41

Note: * According to DIBt Zulassungnummer: Z-70.3-170, valid until 7 November 2016. Temperature is limited to
30C since high temperature does not occur at the same time with maximum barrier or wind load.
Maximum cantilever height of barrier [m] TRAV:2003
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES GLASS DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 73
8.9 Glass fins
8.9.1 Glass fin design
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data
H
d
t = t
ef,w

E, G
f
g,k
Glass fin unsupported span [mm]
Glass fin depth [mm]
Glass fin effective thickness [mm]
Modulii of elasticity and rigidity of glass [N/mm]
Glass fin characteristic resistance [N/mm]





Criteria
M
y,d

y ,d
b,Rd
M
1.0
M

Design bending moment [kNm]

Criteria
(5.2)
(5.1)
Buckling
reduction
factor
2
el , y
W t d 6 = = = =
el , y el , y g ,k
M W f = = = =
3
z
I d t 12 = = = =
3 5
T 5
dt t t
I 1 0.63 0.052
3 d d
| | | | | | | |
= + = + = + = +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

( (( ( ) )) )
3 3 2
T
E d t 192H G I = = = =
Elastic section modulus of glass fin [mm]
Bending moment resistance [kNm]
Moment of inertia about strong axis [mm
4
]
Torsional inertia [mm
4
]



(5.4)
(5.6)
(3.5)
(4.2)
Reduction
factor
Wind pressure (-h/2) <<- more critical!
0.37
k 3.59 4.35 = = = =
Wind suction (+h/2)
0.58
k 3.56 18.5 = + = + = + = +
Uniformly loaded beam:
Euler constant [-]

(4.3)
cr z T
k
M E I G I
H
= = = =
LT
el , y cr
M M = == =
LT for 1.1 : <
( (( ( ) )) )
5
LT LT
LT
1 1 0.12 0.05 = + + = + + = + + = + +
LT for 1.1 :
2
LT
LT
0.87 = == =

Critical buckling moment [kNm]

Slenderness [-]


Moment reduction factor due to buckling [-]
(4.1)

(3.1)


(5.5)



(5.5)
Buckling
moment
el , y
b,Rd LT
M
M
1.5
= = = =
Buckling moment design resistance [kNm] (5.1)






Structural Glass Fins Dr. -Ing. Tobias Holberndt Fraunhofer-Informationszentrum Raum und Bau IRB:2006
GLASS DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
74 PART 1 EUROCODE

8.9.2 Glass fin design

Glass fin Fraunhofer-Informationszentrum Raum und Bau IRB:2006
SINGLE GLASS FIN
LAMINATED GLASS FIN
18

16

14

12





8



6





4

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES STONE DESIGN
PART 1 EUROCODE 75
I-9 STONE DESIGN
9.1 Properties
9.1.1 Testing
Test Units Test/calculation method
Water absorption [g/m
2
; %] [EN 1925; 13755]
Uniaxial compressive strength [MPa] [EN 1926]
Density and porosity [kg/m
3
; %] [EN 1936]
Frost resistance - [EN 12371]
Flexural strength under concentrated load [MPa] [EN 12372]
Flexural strength under constant moment [MPa] [EN 13161]
Breaking load at dowel hole [N] [EN 13364]
Static elastic modulus [MPa] [EN 14580]
Linear thermal expansion coefficient [/C] [EN 14581]
9.1.2 Flexural strength test
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data
x
1
, x
2
.., x
i
.., x
n

n

Measured values [N/mm
2
]
Number of measured values [-]
A.2
( )
ln i
i
1
x = ln x
n


( )
2
i ln
ln
ln x x
s =
n 1
(


Logarithmic mean value [N/mm
2
]


Logarithmic standard deviation [N/mm
2
]
Flexural strength
x k s
ln s ln
E = e
(


Fractile factor k
s
*:
n k
s
n k
s

3 3.15 10 2.10
4 2.68 15 1.99
5 2.46 20 1.93
6 2.34 30 1.87
7 2.25 40 1.83
8 2.19 50 1.81
9 2.14 1.64
Lower expected value [N/mm
2
]

Quantile or fractile factor [-]

*Corresponding to 5% fractile for a
confidence level of 75%
Table A.1
9.1.3 Tolerances
Measurement Thickness [mm] Length or width [mm] Tolerance Reference
Thickness 12 < t 30 10 % Table 1
30 < t 80 3 mm
t > 80 5 mm
Length or width t* 50 L or b < 600 1 mm Table 2
L or b 600 1.5 mm
t* > 50 L or b < 600 2 mm
L or b 600 3 mm
Note: * Sawn edge thickness
Tests for stone panels
Statistical evaluation of test result EN 13161:2001 / EN 12372:1999 Annex A
Stone tolerances EN 1469:2004
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CURTAIN WALL TESTING
PART 1 EUROCODE 77
I-10 CURTAIN WALL TESTING
10.1 Testing overview
10.1.1 Curtain walling product standard [EN 13830]
No Test Test/calculation method Requirement/classification
1 Resistance to wind load Pressure [kN/m
2
] [EN 12179] - [EN 13116]
2 Dead load Unit weight [kN/m
2
] [EN 1991-1-1] -
3 Resistance against
impact
Internal,
drop height [mm]
[EN 12600] cl.5 I0 I1 I2 I3 I4 I5
(N/A) (200) (300) (450) (700) (950)
[EN 14019]
4 External,
drop height [mm]
E0 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5
(N/A) (200) (300) (450) (700) (950)
5 Air permeability Test pressure [Pa] [EN 12153] A1 A2 A3 A4 AE
(150) (300) (450) (600) (>600)
[EN 12152]
6 Watertightness Test pressure [Pa] [EN 12155] R4 R5 R6 R7 RE
(150) (300) (450) (600) (>600)
[EN 12154]
7 Airborne sound insulation Rw [dB] [EN ISO 140-3] - [EN ISO 717-1]
8 Thermal transmittance U
CW
[W/m
2
K] [EN 13947] -
9 Fire resistance E [min] [EN 13501-2] E15 E30 E60 E90
10 Integrity and insulation EI [min] EI15 EI30 EI60 EI90
11 Equipotentiality [EN 13830] A -
12 Resistance to horizontal
loads
Force at height
[kN @ m]
[EN 1991-1-1] -
10.1.2 Windows and doors performance tests
Test
Test/calculation method Requirement/classification
Window External pedestrian door Window External pedestrian door
Resistance to wind load EN 12211 EN 12210
Reaction to fire EN 13501-1 - EN 13501-1 -
External fire performance EN 1187 - EN 13501-5 -
Watertightness EN 1027 EN 12208
Impact resistance EN 13049 EN 13049
Resistance to static torsion EN 14609 EN 948 -
Acoustic performance EN ISO 140-3; EN ISO 717-1 -
Thermal transmittance EN ISO 10077-1; EN ISO 12567 -
Air permeability EN 1026 EN 12207
Operating forces EN 12046-1 EN 12046-2 EN 13115 EN 12217
Mechanical strength
EN 14608
EN 947; EN 948;
EN 949; EN 950
EN 13115 EN 1192
Bullet resistance EN 1523 EN 1522
Explosion resistance EN 13124-1; EN 13124-2 EN 13123-1; EN 13123-2
Resistance to repeated
opening and closing
EN 1191 EN 12400
Burglar resistance EN 1628; EN 1629; EN 1630 EN 1627
Curtain wall tests BBSEN 13830:2003 Cl. 5.2.3
Door and window tests EN 14351-1:2005
CURTAIN WALL TESTING STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
78 PART 1 EUROCODE

10.2 Weather performance tests
10.2.1 Weather performance test sequence [EN 13830]
Weather resistance tests are interdependent on each other. The following groups of tests carried out in
sequence shall be considered as a single weather test. All tests shall be carried out strictly in sequence, as
follows
Test Purpose Test method
Requirement/
Classification
a Air permeability for classification EN 12153 EN 12152
b Watertightness under static
pressure
for classification EN 12155 EN 12154
c

Resistance to wind load serviceability EN 12179 EN 13116
d

Air permeability repeat to confirm wind resistance
classification
EN 12153 EN 12152
e Watertightness repeat to confirm wind resistance
classification
EN 12155 EN 12154
f Resistance to wind load increased wind resistance test - safety EN 12179 EN 13116
Note: Where specifically required, an additional supplementary watertightness test under dynamic wind conditions
can be carried out, in accordance with ENV 13050, on completion of test sequence a) to e).
No test in the sequence shall be carried out unless all previous tests have been passed to the acceptance
criteria.

Weather resistance sequence of testing BBSEN 13830:2003 cl. 5.2.3
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CURTAIN WALL TESTING
PART 1 EUROCODE 79
10.2.2 Air permeability [EN 12153:2000]



Air permeability
class
Based on overall area [A] Based on fixed joint length [L]
Maximum test pressure
P
max
[Pa]
Air permeability
Q/A [m
3
/h/m
2
]
Maximum test pressure
P
max
[Pa]
Air permeability
Q/L [m
3
/h/m]
A1 150 1.5 150 0.5
A2 300 1.5 300 0.5
A3

450 1.5 450 0.5
A4

600 1.5 600 0.5
AE > 600 1.5 > 600 0.5
Note: Specimens which leak air > 1.5 m
3
/h/m
2
at pressures < 150 Pa cannot be classified.
Specimens which leak air < 1.5 m
3
/h/m
2
at pressures > 600 Pa are classified E (exceptional).
Air permeability class BBSEN 12152:2002 Tables 1 & 2
CURTAIN WALL TESTING STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
80 PART 1 EUROCODE

10.2.3 Watertightness [EN 12155:2000]


Class Maximum test pressure
P
max
[Pa]
Pressure steps and test duration
P/T [Pascal/minutes]
Water spray rate
[li/min/m
2
]
R4 150 0/15; 50/15; 100/5; 150/5 2
R5 300 (as in R4); 300/5 2
R6

450 (as in R5); 450/5 2
R7

600 (as in R6); 600/5 2
RE xxx > 600 (as in R7); +150 Pa steps for 5 minutes duration 2
Note: Specimens with water leakage at pressures < 150 Pa cannot be classified.
Specimens without water leakage at pressures > 600 Pa are classified E (exceptional).
For class RE xxx the exceptional test pressure should be taken as a minimum of 0.25 of the design wind
pressure (where design wind pressure is > 2400 Pa)
Water tightness BBSEN EN 12154:2000 Tables 1 & 2
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CURTAIN WALL TESTING
PART 1 EUROCODE 81
10.2.4 Resistance to wind load [EN 12179:2000]


Performance
under
Requirements
Design load
- both positive and
negative pressure
The frontal deflection shall not exceed 1/200 of the span of the framing member, measured
between points of structural support, or 15 mm whichever is less
The frontal deflection shall be temporary deformation only, and shall recover after the removal
of load by a minimum of 95% within a time period of 1 h.
Frontal displacement of fixings of framing members at their connections to the building structure
or other structural components shall be limited to less than 1 mm and this shall be allowed as
residual deformation. This limit shall be taken from an assessed neutral position.
The positive difference between the air permeability measured at maximum pressure in the first
and second tests, should not differ by more than 0.3 m
3
/h/m
2
(0.3 m
3
/h/m length of joint).
Increased load
- both positive and
negative pressure

No permanent damage shall occur to framing members, infil panels, opening units, fasteners or
anchors.
Panels, glazing beads and decorative capping pieces shall remain securely held and gaskets
shall not be displaced.
If a pane of glass breaks during the increased load test, then it may be replaced and the test
continued only if, following close examination, the cause of breakage is not attributable to any
fault in the glazing technique or the supporting frame.

Resistance to wind load BBSEN EN 13116:2001 Cl. 4
CURTAIN WALL TESTING STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
82 PART 1 EUROCODE

10.3 Impact resistance tests
10.3.1 Framing - Impact resistance [EN 14019:2004]
Its criteria is targeted to safety in use and integrity of curtain wall in the
event of sudden impact forces on the curtain wall surfaces.
It applies to those areas of curtain walling which face onto areas of
human activity, either internally or externally and takes account of
accidental impacts brought on by people going about their normal daily
activities and impacts brought about by equipment and similar devices
for maintenance, cleaning, repair and similar occasional activities.
The specimen shall be tested in accordance with EN 13049 with one
impact for any single position.
Impact loads normal to the plane of the curtain wall are to be applied in
the following positions:
1. Centre mullion height between fixings (external only).
2. Centre width (external, internal at sill height).
3. Crossing mullion and transoms.
4. Centre of spandrel unit.
Glass products used as or incorporated in infill components shall be assessed in accordance with EN 12600.
Internal impact External impact Requirements
Class Drop height
[mm]
Class Drop height
[mm]
I0 Not applicable E0 Not applicable The curtain wall shall safely absorb the impact loads and shall
retain its integrity in fulfilling the following criteria :
a) no parts shall fall down;
b) any holing shall not occur;
c) any breakage shall not occur;
d) any infilling panel shall remain in its position and come off
only when removed;
e) any permanent deformation of curtain wall component shall
be accepted.
I1 200 E1 200
I2

300 E2

300
I3

450 E3

450
I4 700 E4 700
I5
950
E5
950
10.3.2 Windows - Soft and heavy body impact resistance [EN 13049]
The test applies to all infill of whatever materials including glass. It is intended to assess the interactions
between all components of a window with particular regard to safety in use.
The impactor as specified in EN 12600 shall be mounted on a horizontal or vertical axis, as best befits the
requirements of access to the impact point.
Tests shall be performed separately, one impact on each test specimen. Select, e.g. by means of pre-tests or
calculations, the most dangerous impact point to strike the following:
the centre of the infill or
a corner of the infill or
the centre of the longest edge of the largest area of the infill.
Class Drop height [mm] Requirements
1 200 a) Any opening shall not allow the ellipsoid, as specified in ENV 1630, to pass;

b) The impact shall not detach or dislodge any casement or sash of the test
specimen nor disconnect any hardware or infill retaining components, nor shall any
of its composite parts become dislodged or shattered in a dangerous manner;

c) The mass of any dislodged part shall not exceed 50 g.
2 300
3

450
4

700
5 950

Impact classification BBSEN EN 14019 :2004 Tables 1 & 2
Impact level/drop heights BBSEN EN 13049:2003 Table 1
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CURTAIN WALL TESTING
PART 1 EUROCODE 83
10.3.3 Glass - Pendulum impact test [EN 12600:2002]
The test shall be carried out at each drop height on four
pieces 876mm1938mm of identical structure and the
same nominal thickness.
For asymmetric materials that are intended for
installation where the risk of impact is from both sides,
carry out the test on both sides.
Performance classification:
Classification ()
- highest drop height class at which the product either
did not break or broke in accordance with a) or b) of
clause 4 requirements
- mode of breakage;
- highest drop height class at which the product either
did not break or when broke, broke in accordance with
a) of clause 4 requirements.
When a glass product breaks at a drop height of 190 mm and the breakage is not in accordance with a) of
clause 4 requirements then the value of quoted shall be zero.
Class Drop height
[mm]
Clause 4 Requirements
3 190
Each test piece shall either not break or shall break as defined in one of the following ways:
a) Numerous cracks appear, but no shear or opening is allowed within the test piece
through which a 76 mm diameter sphere can pass when a maximum force of 25 N is
applied (Annex A). Additionally, if particles are detached from the test piece up to 3 min
after impact, they shall, in total, weigh no more than a mass equivalent to 10 000 mm
2
of
the original test piece. The largest single particle shall weigh less than the mass equivalent
to 4 400 mm
2
of the original test piece;
b) Disintegration occurs and the 10 largest crack-free particles* collected within 3 min after
impact and weighed, all together, within 5 min of impact shall weigh no more than the mass
equivalent to 6 500 mm of the original test piece.
2 450
1

1200
Note: *The particles shall be selected only from the portion of the original test piece exposed in the test frame. Only
the exposed area of any particle retained in the test frame shall be taken into account in determining the mass
equivalent.
Type Mode of breakage Typical breakage
A
Numerous cracks appear forming
separate fragments with sharp edges,
some of which are large
- Annealed glass (EN 572-1)
- Heat strengthened soda lime silicate glass (EN 1863-1)
- Chemically strengthened soda lime silicate glass (EN 12337-1)
B
Numerous cracks appear, but the
fragments hold together and do not
separate
- Laminated safety glass (EN ISO 12543-1)
- Wired glass (EN 572-1), polished wired glass (EN 572-3)
- Film backed annealed glass
C

Disintegration occurs, leading to a
large number of small particles that
are relatively harmless
- Thermally toughened soda lime silicate safety glass (EN 12150-1)
Sphere penetration test [EN 12600]
The probe assembly has a 76 1 mm diameter sphere with a force
measuring device. It is pushed horizontally into any opening formed in
the test piece. The weakest point of resistance shall be selected.
The requirement is to achieve a maximum force of 25 N without
penetration by the sphere.
Drop height class BBSEN EN 12600:2002 Table 1, Cl. 4 & 6.2
Mode of breakage BBSEN EN 12600:2002 Cl. 6.3; Annex C
CURTAIN WALL TESTING STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
84 PART 1 EUROCODE

10.4 Glass safety tests
Laminated glass
(PVB)
EN 12600 (Impact safety) EN 356 (Manual Attack)
Class* Drop height [mm] Class Height [mm] Number of throws**
33.1 = 6.38mm
44.1 = 8.38mm
2(B)2 450 -
55.1 = 10.38mm 1(B)1 1200 -
33.2 = 6.76mm P1A 1500 3
44.2 = 8.76mm
55.2 = 10.76mm
66.2 = 12.76mm
88.2 = 16.76mm
P2A 3000 3
44.4 = 9.52mm
66.4 = 13.52mm
P4A 9000 3
44.6 = 10.28mm
66.6 = 14.28mm
P5A 9000 9
Tempered glass Class Drop height [mm]
4, 6 & 8 mm 1(C)2 450
10 & 12 mm 1(C)1 1200
Note: * See section 10.3 for classification to EN 12600 ** Test with steel ball of 4.1 kg.
Resistance to impact (EN 12600) Resistance to manual attack (EN 356)
Class Glass type Drop height [mm] Class Test method Drop height [mm] No. of drops
1A1 Monolithic
annealed
1200 P1A Steel ball
4.11 kg
dropped
to form an
equilateral
triangle
1500 3
2A2 450 P2A 3000 3
3A3 190 P3A 6000 3
1B1 Laminated
annealed
1200 P4A 9000 3
2B2 450 P5A 9000 33
3B3 190 Class Test method No. of hits
1C1 Monolithic
tempered
1200 P6B Hammer
and axe
impacts
30 to 50 hits (axe)
2C2 450 P7B 51 to 70 hits (axe)
3C3 190 P8B 71 hits (axe)
Resistance to bullet attack (EN 1063) Resistance to explosion
Class Firearm type No. of impacts Class Pressure [kPa] Duration [ms]
BR1 Rifle 0.22 LR 3 ER1 50 to 100 20
BR2 Handgun 9mm Luger 3 ER2 100 to 150 20
BR3 Handgun 0.357 Rem. Magnum 3 ER3 150 to 200 20
BR4 Handgun 0.44 Rem. Magnum 3 ER4 200 to 250 20
BR5 Rifle 5.56 45 3
BR6 Rifle 7.62 51 (Long. Torsion 175mm) 3
BR7 Rifle - 7.62 51 (Long. Torsion 254mm) 3
SG1 Shotgun Cal. 12/70 1
SG2 Shotgun Cal. 12/70 3
Sample glass classifications EN 12600 :2002 & EN 356:2000
Safety and burglar resistance EN 12600:2002 & EN 356:2000
Bullet and explosion resistance EN 1063:2000
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CURTAIN WALL TESTING
PART 1 EUROCODE 85
10.5 Fire classification
T, m, t
f
Temperature rise [K], mass loss [%] and duration of sustained flaming [s], respectively
PCS - gross calorific potential [MJ/kg or MJ/m]
FIGRA - fire growth rate index used for classification purposes [W/s]
LFS lateral fire spread [m]
THR - total heat release during the evaluation period [MJ]
Fs Fire spread during the evaluation [mm]
SMOGRA smoke growth rate [m/s]
TSP - total smoke production during the evaluation period [m]
Class
Test
methods
Classification
criteria
Additional classification (EN 13823:2010)
Smoke production
f
Flaming droplets/particles
A1 EN ISO 1182
&
T 30 C; m 50 %; &
t
f
= 0 (i.e. no sustained flaming)
- -
EN ISO 1716 PCS 2.0 MJ/kg
a b c e
; &
PCS 1.4 MJ/m
2

d

- -
A2
EN ISO 1182
a

or
T 50 C; m 50 % &
t
f
20 s
- -
EN ISO 1716
&
PCS 3,0 MJ/kg
a d
&
PCS 4,0 MJ/m
2

b c

- -
EN 13823 FIGRA 120 W/s ;
LFS < edge of specimen &
THR600s 7,5 MJ
s1 =
SMOGRA 30m
2
/s
2
&
TSP600s 50m
2


s2 =
SMOGRA 180m
2
/s
2
&
TSP600s 200m
2


s3 = not s1 or s2
d0 =
No flaming droplets/
particles within 600 s;

d1 =
no flaming droplets/
particles persisting
longer than 10 s within
600 s;

d2
g
= not d0 or d1.


B
EN 13823
&
FIGRA 120 W/s ;
LFS < edge of specimen &
THR600s 7,5 MJ
EN ISO 11925-2
i
:
Exposure = 30 s
Fs 150 mm within 60 s
C
EN 13823
&
FIGRA 250 W/s ;
LFS < edge of specimen &
THR600s 15 MJ
EN ISO 11925-2
i
:
Exposure = 30 s
Fs 150mm within 60 s
D
EN 13823 & FIGRA 750 W/s
EN ISO 11925-2
i
:
Exposure = 30 s
Fs 150 mm within 60 s
E
EN ISO 11925-2
i
:
Exposure = 15 s
Fs 150 mm within 20 s -
h
F
No performance determined
a
For homogeneous products and substantial components of non-homogeneous products.
b
For any external non-substantial component of non-homogeneous products.
c
Alternatively, any external non-substantial component having a PCS 2,0 MJ/m2, provided that the product
satisfies the following criteria of EN 13823: FIGRA 20 W/s, and LFS < edge of specimen, and THR600s 4,0 MJ,
and s1, and d0.
d
For any internal non-substantial component of non-homogeneous products.
e
For the product as a whole.
f
In the last phase of the development of the test procedure, modifications of the smoke measurement system have
been introduced, the effect of which needs further investigation. This may result in a modification of the limit values
and/or parameters for the evaluation of the smoke production.
g
Ignition of the paper in EN ISO 11925-2 results in a d2 classification
h
Pass = no ignition of the paper (no classification); Fail = ignition of the paper (d2 classification).
i
Under conditions of surface flame attack and, if appropriate to the enduse application of the product, edge flame
attack.
Classes of reaction to fire performance EN 13501-1:2007 Table 1
CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
86 PART 1 EUROCODE

I-11 CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS
11.1 Bolted connections
11.1.1 Properties of bolts
Grade Yield strength,
f
yb
[N/mm
2
]
Tensile strength,
f
ub
[N/mm
2
]
Min. clear thread protrusion*
[pitch]
Steel 4.6 240 400 1
4.8 320 400 1
5.6 300 500 1
5.8 400 500 1
6.8 480 600 1
8.8 640 800 3
10.9 900 1000 5
Austhenitic
A1, A2, A4
50 210 500 1
70 450 700 1
80 600 800 1
Note: *DIN 78 requires 2P.
Height of fundamental triangle
3
H = P sin(60) = P
2
0.866254P
Basic minor diameter
1 1
5 5 3
d = D = d H = d P
4 8

d 1.0825P
Basic pitch diameter
2 2
3 3 3
d = D = d H = d P
4 8
d 0.6495P
Nominal stress area (EN ISO 898-1)
( (( ( ) )) )
2
2
2 3
s
d +d
A = 0.7854 d 0.938194P
4 2
| | | | | | | |

| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .


where:
3 1
1
d = d H
6
d 1.2269P
Size

Pitch
P [mm]
Major
diameter
d, D

[mm]
Minor
diameter
d
1
, D
1
[mm]
Pitch
diameter
d
2
, D
2
[mm]
Nominal
stress area
A
s
[mm
2
]

M4 0.70
4.0 3.242 3.545 8.78
M5 0.80
5.0 4.134 4.480 14.18
M6 1.00
6.0 4.917 5.350 20.12
M8 1.25
8.0 6.647 7.188 36.61
M10 1.50
10.0 8.376 9.026 57.99
M12 1.75 12.0 10.106 10.863 84.27
M16 2.00 16.0 13.835 14.701 156.67
M20 2.50
20.0 17.294 18.376 244.79
M24 3.00
24.0 20.752 22.051 352.50
M30 3.50
30.0 26.211 27.727 560.59
M36 4.00
36.0 31.670 33.402 816.72
Characteristic values of fasteners EN 1993-1-8:2005 Table 3.1, EN 1993-1-4:2006 Table 2.2
Metric screw threads EN ISO 724:1993
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS
PART 1 EUROCODE 87

11.1.2 Nominal clearances for fasteners
Nominal clearances give the diameter of the hole when added to the diameter of the bolt.
Nominal bolt or pin diameter, d [mm] M12

M16 M20 M24 M27
Normal round holes
1*
2 2 2 3
Oversized round holes
3
4 4 6 8
Short slotted holes (on the length)
4
6 6 8 10
Long slotted holes (on the length) 1.5 d
Note: *M12 and M14 bolts may also be used in 2 mm clearance holes provided that the design resistance of the
bolt group based on bearing is greater or equal to the design resistance of the bolt group based on bolt shear. In
addition for class 4.8, 5.8, 6.8, 8.8 and 10.9 bolts the design shear resistance Fv,Rd should be taken as 0,85 times
the value given in Table 3.4.
11.1.3 Minimum distances
Minimum Maximum
Steel or
Aluminium
exposed
Aluminium not
exposed to
weather
Normal
hole
Edge
distance
// to load e
1
1.2d
0
4t + 40 max{12t; 150}

to load

e
2
1.2d
0
4t + 40 max{12t; 150}
Spacing // to load p
1
2.2d
0
min{14t; 200} min{21t; 300}
to load

p
2
2.4d
0
min{14t; 200} min{14t; 200}
Slotted
hole
Edge
distance

// to load e
3
1.5d
0


to load

e
4
1.5d
0

Spacing // to load p
3
2.0d
0

to load

p
4
2.0d
0

11.1.4 Washers
Generally, washers are not required for use with non-preloaded round holes. The use of washers can reduce
local damage to metal coatings (washer to be placed under nut or bolt head, whichever is rotated)
Plate washers shall be used for connections with long slotted and oversized holes. They shall not be
thinner than 4 mm
Taper washers shall be used if the surface is at an angle to a plane perpendicular to the bolt axis of more
than 1/20 (d20mm) or 1/30 (d>20mm)
Washers acc to EN 14399-5 (plain) shall only be used under nuts
Washers acc to EN 14399-6 (chamfered) shall be used under heads of preloaded bolts and positioned
with the chamfer towards the bolt head.
For preloaded 8.8 bolts a plain washer (or hardened taper washers) shall be used under the bolt head or
the nut, whichever is to be rotated
For preloaded 10.9 bolts plain washers (or hardened taper washers) shall be used under both the bolt
head and the nut

Nominal clearances [mm] EN 1090-2:2008 Table 11
Minimum distances EN 1993-1-8:2005 Table 3.3, EN 1999-1-1:2007 Table 8.2
CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
88 PART 1 EUROCODE

11.1.5 Bolt design
Design resistance for individual fasteners subjected to shear and/or tension
Mode Values Notes Clause
Data
d
P

A
A
s

f
ub
Nominal diameter of the fastener [mm]
Pitch of thread [mm]
Cross-sectional area of the fastener [mm
2
]
Tensile stress area of the fastener [mm
2
]
Tensile strength of fastener [N/mm
2
]





Shear
a) rivets and shear through shank of bolts:
v,Rd ub
F = 0.6 A f 1.25
b) shear through thread of bolts:
v,Rd v s ub
F = A f 1.25
Reduction factor or packing:
( (( ( ) )) ) p p
= 9d 8d 3t 1.0 + + + +
values of
v
:
0.6 class 4.6, 5.6 & 8.8
0.5
class 4.8, 5.8, 6.8, 10.9,
stainless steel & aluminium
Shear resistance per shear plane [N]







3.6.1 (12)
Bearing
b,Rd b 1 u
F = k d t f 1.25
t
k
t t
2
= = = =
Single lap joints:

b,Rd u
F 1.5 d t f 1.25
Reduction factor slot holes
R
:
1.0 Nominal size hole
0.8
Oversized holes

0.8
0.65
Short slot, axis to load
Long slot, axis to load
[EN 1999-1-1]
0.6 Slotted holes [EN 1993-1-8]
values of
b
:
ub 1
0 u
f e
, or 1.0
3d f

end bolts:
e
1
< 3d
0

ub 1
0 u
f p 1
, or 1.0
3d 4 f

inner bolts:
p
1
< 3d
0

values of k
1
:
2
0
e
2.8 1.7 or 2.5
d

edge bolts:
e
2
< 1.5d
0

2
0
p
1.4 1.7 or 2.5
d

inner bolts:
p
2
< 3d
0


Bearing resistance of connected part [N]
Thickness of the connected part [mm]
For countersunk head screws, the effective
thickness should have a reduction of half the
countersinking.
Limiting bearing resistance for single lap joint with
only one bolt row [N]


Slot holes:
Short: length 1.5d
0

Long: 1.5d
0
< length 2.5d
0
:

values of
b
for slot holes:
( (( ( ) )) )
3
e d 2
3 d 1
+ ++ +
+ ++ +

end bolts:
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
3
e d 2 < 3 d+1 + ++ +
( (( ( ) )) )
3
p d 1
3 d 1 4
+ ++ +

+ ++ +

inner bolts:
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
3
p d < 3 d+1 + ++ +
values of k
1
for slot holes:
4
e d 2
2.8 1.7
d 1
+ ++ +

+ ++ +

edge bolts:
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
4
e d 2 < 1.5 d+1 + ++ +
4
p d
1.4 1.7
d 1
+ ++ +

+ ++ +

inner bolts:
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
4
p d < 3 d+1 + ++ +






3.6.1 (10)
Fig. 3.3





Fig. 3.1

Tension
t,Rd 2 s ub
F = k A f 1.25
values of k
2
:
0.60 rivets
0.63 countersunk steel bolts
0.90 steel bolts
0.50 aluminium bolts
Tension resistance [N]
Punching
p,Rd m p u
F = 0.6 d t f 1.25 Punching shear resistance [N]
Interaction
t,Ed v,Ed
t,Rd v,Rd
F F
1.0
1.4F F
+ + + +
Combined tension & shear

Design resistance of fasteners EN 1993-1-8:2005 Table 3.4 and EN 1999-1-1:2007 Table 8.5
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS
PART 1 EUROCODE 89

11.1.6 Design slip resistance
Action Values Notes Clause
Data
d
n
A
s

f
ub
Nominal diameter of the fastener [mm]
Number of friction surfaces [-]
Tensile stress area of the fastener [mm
2
]
Tensile strength of fastener [N/mm
2
]

Preload
force
p,C s ub
F = 0.7 A f
values of F
p,C
[kN]:
Grade M12 M16 M20 M24 M30 M36
8.8 47 88 137 198 314 458
10.9 59 110 173 247 393 572
Preloading force [kN]
3.9.1 (2)
Slip-
resistance

s,Rd s p,C
F = k n F 1.25
values of k
s
:
1.0 Normal holes
0.85 Oversized holes
0.85 Short slot, axis to load
0.76 Short slot, axis // to load
0.70 Long slot, axis to load
0.63 Long slot, axis // to load
values of slip factor, :
Class of friction surface
0.5
A surfaces blasted with shot or grit with
loose rust removed, not pitted
0.4
B Surfaces blasted with shot or grit:
a) spray-metallized with an alu. or zinc
based product;
b) with alkali-zinc silicate paint with a
thickness of 50 m to 80 m
0.3
C Surfaces cleaned by wire-brushing or
flame cleaning, with loose rust removed
0.2 D Surfaces as rolled
Design slip-resistance [kN]


3.9.1 (1)

Table 3.6







Table 3.7
Combined
tension
and shear
( (( ( ) )) )
s,Rd s p,C t ,Ed
F = k n F 0.8F 1.25
( (( ( ) )) )
s,Rd,ser s p,C t ,Ed ,ser
F = k n F 0.8F 1.0
Design slip-resistance at ultimate [kN]

Design slip-resistance at serviceability [kN]

3.9.2 (1)
11.1.7 Thread pull-out
Action Values Notes Clause
Data
t
f
yB

f
yM

Thickness of screw thread engagement [mm]
Yield strength of bolt [N/mm
2
]
Yield strength of threaded part [N/mm
2
]

Strip-off
diameter
( (( ( ) )) )
M B uB B uB M uM
= f f f + ++ +
2 M
d = d +( 0.5 ) 3P d
values of
B
:
0.5574 4.6
0.5774 8.8, 10.9 & Stainless steel
values of
M
:
0.58 Steel
0.77 Stainless steel
0.44 Aluminium

Material factor for threaded part [-]

Strip-off diameter [mm]

Shear stress factor for screw [-]


Shear stress factor for threaded part [-]


Dose






Schwarz

Dose

Resistance
o,Rd M M uM
F = d t f 1.25
Pull-out resistance of screw [kN]
Dose
Slip resistant bolts using 8.8 or 10.9 EN 1993-1-8:2005 Cl. 3.9.1
Thread stripping resistance (Simplified) Gerhard Dose 2006 & Wilhelm Schwarz 2005
CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
90 PART 1 EUROCODE


11.1.8 Bolt design tables
F
v,Rd
=
v
A
s
f
ub
/1.25 [kN]
Thread Shank
A
s
[mm
2
] A [mm
2
]
f
ub
[N/mm
2
]

v
0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6
M4 8.78 12.57 2.46 4.22 2.81 4.83 1.69 2.41 3.37 4.83 3.51 6.03
M5 14.18 19.63 3.97 6.60 4.54 7.54 2.72 3.77 5.45 7.54 5.67 9.42
M6 20.12 28.27 5.63 9.50 6.44 10.86 3.86 5.43 7.73 10.86 8.05 13.57
M8 36.61 50.27 10.25 16.89 11.72 19.30 7.03 9.65 14.06 19.30 14.64 24.13
M10 57.99 78.54 16.24 26.39 18.56 30.16 11.13 15.08 22.27 30.16 23.20 37.70
M12 84.27 113.1 23.60 38.00 26.97 43.43 16.18 21.72 32.36 43.43 33.71 54.29
M16 156.7 201.1 43.88 67.56 50.14 77.21 30.09 38.60 60.17 77.21 62.68 96.51
M20 244.8 314.2 68.54 105.56 78.34 120.64 47.00 60.32 94.00 120.64 97.92 150.80
M24 352.5 452.4 98.70 152.00 112.80 173.72 67.68 86.86 135.36 173.72 141.00 217.15
M30 560.6 706.9 156.97 237.50 179.39 271.43 107.64 135.72 215.27 271.43 224.24 339.29
Note: Values in black are for shear through threaded part; values in gray are for shear through shank
1000
Stainless steel Steel
10.9 A2-70 A2-80 4.6 8.8
800 400 800 700

F
t,Rd
= k
2
A
s
f
ub
/1.25 [kN]
A
s
[mm
2
]
f
ub
[N/mm
2
]
k
2
0.9 0.63 0.9 0.63 0.9 0.63 0.9 0.63 0.9 0.63
M4 8.78 4.43 3.10 5.06 3.54 2.53 1.77 5.06 3.54 6.32 4.43
M5 14.18 7.15 5.00 8.17 5.72 4.08 2.86 8.17 5.72 10.21 7.15
M6 20.12 10.14 7.10 11.59 8.11 5.79 4.06 11.59 8.11 14.49 10.14
M8 36.61 18.45 12.92 21.09 14.76 10.54 7.38 21.09 14.76 26.36 18.45
M10 57.99 29.23 20.46 33.40 23.38 16.70 11.69 33.40 23.38 41.75 29.23
M12 84.27 42.47 29.73 48.54 33.98 24.27 16.99 48.54 33.98 60.67 42.47
M16 156.7 78.96 55.27 90.24 63.17 45.12 31.58 90.24 63.17 112.80 78.96
M20 244.8 123.37 86.36 141.00 98.70 70.50 49.35 141.00 98.70 176.25 123.37
M24 352.5 177.66 124.36 203.04 142.13 101.52 71.06 203.04 142.13 253.80 177.66
M30 560.6 282.54 197.78 322.90 226.03 161.45 113.01 322.90 226.03 403.62 282.54
Note: Values in black are for hexagonal and socket head bolts; values in gray are for countersunk head bolts
400 800 1000 700 800
Stainless steel Steel
A2-70 A2-80 4.6 8.8 10.9

Shear resistance of bolts EN 1993-1-8:2005 Table 3.4, EN 1999-1-1:2007 Table 8.5
Tension resistance of bolts EN 1993-1-8:2005 Table 3.4, EN 1999-1-1:2007 Table 8.5
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS
PART 1 EUROCODE 91

M
pl,Rd
= d
1
3
/6f
yb
/1.25 [Nm]
d
1
[mm] W
el
[mm
3
] A2-70 A2-80 4.6 8.8 10.9
f
yb
[N/mm
2
] 450.0 600.0 240.0 640.0 900.0
M4 3.24 5.67 2.04 2.72 1.09 2.90 4.08
M5 4.12 11.7 4.20 5.59 2.24 5.97 8.39
M6 4.92 19.8 7.15 9.53 3.81 10.16 14.29
M8 6.65 49.0 17.64 23.53 9.41 25.09 35.29
M10 8.38 98.1 35.31 47.08 18.83 50.22 70.62
M12 10.11 172.2 62.00 82.67 33.07 88.18 124.00
M16 13.84 441.8 159.06 212.08 84.83 226.22 318.12
M20 17.29 861.5 310.12 413.50 165.40 441.07 620.25
M24 20.75 1489.0 536.05 714.73 285.89 762.38 1072.10
M30 26.21 3000.9 1080.32 1440.43 576.17 1536.45 2160.64
Steel fasteners

F
b,Rd
= 1.5df
u
/1.25 [kN/mm] per (t)
6060 6005A 6082 1.4301 1.4401 S235 S275 S355
O/H111 H24/H34 O/H111 H24/H34 T6 T6 T6 - - - - -
f
u
[N/mm
2
] 100 145 190 240 170 260 290 540 530 360 430 510
M4 0.480 0.696 0.912 1.152 0.816 1.248 1.392 2.592 2.544 1.728 2.064 2.448
M5 0.600 0.870 1.140 1.440 1.020 1.560 1.740 3.240 3.180 2.160 2.580 3.060
M6 0.720 1.044 1.368 1.728 1.224 1.872 2.088 3.888 3.816 2.592 3.096 3.672
M8 0.960 1.392 1.824 2.304 1.632 2.496 2.784 5.184 5.088 3.456 4.128 4.896
M10 1.200 1.740 2.280 2.880 2.040 3.120 3.480 6.480 6.360 4.320 5.160 6.120
M12 1.440 2.088 2.736 3.456 2.448 3.744 4.176 7.776 7.632 5.184 6.192 7.344
M16 1.920 2.784 3.648 4.608 3.264 4.992 5.568 10.368 10.176 6.912 8.256 9.792
M20 2.400 3.480 4.560 5.760 4.080 6.240 6.960 12.960 12.720 8.640 10.320 12.240
M24 2.880 4.176 5.472 6.912 4.896 7.488 8.352 15.552 15.264 10.368 12.384 14.688
M30 3.600 5.220 6.840 8.640 6.120 9.360 10.440 19.440 19.080 12.960 15.480 18.360
Aluminium
EN AW-5005 EN AW-5754
Stainless steel Steel

Moment resistance of bolts
Bearing resistance of bolts on single lap joint per mm EN 1993-1-8:2005 Cl. 3.6.1(10)
CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
92 PART 1 EUROCODE


F
p,Rd
= 0.6d
m
f
u
/1.25 [kN/mm] per t
p
d
m
[mm]
6060 6005A 6082 1.4301 1.4401 S235 S275 S355
O/H111 H24/H34 O/H111 H24/H34 T6 T6 T6 - - - - -
f
u
[kN/cm
2
] 10.0 14.5 19.0 24.0 17.0 26.0 29.0 54.0 53.0 36.0 43.0 51.0
M4 7 1.056 1.531 2.006 2.533 1.794 2.744 3.061 5.700 5.595 3.800 4.539 5.383
M5 8 1.206 1.749 2.292 2.895 2.051 3.137 3.498 6.514 6.394 4.343 5.187 6.152
M6 10 1.508 2.187 2.865 3.619 2.564 3.921 4.373 8.143 7.992 5.429 6.484 7.691
M8 13 1.960 2.843 3.725 4.705 3.333 5.097 5.685 10.586 10.390 7.057 8.430 9.998
M10 17 2.564 3.717 4.871 6.152 4.358 6.665 7.434 13.843 13.587 9.229 11.023 13.074
M12 19 2.865 4.154 5.444 6.876 4.871 7.449 8.309 15.472 15.185 10.314 12.320 14.612
M16 24 3.619 5.248 6.876 8.686 6.152 9.410 10.495 19.543 19.181 13.029 15.562 18.457
M20 30 4.524 6.560 8.595 10.857 7.691 11.762 13.119 24.429 23.977 16.286 19.453 23.072
Aluminium
EN AW-5005 EN AW-5754
Stainless steel Steel

F
o,Rd

M

M
d
2
f
uM
/1.25 [kN/mm] per t
M
=
B
f
yB
/(
B
f
yB
+
M
f
yM
)
d
2
[mm] P
f
uB
[N/mm
2
]

B
6060 6005A 1.4301 1.4401 S235 S275 S355
O/H111 H14/H24 O/H111 H24/H34 T6 T6 - - - - -
100 145 190 240 170 250 520 530 360 430 510
0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.77 0.77 0.58 0.58 0.58
0.90 0.86 0.83 0.79 0.84 0.79 0.50 0.50 0.66 0.62 0.58
M4 3.55 0.70 0.399 0.552 0.687 0.821 0.628 0.846 1.794 1.808 1.293 1.430 1.562
M5 4.48 0.80 0.499 0.690 0.859 1.028 0.786 1.060 2.266 2.285 1.627 1.800 1.969
M6 5.35 1.00 0.598 0.828 1.031 1.233 0.943 1.270 2.707 2.728 1.947 2.153 2.354
M8 7.19 1.25 0.798 1.104 1.375 1.646 1.258 1.697 3.636 3.666 2.607 2.886 3.158
M10 9.03 1.50 0.997 1.381 1.720 2.059 1.574 2.123 4.566 4.603 3.266 3.618 3.961
M12 10.86 1.75 1.197 1.657 2.065 2.473 1.889 2.549 5.495 5.540 3.926 4.350 4.764
M16 14.70 2.00 1.596 2.210 2.758 3.307 2.521 3.410 7.436 7.499 5.278 5.857 6.426
M20 18.38 2.50 1.995 2.763 3.447 4.134 3.151 4.263 9.295 9.373 6.597 7.322 8.032
M24 22.05 3.00 2.393 3.315 4.136 4.960 3.781 5.115 11.153 11.248 7.917 8.786 9.638
M30 27.73 3.50 2.992 4.145 5.174 6.208 4.729 6.402 14.024 14.143 9.928 11.026 12.104
f
uM
[N/mm
2
]

M
EN AW-5005 EN AW-5754 Threaded
Temper
A2-70 screw
0.5774
700

Punching-shear resistance EN 1993-1-8:2005 Table 3.4, EN 1999-1-1:2007 Table 8.5
Thread pull-out resistance per (t) Gerhard Dose 2006 & Wilhelm Schwarz 2005
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS
PART 1 EUROCODE 93
11.2 Pin connections
Pin connections with no rotation may be designed as single bolted connections.
Mode Values Notes Clause
Data
d
A
W
el

f
up
f
y
Diameter of pin [mm]
Cross-sectional area of pin [mm
2
]
Elastic section modulus of pin cross-section [mm
3
]
Tensile strength of pin [N/mm
2
]
Lower of the yield strengths of the pin and the
connected part [N/mm
2
]



Shear
v,Rd up
F = 0.6 A f 1.25 Shear resistance per shear plane [N]
Bearing Permanent pin:
b,Rd y
F = 1.5 d t f 1.0
Replaceable pin:
b,Rd,ser y b,Ed,ser
F = 0.6 d t f 1.0 F
Bearing resistance of the connection [N]




Bending
1 2
Ed Ed
t 4e 2t
M = F
8
+ + + + + + + + | | | | | | | |

| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .


Permanent pin:
Rd el yp
M = 1.5 W f 1.0
Replaceable pin:
Rd,ser el yp Ed,ser
M = 0.8 W f 1.0 M
Design bending moment in pin [Nmm]


Bending resistance of
pin [Nmm]


Fig. 3.11
Interaction
2
2
v,Ed
Ed
v,Rd Rd
F
M
1.0
F M
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+ + + + | | | | | | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

Combined shear & bending


Mode Values Notes Clause
Given
thickness
Ed M1 0
y
F 2d
a
2 t f 3

+ + + +


Ed M1 0
y
F d
c
2 t f 3

+ + + +



Table 3.9



Given
geometry
Ed
y
0
1.0F
t 0.7
f
d

2.5




Table 3.9


Design resistance of pin connections EN 1993-1-8:2005 Table 3.10, EN 1999-1-1:2007 Fig. 8.13
Design of pin ended members EN 1993-1-8:2005 Table 3.9, EN 1999-1-1:2007 Fig. 8.12
CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
94 PART 1 EUROCODE

11.3 Tapping screws and rivets
Size

Pitch
P [mm]
Major
diameter
d
min
[mm]
Thread root
diameter
d
1,min
[mm]
Shank
area
A
b
[mm
2
]
Tensile
Stress area
A
s
[mm
2
]
Plastic section
modulus
W
pl
= d
1
3
/6 [mm
3
]
Tightening
tourque
[Nm]
ST 3.5 1.3 3.35 2.51 4.95 4.95 2.64 2.7
ST 3.9 1.3 3.73 2.77 6.03 6.03 3.54 3.4
ST 4.2 1.4 4.04 2.95 6.83 6.83 4.28 4.4
ST 4.8 1.6 4.62 3.43 9.24 9.24 6.73 6.3
ST 5.5 1.8 5.28 3.99 12.50 12.50 10.59 10.0
ST 6.3 1.8 6.03 4.70 17.35 17.35 17.30 13.6
11.3.1 Minimum distances
Steel sheet
(EN 1993-1-3)
Aluminium sheet
(EN 1999-1-4)

Screw Rivets Screw & rivet
Edge
distance
e
1
, // to load 3d

1.5d

2d or 20mm

e
2
, to load

1.5d

1.5d

1.5d or 10mm

Spacing p
1,
// to load 3d

3d

4d or 30mm
p
2,
to load

3d

3d

2d or 20mm
11.3.2 Design resistance of self-tapping screws
Mode EN 1993-1-3 Cl. 8.2 EN 1999-1-4 Cl.8.3 Conditions
Material
-
Self-tapping screws to EN ISO 1479, 1481 or ISO 7049
Self-drilling screws to EN ISO 15480 or 15481
Shear
by test
v,Rd s
F = A 380 1.25 -
Bearing
t
sup
/t < 2.5 & t 0.43d
b,Rd u,min
F = 3.2 t d f 1.25
Otherwise (also for timber support):
b,Rd u,min
F = 2.1 d t f 1.25
t
sup
/t < 2.5 & t 0.36d
3
b,Rd u,min
F = 2.5 d t f 1.25
Otherwise (also for timber support):
b,Rd u,min
F = 1.5d t f 1.25
- f
u,min
260 N/mm
2
;
- d 5.5mm
Net section
n,Rd net u
F = A f 1.25
n,Rd net u
F = A f 1.25 -
Tension
by test
t,Rd s
F = A 560 1.25 -
Pull-through
(punching)
p,Rd w u
F = 0.5 d t f 1.25

Steel or stainless steel washer:
p,Rd E w u
F = 6.1 d 22 t f 1.25
Aluminium washer:
p,Rd E w u
F = 4.88 d 22 t f 1.25
- f
u
260 N/mm
2
;

- t 1.5mm;
- d
w
14 mm; t
w
1 mm
Pull-out
(thread strip)
t
sup
< P:
o,Rd sup u,sup
F = 0.45 d t f 1.25
t
sup
P:
o,Rd sup u,sup
F = 0.65 d t f 1.25
3
o,Rd sup u,sup
F = 0.95 d t f 1.25
- f
u
260 N/mm
2
;

- d = 6.3 mm;

- t
sup
>6 mm; f
u,sup
> 250 N/mm
2

- t
sup
>5 mm; f
u,sup
> 400 N/mm
2


Combined
t,Ed v,Ed
t,Rd v,Rd
F F
1.0
1.4F F
+ + + + &
{ {{ { } }} } { {{ { } }} }
t,Ed v,Ed
b,Rd n,Rd p,Rd o,Rd
F F
1.0
min F , F min F , F
+ + + +



Spaced thread
Minimum distances EN 1993-1-3 :2005 Table 3.3, EN 1999-1-4:2007 Fig. 8.1
Design resistance of self-tapping screws
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS
PART 1 EUROCODE 95


Substructure
thickness
t [mm]
Aluminium Steel
3.0

> 3 4 > 4.0 0.75

> 0.75 1.5 > 1.5 3.0 > 3 5.0 > 5.0 7.0 > 7.0
ST 6.3
3.3
3.5 4.1 3.3 3.5 4.1 4.8 5.5 6.0

11.3.3 Screw design tables
Screw A
s
W
pl
F
v,Rd
= A
s
380/1.25 F
t,Rd
= A
s
560/1.25 M
Rd
= W
pl
450/1.25
[mm
2
] [mm
3
] [kN] [kN] [kNmm]
ST 2.9 3.40 1.50 1.03 1.52 0.54
ST 3.5 4.95 2.64 1.50 2.22 0.95
ST 3.9 6.03 3.54 1.83 2.70 1.27
ST 4.2 6.83 4.28 2.08 3.06 1.54
ST 4.8 9.24 6.73 2.81 4.14 2.42
ST 5.5 12.50 10.59 3.80 5.60 3.81
ST 6.3 17.35 17.30 5.27 7.77 6.23

Bearing resistance of screws per mm EN 1999-1-4:2007 Cl. 8.3.2.1
Screw F
b,Rd
= 1.5df
u
/1.25 per (t) [kN/mm]
6060 6005A 6082 1.4301 1.4401 S235 S355
O/H111 H14 O/H111 H14 O/H111 H14 T6 T6 T6 - - - -
f
u
[N/mm
2
] 65 100 100 145 190 240 170 260 290 540 530 360 510
ST 4.2 0.328 0.504 0.504 0.731 0.958 1.210 0.857 1.310 1.462 2.722 2.671 1.814 2.570
ST 4.8 0.374 0.576 0.576 0.835 1.094 1.382 0.979 1.498 1.670 3.110 3.053 2.074 2.938
ST 5.5 0.429 0.660 0.660 0.957 1.254 1.584 1.122 1.716 1.914 3.564 3.498 2.376 3.366
ST 6.3 0.491 0.756 0.756 1.096 1.436 1.814 1.285 1.966 2.192 4.082 4.007 2.722 3.856
5005 5754 1050


Diameter of predrilled holes [mm] EN 1090-3:2008 Table E.1
Shear, tension and moment resistance of screws EN 1999-1-4:2007 Cl. 8.3
CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
96 PART 1 EUROCODE

11.3.4 Resistance of rivets
Mode EN 1993-1-3 Cl. 8.2 EN 1999-1-4 Cl.8.2 Conditions
Material
-
EN ISO 15973, 15974, 15977, 15978, 15981 &15982
Shear
v,Rd net u
F = A f 1.25
2
v,Rd
F = 38 d 1.25
- f
u,min
260 N/mm
2
;

- 2.6mm d 6.4mm
Bearing
t
sup
/t < 2.5 & t 0.34d
3
b,Rd min u,min
1 u
F = 3.6 d t f 1.25
e 1.2 t f /1.25

Otherwise (also for timber support):
b,Rd u,min
F = 2.1 d t f 1.25
t
sup
/t < 2.5 & t 0.36d
3
b,Rd u,min
F = 2.5 d t f 1.25
Otherwise:
b,Rd u,min
F = 1.5d t f 1.25
Net section
n,Rd net u
F = A f 1.25
n,Rd net u
F = A f 1.25
Tension
by test
2
t,Rd
F = 47 d 1.25
-
Pull-through
(punching)
by test
p,Rd E o
F = 2.35 t f 1.25 - f
u,min
260 N/mm
2
;

- t 1.5mm;
- d
w
9.5mm
Pull-out
(Slip through)
by test Steel sheet:
o,Rd sup y
F = 0.47 d t f 1.25
Aluminium sheet:
o,Rd sup o
F = 0.20 d t f 1.25
- f
y
350 N/mm
2
;

- t
sup
6mm
Combined
t,Ed v,Ed
t,Rd v,Rd
F F
1.0
1.4F F
+ + + + ;
{ {{ { } }} } { {{ { } }} }
t,Ed v,Ed
b,Rd n,Rd p,Rd o,Rd
F F
1.0
min F , F min F , F
+ + + +




Type Material Tension, F
t
[kN] Shear, F
v
[kN]
Sleeve/Mandrel
3.0
3.2
4.0

5.0
4.8
6.0
6.4
3.0
3.2
4.0

5.0
4.8
6.0
6.4
Open ISO 15981 AlMg2.5 / Alu 0.67 1.025 1.42 - 0.535 0.845 1.15 -
- AlMg5 / A2 0.87 1.6 2.5 3.9 0.68 1.2 2.0 3.0
ISO 15983 A2 / A2 (A4 / A4) 2.0 3.8 6.5 8.85 1.6 3.1 5.0 6.5
ISO 15979 Steel / Steel 1.125 1.99 3.255 5.0 0.915 1.55 2.575 4.0

- AlMg5 / A2 0.98 1.6 2.25 - 0.76 1.2 1.7 -
ISO 15984 A2 / A2 2.0 3.8 6.5 - 1.6 3.1 5.0 -
ISO 15980 Steel/Steel 1.125 1.99 3.255 - 0.95 1.55 2.575 -
Closed ISO 15975 Al99.5 / Alu 0.49 0.82 1.12 - 0.45 0.58 0.9 -
- AlMg5 / A2 1.245 2.24 3.1 - 1.07 1.7 2.2 -
ISO 16586 A2 / C1(S/S) 2.5 4.0 5.5 8.7 2.0 3.0 4.5 6.8
ISO 15976 Steel / Steel 2.2 2.5 3.8 - 1.6 2.3 2.9 -
- Al99.5 / Alu 0.49 0.82 1.12 - 0.45 0.58 0.9 -
- AlMg5 / A2 1.245 2.24 3.1 - 1.07 1.7 2.2 -
Design resistance of blind rivets
Breaking load of blind rivets (Goebel) ISO 14589
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS
PART 1 EUROCODE 97






P 15 PS 45 PS 25




Rivet F
b,Rd
= 1.5df
u
/1.25 per (t) [kN/mm]
6060 6005A 6082 1.4301 1.4401 S235 S355
O/H111 H14 O/H111 H14 O/H111 H14 T6 T6 T6 - - - -
f
u
[N/mm
2
] 65 100 100 145 190 240 170 260 290 540 530 360 510
4.0 0.312 0.480 0.480 0.696 0.912 1.152 0.816 1.248 1.392 2.592 2.544 1.728 2.448
4.8 0.374 0.576 0.576 0.835 1.094 1.382 0.979 1.498 1.670 3.110 3.053 2.074 2.938
5.0 0.390 0.600 0.600 0.870 1.140 1.440 1.020 1.560 1.740 3.240 3.180 2.160 3.060
6.0 0.468 0.720 0.720 1.044 1.368 1.728 1.224 1.872 2.088 3.888 3.816 2.592 3.672
6.4 0.499 0.768 0.768 1.114 1.459 1.843 1.306 1.997 2.227 4.147 4.070 2.765 3.917
5005 5754 1050


11.4 Stud welds
Stud Group 1 6, 11.1 Group 8 Group 31 - 37 Group 21, 22
Material Grade
Steel
( 0.35% C)
Galvanised
steel ( 25m)
Austenitic
stainless steel
Pure copper
and lead-free
copper alloys
Aluminium*
(1xxx, 3xxx &
5xxx)
Steel
S235 a b a b -
4.8 a b b b -
Stainless steel
1.4301 a b a b -
A2-50 b b a b -
Copper CuZn37(CW508L) b b b a -
Aluminium
EN AW-1050A - - - - b
EN AW-5754 - - - - a
Note: * Pure aluminium and non-heat treatable alloys.
a: very suitable
b: weldable to a certain extent
-: not suitable for welding
Blind nut bearing resistance per mm EN 1999-1-4:2007 Cl. 8.2.2.1
Suitability of base and stud materials ISO/TR 15608:2000
CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
98 PART 1 EUROCODE

11.5 Weld
11.5.1 Weld Symbols to EN 22553:1994 (ISO 2553:1992)

1 weld size (a) throat (z) nominal
2 weld symbol (fillet)
3 supplementary symbol (concave face)
4 number of welds length of each weld
5 symbol for staggered intermittent weld
6 weld spacing
7 welding process reference
8 weld class


(Arrow side)
(Other side)
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS
PART 1 EUROCODE 99


Weld examples hollow sections
CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
100 PART 1 EUROCODE





Weld examples full penetration butt welds EN 1011-11998
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS
PART 1 EUROCODE 101
11.5.2 Design resistance of welds for steel design
Intermittent fillet welds should have longitudinal clear spacing not exceeding the lesser of :
12thickness of thinner parent material or 200mm if it is in compression or shear.
16thickness of thinner parent material or 200mm if it is in tension.
Type Action

Notes Clause
Directional
method





Interaction
f
u


, , , ,

, , , ,



( (( ( ) )) )
2 2 2
/ /
+3 +

2 2 u
/ /
w
f
2 +3
1.25

Nominal ultimate tensile strength of the weaker part joined
Factored normal stress in-plane , perpendicular and
parallel to the throat,
respectively [N/mm
2
]

4.5.3.2


Fig. 4.5
Simplified
method
s
l
a = 0.707z
u
w,Rd
w
f a
F = l
1.25
3


values of
w
:
class
w

S235 0.8
S275 0.85
S355 0.9
S420 & S460 1.0

Size of fillet weld [mm]
Effective length of fillet weld, l
min
= 6a or 30mm, [mm]
Throat thickness of fillet weld, a
min
= 3mm, [mm]

Design weld resistance [N]

Correlation factor [-]



4.5.1
Fig. 4.3

4.5.3.3

Table 4.1



11.5.3 Design resistance of welds for aluminium design
Clause 1.1.2 (1): Welded components shall not have thickness less than 1.5mm.
Type Action

Notes Clause
Directional
method



Interaction
f
w




( (( ( ) )) )
2 2 2
/ /
+3 +


2 2 w
/ /
f
2 +3
1.25

values of
Mw
:
EN 1999-1-1
Mw
= 1.35
UK NA
Mw
= 1.35

Characteristic strength of weld metal, [N/mm
2
]
Factored normal stress in the plane of the throat, [N/mm
2
]
Factored shear stress perpendicular to the throat, [N/mm
2
]
Factored normal
stress parallel to the
throat [N/mm
2
]
Table 8.8
8.6.3.3


Fig. 8.18
Simplified
method
s
l
a = 0.707z
a) Longitudinal load
w
w,Rd
Mw
f a
F = l
0.7



b)Transverse load
w
w,Rd
Mw
f a
F = l
0.85




Size of fillet weld [mm]
Effective length of fillet weld, l
min
= 6a or 30mm, [mm]
Throat thickness of fillet weld, a
min
= 3mm, [mm]
Design weld resistance [N]

a) Longitudinal load b) Transverse load




Fig. 8.19 &
8.20



Design resistance of steel welds EN 1993-1-1:2005 4.5
Design resistance of aluminium fillet welds EN 1999-1-1:2007 8.6.3.3
CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
102 PART 1 EUROCODE


Type Action

Notes Clause
Directional
method


f
u

u,haz

haz

haz
u u,haz 2 2
haz haz
Mw
f
+3





Characteristic strength of welded parts [N/mm
2
]
Reduction factor for HAZ [-]
Design normal stress perpendicular to weld axis [N/mm
2
]
Design shear stress parallel to weld axis [N/mm
2
]
Table 8.8
8.6.3.3
Fillet weld
check F & T

F = HAZ in the fusion boundary
T = HAZ in toe of the weld, full
cross-section



Fig. 8.21
Butt weld
check T


Fig. 8.21

Design resistance of fillet and butt welds in HAZ EN 1999-1-1:2007 8.6.3.4
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS
PART 1 EUROCODE 103
11.6 Plate bracket resistance
t b A I N
Rd
V
Rd
M
Rd
N
Rd
V
Rd
M
Rd
N
Rd
V
Rd
M
Rd
N
Rd
V
Rd
M
Rd
[mm] [mm] [mm
2
] [mm
4
] [kN] [kN] [kNmm] [kN] [kN] [kNmm] [kN] [kN] [kNmm] [kN] [kN] [kNmm]
10 200 2000 1667 363.6 168.0 909.1 472.7 218.3 1181.8 470.0 217.1 1175.0 670.0 309.5 1675.0
10 225 2250 1875 409.1 189.0 1022.7 531.8 245.6 1329.5 528.8 244.2 1321.9 753.8 348.1 1884.4
12 200 2400 2400 436.4 201.5 1309.1 567.3 262.0 1701.8 564.0 260.5 1692.0 804.0 371.4 2412.0
12 225 2700 2700 490.9 226.7 1472.7 638.2 294.8 1914.5 634.5 293.1 1903.5 904.5 417.8 2713.5
12 250 3000 3000 545.5 251.9 1636.4 709.1 327.5 2127.3 705.0 325.6 2115.0 1005.0 464.2 3015.0
12 275 3300 3300 600.0 277.1 1800.0 780.0 360.3 2340.0 775.5 358.2 2326.5 1105.5 510.6 3316.5
15 225 3375 4219 613.6 283.4 2301.1 797.7 368.5 2991.5 793.1 366.3 2974.2 1130.6 522.2 4239.8
15 250 3750 4688 681.8 314.9 2556.8 886.4 409.4 3323.9 881.3 407.0 3304.7 1256.3 580.2 4710.9
15 275 4125 5156 750.0 346.4 2812.5 975.0 450.3 3656.3 969.4 447.7 3635.2 1381.9 638.3 5182.0
15 300 4500 5625 818.2 377.9 3068.2 1063.6 491.3 3988.6 1057.5 488.4 3965.6 1507.5 696.3 5653.1
15 325 4875 6094 886.4 409.4 3323.9 1152.3 532.2 4321.0 1145.6 529.1 4296.1 1633.1 754.3 6124.2
15 350 5250 6563 954.5 440.9 3579.5 1240.9 573.2 4653.4 1233.8 569.8 4626.6 1758.8 812.3 6595.3
EN AW-6005A T6 EN AW-6082 T6 S235 S355 Plate Properties

Plate bracket resistance EN 1993-1:2005; EN 1999-1:2007
CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
104 PART 1 EUROCODE

11.7 Anchors in Concrete
Type Action

Notes Clause
Steel Tension
Ms
yk uk
1.2
1.4
f f
= = = =

Rd ,s s uk Ms
N A f = == =
Shear

Ms
Condition
yk uk
1.0
1.25
f f


f
uk
800 N/mm
and
f
yk
/f
uk
0.8
1.5
f
uk
> 800 N/mm
or
f
yk
/f
uk
> 0.8
a) No lever arm, mortar thickness d/2:
Rd ,s s uk Ms
V 0.5A f = == =
b) With lever-arm:
3 1
l a e = + = + = + = +
( (( ( ) )) )
Rk ,s el uk Sd Rd ,s
M 1.2W f 1 N / N = = = =
Rd ,s M Rk ,s
V M l = == =
Fixture restraint,
M
:

M
Fixture Rotation
1.0 Free
2.0 Fixed


Material partial safety factor [-]
Design tensile resistance of metal anchor [kN]

Material partial safety factor [-]


Design tensile resistance of metal anchor [kN]

Lever arm [mm]
Bending moment resistance [Nm]
Design shear resistance of metal anchor [kN]


3.2.2.2
5.2.2.2

3.2.2.2


5.2.3.2
4.2.2.4
5.2.3.2


Concrete:
Tension

Mc
2.1 = == =
Pull-out failure (concentric load):
0 1.5
Rk ,c ck ,cube ef
N 7.2 f h = == =
c , N
A
0 2
c ,N ef
A 9h = == =
s ,N ef
0.7 0.2 c h 1.0 = + = + = + = +
re ,N ef
0.5 h 200 1.0 = + = + = + = +
c ,N 0
Rd ,c s ,N re ,N Rk ,c Mc
0
c ,N
A
N N
A
= = = =

Splitting failure:
h
ef
h/2 to avoid splitting failure
Material partial safety factor (low installation safety)

Char. res. of single anchor in cracked concrete [kN]
Actual total area of concrete cone 1:1.5 slope [mm]
Concrete cone area for single anchor [mm]
Edge distance factor [-]
Shell spalling factor [-]

Design pull-out resistance (cracked concrete) [kN]


3.2.2.1

5.2.2.4







5.2.2.6
Concrete:
Shear
Mc
1.5 = == =
Pry-out failure:
Rd ,cp Rk ,c Mc
V 2 N = = = =
Pry-out failure (concentric load):
( (( ( ) )) )
0.5
f 1
0.1 l c = == = ;
( (( ( ) )) )
0.2
1
0.1 d c = == =
0 1.5
Rd ,c ef ck ,cube 1
V 1.7d h f c

= == =
0 2
c ,V 1
A 4.5c = == =
c ,V
A
s ,V 2 1
0.7 0.3c c 1.0 = + = + = + = +
h,V 1
1.5c h 1.0 = = = =
c ,V 0
Rd ,c s ,V h,V Rk ,c Mc
0
c ,V
A
V V
A
= = = =

Material partial safety factor

Pry-out failure for h
ef
60mm. [kN]

l
f
is the effective anchor depth for shear [-]
Char. res. of single anchor in cracked concrete [kN]
Concrete cone area for single anchor [mm]
Actual total area of concrete cone 1:1.5 slope [mm]
Edge distance factor [-]
Member thickness factor [-]

Design pry-out resistance (cracked concrete) [kN]
3.2.2.1

5.2.3.3

2.4
5.2.3.4



Concrete:
Combined
(N
Sd
/N
Rd,s
)
2
+ (V
Sd
/V
Rd,s
)
2
1.0
N
Sd
/N
Rd,c
)
1.5
+ (V
Sd
/V
Rd,c
)
1.5
1.0
Steel failure interaction
Concrete failure interaction
5.2.4
Design resistance of metal anchors (Method A) ETAG 001:2010 Annex C
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES BUILDING PHYSICS
PART 1 EUROCODE 105
I-12 BUILDING PHYSICS
12.1 Thermal Performance
12.1.1 Thermal transmittance (U-value)
EN ISO 10077-2 Software validation
CWCT - Guidance
EN ISO 12631 Calculation
EN ISO 10211-1 Linear and/or point thermal transmittance
Part L2A cl. 4.12 & 5.1 to 5.8 developing construction details
12.1.2 Condensation
EN ISO 13788 Boundary conditions
CWCT Guidance
EN 15927 External conditions
12.1.3 Solar and light performance
EN 410 Method
Part L G-values
ASTM C 1649 & C1650 Colour in reflection and transmission
CIE technical report 130/1998 Measurements of reflectance and transmission
12.2 Acoustic Performance
12.2.1 Airborne sound insulation
EN ISO 10140 Min. sound reduction indices
12.2.2 Vertical flanking sound
EN ISO 10848 Laboratory measurement
EN ISO 717-1 Weighted average
12.2.3 Horizontal flanking sound
EN ISO 10848 Laboratory measurement
EN ISO 717-1 Weighted average
12.2.4 Noise control
EN 61672-1 Sound level meters
12.3 Fire Performance
Part B Materials
12.3.1 Fire and smoke stopping
Part B Materials
BS 476-20,22 Fire stop
EN 12101-1 Fire stop
12.3.2 Fire rating






STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS
FAADE NOTES


PART II
BRITISH STANDARDS
3
RD
EDITION 2014
LARRY M. CASTAEDA
















STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
BRITISH STANDARDS 3
Table of Contents
II-1 MATERIAL PROPERTIES 5
1.1 Materials for patent glazing construction 5
1.2 Corrosion 6
1.3 Corrosion protection 7
II-2 LOADS 9
2.1 Definitions 9
2.2 Dead load (D) 9
2.3 Imposed load (L) 10
2.4 Snow load (S) 12
2.5 Wind load (W) 14
2.6 Thermal load (T) 24
2.7 Seismic load (E) 25
2.8 Blast load, BL 25
2.9 Load combinations 26
II-3 SERVICEABILITY, MOVEMENT & TOLERANCE 27
3.1 Deflection 27
3.2 Common structural movements 28
3.1 Cutain wall accommodation of structural movements 29
3.2 Structural tolerance 32
II-4 STEEL DESIGN 39
4.1 Properties of steel 39
4.2 Steel mullion moment of inertia 40
4.3 Steel transom moment of inertia 41
II-5 ALUMINIUM DESIGN 43
5.1 Properties of aluminium structures 43
5.2 Minimum profile thickness to prevent local buckling 44
5.3 Aluminium mullion moment of inertia 46
5.4 Aluminium transom moment of inertia 47
II-6 GLASS DESIGN 49
6.1 Properties of glass 49
6.2 Structural sealant glazing (SSG) 49
6.3 Overhead glazing 49
6.4 Safety glass 49
6.5 Balustrades 50
6.6 Glass fins 52
II-7 STONE DESIGN 55
7.1 Properties 55
7.2 Design of thin stone for cladding 56
MATERIAL PROPERTIES STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

4 BRITISH STANDARDS
II-8 CURTAIN WALL, WINDOWS & DOORS 57
8.1 CWCT test methods for building envelopes 57
8.2 Impact Resistance of Wall Components [BS 8200] 58
8.3 Windows and Vents 59
II-9 RAINSCREEN CLADDING 61
9.1 Pressure-equalised system 61
9.2 Fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) 61
9.3 Subframes 61
II-10 ROOFS 62
10.1 Minimum Slope of Roofs and their Gutters [BS 6229 Cl. 7.3] 62
II-11 CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS 63
11.1 Fastening bolts and screws 63
11.2 Weld 66
11.3 Guide to welding 68
11.4 Bracket 70

Structural Engineers Faade Notes MATERIAL PROPERTIES
BRITISH STANDARDS 5
II-1 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
1.1 Materials for patent glazing construction
Patent glazing are self-draining and ventilated system of dry glazing that does not rely entirely for its water-
tightness upon external glazing seals.
Materials for patent glazing construction BS 5516-1:2004
Material Use Material Grade & treatment Finish
Aluminium Architectural
members
(e.g. mullion,
transom, fin, beam,
capping, etc.)

Extrusion,
bars & rods
- 6060 T6 to BS EN 755-2:1997
- 6063 T6 to BS EN 755-2:1997
- Anodised to BS 3987
- Liquid organic coated to
BS 4842
- Polyester powder
coating to BS 6496
Structural members
(e.g. Backet, sword,
crimping angle,
glass support, etc.)
Extrusion,
bars & rods
- 6005A, 6061, 6082 or 7020 T6 to BS
EN 755-2:1997
Flashing Site formed
sheets
- 1050 O/H111 to BS EN 485-2:2007
Preformed
sheets
- 1200, 3103, 5005 or 5251 to BS EN
485-2:2007
Fasteners Bolt or screw - 5056A H4 to BS 1473
Steel Structural members Hot rolled
sections
- S355 to BS EN 10025-2:2004

- Hot dipped galvanized
to BS EN ISO 1461
- Zinc sprayed to BS EN
22063
- Organic coated to BS
6497
Hot rolled
hollow
sections
- S355 orS460 to BS EN 10210:2006
Plates & Flats Hot rolled - S235or S355 to BS EN 10025-2:2004
- S460 to BS EN 10137-1:1996
Sheets for cold
bending
Hot rolled - DD11 to BS EN 10111:2008 ???
Cold formed - D01 to BS EN 10130:2006 ???
Fasteners Bolt or screw - Gr. 4.6, 8.8 or 10.9 to BS 4190
- HSFG to BS 4395
- Electroplating with zinc
or cadmium to BS 3382
- Chromate passivated
and sealed to BS 6338
Stainless
steel

Fasteners Bolt or screw - A2 or A4 to BS EN 3506


MATERIAL PROPERTIES STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

6 BRITISH STANDARDS
1.2 Corrosion
1.2.1 Bimetallic/glavanic corrosion
When two different metals are in electrical contact and are also bridged by water containing an electrolyte
(e.g. water containing salt, acid, combustion product), current flows through the solution from the anodic or
baser metal to the cathodic or nobler metal. As a result, the nobler metal tends to be protected, but the base
metal may suffer great corrosion.
Bimetallic corrosion CWCT TN 24:2000
Electro negative, anodic, baser, active



Electro positive, cathodic, nobler, passive

Zinc

Aluminium
Steel
Cast irons
Cast irons (austenitic)
Stainless steel

Corrosion of



Zinc Aluminium Steels
(carbon and low
alloy)
Cast irons Cast irons
(austenitic or
nickel cast iron)
Stainless steel*
coupled
with
R
u
r
a
l

I
n
d
u
s
t
r
i
a
l
/
u
r
b
a
n

M
a
r
i
n
e

R
u
r
a
l

I
n
d
u
s
t
r
i
a
l
/
u
r
b
a
n

M
a
r
i
n
e

R
u
r
a
l

I
n
d
u
s
t
r
i
a
l
/
u
r
b
a
n

M
a
r
i
n
e

R
u
r
a
l

I
n
d
u
s
t
r
i
a
l
/
u
r
b
a
n

M
a
r
i
n
e

R
u
r
a
l

I
n
d
u
s
t
r
i
a
l
/
u
r
b
a
n

M
a
r
i
n
e

R
u
r
a
l

I
n
d
u
s
t
r
i
a
l
/
u
r
b
a
n

M
a
r
i
n
e

Zinc 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Aluminium 0 0-1 0-1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Steels (carbon
and low alloy)
0-1 1 1-2 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0-1
Cast irons 0-1 1 1-2 0 1 2 0-1 0-1 2 0 0 0 0 1 -
Cast irons
(austenitic)
0-1 1 1-2 1 (2) (3) (0-1) (0-1) (0-2) 0 0-1 1 - (0) -
Stainless steel 0-1 0-1 0-1 0 1 2 1 - 2-3 0-1 1-2 1-2 0 0 (1)
Key
0 - Metal will suffer either no bimetallic corrosion, or at most only very slightly, usually tolerable in service.
1 - Metal will suffer slight or moderate bimetallic corrosion which may be tolerable in some circumstances.
2 - Metal may suffer fairly severe bimetallic corrosion and protective measures will usually be necessary
3 - Metal may suffer severe bimetallic corrosion and contact should be avoided.
() Ratings in brackets are based on very limited evidences and hence are less certain.
* Effect depends on relative areas. If the area of the stainless steel is small in relation to that of the coupled metal
there may be considerable extra corrosion.
Bimetallic corrosion of metals in contact BS PD 6484:1979
Structural Engineers Faade Notes MATERIAL PROPERTIES
BRITISH STANDARDS 7
1.2.2 Crevice corrosion
Crevice corrosion occurs in crevices and recesses, or under deposits of dirt or corrosion products, where
there is localised depletion of dissolved oxygen. Such conditions can initiate corrosion of some normally
resistant metals (e.g. aluminium and stainless steel) by preventing the formation of the natural protective
oxide film. Crevice corrosion can be particularly damaging as it is both localised and likely to occur for
relatively long periods as by its nature it takes place at locations that do not dry out rapidly.
Surfaces located below projections are not rainwashed, enabling dirt to accumulate and moisture to be
retained at the metal surface, underneath which crevice corrosion can begin. Water can also become trapped
at many details and interfaces, for example:
Between lap joints of sheeting, or between sheets and support rails,
Between bolted plates and underneath bolt heads,
Where sheets project into gutters,
Within small welding imperfections or furrows across the surface of polished metal panels.
Crevice corrosion may be prevented by using non-absorbent gaskets, by removing accumulated deposits
frequently and avoiding details that trap water.
1.2.3 Pitting corrosion
Pitting corrosion is another form of very localised corrosion in which small anodic areas in contact with large
cathodic areas corrode to form pits or holes. They ordinarily penetrate from the top of a horizontal surface
downwards in a nearly vertical direction. A pit may be initiated by a localised surface defect such as a scratch
or a slight variation in material composition.
In steel it is an extremely insidious type of corrosion, often going undetected as the volume of corrosion
product is small. In aluminium the volume of corrosion product is very much greater than the volume of the
pit. The corrosion reaction can therefore be inhibited by selfsealing of the pit.

1.3 Corrosion protection

1.3.1 Zinc coating

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
BRITISH STANDARDS 9
II-2 LOADS
2.1 Definitions
Definition of loading capacities IRATA
Category Load/strength Definition
Ultimate limit state
(factored loads)
Tensile strength the force required (usually minimum or average) to a member to the
point where it breaks
Characteristic strength value of the strength below which only 5% of all test results would be
expected (probability) to fail
Yield strength The load at which a member experiences a specified amount of
permanent deformation
Proof load the greatest load applied without straining it beyond the elastic limit
(no evidence of deformation)
Service load
(non-factored
loads)
Rated capacity the minimum load a complete assembly can withstand before failure
in a laboratory pull test when the product is NEW
Breaking load the lowest breaking force when tested to destruction
Working load limit
(WLL)
the maximum load, specified by the manufacturer following an
assessment by a competent person, authorized to support when the
product is new and when the pull is applied in-line, unless noted
otherwise, with respect to the centreline of the member
Safe working load
(SWL)
the breaking load divided by an appropriate factor of safety (usually
2.0) giving a safe load that could be lifted or be carried. No
additional safety factors required. Ceased to be used in American,
ISO and European standards because of legal implications.
Devices with
counter-mass
Maximum rated load maximum mass (kg) of personnel, including tools and equipment, to
be used with, as specified by the manufacturer
Minimum rated load minimum mass (kg) of personnel, including tools and equipment, to
be used with, as specified by the manufacturer


2.2 Dead load (D)
2.2.1 Permanent attachements
Typical loads supported from internal surfaces BS 8200:1985 Table 5
Fixtures Description Load
Cupboard Well loaded, 1.2 x 0.7 x 0.3 m 2.5 kN
Washbasin 1.5 kN
Bookshelves Per meter of shelf 0.60 kN/m
Per square metre of wall face 2.0 kN/m
2


LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

10 BRITISH STANDARDS
2.3 Imposed load (L)
2.3.1 Occupancy live load
Vertical load
Internal ledges and framing members shall carry a vertical load of 1.0 kN or a distributed load of 0.6 kN/m,
whichever is onerous, according to CWCT Cl. 2.3.3. & BS 6399-1 Cl. 10.
Barrier loads
Horizontal loads applied either as a line acting at a height 1100mm above the finished internal floor level, or
a distributed or point load on infill panels below this level.
Minimum horizontal loads on barriers BS 6399-1:1996 Table 4
Occupancy Specific use Horizontal
Line load, IL
L
[kN/m]
Uniform Infill
load, IL
Q
[kN/m
2
]
Point load,
IL
P

[kN]*
A
Domestic and
residential activities
(i) All areas within or serving exclusively one single
family dwelling including stairs, landings, etc. but
excluding external balconies and edges of roofs
(see C3 ix)

0.36 0.5 0.25
(ii) Other residential, (but also see C) 0.74 1.0 0.5
B and E
Offices and work
areas not included
elsewhere including
storage areas
(v) Areas not susceptible to overcrowding in office
and institutional buildings also industrial and
storage buildings except as given above
0.74 1.0 0.5
C
Areas where people
may congregate
(vi) Areas having fixed seating within 530 mm of
the barrier, balustrade or parapet
1.5 1.5 1.5
C1/C2
Areas with tables or
fixed seating
(vii) Restaurants and bars 1.5 1.5 1.5
C3
Areas without
obstacles for
moving people and
not susceptible to
overcrowding
(ix) External balconies and edges of roofs.
Footways and pavements within building
curtilage adjacent to basement/sunken areas
0.74 1.0 0.5
D
Retail areas
(xiii) All retail areas including public areas of
banks/building societies or betting shops. For areas
where overcrowding may occur, see C5
1.5 1.5 1.5
Note: * Clause 5.1.3: When used for the calculation of local effects such as crushing and punching, the
concentrated loads should be assumed to act at a position and over an area of application appropriate
to their cause.
Where this cannot be foreseen, a square contact area with a 50 mm side should be assumed.
Minimum barrier heights BS 6180:1999 Table 1
Use Position Height [mm]
Single family dwelling Barriers in front of a window 800
Stairs, landings, ramps, edges of internal floors 900
External balconies, juliet balconies, edges of roofs 1100
All other uses Barriers in front of a window, balconies and stands, etc.
having fixed seating within 530mm of the barrier
800
Stairs 900
Other positions including juliet balconies 1 100

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
BRITISH STANDARDS 11
Balcony live load
Minimum Imposed Load on Balconies BS 6399-1:1986 Table 1
Load Description Uniformly distributed
load,
[kN/m
2
]
Concentrated Load,
[kN]
A
Domestic and residential activities
Single dwelling units 1.5 1.4
Guests houses, clubs 3.0 1.5kN/m on outer edge
Hotels and motels 4.0 1.5kN/m on outer edge
B, C and E
Offices and work areas not included
elsewhere, areas where people may
congregate, including storage areas
Balconies 4.0 1.5kN/m on outer edge

2.3.2 Roof live load
Minimum Imposed Roof Loads BS 6399-3:1988 Cl. 4
Live Load Description Slope, Load Reference
Roof with access Uniformly distributed load - 1.5 kN/m
2
BS 6399-3:1988 Cl. 4.2
Concentrated load - 1.8 kN
Roof with no access Uniformly distributed load 30 0.6 kN/m
2
BS 6399-3:1988 Cl. 4.3.1
30 < < 60 0.6[(60-)/30] kN/m
2

60 < 0
Concentrated load - 0.9 kN
Note: access means access in addition to that necessary for cleaning and repair.
no access means access for cleaning and repair only.

2.3.3 Maintainance load
Other Loads
Live Load Description Load Reference
Maintenance crew Man leaning against the wall 0.4 kN BS 8200:1985 Cl. 6.5
Man on ladder 0.5 kN BS 8200:1985 Cl. 6.5
Cradle/Man/Ladder Horizontal load on square of 100mm sides 0.5 kN CWCT:2005 Cl. 2.3.3
On Patent glazing
1
Perpendicular to Sloping patent glazing 0.695 kN cos() BS 5516-1:2004 Ann. D
Horizontal load on Vertical patent glazing 0.172 kN
Industrial type
flooring/walkways
Occasional access - inspection or
maintenance by one person
1.5 kN/m or 1.0 kN* BS4592-0:2006 Table 1
Light duty regular one way pedestrian 3.0 kN/m or 1.0 kN*
General duty regular two way pedestrian 5.0 kN/m or 1.0 kN*
Heavy duty high density pedestrian 7.5 kN/m or 1.0 kN*
Note:
1
Maintenance load should never be carried directly by the infilling (glass or panel). See BS 5516-1:2004
Annex D
* Concentraled load over an area of 300mm 300mm.
LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

12 BRITISH STANDARDS
2.4 Snow load (S)
Snow load on roof is considered as medium term load, i.e., to have a notional duration of one month acc. to
BS 6399-3 Cl. 5.
Snow load calculation BS6399-3:1988
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data


S
b

A

Basic snow load, [kN/m
2
]
Site altitude, [m]
Angle of pitch of roof, []
Figure 1
6.2
7.2.2
Site snow load
alt b
S = 0.1S + 0.09
(
(

o b alt
A- 100
S = S +S
100

Altitude correction, [kN/m
2
]

Altitude correction, [kN/m
2
]
6.2

6.2
Roof
Shape
coefficient

Case-1: Uniform Load
a) 0 30:
1
= 0.8
b) 30 < < 60:
(
(

1
60 -
= 0.8
30

c) > 60
1
= 0

Case-2: Asymmetric Load
a) 0 15:
1
= 0
b) 15 < 30:
(
(

1
- 15
= 0.8 + 0.4
15

c) 30 < < 60:
(
(

1
60 -
= 1.2
30

d) > 60
1
= 0
(a) Flat or Monopitch Roof (b) Duopitch Roof












Figure 2

Figure 3(a)






Figure 3(b)
Canopy
Shape
Coefficient
b
1
b
2

h
o1

Case-1: b
1
5 m
l
s1
= 5h
o1
or b
1
(lesser)


o1
1
o s1
2h 2b
= or or 5
S l
(least)

Case-2: b
1
> 5 m
l
s1
= 5h
o1
or b
1
or 15m (least)


o1
1
o s1
2h 2b
= or or 8
S l
(least)
Width of canopy projection
Width of abutting taller building
Differential height







7.4.5
7.4.5
7.4.5

Figure 2

Figure 9






Figure 6
Design snow
load

d 1 0
S = S Design snow load, [kN/m
2
] 5




STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
BRITISH STANDARDS 13

Basic snow load on the ground, S
b
in kN/m
2
BS 6399-3 Fig. 1

LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

14 BRITISH STANDARDS
2.5 Wind load (W)
2.5.1 Minimum wind load
CWCT 2.2.4 Table 2.1: the minimum wind load for design should be 0.80 kN/m
2
.
2.5.2 Relevant dimensions in BS 6399-2:1997
For low-rise buildings (H < D), according to Table 5, the effect of building plan dimension is more severe on
the positive pressure of the windward face (front) when the inwind depth D is the shorter dimension. Albeit,
the directional factor is conservatibely assumed at unity.
However, for high-rise buildings (H D), according to section 2.4.1.4, funnelling is more critical when the
crosswind breadth B is the smaller dimension.
2.5.3 Horizontal zoning
CWCT:2005 Cl. 2.2.3: Under normal circumstances there shall be no horizontal zoning of wind pressure to
give lower design loads on the envelope nearer the ground.
CWCT TN4:2000: For tall buildings the wind load at the top will be greater than that near ground level due to
the increase in wind speed with height. BRE Digest 436 states that this variation in pressure with height only
applies to the positive wind pressure on the windward face and is not applicable to suction loads on the side
and rear faces.
2.5.4 Probability factor
The wind map in BS 6399 gives wind speeds that has an annual risk of being exceeded of Q = 0.02 (it should
not be interpreted as occurring regularly every 50 years).
To vary the basic wind speed for other such annual probabilities the basic wind speed should be multiplied
by:
p
5-ln[-ln(1-Q)]
S =
5-ln[-ln(0.98)]
- Probability factor
where:
R
L
1
Q = 1- 1-
R
| |
|
\ .
- Risk of exceedence of a given R-return period wind speed in L
years
Examples:
Sp = 0.749; Q = 0.632 - Risk of exceeding 50 year return period wind speed in 1 year
Sp = 0.905; Q = 0.096 - Risk of exceeding 50 year return period wind speed in 10 years
Sp = 1.000; Q = 0.02 - Risk of exceeding 50 year return period wind speed in 50 years
Sp = 1.010; Q = 0.0167 - Risk of exceeding 50 year return period wind speed in 60 years
Sp = 1.048; Q = 0.0083 - Risk of exceeding 50 year return period wind speed in 120 years

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
BRITISH STANDARDS 15
2.5.5 Calculating dynamic pressure
Below is an outline to calculate the dynamic pressure for buildings q
s
, using standard method
Wind load calculation BS6 399-2 :1997
Action Values Notes Clause
Data


Factors



Site Wind
speed
V
b


s


S
a
= 1 + 0.001
s

S
d
= 1.00 (conservatively)
S
s
= 1.00 (for permanent buildings)
S
p
= 1.00 (for normal applications)

V
s
= V
b
S
a
S
d
S
s
S
p

Basic wind speed, Figure 6 [m/s]
Site altitude above mean sea level, [m]

Altitude factor, [-]
Directional factor, Table 3 [-]
Seasonal factor, Table Annex D.1 [-]
Probability factor, Annex D.1 [-]

Site wind speed, [m/s]
2.2.1
2.2.2.2


2.2.2.3
2.2.2.4
2.2.2.5

2.2.2.1
Data



Determine
Effective
height

H
Hr
Ho
Xo
a) for Xo 2Ho, greater of:
He = Hr - 0.8Ho
He = 0.4Hr

b) for 2Ho < Xo < 6Ho, greater of:
He = Hr - 1.2Ho + 0.2Xo
He = 0.4Hr;

c) for Xo 6Ho
He = Hr
Building height, [m]
Reference height for coefficient definition, [m]
Obstruction height, [m]
Upwind space, [m]
Effective height, [m]


1.7.3.1
1.7.3.3
1.7.3.3
1.7.3.4
1.7.3.2
Standard
Method

a) for He 20 m
S
b


b) for He 100 m
S
b


V
e
= V
s
S
b

Terrain and building factor, Table 4 [-]




Effective wind speed, [m/s]

2.2.3.3




2.2.3.1
Directional
Method














Effective wind
speed
c) for He > 100m
Site in country:
S
c

S
t

S
h
= 0.0 (conservatively)
g
t
= 3.44 (for cladding & their fixing)

S
b
= S
c
[1+ S
h
+ (g
t
S
t
)]

Site in town:
S
c
T
c

S
t
T
t

S
h
= 0.0 (conservatively)
g
t
= 3.44 (for cladding & their fixing)

S
b
= S
c
T
c
[1+ S
h
+ (g
t
S
t
T
t
)]

V
e
= V
s
S
b



Fetch factor, Table 22 [-]
Turbulence factor, Table 22 [-]
Topograhic increment, [-]
Gust peak factor, [-]

Terrain and building factor, [-]

Fetch factor, Table 22 & 23 [-]
Turbulence factor, Table 22 & 23 [-]
Topograhic increment, [-]
Gust peak factor, [-]

Terrain and building factor, [-]

Effective wind speed, [m/s]




3.2.3.3.4
3.2.3.3.3

3.2.3.2.2




3.2.3.3.4
3.2.3.3.3

3.2.3.2.3

2.2.3.1
Pressure
q
s
= 0.613 V
e
2

Dynamic pressure, [N/m
2
] 2.1.2

LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

16 BRITISH STANDARDS
2.5.6 Factors and coefficients
Basic wind speed, V
b
in UK BS 6399-2:1997 Fig. 6

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
BRITISH STANDARDS 17

Terrain and building factor, S
b
for H
e
< 20m BS 6399-2:1997 Table 4
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Effective height, He [m]
T
e
r
r
a
i
n

&

b
u
l
d
i
n
g

f
a
c
t
o
r
,

S
b
Country: 10km from sea
Country: 50km from sea
Country: 100km from sea
Town: 100km from sea
Town: 50km from sea
Town: 10km from sea

Terrain and building factor, S
b
for H
e
20m BS 6399-2:1997 Table 4
1.70
1.75
1.80
1.85
1.90
1.95
2.00
2.05
2.10
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Effective height, H
e
[m]
T
e
r
r
a
i
n

&

b
u
l
d
i
n
g

f
a
c
t
o
r
,

S
b
Country/Town: 50km from sea
Country/Town: 100km from sea
Country/Town: 10km from sea



LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

18 BRITISH STANDARDS

Fetch factor, S
c
and Adjusted, S
c
T
c
BS 6399-2:1997 Table 22 & 23
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
100 150 200 250 300
Effective height, H
e
[m]
a
)

C
o
u
n
t
r
y

t
e
r
r
a
i
n
:

F
e
t
c
h

f
a
c
t
o
r
,

S
c

b
)

T
o
w
n

T
e
r
r
a
i
n
:

A
d
j
u
s
t
e
d

f
e
t
c
h

f
a
c
t
o
r
,

S
c

T
c

Country: 10km from sea
Country: 50km from sea
Country: 100km from sea
Town: 100km from sea
Town: 50km from sea
Town: 10km from sea

Turbulence factor, S
t
and Adjusted, S
t
T
t
BS 6399-2:1997 Table 22 & 23
0.060
0.080
0.100
0.120
0.140
0.160
0.180
100 150 200 250 300
Effective height, He [m]
a
)

C
o
u
n
t
r
y

t
e
r
r
a
i
n
:

T
u
r
b
u
l
e
n
c
e

f
a
c
t
o
r
,

S
t

b
)

T
o
w
n

T
e
r
r
a
i
n
:

A
d
j
u
s
t
e
d

t
u
r
b
u
l
e
n
c
e

f
a
c
t
o
r
,

S
t

T
t

Country: 10km from sea
Country: 50km from sea
Town: 50km from sea
Town: 10km from sea
Country: 100km from sea
Town: 100km from sea


STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
BRITISH STANDARDS 19
2.5.7 Wind load on claddings
Design wind loads on vertical walls BS 6399-2:1997 Cl. 2.4
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data


External
Pressure
Coefficient
B, D
D/H
b = lesser of B or 2H
External pressure coefficients,
Side wall
Zone Isolated
Funnelling
b/4 gap b
A -1.3 - 1.6
B -0.8 - 0.9
C -0.5 - 0.9
Windward wall
D/H 1 1 < D/H < 4 D/H 4
0.85 0.85-12(D/H-1) 0.6
Leeward wall
-0.5

Crosswind breadth and inwind depth of building, [m]
Slenderness ratio, [-]
Scaling length, [m]

External pressure coefficient [-]




2.4.1.3
2.4.1.2
2.4.1.1

Table 5



Internal
Pressure Coef.
C
pi
(+) = +0.2
C
pi
(-) = -0.3
Internal pressure coefficient for enclosed building,
Table 16 [-]
2.6.1
Net surface
Pressure
P
w
= q
s
[C
peW
C
pi
(-)]
P
L
= q
s
[C
peL
C
pi
(+)]
a) Zone A (local), 0.2b:
P
A
= q
s
[C
peL
C
pi
(+)]
b) Zone B, b-0.2b:
P
B
= q
s
[C
peL
C
pi
(+)]
c) Zone C, D-b:
P
C
= q
s
[C
peL
C
pi
(+)]
Wind pressure on windward wall, [kN/m
2
]
Wind suction on leeward wall, [kN/m
2
]

2.1.3.3
Wind Load in London
Suction Local Suction Local
Low-rise bldg. 10 0.89 -0.77 -1.16 -0.85 -1.39
Intermediate 25 1.15 -1.00 -1.50 -1.10 -1.81
Medium-rise 50 1.31 -1.14 -1.71 -1.25 -2.05
High-rise 100 1.43 -1.25 -1.87 -1.37 -2.24
Skyscraper 200 1.57 -1.37 -2.05 -1.51 -2.46
Funnelling [kN/m]
LONDON
Building height
[m]
Pressure
[kN/m]
Isolated [kN/m]
I
s
o
l
a
t
e
d
-
l
o
c
a
l
F
u
n
n
e
l
l
i
n
g
-
l
o
c
a
l
I
s
o
l
a
t
e
d
-
s
u
c
t
i
o
n
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
F
u
n
n
e
l
l
i
n
g
-
s
u
c
t
i
o
n
0
50
100
150
200
-2.5 -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5
Wind Load [kN/m]
B
u
i
l
d
i
n
g

H
e
i
g
h
t

[
m
]

2.5.8 Pressure on rainscreen acc. to CWCT:2005 Cl.2.2.5
Drained and ventilated envelope: qC
pe

Pressure-equalised rainscreen panel complying to CWCT Cl. 2.2.6: 2/3qC
pe

LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

20 BRITISH STANDARDS
2.5.9 Wind load on long elements
Design wind loads on long elements BS 6399-2:1997 Cl. 2.7
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data


Net Pressure
Coefficient
B, L
Circular section:
C
p
= 1.2
Sharp-edged sections:
C
p
= 2.0
Width and length of element, [m]

2.7.2.2
2.7.3
Table 20
Reduction
factor
a) for element with free ends
effective = L/B
b) for one end fixed to a plane
effective = 2L/B
c) for both ends fixed to opposite planes
= 1.0
2.7.3
Fig. 25
Net Pressure P

= q
s
C
p
2.1.3.3
2.5.10 Wind load on free-standing solid wall and cladding fins
Design wind loads on free-standing solid walls BS 6399-2:1997 Cl. 2.8.1
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data


Net Pressure
Coefficient
h, L
Without return corners:
C
p,A
= 3.4; C
p,B
= 2.1
C
pC
= 1.7; C
pD
= 1.2

With return corners h:
C
p,A
= 2.1; C
p,B
= 1.8
C
pC
= 1.4; C
pD
= 1.2

Height and length of free-stand wall, [m]

Fig. 26

Table 21


Reduction
factors
a) for L/h 3
= 0.6
b) for 3 < L/h 5
= 0.6 + (L/h 3)/20
c) for 5 < L/h 10
= 0.7 + (L/h 5)/25
d) for 10 < L/h 15
= 0.9 + (L/h 10)/50
e) for L/h > 15
= 1.0
Table 21a
Net Pressures
a) Zone A (local), 0.3h:
P
A
= q
s
C
pA

b) Zone B, 2h-0.3h:
P
B
= q
s
C
pB

c) Zone C, 4h-2h:
P
C
= q
s
C
pC

d) Zone D, L-4h:
P
D
= q
s
C
pD


2.1.3.3
2.5.11 Wind load on sign boards
Design wind loads on sign boards BS 6399-2:1997 Cl. 2.8.2
Action Values


Clause
Data
Net Pressure
Coefficient
h, B
Requirement: Gap h/2
C
p
= 1.8
Fig. 28

2.8.2
Net Pressure
P

= q
s
C
p

2.1.3.3
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
BRITISH STANDARDS 21
2.5.12 Wind load on canopies attached to tall buildings [BRE NJ Cook]








LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

22 BRITISH STANDARDS
2.5.13 Balconies and vertical Fin features [BRE NJ Cook]





STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
BRITISH STANDARDS 23
2.5.14 Wind load on corner cladding
The table below shows the combination of external pressure coefficients (C
pe
) for every wind load direction.
Directional wind method BS 6399-2:1997 Cl. 3

LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

24 BRITISH STANDARDS
2.6 Thermal load (T)
Material and components of the cladding shall be capable of accommodating stresses generated by
differential temperatures.
2.6.1 Temperature difference for checking of cladding components
Service temperature ranges in UK CWCT:2005 Table 2.2, 2.3 & BRE Digest 228:1979 Table 2
Exposure Material Type Summer Winter
Daytime
maximum,
T
S
[C]

Difference,
(base 0C)
T
W
[C]
Approx.
expansion
L

[mm/m]
Night-time
minimum,
T
W
[C]

Difference
, (base
+40C)
T
W
[C]
Approx.
contraction
L

[mm/m]
Exposed
on one
side

Glass Clear + 40 + 40 +0.32 - 25 - 65 -0.52

Coloured or solar
control
+ 90 + 90 +0.72
Cladding,
Walling,
and
Roofing
Heavyweight,
light colour
+ 50 + 50 +1.15 (Al)
+0.80 (Ss)
+0.60 (St)
- 20 - 60 -1.38 (Al)
-0.96 (Ss)
-0.72 (St)

Heavyweight,
dark colour
+ 65 + 65 +1.49 (Al)
+1.04 (Ss)
+0.78 (St)
Lightweight(insulated)
light colour
+ 60 + 60 +1.38 (Al)
+0.96 (Ss)
+0.72 (St)
- 25 - 65 -1.49 (Al)
-1.04 (Ss)
-0.78 (St)
Lightweight(insulated)
dark colour
+ 80 + 80 +1.84 (Al)
+1.28 (Ss)
+0.96 (St)
Fully
exposed
Metal Light colour + 50 + 50 +1.15 (Al)
+0.80 (Ss)
+0.60 (St)
- 25 - 65 -1.49 (Al)
-1.04 (Ss)
-0.78 (St)
Dark colour + 65 + 65 +1.49 (Al)
+1.04 (Ss)
+0.78 (St)
Concrete Light colour + 45 + 45 +0.54 - 20 - 60 -0.72
Dark colour + 60 + 60 +0.72
Internal

Building Empty or out of use + 35 + 35 - - 5 - 45 -
Normal use + 30 + 30 +0.24 (Gl)
+0.69 (Al)
+0.48 (Ss)
+0.36 (St)
+0.12(Wd)
+ 10 - 30 -0.24 (Gl)
-0.69 (Al)
-0.48 (Ss)
-0.36 (St)
-0.12(Wd)
Note:

See CWCT 2.7.3 for expansion and contraction of components at the time of installation up to the normal
use of structure.
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
BRITISH STANDARDS 25
2.7 Seismic load (E)
Cladding elements shall be able to accommodate seismic movement of the main structure without falling
away and damage. Non-structural cladding shall not be used to stiffen or restrain the free deformation of the
main structure.
Cladding fixings and connections shall be designed to sustain the intertial forces due to excitation of the
cladding elements.
2.8 Blast load, BL
Expert in the field of blast structures shall be sought where performance of cladding be considered under
conditions of blast loading to determine the equivalent static loads derived from dynamic effects.
Cladding elements shall be designed under the equivalent static loads without load factors and reduction of
strength of the members by the code specified patial safety factors.
Minimum rebate depths recommended by the UK Ministry of Defence IStructE:1999 Table 15.1
Glass span Rebate
< 0.75 m 25 mm
0.75 m to 1.5 m 35 mm
> 1.5 m
min. bearing depth = 15mm + span/100
min. bearing depth = 20mm + span/100

BLAST
PRESSURE
y
q
q
z
q
y
z
q
REBOUND FORCE

Response of blast-resistant glazing to blast load
LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

26 BRITISH STANDARDS
2.9 Load combinations
2.9.1 Load combination for serviceability limit states
The most unfavourable effect of the following load combinations should be considered.

Vertical facade BS EN 1990 + CWCT TU14:2009
Serviceability Ultimate limit state Description Occupancy
CO100: D CO200: 1.35D Dead incl. member self-weight all
CO101: D + W
p
CO201: 1.35D + 1.5W
p
Dead + wind pressure all
CO102:

D + W
s
CO202:

1.35D + 1.5W
s
1.35D + 1.5W
s
+ 0.51.5L

Dead + wind suction
Dead + wind suction + imposed
others
C
CO103: D + L (+ 0.5W
s
)* CO203:
1.35D + 1.5L (+ 0.51.5W
s
)*
1.35D + 1.5L + 0.51.5W
s

Dead + imposed (+ wind suction)*
Dead + imposed + wind suction
others
C
Note: *Common additional project requirement.


Sloped faade ( 10) or overhead glazing BS EN 1990 + CWCT TU14:2009
Serviceability Ultimate limit state Description Occupancy
CO100: D CO200: 1.35D Dead incl. member self-weight all
CO101: D + W
p
+ 0.6S

CO201: 1.35D + 1.5W
p
+ 0.61.5S
D + W
p
+ 0.6S
A

Dead + wind downforce + snow
Dead + wind downforce + snow drift
all
CO102: D + S + 0.6W
p
CO202:

1.35D + 1.5S + 0.61.5W
p
D + S
A
+ 0.6W
p
Dead + snow + wind downforce
Dead + snow drift + wind downforce
all
CO103:

D + W
s
CO203: D + 1.5W
s
Dead + wind uplift all
CO104: D + L CO204: 1.35D + 1.5L Dead + leading imposed H


Overhead patent glazing BS 5516-2 BBSBS 5516-2:2004 Annex E.5.1
Combinations Description Occupancy
CO100: 2.6D Dead incl. member self-weight all
CO101: 2.6(D + 0.6S) + W
p
Dead + wind downforce + snow all
CO102: 2.6(D + S) + 0.6W
p
Dead + snow + wind downforce all
CO103:

D + W
s
Dead + wind uplift all
CO104: 2.6D + L Dead + leading imposed/live H

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES SERVICEABILITY, MOVEMENT & TOLERANCE
BRITISH STANDARDS 27
II-3 SERVICEABILITY, MOVEMENT & TOLERANCE
3.1 Deflection
Deflection limits
Parts Component Description Limit Reference
Steel Beams Carrying brittle finish L/360 BS 5950-1
Table 8
Other beams L/200
Cantilevers L/180
Columns Horizontal sway H/300
Crane girders Vertical deflection Span/600
Horizontal deflection Span/500
Aluminium Mullions & transoms
under lateral loads
Single glazed L/175 BS 8118-1
Table 3.4
Double glazed L/250
Beams carrying plaster or other brittle finish L/360
Cantilevers carrying floors L/180
CWCT In-plane Under dead and live load L/500 or 3mm 2.3.2.2
Framing members
generally
H 3000 [use EN13830] H/200 or 15mm 3.5.2.2

3000 < H < 7500 H/300 + 5
7500 < H [use BS8118] H/250
Localised deflections:
Four-side supported
Single glazed L/125 3.5.2.4
Double glazed L/175 or 15mm 3.5.2.5
Localised deflections:
Two-side supported
Single glazed (L)
2
/180 000 3.5.2.4
Double glazed (L)
2
/540 000 or 20mm 3.5.2.5
Surfaces & framing
members
Plasterboard or similar brittle materials L/360 or 10mm 3.5.2.7
Natural stone units L/360 or 3mm
Rainscreen panels Aluminium, glass or steel L/90

3.5.2.9
Stone or similar brittle material L/360


Residual deformation After one hour recovery 5%Def. or 1mm 3.5.2.11
Support displacement Diff. peak positive and peak negative 2mm 3.5.2.12
Patent
Glazing
Vertical and sloped
glazing bars:
(Two-edge systems)
Single glazed and coupled glazing S2/180 000 or 50mm BS 5516-1 & 2
Cl. 6.6.3 & Cl.
7.6.1.2
Cl. 6.6.3 & Cl.
7.6.1.3




Cl. 7.6.1.4

Cl. 6.6.3 & Cl.
7.6.2
Insulating glass units S2/540 000 or 20mm
Vertical and sloped
glazing bars:
(Four-edge systems)
Single glazed and coupled glazing:
S 3000mm
S/125
Single glazed and coupled glazing:
S > 3000mm
S/250 + 12mm or
40mm
Insulating glass units S/175 or 20mm
Point-supported Between support points, L L/200 or 20mm
In-plane deflection Not to reduce edge clearance between
the member and the edge of the glazing
or any part immediately below it by
more than 25%
L/400 or 3mm

Grating Industrial type walkway Difference in level between loaded and
neighbouring unloaded floor shall not
exceed 4mm.
L/200 or 10mm BS 4592-0:06
Cl. 5.2.2
Note:

Greater deflection may be allowable, according to Cl. 3.5.2.9.


SERVICEABILITY, MOVEMENT & TOLERANCE STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

28 BRITISH STANDARDS

Deflection limits
Parts Component Description Limit Reference
Glass Patent sloped glazing Centre of pane deflection L/65 BS 5516-2
Cl. 7.4.1
Deflection of edges acc. to supports
Free-standing
balustrade
Any part of barrier 25mm BS 6180
Cl. 6.4.1
Under imposed load h/65 or 25mm
Balustrade Infill panel L/80 or 25mm

3.2 Common structural movements
Building envelopes have to accommodate movement of their components and of the supporting structure,
and to make this possible building structures have to be sufficiently stiff.

Source: Pell Frischmann

Structural movements CWCT TN 56:2007
Movement Description

Type Common values Clause
Floor
deflection
Vertical movement due to
structure self weight, dead load
and live load.
Note: Differential floor live load
deflection is usually less.
Concrete structure
v
L
or 20mm
500

BS 8110-2 3.2.1.2
Steel structure
v
L

360

BS 5950-1 Table 8
Column
shortening
Shrinkage or elastic shortening
of concrete columns.
Note: Usually occurring first 6
months after pouring of concrete
Cladding installed almost
immediately after pouring of
concrete.
c
H

2000

BS 8110-2 8.2
Cladding installed before
shrinkage is complete
c
H

6000

CWCT TN 56
Sway Lateral movement due to wind
load and earthquake
Note: Short term stochastic
reversible movements occurring
after cladding is installed
Concrete structure
h
H

500

BS 8110-2 3.2.2.2
Steel structure
h
H

300

BS 5950-1 Table 8
Settlement Heave caused by foundation
movement
Differential settlement
between adjacent columns
s
L

500

CWCT TN 56
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES SERVICEABILITY, MOVEMENT & TOLERANCE
BRITISH STANDARDS 29

3.1 Cutain wall accommodation of structural movements
3.1.1 Stick System
The ability of framing members in a stick curtain wall to move or deflect in-plane without contacting the glass
is governed by the edge clearance between the glass and the frame.

Effect of floor deflection Effect of sway


Accomodation of structural movement CWCT TN56:2007
Action Values

Notes
Definition
a = tight size
b = pane size
c = edge distance
d = opening size
e = edge cover
f = rebate depth

Differential
live load
deflection

v(+)

v()

Mullion:
spigot depth
v(+)


expansion gap
v()


Glass horizontal joint, c
h
:

D
f
h

v(+)
c
h

D
+
v()

Glass vertical joint, c
v

:
L
b, h
g

( )
g
3 2
v v(+)
4
h
c 3L 4L b
L

Floor-to-floor expansion [mm]
Floor-to-floor contraction [mm]


Min. depth of spigot through
mullion at movement joint, [mm]

Min. clear distance between
mullions at movement joint,
[mm]

Transom dead load deflection, [mm]
Min. horizontal rebate depth controlled by
expansion, [mm]
Min. horizontal edge distance controlled by contraction, [mm]

Span between columns, [mm]
Width and height of glass, [mm]

Min. vertical edge distance controlled by vertical racking, [mm]
Sway

h
H
Glass vertical joint, c
v
:
g
v h
h
c
H


Inter-storey drift due to building sway, [mm]
Storey height, [mm]

Min. vertical edge distance controlled by horizontal racking, [mm]
Note:

For large c
v
requirements the glazing or panel will contact the frame at diagonally opposed corners and
forced to rotate acting as a diagonal strut. The infill should be checked for induced stresses due to this.
Stick system behaviour under structure movement
SERVICEABILITY, MOVEMENT & TOLERANCE STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

30 BRITISH STANDARDS
3.1.2 Unitized system
Unitized curtain wall elements accommodate movements at the split-mullion and split-transom joints.
CW Element Stack-joint movement accommodation CWCT TN56:2007
Movement

Remarks
CW element Fabrication tolerance Before
cladding
installation
Notes:

a
Every floor undergoes dead load and creep deformation
at approximately the same rate except at ground floor and
roof.
b
Every floor of completed CW element installation, the
levelling bolts are adjusted to zero out structure deflection
due to cladding weight.
c
Only differential deflection between adjacent floors are
relevant to the curtain wall.





Instantaneous Structure self-weight
a

Structure creep
a

Curtain wall DL
a,b
After
cladding
installation
Finish DL
a

Slab creep
a

Long-term Live load
c

Slab creep
a

Column shortening/creep
i. Elements with spigot fixing
Under differential live load deflection Under lateral sway (storey drift)

CW Element accomodation of structural movement CWCT TN56:2007
Action Values

Notes
Differential
live load
deflection

v(+)

v()
Stack joint, c
h
:

D
c
h

D
+
v()

coupling
v(+)
Saddle gasket, c
g
:
L
b
( (( ( ) )) )
3 3 v
g
4
c 3L b 4Lb
L


Floor-to-floor expansion [mm]
Floor-to-floor contraction [mm]

Transom dead load deflection, [mm]
Clear space between any contacting material in the split transom
stack joint, [mm]
Depth of penetration of male split-transom profiles leg into the
female profile, [mm]
Span between columns, [mm]
Width of element, [mm]
Minimum saddle gasket play, [mm]
Sway

h
H
h
Saddle gasket, c
g
:
g h
b
c
H

Inter-storey drift due to building sway, [mm]
Storey height, [mm]
Height of element, [mm]

Min. vertical edge distance controlled by horizontal racking, [mm]
Combined
effect
( (( ( ) )) )
3 3 v
g h
4
1 b
c 3L b 4Lb
2 H
L
+ + + +


( (( ( ) )) )
3 3 v
g h
4
1 b
c 3L b 4Lb
2 H
L
+ + + +


Full differential live load deflection + partial sway

Partial differential live load deflection + full sway
Racking of unitised system with spigot fixing
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES SERVICEABILITY, MOVEMENT & TOLERANCE
BRITISH STANDARDS 31
ii. Elements without spigot fixing
Under differential live load deflection Under lateral sway (storey drift)

CW Element accomodation of structural movement CWCT TN56:2007
Action Values

Notes
Differential
live load
deflection

v(+)

v()
Stack joint, c
h
:

D
c
h

D
+
v()

coupling
v(+)

Mullion vertical joint, c
v
:
L
b
h
b

( )
2
b
v,c v
4
32h
c b L b
L

( ) ( )
2 2
b
v ,e v
4
L 2b L 2b 2h
c = 1
b
L

(
+
(
(


Floor-to-floor expansion [mm]
Floor-to-floor contraction [mm]

Transom dead load deflection, [mm]
Clear space between any contacting material in the split
transom stack joint, [mm]
Depth of penetration of male split-transom profiles leg into the
female profile, [mm]

Span between columns, [mm]
Width of element, [mm]
Height of split transom to bracket level, [mm]

Minimum vertical joint clear gap for contraction, [mm]

Maximum vertical joint expansion, [mm]
Sway
No concerns!


Racking of unitised system without spigot fixing
SERVICEABILITY, MOVEMENT & TOLERANCE STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

32 BRITISH STANDARDS
3.2 Structural tolerance
3.2.1 Concrete Structures
The permitted deviation given here are generally twice the deviation, as the values are given as both plus
and minus numbers, except where separate plus or minus values are given (NSCS Guidance section 10.1.).
The "box principle" will require that all points of the structure are within the specified theoretical position with
a margin in any direction corresponding to the permitted deviation. Where it is applied to the whole building
the tolerance is as given by Cl. 10.2.1; where it is applied to an individual element the tolerance is 20 mm.
Tolerances National Structural Concrete Specification, NSCS:2009
Structure Type

Description Permitted deviation [mm] Clause
Overall
structure
Inclination Location of any column, wall
or floor edge, at any storey
level from any vertical plane
through its intended design
centre at base level
H
min ; 50
200 n


=
`
)

n H approx.
2 6 m 20 = 10mm
3 10 m 30 = 15mm
6 20 m 40 = 20mm
10 30 m 50 = 25mm

10.2.1
Level Level of floors measured
relative to the intended
design level at the reference
level
H 10m : = 15
10m < H < 100m: = 0.5(H+20)
H 100m : = 0.2(H+200)


H approx.
20 m 20 = 10mm
60 m 40 = 20mm
100 m 60 = 30mm

10.2.2
Base
support
Foundations
Plan section Intended plan position 25 = 10.3.1
Vertical section Supporting concrete
superstructure

20 = 10.3.2

Supporting steel
superstructure
15/+5 =
Foundation
bolts and
similar
inserts
Preset bolts prepared for
adjustment
Distance of centre of a bolt
group from intended design
position

6 = 10.4.1
Location of bolt tip and
protrusion
y z
, 10 =
p
5/+25 =
Preset bolts not prepared for
adjustment
Distance of centre of a bolt
group from intended design
position
3 = 10.4.2
Location of bolt tip and
protrusion
y z
, 3 =
p x
, 5/+45 =
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES SERVICEABILITY, MOVEMENT & TOLERANCE
BRITISH STANDARDS 33
Elements -
Columns and
walls

Position on plan Position of the element
centre line relative to the
actual location of the
element at the level below
10 = 10.5.1
Verticality by storey Inclination of a column or
wall at any level
{ }
{ }
h 10m : = max h 400;15
h 100m : = max h 600;25

>

h in mm
10.5.2
Offset between floors Deviation between
centrelines at floor level
( ) { }
1 2
max t t 60;10 20 = +
10.5.3
Curvature between adjacent
floors
Curvature of an element
between adjacent storey
levels
{ }
{ }
h 10m : = max h 400;15
h 100m : = max h 600;25

>

h in mm
10.5.4
Level per storey Level of adjacent floors at
supports
10 = 10.5.5
Distance apart Between adjacent columns
and walls
{ } max l 600;20 40 =
10.5.6
Elements -
Beams and
slabs
Location of beam to column
connection
Measured relative to the
column
{ } max b 30;20 =
10.6.1
Position of bearing axis
support

{ } max l 20;15 =
10.6.2
SERVICEABILITY, MOVEMENT & TOLERANCE STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

34 BRITISH STANDARDS
Straightness of beam Horizontal straightness
{ } max l 600;15 =
10.6.3
Distance apart Between adjacent beams
{ } max l 600;20 40 =
10.6.4
Inclination of beam or slab Difference in level across a
beam or slab at
corresponding points in any
direction
10 + l 500 = 10.6.5
Level of adjacent beams Measured at corresponding
points
10 + l 500 = 10.6.6
Position of slab edge Relative to actual slab edge
position on the floor below
10 = 10.6.7
Section of
elements
Cross-section dimension of
elements
Beams, slabs, columns and
other elements covering
length, breadth and depth
( )
l 150 : = 10
150<l 400 : = 7+l 50
l 400
400<l 2500: = 15+
140
l 2500 : = 30

<


10.7.1
Squareness of element Beams, slabs, columns and
other elements
{ } max a 25;10 20 =
10.7.2
Position of
reinforcemen
t within
elements
Location of reinforcement Gives the tolerance of cover
to reinforcement within an
element
( )
h 150 : = 10
150<h 400 : = 7+l 50
l 400
400<h 2500: = 15+
420
h 2500 : = 20

<


10.8.1
Length of reinforcement lap
joints











0.06 l = 10.8.2
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES SERVICEABILITY, MOVEMENT & TOLERANCE
BRITISH STANDARDS 35
Surface
straightness
Flatness Basic unformed surface
global local
= 12 ; = 5 10.9.1
Ordinary unformed surface
global local
= 9 ; = 3
Ordinary surfaces
global local
= 9 ; = 5
Plain surfaces
global local
= 9 ; = 3
Edge straightness Floor slab or element
{ }
l 1000 : = 8
l 1000 : = min 8l;20

>

10.9.2
Holes and
fixings
Holes Size and location of hole
relative to design position
Position:
1
10 =
Size:
( )
2
2 2
2
2
2
l 150 :=6
150<l 400 :=0.6+0.036l
l 400
400<l 2500:=15+
140
l 2500 :=30

<


10.10.1
Cast-in fixings Individual or group of fixing
location relative to the
intended design position
1 2
, 10 = 10.10.2
Cast-in bolts and similar
fixings
Individual or group of fixing
location relative to the
intended design position
1
6 =
2
3 =
{ }
3 3
max l 200; 5 =
protrusion
5/+25 =
10.10.3


SERVICEABILITY, MOVEMENT & TOLERANCE STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

36 BRITISH STANDARDS
3.2.2 Structural Steel
Deviations of erected components National Structural Steel Specification, NSSS:2007
Structure Type

Description Permitted deviation [mm] Clause
Columns Position at base Deviation of column section
centre line from specified
position

10 =

9.6.1
Level at base Deviation of the top of the
base plate from specified level

5 =
9.6.2
Plumb single storey Deviation of top relative to
base, excluding portal frame
column, on main axes.
{ } max H 600;5 25 =
9.6.3
Plumb multi storey Deviation in each storey
{ }
h
max H 600;5 =
9.6.4
Maximum deviation relative to
base for up to 10 storeys
H
50 =
Maximum deviation relative to
base for more than 10 storeys
To be agreed with the Engineer
Bearing surface Gap between bearing
surfaces
( ) D 1000 1 = + 9.6.5
Eccentricity at column splice Non-intended eccentricity
about either axis
5 =
9.6.6
Alignment at column splice Straightness of a spliced
column between adjacent
storey levels
s 500
with s h 2
=


9.6.7
Alignment of adjacent perimeter
columns
Deviation relative to next
column on a line parallel to
the grid line when measured
at base or splice level
10 =
9.6.8
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES SERVICEABILITY, MOVEMENT & TOLERANCE
BRITISH STANDARDS 37
Beams Beam level

Deviation from specified level
at supporting column
10 =
9.6.9
Level at each end

Relative deviation in level at
ends of same beam
5 =
9.6.10
Level of adjacent beams

Deviation from relative
horizontal levels of adjacent
beams within a distance of 5
metres (measured on
centreline of top flange)
5 =
9.6.11
Beam alignment

Horizontal deviation relative to
an adjacent beam above and
below
h 3 m : = 5
l 3 m : = h 600

>

9.6.12
Crane
gantry
and rail
Columns plumb

Deviation of cap relative to
base
{ }
c
max H 1000;5 25 = 9.6.13
Gauge of rail tracks

Deviation from nominal gauge
10 =
9.6.14
Eccentricity of rail


Eccentricity of rail relative to
web
w
w w
t 10 mm : = 5
t 10 mm : = t 2

>


9.6.15
Deviation in level at rail joint
0.5 =


9.6.16
Deviation in line at rail joint 1 = 9.6.17
Slab Profiled steel floor decking

Deviation of dimension
between decking edge trim
prior to concrete placement
and perimeter beam
10 =
9.6.18
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES STEEL DESIGN
BRITISH STANDARDS 39
II-4 STEEL DESIGN
4.1 Properties of steel
Mechanical properties of structural steel BS 5950:2000 Cl. 3.2.6
Form Density,

[kN/m]
Unit weight,
[kg/m]
Youngs
modulus, E
[N/mm
2
]
Modulus of rigidity,
G = E/[2(1+)]
[N/mm
2
]
Poissons
ratio,
[-]
Thermal
coefficient,
[/C]
All 77.0 7 850 205 000 81 000 0.30 1210
-6

Properties of structural steel (for t 40mm) BS 5950:2000 Table 3.1b
Form Process Grade Yield
strength,
Y
s

[N/mm
2
]
Tensile
strength,
U
s

[N/mm
2
]
Design
strength,
p
y
= Y
s
U
s
/1.2
[N/mm
2
]
Fillet weld
correction
factor,
w
[-]
Remarks
Plates & sections Hot rolled S 235 235 360 235 0.80 [EN 10025]
S 275 275 430 275 0.85
S 355 355 510 355 0.90
S 460 460 540 460 1.00
Hollow sections Hot finished S 235 235 360 235 0.80 [EN 10210]
S 275 275 430 275 0.85
S 355 355 510 355 0.90
S 460 460 560 460 1.00
Cold formed S 235 235 360 235 0.80 [EN 10219] welded
S 275 275 430 275 0.85
S 355 355 510 355 0.90
S 460 460 550 460 1.00
Properties of structural steel fasteners BS 5950:2000 Cl. 6.2
Form Grade Yield
strength,
Y
b

[N/mm
2
]
Tensile
strength,
U
b

[N/mm
2
]
Shear strength,
p
s
= 0.4U
b

[N/mm
2
]
Tension strength,
p
t
= 0.7U
b
Y
b

[N/mm
2
]
Bearing
strength,
p
bb
= 0.7(U
b
+Y
b
)
[N/mm
2
]
Min. clear
threads
[pitch]
Bolts 4.6 240 400 160 240 460 1
4.8 320 400 160 240 500 1
5.6 300 500 200 300 560 1
5.8 400 500 200 350 630 1
6.8 480 600 240 420 750 1
8.8 640 800 375 560 1000 3
10.9 900 1000 400 700 1330 5
Properties of welding consumables BS 5950:2000 Table 10
Form Class Yield
strength,
Y
e

[N/mm
2
]
Tensile
strength,
U
e

[N/mm
2
]
Design strength [parent metal]
p
w
= 0.5U
e
0.55U
s

[N/mm
2
]
[S235] [S275] [S355] [S460]
Remarks
Electrode 35 355 440 130 220 220
u
220
u
See BS5950-2
42 420 500 130
o
220
o
250 250
u

50 500 560 130
o
220
o
250
o
280
Note:
o
Over-matching electrodes

u
Under-matching electrodes. Not to be used for partial penetration butt welds.
STEEL DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

40 BRITISH STANDARDS
4.2 Steel mullion moment of inertia
Required moment of inertia of a split mullion per unit wind load (q
d,k
),
I q
W,k
I* - per split mullion
Minimum required moment of inertia, I [cm
4
] per 1.0 kN/m
2
wind load CWCT:2005 Cl. 3.5.2.2

li mi t
,
[mm] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
3.0 15.0 18.8 20.2 21.4 22.7 23.8 24.9 26.0 26.9 27.8 29.3 30.6 31.4 32.0 32.1
3.1 15.3 21.1 22.6 24.1 25.4 26.8 28.0 29.2 30.3 31.4 33.2 34.7 35.8 36.6 37.0
3.2 15.7 23.5 25.2 26.9 28.4 30.0 31.4 32.8 34.1 35.3 37.4 39.2 40.6 41.7 42.3
3.3 16.0 26.1 28.0 29.9 31.7 33.4 35.0 36.6 38.1 39.5 42.0 44.1 45.8 47.1 48.0
3.4 16.3 28.9 31.1 33.1 35.1 37.1 38.9 40.7 42.4 44.0 46.8 49.3 51.4 53.1 54.2
3.5 16.7 31.9 34.3 36.6 38.9 41.0 43.1 45.1 47.0 48.8 52.1 55.0 57.4 59.4 60.9
3.6 17.0 35.1 37.8 40.3 42.8 45.2 47.5 49.8 51.9 53.9 57.7 61.0 63.9 66.3 68.1
3.7 17.3 38.6 41.5 44.3 47.0 49.7 52.3 54.8 57.1 59.4 63.7 67.5 70.8 73.6 75.9
3.8 17.7 42.2 45.4 48.5 51.5 54.5 57.3 60.1 62.7 65.3 70.1 74.4 78.2 81.4 84.1
3.9 18.0 46.0 49.5 52.9 56.3 59.5 62.7 65.7 68.7 71.5 76.9 81.7 86.0 89.7 92.9
4.0 18.3 50.1 53.9 57.7 61.3 64.9 68.4 71.7 75.0 78.1 84.1 89.5 94.3 98.6 102.3
4.1 18.7 54.4 58.6 62.7 66.7 70.6 74.4 78.1 81.7 85.1 91.7 97.7 103.2 108.0 112.3
4.2 19.0 59.0 63.5 68.0 72.3 76.6 80.8 84.8 88.7 92.5 99.8 106.5 112.5 118.0 122.8
4.3 19.3 63.8 68.7 73.5 78.3 82.9 87.5 91.9 96.2 100.4 108.3 115.7 122.5 128.6 134.0
4.4 19.7 68.8 74.2 79.4 84.6 89.6 94.5 99.4 104.0 108.6 117.3 125.4 132.9 139.7 145.8
4.5 20.0 74.1 79.9 85.6 91.2 96.6 102.0 107.2 112.3 117.3 126.8 135.7 143.9 151.5 158.3
4.6 20.3 79.7 85.9 92.1 98.1 104.0 109.8 115.5 121.0 126.4 136.8 146.5 155.5 163.9 171.4
4.7 20.7 85.6 92.3 98.9 105.4 111.8 118.0 124.1 130.1 136.0 147.2 157.8 167.7 176.9 185.3
4.8 21.0 91.7 98.9 106.0 113.0 119.9 126.6 133.2 139.7 146.0 158.2 169.7 180.5 190.6 199.8
4.9 21.3 98.1 105.9 113.5 121.0 128.4 135.6 142.8 149.7 156.6 169.7 182.2 194.0 204.9 215.1
5.0 21.7 104.9 113.1 121.3 129.4 137.3 145.1 152.7 160.2 167.6 181.8 195.3 208.0 220.0 231.0
5.1 22.0 111.9 120.7 129.5 138.1 146.6 154.9 163.2 171.2 179.1 194.4 209.0 222.8 235.7 247.8
5.2 22.3 119.2 128.7 138.0 147.2 156.3 165.2 174.0 182.7 191.2 207.6 223.3 238.2 252.2 265.3
5.3 22.7 126.9 136.9 146.9 156.7 166.4 176.0 185.4 194.6 203.7 221.3 238.2 254.2 269.4 283.6
5.4 23.0 134.8 145.6 156.2 166.7 177.0 187.2 197.2 207.1 216.8 235.7 253.8 271.0 287.3 302.7
5.5 23.3 143.1 154.5 165.8 177.0 188.0 198.9 209.6 220.1 230.5 250.6 270.0 288.5 306.0 322.6
5.6 23.7 151.8 163.9 175.9 187.7 199.4 211.0 222.4 233.6 244.7 266.2 286.9 306.7 325.5 343.4
5.7 24.0 160.7 173.6 186.3 198.9 211.3 223.6 235.7 247.7 259.4 282.4 304.5 325.6 345.8 365.0
5.8 24.3 170.1 183.7 197.2 210.5 223.7 236.8 249.6 262.3 274.8 299.2 322.7 345.3 366.9 387.5
5.9 24.7 179.7 194.2 208.4 222.6 236.6 250.4 264.0 277.5 290.8 316.7 341.7 365.8 388.9 410.9
6.0 25.0 189.8 205.0 220.1 235.1 249.9 264.5 279.0 293.2 307.3 334.8 361.4 387.1 411.7 435.1
6.1 25.3 200.2 216.3 232.2 248.1 263.7 279.2 294.5 309.6 324.5 353.6 381.9 409.1 435.3 460.3
6.2 25.7 211.0 228.0 244.8 261.5 278.0 294.4 310.5 326.5 342.3 373.1 403.1 432.0 459.8 486.5
6.3 26.0 222.1 240.0 257.8 275.4 292.8 310.1 327.2 344.0 360.7 393.3 425.0 455.7 485.2 513.6
6.4 26.3 233.7 252.6 271.3 289.8 308.2 326.4 344.4 362.2 379.8 414.2 447.8 480.2 511.5 541.6
6.5 26.7 245.6 265.5 285.2 304.7 324.0 343.2 362.2 380.9 399.5 435.9 471.3 505.6 538.7 570.7
6.6 27.0 258.0 278.9 299.6 320.1 340.4 360.6 380.6 400.3 419.9 458.3 495.6 531.8 566.9 600.7
6.7 27.3 270.8 292.7 314.4 336.0 357.4 378.6 399.6 420.4 441.0 481.4 520.7 559.0 596.0 631.8
6.8 27.7 283.9 306.9 329.8 352.4 374.9 397.2 419.3 441.1 462.7 505.3 546.7 587.0 626.1 663.9
6.9 28.0 297.5 321.6 345.6 369.4 393.0 416.4 439.5 462.5 485.2 529.9 573.5 616.0 657.2 697.1
7.0 28.3 311.6 336.8 361.9 386.9 411.6 436.1 460.5 484.6 508.4 555.4 601.2 645.9 689.3 731.3
7.2 29.0 340.9 368.6 396.1 423.5 450.6 477.6 504.3 530.8 557.0 608.7 659.2 708.5 756.5 803.1
7.4 29.7 372.1 402.4 432.4 462.4 492.0 521.5 550.8 579.8 608.5 665.2 720.8 775.0 827.9 879.3
7.6 30.4 404.2 437.1 469.9 502.4 534.8 566.9 598.7 630.4 661.7 723.6 784.3 843.7 901.6 958.1
7.8 31.2 437.2 472.8 508.3 543.6 578.6 613.4 648.0 682.3 716.4 783.6 849.6 914.3 977.4 1039.1
8.0 32.0 471.9 510.4 548.8 586.9 624.8 662.5 699.9 737.1 773.9 846.8 918.4 988.6 1057.3 1124.5
8.5 34.0 566.6 613.0 659.2 705.1 750.8 796.3 841.5 886.4 931.0 1019.3 1106.2 1191.7 1275.5 1357.7
9.0 36.0 673.2 728.4 783.4 838.1 892.6 946.9 1000.8 1054.5 1107.8 1213.5 1317.7 1420.4 1521.4 1620.5
9.5 38.0 792.3 857.4 922.2 986.8 1051.2 1115.2 1179.0 1242.4 1305.6 1430.7 1554.4 1676.3 1796.5 1914.8
10.0 40.0 924.7 1000.8 1076.6 1152.1 1227.4 1302.4 1377.1 1451.4 1525.4 1672.3 1817.5 1961.0 2102.6 2242.2
Span,
h [m]
Steel mullion spacing, b [m]
b
1 2
b
h

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES STEEL DESIGN
BRITISH STANDARDS 41
4.3 Steel transom moment of inertia
Required moment of inertia of sill-split transom per unit weight of glass infill (q
d,k
),
I 2 q
d,k
I
1
* + I
2
*
Assumptions: 1. Estimated transom self-weight, 10kg/m L
0.8
h
0.2

2. Glass dead load is located 150mm from end support.
Minimum required moment of inertia, I* [cm
4
] per 0.5 kN/m
2
20mm glass weight CWCT:2005 Cl. 2.3.2.2
1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0

limit
,
2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
1.0
2.2 2.7 3.2 3.9 4.9 6.2 7.7 9.5 11.6 14.0 16.8 20.0 23.8 28.1 32.9 38.4 44.7 51.7 59.6
1.1 2.4 2.9 3.5 4.2 5.3 6.6 8.2 10.1 12.3 14.8 17.8 21.2 25.1 29.5 34.6 40.4 46.8 54.1 62.3
1.2 2.5 3.1 3.7 4.4 5.6 7.0 8.7 10.7 12.9 15.6 18.7 22.3 26.3 31.0 36.3 42.2 49.0 56.6 65.0
1.3 2.7 3.3 4.0 4.7 6.0 7.4 9.2 11.2 13.6 16.4 19.6 23.3 27.6 32.4 37.9 44.1 51.1 58.9 67.7
1.4 2.9 3.5 4.2 5.0 6.3 7.8 9.7 11.8 14.3 17.2 20.6 24.4 28.8 33.8 39.5 45.9 53.2 61.3 70.3
1.5 3.0 3.7 4.4 5.3 6.6 8.2 10.1 12.4 15.0 18.0 21.5 25.5 30.0 35.2 41.1 47.7 55.2 63.6 72.9
1.6 3.2 3.9 4.6 5.5 6.9 8.6 10.6 12.9 15.7 18.8 22.4 26.5 31.3 36.6 42.7 49.5 57.2 65.9 75.5
1.7 3.4 4.1 4.9 5.8 7.3 9.0 11.1 13.5 16.3 19.6 23.3 27.6 32.5 38.0 44.3 51.3 59.2 68.1 78.0
1.8 3.5 4.3 5.1 6.1 7.6 9.4 11.6 14.1 17.0 20.3 24.2 28.6 33.7 39.4 45.8 53.1 61.2 70.4 80.5
1.9 3.7 4.5 5.3 6.3 7.9 9.8 12.0 14.6 17.6 21.1 25.1 29.7 34.8 40.7 47.4 54.8 63.2 72.6 83.0
2.0 3.8 4.7 5.6 6.6 8.2 10.2 12.5 15.2 18.3 21.9 26.0 30.7 36.0 42.1 48.9 56.6 65.2 74.8 85.5
2.1 4.0 4.8 5.8 6.8 8.6 10.6 13.0 15.7 19.0 22.7 26.9 31.7 37.2 43.4 50.4 58.3 67.1 77.0 87.9
2.2 4.2 5.0 6.0 7.1 8.9 11.0 13.4 16.3 19.6 23.4 27.8 32.7 38.4 44.8 51.9 60.0 69.0 79.1 90.4
2.3 4.3 5.2 6.2 7.4 9.2 11.4 13.9 16.9 20.3 24.2 28.7 33.8 39.5 46.1 53.5 61.7 71.0 81.3 92.8
2.4 4.5 5.4 6.5 7.6 9.5 11.8 14.4 17.4 20.9 24.9 29.5 34.8 40.7 47.4 55.0 63.4 72.9 83.4 95.2
2.5 4.7 5.6 6.7 7.9 9.9 12.2 14.8 18.0 21.6 25.7 30.4 35.8 41.9 48.7 56.4 65.1 74.8 85.6 97.6
2.6 4.8 5.8 6.9 8.2 10.2 12.5 15.3 18.5 22.2 26.4 31.3 36.8 43.0 50.0 57.9 66.8 76.7 87.7 99.9
2.7 5.0 6.0 7.1 8.4 10.5 12.9 15.8 19.1 22.8 27.2 32.1 37.8 44.2 51.3 59.4 68.5 78.6 89.8 102.3
2.8 5.2 6.2 7.4 8.7 10.8 13.3 16.2 19.6 23.5 27.9 33.0 38.8 45.3 52.6 60.9 70.1 80.5 91.9 104.7
2.9 5.3 6.4 7.6 8.9 11.1 13.7 16.7 20.1 24.1 28.7 33.9 39.8 46.4 53.9 62.4 71.8 82.3 94.0 107.0
3.0 5.5 6.6 7.8 9.2 11.4 14.1 17.1 20.7 24.8 29.4 34.7 40.8 47.6 55.2 63.8 73.5 84.2 96.1 109.3
3.1 5.6 6.8 8.0 9.5 11.8 14.5 17.6 21.2 25.4 30.2 35.6 41.8 48.7 56.5 65.3 75.1 86.1 98.2 111.7
3.2 5.8 7.0 8.3 9.7 12.1 14.8 18.1 21.8 26.0 30.9 36.5 42.7 49.8 57.8 66.8 76.8 87.9 100.3 114.0
3.3 6.0 7.2 8.5 10.0 12.4 15.2 18.5 22.3 26.7 31.6 37.3 43.7 51.0 59.1 68.2 78.4 89.8 102.3 116.3
3.4 6.1 7.4 8.7 10.2 12.7 15.6 19.0 22.8 27.3 32.4 38.2 44.7 52.1 60.4 69.7 80.1 91.6 104.4 118.6
3.5 6.3 7.5 8.9 10.5 13.0 16.0 19.4 23.4 27.9 33.1 39.0 45.7 53.2 61.7 71.1 81.7 93.4 106.5 120.9
3.6 6.5 7.7 9.2 10.8 13.3 16.4 19.9 23.9 28.6 33.9 39.9 46.7 54.3 62.9 72.6 83.3 95.3 108.5 123.2
3.7 6.6 7.9 9.4 11.0 13.7 16.7 20.3 24.5 29.2 34.6 40.7 47.7 55.5 64.2 74.0 84.9 97.1 110.6 125.5
3.8 6.8 8.1 9.6 11.3 14.0 17.1 20.8 25.0 29.8 35.3 41.6 48.6 56.6 65.5 75.5 86.6 98.9 112.6 127.7
3.9 6.9 8.3 9.8 11.5 14.3 17.5 21.2 25.5 30.5 36.1 42.4 49.6 57.7 66.8 76.9 88.2 100.7 114.6 130.0
4.0 7.1 8.5 10.1 11.8 14.6 17.9 21.7 26.1 31.1 36.8 43.3 50.6 58.8 68.0 78.3 89.8 102.6 116.7 132.3
4.2 7.4 8.9 10.5 12.3 15.2 18.6 22.6 27.1 32.3 38.3 45.0 52.5 61.0 70.6 81.2 93.0 106.2 120.7 136.8
4.4 7.7 9.3 10.9 12.8 15.9 19.4 23.5 28.2 33.6 39.7 46.6 54.5 63.2 73.1 84.0 96.3 109.8 124.8 141.3
4.6 8.1 9.6 11.4 13.3 16.5 20.2 24.4 29.3 34.8 41.2 48.3 56.4 65.5 75.6 86.9 99.5 113.4 128.8 145.8
4.8 8.4 10.0 11.8 13.8 17.1 20.9 25.3 30.3 36.1 42.6 50.0 58.3 67.7 78.1 89.7 102.6 117.0 132.8 150.2
5.0 8.7 10.4 12.3 14.3 17.7 21.7 26.2 31.4 37.3 44.1 51.7 60.2 69.9 80.6 92.6 105.8 120.5 136.8 154.7
Load
0.6 kN/m
3.2 4.1 5.1 6.3 8.1 10.4 13.0 16.2 19.8 24.1 29.0 34.7 41.1 48.4 56.7 65.9 76.2 87.7 100.4
1 kN 7.1 8.4 9.7 11.2 13.5 16.2 19.3 22.7 26.5 30.6 35.2 40.2 45.7 51.7 58.1 65.1 72.6 80.7 89.3
Glass
height,
h [m]
Steel transom span, L [m]
Additional moment of inertia for occupancy live load, I
2
*

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ALUMINIUM DESIGN
BRITISH STANDARDS 43
II-5 ALUMINIUM DESIGN
5.1 Properties of aluminium structures
Mechanical properties of materials BS 8118-1:1991 Table 2.5
Form Density,

[kN/m]
Unit weight,
[kg/m]
Youngs
modulus, E
[N/mm
2
]
Modulus of rigidity,
G = E/[2(1+)]
[N/mm
2
]
Poissons
ratio,
[-]
Thermal
coefficient,
[/C]
All 26.6 2 710 70 000 26 600 0.30 2310
-6

Properties of aluminium BS 8118-1:1991 Table 4.1
Form Grade Chemical
symbol
Temper Thickness

[mm]
Yielding
stress, p
o

[N/mm
2
]
Local stress,
p
a

[N/mm
2
]
Shear stress,
p
v

[N/mm
2
]
HAZ-factor,
k
z

Sheet 1200 AL99,0 H14 0.2 12.5 90 95 55 0.13
3103 AlMn1 H14 0.2 12.5 110 120 65 0.18
H18 0.2 3.0 150 150 90
5251 AlMg2 H22H24 0.2 6 125175 155200 75105 0.350.24
Extrusion 6063 AlMg0,7Si T6 25 160 175 95 0.50
6082 AlSi1MgMn T6 15 255 275 155 0.50
7020 AlZn4,5Mg1 T6 40 280 310 170 0.60
A
/0.8
B

Note:
A
Tensile stress acting transversely to the axis of weld

B
Longitudinal stress, transverse compression or shear
Properties of aluminium fasteners BS 8118-1:1991 Table 6.1 & BS EN 1999-1-1:2007 Table 3.4
Form Grade Chemical
symbol
Tempering Diameter,
d
[mm]
0.2% Proof
strength, f
0.2

[N/mm
2
]
Tensile
strength, f
u

[N/mm
2
]
Limiting
stress, p
f
[N/mm
2
]
Reference
Rivets 5056A AlMg5 O,FH22 25 - 255280 145 BS 8118
5019 AlMg5 H111 20 110 250 EN 1999-1-1
H14,H34 18 210 300 EN 1999-1-1
5754 AlMg3 H111 20 80 180 EN 1999-1-1
H14/H34 18 180 240 EN 1999-1-1
6082 AlSi1MgMn T4 20 110 205 EN 1999-1-1
T6 20 240 300 EN 1999-1-1
Bolts 5056A AlMg5 H24 12 240 310 175 BS 8118
5754 AlMg3 - 10 20 230180 270250 (AL1) EN 1999-1-1
5019 AlMg5 - 14 36 205205 310280 (AL2) EN 1999-1-1
6082 AlSi1MgMn - 6 36 250260 320310 (AL3) EN 1999-1-1
ALUMINIUM DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

44 BRITISH STANDARDS
5.2 Minimum profile thickness to prevent local buckling
Bending resistance of members may be reduced by local buckling if the component elements are too
slender. The section classification indicates the susceptibility of the profile to local buckling. Therefore, the
designer should consider the slenderness of the individual elements comprising the section such that all
elements are at least semi-compact or class 3.
The table below summarizes the minimum required thickness of the elements of a non-welded aluminium
profile. The requirements stated herein are not mandatory but serves as a guideline for an efficient extrusion
design.
Minimum aluminium profile thickness
BS 8118 Outstand
Alloy I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 O1 O2 O3 O4 O5
6060-T6 b / 29.4 d / 34.6 d / 42 d / 53.5 d / 73.5 b / 9.4 d / 11 d / 13.4 d / 17 d / 23.4
6060-T66 b / 28.4 d / 33.4 d / 40.6 d / 51.6 d / 71 b / 9 d / 10.6 d / 12.9 d / 16.4 d / 22.6
6063-T6 b / 27.5 d / 32.4 d / 39.3 d / 50 d / 68.8 b / 8.8 d / 10.3 d / 12.5 d / 15.9 d / 21.9
6063-T66 b / 25.9 d / 30.5 d / 37 d / 47.1 d / 64.8 b / 8.2 d / 9.7 d / 11.8 d / 15 d / 20.6
6005A-T6 b / 24.6 d / 28.9 d / 35.1 d / 44.7 d / 61.5 b / 7.8 d / 9.2 d / 11.2 d / 14.2 d / 19.6
6061-T6 b / 22.5 d / 26.4 d / 32.1 d / 40.8 d / 56.1 b / 7.1 d / 8.4 d / 10.2 d / 13 d / 17.9
6082-T6 b / 21.8 d / 25.6 d / 31.1 d / 39.6 d / 54.5 b / 6.9 d / 8.2 d / 9.9 d / 12.6 d / 17.3
7020-T6 b / 20.8 d / 24.5 d / 29.7 d / 37.8 d / 52 b / 6.6 d / 7.8 d / 9.4 d / 12 d / 16.5
Internal

Definition of symbols
Internal elements both ends are connected to another elements.
Outstand elements only one end is connected to another element.
1/O1 Horizontal element (i.e., uniform compression stress gradient)
I2/O2 Vertical element with both ends way above or below c.g. (i.e., non-uniform trapezoidal
stress gradient)
I3/O3 Vertical element with one end exactly at the c.g. (i.e., non-uniform triangular stress
gradient)
I4/O4 Vertical element with one end below c.g. and the other above but not in the exactly in
the middle (i.e., non-uniform reversal stress gradient)
I5/O5 Vertical element with c.g. exactly at the middle. (i.e., non-uniform symmetric reversal
stress gradient)








STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ALUMINIUM DESIGN
BRITISH STANDARDS 45

Determining effective thickness of compression element under local buckling BS 8118-1:1991 Cl. 4.3
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data



b
t
p
o

o
= 250 p

Width of critical element, [mm]
Width of critical element, [mm]
Tensile yield strength of alloy, [N/mm2]
Yield point constant, [-]
4.3.2.3

Table 4.1
4.3.4.2
Slenderness
ratio
Uniformly Compressed Element:
a) Unreinforced Element:
( ) ( ) ( ) = 1 b t
b) Singly-reinforced Internal Element:
) (

2
c
h = 1 1+ 2.5(c t - 1) (b t

c) Doubly-reinforced Internal Element:
) (

2
c
h = 1 1+4.5(c t - 1) (b t

d) Reinforced Outstand Element:
(

2
c
h = 1 1+0.1(c t - 1)


( ) ( ) ( ) = h b t


Non-uniform stress gradient:
y
c
y
o
a) for y
c
/y
o
-1.0
o c
g = 0.80 (1- y y )

b) for y
c
/y
o
> -1.0
o c
g = 0.70 +0.30(y y )


( ) ( ) ( ) = g b t



Slenderness ratio, [-]


Note: t
c
must be less than or equal to t for best results.


Slenderness ratio, [-]


Dist. to n.a. of more heavily compressed edge, [mm]
Dist. to n.a. of other edge, [mm]

g for element mostly in compression, [-]

g for element mostly in tension, [-]

Slenderness ratio, [-]


4.3.2.2


Table K.1







4.3.2.3





Table K.1



4.3.2.2
Internal
element
Element Classification:
a) for (/) 18, and
b) for 18 < (/) 22:
L
k = 1.0

b) for (/) > 22:
2
L
k = 32 / ( ) - 220 / ( )


Fully compact element, no local buckling.
Semi-compact element, no local buckling.


Slender element, critical to local buckling.
4.3.3.4
Table 4.3




Table K.1
Outstand
element
Element Classification:
a) for (/) 6, and
b) for 6 < (/) 7:
L
k = 1.0

c) for 7 < (/) 12.1:
2
L
k =11/ ( ) - 28 / ( )

d) for (/) > 12.1:
2
L
k =105 / ( )


Fully compact element, no local buckling.
Semi-compact element, no local buckling.

Slender element, critical to local buckling.


Highly slender element, very critical to local buckling.
4.3.3.4
Table 4.3



Table K.1
Effective
thickness

eff L
t = k t Effective thickness, [mm] 4.3.4.1

ALUMINIUM DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

46 BRITISH STANDARDS
5.3 Aluminium mullion moment of inertia
Required moment of inertia of a split mullion per unit wind load (q
d,k
)
I q
W,k
I* - per split mullion
Minimum required moment of inertia, I [cm
4
] per 1.0 kN/m
2
wind load CWCT:2005 Cl. 3.5.2.2

limit
,
[mm] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
1.5 10.0 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.4 2.7 2.0 1.2 0.6
1.6 10.3 5.6 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.6 5.0 4.3 3.4 2.5 1.6
1.7 10.7 7.1 7.4 7.6 7.8 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.8 7.6 7.1 6.3 5.4 4.3 3.1
1.8 11.0 8.8 9.3 9.6 9.9 10.1 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.1 9.6 8.8 7.8 6.6 5.3
1.9 11.3 10.9 11.4 11.9 12.3 12.6 12.8 13.0 13.0 13.0 12.6 11.9 10.9 9.6 8.1
2.0 11.7 13.2 13.9 14.5 15.1 15.5 15.9 16.1 16.3 16.3 16.1 15.5 14.5 13.2 11.6
2.1 12.0 15.8 16.7 17.5 18.2 18.8 19.3 19.7 20.0 20.2 20.2 19.7 18.8 17.5 15.8
2.2 12.3 18.8 19.9 20.9 21.8 22.6 23.3 23.9 24.3 24.6 24.9 24.6 23.9 22.6 20.9
2.3 12.7 22.0 23.4 24.7 25.8 26.8 27.7 28.5 29.1 29.6 30.2 30.2 29.6 28.5 26.8
2.4 13.0 25.7 27.3 28.9 30.3 31.5 32.7 33.7 34.5 35.2 36.1 36.5 36.1 35.2 33.7
2.5 13.3 29.8 31.7 33.5 35.2 36.7 38.1 39.4 40.5 41.4 42.8 43.5 43.5 42.8 41.4
2.6 13.7 34.2 36.5 38.6 40.6 42.5 44.2 45.8 47.1 48.3 50.2 51.4 51.7 51.4 50.2
2.7 14.0 39.1 41.7 44.3 46.6 48.8 50.9 52.8 54.5 56.0 58.4 60.1 60.9 60.9 60.1
2.8 14.3 44.4 47.5 50.4 53.2 55.8 58.2 60.4 62.5 64.3 67.4 69.7 71.0 71.5 71.0
2.9 14.7 50.2 53.7 57.1 60.3 63.3 66.1 68.8 71.2 73.4 77.3 80.2 82.1 83.1 83.1
3.0 15.0 56.5 60.5 64.3 68.0 71.5 74.8 77.9 80.7 83.4 88.0 91.7 94.3 95.9 96.4
3.1 15.3 63.3 67.8 72.2 76.3 80.3 84.1 87.7 91.0 94.2 99.7 104.1 107.5 109.8 111.0
3.2 15.7 70.6 75.7 80.6 85.3 89.9 94.2 98.3 102.2 105.8 112.3 117.7 121.9 125.0 126.9
3.3 16.0 78.4 84.1 89.7 95.0 100.2 105.1 109.8 114.2 118.4 125.9 132.3 137.5 141.4 144.1
3.4 16.3 86.8 93.2 99.4 105.4 111.2 116.7 122.0 127.1 131.9 140.5 148.0 154.3 159.2 162.7
3.5 16.7 95.8 102.9 109.9 116.6 123.0 129.2 135.2 140.9 146.3 156.3 165.0 172.3 178.3 182.8
3.6 17.0 105.4 113.3 121.0 128.4 135.6 142.6 149.3 155.7 161.8 173.1 183.1 191.7 198.8 204.4
3.7 17.3 115.7 124.4 132.8 141.1 149.1 156.8 164.3 171.4 178.3 191.1 202.4 212.4 220.8 227.6
3.8 17.7 126.5 136.1 145.4 154.6 163.4 172.0 180.3 188.2 195.9 210.2 223.1 234.5 244.2 252.3
3.9 18.0 138.1 148.6 158.8 168.9 178.6 188.1 197.2 206.1 214.6 230.6 245.1 258.0 269.2 278.8
4.0 18.3 150.3 161.8 173.0 184.0 194.7 205.1 215.2 225.0 234.4 252.2 268.4 283.0 295.9 306.9
4.1 18.7 163.2 175.7 188.0 200.0 211.8 223.2 234.3 245.0 255.4 275.1 293.2 309.5 324.1 336.8
4.2 19.0 176.9 190.5 203.9 217.0 229.8 242.3 254.4 266.2 277.6 299.3 319.4 337.6 354.0 368.5
4.3 19.3 191.3 206.1 220.6 234.8 248.8 262.4 275.7 288.6 301.1 324.9 347.1 367.4 385.7 402.0
4.4 19.7 206.4 222.5 238.2 253.7 268.8 283.6 298.1 312.1 325.8 351.9 376.3 398.7 419.2 437.5
4.5 20.0 222.4 239.7 256.7 273.5 289.9 305.9 321.6 336.9 351.8 380.4 407.1 431.8 454.4 474.9
4.6 20.3 239.1 257.8 276.2 294.3 312.0 329.4 346.4 363.0 379.2 410.3 439.5 466.6 491.6 514.3
4.7 20.7 256.7 276.8 296.6 316.1 335.3 354.0 372.4 390.4 408.0 441.7 473.5 503.2 530.7 555.8
4.8 21.0 275.1 296.7 318.0 339.0 359.6 379.9 399.7 419.1 438.1 474.7 509.2 541.6 571.7 599.4
4.9 21.3 294.4 317.6 340.5 363.0 385.2 406.9 428.3 449.2 469.7 509.2 546.7 581.9 614.8 645.2
5.0 21.7 314.6 339.4 363.9 388.1 411.9 435.2 458.2 480.7 502.8 545.4 585.9 624.1 659.9 693.1
5.1 22.0 335.6 362.2 388.4 414.3 439.8 464.8 489.5 513.7 537.4 583.2 626.9 668.3 707.2 743.4
5.2 22.3 357.6 386.0 414.0 441.7 468.9 495.7 522.1 548.0 573.5 622.8 669.8 714.5 756.6 795.9
5.3 22.7 380.6 410.8 440.7 470.2 499.3 528.0 556.2 583.9 611.2 664.0 714.6 762.7 808.2 850.8
5.4 23.0 404.5 436.7 468.5 500.0 531.0 561.6 591.7 621.3 650.5 707.1 761.3 813.0 862.0 908.1
5.5 23.3 429.4 463.6 497.5 531.0 564.0 596.6 628.7 660.3 691.4 751.9 810.0 865.5 918.1 967.9
5.6 23.7 455.3 491.7 527.6 563.2 598.3 633.0 667.2 700.9 734.0 798.6 860.7 920.1 976.6 1030.2
5.7 24.0 482.2 520.8 559.0 596.7 634.0 670.9 707.2 743.1 778.3 847.1 913.4 976.9 1037.5 1095.0
5.8 24.3 510.2 551.1 591.5 631.6 671.1 710.3 748.9 786.9 824.4 897.6 968.2 1036.0 1100.8 1162.5
5.9 24.7 539.2 582.5 625.3 667.7 709.7 751.1 792.1 832.4 872.3 950.0 1025.2 1097.4 1166.6 1232.6
6.0 25.0 569.4 615.1 660.4 705.2 749.6 793.5 836.9 879.7 921.9 1004.4 1084.3 1161.2 1235.0 1305.4
6.2 25.7 632.9 683.9 734.4 784.5 834.0 883.1 931.6 979.5 1026.8 1119.4 1209.2 1295.9 1379.4 1459.4
6.4 26.3 701.1 757.7 813.8 869.4 924.5 979.1 1033.1 1086.5 1139.3 1242.7 1343.3 1440.6 1534.5 1624.8
6.9 28.0 892.6 964.9 1036.8 1108.1 1178.9 1249.1 1318.6 1387.5 1455.7 1589.8 1720.6 1848.0 1971.6 2091.2
7.0 28.3 934.7 1010.5 1085.8 1160.6 1234.8 1308.4 1381.4 1453.7 1525.2 1666.1 1803.6 1937.7 2067.8 2193.9
Span, h
[m]
Aluminium mullion spacing, b [m]
b
1 2
b
h

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ALUMINIUM DESIGN
BRITISH STANDARDS 47
5.4 Aluminium transom moment of inertia
Required moment of inertia of sill-split transom per unit weight of glass infill (q
d,k
),
I 2 q
d,k
I
1
* + I
2
*
Assumptions: 1. Estimated transom self-weight, 5kg/m L
0.8
h
0.2

2. Glass dead load is located 150mm from end support.
Minimum required moment of inertia, I* [cm
4
] per 0.5 kN/m
2
20mm glass weight CWCT:2005 Cl. 2.3.2.2
1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0

limit
,
2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
1.0
5.6 6.8 8.1 9.6 11.9 14.7 18.0 21.8 26.2 31.2 37.0 43.6 51.0 59.4 68.9 79.5 91.4 104.7 119.4
1.1 6.1 7.4 8.8 10.3 12.9 15.9 19.4 23.5 28.1 33.5 39.6 46.6 54.5 63.4 73.4 84.6 97.1 111.1 126.5
1.2 6.6 8.0 9.5 11.1 13.9 17.1 20.8 25.1 30.1 35.7 42.2 49.6 57.9 67.3 77.8 89.6 102.8 117.4 133.6
1.3 7.1 8.5 10.1 11.9 14.8 18.2 22.2 26.7 32.0 38.0 44.8 52.6 61.3 71.2 82.2 94.6 108.4 123.7 140.6
1.4 7.6 9.1 10.8 12.7 15.8 19.3 23.5 28.3 33.9 40.2 47.4 55.5 64.7 75.0 86.6 99.5 113.9 129.9 147.5
1.5 8.1 9.7 11.5 13.5 16.7 20.5 24.9 30.0 35.8 42.4 49.9 58.5 68.1 78.9 91.0 104.4 119.4 136.0 154.4
1.6 8.6 10.3 12.1 14.2 17.6 21.6 26.2 31.6 37.7 44.6 52.5 61.4 71.4 82.7 95.3 109.3 124.9 142.2 161.3
1.7 9.0 10.8 12.8 15.0 18.6 22.8 27.6 33.2 39.6 46.8 55.0 64.3 74.8 86.5 99.6 114.2 130.4 148.3 168.1
1.8 9.5 11.4 13.5 15.8 19.5 23.9 29.0 34.8 41.4 49.0 57.6 67.2 78.1 90.3 103.9 119.0 135.8 154.3 174.8
1.9 10.0 12.0 14.1 16.5 20.5 25.0 30.3 36.4 43.3 51.2 60.1 70.1 81.4 94.1 108.1 123.8 141.2 160.4 181.6
2.0 10.5 12.5 14.8 17.3 21.4 26.2 31.7 38.0 45.2 53.4 62.6 73.0 84.7 97.8 112.4 128.6 146.6 166.4 188.3
2.1 11.0 13.1 15.5 18.1 22.3 27.3 33.0 39.6 47.0 55.5 65.1 75.9 88.0 101.6 116.6 133.4 151.9 172.4 195.0
2.2 11.5 13.7 16.1 18.8 23.3 28.4 34.4 41.2 48.9 57.7 67.6 78.8 91.3 105.3 120.9 138.1 157.3 178.4 201.6
2.3 11.9 14.2 16.8 19.6 24.2 29.5 35.7 42.7 50.8 59.9 70.1 81.7 94.6 109.0 125.1 142.9 162.6 184.3 208.2
2.4 12.4 14.8 17.5 20.4 25.1 30.7 37.0 44.3 52.6 62.0 72.6 84.6 97.9 112.8 129.3 147.6 167.9 190.3 214.8
2.5 12.9 15.4 18.1 21.1 26.1 31.8 38.4 45.9 54.5 64.2 75.1 87.4 101.2 116.5 133.5 152.4 173.2 196.2 221.4
2.6 13.4 15.9 18.8 21.9 27.0 32.9 39.7 47.5 56.3 66.3 77.6 90.3 104.4 120.2 137.7 157.1 178.5 202.1 228.0
2.7 13.9 16.5 19.4 22.7 27.9 34.0 41.1 49.1 58.2 68.5 80.1 93.1 107.7 123.9 141.9 161.8 183.8 208.0 234.5
2.8 14.3 17.1 20.1 23.4 28.9 35.2 42.4 50.7 60.0 70.6 82.6 96.0 110.9 127.6 146.0 166.5 189.0 213.8 241.1
2.9 14.8 17.6 20.8 24.2 29.8 36.3 43.7 52.2 61.9 72.8 85.1 98.8 114.2 131.3 150.2 171.2 194.3 219.7 247.6
3.0 15.3 18.2 21.4 25.0 30.7 37.4 45.1 53.8 63.7 74.9 87.5 101.7 117.4 134.9 154.4 175.8 199.5 225.5 254.1
3.1 15.8 18.8 22.1 25.7 31.7 38.5 46.4 55.4 65.6 77.1 90.0 104.5 120.6 138.6 158.5 180.5 204.7 231.4 260.6
3.2 16.3 19.3 22.7 26.5 32.6 39.6 47.7 56.9 67.4 79.2 92.5 107.3 123.9 142.3 162.7 185.2 210.0 237.2 267.1
3.3 16.7 19.9 23.4 27.2 33.5 40.7 49.0 58.5 69.2 81.3 94.9 110.2 127.1 145.9 166.8 189.8 215.2 243.0 273.5
3.4 17.2 20.5 24.1 28.0 34.4 41.9 50.4 60.1 71.1 83.5 97.4 113.0 130.3 149.6 170.9 194.5 220.4 248.8 280.0
3.5 17.7 21.0 24.7 28.8 35.4 43.0 51.7 61.6 72.9 85.6 99.9 115.8 133.6 153.3 175.1 199.1 225.6 254.6 286.5
3.6 18.2 21.6 25.4 29.5 36.3 44.1 53.0 63.2 74.7 87.7 102.3 118.6 136.8 156.9 179.2 203.7 230.8 260.4 292.9
3.7 18.7 22.2 26.0 30.3 37.2 45.2 54.4 64.8 76.6 89.9 104.8 121.4 140.0 160.5 183.3 208.4 235.9 266.2 299.3
3.8 19.1 22.7 26.7 31.0 38.1 46.3 55.7 66.3 78.4 92.0 107.2 124.3 143.2 164.2 187.4 213.0 241.1 272.0 305.7
3.9 19.6 23.3 27.4 31.8 39.1 47.4 57.0 67.9 80.2 94.1 109.7 127.1 146.4 167.8 191.5 217.6 246.3 277.7 312.1
4.0 20.1 23.9 28.0 32.5 40.0 48.5 58.3 69.5 82.1 96.3 112.1 129.9 149.6 171.5 195.6 222.2 251.5 283.5 318.5
4.2 21.0 25.0 29.3 34.1 41.8 50.8 61.0 72.6 85.7 100.5 117.0 135.5 156.0 178.7 203.8 231.4 261.8 295.0 331.3
4.4 22.0 26.1 30.6 35.6 43.7 53.0 63.6 75.7 89.4 104.7 121.9 141.1 162.4 186.0 212.0 240.6 272.1 306.5 344.1
4.6 23.0 27.2 31.9 37.1 45.5 55.2 66.3 78.8 93.0 109.0 126.8 146.7 168.8 193.2 220.2 249.8 282.3 317.9 356.8
4.8 23.9 28.4 33.3 38.6 47.3 57.4 68.9 81.9 96.7 113.2 131.7 152.3 175.2 200.4 228.3 259.0 292.6 329.4 369.5
5.0 24.9 29.5 34.6 40.1 49.2 59.6 71.5 85.1 100.3 117.4 136.6 157.9 181.5 207.7 236.5 268.1 302.8 340.8 382.2
Load
0.6 kN/m
9.6 12.3 15.3 18.8 24.4 31.1 39.1 48.5 59.5 72.4 87.1 104.1 123.4 145.3 170.0 197.7 228.7 263.1 301.3
1 kN 21.4 25.1 29.2 33.5 40.6 48.7 57.9 68.0 79.4 91.9 105.6 120.7 137.1 155.0 174.4 195.3 217.8 242.0 267.9
Glass
height,
h [m]
Aluminium transom span, L [m]
Additional moment of inertia for occupancy live load, I
2
*


STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES GLASS DESIGN
BRITISH STANDARDS 49
II-6 GLASS DESIGN
6.1 Properties of glass
Mechanical properties of glass IStructE:1999 Table 2.2
Form Density,

[kN/m]
Unit weight,

[kg/m]
Youngs
modulus, E
[N/mm
2
]
Modulus of rigidity,
G
[N/mm
2
]
Poissons
ratio,
[-]
Thermal
coefficient,
[/C]
All 24.5 2 500 70 000 30 000 0.22

810
-6

Note:

BS 6262, 5.5.5.
Toughened glass maximum ratio 7:1 acc. to BS 952-1:1995 cl. 4.1.1.
6.2 Structural sealant glazing (SSG)
BS 6262-6:2005 cl.4.2.2: The glazing should be designed in such a way that the sealant is only subjected to
short duration tensile forces, e.g. wind suction or live loads. Dead loads or sustained loads should be
supported by other means, e.g. setting blocks to carry the glass weight.
The design of the glazing should eliminate shear stresses on the structural sealant.
6.3 Overhead glazing
CIRIA C632:2005 Guidance for glazing at height cl. 2.4.1 states sloping glazingapply to glass at any
angle to the vertical.
BS 5516-1 cl. 3.19 sloping patent glazing having a slope of 75 or less from horizontal.
CWCT Standard for Slope Glazing Systems:1999 covers slope glazing whether used overhead as part of
a roof or as a sloped faade. It includes all uses of glazing from horizontal to 15 from vertical.
CWCT TU 10:2003 covers performance of glass in slope glazing systems that are between vertical and 15
of vertical.
CWCT TN 68:2010 states These definitions of vertical and sloping glazing differ from those used in BS 6262
and BS 5516 where vertical glazing is considered to include glazing up to 15 from true vertical. The
distinction between vertical and sloping glazing in this Technical Note relates to the risk of glass falling from
its frame after fracture. It is considered that gravity is likely to cause broken glass to fall at slopes within 15
of vertical.
6.4 Safety glass
Maximum area of Safety glass under imposed load BS 6180:1999 Table 2

GLASS DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

50 BRITISH STANDARDS
6.5 Balustrades
6.5.1 Balustrade without handrail [BS 6180:2011 cl. 8.1.2]
In the event that a free-standing barrier is supplied without a handrail, each panel should be able to withstand
the appropriate design load.
Any individual point that is damaged and unable to meet the criteria should be replaced with interim guarding
awaiting immediate replacement.
6.5.2 Balustrade requiring handrail [BS 6180:2011 cl. 8.5.2]
Handrail is required where the balustrade protects a difference in level greater than 600mm.
The handrail should be attached to the glass in such a manner that, should a glass panel fracture, the
handrail will remain in position and will not fail if the design load is applied across the resulting gap.


STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES GLASS DESIGN
BRITISH STANDARDS 51
6.5.3 Free-standing balustrades or juliet balconies
Deflection of free-standing glass balustrade is limited to L/65 or 25 mm, whichever is smaller in acc. to BS
6180:2011 cl. 6.4.1. Glass stress is limited to the requirements of DIN.
Maximum height of barrier [m] (Max. wind load [kN/m]) BS 6180:2011
Glass Temper
Barrier load ( 10 min. duration load)
0.36 kN/m 0.74 kN/m 1.5 kN/m 3.0 kN/m
10 mm FT + frit
FT
0.86 (1.1)
"
0.60 (2.7)
0.60 (3.3)
0.33 (9.1)
0.42 (9.4)
-
-
12 mm FT + frit
FT
1.13 (0.8)
"
0.79 (2.3)
0.79 (2.5)
0.47 (6.5)
0.55 (7.4)

15 mm / 16mm FT + frit
FT
1.44 (0.8)
"
1.10 (1.8)
"
0.74 (4.1)
0.77 (5.3)
0.37 (16.4)
0.54 (12.8)
19 mm / 20 mm FT + frit
FT
1.78 (0.8)
"
1.57 (1.2)
"
1.10 (2.9)
1.10 (4.9)
0.60 (10)
0.78 (9.8)
Laminated glass with PVB interlayer (G = 0.5 N/mm @ 30C)*
12.76 mm (PVB)
6/0.76/6
AN
HS
FT
0.50 (1.4) 0.50
1.00 (0.9) 0.93
1.08 (0.8) 1.08

0.58 (3.4) 0.45
" 0.77

0.30 (10) 0.22
0.33 (12) 0.38


0.21 (30)
17.52 mm (PVB)
8/1.52/8
AN
HS
FT
0.95 (0.8) 0.95
1.41 (0.8) 1.41
" "
0.33 (4.4) 0.33
0.91 (2.1) 0.80
" 1.18

0.52 (6.2) 0.39
" 0.68

0.22 (28) -
0.44 (11) 0.34
21.52 mm (PVB)
10/1.52/10
AN
HS
FT
1.19 (0.8) 1.19
1.74 (0.8) 1.74
" "
0.58 (2.5) 0.58
1.41 (1.4) 1.26
1.50 (1.2) 1.50
0.23 (13) 0.23
0.80 (4.5) 0.62
" 0.80

0.38 (15) 0.31
0.48 (17) 0.48
25.52 mm (PVB)
12/1.52/12
AN
HS
FT
1.44 (0.8) 1.44
1.99 (0.8) 1.99
" "
0.97 (1.5) 0.97
1.82 (1.0) 1.81
" 1.82
0.35 (8.6) 0.35
1.15 (3.4) 0.89
" 1.15

0.60 (10) 0.44
0.68 (11) 0.68
31.52 mm (PVB)
15/1.52/15
AN
HS
FT
1.82 (0.8) 1.82
2.36 (0.8) 2.36
" "
1.78 (0.8) 1.78
2.31 (0.8) 2.31
" "
0.59 (5.1) 0.59
1.72 (2.3) 1.40
" 1.72
0.26 (23) 0.26
1.11 (5.4) 0.70
1.26 (5.0) 1.19
Laminated glass with SGP interlayer (G = 65.0 N/mm @ 30C)*
17.52 mm (SGP)
8/1.52/8
AN
HS
FT
1.12 (0.8) 1.06
1.67 (0.8) 1.41
" 1.67
0.68 (2.1) 0.51
1.39 (1.4) 0.80
" 1.38
0.32 (9.6) 0.25
0.97 (3.2) 0.39
0.97 (4.1) 0.68

0.50 (12)
0.68 (10) 0.34
21.52 mm (SGP)
10/1.52/10
AN
HS
FT
1.38 (0.8) 1.38
1.95 (0.8) 1.95
" "
1.03 (1.4) 0.81
1.80 (1.1) 1.26
" 1.80
0.50 (6.0) 0.39
1.33 (2.6) 0.62
1.33 (3.0) 1.06
0.23 (26)
0.76 (7.9) 0.31
0.93 (8.7) 0.53
22.28 mm (SGP)
10/2.28/10
AN
HS
FT
1.43 (0.8) 1.43
2.00 (0.8) 1.95
" 2.00
1.10 (1.3) 0.81
1.86 (0.8) 1.26
" 1.86
0.53 (5.7) 0.39
1.39 (2.5) 0.62
1.39 (2.9) 1.06
0.24 (25)
0.81 (7.4) 0.31
0.98 (8.2) 0.53
25.52 mm (SGP)
12/1.52/12
AN
HS
FT
1.64 (0.8) 1.64
2.21 (0.8) 2.21
" "
1.46 (1.0) 1.16
2.13 (0.8) 1.81
" 2.13
0.71 (4.2) 0.57
1.68 (2.3) 0.89
1.68 (2.4) 1.53
0.34 (17) 0.28
1.07 (5.6) 0.44
1.21 (6.6) 0.76
26.28 mm (SGP)
12/2.28/12
AN
HS
FT
1.69 (0.8) 1.69
2.26 (0.8) 2.26
" "
1.54 (0.8) 1.16
2.20 (0.9) 1.81
" 2.26
0.75 (4.0) 0.57
1.73 (2.2) 0.89
1.73 (2.3) 1.53
0.35 (17) 0.28
1.14 (5.2) 0.44
1.26 (6.4) 0.76
31.52 mm (SGP)
15/1.52/15
AN
HS
FT
2.03 (0.8) 2.03
2.59 (0.8) 2.59
" "
2.03 (0.8) 1.82
2.59 (0.8) 2.59
" "
1.09 (2.7) 0.89
2.08 (1.9) 1.40
" 2.08
0.53 (11) 0.44
1.64 (3.6) 0.70
1.65 (4.8) 1.20
Note: * According to DIBt Zulassungnummer: Z-70.3-170, valid until 7 November 2016. Glass body temperature is
max. 30C since high temperature does not occur at the same time with maximum barrier or wind load.
X Redundancy requirement BS 6180 cl. 8.1.2: In the event of a single ply of the laminate failing, the
remaining element(s) of a toughened laminated design must be capable of withstanding the design loads (i.e.,
design barrier load or interim wind load of 0.80 kN/m). Deflection is controlled by the full thickness.
GLASS DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

52 BRITISH STANDARDS
6.6 Glass fins
6.6.1 Structural sealant for fins
BS6262-6:2005 Clause 5.3 consider 0.275 N/mm
2
design stress for the sealant (i.e. FS = 3.0)



6.6.2 Design of glass fins
Glass fin design IStructE:1999 (AS 1288:1994)
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data
L
d
b
E = 69 GPa; G = 28.3 GPa

allow
[Rec. to use ASTM E1300]
Glass fin unsupported span [mm]
Glass fin depth [mm]
Glass fin effective thickness [mm]
Modulii of elasticity and rigidity of glass [N/mm]
Glass allowable stress [N/mm]




H2
Criteria
M
x

{ {{ { } }} }
x
c b
M
1.0
min M ; M

Calculated bending moment [kNm]

Criteria

Properties
3
y
I d b 12 = = = =
3
db b
J 1 0.63
3 d
| | | | | | | |
= = = =
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

Moment of inertia about major axis [mm
4
]

Torsional inertia [mm
4
]


H2
Critical
buckling
moment
No intermediate buckling restraint:
Free end y-y axis rotation:
y
cr y
EI
3.6 d
M EI GJ 1 0.7
L L GJ
( ( ( (
( ( ( ( = = = =
( ( ( (


Fixed end y-y axis rotation:
y
cr y
EI
6.1 d
M EI GJ 1 0.9
L L GJ
( ( ( (
( ( ( ( = = = =
( ( ( (


Continuously restrained fin:
2
cr y
d GJ
M EI 1.5
L 2 d

( ( ( (
| | | | | | | |
= + = + = + = + ( ( ( (
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . ( ( ( (


Critical buckling moment [kNm]

H3
Table H2




H4
Moment
capacity
2
c allow
b d
M
6


= = = =
b,Rd CR
M M 1.7 = == =
Bending capacity [kNm]
Buckling capacity [kNm]


H1

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES GLASS DESIGN
BRITISH STANDARDS 53
6.6.3 Glass fin table
Toughened Glass Fin (no int. buckling restraint) - Free end y-y axis rotation IStructE:1999 (AS 1288:1994)



18


16


14


12



10




8





6







4
GLASS DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

54 BRITISH STANDARDS
Toughened Glass Fin (no int. buckling restraint) - Fixed end y-y axis rotation IStructE:1999 (AS 1288:1994)



18

16

14


12



10



8





6






4

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES STONE DESIGN
BRITISH STANDARDS 55
II-7 STONE DESIGN
7.1 Properties
7.1.1 Guide range of properties
Properties of stone (for guidance only) CWCT:1997
Stone Density

[kg/m]
Flexural
strength
[N/mm
2
]
Comp.
strength
[N/mm
2
]
Elastic
modulus
[N/mm
2
]
Thermal
expansion
[10
-6
/K]
Porosity

[%]
Granite 2600 3000 8 20 120 240 30 70 8 10 0.4 2.3
Sandstone 2200 2700 2.5 15 30 200 5 20 7 12 0.5 35
Limestone (high) 2200 2900 6 15 55 180 7 3 10 0.5 35
Limestone (low) 2 10 10 90
Marble 30 60 3 15 0.6 2.3

Suggested regime of durability tests CWCT:1997
Test Reference
Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic
Granite Limestone Sandstone Marble Slate
Petrographic description ASTM C295
Water absorption ASTM C295

Porosity


Saturation coefficient


Acid immersion
Salt crystalisation


Freeze Thaw DIN 52104
Wetting drying BS 680
Thermal stability

STONE DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

56 BRITISH STANDARDS
7.2 Design of thin stone for cladding
Statistical evaluation of the test result CWCT:1997
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data x
1
, x
2
.., x
i
.., x
n

n
Measured values [N/mm
2
]
Number of measured values [-]

i
i
1
x = x
n


( )
2
i
x x
s =
n 1


Mean value [N/mm
2
]



Standard deviation [N/mm
2
]

Method 1

100s
V =
x

Coefficient of variation [%]

5.3.2.1



5.3.2.1



Table 5.1







Table 5.2


With aged-strength testing:

FSF = VFDF

ASF = 1.4FSF
Values of variation factor, VF
V [%] Granite Limestone Marble
0 5 2.0 3.0 2.5
5 10 2.5 3.5 3.0
10 20 3.0 4.0 3.5
> 20 3.5 4.5 4.0

Values of durability factor, DF
Fraction of initial flexural
strength* [%]
DF
100% 1.0
75 95 1.2
60 75 1.5
< 60 1.8


Stone flexural safety factor [-]

Stone anchorage safety factor [-]








*Thermal cycling test (300 cycles) acc. to
ASTM C 880:
= (average after/average before) 100%

Without aged-strength testing:

FSF
Values of safety factor, FSF
Granite Limestone Marble
4.0 6.0 5.0

ASF = 1.4FSF


Stone flexural safety factor [-]




Stone anchorage safety factor [-]
5.3.2.2



Table 5.3
Method 2

FOS = K-factor
Values of ks or K-factor
n K-factor*
5 3.41
10 2.36
15 2.07
20 1.93
30 1.78
40 1.70
50 1.65
1.645


*According to BS 2846: Part 3 and are
specific to a confidence level of 95%.
5.3.3

Table 5.4

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CURTAIN WALL, WINDOWS & DOORS
BRITISH STANDARDS 57
II-8 CURTAIN WALL, WINDOWS & DOORS
8.1 CWCT test methods for building envelopes
Standard sequence A (test pressure less than 600 Pa) C CWCT:2005 cl. 8.12.2
No. Test Test method Old method Notes
1 Air permeability Infiltration EN 12153 BS 5368-1
2 Exfiltration
3 Water penetration Static EN 12155 BS 5368-2
4 Wind resistance Serviceability EN 12179 BS 5368-3
BS 6375-1

5 Air permeability Infiltration
6 Exfiltration
7 Water penetration* Static
8 Hose test AAMA 501.2
CWCT TN 41
AAMA 501.2
9 Wind resistance Safety EN 12179 BS 5368-3
10 Impact (optional) Soft body EN 12600 BS 8200 Recommended for propriety envelope tests
Hard body BS 8200 BS 8200
11 Dismantling Inspection
Note: * Additional spray bar test according to EN 13051 may be required by wetting the outer surface of the
building envelope without pressure difference applied across. Meeting this requirement is not a substitute for any
other tests.
Standard sequence B (test pressure 600 Pa) C CWCT:2005 cl. 8.12.2
No. Test Test method Old method Notes
1 Air permeability Infiltration EN 12153 BS 5368-1 Not applicable to rainscreens with separate
backing wall
2 Exfiltration
3 Water penetration Static EN 12155 BS 5368-2 Not applicable to open jointed system
4 Wind resistance Serviceability EN 12179 BS 5368-3
BS 6375-1

5 Air permeability Infiltration See step 1 & 2
6 Exfiltration
7 Water penetration* Static See step 3
8 Dynamic EN 13050 AAMA 501.1
9 Hose test AAMA 501.2
CWCT TN 41
AAMA 501.2 Not applicable to open jointed system
10 Wind resistance Safety EN 12179 BS 5368-3
11 Impact (optional) Soft body EN 12600 BS 8200 Recommended for propriety envelope tests
Hard body BS 8200 BS 8200
12 Rainscreen tests Additional Wind load test on panels
13 Dismantling Inspection
Note: * Additional spray bar test according to EN 13051 may be required by wetting the outer surface of the
building envelope without pressure difference applied across. Meeting this requirement is not a substitute for any
other tests.
CURTAIN WALL, WINDOWS & DOORS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

58 BRITISH STANDARDS
8.2 Impact Resistance of Wall Components [BS 8200]
Impacts on surfaces of the vertical enclosure to buildings BBSEN BS 8200:1985 Table 2
Wall
Category
Description Examples
A
Readily accessible to public and others with little
incentive to exercise care. Prone to vandalism and
abnormally rough use
External walls of housing and
public buildings in vandal prone
areas
Zone of wall up
to 1.5 m above
pedestrian or
floor level
B
Readily accessible to public and others with little
incentive to exercise care. Chances of accident
occurring and of misuse
Walls adjacent to pedestrian
thoroughfares or playing fields
when not in category A
C

Accessible primarily to those with some incentive to
exercise care. Some chance of accident occurring
and of misuse
Walls adjacent to private open
gardens. Back walls of balconies
D
Only accessible, but not near a common route, to
those with high incentive to exercise care. Small
chance of accident occurring or of misuse
Walls adjacent to small fenced
decorative garden with no
through paths
E
Above zone of normal impacts from people but liable
to impacts from thrown or kicked objects
1.5 m to 6 m above pedestrian or floor level at
location categories A and B
F
Above zone of normal impacts from people and not
liable to impacts from thrown or kicked objects
Wall surfaces at higher positions than those
defined in E above
Impact energy [Nm]:

E = Hm9.81m/sec
2

where: H = Height of fall [m]
m = mass of impactor [kg]
Test impact energy [Joules] BBSEN BS 8200:1985 Table 3, 4
Category Soft body impact Hard body impact
Serviceability
S1
Safety*
S1
Serviceability
H1 H2
Safety*
H2
A No test impact values are given. In each case the type and severity of vandalism needs to be carefully
assessed and appropriate impact values determined.
B 120J 500J - 10J 10J
C 120J 500J 6J - 10J
D Risk of impact is minimal and impact test values are therefore not appropriate.
E 120J 350J** 6J - 10J
F

120J 350J** 3J - -
Note: *The wall should not have a reduced performance under impacts for safety. The results of tests should be
defined as follows:
Brittle materials: failure or no damage
Other materials: damage to surface finish, indentation or no damage
Where the damage is a dent, the depth of the dent should be quantified although the criterion for failure
may be an aesthetic one only. The depth of indentation which is acceptable visually depends on the
characteristics of the material, its finish and location.
** External surface only if access is required for cleaning and maintenance.
Impactors BBSEN BS 8200:1985 Table 22
Type Reference Description Diameter Approximate mass
Hard body H1 Steel ball 50 mm 0.5 kg
H2 Steel ball 62.5 mm 1.0 kg
Soft body

S1 Canvas spherical/conical bag filled with 3 mm
diameter glass spheres
400 mm 50 kg
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CURTAIN WALL, WINDOWS & DOORS
BRITISH STANDARDS 59
8.3 Windows and Vents
8.3.1 Setting and location blocks
Positions and number of setting and location blocks should be applied in accordance with BS 6262-0:1982.
The materials used for setting and location blocks are the same.
Setting and location block positions BS 6262-0:1982 Fig. 22
Window Description

Window Description
Fixed light
1


Horizontal pivot

Fixed light (factory glazed)

Vertical pivot

Top hung

Vertical pivot
(off centre)

Side hung or door

Vertical slider

Bottom hung

Horizontal slider

Tilt & Turn

Minimum position of blocks

Note.
1
The position of setting blocks for fixed lights should preferably be at quarter points but can be positioned as
shown below.

Minimum positions of blocks


STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES RAINSCREEN CLADDING
BRITISH STANDARDS 61
II-9 RAINSCREEN CLADDING
9.1 Pressure-equalised system
Conditions for pressure-equalisation acc. to CWCT cl. 2.2.6.1

A > V/80
A = Bh+ Hv - Area of vent
V = BHa - Volume of cavity
Where: B = Width of cladding panel
H = height of cladding panel
a = width of air-space
v = Opening of vertical joint
h = Opening of horizontal joint
Conditions for pressure-equalisation acc. to DIN 18516-1

A
F
0.75%A
W

A
F
= Area of perimeter opening
A
W
= Area of cladding panel

9.2 Fibre reinforced concrete (FRC)
9.2.1 Glass fibre reinforced concrete (GRC/GFRC)

9.3 Subframes
9.3.1 Simplified rules for Z sheeting rail
This section gives empirical rules for the design of certain commonly used members for which a full
theoretical analysis may be impracticable or not justified. The design rules given in this section may be used
as an alternative to the analytical methods. Members designed by a proven method need not conform to the
empirical rules. The design rules in this section apply to all steels with a yield strength, Ys, of not less than
250 N/mm
2
. See Cl. 9.3 BS 5950-5.
The dimensions of a Z sheeting rail should be as follows:
100t overall depth L/45
Total width over both flanges L/60
Overall width of compression flange/thickness, B/t 35
Width of lip B/5
Where: L is the span of the sheeting rail in millimetres (mm);
B is the flange width in millimetres (mm);
t is the thickness of the sheeting rail in millimetres (mm).


CURTAIN WALL, WINDOWS & DOORS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

62 BRITISH STANDARDS
II-10 ROOFS

10.1 Minimum Slope of Roofs and their Gutters [BS 6229 Cl. 7.3]
To ensure that the minimum finished falls listed in Table 6 are achieved, allowance should be made for
deflection of the structural members and decking under dead and imposed loads and for construction
tolerances. The falls assumed for design should, therefore, be steeper than the recommended finished falls.
The design falls should be determined by considering the overall and local deflections, the direction of falls
and the type of roof covering. In the absence of a detailed analysis, a fall of twice the minimum finished fall
should be assumed for design purposes.
Minimum Finished Falls BS 6229:2003 Table 6

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS
BRITISH STANDARDS 63
II-11 CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS
11.1 Fastening bolts and screws
Figure 11.1-1 Bolt symbols


11.1.1 Metric fasteners
Tensile area, A
tb

Thorough testing has shown that fasteners fail in tension at loads corresponding to those unthreaded parts
with diameters approximately midway between their pitch diameters D
p
and minor diameters D
min
.
2
tb
A = 0.7854 (D - 0.9743 P) -
p,min maj
D D - 0.9743 P
Shear area, A
esb

The thread root area is the area of a circle with diameter equal to the basic minor diameter D
root
.
2
esb
A = 0.7854 (D - 1.2269 P) -
root maj
D D - 1.2269 P
Metric thread to ISO 724:1993
Size

Pitch
P [mm]
Major
diameter
D
maj
[mm]
Pitch
diameter
D
p
[mm]
Minor
diameter
D
min
[mm]
Thread root
diameter
D
root
[mm]
Shank
area
A
b
[mm
2
]
Tensile
area
A
tb
[mm
2
]
Thread root
area
A
es
[mm
2
]
Section
Modulus
Z [mm
3
]
M4 0.70
4.0 3.545 3.242 3.141 12.57 8.65 7.75 3.04
M5 0.80
5.0 4.480 4.134 4.019 19.63 13.99 12.68 6.37
M6 1.00
6.0 5.350 4.917 4.773 28.27 19.84 17.89 10.68
M8 1.25
8.0 7.188 6.647 6.466 50.27 36.13 32.84 26.54
M10 1.50
10.0 9.026 8.376 8.160 78.54 57.26 52.29 53.34
M12 1.75 12.0 10.863 10.106 9.853 113.10 83.24 76.25 93.91
M16 2.00 16.0 14.701 13.835 13.546 201.06 155.07 144.12 244.02
M20 2.50
20.0 18.376 17.294 16.933 314.16 242.30 225.19 476.65
M24 3.00
24.0 22.051 20.752 20.319 452.39 348.91 324.27 823.58
M30 3.50
30.0 27.727 26.211 25.706 706.86 555.30 518.98 1667.64
M36 4.00
36.0 33.402 31.670 31.093 1017.88 809.42 759.27 2951.13
M45 4.50
45.0 42.077 40.129 39.479 1590.43 1295.62 1224.11 6040.85
M52 5.00
52.0 48.752 46.587 45.866 2123.72 1744.44 1652.20 9472.67
M60 5.50
60.0 56.428 54.046 53.252 2827.43 2344.95 2227.22 14825.44

CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

64 BRITISH STANDARDS
11.1.2 Capacities of bolts and screws
Capacities of metal fasteners
Capacity in BS 5950-1:2000

Clause BS 8118-1:1991 Clause
Shear
a) General
s esb s
P = A p F
s

b) Packing
pa
4
t d
3

s esb s
pa
9d
P = A p
8d+3t
| |
|
|
\ .

c) Large grip lengths: for T
g
> 5d
s esb s
g
8d
P = A p
3d+T
| |
|
|
\ .

where:
d = diameter of bolt
t
pa
= total tickness of steel packing
T
g
= total tickness of connected plies
Values of p
s
:
p
s
= 160 N/mm
2
for Grade 4.6
p
s
= 375 N/mm
2
for Grade 8.8
p
s
= 400 N/mm
2
for Grade 10.9
p
s
= 0.4U
b
for other grades
6.3.2.1

6.3.2.2



6.3.2.3






Table 30
RS s 1 esb f m
V = K A p V
Values of
s
:

s
= 0.6 for aluminium bolts or rivets

s
= 0.33 for aluminium bolts or rivets
with test values of shear strength

s
= 0.7 for steel bolts or rivets
Values of K
1
:
K
1
= 1.0 for rivets
K
1
= 0.95 for close tolerance bolts
K
1
= 0.85 for normal tolerance bolts
Value of
m
:

m
= 1.2
Values of p
f
for steel fasteners:
p
f
= min. yield stress for steel
fasteners
p
f
= 0.5(f
0.2
+f
u
) 1.2 f
0.2
for stainless
steel
Values of p
f
for aluminium fasteners:
p
f
= 165 N/mm
2
for bolts (6082 T6)
p
f
= 175 N/mm
2
for bolts (6061 T8)
p
f
= 175 N/mm
2
for bolts (5056A H24)
p
f
= 140 N/mm
2
for rivets (5154A H22)
p
f
= 165 N/mm
2
for rivets (6082 T6)
p
f
= 155 N/mm
2
for rivets (5056A H22)
6.4.2








Table 3.3

6.4.1


Table 6.1


Tension


t tb t
P = A p F
t

Values of p
t
:
p
t
= 240 N/mm
2
for Grade 4.6
p
t
= 560 N/mm
2
for Grade 8.8
p
t
= 700 N/mm
2
for Grade 10.9
p
t
= 0.7U
b
Y
b
for other grades
6.3.4.3
Table 34
RT tb f m
P = A p P
Values of :

s
= 0.6 for aluminium bolts

s
= 1.0 for steel bolts or rivets
Note: Use of aluminium rivets in tension is
not recommended.
6.4.3
Combined
shear and
tension
s t
s t
F F
+ 1.4
P P

6.3.4.4


2 2
RT RS
P V
+ 1.0
P V
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .

6.4.5
Bearing
a) Bearing of bolt
bb p bb
P = dt p F
b

b) Bearing of connected part
bs bs p bs bs p bs
P = k dt p 0.5k et p
where:
t
p
= thickness of connected part, or for
countersunk bolts, thickness of part
minus half the depth of countersinking
e = edge distance in the direction of load
Values of k
bs
:
k
bs
= 1.0 for standard holes
k
bs
= 0.7 for short slot & oversized holes
k
bs
= 0.5 for long slot & kidney-shaped
Values of p
bb
:
p
bb
= 460 N/mm
2
for Grade 4.6
p
bb
= 1000 N/mm
2
for Grade 8.8
p
bb
= 1300 N/mm
2
for Grade 10.9
p
bb
= 0.7 (Y
b
+U
b
) for other grades
Values of p
bs
:
p
bs
= 460 N/mm
2
for S275
p
bs
= 550 N/mm
2
for S355
p
bs
= 670 N/mm
2
for S460
p
bs
= 0.67 (Y
s
+U
s
) for other steel grades
6.3.3.2

6.3.3.3







6.3.3.3




Table 31




Table 32
a) Bearing of fastener
RF f f m
B = d t2p V
b) Bearing of connected part
RP f a m
B = d tcp

where:
d
f
= diameter of fastener
t = thickness of connected part, or for
countersunk bolts, thickness of part
minus half the depth of countersinking
Values of c:
c = 2 when d
f
/t 10
c = 20t/d
f
when 10 < d
f
/t < 13
c = 1.5 when d
f
/t 13
Values of p
a
:
p
a
= 110 N/mm
2
for conn. part
(1200H14)
p
a
= 155 N/mm
2
for conn. part (6060 T6)
p
a
= 177 N/mm
2
for conn. part (6063 T6)
p
a
= 225 N/mm
2
for conn. part
(6005AT6)
p
a
= 285 N/mm
2
for conn. part (6082 T6)
p
a
= 0.5(f
0.2
+f
u
) 1.2 f
0.2
for other parts

6.4.4




STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS
BRITISH STANDARDS 65

Thread stipping resistance Dose & Schwarz
Action Values Notes Reference
Shear-tension
coefficient
a) Fastener

B
= 0.57 for aluminium
b) Threaded part

M
= 0.44 for aluminium

M
= 0.58 for steel

M
= 0.77 for stainless steel
Conservative values




Schwarz
Shear tension limit
a) Fastener
mB B uB m
= f
b) Threaded part
mM M uM m
= f

( )
mM
B
mB mM
=

+

where:
f
uB
= tensile strength of fastener
f
uM
= tensile strength of threaded part

m
= 1.2



Dose
Strip-off diameter
p B maj
P
d = D +(0.5 ) D
tan30


where:
P = thread pitch of fastener
D
p
= pitch diameter of fastener
D
maj
= major diameter of fastener
Dose
Pull-out capacity
mB B mB
F = d t 1.5

where:
t = length of thread engagement
Dose

CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

66 BRITISH STANDARDS
11.2 Weld
11.2.1 Capacity of welds for steel design
Intermittent fillet welds should have longitudinal clear spacing not exceeding the lesser of :
- 16thickness of thinner parent material or 300mm if it is in compression or shear.
- 24thickness of thinner parent material or 300mm if it is in tension.
Capacity of steel welds BS 5950-1:2000
Type Action

Notes Clause
Data

1,

1,

2


F
L

2 2
T Tx Ty
F = F F +
a = 0.70size of weld
p
w
p
y
Factored stresses, normal and shear perpendicular to, and
shear stress parallel to, throat section, respectively [N/mm
2
]
Design longitudinal force per unit length [N/mm]
Design tangential force per unit length [N/mm]
Throat size of weld [mm]
Design strength of weld material (see Error! Reference
source not found.) [N/mm
2
]
Design strength of parent material [N/mm
2
]
6.8.7.3

6.8.7.1
Table 37
Fillet weld Simple method:
2 2 2
1 1 2 w
+ + p
Directional method:
2 2
L T
L T
F F
+ 1.0
P P
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .

where:
L w
P = a p
T L
P = K P
-1 Tx
Ty
F
= 45 tan
F
| |
|
|
\ .

2
1.5
K = 1.25
1+cos








Longitudinal shear capacity per unit length
Transverse capacity per unit length

Angle between the resultant
transverse force F
T
the throat of the
weld []

Coefficient [-]

6.8.7.2


6.8.7.3

Butt weld
2 2 2
1 1 2 y
+ + p
Check for vector sum of stresses 6.9.3


STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS
BRITISH STANDARDS 67
11.2.2 Capacity of welds for aluminium design
Intermittent welds should have longitudinal clear spacing not exceeding the lesser of 10t or 300mm if it is in
compression or shear, 24t or 300mm if it is in tension.
Capacity of aluminium welds BS 8118-1:1991
Type Factored resistance of weld Clause
Data










Values of t
e


Values of g
t

1,

1,

2
2 2 2
a b c
S = S S S + +

t
L
l
e
= L 2(weld width)
l
f
(see Fig. 6.6)
p
w

m
= 1.2
Factored stresses [N/mm
2
]
Design axial, longitudinal and transverse loads [kN]
Angle between line of weld and direction of load
Thickness of the thinner part connected [mm]
Length of weld [mm]
Effective length of weld [mm]
Effective length of fillet [mm]
Limiting stress of weld material [N/mm
2
]
Material factor
6.9.1
Fig. 6.5
Fig. 6.4


6.9.1
Fig. 6.6
Table 6.2
Table 3.3
Full and partial penetration J or U type
t
e
= t
Partial penetration V or bevel type
t
e
= lesser of (0.75t) or (t-3mm)

(a) Full penetration weld (b) Partial penetration weld
6.7.8

Fig. 6.1
g
l

t l
g =0.707g
Leg (size) of weld [mm]
Throat (effective size) of fillet weld [mm]
Fig. 6.2
Butt weld









Heat-affected
zones (HAZs)
Generally
2 2
1 2 w m
+3 p
Direct tensile force normal to line of weld
e e
RB w m
l t
P = p
3
S
Oblique tensile force
e e
RB w m
2
l t
P = p
1+2cos
S

6.9.1

Fig. 6.5




Fig. 6.4
Interaction
( ) ( )
2 2
a R b R
S P + S V 1.0
Direct tension normal to line of weld
( )
RFB e z a m
P = Lt k p
( )
RTB z a m
P = Lt k p
Direct shear parallel to line of weld
RFB RTB vz m
V = V = Lt p

Tension capacity at the fusion boundary F [N]
Tension capacity at the toe T [N]
Shear capacity at the fusion boundary and toe [N]
6.9.3 (c)

Fig. 6.3


6.9.3 (a)

6.9.3 (b)
Fillet weld









Heat-affected
zones (HAZs)
Generally
( )
2 2 2
1 1 2 w m
+3 + p
Load perpendicular to line of weld
e t
RF w m
0.85 l g
P = p
2
S
a

Load parallel to line of weld
f t
RF w m
0.85 l g
P = p
3
S
c




6.9.2


Fig. 6.2


Fig. 6.6

6.7.9
Interaction
( ) ( )
2 2
a R b R
S P + S V 1.0
Direct tension normal to line of weld
( )
RFF 1 z a m
P = Lg k p
( )
RTF z a m
P = Lt k p
Direct shear parallel to line of weld
( )
RFF 1 z v m
V = Lg k p
( )
RTF z v m
V = Lt k p

Tension capacity at the fusion boundary F [N]
Tension capacity at the toe T [N]
Shear capacity at the fusion boundary F [N]
Shear capacity at the toe T [N]
6.9.3 (c)

Fig. 6.3

6.9.3 (a)



6.9.3 (b)
CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

68 BRITISH STANDARDS
11.3 Guide to welding
Weld symbols BS 499


Weld examples - plates

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS
BRITISH STANDARDS 69

Weld examples hollow sections

CONNECTIONS & BRACKETS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES

70 BRITISH STANDARDS
11.4 Bracket
11.4.1 Top of slab fixing
Design of TOS-fixed steel bracket BS 5950-1:2000
Parts

Notes Clause
Data t
p

b
h
p

L
f

L
b

F
g

F
w

p
y

Minimum plate thickness [mm]
Width of plate [mm]
Height of stiffener rib plate [mm]
Cantilever arm of applied loads [mm]
Outrigger distance to fixing/cast-in [mm]
Unfactored gravity load [kN]
Unfactored lateral load [kN]
Design strength of steel [N/mm
2
]

Bracket Plate
a) Simplified
( )
3
g f
p
y
4 1.4F L 10
t
b p

b) Exact
( )
3
g f
w
y 2
p p
4 1.4F L 10
1.4F
+ p
b t b t

Plate with welded stiffener ribs
( )
( )
3
3
g f
w
y
2
b p p
b p p p
1.4F L 10
1.4F 10
+ p
b+2h 2t t
b
h b t + t t
2

(
| |

(
|
\ .
(





Minimum plate thickness [mm]


Combined tension and moment


Combined tension and moment for U
cross-section





4.2.5.2


4.8.2.2


4.8.2.2
Anchor


Reaction forces
Ed g f b
N = 1.4F L L
Ed w
V = 1.4F
2 2
Ed Ed Ed
F = N V +
-1 Ed
Ed
N
= tan
V
| |
|
\ .

Used as design axial, shear and resultant
forces for anchor design [kN]




Angle of incidence of F
Ed
[]





Design of TOS-fixed aluminium bracket BS 8118-1:1991
Parts

Notes Clause
Bracket Plate or extrusion
a) Simplified
( )
( )
3
g f
p
o
4 1.2F L 10
t
b p 1.2

b) Exact
( )
3
g f
w o
2
p p
4 1.2F L 10
1.2F p
+
b t 1.2 b t




Minimum plate thickness [mm]


Combined tension and moment




4.2.5.2


4.8.2.2




STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS
FAADE NOTES


PART III
AMERICAN STANDARDS
3
RD
EDITION 2014
LARRY M. CASTAEDA

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
AMERICAN STANDARDS 3
Table of Contents
III-1 LOADS 5
1.1 Importance factor 5
1.2 Definitions 6
1.3 Dead load, D 6
1.4 Live load, L 7
1.5 Wind load, W 9
1.6 Notional load, N 14
1.7 Load combinations 15
III-2 DEFLECTION & STRUCTURAL MOVEMENTS 17
2.1 Deflection limits 17
2.2 Common structural movements 18
III-3 STEEL DESIGN 21
3.1 Properties of steel 21
3.2 Steel design 22
3.3 Bolted connections to AISC 360-10 29
3.4 Weld connections 32
III-4 STAINLESS STEEL DESIGN 35
4.1 Properties of stainless steel 35
4.2 Design of cold-formed stainless steel structural members 36
4.3 Test 36
4.4 Connections 37
III-5 ALUMINUM DESIGN 41
5.1 Properties of aluminium structures 41
5.2 Allowable stress design 42
5.3 Moment of inertia tables 45
5.4 Thermally separated profiles 46
5.5 Fasteners 47
5.6 Metric fasteneners 48
5.7 Spaced thread fasteners 51
III-6 GLASS DESIGN 53
6.1 Properties 53
6.2 Glass design 54
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
AMERICAN STANDARDS 5

III-1 LOADS
1.1 Importance factor
Use or Occupancy
Risk
category
Snow
I
s

Ice
Seismic
I
e

Wind
[ASCE 7 05]*
thickness
I
i

- wind
I
w

V =
85-100
mph
V >
100
mph
Buildings and other structures that represent a
low risk to human life in the event of failure
I 0.80 0.80 1.00 1.00 0.87 0.77
All buildings and other structures except those
listed in Risk Categories I, III, and IV
II 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Buildings and other structures, the failure of
which could pose a substantial risk to human life.
III 1.10 1.25 1.00 1.25 1.15 1.15
Buildings and other structures, not included in
Risk Category IV, with potential to cause a
substantial economic impact and/or mass
disruption of day-to-day civilian life in the event of
failure.
Buildings and other structures not included in
Risk Category IV (including, but not limited to,
facilities that manufacture, process, handle,
store, use, or dispose of such substances as
hazardous fuels, hazardous chemicals,
hazardous waste, or explosives) containing toxic
or explosive substances where their quantity
exceeds a threshold quantity established by the
authority having jurisdiction and is sufficient to
pose a threat to the public if released.
Buildings and other structures designated as
essential facilities.
IV 1.20 1.25 1.00 1.50 1.15 1.15
Buildings and other structures, the failure of
which could pose a substantial hazard to the
community.
Buildings and other structures (including, but not
limited to, facilities that manufacture, process,
handle, store, use, or dispose of such substances
as hazardous fuels, hazardous chemicals, or
hazardous waste) containing sufficient quantities
of highly toxic substances where the quantity
exceeds a threshold quantity established by the
authority having jurisdiction to be dangerous to
the public if released and is sufficient to pose a
threat to the public if released.
Buildings and other structures required to
maintain the functionality of other Risk Category
IV structures.
Note: The Importance Factors in ASCE 7-05 have been used to adjust the velocity pressure to different annual
probabilities of being exceeded. ASCE 7-10 removed these factors and new wind speed maps are introduced for
each of the risk categories I, II and III/IV also incorporating uniform recurrence interval wind speed contours
throughout all geographic regions including hurricane prone regions. These changes directly affect calculation of
unfactored wind loads. Revised load factors for wind in ASD and LRFD load combinations are coordinated to
compensate for the new wind speeds, resulting in design velocity pressures that are very similar to those calculated
using provisions of ASCE 7-05 for most U.S. regions.
Importance factors by risk category of buildings and other structures ASCE 7:2010 Table 1.5-1 & 15-2
LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
6 AMERICAN STANDARDS
1.2 Definitions
Category Load/strength Definition
Ultimate limit state
(factored loads)
Tensile strength the force required (usually minimum or average) to a member to the
point where it breaks
Characteristic strength value of the strength below which only 5% of all test results would be
expected (probability) to fail
Yield strength The load at which a member experiences a specified amount of
permanent deformation
Proof load the greatest load applied without straining it beyond the elastic limit
(no evidence of deformation)
Service load
(non-factored loads)
Rated capacity the minimum load a complete assembly can withstand before failure in
a laboratory pull test when the product is NEW
Breaking load the lowest breaking force when tested to destruction
Working load limit
(WLL)
the maximum load, specified by the manufacturer following an
assessment by a competent person, authorized to support when the
product is new and when the pull is applied in-line, unless noted
otherwise, with respect to the centreline of the member
Safe working load
(SWL)
the breaking load divided by an appropriate factor of safety (usually
2.0) giving a safe load that could be lifted or be carried. No additional
safety factors required. Ceased to be used in American, ISO and
European standards because of legal implications.
Devices with
counter-mass
Maximum rated load maximum mass (kg) of personnel, including tools and equipment, to
be used with, as specified by the manufacturer
Minimum rated load minimum mass (kg) of personnel, including tools and equipment, to be
used with, as specified by the manufacturer

1.3 Dead load, D
1.3.1 Self-weight, Sw
Weight of facade shall be calculated with a contingency factor on top of the self-weight as calculated from the
table below.
Group Material
Density,
[kg/m]
Group Material
Density,
[kg/m]
Metal Aluminium 2 700 Concrete Normal weight 2 400
Bronze 8 800 Light weight 900 2 000
Copper 8 900 Heavy weight > 2 000
Iron, cast 7 200 Natural Stone Granite, basalt 1 550
Iron, wrought 7 700 Limestone, marble 1 520
Lead 11 400 Sandstone 1 310
Steel 7 880 Wood Timber 750
Stainless Steel 7 850 Plywood 580
Zinc 7 200 Particle board 720
Glass Glass (annealed) 2 500 Fibre board 800
Insulation Rockwool (Loose) 25 Plastic ETFE film -
Rockwool (Medium) 51 PVC-U 250 1 400
Rockwool (Dense) 70 Terra Cotta 1 900

Definition of loading capacities
Density of materials Commentary on ASCE 7:2010
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
AMERICAN STANDARDS 7
1.4 Live load, L
Facade shall be designed to carry and transmit safely all live loads acting on it to the primary structure
through the supports.
1.4.1 Floor live load
Load Description
Uniform load
[kN/m
2
]
Concentrated load*
[kN]
Access floor systems
Office use 2.40 8.9
Computer use 4.79 8.9
Assembly areas and
theaters
Fixed seats 2.87 -
Lobbies, movable seats, platforms 4.79 -
Stage floors 7.18 -
Dining rooms and restaurants 4.79 -
Balconies and decks 1.5 times the live load for the occupancy served. 4.79 -
Catwalks For maintenance access 1.92 1.33
Corridors
First floor 4.79 -
Other floors, same as occupancy served except as indicated -
Dining rooms and Restaurants 4.79 -
Hospitals
Operating rooms, laboratories 2.87 4.45
Patient rooms 1.92 4.45
Corridors above first floor 3.83 4.45
Libraries
Reading rooms 2.87 4.45
Stack rooms 7.18 4.45
Corridors above first floor 3.83 4.45
Manufacturing
Light 6.00 8.9
heavy 11.97 13.4
Offices
Offices 2.40 8.9
Partitions (Cl. 4.3.2: additional live load) 0.72 -
Corridors above first floor 3.83 8.9
Lobbies and first floor corridors 4.79 8.9
Recreational
Bowling alleys, poolrooms, and similar uses 3.59 -
Dance halls and ballrooms 4.79 -
Gymnasiums, grandstands, viewing stands and
bleachers
4.79 -
Stadiums and arenas with fixed seats 2.87 -
Residential
One- and two-family dwellings 1.92 -
All other residential
occupancies
Private rooms and corridors 1.92 -
Public rooms and corridors 4.79 -
Roofs, Lr
All roof surfaces subject to maintenance work - 1.33
Flat, pitched and curved roof 0.96 -
Fabric construction 0.24 -
Assembly or roof gardens 4.79 -
Note: * Cl. 4.4: Uniformly distributed over an area of 0.58 m
2
(762mm762mm).

Live loads ASCE 7:2010 Table 4-1; IBC:2009 Table 1607.1
LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
8 AMERICAN STANDARDS
1.4.2 Live load reduction
Action Values Notes Clause
Data
L
0
4.79 kN/m
2
A
T

Unreduced design live load [kN/m
2
]
Tributary area [m
2
]
4.7.3
Floor live
load


o
LL T
4.57
L L 0.25
K A
| | | | | | | |
| | | | = + = + = + = +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

Reduced design live load [kN/m
2
]

4.7.2
Live load element factor K
LL
:
Element K
LL

Interior columns 4
Exterior columns without cantilever slab 4
Edge columns with cantilever slab 3
Corner columns with cantilever slab 2
Edge beams without cantilever slabs 2
Interior beams 2
All other members not identified, including:
edge beams with cantilever slabs, cantilever beams, one-
way slabs, two-way slabs, members without provisions for
continuous shear transfer normal to their span
1

Table 4-2

Action Values Notes Clause
Data
L
0
0.96 kN/m
2
Unreduced design roof live load [kN/m
2
] 4.8.2
Roof live
load
r o 1 2
L L R R = == = 0.58 kN/m
2
Reduction factor R
1
:
Tributary area K
LL

A
T
18.58 m
2
1
18.58 m
2
< A
T
< 18.58 m
2
1.2-0.011A
T

A
T
18.58 m
2
0.6

Reduction factor R
2
:
Roof pitch K
LL

F 0.48 1
0.48

< F < 1.44 1.2-0.05F
F 1.44 0.6

Reduced design live load [kN/m
2
] 4.8.2

1.4.3 Barrier live loads
Category Sub-category Load direction Concentrated load Uniform load
Handrails and
guards
One- and two-family dwellings
Any
(on top)
0.89 kN
-
All others 0.73 kN/m*
Components
Intermediate rails, balusters and
panel fillers
Horizontal 0.22 kN** -
Grab bars
Any 1.11 kN -
Passenger vehicle
barrier systems
Condition 1 at height of 457mm
Condition 2 at height of 686mm
Horizontal 26.70 kN -
Note: * need not be considered for one- and two-family dwellings, factory, industrial, and storage occupancies, in
areas that are not accessible to the public and that serve an occupant load not greater than 50.
** Uniformly distributed over an area of 0.093 m
2
(305mm305mm).
Reduced uniform live load ASCE 7:2010
Reduced roof live load ASCE 7:2010
Barrier live loads ASCE 7:2010 cl. 4.5; IBC:2009 cl. 1607.7
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
AMERICAN STANDARDS 9

1.5 Wind load, W
1.5.1 Exposure categories
To assign an exposure category, a ground surface roughness within each 45 sector shall be determined for
a distance upwind of the site.
Surface
Roughness
Description
B Urban and suburban areas, wooded areas, or other terrain with numerous closely spaced
obstructions having the size of single-family dwellings or larger.
C Open terrain with scattered obstructions having heights generally less than 9.1 m. This category
includes flat open country and grasslands.
D Flat, unobstructed areas and water surfaces. This category includes smooth mud flats, salt flats, and
unbroken ice.

Exposure
category
Roof
height
Description Illustration
B h 9.1 m Surface roughness B prevails in upwind direction
457 m

h > 9.1 m Surface roughness B prevails in upwind direction
max{792 m; 20 Hr}
C Where Exposures B or D do not apply

D Surface roughness D prevails in upwind direction
max{1,524 m; 20 Hr}

Surface roughness B or C immediately upwind
max{183 m; 20 Hr}
1.5.2 Buildings
OPEN BUILDING - Each wall having at least 80 percent opening:
A
oi
0.8 A
i

PARTIALLY ENCLOSED BUILDING The total area of openings in a wall that receives positive external
pressure (1) exceeds by more than10% the sum of the areas of openings in the balance of the building
envelope (walls and roof), (2) exceeds 0.37 m
2
or 1% of the area of that wall and the percentage of openings
in the balance of the building envelope does not exceed 20 percent:
1. A
oi
> 0.1(A
oT
- A
oi
)
2. A
oi
> min{ 0.37 m
2
; 0.01A
i
}; (A
oT
- A
oi
) 0.20

ENCLOSED BUILDING where open or partially enclosed buildings do not apply.
where:
A
oi
= area of openings in a wall that receives positive external pressure [m
2
]
A
i
= area of the wall that receives positive external pressure [m
2
]
A
oT -
A
oi
= sum of areas of openings in the balance of the building envelope (walls and roof) [m
2
]

Ground surface roughness ASCE 7:2010 Cl. 26.7.2
Exposure categories ASCE 7:2010 Cl. 26.7.3
LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
10 AMERICAN STANDARDS
1.5.3 Wind loads on Main Wind Force Resistings Systems (MWFRS)
Action Values Notes Clause
Velocity
pressure

h
z
V [m/s] = [kph]/3.6
Velocity pressure exposure coefficient, K
z
:
Exposure K
z

B ( (( ( ) )) )
2 7
2.01 z 365.76 0.57
C ( (( ( ) )) )
2 9.5
2.01 z 274.32 0.85
D ( (( ( ) )) )
2 11.5
2.01 z 213.36 1.03
zt
K = 1.0
(conservatively)
d
K = 0.85
(for MWFRS)
2
z z zt d
q = 0.613K K K V
Mean roof height or ht. of structure [mm]
Height above ground level [m]
Basic wind speed, 3-sec. gust at 10m above
ground [m/s]

Topographic factor [-]



Velocity pressure exposure coefficient [-]
Wind directionality factor [-]
Velocity pressure [N/m
2
]
26.3

Fig. 26.5-1


Table 27.3-1



Fig. 26.8-1
Table 26.6-1
27.3.2
Gust-effect
factor
Rigid building or other structures:
G = 0.85 (conservatively)
Flexible or dynamically sensitive structures:
See Cl. 26.9.5
26.9.4

26.9.5
Enclosed &
partially
enclosed
buildings
2
h z zt d
q = 0.613K K K V (where z = h)
2
i z zt d
q = 0.613K K K V (where z = z
i
)
C
p

Internal pressure coefficient,(GC
pi
):
Building (GC
pi
)
-
(GC
pi
)
+

Enclosed - 0.18 + 0.18
Partially enclosed - 0.55 + 0.55
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) ) + z p i pi
p = q GC q GC
+ + + +

( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) ) h p i pi
p = q GC q GC

+ + + +

Velocity pressure considering mean roof
height and the level of the highest opening
(z
i
), respectively [N/m
2
]

External pressure coefficient [-]

Internal pressure coefficient [-]

Positive design wind pressure [N/m
2
]
Negative design wind pressure [N/m
2
]
27.4.1

Fig. 27.4-1
through 3

Table 26.11-1

27.4.1, &
27.4.2
Free roof
2
h z zt d
q = 0.613K K K V (where z = h)
Net pressure coefficient, C
N
:
Open building Reference
Monoslope free roofs Fig. 27.4-4
Pitched free roofs Fig. 27.4-5
Troughed free roofs Fig. 27.4-6
Free roofs Fig. 27.4-7
+/ h N
p = q GC


Velocity pressure [N/m
2
]

Net pressure coefficient [-]




Net design wind pressure [N/m
2
]


Fig. 27.4-4
through 7



27.4.3
Roof
overhangs
C
p

+ h p
p = q GC
( (( ( ) )) ) h p
p = q G C 0.8


External pressure coefficient [-]
Positive design wind pressure [N/m
2
]
Negative design wind pressure [N/m
2
]
Fig. 27.4-1

27.4.4
Parapets
2
p z zt d
q = 0.613K K K V
Combined net pressure coefficient, (GC
pn
):
Parapet (GC
pn
)
Windward +1.5
Leeward -1.0
( (( ( ) )) ) p p pn
p = q GC
Velocity pressure evaluated at the top of the
parapet [N/m
2
]

27.4.5
Wind load on MWFRS ASCE 7:2010 Cl. 26 & 27
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
AMERICAN STANDARDS 11
1.5.4 Wind load on signs, lattice frameworks and trusses
Action Values Notes Clause
Velocity
pressure


h
z
V [m/s] = [kph]/3.6
Velocity pressure exposure coefficient, K
z
:
Exposure K
z

B ( (( ( ) )) )
2 7
2.01 z 365.76 0.57
C ( (( ( ) )) )
2 9.5
2.01 z 274.32 0.85
D ( (( ( ) )) )
2 11.5
2.01 z 213.36 1.03
zt
K = 1.0
(conservatively)
Wind directionality factor, K
d
:
Structure type K
d

Walls, signs & lattice
frameworks
0.85
Trussed
towers
Triangular, square,
rectangular
0.85
Other sections 0.95
2
z z zt d
q = 0.613K K K V
Height or free-standing wall [mm]
Height above ground level [m]
Basic wind speed, 3-sec. gust at 10m
above ground [m/s]
Topographic factor [-]




Velocity pressure exposure coefficient [-]


Wind directionality factor [-]




Velocity pressure [N/m
2
]
Fig. 29.4-1
29.3
Fig. 26.5-1

Table 29.3-1




Fig. 26.8-1


Table 26.6-1




29.3.2
Gust-effect
factor
Rigid building or other structures:
G = 0.85 (conservatively)
Flexible or dynamically sensitive structures:
See Cl. 26.9.5
26.9.4

26.9.5
Freestanding
solid walls
&
Solid signs
solid area
= > 0.70
gross area

| | | | | | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
2
h z zt d
q = 0.613K K K V (where z = h)
C
f
A
s
( (( ( ) )) )
1.5
k 1 1 = = = =

h f s
F = q GC A k
Criterion for solid walls and signs [-]

Velocity pressure [N/m
2
]
Force coefficient [-]
Gross area of the solid wall or sign [m
2
]
Reduction factor [-]
Design wind force [N]
Fig. 29.4-1

29.3.2
Fig. 29.4-1
29.4.1
Fig. 29.4-1
29.4.1
Open signs
& Lattice
frameworks
solid area
= 0.70
gross area

| | | | | | | |

| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

Force coefficient, C
f
:

Flat-sided
members
Rounded,
z
D q
5.3 5.3 > >> >
< 0.1 2.0 1.2 0.8
0.1 - 0.29 1.8 1.3 0.9
0.3 - 0.70 1.6 1.5 1.1
A
f
z f f
F = q GC A
Criterion for open signs [-]

Force coefficient [-]



Projected normal area [m
2
]
Design wind force [N]
Fig. 29.5-2



29.5
29.4.1
Trussed
towers
Force coefficient, C
f
:
Cross-section C
f

Square
2
4 5.9 4 + + + +
Triangle
2
3.4 4.7 3.4 + + + +
A
f

z f f
F = q GC A

Force coefficient [-]



Projected normal area [m2]
Design wind force [N]
Fig. 29.5-3



29.5
29.4.1
Wind load on other structures ASCE 7:2010 Cl. 26 & 29
LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
12 AMERICAN STANDARDS
1.5.5 Wind loads on Components and cladding (C & C)
Action Values Notes Clause
Velocity
pressure

h
z
V [m/s] = [kph]/3.6
Velocity pressure exposure coefficient, K
z
:
Exposure K
z

B ( (( ( ) )) )
2 7
2.01 z 365.76 0.70
C ( (( ( ) )) )
2 9.5
2.01 z 274.32 0.85
D ( (( ( ) )) )
2 11.5
2.01 z 213.36 1.03
K
zt
= 1.0 (conservatively)
K
d
= 0.85 (for Components & cladding)
2
z,h z zt d
q = 0.613K K K V
Mean roof height or ht. of structure [m]
Height above ground level [m]
Basic wind speed, 3-sec. gust at 10m
above ground [m/s]
Topographic factor [-]



Velocity pressure exposure coef. [-]
Wind directionality factor [-]
Velocity pressure [N/m
2
]
26.3

Fig. 26.5-1

Table 30.3-1



Fig. 26.8-1
Table 26.6-1
30.3.2
Internal
Pressure
Enclosed building (GC
pi
)

= +/- 0.18
Partially enclosed (GC
pi
)

= +/- 0.55

Internal pressure coefficient [-]

Table 26.11-1

Enclosed
& partially
enclosed
buildings
Low-rise building, h 18.3 m:
External pressure coefficient,(GC
p
):
Zone (GC
p
) for Area [m
2
]
Roof 0.9 0.9 < A < 9.3 9.3
1, 2, 3 +0.3
0.2968 0.1log A
+0.2
1 -1.0
0.1log A 0.9968
-0.9
2 -1.8
0.7 log A 1.7778
-1.1
3 -2.8
1.7 log A 2.746
-1.1
Walls 0.9 0.9 < A < 46.5 46.5
4,5 +1.0
0.9944 0.1766 log A
+0.7
4 -1.1
0.1766 log A 1.0944
-0.8
5 -1.4
0.3531log A 1.3888
-0.8
{ {{ { } }} } a = min 0.1B; 0.1L; 0.4h

( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
+ h p pi
p = q GC GC
+ + + +
( ( ( (

( ( ( (


( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
h p pi
p = q GC GC

+ + + +
( ( ( (

( ( ( (


Gable roofs, 7



Fig. 30.4-1
through 7





Fig. 30.4-1
30.4.2
High-rise building, h > 18.3 m:
External pressure coefficient,(GC
p
):
Zone (GC
p
) for Area [m
2
]
Roof 0.9 0.9 < A < 46.5 46.5
1 -1.4
0.2943 log A 1.3906
-0.9
2 -2.3
0.412 log A 2.2869
-1.6
3 -3.2
0.5297 log A 3.1832
-2.3
Walls 1.9 1.9 < A < 46.5 46.5
4, 5 +0.9
0.9578 0.2146 log A
+0.6
4 -0.9
0.1431log A 0.9385
-0.7
5 -1.8
0.5723 log A 1.9541
-1.0
{ {{ { } }} } a = min 0.1B; 0.1L 0.9m
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) ) + z p h pi
p = q GC q GC
+ + + +

( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) ) h p h pi
p = q GC q GC

+ + + +




Local corner zone [m]
Design wind pressure, acc. to cl. 30.2.2
minimum 0.77 kN/m
2
[N/m
2
]

Fig. 30.6-1










Fig. 30.6-1

30.6.2
Wind load on C & C ASCE 7:2010 Cl. 26 & 30
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
AMERICAN STANDARDS 13

Action Values Notes Clause
Velocity
pressure
2
h z zt d
q = 0.613K K K V
Velocity pressure considering roof/parapet
height [N/m
2
]
30.3.2
Gust-effect
factor
Rigid building or other structures:
G = 0.85 (conservatively)
Flexible or dynamically sensitive structures:
See Cl. 26.9.5
26.9.4

26.9.5
Free roof
Net pressure coefficient, C
N
:
Open building Reference
Monoslope free roofs Fig. 30.8-1
Pitched free roofs Fig. 30.8-2
Troughed free roofs Fig. 30.8-3
+/ h N
p = q GC



Net pressure coefficient [-]



Net design wind pressure [N/m
2
]

Fig. 30.8-1
through 3


30.8.2
Parapets
( (( ( ) )) )
p
4 ,5
GC
+ + + + + + + +

( (( ( ) )) )
p
4 ,5
GC


( (( ( ) )) )
p
2 ,3
GC


Windward parapet:
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
w p p p
4 ,5 2 ,3
p = q GC GC
+ + + + + + + +
( ( ( (

( ( ( (


Leeward parapet:
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
l p p p
4 ,5 4 ,5
p = q GC GC
+ + + + + + + +
( ( ( (

( ( ( (


Positive external pressure coeff. for walls
Negative external pressure coeff. for walls
Negative external pressure coeff. for roofs


Net design wind pressure [N/m
2
]

Fig. 30.4-1 or
Fig. 30.6-1
Fig. 30.4-2


Fig. 30.9-1

1.5.6 Air-Permeable Cladding [ASCE 7 C30.1.5]
The design wind pressures derived from Chapter 30 represent the pressure differential between the exterior
and interior surfaces of the exterior envelope (wall or roof system). Because of partial air-pressure
equalization provided by air-permeable claddings, the components and cladding pressures derived from
Chapter 30 can overestimate the load on air-permeable cladding elements. The designer may elect either to
use the loads derived from Chapter 30 or to use loads derived by an approved alternative method. If the
designer desires to determine the pressure differential across a specific cladding element in combination with
other elements comprising a specific building envelope assembly, appropriate full-scale pressure
measurements should be made on the applicable building envelope assembly, or reference should be made
to recognized literature (Cheung and Melbourne 1986, Haig 1990, Baskaran 1992, Southern Building Code
Congress International 1994, Peterka et al. 1997, ASTM 2006, 2007, and Kala et al. 2008) for documentation
pertaining to wind loads.
1.5.7 Wind tunnel testing
Action Permissible reduction Absolute minimum reduction* Clause
MWFRS


The overall principal loads in the x and y directions are not
to be less than 80 % of that calculated with Part 1 of
Chapter 27 or Part 1 of Chapter 28.
50 % 31.4.3

Components
and
Cladding**
Pressures shall not be less than 80 % of those calculated
for Zone 4 for walls and Zone 1 for roofs using the
procedure of Chapter 30.
65 %
Note: *1. There were no specific influential buildings or objects within the detailed proximity model.
2. Loads and pressures from supplemental tests for all significant wind directions in which specific influential
buildings or objects are replaced by the roughness representative of the adjacent roughness condition, but
not rougher than exposure B, are included in the test results.
** Zone 5 pressures may be reduced based on the percent reduction of Zone 4 and Zones 2 & 3 pressures
may be reduced based on the percent reduction of Zone 1. See commentary of Chapter 31.
Wind load on C & C ASCE 7:2010 Cl. 26 & 27
Wind tunnel test result limitations ASCE 7:2010 Cl. 31
LOADS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
14 AMERICAN STANDARDS

1.5.8 Load combination for continuous corner cladding
1 3
5
2 4 6

1.6 Notional load, N
1.6.1 Load path connections
All parts of the structure between separation joints shall be interconnected to form a continuous path to the
lateral force-resisting system, and the connections shall be capable of transmitting the lateral forces induced
by the parts being connected. Any smaller portion of the structure shall be tied to the remainder of the
structure with elements having strength to resist a force of not less than 5% of the portions weight.
1.6.2 Lateral forces
Static lateral force applied independently in each of two orthogonal directions at all levels:

Fx = 0.01 Wx
Where:
Fx = the design lateral force applied at story x and
Wx = the portion of the total dead load of the structure,D, located or assigned to level x.
Wind load patterns for corner cladding
100 %

100 % 75 % 75 %
80 % 80 %
60 % 60%
60%
60 %
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES LOADS
AMERICAN STANDARDS 15
1.7 Load combinations
Basic combinations Vertical facade Sloped faade or overhead glazing
1 D D D
2 D + L D + L -
3 D + (L
r
or S or R)

- D + L
r

4 D + 0.75L + 0.75(L
r
or S or R) - -
5 D + (0.6W* or 0.7E) D + 0.6W* D + 0.6W*
6 D + 0.75L + 0.75(0.6W*) + 0.75(L
r
or S or R) D + 0.75L + 0.75(0.6W*) D + 0.75L
r
+ 0.75(0.6W*)
D + 0.75L + 0.75(0.7E) + 0.75S - -
7 0.6D + (0.6W* or 0.7E) - 0.6D + 0.6W
Note: * 1.0W in ASCE 7-05.

Basic combinations Vertical facade Sloped faade or overhead glazing
1 1.4D 1.4D 1.4D
2 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5(L
r
or S or R) 1.2D + 1.6L -
3 1.2D + 1.6(L
r
or S or R) + (0.5L* or 0.5W**)

- 1.2D + 1.6L
r
+ 0.5W**
1.2D + 1.6S + 0.5W**
4 1.2D + 1.0W*** + 0.5L* + 0.5(L
r
or S or R) 1.2D + 1.0W*** 1.2D + 1.0W*** + 0.5S
5 1.2D + 1.0E + 0.5L* + 0.2S - -
6 0.9D + 1.0W*** - 0.9D + 1.0W***
7 0.9D + 1.0E - -
Note:
*
Cl. 2.3.2: 0.5L for L 4.79 kN/m
2
areas not for public assembly, 1.0L otherwise.
** 0.8W in ASCE 7-05.
*** 1.6W in ASCE 7-05.

Allowable stress design, R
a
(ASD) ASCE 7:2010 Cl. 2.4
Load and resistance factor design, R
u
(LRFD) ASCE 7:2010 Cl. 2.3
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES DEFLECTION & STRUCTURAL MOVEMENTS
AMERICAN STANDARDS 17
III-2 DEFLECTION & STRUCTURAL MOVEMENTS
2.1 Deflection limits
Standard Component Description Limit Clause
AAMA
TIR-A11:2004
Framing members H 4.11 m L/175 3.0

4.11 m < H < 12 m H/240 + 6.35 mm
12 m < H See note 1
IBC:2009 Framing member for each individual glass L/175 or 19.1 mm 2403.3
Interior glazing differential deflection of two adjacent
unsupported edges under 0.73 kN/m at 1067 mm above FFL
glass thickness 2403.4
ASTM E 1300 Glass edge support L/175 5.2.4
AAMA Skylights
and sloped
glazing, 1987
IGU
( (( ( ) )) )
2
g
L 100 63.5

Other glass types
( (( ( ) )) )
2
g
L 100 42.3

Structural glass
facades and
enclosures. 2011
Author: Mic Paterson L/50

Standard Component Limit Clause
AISC 360:2010
Loading
D+L
(Short term def.)
D+0.5L
(Long term def.)
-
L3
Floor span (reduced live load) L/360 -
Roof span L/240 -
Cantilevers L/150 -
IBC:2009* Loading L S or W** D + L Table
1604.3
Floor members L/360 - L/240
Roof members
Supporting plaster ceiling
Supporting nonplaster ceiling
Not supporting ceiling
Supporting formed metal roofing

L/360
L/240
L/180
L/150

L/360
L/240
L/180
-

L/240
L/180
L/120
-
Exterior walls and interior partitions
With brittle finishes
With flexible finishes
Supporting formed metal sheeting

-
-
-

L/240
L/120
L/90

-
-
-
Formed metal sheet roofing/siding - L/60 L/60
Aluminum members
Supporting edge of glass
Not supporting edge of glass
Aluminum panels
Aluminum sandwich panels

-
-
-
-

L/175
L/60
L/60
L/120

L/175
L/60
L/60
L/120
Note: *For cantilever members, L shall be taken as twice the length of the cantilever.
**Wind load is permitted to be taken as 0.7 times the components and cladding loads for the purpose of
determining deflection limits herein.
Deflection limits for curtain walling
Deflection limits
DEFLECTION & STRUCTURAL MOVEMENTS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
18 AMERICAN STANDARDS
2.2 Common structural movements
Building envelopes have to accommodate movement of their components and of the supporting structure,
and to make this possible building structures have to be sufficiently stiff.
Type Drift limit Clause
ASCE 7:2010 Risk category I or II III IV Table
12.12-1
Structures, other than masonry shear wall structures, 4
stories or less , with interior walls, partitions, ceilings,
and exterior wall systems that have been designed to
accommodate the story drifts
h/40 h/50 h/67
Masonry cantilever shear wall structures h/100
Other masonry shear wall structures h/150
All other structures h/50 h/67 h/100
For cladding design and other design requirements h/100 12.14.8.5
AISC 360:2010 Total or interstorey drift* H (or h) / 400 - 500 L4

Absolute interstory drift limit** to avoid damage on non-
structural partitions, cladding and glazing.
10 mm
AAMA 501.4:
2000
Recommended Static Test Method for Evaluating
Curtain Wall and Storefront Systems Subjected to
Seismic and Wind Induced Interstory Drifts
h/100
unless otherwise stated
7.2.5
Note: * ASCE Task Committee on Drift Control of Steel Building Structures, 1988.
** Cooney and king, 1988; Freeman, 1977.

Movement
Type Common values Clause
Column
shortening
Steel
construction
Differential column shortening may be a consideration in design and
construction. In some cases, it may occur due to variability in the
accumulation of dead load among different columns (see Figure C
7.1). In other cases, it may be characteristic of the structural system
that is employed in the design.
Consideration of the effects of differential column shortening may be
very important, such as when the slab thickness is reduced, when
electrical and other similar fittings mounted on the Structural Steel
are intended to be flush with the finished floor and when there is little
clearance between bottoms of beams and the tops of door frames or
ductwork.
AISC 303:2005
Cl. 7.13
Concrete
construction

Settlement

Thermal
movement
Steel 0.2mm/m per 15C AISC 303:2005
Cl. 7.13




Allowable storey drift
Structural movements
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES DEFLECTION & STRUCTURAL MOVEMENTS
AMERICAN STANDARDS 19

AISC 303:2005 Fig. C-7.5. Exterior steel column plumbness tolerances normal to building line.

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES STEEL DESIGN
AMERICAN STANDARDS 21
III-3 STEEL DESIGN
3.1 Properties of steel
Form Density,

[kN/m]
Unit weight,
[kg/m]
Youngs
modulus, E
[N/mm
2
]
Modulus of rigidity,
G = E/[2(1+)]
[N/mm
2
]
Poissons
ratio,
[-]
Thermal
coefficient,
[/C]
All 77.0 7 850 200 000 81 000 0.30 1210
-6

Structural shapes Preferred ASTM
Material Standard
Yield strength,
F
y

[N/mm
2
]
Tensile strength,
F
u

[N/mm
2
]
Other Applicable ASTM
Material Standards
W A992
b
345 448 A242
c
Grade 50
A529
a
Grade 50
A572
b
Grade 42, 50, 55
A588
c
Grade 50
A913
b
Grade 50, 60, 65, 70
HP A572
b
Grade 50 345 448 A36
a
Grade 36,
A242
c
Grade 50
A529
a
Grade 50
A572
b
Grade 42, 55
A588
c
Grade 50
A913
b
Grade 50, 60, 65, 70
A992
b

S, M, C, MC &
L
A36
a
248 400 A242
c
Grade 50
A529
a
Grade 50
A572
b
Grade 42, 50, 55
A588
c
Grade 50
A913
b
Grade 50, 60, 65, 70
HSS (Rectangular
and square)
A500
a
Grade B 317 400 A501
a
Grade 36
A618
b
Grade I, II and III
A847
c
Grade 50
Grade C 345 427
HSS (Round) A500
a
Grade B 290 400
Grade C 317 427
Pipe A53
a
Grade B 240 414 N/A
Plates and bars A36
a
248 400 A242
c
Grade 50
A514
d
Grade 100
A529
a
Grade 50, 55
A572
b
Grade 42, 50, 55, 60, 65
A588
c
Grade 50
A852
e
Grade 70
A572
b
Grade 50 345 448
Sheets A570
a
Grade 30 205 340
Grade 40 275 380
Grade 50 345 450 A606
b
, A607
b

Note:
a
Carbon steel

b
High-stregth, low-alloy steel

c
Corrosion-resistant, high-stregth, low-alloy steel

d
Quenched and tempered alloy

e
Quenched and tempered low-alloy
Material constants of structural steel AISC 360:2010 Table B4.1b
Characteristic values of structural steel ASTM A6:2002
STEEL DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
22 AMERICAN STANDARDS
3.2 Steel design
3.2.1 Tension and Compression Members
Mode Values Notes Clause
Tension
(LRFD); (ASD)
u a
t n n t
P P
1.0
P P



General:
n g y
P = A F

n e u
P = A F

where:
e n
A = U A
Pin-connected:
n e u
P = (2t b )F
n sf u
P = A 0.6F
where:
( (( ( ) )) )
e h
b = 2t 16mm b d 2 + + + +
( (( ( ) )) )
sf
A = 2t a d 2 + ++ +

Tensile yielding in the gross section [kN]
(LRFD); (ASD)
t t
0.90 1.67 = = = = = = = =
Tensile rapture in the net section [kN]
(LRFD); (ASD)
t t
0.75 2.00 = = = = = = = =
Net effective area to account for shear lag

Tensile rapture on the net effective area [kN]
Shear rapture on the effective area [kN]
(LRFD); (ASD)
t t
0.75 2.00 = = = = = = = =
Effective width [mm]
Area on the shear failure path [mm
2
]

D2






D3
Table D3.1


D5.1
Compression
(LRFD); (ASD)
u a
c n n c
P P
1.0
P P


(LRFD); (ASD)
c c
0.90 1.67 = = = = = = = =

E1
Local Squashing:
n g y
P =A F
Flexural Buckling*:
n g cr
P = A F
s a
Q Q Q = == =
S S
1
:
z y
KL r 4.71 E QF
( (( ( ) )) )
2
e
2
z
E
F =
KL r


( (( ( ) )) )
QF F
y e
cr y
F = 0.658 QF
S > S
1
:
z y
KL r 4.71 E QF >
( (( ( ) )) )
2
cr
2
z
0.877 E
F =
KL r


Slenderness limit, 4.71(E/F
y
):
Grade
F
y
[N/mm
2
]
y
E
4.71
F

A36 248 133.8
A53 240 136.0
A500
290 123.7
317 118.3
A572 345 113.4
S235 235 137.4
S275 275 127.0
S355 355 111.8


Design compressive strength [kN]




Elastic buckling stress [N/mm
2
]

Critical buckling stress [N/mm
2
]

Selected sections:
Section
z
KL r
e
F
cr
F
Rect.

12KL
b

( (( ( ) )) )
2
2
Eb
0.8225
KL

( (( ( ) )) )
2
2
Eb
0.7214
KL

Circular

4KL
D

( (( ( ) )) )
2
2
ED
2.4674
KL

( (( ( ) )) )
2
2
ED
2.1639
KL


Effective length factor, K:
0.7 0.85 0.85 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.0 2.0

E3
















Note: *Applicable to single angle with b/t 20 with r
z
being the radius of gyration about the minor principal axis.

Design for Tension and Compression Members AISC 360:2010
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES STEEL DESIGN
AMERICAN STANDARDS 23

Unstiffened Elements

s
Q
E7.1
S S S
1
S
1
S
1
< S < S
2
S
2
S S
2

Rolled sections


b
t
1.0
y
E
0.56
F

y
F
b
1.415 0.74
t E
| | | | | | | |

| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

y
E
1.03
F

2
y
0.69E
b
F
t
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

(a)

Built-up sections
c
w
4
k =
h t

b
t
1.0
c
y
Ek
0.64
F

y
c
F
b
1.415 0.65
t Ek
| | | | | | | |

| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

c
y
Ek
1.17
F

c
2
y
0.9Ek
b
F
t
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

(b)

Angles & Other elements


b
t
1.0
y
E
0.45
F

y
F
b
1.34 0.76
t E
| | | | | | | |

| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

y
E
0.91
F

2
y
0.53E
b
F
t
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

(c)

Tees

d
t
1.0
y
E
0.75
F

y
F
b
1.908 1.22
t E
| | | | | | | |

| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

y
E
1.03
F

2
y
0.69E
b
F
t
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

(d)

Rect. and round bars



Q = 1.0

E3
Stiffened Elements

a e g
Q A A = == =
A
e
is calculated based on reduced effective width, b
e

E7.2
S S S
1
S
1
S
1
< S
Doubly symmetrical

w
h
t

1.0
y
E
1.49
F

( (( ( ) )) )
e
cr cr
E 0.34 E
b 1.92t 1 b
F b t F
( ( ( (
= = = =
( ( ( (
( ( ( (


F
cr
is calculated based on Q = 1.0
(a)

Cover plates

b
t
1.0
y
E
1.40
F

Other Elements

b
t
1.0
y
E
1.49
F

Box sections

b
t
1.0
y
E
1.40
F

( (( ( ) )) )
e
y y
E 0.34 E
b 1.92t 1 b
F b t F
( ( ( (
( ( ( ( = = = =
( ( ( (


(b)

Round HSS

D
t
1.0
y
E
0.11
F

( (( ( ) )) )
y
0.038E 2
Q
F D t 3
= + = + = + = +
(c)

Reduction Factor for Compression Elements Subject to Axial compression AISC Table B4.1a & Cl. E7.1 & 2
STEEL DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
24 AMERICAN STANDARDS
3.2.2 Flexural members
Bending
(LRFD); (ASD)
u a
b n n b
M M
1.0
M M
= (LRFD); (ASD)
b b
0.90 1.67 = == =
F1
S M
n
for S S
1
S
1
M
n
for S
1
< S < S
2

I & C, LTB

Flange local buckling

L
b
p y y
M = Z F
p z
y
E
L 1.76r
F
=
y b p
b p
y r p
S L L
C 1 1 0.7 M
Z L L
( ( ( ( | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
( ( ( ( | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |

( ( ( (
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .


F2.2

b
t

p
M
y
E
0.38
F

y
p
y
y
S
b t
1 1 0.7 1.61 0.61 M
Z
E F
( ( ( ( | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
( ( ( ( | | | |
| | | |
| | | |
( ( ( ( | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
\ . \ . \ . \ .

F3.2
Bending about
minor axis
Flange local buckling

-
z y z y
Z F 1.6S F

-
- F6.1
b
t

p
M
y
E
0.38
F

y
p
y
y
S
b t
1 1 0.7 1.61 0.61 M
Z
E F
( ( ( ( | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
( ( ( ( | | | |
| | | |
| | | |
( ( ( ( | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
\ . \ . \ . \ .

F6.2
Square or Rect. HSS
Flange local buckling

Web local buckling

- p
M -
- F7.1
b
t

p
M
y
E
1.12
F

y
p
y
y
S
b t
1 1 3.57 4.0 M
Z
E F
( ( ( ( | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
( ( ( ( | | | |
| | | |
| | | |
( ( ( ( | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
\ . \ . \ . \ .

F7.2
h
t

p
M
y
E
2.42
F

y
p
y
y
S
h t
1 1 0.305 0.738 M
Z
E F
( ( ( ( | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
( ( ( ( | | | |
| | | |
| | | |
( ( ( ( | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
\ . \ . \ . \ .

F7.3
Round HSS
Local buckling

- p
M -
- F8.1
D
t
M
p

y
E
0.31
F

( (( ( ) )) )
y
p
E F
S
0.021 1 M
Z D t
( ( ( (
+ ++ +
( ( ( (
( ( ( (


F8.2
T & Double Angles
Flange in comp., LTB

Flange local buckling

- p y y
M 1.6S F -
( (( ( ) )) )
z 2
b
EI GJ
1 B B
L

+ + + + + + + + ;
z
b
I d
B 2.3
L J
= == =
F9.1
F9.2
f
f
b
2t

p y y
M 1.6S F
y
E
0.38
F

yc f f
p
y
y
S b 2t
1 1 0.7 1.61 0.61 M
Z
E F
( ( ( ( | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
( ( ( ( | | | |
| | | |
| | | |
( ( ( ( | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
\ . \ . \ . \ .

F9.3
Web in comp., LTB


Web local buckling

- y y
S F -
( (( ( ) )) )
z 2
b
EI GJ
1 B B
L

+ + + + ;
z
b
I d
B 2.3
L J
= == =
F9.1
F9.2
w
d
t

y y
S F
y
E
0.84
F

y
y y
w
F
d
2.55 1.84 S F
t E
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
( ( ( (


F9.4
Rectangular bars

b
2
L d
t

p y y
M 1.6S F
y
E
0.08
F

y
b
b y y
2
F
L d
C 1.52 0.274 S F
E
t
( ( ( (
| | | | | | | |

( ( ( ( | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .


F11

Design of Flexural Members AISC 360:2010 Table B4.1b & Cl. F
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES STEEL DESIGN
AMERICAN STANDARDS 25

Mode Values Notes Clause
Laterally
braced at L
b

max m
b
max A B C
12.5 M R
C =
2.5 M 3 M 4 M 3 M + + + + + + + + + + + +

Doubly symmetric section:
m
R = 1.0
Singly symmetric section:
a) Single curvature bending
m
R = 1.0
b) Reverse curvature bending
zTop
m
z
I
R = 0.5+2
I
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .


F1




C-F1
Continuously
braced laterally
on one flange
M
o



M
1



M
CL

Moment at the end of the unbraced length that
gives the largest compressive stress in the
bottom flange [kNm]
Moment at other end of the unbraced length
[kNm]
Moment at the middle of the unbraced length
[kNm]


C-F1





Fig. C-
F1.4










Fig. C-
F1.5
Laterally braced flange in compression:


Case 1A: Negative M
1

( (( ( ) )) )
CL 1
b
o o 1
M M 2 8
C = 3.0
3 M 3 M M
( ( ( ( | | | | | | | |

( ( ( ( | | | |
+ ++ +
( ( ( ( \ . \ . \ . \ .

Case 1B: Positive M
1


1 CL
b
o
2M 8M
C = 3.0
3M
+ ++ +


Case 1A: Negative M
1


Case 1B: Positive M
1


Laterally braced flange in tension:



Case 2A: Both end moments are positive or zero
( (( ( ) )) )
o 1
b
CL
M 0.6M
C = 2.0
M
+ ++ +


Case 2B: One end moment is negative (M
o
)
( (( ( ) )) )
o 1 CL
b
1 CL
0.165M 2M 2M
C =
0.5M M
+ + + +



Case 2C: Both end moments are negative
( (( ( ) )) )
o 1 1
b
CL o
M M M
C = 2.0 0.165
M 3M
+ ++ + ( ( ( (
+ + + +
( ( ( (



Case 2A: Both end moments are positive or zero

Case 2B: One end moment is negative (M
o
)

Case 2C: Both end moments are negative

LTB Modification factor AISC 360:2010 F1 & Comm. F1
STEEL DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
26 AMERICAN STANDARDS
3.2.3 Shear
Mode Values Notes Clause
Shear
(LRFD); (ASD)
u a
v n n v
V V
1.0
V V


= (LRFD); (ASD)
v v
0.90 1.67 = == =

G1
Webs:
n v w y
V = C A 0.6F
Shear coefficient, C
v
:
Sect. A
w
Slenderness C
v

I,C,T
w
ht
w
h t

v y
1.10 k E F
1.0
v y
v y
1.10 k E F
1.37 k E F
>


v y
w
1.10 k E F
h t

v y
1.37 k E F >
( )
v
2
w y
1.51k E
h t F


L bt b t
Rect.
HSS
2ht h t

Shear buckling coefficient, k
v
:
Webs k
v

No
transverse
stiffener
I or C:
w
h t 260 < 5.0
Rect. HSS 5.0
T, L 1.2
With
transverse
stiffeners
2
w
260
a h 3.0 or
h t
(
>
(

5.0
Other a/h
( )
2
5
5
a h
+




Nominal shear strength [kN]

Web shear coefficient [-]








Shear buckling coefficient [-]

a = clear distance between transverse
stiffeners [mm]






G2.1






G4

G5





G2.1

G5

G4


G2.1

Round HSS:
n g cr
V = A 0.5F
For
v
L 4.21 D D t :
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
cr
5
4
v
1.60E
F =
L D D t

For
v
L 4.21 D D t > :
( (( ( ) )) )
cr
3
2
0.78E
F =
D t


Nominal shear strength [kN]
Lv = distance from maximum to zero shear
force [mm]

Critical buckling stress [N/mm
2
]



G6


Design of members in shear AISC 360:2010
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES STEEL DESIGN
AMERICAN STANDARDS 27
3.2.4 Torsion
Mode Values Notes Clause
Torsion
(LRFD); (ASD)
u a
T n n T
T T
1.0
T T


= (LRFD); (ASD)
T T
0.90 1.67 = == =

Hollow
sections
n cr
T = C F
Round HSS
( (( ( ) )) )
2
C = D t t 2
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
( (( ( ) )) )
cr y
3
5
2
4
1.23E 0.60E
F = max ; 0.6F
D t
L D D t




` ` ` `


) ) ) )

Nominal torsion strength [kNm]


Torsional constant [mm]

Critical stress [N/mm]
H3.1


H3.1


Rectangular HSS
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
3
C = 2 B t H t t 4.5 4 t
For
y
h t 2.45 E F :
cr y
F = 0.6F
For
y y
2.45 E F h t 3.07 E F < :
( (( ( ) )) )
( (( ( ) )) )
y y
cr
0.6F 2.45 E F
F =
h t

For
y
3.07 E F h t 260 < :
( (( ( ) )) )
2
cr
2
0.458 E
F =
h t


Torsional constant [mm]

Critical stress [N/mm]
Limiting slenderness:
Grade F
y
y
E
2.45
F

y
E
3.07
F

A500 317 61.54 77.11
A36 248 69.58 87.18
A572 345 58.99 73.92
S235 235 71.47 89.56
S275 275 66.07 82.79
S355 355 58.15 72.87




H3.1

Other
sections
n y
T = C 0.6F
Rectangular section
2
2 3 4
bt 3
C =
t t t t
1+0.6095 0.8865 1.8023 0.91
b b b b
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+ + + + + + + +
| | | | | | | | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

OR
2
1 1
C bc = == =
;
2
2 2
C bc = == =

Nominal torsion strength [kNm]

Torsional constant [mm]


H3.3
Multiple rectangular sections
2
i i i i
C b t = == =

3
i i i i
K b t = == =
( (( ( ) )) )

3
i i i
K b t = == =


i
i
C
C K
K
= == =

Individual torsional constant [mm]
Individual shear constant [mm
4
]
Total shear constant [mm
4
]

Total trsional constant [mm]


Source: Aircraft Structures by J. Perry & J.J. Azar

Design of members in torsion AISC 360:2010
STEEL DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
28 AMERICAN STANDARDS
3.2.5 Cobined forces
Mode Values Notes Clause
Axial and
Flexure
Doubly and singly symmetric members
When
u c,t n
P P 0.2
(LRFD) (ASD)
uy ay
u ux a ax
c ,t n b nx b ny n c ,t nx b ny b
M M
P M P M 8 8
; 1.0
P 9 M M P 9 M M
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

When
u c,t n
P P 0.2 <
(LRFD) (ASD)
uy ay
u ux a ax
c ,t n b nx b ny n c ,t nx b ny b
M M
P M P M 1 1
; 1.0
2 P M M 2 P M M
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

Unsymmetric members
(LRFD) (ASD)
uy ay
u ux a ax
c ,t n b nx b ny n c ,t nx b ny b
M M
P M P M
; 1.0
P M M P M M
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +


H1


H1





H2

Shear, Axial
and Flexure
2 2
(LRFD) (ASD)
u u u a a a a r
c ,t n b n v n T n n c ,t n b n v n T
P M V P M V T T
; 1.0
P M V T P M V T
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
| | | | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

H3.2
Combined forces and torsion AISC 360:2010
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES STEEL DESIGN
AMERICAN STANDARDS 29
3.3 Bolted connections to AISC 360-10
Group
ASTM Grade |
EN Equivalent
Proof stress,
F
y
[N/mm
2
]
Tensile strength,
F
u
[N/mm
2
]

- A307M | 4.6 - | 240 414 | 400
A A325M | 8.8 586 | 640 827 | 800
B A490M | 10.9 827 | 900 1034 | 1000

3.3.1 Dimensions and Distances
Bolt Diameter
d [mm]
Standard
[Diameter]

Oversize
[Diameter]
Short-Slot
[DiameterLength]

Long-Slot
[DiameterLength]
M16 18 20 18 22 18 40
M20 22 24 22 26 22 50
M22 24 28 24 30 24 55
M24 27 30 27 32 27 60
M27 30 35 30 37 30 67
M30 33 38 33 40 33 75
M36 d + 3 d + 8 (d + 3) (d + 10) (d + 3) 2.5d

Bolt Diameter
d [mm]
Standard
[Diameter]

Oversize
[Diameter]
Short-Slot*
[DiameterLength]

Long-Slot*
[DiameterLength]
Minimum
Spacing
[Clause J3.3]
M16 1.375d = 22 1.375d + 2 = 24 1.375d + 3 = 25 2.125d = 34 2.67d
but
3d
is preferred
M20 1.300d = 26 1.300d + 2 = 28 1.300d + 3 = 29 2.050d = 41
M22 1.273d = 28 1.273d + 2 = 30 1.273d + 3 = 31 2.023d = 45
M24 1.250d = 30 1.250d + 3 = 33 1.250d + 3 = 33 2.000d = 48
M27 1.259d = 34 1.259d + 3 = 37 1.259d + 5 = 39 2.009d = 54
M30 1.267d = 38 1.267d + 3 = 41 1.267d + 5 = 43 2.017d = 61
M36 1.278d = 46 1.278d + 3 = 49 1.278d + 5 = 51 2.028d = 73
> M36 1.25d 1.25d + 3 1.25d + 5 2d
Note: * Long axis perpendicular to edge of slot. For long axis parallel to edge, use min. edge distances for standard
holes.

Maximum distance*
Maximum edge distance 12t
p
150 mm
Maximum
spacing
Painted members or unpainted members not subject to
corrosion
24t
p
305 mm
Unpainted members of weathering steel subject to
atmospheric corrosion
14t
p
180 mm
Note: * t
p
is the thickness of the thinner connected part
Characteristic values of fasteners AISC 360:2010 Table J3.2
Maximum Size of Bolt Holes [mm] AISC 360:2010 Table J3.3M
Minimum Edge Distance and Spacing [mm] AISC 360:2010 Table J3.4M & 3.5M
Maximum Edge Distance and Spacing [mm] AISC 360:2010 J3.5
STEEL DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
30 AMERICAN STANDARDS
3.3.2 Metric thread to ISO 724
Height of fundamental triangle
3
H = P sin(60) = P
2
0.866254P
Basic minor diameter
1 1
5 5 3
d = D = d 2 H = d P
8 8

d 1.0825P
Basic pitch diameter
2 2
3 3 3
d = D = d 2 H = d P
8 8
d 0.6495P
Nominal area
2
b
A = 0.7854 d


Size

Pitch
P [mm]
Major
diameter
d, D

[mm]
Minor
diameter
d
1
, D
1
[mm]
Pitch
diameter
d
2
, D
2
[mm]
Nominal
area
A
b
[mm
2
]
M4 0.70 4.0 3.24 3.54 12.57
M5 0.80 5.0 4.13 4.48 19.64
M6 1.00 6.0 4.92 5.35 28.27
M8 1.25 8.0 6.65 7.19 50.27
M10 1.50 10.0 8.38 9.03 78.54
M12 1.75 12.0 10.11 10.86 113.10
M16 2.00 16.0 13.84 14.70 201.06
M20 2.50 20.0 17.29 18.38 314.16
M24 3.00 24.0 20.75 22.05 452.39
M30 3.50 30.0 26.21 27.73 706.86
3.3.3 Bolt design
Mode Values Notes Clause
Criteria
(LRFD); (ASD)
u a
n n
R R
1.0
R R


(LRFD); (ASD) 0.75 2.00 = = = = = = = =


Tension
( (( ( ) )) )
nt b u
R = A 0.75F
Tensile strength [N] J3.6
Shear Threads not excluded from shear planes:
( (( ( ) )) )
nv b u
R = A 0.45F
Threads excluded from shear planes:
( (( ( ) )) )
nv b u
R = A 0.563F
Fillers with t >6mm:
( (( ( ) )) ) k = 1 0.0154 t 6 0.85

Shear strength [N]



Shear strength reduction factor for thick fillers

J3.6



J5.2
Combined
Tension
and Shear
+ (LRFD); + (ASD)
ut uv at av
nt nv nt nv
R R R R
1.3
R R R R

Comm.
J3.7
Bearing Standard, oversized and short-slotted
holes:
nb c u u
R = 1.2l t F 2.4d t F
Long-slotted hole with slot perpendicular
to direction of force:
nb c u u
R = 1.0l t F 2.0d t F
Bearing strength at bolt holes (where deformation at
bolt hole at service load is a design consideration,
otherwise increase by a factor of 1.25) [N]
l
c
= Clear distance, in the direction of the force,
between the edge of the hole and the edge of an
adjacent hole or edge of the material [mm]
J3.10

Metric screw thread ISO 724:1993
Design resistance of bolts in bearing-type connections AISC 360:2010 J3
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES STEEL DESIGN
AMERICAN STANDARDS 31

Size M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 M30
A
b
[mm
2
] 28.27 50.27 78.54 113.1 201.1 314.2 452.4 1017.9
R
nt
[kN] 6.36 11.31 17.67 25.45 45.24 70.7 101.8 229.0
3.82 6.79 10.60 15.27 27.14 42.41 61.07 137.41
(4.77) (8.49) (13.27) (19.10) (33.96) (53.06) (76.41) (171.92)
R
nt
[kN] 12.72 22.62 35.34 50.90 90.48 141.4 203.6 458.0
7.63 13.57 21.21 30.54 54.29 84.82 122.15 274.83
(9.55) (16.98) (26.53) (38.21) (67.92) (106.12) (152.82) (343.84)
R
nt
[kN] 15.90 28.28 44.18 63.62 113.10 176.72 254.47 572.56
9.54 16.97 26.51 38.17 67.86 106.03 152.68 343.53
(11.94) (21.23) (33.16) (47.76) (84.90) (132.65) (191.02) (429.80)
A570 340 3.67 4.90 6.12 7.34 9.79 12.2 14.7 18.4
A36 / A500 400 4.32 5.76 7.20 8.64 11.52 14.4 17.3 21.6
A572 450 4.86 6.48 8.10 9.72 12.96 16.2 19.4 24.3
S235 360 3.89 5.18 6.48 7.78 10.37 13.0 15.6 19.4
S275 430 4.64 6.19 7.74 9.29 12.38 15.5 18.6 23.2
S355 510 5.51 7.34 9.18 11.02 14.69 18.4 22.0 27.5
Note: * Values in () are for threads excluded from shear planes
1000 A490M / 10.9
F
u
[N/mm
2
]
Grade
Bearing
R
nb
/ t
[kN/mm]
R
nv
[kN]
R
nv
[kN]
R
nv
[kN]
A325M / 8.8
A307M / 4.6 400
800


Size M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 M30
A
b
[mm
2
] 28.27 50.27 78.54 113.1 201.1 314.2 452.4 1017.9
R
nt
/ [kN] 4.24 7.54 11.78 16.97 30.16 47.12 67.86 152.68
2.54 4.52 7.07 10.18 18.10 28.27 40.72 91.61
(3.18) (5.66) (8.84) (12.74) (22.64) (35.37) (50.94) (114.61)
R
nt
/ [kN] 8.48 15.08 23.56 33.93 60.32 94.25 135.72 305.36
5.09 9.05 14.14 20.36 36.19 56.55 81.43 183.22
(6.37) (11.32) (17.69) (25.47) (45.28) (70.75) (101.88) (229.23)
R
nt
/ [kN] 10.60 18.85 29.45 42.41 75.40 117.81 169.65 381.71
6.36 11.31 17.67 25.45 45.24 70.69 101.79 229.02
(7.96) (14.15) (22.11) (31.84) (56.60) (88.44) (127.35) (286.53)
A570 340 2.45 3.26 4.08 4.90 6.53 8.16 9.79 12.24
A36 / A500 400 2.88 3.84 4.80 5.76 7.68 9.60 11.52 14.40
A572 450 3.24 4.32 5.40 6.48 8.64 10.80 12.96 16.20
S235 360 2.59 3.46 4.32 5.18 6.91 8.64 10.37 12.96
S275 430 3.10 4.13 5.16 6.19 8.26 10.32 12.38 15.48
S355 510 3.67 4.90 6.12 7.34 9.79 12.24 14.69 18.36
Note: * Values in () are for threads excluded from shear planes
Bearing
R
nb
/ / t
[kN/mm]
R
nv
/ [kN]
R
nv
/ [kN]
R
nv
/ [kN]
A325 / 8.8
A307 / 4.6 400
800
1000 A490 / 10.9
F
u
[N/mm
2
]
Grade

Steel bolt strength table [LRFD] AISC 360:2010 J3.6
Steel bolt strength table [ASD] AISC 360:2010 J3.6
STEEL DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
32 AMERICAN STANDARDS
3.4 Weld connections
Base Metal Electrode Classification
Yield strength
[N/mm
2
]
Tensile strength
F
EXX
[N/mm
2
]
A36 [ 20mm], A53, A500
E60XX 330 414
E70XX 400 480
A36 [> 20mm], A572, A992
SMAW: E7015, E7016, E7018, E7028
Other processes: E70XX

3.4.1 Minimum weld size
Material thickness
of thinner part joined [mm]
Partial-joint-penetration
groove weld
Minimum effective throat
Fillet weld
Minimum weld size Maximum weld size
3 t 5 2 2 t
5 < t 6 3 3
6 < t 13 5 5 t 2mm
13 < t 19 6 6
19 < t 38 8 8
38 < t 57 10 8
57 < t 150 13 8
150 < t 16 8


Mode Values Notes Clause
Criteria
(LRFD); (ASD)
u a
n n
R R
1.0
R R



Fillet weld
n e EXX
R = a l 0.6F
where:
{ {{ { } }} } a = min 0.707s; 0.25l
(LRFD); (ASD) 0.75 2.00 = = = = = = = =
Effective throat [mm]
J2.4
Partial-Joint-
Penetration
Groove weld
n e EXX
R = a l 0.6F
Effective size, a:
J or U
a = depth
60 or V
45 or V a = depth 3mm

Tension & compression
(LRFD); (ASD) 0.80 1.88 = = = = = = = =
Shear
(LRFD); (ASD) 0.75 2.00 = = = = = = = =


Table J2.5
Table J2.1

Electrode Classification AWS D1.1:2004 Table 3.1
Weld size limits AISC 360:2010 Table J2.3 & J2.4
Design resistance of welds AISC 360:2010 J2
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES STEEL DESIGN
AMERICAN STANDARDS 33
3.4.2 AWS Welding symbols

STEEL DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
34 AMERICAN STANDARDS




STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES STAINLESS STEEL DESIGN
AMERICAN STANDARDS 35
III-4 STAINLESS STEEL DESIGN
4.1 Properties of stainless steel
Density

[kN/m]
Unit weight

[kg/m]
Modulus of rigidity
G = E/[2(1+)]
[N/mm
2
]
Poissons ratio

[-]
Thermal coefficient

[/C]
77.0 7 850 77 000 0.30 1610
-6


Type EN Designation Yield strength
F
y
[N/mm
2
]
Tensile strength
F
u
[N/mm
2
]
Free 180 Bend radius
t 1.3 mm t 4.8 mm
304 1.4301 205 515 t t
316 1.4401 t 2t
304L 1.4306, 1.4307 170 485 t 2t
316L 1.4404, 1.4435 t 2t

Type Cold
working
Initial modulus
of elasticity
E
0
[N/mm
2
]
Yield strength, F
y
[N/mm
2
] | n* Shear yield
Strength,
F
yv
[N/mm
2
]
Tensile
strength,
F
u
[N/mm
2
]
Longitudinal
tension
Transverse
tension
Transverse
comp.
Longitudinal
comp.
304,
316
Annealed 193 100 205 | 8.31 205 | 7.78 205 | 8.63 190 | 4.10 115 515
1/16 Hard 193 100 310 | 8.31 310 | 7.78 310 | 8.63 280 | 4.10 170 550
1/4 Hard 186 200 515 | 4.58 515 | 5.38 620 | 4.76 340 | 4.58 285 860
1/2 Hard 186 200 760 | 4.21 760 | 6.71 825 | 4.54 445 | 4.22 385 1 035
Note: *coefficient n used for Modified Ramberg-Osgood equation
4.1.1 Modified Ramberg-Osgood Equation
i. Secant modulus

0
-1
0

1 0.002
s
n
n
y
E
E
E
F


= =
| |
+
|
|
\ .

ii. Tangent modulus

0
-1
0

0.002
y
t n
y
y
E F
d
E
d
F nE
F

= =
| |
+
|
|
\ .

iii. Plasticity reduction factor

-1
0
0

0.002
y
t
n
y
y
F
E
E
F nE
F

= =
| |
+
|
|
\ .
- Stiffened compression element

-1
0
0
1

1 0.002
s
n
n
y
E
E
E
F

= =
| |
+
|
|
\ .
- For unstiffened compression element

Material constants of stainless steel
Characteristic values of stainless steel (Annealed) ASTM A666:2000 Table 2 & 3
Work hardened condition ASCE 8:2002 Table A1 & B
STAINLESS STEEL DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
36 AMERICAN STANDARDS
4.2 Design of cold-formed stainless steel structural members
Mode Failure mode [LRFD] [ASD] Clause
Tension member Yielding 0.85 1.85 3.2
Flexural members
Bending only yielding and buckling 0.90 1.85 3.3.1
Shear only shear yielding 0.95 1.64
3.3.2
Shear only shear buckling 0.85 1.85
Web crippling
For single unreinforced webs 0.70 2.00
3.3.4
For I-beams 0.70 2.20
Compression members Concentrically loaded - column buckling 0.85 2.15 3.4
Corrugated sheets Arc-and-tangent against yielding 0.90 1.85 3.7
Welds
Fusion weld - yielding of base metal - 1.85
5.2
Fusion weld - ultimate test value of welds 0.55 2.50
Resistance weld - ultimate test value of welds 0.60 2.50 5.2.3
Bolted connections
Spacing and edge distance sheet shearing 0.70 2.40 5.3.1
Tension on net section 0.70 2.40 5.3.2
Bearing on connections 0.65 2.40 5.3.3
Bolt shear 0.65 3.00 5.3.4
Bolt tension 0.75 3.00 5.3.4
4.3 Test
Mode Values Notes Clause
Criteria
u
p
R
1.0
R



Data
i
p
R
R =
n


( ) ( )
P
C = n 1 n 3
( )
2 2 2 2
V V C V V
o P
M F P Q
m m m
= 1.5 M F P e


| |
+ + +
|
\ .


Average value of all test results


Resistance factor [-]


Values:
M
m
1.1 Yield & tensile strength Mean value of material factor
F
m
1.0
Structural members and
connections
Mean value of fabrication factor

o

3.0 Structural members
Target reliability
4.0 Connections
V
M

0.1 Yield strength of stainless steel
Coefficient of variation of
material factor
0.05 Tensile strength of stainless steel
V
F

0.05
Structural members and bolted
connections
Coefficient of variation of
fabrication factor
0.15 Welded connections
V
Q
0.21
Coefficient of variation of load
effect


Safety factors for design of cold-formed stainless steel structural members ASCE 8:2002 Cl. 3 & Table D
Test for determining structural performance of cold-formed stainless steel ASCE 8:2002 Cl. 6.2
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES STAINLESS STEEL DESIGN
AMERICAN STANDARDS 37

4.4 Connections
4.4.1 Bolt connections
Alloy Group Stainless steel Condition*
Diameter,
d [mm]
Yield strength,
F
y
[N/mm
2
]
Tensile strength,
F
u
[N/mm
2
]
1

2

3
304, 304L

316, 316L

321, 347
AF al 137.9 413.7
A all 206.8 482.6
CW
16 413.7 655.0
20 275.8 551.6
A2, A4
50 - - 210 500
70 - - 450 700
80 - - 600 800
Note: *AF - Headed and rolled from annealed stock and then reannealed.
A - Machined from annealed or solution-annealed stock thus retaining the properties of the original material,
or hot-formed and solution-annealed.
CW - Headed and rolled from annealed stock thus acquiring a degree of cold work; sizes 20mm and larger
may be hot worked and solution-annealed.

Bolt Diameter
d [mm]
Standard
[Diameter]

Oversize
[Diameter]
Short-Slot
[DiameterLength]

Long-Slot
[DiameterLength]
M12 d + 0.8 d + 1.6 (d + 0.8) (d + 6.3) (d + 0.8) 2.5d
M16 d + 1.6 d + 3.2 (d + 1.6) (d + 6.3) (d + 1.6) 2.5d

Mode Values Notes Clause
Tension
( (( ( ) )) )
nt s b u
P = k A 0.75F
Tensile strength of bolt [N]
(LRFD); (ASD)
t t
0.75 3.00 = = = = = = = =
5.3.4
Shear
k
s
= 0.9 for M12
k
s
= 1.0 for M16
Threads in shear plane:
( (( ( ) )) )
nv s b u
P = k A 0.45F
No threads in shear plane:
( (( ( ) )) )
nv s b u
P = k A 0.6F
Shear strength of bolt [N]
(LRFD); (ASD)
v v
0.65 3.00 = = = = = = = =


5.3.4


Combined
shear and
tension
v uv b
f = P A
Threads in shear plane:
( (( ( ) )) )
nt s b u v nt
P = k A 0.5625F 2.4 f P
No threads in shear plane:
( (( ( ) )) )
nt s b u v nt
P = k A 0.9375F 1.9 f P
Shear stress [N/mm
2
]

Reduced tensile stress [N/mm
2
]
5.3.4
Edge
distance
n u
P = t e F ;
e 1.5d
Shear strength of the connected part [N]
(LRFD); (ASD)
t t
0.70 2.40 = = = = = = = =
Edge distance [mm]
5.3.1
Bearing
Single shear:
( (( ( ) )) )
nb u
P = d t 2.0F
Double shear:
( (( ( ) )) )
nb u
P = d t 2.75F
Bearing strength at bolt holes [N]
(LRFD); (ASD)
b b
0.65 2.40 = = = = = = = =

5.3.3

Mechanical properties of stainless steel bolts, screws and studs ASTM F593:2002 Table 2
Maximum Size of Bolt Holes [mm] ASCE 8:2002 Table 5
Design resistance of bolts in Bearing-Type Connections ASCE 8:2002 Cl. 5
STAINLESS STEEL DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
38 AMERICAN STANDARDS

Size M4 M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20
A
b
[mm
2
] 12.57 19.64 28.27 50.27 78.54 113.10 201.06 214.16
k
s
0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90 1.00 1.00
R
nt
[kN] 3.73 5.83 8.39 14.91 23.30 33.55 66.27 70.59
1.94 3.03 4.36 7.75 12.12 17.45 34.46 36.71
(2.59) (4.04) (5.81) (10.34) (16.15) (23.26) (45.95) (48.94)
R
nt
[kN] 3.29 5.14 7.40 13.16 20.56 29.60 58.47 62.28
1.71 2.67 3.85 6.84 10.69 15.39 30.40 32.39
(2.28) (3.56) (5.13) (9.12) (14.25) (20.52) (40.54) (43.18)
R
nt
[kN] 4.17 6.51 9.37 16.67 26.04 37.50 74.08 78.90
2.17 3.39 4.87 8.67 13.54 19.50 38.52 41.03
(2.89) (4.52) (6.50) (11.56) (18.06) (26.00) (51.36) (54.71)
R
nt
[kN] 4.45 6.96 10.02 17.81 27.83 40.08 79.17 84.33
2.32 3.62 5.21 9.26 14.47 20.84 41.17 43.85
(3.09) (4.83) (6.95) (12.35) (19.30) (27.79) (54.89) (58.47)
304 / 316 O 515 8.42 13.15 18.93 33.66 52.58 75.72 134.61 143.38
304L / 316L O 485 7.93 12.38 17.82 31.70 49.52 71.3 126.8 135.0
1/16 Hard 550 8.99 14.04 20.21 35.94 56.16 80.9 143.8 153.1
1/4 Hard 860 14.05 21.96 31.61 56.20 87.81 126.4 224.8 239.4
1/2 Hard 1035 16.91 26.43 38.04 67.64 105.68 152.2 270.5 288.2
Note: * Values in () are for threads excluded from shear planes
R
nv
[kN]
R
nv
[kN]
R
nv
[kN]
R
nv
[kN]
1
(304, 304L)
2
(316, 316L)
3
(321, 347)
A2 / A4
- AF
- A
Grade / Condition
Bearing
R
nb
/ t
[kN/m]
304 / 316
304L / 316L
F
u
[N/mm
2
]
- CW
70 700
655
517
586

Size M4 M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20
A
b
[mm
2
] 12.57 19.64 28.27 50.27 78.54 113.10 201.06 214.16
R
nt
/ [kN] 1.66 2.59 3.73 6.63 10.36 14.91 29.46 31.37
0.99 1.55 2.24 3.98 6.21 8.95 17.67 18.82
(1.33) (2.07) (2.98) (5.30) (8.28) (11.93) (23.56) (25.10)
R
nt
/ [kN] 1.46 2.28 3.29 5.85 9.14 13.16 25.99 27.68
0.88 1.37 1.97 3.51 5.48 7.89 15.59 16.61
(1.17) (1.83) (2.63) (4.68) (7.31) (10.53) (20.79) (22.14)
R
nt
/ [kN] 1.85 2.89 4.17 7.41 11.57 16.67 32.92 35.07
1.11 1.74 2.50 4.45 6.94 10.00 19.75 21.04
(1.48) (2.32) (3.33) (5.93) (9.26) (13.33) (26.34) (28.05)
R
nt
/ [kN] 1.98 3.09 4.45 7.92 12.37 17.81 35.19 37.48
1.19 1.86 2.67 4.75 7.42 10.69 21.11 22.49
(1.58) (2.47) (3.56) (6.33) (9.90) (14.25) (28.15) (29.98)
304 / 316 O 515 5.39 8.43 12.13 21.57 33.71 48.54 86.29 91.91
304L / 316L O 485 5.08 7.94 11.43 20.32 31.74 45.71 81.26 86.56
1/16 Hard 550 5.76 9.00 12.96 23.04 36.00 51.84 92.15 98.16
1/4 Hard 860 9.01 14.08 20.26 36.03 56.29 81.06 144.09 153.48
1/2 Hard 1035 10.84 16.94 24.38 43.36 67.74 97.55 173.41 184.71
Note: * Values in () are for threads excluded from shear planes
Bearing
R
nb
/ / t
[kN/mm]
304 / 316
304L / 316L
Grade / Condition
F
u
[N/mm
2
]
- CW
70 700
655
517
586
R
nv
/ [kN]
R
nv
/ [kN]
R
nv
/ [kN]
R
nv
/ [kN]
1
(304, 304L)
2
(316, 316L)
3
(321, 347)
A2 / A4
- AF
- A

Stainless steel bolt strength table [LRFD] ASCE 8:2002 Cl. 5
Stainless steel bolt strength table [ASD] ASCE 8:2002 Cl. 5
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES STAINLESS STEEL DESIGN
AMERICAN STANDARDS 39

4.4.2 Welded connections

Mode Values Notes Clause
Data
L
t
t
w
= 0.707w
F
ua

F
XX

Length of weld [mm]
Thickness of thinnest welded sheet [mm]
Effective throat [mm]
Tensile strength of base metal at its annealed
state [N/mm]
Strength level designation in AWS electrode
classification [N/mm]
5.2.1
Criteria
(LRFD); (ASD)
u a
n n
P P
1.0
P P



Fillet weld Longitudinal loading
For L/t < 30:
n ua w XX
0.009L
P = 0.7 tLF 0.75t LF
t
| | | | | | | |

| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

For L/t 30:
n ua w XX
P = 0.43tLF 0.75t LF
Transverse loading
n ua w XX
P = tLF 1.18t LF
(LRFD); (ASD) 0.55 2.50 = = = = = = = =

Nominal strength of fillet weld [N]
5.2.2
Groove
Welds in
Butt Joints

n ua
P = tLF
(LRFD); (ASD) 0.60 2.5 = = = = = = = =
Nominal strength of groove weld [N]
5.2.1



Design resistance of welds ASCE 8:2002 cl. 5.2
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ALUMINUM DESIGN
AMERICAN STANDARDS 41
III-5 ALUMINUM DESIGN
5.1 Properties of aluminium structures
Form Density,

[kN/m]
Unit weight,
[kg/m]
Modulus of
elasticity, E
[N/mm
2
]
Modulus of rigidity,
G = E/[2(1+)]
[N/mm
2
]
Poissons
ratio,
[-]
Coef. of linear
thermal exp.,
[/C]
300 & 600 series
5005
26.6 2 700 69 600 26 165 0.33 2310
-6


Grade Temper
Thickness
[mm]
Bolted/riveted [N/mm
2
] Welded [N/mm
2
] 90 bend radius*
F
ty
F
cy
F
tu
F
su
F
tyw
F
cyw
F
tuw
F
suw
< 2.0 2 - 3 >3 - 6
S
h
e
e
t

3003
O t 50 35 35 95 70
35 35 95 70
0 0 t
H12 t 50 85 70 120 75 0 0.5t t
H14 t 25 115 95 140 85 0 t 1.5t
5005
O t 50 35 35 105 62
35 35 105 62
0 0 t
H32 t 50 85 75 120 75 0 0.5t t
H34 t 25 105 95 140 85 0 t 1.5t
5052
O t 80 65 66 170 110
65 65 170 110
0 0.5t t
H32 All 160 145 215 130 t 1.5t 1.5t
H36 t 4.0 200 180 255 150 - - - - 2t 2.5t 3.5t
6061
0 85 85 150 95 85 85 150 95 0 t t
T6, T651 t 9.5 240 240 290 185 105 105 165 105 2t 2.5t 4t
E
x
t
r
u
s
i
o
n

6005 T5 t 25 240 240 260 165 90 90 165 105 - - -
6060
T6 t 15 140 140 170 100
50 50 80 50
- - -
T66 t 25 150 150 195 120 - - -
6061 T6, T651 All 240 240 260 165 80 80 165 105 - - -
6063
T5 t 12.5 110 110 150 90
55 55 115 75
- - -
T6 all 170 170 205 130 - - -
6066 T6, T651 all 310 310 345 185 - - - - - - -
7005 T53 t 20 305 295 345 195 165 165 275 155 - - -
Note: * Atlas Steels Aluminium Alloy Data Sheet.
Material constants of aluminium ADM:2005 cl. 3.1
Characteristic values of aluminium ADM:2005 Table 3.3-1M
ALUMINUM DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
42 AMERICAN STANDARDS
5.2 Allowable stress design
5.2.1 Partial safety factors
Ultimate strength n
u
= 1.95
Yield strength n
y
= 1.65
Appearance of buckling n
a
= 1.20

Stress type
Temper T5, T6, T7, T8, or T9 Temper O, H, T1, T2, T3, or T4
Intercept Slope Intersection Intercept Slope Intersection
Compression in
columns and
beam flanges
cy
c cy
F
B F 1
15510
| | | | | | | |
| | | | = + = + = + = +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

c c
c
B B
D
10 E
= == =
c
c
c
B
C 0.41
D
= == =
cy
cy
F
F 1
6900
| | | | | | | |
| | | | + ++ +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

c c
B 6B
20 E

c
c
2B
3D

Axial
compression in
flat elements
3
cy
p cy
F
B F 1
21.7
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
= + = + = + = +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

p p
p
B B
D
10 E
= == =

p
p
p
B
C 0.41
D
= == =
3
cy
cy
F
F 1
14.5
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
+ ++ +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

p p
B 6B
20 E


p
p
2B
3D

Axial
compression in
curved
elements
5
cy
t cy
F
B F 1
12.8
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
= + = + = + = +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

t t
3
t
B B
D
4.5 E
= == =
t
C
5
cy
cy
F
F 1
8.5
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
+ ++ +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

t t
3
B B
3.7 E

t
C
Bending
compression in
flat elements
3
cy
br cy
F
B 1.3F 1
13.3
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
= + = + = + = +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

br br
br
B 6B
D
20 E
= == =

br
br
br
2B
C
3D
= == =
3
cy
cy
F
1.3F 1
13.3
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
+ ++ +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

br br
B 6B
20 E

br
br
2B
3D

Bending
compression in
curved
elements
5
y
tb y
F
B 1.5F 1
12.8
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
= + = + = + = +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

tb tb
3
tb
B B
D
2.7 E
= == =
2
tb t
tb
tb t
B B
C
D D
| | | | | | | |
= == =
| | | |

\ . \ . \ . \ .

5
y
y
F
1.5F 1
8.5
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
+ ++ +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

tb tb
3
B B
2.7 E

2
tb t
tb t
B B
D D
| | | | | | | |
| | | |

\ . \ . \ . \ .

Shear in flat
elements
3
ty ty
s
F F
B 1
21.2
3
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
= + = + = + = +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

s s
s
B B
D
10 E
= == =
s
s
s
B
C 0.41
D
= == =
3
ty ty
F F
1
14.2
3
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
+ ++ +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

s s
B 6B
20 E

s
s
2B
3D

Ultimate
strength of flat
elements in
compression
1
k 0.35 = == =
2
k 2.27 = == =
1
k 0.35 = == =

2
k 2.27 = == =
Ultimate
strength of flat
elements in
bending
1
k 0.50 = == =
2
k 2.04 = == =

Alloy
B
c
D
c
C
c
B
p
D
p
C
p
B
t
D
t
C
t
B
br
D
br
C
br
B
tb
D
tb
C
tb
B
s
D
s
C
s

6061 T6 269.85 1.68 65.84 308.73 2.06 61.56 296.11 10.66 141 457.78 4.55 67.12 444.16 30.51 55.63 179.07 0.91 80.82
6063 T5 119.26 0.49 99.04 134.29 0.59 93.34 132.00 3.63 275 194.52 1.26 102.96 198.00 10.39 95.29 77.82 0.26 122.61
6063 T6 187.80 0.98 78.57 213.40 1.18 74.04 207.10 6.62 189 313.05 2.57 81.21 310.64 18.94 70.63 123.73 0.52 97.56

ASD safety factors ADM:2005 Table 3.4-1
Formulas for buckling constants ADM:2005 Table 3.3-3, 3.3-4
Buckling constants ADM:2005 Table 3.3-4
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ALUMINUM DESIGN
AMERICAN STANDARDS 43

ALUMINUM DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
44 AMERICAN STANDARDS
5.2.2 Allowable compressive stress for 6063-T6 Extrusions
Member/
Element
Mode
Allowable stress, F/n
y
[N/mm
2
] Clause
S S S
1
S
1
S
1
< S < S
2
S
2
S S
2

Column
buckling
All
kL
r
-
0
kL
96.31 0.50
r

78.57
2
kL
352269
r
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

3.4.7
Column
flat
elements
One edge supported
buckling about a
symmetry axis
b
t
103.03
2.08
b
109.44 3.09
t

12.41
b
879.7
t
3.4.8
One edge supported not
buckling about a symmetry
axis
b
t
103.03
2.08
b
109.44 3.09
t

14.52
2
b
13544
t
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
3.4.8.1
Both edges
supported
b
t
103.03
6.62
b
109.44 0.97
t

39.56
b
2804
t
3.4.9
Column
curved
elements
Both edges supported

b
R
t
103.03
0.87
b
R
106.20 3.39
t

189.00
( (( ( ) )) )
b
2
b
26970592 R t
35 R t + ++ +

3.4.10
BEAM
LTB
Single web shapes

b
y b
L
r C

103.03
21.80
b
y b
L
113.82 0.49
r C

94.28
2
b
y b
599498
L
r C
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

3.4.11
Round or oval tubes

b
R
t
120.54
34.81
b
R
188.27 11.48
t

103.05
( (( ( ) )) )
b
2
b
26970592 R t
35 R t + ++ +

3.4.12
Solid rectangular and
round sections

b
b
L d
t C d

133.94
15.57
b
189.73 3.58
t

35.31
2
b
b
78699
L d
t C d
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

3.4.13
Tubular shapes

b c
b y
2L S
C I J

103.03
128.87
b c
b y
2L S
113.82 0.95
C I J


2411.4
2
b c
b y
162624
2L S
C I J
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

3.4.14
BEAM
element
uniform
compres
sion
One edge
supported
b
t
103.03
7.21
b
129.33 3.65
t

12.41
b
1039.6
t
3.4.15
Both edges
supported
b
t
103.03
22.99
b
129.33 1.14
t

39.56
b
3313.8
t
3.4.16
Curved element - both
edges supported
b
R
t
120.54
1.53
b
R
125.52 4.01
t

189.00
( (( ( ) )) )
b
2
b
31874336 R t
35 R t + ++ +
3.4.16.
1
Beam
element
bending
in own
plane
Tension edge supported,
compression
edge free
b
t
133.94
10.23
b
189.73 5.45
t

23.20
2
b
33985
t
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
3.4.17
Both edges supported

h
t
133.94
35.82
m

h
189.73 1.56m
t

60.9
m

h
5771 m
t
3.4.18
Both edges
supported - with
long. stiffener
h
t
133.94
123.51
h
189.73 0.45
t

210.02
h
19900
t
3.4.19
SHEAR
in flat
element
Both edges supported -
unstiffened

h
t
59.48
39.35
h
74.99 0.39
t

78.05
2
h
266443
t
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
3.4.20
Allowable compression stress, F/n
y
ADM:2005 Tables 3.3-3 & 3.4-3
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ALUMINUM DESIGN
AMERICAN STANDARDS 45
5.3 Moment of inertia tables
5.3.1 Minimum required moment of inertia of a split-mullion
Use the table below to estimate the required moment of inertia of a split mullion per unit wind load (q
d,k
),
I q
W,k
I* - per split mullion

limit
,
[mm] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
3.0 17.1 49.4 52.9 56.3 59.5 62.5 65.4 68.1 70.6 73.0 77.0 80.2 82.5 83.9 84.4
3.1 17.7 54.8 58.7 62.5 66.1 69.5 72.8 75.9 78.8 81.5 86.3 90.1 93.1 95.1 96.1
3.2 18.3 60.5 64.8 69.1 73.1 77.0 80.7 84.2 87.5 90.7 96.2 100.8 104.5 107.1 108.7
3.3 18.9 66.5 71.4 76.1 80.6 85.0 89.2 93.1 96.9 100.4 106.8 112.2 116.7 120.0 122.3
3.4 19.4 73.0 78.4 83.6 88.6 93.5 98.1 102.6 106.8 110.8 118.2 124.5 129.7 133.8 136.8
3.5 20.0 79.8 85.8 91.5 97.1 102.5 107.7 112.7 117.4 121.9 130.2 137.5 143.6 148.6 152.3
3.6 20.6 87.1 93.6 100.0 106.1 112.1 117.8 123.4 128.7 133.7 143.0 151.3 158.4 164.3 168.9
3.7 21.1 94.8 101.9 108.9 115.7 122.2 128.6 134.7 140.6 146.2 156.6 166.0 174.1 181.0 186.6
3.8 21.7 102.9 110.7 118.3 125.7 132.9 139.9 146.7 153.1 159.4 171.0 181.5 190.8 198.7 205.3
3.9 22.3 111.5 120.0 128.3 136.4 144.3 151.9 159.3 166.4 173.3 186.2 197.9 208.4 217.5 225.1
4.0 22.9 120.5 129.8 138.8 147.6 156.2 164.5 172.6 180.5 188.0 202.3 215.3 227.0 237.3 246.1
4.1 23.4 130.0 140.0 149.8 159.4 168.7 177.8 186.6 195.2 203.5 219.2 233.6 246.6 258.2 268.3
4.2 23.9 140.9 151.8 162.4 172.8 183.0 193.0 202.7 212.1 221.2 238.5 254.4 269.0 282.0 293.5
4.3 24.3 152.4 164.2 175.7 187.1 198.2 209.0 219.6 229.9 239.9 258.9 276.5 292.7 307.3 320.3
4.4 24.7 164.5 177.2 189.8 202.1 214.2 226.0 237.5 248.7 259.6 280.4 299.8 317.7 334.0 348.6
4.5 25.1 177.2 191.0 204.6 217.9 231.0 243.8 256.3 268.5 280.4 303.1 324.4 344.1 362.1 378.4
4.6 25.5 190.5 205.4 220.1 234.5 248.6 262.5 276.0 289.3 302.2 326.9 350.2 371.8 391.7 409.8
4.7 25.9 204.6 220.6 236.4 251.9 267.2 282.1 296.8 311.1 325.1 352.0 377.3 401.0 422.9 442.9
4.8 26.4 219.3 236.5 253.5 270.2 286.6 302.7 318.6 334.0 349.2 378.3 405.8 431.7 455.7 477.7
4.9 26.8 234.6 253.1 271.4 289.3 307.0 324.3 341.4 358.0 374.4 405.9 435.7 463.8 490.0 514.2
5.0 27.2 250.7 270.5 290.1 309.3 328.3 346.9 365.2 383.2 400.7 434.7 467.0 497.5 526.0 552.5
5.1 27.6 267.5 288.7 309.6 330.2 350.5 370.5 390.2 409.4 428.3 464.9 499.7 532.7 563.7 592.5
5.2 28.0 285.1 307.7 330.0 352.1 373.8 395.2 416.2 436.9 457.1 496.4 534.0 569.5 603.1 634.4
5.3 28.4 303.4 327.5 351.3 374.8 398.0 420.9 443.4 465.5 487.2 529.4 569.7 608.0 644.2 678.2
5.4 28.9 322.5 348.1 373.5 398.6 423.3 447.7 471.7 495.4 518.6 563.7 606.9 648.2 687.2 724.0
5.5 29.3 342.3 369.6 396.6 423.3 449.7 475.6 501.2 526.5 551.2 599.5 645.8 690.0 732.0 771.7
5.6 29.7 363.0 392.0 420.7 449.0 477.1 504.7 532.0 558.8 585.2 636.7 686.2 733.6 778.7 821.3
5.7 30.1 384.5 415.2 445.7 475.8 505.6 534.9 563.9 592.5 620.6 675.5 728.3 778.9 827.3 873.1
5.8 30.5 406.8 439.4 471.7 503.6 535.2 566.3 597.1 627.5 657.4 715.7 772.0 826.1 877.8 926.9
5.9 30.9 430.0 464.5 498.6 532.5 565.9 599.0 631.6 663.8 695.5 757.6 817.5 875.1 930.3 982.9
6.0 31.4 454.0 490.5 526.6 562.4 597.8 632.8 667.4 701.5 735.2 801.0 864.6 926.0 984.8 1041.0
6.1 31.8 479.0 517.5 555.6 593.4 630.9 667.9 704.5 740.6 776.3 846.0 913.6 978.8 1041.4 1101.3
6.2 32.2 504.8 545.4 585.7 625.6 665.1 704.3 742.9 781.1 818.9 892.7 964.3 1033.5 1100.1 1163.9
6.3 32.6 531.5 574.3 616.8 658.9 700.6 741.9 782.8 823.1 863.0 941.1 1016.9 1090.2 1160.9 1228.8
6.4 33.0 559.2 604.3 649.0 693.4 737.4 780.9 824.0 866.6 908.6 991.2 1071.3 1149.0 1223.9 1295.9
6.5 33.4 587.8 635.3 682.4 729.1 775.4 821.2 866.6 911.5 955.9 1043.0 1127.7 1209.8 1289.1 1365.5
6.6 33.9 617.4 667.3 716.8 765.9 814.7 862.9 910.7 958.0 1004.7 1096.6 1185.9 1272.7 1356.6 1437.5
6.7 34.3 647.9 700.4 752.4 804.0 855.3 906.0 956.3 1006.0 1055.2 1151.9 1246.1 1337.7 1426.3 1511.9
6.8 34.7 679.5 734.5 789.1 843.4 897.2 950.5 1003.3 1055.6 1107.4 1209.1 1308.3 1404.8 1498.4 1588.8
6.9 35.1 712.1 769.8 827.1 884.0 940.4 996.4 1051.9 1106.8 1161.2 1268.2 1372.6 1474.2 1572.8 1668.2
7.0 35.5 745.6 806.1 866.2 925.9 985.1 1043.8 1102.0 1159.7 1216.8 1329.1 1438.9 1545.8 1649.6 1750.2
7.2 36.4 816.0 882.3 948.1 1013.6 1078.5 1143.0 1206.9 1270.3 1333.1 1456.8 1577.7 1695.7 1810.6 1922.0
7.4 37.2 890.6 963.1 1035.1 1106.7 1177.7 1248.3 1318.3 1387.8 1456.6 1592.3 1725.2 1855.0 1981.6 2104.6
7.6 38.0 969.7 1048.7 1127.2 1205.3 1282.9 1359.9 1436.4 1512.2 1587.5 1735.9 1881.5 2023.9 2162.9 2298.3
7.8 38.9 1053.3 1139.2 1224.6 1309.6 1394.0 1477.9 1561.2 1643.9 1726.0 1887.9 2046.9 2202.7 2354.9 2503.4
8.0 39.7 1141.6 1234.8 1327.6 1419.8 1511.5 1602.6 1693.2 1783.0 1872.3 2048.6 2221.8 2391.6 2557.9 2720.2
8.5 41.8 1383.8 1497.0 1609.8 1722.0 1833.6 1944.6 2055.0 2164.6 2273.6 2489.2 2701.5 2910.2 3115.0 3315.6
9.0 43.9 1658.1 1794.0 1929.4 2064.3 2198.5 2332.1 2464.9 2597.1 2728.5 2988.8 3245.5 3498.4 3747.1 3991.3
9.5 45.9 1966.4 2128.0 2288.9 2449.2 2608.9 2767.9 2926.1 3083.6 3240.2 3550.9 3857.7 4160.4 4458.7 4752.3
10.0 48.0 2311.0 2501.0 2690.5 2879.3 3067.5 3254.9 3441.5 3627.3 3812.2 4179.2 4542.2 4900.8 5254.7 5603.5
Span, h
[m]
Aluminium mullion spacing, b [m]
b
1 2
b
h

Minimum required moment of inertia, I [cm
4
] per 1.0 kN/m
2
wind load AAMA TIR-A11:2004
ALUMINUM DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
46 AMERICAN STANDARDS
5.4 Thermally separated profiles
Mode Values Notes Clause
Member
L
A 0.4(a
1
+a
2
)
E
( (( ( ) )) )
11 22
D = h c c + + + +
Unsupported span of the member [mm]
Effective shear area of aluminium [mm]
Modulus of elasticity of the member [N/mm]
Distance between centroid axes [mm]
7.5.3

Thermal
break
G
c
b, D
c

( (( ( ) )) )
c c
F
c = G b D
L

= == =


Design shear modulus of thermal separator [N/mm]
Width and depth of thermal break (core), respectively [mm]
Elasticity constant (may be determined from test) [N/mm/mm]
7.5.3
Moment of
inertia &
constants
o o1 o2
I = I I + ++ +
( (( ( ) )) )
2
c 1 2 1 2
I = a a D a a + ++ +
o c
I = I I + ++ +
2
p
c c
ID
G c
I D
= == =
( (( ( ) )) )
y o
C Gp EI = == =
y
r L C 2 = == =
Lower bound on Ie (non-composite) [N/mm]
Transfer inertia [N/mm]
Upper bound on Ie (full composite) [N/mm]

Geometric and core material parameter [N]
Buckling slope formula
Complementary constant
7.5.4






Table 5
Uniformly
loaded
beam
o c
0
2
p
EI I
D =
G I

3
c
1
p
LI L
D =
2G I 24EI

c
2
p
I
D =
2G I

3
L
D =
12EI

4
1
D =
24EI

( (( ( ) )) )
c
1
2r
y p
I
F
C G I 1 e
= = = =
+ ++ +












Table 3










Table 5
Effective
moment of
inertia
3 4 2
r 3 4 2 1
0 1
D L D L D L D L
y D 2F e
16 8 4 2
= + + + + + = + + + + + = + + + + + = + + + + + Unit deformation [mm]
4
e
L
I =
76.8Ey
Effective moment of inertia without shear deformation [mm
4
]
( (( ( ) )) )
e
e
2
e
I
I =
1 25.6 I L A

+ ++ +
Eff. moment of inertia considering shear deformation [mm
4
]
7.5.4

7.5.4

7.5.5
Section
modulus
( (( ( ) )) )
2 r
4 3 2 y 1
2
8
y 3D L 3D L 2D 2C F e
L
= + + + = + + + = + + + = + + +
e1
o
11
1
1
S =
1 EI y
Ec y
a D

+ ++ +
Effective section modulus at face 1 [mm
3
]
e2
o
22
2
1
S =
1 EI y
Ec y
a D

+ ++ +
Effective section modulus at face 2 [mm
3
]
7.5.6
Shear flow
per unit load
( (( ( ) )) )
1.5 2r
3 y 1
y 6D C F 1 e = + = + = + = +
c o
V L 2 EI y = = = =
c c
q V D = == =


Shear resisted by thermal break per unit load [N/(N/mm)]
Shear flow per unit load [(N/mm)/(N/mm)]
7.5.7
Structural performance of composite thermal barrier framing system (Simplified) AAMA TIR-A8:2004
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ALUMINUM DESIGN
AMERICAN STANDARDS 47

5.5 Fasteners
5.5.1 Materials for fasteners
Material Alloy Group Description Condition*
Yield strength,
F
y
[N/mm
2
]
Tensile strength,
F
u
[N/mm
2
]
Steel
SAE Grade 2 204.1 510.2
SAE Grade 5 331.0 827.4
A 307 137.9 413.7
A 325 303.4 827.4
A 490 372.3 1 034.2
Stainless
steel
1

2

3
304, 304L

316, 316L

321, 347
AF 345 586
A 207 517
CW 448 690
SH 655 827
4 430, 430F A 241 483
5 410, 416
H 620 758
HT 827 1103
A2 / A4
Grade 50 210 500
Grade 70 450 700
Grade 80 600 800
Note: *AF - Headed and rolled from annealed stock and then reannealed.
A - Machined from annealed or solution-annealed stock thus retaining the properties of the original material,
or hot-formed and solution-annealed.
CW - Headed and rolled from annealed stock thus acquiring a degree of cold work; sizes 20mm and larger
may be hot worked and solution-annealed.

Mechanical properties of stainless steel fasteners AAMA-TIR-A9:1991 Tables 23 - 28
ALUMINUM DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
48 AMERICAN STANDARDS
5.6 Metric fasteneners
5.6.1 Hole Dimensions and Distances
Bolt Diameter
d [mm]
Standard
[Diameter]

Oversize
[Diameter]
Short-Slot*
[Diameter Length]

Long-Slot*
[Diameter Length]
< M12 d + 1 d + 2 (d + 1) (d + 6) (d + 1) (50 - d)
M16 d + 2 d + 3 (d + 2) (d + 6) (d + 2) (50 - d)
Note: * Slots longer than these dimensions may be used for expansion or anchor alignment purposes with
appropriate engineering analysis or testing.
5.6.2 Metric thread to ISO 724
Height of fundamental triangle
3
H = P sin(60) = P
2
0.866254P
Basic minor diameter
1
5 5 3
d = d 2 H = d P
8 8

d 1.0825P
Basic pitch diameter
2
3 3 3
d = d 2 H = d P
8 8
d 0.6495P
Tensile stress area M24
( (( ( ) )) )
2
A(S) = 0.7854 d 0.9382P
Thread root area M24
( (( ( ) )) )
2
A(R) = 0.7854 d 1.2269P
Thread-stripping area (Internal thread - nut)
( (( ( ) )) )
min min 2 ,max
1 1
TSA(I) = d d d
2 3
( ( ( (
+ + + +
( ( ( (


Thread-stripping area (External thread - bolt)
( (( ( ) )) )
1,max 2,min 1,max
1 1
TSA(E) = D d D
2 3
( ( ( (
+ + + +
( ( ( (



Size

Pitch
P
[mm]
Major
dia.
D
[mm]
Minor
dia.
d
1
[mm]
Pitch
dia.
d
2
[mm]
Bolt Pullout Screw chase
Tensile
stress, A(S)
[mm
2
]
Thread
root, A(R)
[mm
2
]

TSA(I)
[mm
2
/mm]
TSA(E)
[mm
2
/mm]

[]

R
e
[-]
sec(c)
[-]
M4 0.70 4.0 3.24 3.54 8.80 7.75 9.58 6.87 71.7 0.28 3.60
M5 0.80 5.0 4.13 4.48 14.21 12.68 12.57 9.09 68.5 0.27 3.85
M6 1.00 6.0 4.92 5.35 20.17 17.89 16.50 11.59 69.9 0.27 4.31
M8 1.25 8.0 6.65 7.19 36.68 32.84 24.35 16.96 67.6 0.26 4.82
M10 1.50 10.0 8.38 9.03 58.10 52.29 33.37 23.03 66.2 0.26 5.28
M12 1.75 12.0 10.11 10.86 84.42 76.25 43.60 29.75 65.3 0.25 5.70
M16 2.00 16.0 13.84 14.70 156.91 144.12 62.83 43.46 60.3 0.23 6.09
M20 2.50 20.0 17.29 18.38 245.17 225.19 90.33 61.11 60.3 0.23 6.81
M24 3.00 24.0 20.75 22.05 353.04 324.27 122.54 81.49 60.3 0.23 7.46
M30 3.50 30.0 26.21 27.73 561.38 518.99 170.81 113.25 58.2 0.22 8.06
Maximum size of bolt holes [mm] AAMA TIR-A9:1991 Table 1
Metric screw thread ISO 724:1993
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ALUMINUM DESIGN
AMERICAN STANDARDS 49

5.6.3 Metric fastening design
Mode Values Notes Clause
Area
For M24 (stainless steel); M16 (steel):
( (( ( ) )) )
2
A( S ) 0.7854 d 0.9382P = = = =
( (( ( ) )) )
2
A( R ) 0.7854 d 1.2269P = = = =
For bigger bolts and screws:
2
A( S ) A( R ) 0.7854d = = = = = = = =

Tensile stress area [mm
2
]
Thread root area [mm
2
]

Tensile and shear stress area [mm
2
]
6

Tension
{ {{ { } }} } t y u
F = A(S) min 0.75F ; 0.4F
Tensile strength [N]
Shear
v y u
0.75 0.4
F = A(R) min F ; F
3 3


` ` ` `
) ) ) )

Shear strength [N]


Combined
Tension
and Shear
2 2
t v
t v
P P
1.0
F F
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+ + + +
| | | | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .


Bearing Bearing on steel:
b u
F = 1.2 d t F
Correction factors:
Edge distance, e < 2.4d e/2d
Countersunk head 1- t
k
/2t
Long slot 1/1.2
Bearing on aluminum:
b by
F = d t F 1.65 ;
by y
F 1.6F
Correction factors:
Edge distance, e < 2d e/2d
Countersunk head 1- t
k
/2t
Long slot 1/1.5

Allowable bearing force [kN]
Values of F
by
acc. to The Aluminum Association,
Specifications for aluminum structures, 3
rd
Edition.
Alloy F
by
(F
y
+ F
u
)/1.5
5052 O 156.7
3003 H14, 5005 H34 165.5
6061 T6 386.1
6063 T5 165.5
6063 T6 275.8
Minimum Distances:
Minimum Distances Edge Spacing
Steel 1.5D 3D
Aluminum 1.5D 2.5D

6






7
Pullout Failure mode Thickness Pull-out strength
Yield
1.5mm t < 2mm
ty
p ty
F
F = 0.560 d t 0.3386 d t F
3
3


2mm t 3mm
ty
p ty
F
F = 0.665 d t 0.4020 d t F
3
3


Transition 3mm < t 6mm
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
ty
tu
p
F
F 1.16
F = 1.2d 6 t TSA( I ) t 3
3 P 3
+ + + +
Shear strength 6mm < t 10mm
tu
p
F t
F = TSA( I )
3
3P


Addendum
Note: * Values can be increased by 1/3 stress under wind loads. Whether or not to use the increase is left to the
discretion of the structural engineer on the job.
Metal curtain wall fasteners (UNC threads) AAMA TIR-A9:1991 + Addendum 2000
ALUMINUM DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
50 AMERICAN STANDARDS
5.6.4 Screw chase
Mode Values Notes Clause
Data
1 1
d
2 cos
d


| | | | | | | |
= == =
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

( (( ( ) )) )
2
e
2 2
1
d sin
180
R
d d



| | | | | | | |

| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
= == =


Angle defining limits of screw engagement in screw
chase []

Ratio of engaged thread area to total thread area [-]
12

Pull-out
p e p
F = R F Pull-out strength with Addendum 2000 [N]
Sliding
friction
t
T
f = 0.47
( (( ( ) )) )
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
( (( ( ) )) )
2 2
1
1
12 d d 8.5P
sec c
12 d d
( ( ( ( + + + +

= == =


( (( ( ) )) )
( (( ( ) )) )
2
e
2 2
P d f sec c
R T t
SF
2.34 d P d P f sec c


( ( ( ( + ++ +
| | | | | | | |

= == =
| | | |
( ( ( (
\ . \ . \ . \ .


Thickness of screw engagement to screw chase [mm]
Tightening torque [Nmm]
Coef. of friction for mild steel on aluminum [-]



Sliding friction strength [N]


5.6.5 Metric fastener design tables
F
u
Size M4 M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20
F
y A(S) [mm
2
] 8.80 14.20 20.20 36.70 58.10 84.40 156.90 245.20
[N/mm
2
]
A(R) [mm
2
]
7.80 12.70 17.90 32.80 52.30 76.30 144.10 225.20
510.2 F
t
[kN] 1.35 2.17 3.09 5.62 8.89 12.92 24.02 37.53
204.1 F
v
[kN] 0.69 1.12 1.58 2.90 4.62 6.74 12.74 19.90
827.4 F
t
[kN] 2.18 3.53 5.01 9.11 14.42 20.95 38.95 60.87
331.0 F
v
[kN] 1.12 1.82 2.57 4.70 7.50 10.94 20.65 32.28
400.0 F
t
[kN] 1.21 1.96 2.79 5.06 8.01 11.64 21.64 33.82
183.9 F
v
[kN] 0.62 1.01 1.43 2.61 4.16 6.08 11.47 17.93
800.0 F
t
[kN] 2.82 4.54 6.46 11.74 18.59 27.01 50.21 78.46
586.1 F
v
[kN] 1.44 2.35 3.31 6.06 9.66 14.10 26.62 41.61
1000.0 F
t
[kN] 3.52 5.68 8.08 14.68 23.24 33.76 62.76 98.08
827.4 F
v
[kN] 1.80 2.93 4.13 7.57 12.08 17.62 33.28 52.01
586 F
t
[kN] 2.06 3.33 4.73 8.60 13.62 19.78 36.78 57.47
345 F
v
[kN] 1.06 1.72 2.42 4.44 7.08 10.33 19.50 30.48
517 F
t
[kN] 1.37 2.20 3.14 5.70 9.02 13.10 24.36 38.07
207 F
v
[kN] 0.70 1.14 1.60 2.94 4.69 6.84 12.92 20.19
655 F
t
[kN] 2.31 3.72 5.29 9.62 15.22 22.11 41.11 64.24
827 F
v
[kN] 1.18 1.92 2.71 4.96 7.91 11.54 21.80 34.07
700 F
t
[kN] 2.46 3.98 5.66 10.28 16.27 23.63 43.93 68.66
450 F
v
[kN] 1.26 2.05 2.89 5.30 8.45 12.33 23.29 36.41
Material / Condition
1
(304, 304L)
2
(316, 316L)
3
(321, 347)
A307
(4.6)
A325
(8.8)
Grade 2
Grade 5
- AF
A2 / A4
- CW
70
- A
A490
(10.9)
S
t
e
e
l
S
t
a
i
n
l
e
s
s

s
t
e
e
l
SAE
ASTM
(EN)




Metal curtain wall fasteners (UNC threads) AAMA TIR-A9:1991 + Addendum 2000
Fastener strength table [ASD] AAMA-TIR-A9:1991
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ALUMINUM DESIGN
AMERICAN STANDARDS 51
5.7 Spaced thread fasteners
5.7.1 Spaced thread fastener design
Mode Values Notes Clause
Area
2
1
A( R ) 0.7854d = == =
Thread root area [mm
2
]
9
Tension
t u
F = A(R) 0.4F Tensile strength [N] 9
Shear
v u
F = A(R) 0.4 3 F
Shear strength [N] 9
Combined
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
2 2
t t v v
P F P F 1.0 + + + +
6
Bearing Bearing on steel:
b u
F = 1.2 d t F
Correction factors:
Edge distance, e < 2.4d e/2d
Countersunk head 1- t
k
/2t
Long slot 1/1.2
Bearing on aluminum:
b by
F = d t F 1.65 ;
by y
F 1.6F
Correction factors:
Edge distance, e < 2d e/2d
Countersunk head 1- t
k
/2t
Long slot 1/1.5

Allowable bearing force [kN]
Values of F
by
acc. to The Aluminum Association,
Specifications for aluminum structures, 3
rd
Edition.
Alloy F
by

3003 H14, 5005 H34 165.5
6061 T6 386.1
6063 T5 165.5
6063 T6 275.8
Minimum Distances:
Minimum Distances Edge Spacing
Steel 1.5d 3d
Aluminum 1.5d 2.5d

6






7
Pullout
Failure mode
Thickness Pull-out strength
Yield
1mm t < 2mm
p ty ty
F = 0.560 3 d t F 3 0.3386 d t F
2mm t 2P
ty
p ty
F
F = 0.665 d t 0.4020 d t F
3
3


Transition
2P < t 4P
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
ty
tu
p
F
F
F = 1.2d 4P t 3.26d t 2P
3 3
+ + + +
Shear strength
4P < t 8mm
tu
p tu
F
F = 0.9 d t 0.544 d t F
3
3



Addendum
Note: * Values can be increased by 1/3 stress under wind loads. Whether or not to use the increase is left to the
discretion of the structural engineer on the job.
Size ST 2.9 ST 3.5 ST 3.9 ST 4.2 ST 4.8 ST 5.5 ST 6.3
k [mm] 2.08 2.51 2.77 2.95 3.43 3.99 4.70
A(R) [mm
2
] 3.40 4.95 6.03 6.83 9.24 12.50 17.35
P [mm] 1.10 1.30 1.30 1.40 1.60 1.80 1.80
F
t
[kN] 0.69 1.01 1.23 1.39 1.89 2.55 3.54
F
v
[kN] 0.40 0.58 0.71 0.80 1.09 1.47 2.04
F
t
[kN] 1.13 1.64 2.00 2.26 3.06 4.14 5.74
F
v
[kN] 0.65 0.95 1.15 1.31 1.77 2.39 3.32
F
t
[kN] 0.80 1.16 1.41 1.60 2.17 2.93 4.07
F
v
[kN] 0.46 0.67 0.82 0.92 1.25 1.69 2.35
F
t
[kN] 0.70 1.02 1.25 1.41 1.91 2.59 3.59
F
v
[kN] 0.41 0.59 0.72 0.82 1.10 1.49 2.07
F
t
[kN] 0.89 1.30 1.58 1.79 2.42 3.28 4.55
F
v
[kN] 0.51 0.75 0.91 1.03 1.40 1.89 2.62
F
t
[kN] 0.95 1.39 1.69 1.91 2.59 3.50 4.86
F
v
[kN] 0.55 0.80 0.97 1.10 1.49 2.02 2.80
1
(304, 304L)
2
(316, 316L)
Condition Alloy
- CW
70
Grade 2
3
(321, 347)
S
t
e
e
l
SAE
S
t
a
i
n
l
e
s
s

s
t
e
e
l
A2 / A4
Grade 5
- AF
- A

Metal curtain wall fasteners (Spaced threads) AAMA TIR-A9:1991 + Addendum 2000
Self-tapping screw strength table [ASD] AAMA-TIR-A9:1991
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES GLASS DESIGN
AMERICAN STANDARDS 53
III-6 GLASS DESIGN
6.1 Properties
6.1.1 Glass
Density

[kN/m]
Unit weight

[kg/m]
Modulus of elasticity
E
[N/mm
2
]
Modulus of rigidity
G = E/[2(1+)]
[N/mm
2
]
Poissons ratio

[-]
Coef. of thermal exp.

[/C]
24.5 2 500 71 700 29 400 0.22 910
-6


6.1.2 Interlayer
Interlayer Thickness [mm]
Shear Modulus [N/mm]
Temp.
Load Duration
3 s 1 m 10 m 1 hr 24 h 1 mo 10 yr
PVB
Polyvinyl
Butyral


xx.1 xx.2 xx.3 xx.4
[mils] 15 30 45 60
[mm] 0.38 0.76 1.14 1.52

30C 0.97 0.75 0.5 0.44 0.28 0.07 0.05
50C 0.44 0.29 0.09 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
SG
Sentryglas


[mils] 35 60 90 120
[mm] 0.89 1.52 2.28 3.05

30C 141 110 65* 59.9 49.7 11.6 5.31
50C 26.4 11.3 4.0* 4.0 2.82 2.18 2.0
60C 8.18 3.64 2.0* 1.7 1.29 1.08 0.97
80C 1.32 0.83 0.4 0.32 0.25 0.21 0.18
Note: *According to DIBt Zulassungnummer: Z-70.3-170, valid until 7 November 2016.

6.1.3 Laminated glass effective thickness
Mode Values Notes Clause
Data
h
1 =
h
2

h
v

E= 71 700 N/mm
2

G
Glass ply 1 & 2 minimum thickness [mm]
Interlayer thickness [mm]
Glass youngs modulus [N/mm
2
]
Interlayer storage shear modulus [N/mm
2
]

Effective
thickness
1 v
2
1
Eh h
1 4.8
Gb
= == =
+ ++ +

( (( ( ) )) )
2
s 1 1 v
I h h h 2 = + = + = + = +
3
3
ef ,w 1 s
h 2 h 12 I = + = + = + = +
( (( ( ) )) )
3
ef ,w
ef ,
1 1 v
h
h
h h h


= == =
+ + + + + + + +


Shear transfer coefficient [-]




Effective thickness for glass deflection [mm]

Effective thickness for glass stress [mm]

X11

Glass constants ADM:2005 cl. 3.1
Laminated glass interlayer
Laminated glass effective thickness ASTM E1300:2009a
GLASS DESIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
54 AMERICAN STANDARDS
6.2 Glass design
6.2.1 Stress design
Method Values Notes Clause
LOAD
CHART
P
b
= 0.008
d
Probability of breakage [-]
Duration of load [sec]
3.2.8.2
Criteria:
3
q LR
Equivalent 3 sec duration load:
( (( ( ) )) )
3 i
q q LDF = == =


( (( ( ) )) )
1
n
i
LDF 3 d = == =
Uniform lateral load (3 second gust) [kN/m
2
]
Equivalent 3 sec. load of a d
i
second duration q
i
load.
Values of n & LDF:
Type n 3 s 10 m 1 h 24 h 30day 1 yr
AN 16 1.00 0.72 0.64 0.53 0.43 0.36 0.31
HS 32 1.00 0.85 0.80 0.72 0.65 0.60 0.53
FT 48 1.00 0.89 0.86 0.80 0.75 0.71 0.66



X5
Single glass
LR = NFL GTF
Values of GTF:
Single
glass
Insulating glass (IG)
Lite No. 2
Lite
No.1
GTF
AN HS FT
GTF1 GTF2 GTF1 GTF2 GTF1 GTF2
AN 1.0 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.9 1.0 3.8
HS 2.0 1.9 1.0 1.8 1.8 1.9 3.8
FT 4.0 3.8 1.0 3.8 1.9 3.6 3.6
Values of NFL:
Monolithic Laminated
Support Figure Support Figure
4-side A1.1 - A1.12 4-side A1.27 - A1.33
3-side A1.13 - A1.24 3-side A1.34 - A1.40
2-edge A1.25 2-edge A1.41
1-edge A1.26 1-edge A1.42


Tables
1, 2 & 3











Insulating glass (IG)
Lite No. 1
LR1 = NFl1 GTF1 LS1

Lite No. 2
LR2 = NFl2 GTF2 LS2

where:
( (( ( ) )) )
3 3 3
1 2 1
LS1 t t t = + = + = + = +
( (( ( ) )) )
3 3 3
1 2 2
LS2 t t t = + = + = + = +
STRESS
ANALYSIS
K
A
Surface flaw parameter
Glass surface area
X6
Allowable stress
( (( ( ) )) )
1
7
b
allowable
7 n
P
k d 3 A

( ( ( (
( ( ( ( = == =
( ( ( (



Allowable stress [N/mm] 3 s 10 m 1 h
Surface stress
AN 23.3 16.8 14.9 7.2
HS 46.6 39.6 37.3 24.7
FT 93.1 82.8 80.1 61.4
Edge
stress
Clean cut
edges
AN 16.6 11.9 10.0 5.1
HS n/a n/a n/a n/a
FT n/a n/a n/a n/a
Seamed
edges
AN 18.3 13.2 11.7 5.7
HS 36.5 30.9 29.2 20.3
FT 73.0 65.3 63.0 49.4
Polished
edges
AN 20.0 14.4 12.8 6.2
HS 36.5 31.0 29.2 19.3
FT 73.0 65.0 62.8 48.2


X6



X7
[ASTM
E2751
Table 1]
Glass Design (Failure prediction model) ASTM E1300:2012
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES GLASS DESIGN
AMERICAN STANDARDS 55
6.2.2 Deflection
Centre of glass deflection ASTM E1300:2012
Mode Values Notes Clause
Data
a
b
E= 71 700 N/mm
2

Long dimension [mm]
Short dimension [mm]
Interlayer thickness [mm]


X1.1
Deflection
( (( ( ) )) )
{ {{ { } }} }
2
4
x ln ln q ab Et
( ( ( (
= == =


2 3
0
a a a
r 0.53 3.83 1.11 0.0969
b b b
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
= + = + = + = +
| | | | | | | | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

2 3
1
a a a
r 2.29 5.83 2.17 0.2067
b b b
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
= + + = + + = + + = + +
| | | | | | | | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

2 3
2
a a a
r 1.485 1.908 0.815 0.0822
b b b
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
= + = + = + = +
| | | | | | | | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

( (( ( ) )) )
2
r r x r x
0 1 2
w t e
+ + + + + + + +
= = = =
X1.1





STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS
FAADE NOTES



ANNEX
DESIGN AIDES
3
RD
EDITION 2014
LARRY M. CASTAEDA

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
DESIGN AIDES 3
Table of Contents
A GLASS 5
A.1 Glass dead load holders 5
A.2 Glass deflection 6
B WINDOWS AND DOORS 7
B.1 Sliding doors 7
B.2 Design of window sash 8
C CURTAIN WALL SYSTEMS 9
C.1 Schco stick system 9
C.2 Raico stick system 13
C.3 Raico glass chairs 15
D ALUMINIUM 17
D.1 Aluminium Extrusion Guidelines 17
D.2 Aluminium Mechanical Properties 18
D.3 Aluminium temper designation 23
E FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS 27
E.1 Snap-fit design 27
E.2 Serrated washer 27
E.3 Sleeve sizes 27
E.4 List of fasteners 28
E.5 Group of fasteners 32
E.6 Screw channels 34
E.7 Spring pin 40
E.8 Lifting tools 41
F ANCHORS 45
F.1 HILTI Anchor Selector 45
F.2 HILTI concrete anchor approvals 48
F.3 HALFEN Cast-in channel 51
F.4 HILTI Cast-in channels 56
G FORMULAS 57
G.1 Conversion 57
G.2 Stresses 58
G.3 Cross-sectional property formulas 59
G.4 Beam formulas 63
G.5 Arc formulas 69
G.6 Cable structures 71

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES GLASS
DESIGN AIDES 5
A Glass
A.1 Glass dead load holders
Values

Figures
General

g
W = A
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
1 1
A bh b b h h 2 = = = =
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
2
2
1 1
b h b b h h 3
x =
2A



Case 1:
b
1
160mm
1 1
1
h h
= tan
b b


| | | | | | | |
| | | |

\ . \ . \ . \ .

( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
2 2
1 1
S b b h h = + = + = + = +
x 1
90
e = b a tan
2
| | | | | | | |
+ + + +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
g1 x s
P = W b x e S a a
g2 g1
P = W cos P
( (( ( ) )) )
gh g1 g 2
P = P P sin + ++ +
a
a
a
e

x
Pg1
Pg2
Pgh

s
x
b1
h
1
W

Case 2:
b
1
> 160mm; x (a + b - b
1
)
1 1
1
h h
= tan
b b


| | | | | | | |
| | | |

\ . \ . \ . \ .

( (( ( ) )) )
x s
s = b a a cos cos
( (( ( ) )) )
y 1 s
s = h h a a sin sin
( (( ( ) )) )
( (( ( ) )) )
g1
x y
W b x a
P =
s s

+ ++ +

g2 g1
P = W P sin
gh g1
P = P cos
a
a
a
Pgh
Pg1
Pg2

s
x
b1
h
1
W

Case 3:
b
1
> 160mm; x > (a + b - b
1
)
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
g1 1 s
P = W b x a b a a
g2 g1
P = W P

x
b1
h
1 W
a
Pg1 Pg2
a

s

Case 4:

( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
g1 1
P = W x a b 2a
g2 g1
P = W P
a a
Pg1
Pg2
b
h
x
h
1
W

Dead load for glass holders
GLASS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
6 DESIGN AIDES
A.2 Glass deflection
Action Values

Notes Clause
Data
L

D

Glass dimension along flow direction, [mm]
Dead load deflection of glass, [mm]

Minimum
slope
C L
2
D
o
D
C
R
8 2


= + = + = + = +
-1
o
o
C
= sin
2R
C 180

2R

| | | | | | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .



Chord length, [mm]

Radius of curvature, [mm]

Required minimum slope, []


Action Values

Notes Clause
Data
L

Glass dimension along slip direction, [mm]
Maximum centre of glass deflection, [mm]

Edge slip
o o
L 180
1 cos
R 2R


| | | | | | | |
= = = =
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

o
o
L
= L 2R sin
2R

| | | | | | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

Solve equation to determine radius of curvature, [mm]


Edge slippage, [mm]

Minimum roof slope to prevent ponding
Edge slippage of simply supported glass
D

D
R -
R
slope
O
O
C

L
Ro

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES WINDOWS AND DOORS


DESIGN AIDES 7
B Windows and Doors
B.1 Sliding doors
In the analyis of sliding door framing profiles, combine the central mullions and apply the appropriate lateral
loads on both the fixed and the sliding panels.

To ensure airtightness at the sliding interface, the mullion moment of inertias of the fixed panel should be
greater than that of the sliding panel,

I
F2
I
F1
WINDOWS AND DOORS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
8 DESIGN AIDES
B.2 Design of window sash
Action Values

Notes Clause
Forces

g
Wt = BH
V = Wt
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) ) H = Wt B 2 a H a
a = 100 mm
c = 200 mm






Side hung Vertical member, M1
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
z
H a h H a 3h H a
I
27 H E 3mm
+ + + + + + + +


z
y M1
1.35H a h
W
H f




Vertical member, M2
( (( ( ) )) )
4
w
y
5 q B 2 y
I
384E y 180



( (( ( ) )) )

2
w
y
y M1
1.5 q B 2 y
W
8 f

3
z
H c
I
3E c 180




( (( ( ) )) )

z
y M1
1.35 H c V e
W
f
+ + + +

Horizontal member, T
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
{ {{ { } }} }
z
V a b B a 3b B a
I
27 B E min B 180; 3mm
+ + + + + + + +


z
y M1
1.35V a b
W
B f




z
y
H
B
c
c
e
V
Wt
H
a
a
M
1
M
2
T

Top hung
without struts
Vertical member, M1
y
I
y
W
Horizontal member, T
( (( ( ) )) )
{ {{ { } }} }
2 2
z
V a 3B 4a
I
48E min B 180; 3mm



z
y M1
1.35V a
W
2 f



Top hung
with struts
Vertical member, M1
y
I
y
W
Horizontal member, T
( (( ( ) )) )
{ {{ { } }} }
2 2
z
V a 3B 4a
I
48E min B 180; 3mm



z
y M1
1.35V a
W
2 f



Bottom hung


Structural design of window frame
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CURTAIN WALL SYSTEMS
DESIGN AIDES 9
C Curtain Wall Systems
C.1 Schco stick system
BT W A I
y
I
z
W
el,y
W
el,z
W
pl,y
W
pl,z
I
t
W
t
BT W A I
y
I
z
W
el,y
W
el,z
W
pl,y
W
pl,z
I
t
W
t
[mm] [kg/m] [cm
2
] [cm
4
] [cm
4
] [cm
3
] [cm
3
] [cm
3
] [cm
3
] [cm
4
] [cm
3
] [mm] [kg/m] [cm
2
] [cm
4
] [cm
4
] [cm
3
] [cm
3
] [cm
3
] [cm
3
] [cm
4
] [cm
3
]
323 540 - 1.3 4.8 10.8 4.2 4.3 1.8 6 3.7 1.2 0 324 680 - 1.5 5.5 19.0 5 6.3 2 8.6 4.3 0.7 0.8
322 250 50 2.1 7.6 31.3 19.3 8.2 7.7 13.3 10.2 18.5 6.8 324 010 50 2.4 8.9 35.1 35 8.8 11 15.7 15 28.2 6.1
322 260 65 2.2 8.1 55.5 22.8 12.6 9.1 18.7 11.6 29.6 9.3 324 020 65 2.6 9.7 63.1 42.3 13.7 14.1 22.3 17.5 47.9 12.8
322 270 85 2.5 9.3 108.3 28.1 19.9 11.3 28.9 14 46.3 13 324 030 85 3.1 11.3 124.3 53.3 21.9 17.8 34.3 21.6 79.5 18.7
322 280 105 2.6 9.8 167.1 32.4 27 13 36.6 15.7 62.1 16.7 324 040 105 3.3 12.2 195.1 62.4 30.1 20.8 44.2 24.6 110.6 24.3
322 290 125 3.1 11.3 278.5 38.4 37.2 15.4 51.6 18.5 80.5 20.3 324 050 125 3.8 14.2 325.1 74.4 41.7 24.8 62 29.2 144.4 26.2
322 300 150 3.3 12.3 423.6 44.4 48.9 17.7 66.1 20.9 102.1 26.3 324 060 150 4.2 15.7 500.4 86.8 55.6 28.9 80.3 33.5 186.9 32.6
322 310* 175 3.9 14.5 661.9 52.8 66.8 21.1 88.7 24.7 122.9 17.5 324 070 175 5.0 18.4 787.0 103.1 81.3 34.4 108.6 39.5 224.8 20.9
326 250 175 4.8 17.6 730.0 68.2 75.9 27.3 101.8 31.6 161.3 17.3 324 080 200 5.4 19.9 1,083.1 115.6 99.8 38.5 132 43.9 267 23.2
326 030 200 5.2 19.1 1,008.9 76.7 92.1 30.7 124.3 35.2 190.3 19.2 324 090 225 5.8 21.4 1,445.4 128.1 119.9 42.7 157.8 48.3 312.8 28.5
336 230 225 5.6 20.7 1,352.3 85.3 110.4 34.1 149.2 38.9 222.5 25.7 336 270 250 6.2 23 1,876.3 140.7 140.7 46.9 185.6 52.7 358.3 30.9
336 240 250 6.0 22.2 1,759.1 93.8 129.9 37.5 176 42.5 253.6 25.2 324 220 85 4.0 14.9 168.2 108.4 28 17.5 45.1 33 97.6 11.8
322 520 65 2.8 10.2 68.1 40.3 14.8 7.9 23.6 16.2 31.4 10.6 323 420 65 - 250 1.7 6.3 53.6 18.2 9 4.9 15.9 9 26.2 4.9
322 510 85 3.7 13.6 173.9 81.1 28.9 12.8 44.4 25.5 82.5 11.8 323 430 65 - 250 1.8 6.7 68.6 20.7 11 5.5 18.8 10.5 29.6 8.8
322 500 105 3.5 13 209.5 61.5 29.2 13.9 47.1 23.6 3.3 0 323 440 65 - 250 1.6 5.9 39.8 19.2 7.4 4.9 13 8.9 23.5 4
323 420 65 - 250 1.7 6.3 53.6 18.2 9 4.9 15.9 9 26.2 4.9 324 100 85 2.4 8.8 81.7 11.1 15.4 3.8 23.2 8.3 6.8 2.6
323 430 65 - 250 1.8 6.7 68.6 20.7 11 5.5 18.8 10.5 29.6 8.8 324 110 85 1.9 7.2 49.6 12 10.3 3.3 16.9 7.7 5.3 2.4
323 440 65 - 250 1.6 5.9 39.8 19.2 7.4 4.9 13 8.9 23.5 4 324 120 105 2.7 10 136.9 12.7 21.8 4.3 32.5 9.6 11 2.7
323 940 85 2.0 7.4 71.5 6.5 13.3 2.9 19.7 5.9 4.8 1.7 324 130 105 2.3 8.4 91.0 13.4 15.7 3.7 24.7 9 9.2 4.1
923 950 85 1.6 5.8 42.5 6.5 8.9 2.3 14.1 5.2 3.8 2.7 324 140 125 3.1 11.3 212.1 14.3 28.9 4.8 43.1 11 15.5 5.9
323 960 105 2.2 8.2 119.2 7.4 18.4 3.3 27.3 6.7 7.5 2.4 324 150 125 2.6 9.7 149.3 14.7 22 4 33.8 10.2 13.6 5.4
323 970 105 1.8 6.6 76.7 7.3 13.3 2.6 20.3 6 6.3 3.8 324 160 150 3.5 12.8 337.9 16.2 39.2 5.3 58.1 12.6 20.7 8.1
323 980 125 2.5 9.1 182.7 8.3 24.1 3.7 35.9 7.6 10.2 3.6 324 170 150 3.0 11.2 249.7 16.3 31.2 4.4 46.9 11.8 19.1 8.7
323 990 125 2.0 7.4 124.2 8.1 18.4 2.9 27.3 6.8 0.6 0 324 180 85 3.0 11.2 122.7 51.4 21.4 17.1 33.9 21 76.5 18.3
326 010 150 2.7 10.1 287.8 9.4 32.3 4.1 47.8 8.6 13.6 6.8 324 190 105 3.2 12 192.7 60.6 29.5 20.2 43.6 24 107.1 23
326 020 150 2.3 8.5 204.7 9.1 25.5 3.2 37.3 7.8 12.3 7.7 324 200 125 3.8 14.1 320.8 72.6 40.9 24.2 61.2 28.7 141.2 23.2
323 040 85 2.5 9.1 106.9 26.8 19.5 10.7 28.6 13.5 44.2 12.7 324 210 150 4.2 15.6 494.0 85 54.5 28.3 79.4 33 183.5 28.2
323 050 105 2.6 9.6 165.0 31.1 26.5 12.4 36.2 15.2 59.9 16 324 990 175 4.7 17.5 741.5 97.3 74 32.4 102.9 37.3 228.4 33.2
323 060 125 3.0 11.2 274.6 37.1 36.4 14.8 51 18 78.5 20.3 327 010 200 5.1 19 1,021.9 109.7 91.1 36.6 125.2 41.7 271.1 42.6
328 640 150 3.3 12.2 418.1 43 47.8 17.2 65.2 20.4 100.1 21.4 327 020 225 5.6 20.6 1,365.6 122.3 109.7 40.8 150 46.1 315.5 59.3
328 650 175 4.5 16.8 687.4 64.4 69.9 25.8 96.3 29.8 163 27.6 336 290 250 6.0 22.1 1,773.8 134.8 129.6 44.9 176.7 50.5 360.9 44.9
328 660 200 4.9 18.3 950.9 72.9 86.2 29.1 117.7 33.4 193.2 32.4 324 300 85 2.2 8.1 41.4 13.9 12.5 5.2 16.8 9.4 2.5 0
322 720 85 2.1 7.9 39.5 11.7 12.1 5.2 16.1 8.6 2.3 0 324 310 105 2.6 9.7 78.5 16.5 17.3 6.2 25 11.4 25.4 10
322 730 105 2.5 9.4 74.9 14.3 16.7 6.4 24 10.6 25.4 9.1 324 320 125 2.9 10.7 125.8 18.6 22.3 7 32.4 12.9 2.6 0
201 216 105 4.1 5.2 49.1 8.3 11.4 3.7 14.6 6.2 0.4 0 324 330 150 3.3 12.2 236.9 21.4 35.2 8.1 48.7 14.9 2.3 0
322 740 125 2.8 10.4 120.4 16.4 21.5 7.3 31.2 12.1 32.7 11.3 324 340 175 3.7 13.6 357.5 24.2 43.6 9.1 62.3 16.9 2.4 0
201 217 125 4.6 5.8 80.7 9.3 15.5 4.2 19.7 7 0.4 0 324 350 200 4.1 15.1 519.3 27 54 10.2 77.6 18.9 2.5 0
322 750 150 3.2 11.9 227.6 19.2 34.2 8.5 47.1 14.1 42.8 14.3 324 360 225 4.5 16.5 727.6 29.8 66.2 11.2 94.8 21 2.6 0
322 760* 175 3.6 13.4 344.1 22 42.4 9.8 60.3 16.1 52.8 17.7 324 690 - 1.3 4.8 21.0 5.4 7 2.6 8.8 4.2 0.1 0.2
326 270 175 2.8 10.3 282.3 14.9 33.8 6.9 48.5 11.5 34.4 8.7 324 400 0 0.7 2.6 6.1 0.4 2 0.4 3.2 0.7 0.1 0.2
326 050 200 3.1 11.3 404.9 16.6 41.1 7.7 59.6 12.8 40.3 15.9 324 410 16 1.3 4.7 16.4 3.4 5.4 1.8 7.4 3.3 5.2 2.7
336 250 225 3.3 12.2 560.3 18.3 49.6 8.5 71.6 14.1 46.9 11.8 324 420 22 1.4 5.1 19.4 5.9 6.5 2.8 8.4 4.6 9.3 3.7
336 260 250 3.6 13.2 753.1 20 59.2 9.3 85.3 15.3 53.3 13.5 324 430 40 1.7 6.2 28.4 19 9.5 6.6 11.6 9.7 26.4 7
323 270 85 0.4 1.6 2.2 0.2 1.3 0.2 1.7 0.5 0.1 0 324 440 50 2.0 7.3 33.5 32.9 11.1 9.4 13.5 14.2 38.2 8.9
323 280 105 0.6 2.3 7.5 0.3 2.7 0.3 3.7 0.7 0.1 0 324 450 65 2.2 8.3 58.5 41 13.9 13.7 20.1 16.1 56.7 11.7
323 290 125 0.8 3.1 17.4 0.4 4.7 0.3 6.4 0.9 0.1 0 324 460 85 2.6 9.5 107.4 51 20.7 17 28.9 19.6 85.2 15.4
323 550 - 1.0 3.8 10.7 3.9 4.3 2 5.5 2.9 0.4 0 324 470 105 2.9 10.7 175.2 61.1 28.4 20.4 39.1 23.2 115.9 19.2
322 370 0 0.6 2.4 3.6 0.4 1.4 0.3 2.3 0.7 0.1 0.1 324 480 125 3.3 12.1 270.9 71.3 37.4 23.8 51.4 26.8 149.9 22.9
322 380 16 1.1 3.9 8.9 3 3.6 1.7 4.9 2.8 3.8 2.2 324 490 150 3.7 13.7 419.1 83.8 49.5 27.9 67.6 31.2 187.2 27.6
322 460 22 1.1 4.2 10.4 5.1 4.1 2.5 5.6 3.8 6.6 3.1 324 500 175 4.1 15.2 610.3 96.4 62.8 32.1 85.7 35.6 229 32.2
323 840 40 1.4 5 16.0 14.7 5.8 5.9 7.8 7.4 17.2 5.8 326 940 200 4.5 16.8 849.0 109 77.5 36.3 105.7 40 271.5 36.9
322 390 50 1.6 5.9 28.0 17.1 8.2 6.9 11.9 8.5 0.9 0 324 370 50 2.1 7.8 33.9 25.7 9.4 8.6 14.6 12.1 26.7 6
322 400 65 1.8 6.5 49.4 20.8 12 8.3 16.5 10 35 9.9 324 550 50 1.3 4.9 24.8 9.9 6.9 3.3 10.2 6.3 0.1 0.1
322 410 85 2.0 7.4 89.3 25.6 17.6 10.2 23.5 12 50.4 13.1 324 560 50 1.2 4.6 23.6 8 6.6 2.7 9.5 5.3 0.1 0.2
322 420 105 2.2 8.2 144.0 30.4 23.8 12.2 31.3 14 65.5 16.3 324 510 85 2.6 9.5 100.6 48.1 19.1 16 28.1 18.7 77.3 14.3
322 430 125 2.5 9.2 221.1 35.3 31.1 14.1 40.9 16.1 82.5 19.5 324 520 105 2.9 10.8 166.8 58.1 26.7 19.4 38.2 22.2 107.6 18.1
322 440 150 2.8 10.5 354.5 42 41.5 16.8 55.2 19 106.9 23.5 324 530 125 3.3 12.2 261.1 68.4 35.8 22.7 50.7 25.9 141.6 21.8
322 450 175 3.1 11.6 509.4 48 52 19.2 69 21.5 128.3 27.5 324 540 150 3.7 13.7 407.7 80.9 47.8 27 66.9 30.3 177.2 25.9
322 490 50 1.6 5.8 25.5 14.6 7.7 5.8 10.6 7.9 16.4 5.8 80503 105 - 200 5.7 7.2 61.1 29.4 15.3 11.8 18.8 13.6 64.8 21.6
322 630 50 1.1 4.1 21.3 5.4 6.2 2.4 8.6 4.1 0.1 0.1 336 090 125 - 200 3.4 12.6 201.5 55.6 32.4 21.4 44.7 25.2 3 0
322 640 50 1.0 3.8 19.7 4.4 5.4 1.9 7.6 3.5 0.1 0.1 100503 125 - 200 6.6 8.4 106.5 36.1 21.3 14.4 26.7 16.4 88.3 27.2
322 330 85 2.0 7.5 84.6 24 16.4 9.6 22.9 11.4 45.6 10.2 120503 150 - 200 7.5 9.6 168.0 42 28.1 17 35.7 19.3 112 32.8
322 340 105 2.2 8.3 138.4 28.8 22.7 11.5 30.8 13.4 60.5 14.4 150505 175, 200 8.9 11.4 298.5 52.6 39.8 21.1 51.4 23.5 149.9 41.4
322 350 125 2.5 9.3 215.2 33.8 30.1 13.5 40.7 15.6 77.6 17.4
322 360 150 2.9 10.6 347.6 40.4 40.6 16.1 55 18.4 101.6 21.1
80402 105 - 175 3.5 4.5 37.4 12.7 9.3 6.4 11.6 7.2 29.3 11.8
351 980 125 - 175 3.3 12.4 194.0 40.1 30.9 17.8 43.3 21.3 2.9 0
100403 125 - 175 6.1 7.8 92.3 21.7 18.5 10.8 23.7 12.4 58.8 21.4
120403 150, 175 7.1 9 148.0 25.7 24.7 12.8 32.2 14.6 74.2 25.8
150403 175 8.5 10.8 266.1 32 35.5 16 47 17.9 97.9 32.5
FW 50
+
Profile
No.
M
u
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i
o
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S
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a
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a
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d
C
o
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n
e
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I
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l
a
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F
a
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d

O
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d

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f
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a
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1
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2
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f
.
FW 60
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Profile
No.
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r
a
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s
o
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L
e
v
e
l

1
L
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v
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2
R
e
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f
.

FW 50
+
FW 60
+
Schco
CURTAIN WALL SYSTEMS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
10 DESIGN AIDES

FW 50
+



STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CURTAIN WALL SYSTEMS
DESIGN AIDES 11

FW 60
+




CURTAIN WALL SYSTEMS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
12 DESIGN AIDES

BT W A I
y
I
z
W
el,y
W
el,z
W
pl,y
W
pl,z
I
t
W
t
[mm] [kg/m] [cm
2
] [cm
4
] [cm
4
] [cm
3
] [cm
3
] [cm
3
] [cm
3
] [cm
4
] [cm
3
]
322 530 85 3.0 11 122.8 15.4 21.7 6.2 33.9 10.7 6.2 2.9
322 540 125 3.6 13.4 311.2 16.3 41 6.5 59.2 12 9.3 4.1
322 550 175 4.4 16.4 700.8 17.4 69.6 7 97.1 13.9 13.7 5
323 870 250 7.2 26.8 2,029.2 16.8 144 6.7 207 13.2 5.4 4.7
160 790 125 3.5 12.9 337.5 13.6 43.4 5.4 60.2 11.1 14.7 6.6
322 580 85 2.4 8.9 78.6 9.5 14.5 3.8 22.1 7.3 5.9 2.7
322 570 125 3.1 11.3 215.4 10.4 28.1 4.1 43 8.7 9 4.2
322 560 175 3.9 14.3 518.5 11.5 50.3 4.6 76.3 10.5 13.4 4.9
326 870 85 1.8 6.7 50.9 5 8.8 2.4 15 4.5 1.9 1.1
326 860 85 1.3 4.7 29.5 2.1 6.6 1.1 10.2 2.5 0.8 0.4
326 630 125 2.2 8.3 140.1 5.2 17.1 2.5 28.6 5 2.6 1.8
326 640 125 1.6 6.1 91.1 2.5 13.7 1.4 20.9 3.2 1.4 0.7
326 890 175 2.8 10.3 339.7 5.5 30.7 2.6 51.8 5.8 3.6 2.4
326 880 175 2.3 8.5 244.8 3 26.8 1.8 40.2 4 2.5 1.1
322 370 0 0.6 2.4 3.6 0.4 1.4 0.3 2.3 0.7 0.1 0.1
322 380 16 1.1 3.9 8.9 3 3.6 1.7 4.9 2.8 3.8 2.2
326 900 50 1.4 5.3 20.9 4.6 6 1.8 9.4 4 3.1 1.5
326 920 85 2.6 9.8 193.8 11.3 24.7 4.5 38.4 8.4 12 4.7
323 900 125 2.1 7.8 69.8 10.5 12.3 4.2 19.6 7.2 9.3 3.6
323 910 85 2.9 10.6 116.0 38.9 21.9 7.8 31.9 16.1 9.4 2.8
323 920 125 3.3 12.4 292.7 42.9 40.5 8.2 55.3 17.6 12.1 3.9
323 930 175 3.8 14.1 634.6 46.4 65.8 8.7 86.1 18.9 15.2 7.8
326 910 85 2.2 8.3 69.9 9.2 12.6 3.7 20.1 6.9 7 3.5
336 100 125 2.7 9.9 189.4 9.9 24.1 4 38 8 9.6 5.7
FW 50
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Profile
No.
I

&

T
I
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s
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a
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1
L
.

2
M
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i
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FW 50
+
S Schco
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CURTAIN WALL SYSTEMS
DESIGN AIDES 13
C.2 Raico stick system


THERM
+
50

THERM
+
56

Expansion Profiles

THERM
+
50

THERM
+
56

Right-angled profiles Expansion Profiles
Right-Angled Profiles
CURTAIN WALL SYSTEMS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
14 DESIGN AIDES






T-Profile



Insertion Profiles for CW 50 and 56
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES CURTAIN WALL SYSTEMS
DESIGN AIDES 15
C.3 Raico glass chairs
Description Detail
Variante 1: 400 kg



Variante 2: 600 kg



Variante 3: 800 kg



Variante 3: 1500 kg




Raico glass chair
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ALUMINIUM
DESIGN AIDES 17
D Aluminium
Alloy Deisgnations

D.1 Aluminium Extrusion Guidelines
The figure below shows maximum profile
dimensions for the largest Swedish press of
Sapa.

Note: The entire cross section of the desired
profile must fit within the bold line.

.




Circumscribing Circle [mm]
Legend: Solid (open) profiles Hollow (closed) profile
6060 / 6063 6060 / 6063
6005A 6005A
6082 6082
Recommended Wall Thickness, [mm] Sapa Design Manual
t 1.0+/129
t 0.8+/148
t = 2.0+/125
t 1.5+/133
FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
18 DESIGN AIDES

D.2 Aluminium Mechanical Properties

Aluminium Sheets/Plates EN 485-2:2008
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ALUMINIUM
DESIGN AIDES 19


Aluminium Sheets/Plates EN 485-2:2008
FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
20 DESIGN AIDES


Aluminium Sheets/Plates EN 485-2:2008
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ALUMINIUM
DESIGN AIDES 21

Aluminium Extrusions EN 755-2:2008

FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
22 DESIGN AIDES


Aluminium Extrusions EN 755-2:2008
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ALUMINIUM
DESIGN AIDES 23
D.3 Aluminium temper designation
Temper

Description
F As fabricated (no mechanical property limits specified).
O Annealed - products achieving the required annealed properties after hot forming processes may be
designated as O temper.
O1 Thermally treated at approximately the same time and temperature required for solution treatment and
slow cooled to room temperature (formerly designated as T41).
O2 Thermomechanically processed to enhance formability, such as required for super-plastic forming (SPF).
O3 Homogenized.
H12 Strain-hardened - hard.
H14 Strain-hardened - hard.
H16 Strain-hardened - hard.
H18 Strain-hardened - 4/4 hard (fully hardened).
H19 Strain-hardened - extra hard.
Hxx4 Applies to embossed or patterned sheet or strip, fabricated from the corresponding Hxx temper.
Hxx5 Strain-hardened - applies to welded tubes.
H111 Annealed and slightly strain-hardened (less than H11) during subsequent operations such as stretching or
levelling.
H112 Slightly strain-hardened from working at an elevated temperature from a limited amount of cold work
(mechanical property limits specified).
H116 Applies to aluminium-magnesium alloys with a magnesium content of 4% or more and for which
mechanical property limits and exfoliation corrosion resistance are specified.
H22 Strain-hardened and partially annealed - hard.
H24 Strain-hardened and partially annealed - hard.
H26 Strain-hardened and partially annealed - hard.
H28 Strain-hardened and partially annealed - 4/4 hard (fully hardened).
H32 Strain-hardened and stabilized - hard.
H34 Strain-hardened and stabilized - hard.
H36 Strain-hardened and stabilized - hard.
H38 Strain-hardened and stabilized - 4/4 hard (fully hardened).
H42 Strain-hardened and painted or lacquered - hard.
H44 Strain-hardened and painted or lacquered - hard.
H46 Strain-hardened and painted or lacquered - hard.
H48 Strain-hardened and painted or lacquered - 4/4 hard (fully hardened).
W Solution heat-treated (unstable temper). The period of natural ageing (W2h..) may also be specified.
W51 Solution heat-treated (unstable temper) and stress-relieved by controlled stretching (permanent set 0.5%
to 3% for sheet, 1.5% to 3% for plate, 1% to 3% for hand or ring forging and rolled ring). The products
receive no further straightening after stretching.
W510 Solution heat-treated (unstable temper) and stress-relieved by controlled stretching (permanent set 1% to
3% for extruted rod, bar, shapes and tube, 0.5% to 3% for drawn tube). The products receive no further
straightening after stretching.
W511 Same as W510 except minor straightening is allowed after stretching to comply with standard tolerances.
W52 Solution heat-treated (unstable temper) and stress-relieved by compressing to produce a permanent set of
1- 5%.
Temper Descriptions to BS EN 515
FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
24 DESIGN AIDES
W54 Solution heat-treated (unstable temper) and stress-relieved by restriking cold in the finish die (die forging).
T1 Cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process and naturally aged.
T2 Cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process, cold worked and naturally aged.
T3 Solution heat-treated, cold worked and naturally aged.
T31 Solution heat-treated, cold worked approximately 1% and naturally aged.
T351 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by controlled stretching (permanent set 0.5% to 3% for sheet, 1.5%
to 3% for plate, 1% to 3% for rolled or cold-finished rod and bar, 1% to 5% for hand or ring forging and
rolled ring) and naturally aged. The products receive no further straightening after
T3510 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by controlled stretching (permanent set 1% to 3% for extruded rod,
bar, shapes and tube, 0.5% to 3% for drawn tube) and naturally aged. The products receive no further
straightening after stretching.
T3511 Same as T3510 except that minor straightening is allowed after stretching to comply with standard
tolerances.
T354 Solution heat-treated stress-relieved by restriking cold in the finish die and naturally aged.
T36 Solution heat-treated, cold worked approximately 6% and naturally aged.
T37 Solution heat-treated, cold worked approximately 7% and naturally aged.
T39 Solution heat-treated and cold worked to an appropriate degree to achieve the specified mechanical
properties. Cold work may be carried out before or after natural ageing.
T4 Solution heat-treated and naturally aged.
T42 Solution heat-treated and naturally aged. Applies to test material heat-treated from annealed or F temper
or to products heat-treated from any temper by the user.
T451 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by controlled stretching (permanent set 0.5% to 3% for sheet, 1.5%
to 3% for plate, 1% to 3% for rolled or cold-finished rod and bar, 1% to 5% for hand or ring forging and
rolled ring) and naturally aged. The products receive no further straightening after stretching.
T4510 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by controlled stretching (permanent set 1% to 3% for extruded rod,
bar shapes and tube, 0.5% to 3% for drawn tube) and naturally aged. The products receive no further
straightening after stretching.
T4511 Same as T4510 except that minor straightening is allowed after stretching to comply with standard
tolerances.
T452 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by compressing to produce a permanent set of 1% to 5% and
naturally aged.
T454 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by restriking cold in the finish die and naturally aged.
T5 Cooled from an elavated temperature shaping process and then artificially aged.
T51 Cooled from an elavated temperature shaping process and then artificially aged in underageing conditions
to improve formability.
T56 Cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process and then artificially aged - mechanical property
level higher than T5 achieved through special control of the process (6000 series alloys).
T6 Solution heat-treated and then artificially aged.
T61 Solution heat-treated and then artificially aged in underageing conditions to improve formability.
T6151 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by controlled stretching (permanent set 0.5% to 3% for sheet, 1.5%
to 3% for plate) and then artificially aged in underageing conditions to improve formability. The products
receive no further straightening after stretching.
T62 Solution heat-treated and then artificially aged. Applies to test material heat-treated from annealed or F
temper or to products heat-treated from any temper by the user.
T64 Solution heat-treated and then artificially aged in underageing conditions (between T6 and T61) to improve
formability.
T651 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by controlled stretching (permanent set 0.5% to 3% for sheet, 1.5%
to 3% for plate, 1% to 3% for rolled or cold-finished rod and bar, 1% to 5% for hand or ring forging and
rolled ring) and then artificially aged. The products receive no further straightening after stretching.
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ALUMINIUM
DESIGN AIDES 25
T6510 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by controlled stretching (permanent set 1% to 3% for extruded rod,
bar, shapes and tube, 0.5% to 3% for drawn tube) and then artificially aged. The products receive no
further straightening after stretching.
T6511 Same as T6510 except that minor straightening is allowed after stretching to comply with standard
tolerances.
T652 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by compressing to produce a permanent set of 1% to 5% and then
artificially aged.
T654 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by restriking cold in the finish die and then artificially aged.
T66 Solution heat-treated and then artificially aged - mechanical property level higher than T6 achieved
through special control of the process (6000 series alloys)..
T7 Solution heat-treated and then artificially overaged.
T73 Solution heat-treated and then artificially overaged in order to achieve the best stress corrosion resistance.
T732 Solution heat-treated and then artificially overaged in order to achieve the best stress corrosion resistance.
Applies to test material heat-treated from annealed or F temper or to products heat-treated from any
temper by the user.
T7351 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by controlled stretching (permanent set 0.5% to 3% for sheet, 1.5%
to 3% for plate, 1% to 3% for rolled or cold-finished rod and bar, 1% to 5% for hand or ring forging and
rolled ring) and then artificially overaged in order to achieve the best stress corrosion resistance. The
products receive no further straightening after stretching.
T73510 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by controlled stretching (permanent set 1% to 3% for extruded rod,
bar, shapes and tube, 0.5% to 3% for drawn tube) and then artificially overaged in order to achieve the
best stress corrosion resistance. The products receive no further straightening after stretching.
T73511 Same as T73510 except that minor straightening is allowed after stretching to comply with standard
tolerances.
T7352 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by compressing to produce a permanent set of 1% to 5% and then
artifi-cially overaged in order to achieve the best stress corrosion resistance.
T7354 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by restriking cold in the finish die and then artificially overaged in
order to achieve the best stress corrosion resistance.
T74 Solution heat-treated and then artificially overaged (between T73 and T76).
T7451 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by controlled stretching (permanent set 0.5% to 3% for sheet, 1.5%
to 3% for plate, 1% to 3% for rolled or cold-finished rod and bar, 1% to 5% for hand or ring forging and
rolled ring) and then artificially overaged (between T73 and T76). The products receive no further
straightening after stretching.
T74510 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by controlled stretching (permanent set 1% to 3% for extruded rod,
bar shapes and tube 0.5% to 3% for drawn tube) and then artificially overaged (between T73 and T76).
The pro-ducts receive no further straightening after stretching.
T74511 Same as T74510 except that minor straightening is allowed after stretching to comply with standard
tolerances.
T7452 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by compressing to produce a permanent set of 1% to 5% and then
artifi-cially overaged (between T73 and T76).
T7454 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by restriking cold in the finish die and then artificially overaged (bet-
ween T73 and
T76 Solution heat-treated and then artificially overaged in order to achieve a good exfoliation corrosion
resistance.
T761 Solution heat-treated and then artificially overaged in order to achieve a good exfoliation corrosion
resistan-ce. (applies to 7475 sheet and strip).
T762 Solution heat-treated and then artificially overaged in order to achieve a good exfoliation corrosion
resistan-ce. Applies to test material heat-treated from annealed or F temper or to products heat-treated
from any tem-per by the user.
T7651 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by controlled stretching (permanent set 0.5% to 3% for sheet, 1.5%
to 3% for plate, 1% to 3% for rolled or cold-finished rod and bar, 1% to 5% for hand or ring forging and
rolled ring) and then artificially overaged in order to achieve a good exfoliation corrosion resistance. The
products recieve no further straightening after
FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
26 DESIGN AIDES
T76510 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by controlled stretching (permanent set 1% to 3% for extruded rod,
bar, shapes and tube, 0.5% to 3% for drawn tube) and then artificially overaged in order to achieve a good
exfoli-ation corrosion resistance. The products receive no further straightening after stretching.
T76511 Same as T76510 except that minor straightening is allowed after stretching to comply with standard
tolerances.
T7452 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by compressing to produce a permanent set of 1% to 5% and then
artifi-cially overaged in order to achieve a good exfoliation corrosion resistance.
T7454 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by restriking in the finish die and then artificially overaged in order to
achieve a good exfoliation corrosion resistance.
T79 Solution heat-treated and then artificially overaged (very limited overageing).
T79510 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by controlled stretching (permanent set 1% to 3% for extruded rod,
bar, shapes and tube, 0.5% to 3% for drawn tube) and then artificially overaged (very limited overageing).
The products receive no further straightening after stretching.
T8 Solution heat-treated, cold worked and then artificially aged.
T82 Solution heat-treated by the user, controlled stretched with a minimum permanent set of 2% and then artifi-
cially aged (alloy 8090).
T832 Solution heat-treated, cold worked a controlled specific amount and then artificially aged (applies to 6063
drawn tube).
T841 Solution heat-treated, cold worked and then artificially underaged (sheet and strip in alloys 2091 and
8090).
T851 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by controlled stretching (permanent set 1% to 3% for sheet, 1.5% to
3% for plate, 1% to 3% for rolled or cold-finished rod and bar, 1% to 5% for hand or ring forging and rolled
ring) and then artificially aged. The products receive no further straightening after stretching.
T8510 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by controlled stretching (permanent set 1% to 3% for extruded rod,
bar, profiles and tube, 0.5% to 3% for drawn tube) and then artificially aged. The products receive no
further straightening after stretching.
T8511 Same as T8510 except for minor straightening is allowed after stretching to comply with standard
tolerances.
T852 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by compressing to produce a permanent set of 1% to 5% and then
artifi-cially aged.
T854 Solution heat-treated, stress-relieved by restriking cold in the finish die and then artificially aged.
T86 Solution heat-treated, cold worked approximately 6% and then artificially aged.
T87 Solution heat-treated, cold worked approximately 7% and then artificially aged.
T89 Solution heat-treated, cold worked to an appropriate degree to achieve the specified mechanical properties
and then artificially aged.
T9 Solution heat-treated, artificially aged and then cold worked.

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS
DESIGN AIDES 27
E Fasteners & Connections
E.1 Snap-fit design
Formulas are derived from theory of cantilever beam with concentrated load (also conforms to BASF design).
Perpendicular
force [N]
Uniform beam
3
3
bt E
P Y
4L
= == =
Tapered beam
3
3
bt E
P Y
6.52L
= == =
Uniform beam Tapered beam


Mating force
( (( ( ) )) )
( (( ( ) )) )
tan
W P
1 tan


+ ++ +
= == =


( (( ( ) )) )
( (( ( ) )) )
tan
W P
1 tan


+ ++ +
= == =


values of :
0.6 Raw surface
0.3 Anodised surface

Push-on force [N]

Pull-off force [N]

Coefficient of friction [-]


E.2 Serrated washer
Additional tension due to serration angle () of washer and friction ():
F
t
= F
v
/tan(+ )
= tan
-1
()

Material Material
Static Sliding
Dry Greasy Dry Greasy
Aluminium Aluminium 1.05-1.35 0.3 1.4 -
Aluminium Steel (mild) 0.61 - 0.47 -
Steel (mild) Steel (mild) 0.74 - 0.57 0.09-0.19
Steel (hard) Steel (hard) 0.78 0.05-0.11 0.42 0.029-0.12
Cast iron Cast iron 1.1 0.15 0.07
Nylon Nylon 0.15-0.25

E.3 Sleeve sizes
Bolt size 1.4301/1.4404 6060 T6 Screw size 1.4301/1.4404 6060 T6
M4 - 81.5 ST 2.9 61.0* -
M5 81.0* 102.0 ST 3.5 61.0* 71.5
M6 101.5 - ST 3.9 81.5* 71.5
M8 121.5 121.5 ST 4.2 81.5* 81.5
M10 152.0* 151.5 ST 4.8 81.5* 81.5
M12 17.22.3 161.5 ST 5.5 - 102.0
M16 21.32.0 201.5 ST 6.3 101.5 133.0
M20 26.92.6 -

Design resistance of aluminium structures http://snapfit4.cmg.net/SnapFit/workspace.jsp
Frictional coefficients http://www.engineershandbook.com/Tables/frictioncoefficients.htm
Sleeve sizes
N
+
F
v
F
t
FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
28 DESIGN AIDES
E.4 List of fasteners

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS
DESIGN AIDES 29


FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
30 DESIGN AIDES
Bolts and screws commonly used in faade construction
Reference Figure

Description
ISO 4014
DIN 931

Hexagonal head bolts
ISO 4017
DIN 933

Hexagonal head screws
ISO 4762
DIN 912

Hexagonal socket head cap screws
DIN 6912


Hexagonal socket thin head cap screws with pilot recess for wrench
key
ISO 10642
DIN 7991

Hexagonal socket countersunk head screws
ISO 7046
DIN 965

Cross recessed countersunk head screws
DIN 7500
D+SHB
C-Z
M-Z
M
Thread rolling screws for ISO metric thread
ISO 8752
DIN 1481

Spring-type straight pins, slotted, heavy duty
ISO 2338
DIN 7

Parallel pins, of unhardened steel and austenitic stainless steel
ISO 4026
DIN 913

Hexagonal socket set screws with flat point
DIN 975 Threaded rod

Metric thread bolts and screws
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS
DESIGN AIDES 31

Reference Figure

Description
ISO 1479
DIN 7976

Hexagonal head tapping screws
ISO 14585
DIN 7504

Hexalobular socket pan head tapping screws
ISO 14586

Hexalobular socket countersunk head tapping screws
ISO 7049
DIN 7981

Cross recessed pan head tapping screws
ISO 7050
DIN 7982

Cross recessed countersunk head tapping screws
ISO 15480
DIN 7504

Hexagonal washer head drilling screws with tapping screw thread
ISO15482
DIN 7504

Cross recessed raised pan head drilling screws with tapping screw
thread
DIN 571

Cross recessed raised countersunk head drilling screws with tapping
screw thread


Hexagonal head wood screws

Spaced thread screws
FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
32 DESIGN AIDES
E.5 Group of fasteners
Fastener Layout Shear Tension


1
t1 2 2 2
1 2 n
M y
F =
y +y ...y

+

n
tn 2 2 2
1 2 n
M y
F =
y +y ...y

+


1
v1 2 2 2
1 2 n
M y
F =
y +y ...y

+

n
vn 2 2 2
1 2 n
M y
F =
y +y ...y

+




( )
( )
1 2
v1
2 2
1 1 2 2
M 2x +x
F =
2 x +x x x

+

( )
1 2
v2
2 2
1 1 2 2
M x x
F =
2 x +x x x

+

( )
( )
1 2
v3
2 2
1 1 2 2
M x +2x
F =
2 x +x x x

+

( )
1
x' = x x +
1 2
2 3
( )
2
x' = x x
1 2
3
( )
3
x' = x x
1 2
2 3 +


1
v1 2 2 2 2
1 2 3 4
M x'
F =
x' +x' x' x'

+ +

( )
1
x' = x x x + +
1 2 3
3 2 4
( )
2
x' = x x x + +
1 2 3
2 4
( )
3
x' = x x x +
1 2 3
2 4
( )
4
x' = x x x + +
1 2 3
2 3 4

Fastener Layout Shear X component Shear Y components

( (( ( ) )) )
vx
2 2
M y
F =
2 x +y


( (( ( ) )) )
vy
2 2
M x
F =
2 x +y



vx1 vx2
F = F

vx1 2 2
M y
F =
2x +3y



vy1 2 2
M x
F =
2x +3y



vy2
F = 0

vx1 vx2 vx3
F = F = F
( )
vx1
2 2 2
1 1 2 2
M 3y
F =
8 x +x x +x +9y

(


( )
( )
1 2
vy1
2 2 2
1 1 2 2
M 2x +x
F =
8 x +x x +x +9y

(


( )
1 2
vy2
2 2 2
1 1 2 2
M x x
F =
8 x +x x +x +9y

(


( )
( )
1 2
vy3
2 2 2
1 1 2 2
M x +2x
F =
8 x +x x +x +9y

(


Group of fasteners in tension or shear
Group of fasteners in shear
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS
DESIGN AIDES 33

vx1 vx2
F = F

( )
vx1
2 2 2
1 2
M y
F =
2 x +x +2y




( )
1
vy1
2 2 2
1 2
M x
F =
2 x +x +2y


( )
2
vy2
2 2 2
1 2
M x
F =
2 x +x +2y



vx1 vx2 vx3
F = F = F

vx1 2 2 2
1 2
M y
F =
2x +2x +5y


1
vy1 2 2 2
1 2
M x
F =
2x +2x +5y


2
vy2 2 2 2
1 2
M x
F =
2x +2x +5y



vy3
F = 0

vx1 vx2 vxn
F = F = ... F

( )
vx1
2 2 2 2
1 2 n
M y
F
2 x +x +...x +n y




( )
1
vy1
2 2 2 2
1 2 n
M x
F
2 x +x +...x +n y


( )
2
vy2
2 2 2 2
1 2 n
M x
F
2 x +x +...x +n y


( )
n
vyn
2 2 2 2
1 2 n
M x
F
2 x +x +...x +n y



vx1 vx2
F = F

vx1 2 2
M y
F =
4x +3y



vx3
F = 0
vy1 vy3
F = F

vy1 2 2
M x
F =
4x +3y



vy2
F = 0

vx1 vx2
F = F

( )
vx1
2 2 2
1 2
M y
F =
4 x +x +y



vx3 vx4
F = F = 0


vy1 vy3
F = F

( )
1
vy1
2 2 2
1 2
M x
F =
4 x +x +y



vy2 vy4
F = F

( )
2
vy2
2 2 2
1 2
M x
F =
4 x +x +y



vx1 vx2 vx3
F = F = F

vx1 2 2 2
1 2
M y
F =
4x +4x +5y



vx4 vx5
F = F = 0
vy1 vy4
F = F

1
vy1 2 2 2
1 2
M x
F =
4x +4x +5y



vy2 vy5
F = F

2
vy2 2 2 2
1 2
M x
F =
4x +4x +5y



vy3
F = 0

FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
34 DESIGN AIDES
E.6 Screw channels
Screw channel with self-tapping screws ST4.830 / A2
Lindner AG appointed Labor fr Stahl und Leichtmetallbau, Hochschule Mnchen to conduct a test on the
design shear and tension loads of screw channels. ST4.832mm A2 with DIN912 head is used. The
following characteristic and design values at 5% fractile test values are obtained from the official report Doc.
Nr. 2009-2037.

Screw channel
type
Incidence
angle
Base extrusion Anodised extrusion
Interaction formula
F
v,k
F
v,d
F
t,k
F
v,k
F
v,d
F
t,k

F


F
+90
1.8 1.35
6.8
2.0 1.50
6.8
a) 0 < < +45

( ) ( )
| |

|
|
\ .
0

0
+45
F
F =
2 F
cos + 1 sin
F


b) +45 < < +90

( ) ( )
| |

|
|
\ .
+90

+90
+45
F
F =
2 F
1 cos + sin
F


c) -45 < < 0
F

F
F

( ) ( )

| |

|
|
\ .
0

0
45
F
F =
2 F
cos 1 sin
F


d) -90 < < -45

F
F

( ) ( )

| |

|
|
\ .
90

90
45
F
F =
2 F
1 cos sin
F


F
+45
3.4 2.56 3.5 2.63

F
0
4.6 3.46 3.6 2.71

F
-45
5.6 4.21 5.1 3.83

F
-90
4.9 3.68 4.9 3.68



F
+90
1.8 1.35
8.3
1.9 1.43
7.6

F
+45
3.4 2.56 3.1 2.33

F
0
3.7 2.78 3.0 2.26

F
-45
5.5 4.14 6.0 4.51

F
-90
5.1 3.83 5.2 3.91



F
+90
2.8 2.11
7.6
2.8 2.11
7.7

F
+45
1.8 1.35 1.9 1.43

F
0
2.8 2.11 2.8 2.11

F
-45
5.9 4.44 6.2 4.66

F
-90
4.3 3.23 5.3 3.98
Note: Material factor
M
= 1.33 is used for the design values according to DIN 1055-100 Basis of structural design.
Screw channel capacities [kN]
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS
DESIGN AIDES 35
Screw channel with metric screw M525 / A2
Test conducted on 02.11.2011 by GBD LAB GmbH, Austria.



F
0,k

F
90,k

F
90,k
F
0,k
F
//,k

F
//,k

FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
36 DESIGN AIDES
Fastener approvals



Blind rivet, 4.8 mm AlMg2.5 (EN AW-5052) DIBt Z-14.1-537
Pull-out capacity by local bending of aluminium around screw head DIBt Z-14.1-537
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS
DESIGN AIDES 37



Self-drilling screw, Pan-head ST4.8 (1.4301) DIBt Z-14.1-537
FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
38 DESIGN AIDES

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS
DESIGN AIDES 39




Self-drilling screw, Hexagonal head JT4-4-4.8L/JT9-4-4.8L (1.4301) DIBt Z-14.1-537
Self-drilling screw, Hexagonal head JT4-6-5.5L/JT9-6-5.5L (1.4301) DIBt Z-14.1-537
FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
40 DESIGN AIDES
E.7 Spring pin

Note: Applies to steel (St) and martensitic (C) corrosion resistant steel products only. For austenitic (A) stainless
steel pins no double shear strength are specified.



Slotted spring pin ISO 8752 Table 1
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS
DESIGN AIDES 41
E.8 Lifting tools
Shackles [EN 13889]
Sample designation: 9.5mm / EN 13889 Grade 6 0.75 ton D (or B) W (or X)




Note: *Appropriate factor of safety (2.0 to 4.0) should be considered to determine the working load limit WLL.
*
FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
42 DESIGN AIDES
Schackle [Federal Specification RR-C-271 F]
Sample designation: 3/8 / RR-C-271F, Type IV A, Grade A



Note: *Appropriate factor of safety (2.0 to 4.0) should be considered to determine the working load limit WLL.

*
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES FASTENERS & CONNECTIONS
DESIGN AIDES 43
Eye bolt [DIN 580]




Swivel hoist [CROSBY SS-125M]

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ANCHORS
DESIGN AIDES 45
F Anchors
F.1 HILTI Anchor Selector


ANCHORS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
46 DESIGN AIDES



STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ANCHORS
DESIGN AIDES 47



ANCHORS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
48 DESIGN AIDES
F.2 HILTI concrete anchor approvals


Stud anchor HST ETA - 98/0001:2013
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ANCHORS
DESIGN AIDES 49

Screw anchor HUS 6/8/10/14 ETA 08/0307:2013


ANCHORS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
50 DESIGN AIDES

Wedge anchor DBZ 6 ETA 06/0179:2011
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ANCHORS
DESIGN AIDES 51
F.3 HALFEN Cast-in channel
HALFEN cast-in channels B 13-E

ANCHORS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
52 DESIGN AIDES




HTA Product Range and Dimensioning B 13-E
HR-Q
CF
HR-Q

HR-Q
CF

HR
CF

HR
CF

CF

CF

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ANCHORS
DESIGN AIDES 53





T-BOLT B 13-E
ANCHORS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
54 DESIGN AIDES

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES ANCHORS
DESIGN AIDES 55


T-BOLT with nib B 13-E
ANCHORS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
56 DESIGN AIDES

F.4 HILTI Cast-in channels


STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES FORMULAS
DESIGN AIDES 57
G Formulas
G.1 Conversion
Guage 26

24 22 20 18 16 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 4
[in.]
.018 .024 .030 .036 .048 .060 .075 .090 .105 .120 .135 .150 .164 .180 .194
.224
[mm]
.46 .61 .76 .91 1.2 1.5 1.9 2.3 2.7 3 3.4 3.8 4 4.6 4.9
5.7

Number #6

#8 #10 #12 #14 1/4" 5/16" 3/8" 1/2" 5/8" 3/4" 7/8" 15/16" 1-1/4" 1-3/16"
[in.]
.138 .164 .190 .216 .250 .250 0.313 0.375 0.50 0.625 0.75 0.875 0.938 1.063 1.181
[mm]
3.5 4.2 4.8 5.5 6.3 6 8 10 12 16 20 22 24 27 30
Sheet Metal
Fasteners
FORMULAS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
58 DESIGN AIDES
G.2 Stresses
Principal stresses
Type Action

Notes
Von Mises
stress






( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
2 2 2
1 2 2 3 1 3
v
2

+ + + + + + + +
= == =

where:

1,

2,

3,
are principal stresses
Design stress is typically maximum surface stress
(simple loading) or Von Mises stress (complex
loading conditions).
The Von Mises yield criterion states that yielding
occurs when the Von Mises,
v
stress exceeds the
yield strength in tension.

??? 2
xx yy xx yy
2
xy
2 2


+ ++ + | | | | | | | |
= + + = + + = + + = + +
| | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

Glass stress

Torsional Stress
Type Action

Notes
Rectangular
section





( (( ( ) )) )

2
1
1
J
bc
r
= == =
( (( ( ) )) )

2
2
2
J
bc
r
= == =
( (( ( ) )) )

T
J
r
= == =

3
T
Gbc
= == =
Non-linear torsional constant [mm]




Torsion stress [N/mm]

Torsional rotation [rad]

Multiple
rectangular
sections
( (( ( ) )) )
2
i i i
i
J
b t
r
= == =

3
i i i i
K b t = == =
( (( ( ) )) )

3
i i i
K b t = == =


( (( ( ) )) )

i
i
i
K T
J K
r
= == =

T
G K
= == =


Individual torsional constant [mm]

Individual shear constant [mm
4
]

Total shear constant [mm
4
]

Individual shear stress


Torsional rotation [rad]
Constants
2
2 3 4
1
J bc 3
=
r
c c c c
1+0.6095 0.8865 1.8023 0.91
b b b b
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+ + + + + + + +
| | | | | | | | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

Stresses
Torsion of Rectangular cross-section Aircraft Structures J. Perry and J. J. Azar
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES FORMULAS
DESIGN AIDES 59
G.3 Cross-sectional property formulas
Shape Area

Centroid

Moment of
inertia
Section
Modulus
Plastic
Modulus
Torsional
Inertia/Constant
Rectangle
d
y

A=bd -


3
y
bd
I =
12

3
z
b d
I =
12

2
y
bd
Z =
6

2
z
b d
Z =
6

2
y
bd
S =
4

2
z
b d
S =
4

3 5
5
db b b
J= 1 0.63 +0.052
3 d d
| |

|
\ .

Triangle
z
d
y

bd
A=
2

d
z=
3

3
y
bd
I =
36

3
z
b d
I =
36

2
y
bd
Z =
24

2
z
b d
Z =
24

2
y
8bd
S =
81

2
z
8b d
S =
81


Spandrel
d
y
z
y
n

bd
A=
n+1

b
y=
n+1

d
z=
n+1

3
y
bd
I =
(n+1)12

3
z
b d
I =
(n+1)12

2
y
bd
Z =
(n+2)6

2
z
b d
Z =
(n+2)6


Circle
d
y

2
D
A=
4

-
4
D
I=
64

3
D
Z=
32

3
D
S=
6

4
D
J=2I=
32

3
2J D
C= =
D 16

Semi-circle
d
y
y

2
D
A=
8

2d
y=
3

4
y
D
I =
128

4
z
I =0.0069D
3
y
D
Z =
64

3
z
Z =0.0138D


Shape Area Moment of inertia Section Plastic Modulus Torsional
Inertia/Constant
Error! Reference
source not found.
RHS
T
t
y

A=BD-(B-2t)(D-2T)
3 3
y
BD -(B-2t)(D-2T)
I =
12

3 3
z
B D-(B-2t) (D-2T)
I =
12

y
y
2I
Z =
D

z
z
2I
Z =
B

2
y
D
S =BT(D-T)+2t -T
2
| |
|
\ .

2
z
B
S =Dt(B-t)+2T -t
2
| |
|
\ .

2 2
2(B-t) (D-T) t
J=
(B-t)+(D-T)
1
C=2(B-t)(D-T)t
2
CHS
D
t
y

2 2
[D -(D-2t) ]
A=
4

4 4
[D -(D-2t) ]
I=
64

2I
Z=
D

3 3
D -(D-2t)
S=
6

4 4
[D -(D-2t) ]
J=2I=
32
3

4 4
2J [D -(D-2t) ]
C= =
D 16D
3

Note:
1
Salmon and Johnson 1980 - resolved and omitting the effect of corner radius.
2
Salmon and Johnson 1980, Seaburg and Carter 1997 - resolved and omitting the effect of corner radius.
3
Stelco 1981, Seaburg and carter 1997
Section Properties Solid Cross Sections
Section Properties Hollow Cross Sections
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES FORMULAS
DESIGN AIDES 61

Shape Area Centroid Moment of inertia Section Modulus Plastic Modulus Torsional Inertia/Constant Error!
Reference source not found.
I-beam
z
y
B
D
T
t

A=2BT+(D-2T)t -
3 3
y
BD -(B-t)(D-2T)
I =
12

3 3
z
2B T+(D-2T)t
I =
12

3 3
y
BD -(B-t)(D-2T)
Z =
6D

3 3
z
2B T+(D-2T)t
Z =
6B

2
y
D
S =BT(D-T)+ -T t
2
| |
|
\ .

2 2
z
B T D t
S = -T
2 2 2
| |
+
|
\ .

3 3
2BT +(D-T)t
J=
3
1

3 2
B (D-T) T
C=
24
2
Channel
D
T
t
y
y

A=2BT+(D-2T)t
[ ]
2 2
2B T+(D-2T)t
y=
2 BT+(D-2T)t

3 3
y
BD -(B-t)(D-2T)
I =
12

y
y
2I
Z =
D

z
z
I
Z =
B-y

2 2
3 3
z
2B T+(D-2T)t B t
I = +2BT -y +(D-2T) y- t
12 2 2
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .

2
y
D
S =BT(D-T)+ -T t
2
| |
|
\ .

2 2
z
t
S =(B-y) T+2y T+(D-2T) y- t
2
| |
|
\ .

( )
3 3
2B-t T +(D-T)t
J=
3
3

3
2
t
B- (D-T) t
2
C=
13
| |
|
\ . 4

Tee
D
T
t
z
y
z

A=BT+(D-T)t
[ ]
2
BT +(D+T)(D-T)t
z=
2 BT+(D-T)t

2 2
3 3
y
BT +t(D-T) T D+T
I = +BT z- +(D-T)t z-
12 2 2
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .

3 3
z
B T+(D-T)t
I =
12

y
y
I
Z =
D-z

z
z
2I
Z =
B

2 2
y
T t
S =BT z- + (D-z) +(z-T)
2 2
| |
(
|
\ .

2 2
z
B T+(D-T)t
S =
4

3 3
bT +(D-T)t
J=
3
0 for small t
3
3
3 2
T
D- t
B T 2
C= +
144 36
| |
|
\ . 5

Angle
z
y
w
v
y
b
d
T
t
z

A=(b+d-t)t





-1
1 2K
= tan
2 Iy-Ix
| |
|
\ .

bd(b-t)(d-t)t
K=
4(b+d-t)

2
b +(d-t)t
y=
2(b+d-t)

2
d +(b-t)t
z=
2(b+d-t)


t t
v= z- sin+ y- cos
2 2
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .
t t
w= z- cos- y- sin
2 2
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .

3 3 3
y
t(d-z) +bz -(b-t)(z-t)
I =
3

3 3 3
z
t(b-y) +dy -(d-t)(y-t)
I =
3


2 2
v y z
I =I cos +I sin -Ksin2
2 2
w y z
I =I sin +I cos +Ksin2
y z v w
I +I =I +I
y
y
I
Z =
(d-z)

z
z
I
Z =
(b-y)


z
v
I
Z =
(d-z)cos+zsin

w
w
I
Z =
(b-y)co-ysin

-






3
t t
b- d- t
2 2
J=
3
| || |
| |
\ .\ .
0 for small t

3 3
3
t t
b- d- t
2 2
C=
36
(
| | | |
+ ( | |
\ . \ . (


Note:
1
Galambos 1968.
2
Galambos 1968, Picard and Beaulieu 1991.
3
SSRC 1998.
4
Galambos 1968 and, SSRC 1998 simplified.
5
Bleich 1952, Picard and Beaulieu 1991
Section Properties Structural Cross Sections
FORMULAS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
62 DESIGN AIDES

Shape Area Centroid Moment of inertia Section Modulus Shear Centre Torsional Inertia/Constant Error!
Reference source not found.
C
D
t
t
z
y
y

[ ] A= D+2(B-t) t
2
D
B + -t t
2
y=
D+2(B-t)
| |
|
\ .

3 3
y
BD -(B-t)(D-2t)
I =
12

y
y
2I
Z =
D

z
z
I
Z =
B-y

2 2
3 3
z
(D-2t)t +2B t t B
I = +t(D-2t) y- +2Bt -y
12 2 2
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .

2
3B
e=
6B+D


[ ]
3
D+2(B-t) t
J=
3

3 2
B d t 2+3B D
C=
12 1+6B D
| |
|
\ .

Lipped C
D
c
t
z
y
y
t

[ ] A= D+2(B+c-2t) t
( )
2
D
B + -t t+(c-t) 2B-t
2
y=
D+2(B+c-2t)
| |
|
\ .

3 3 3
y
BD -(B-2t)(D-2t) -t(D-2c)
I =
12

y
y
2I
Z =
D

z
z
I
Z =
B-y

2 2
2
y
BD ct 1 B 2c
e= + -
I 2 4c 3D
| |
|
\ .

2 2 2
3 3
z
(D+2c-4t)t +2B t t B t
I = +t(D-2t) y- +2Bt -y +2(c-t)t B-y-
12 2 2 2
| | | | | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .


[ ]
3
D+2(B+c-2t) t
J=
3

( )
2
3 2 2 2 2
y
B t
C= 4c +3D c-6Dc +BD -I e
6

Z
D
t
z
y
t

[ ] A= D+2(B-t) t -
3 3
y
BD -(B-t)(D-2t)
I =
12

3 3
z
(D-t)t +8B t
I =
12

y
y
2I
Z =
D

z
z
I
Z =
B

-
[ ]
3
D+2(B-t) t
J=
3


Lipped Z
c
t
z
y
t

[ ] A= D+2(B+c-2t) t -
3 3 3
y
BD -(B-2t)(D-2t) -t(D-2c)
I =
12

y
y
2I
Z =
D

z
z
I
Z =
B

2
3 3
z
(D+2c-3t)t +8B t t
I = +2(c-t)t B-
12 2
| |
|
\ .


-
[ ]
3
D+2(B+c-2t) t
J=
3

( )
( )
2 2 2
2 2
2
c +D B +2BD+4Bc+6Dc
+4c 3BD+3D +4Bc+2Dc
B t
C=
12 2B+D+2c
(
(
(


U
y
z
t

Refer to C shape (interchange y and z
axes)

Omega
D
z
y
z
t
t

[ ] A= B+2(D+c-2t) t
( )
2
B
D + -t t+(c-t) 2D-t
2
z=
B+2(D+c-2t)
| |
|
\ .

2 2 2
3 3
y
(B+2c-4t)t +2D t t D t
I = +t(B-2t) y- +2Dt -y +2(c-t)t D-y-
12 2 2 2
| | | | | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
3 3 3
z
B D+t(B+2c-2t) -(D-t)(B-2t)
I =
12

y
y
I
Z =
D-z

z
z
I
Z =
B
+c-t
2

2 2
2
y
B Dct 1 D 2 c
e= + -
I 2 4c 3 B
| |
|
\ .

[ ]
3
B+2(D+c-2t) t
J=
3

( )
2
3 2 2 2 2
y
D t
C= 4c +3B c-6Bc +B D -I e
6

Section Properties Thin-wall Cross Sections
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES FORMULAS
DESIGN AIDES 63
G.4 Beam formulas
Case Moment Deflection Reactions

max
PL
M =
4

( )
3
max
PL
=
48 EI

1 2
P
R = R =
2


max
Pab
M =
L

( )
max
Pab(L+b)
= 3 ( )
27 EI L
a L b +
1
Pb
R =
L
;
2
Pa
R =
L


max
M = Pa
( )
( )
2 2
max
Pa
= 3L -4a
24 EI

1 2
R = R = P

when n is odd:
2
max
PL(n 1)
M =
8n


when n is even:
max
nPL
M =
8

when n is odd:
( )
3
max 2
PL 1 1 1
= n 3 1
192 EI n 2 n
( | | | |

| | (
\ . \ .

when n is even:
( )
3
max 2
PL 1 4
= n 3 1
192 EI 2 n
( | |
+
| (
\ .

1 2
(n 1)P
R = R =
2



[ ]
1 2
1
P (L a)+P c a
M =
L


[ ]
2 1
2
P (L c)+Pa a
M =
L


-

1 2
1
P (L-a)+P c
R =
L

2 1
2
P (L-c)+P a
R =
L


2
max
wL
M =
8

( )
4
max
5wL
=
384 EI

1 2
wL
R = R =
2


( )
2 2
max
w 3L -4a
M =
24

( )
2 4
4
max
wL a a
= 25-40 +16
1920 EI L L
(
| | | |
(
| |
\ . \ . (


( )
1 2
w L-a
R = R =
2


2
max
M = 0.06415wL
@ x = 0.5774L

( )
4
max
wL
= 0.00652
EI
@ x = 0.5193L

1
wL
R =
6

2
wL
R =
3


2
max
wL
M =
12

( )
4
max
wL
=
120 EI

1 2
wL
R = R =
4


1

0 x a

2

a x (a+b)

( )
( )
2
2
max 2
wa
M = 2L-a
8L
a
@ x = 2L-a
2L
( )
( )
2
2
1
2 3
a 2L-a wx
=
24 EI L
-2ax (2L-a)+Lx
(
(
(


( )
2
2 2
2
wa ( )
= 4Lx-2x -a
24 EI L
L x
(


( )
1
wa
R = 2L-a
2L

2
2
wa
R =
2L



1

0 x a

2

a x (a+b)

( )
( )
( )
max 2
4aL
wb 2c+b
+b 2c+b
M =
8L
b
@ x = a+ 2c+b
2L
(
(


( ) ( )
( )
2
1
wb b+2c x 2a 2L-a +b(b+2c)-2x
=
24 EI L
(

( )
1
wb
R = 2c+b
2L

( )
( )
( )
4
2
2
2a(2L-a) b b+2c x
w x-a +
L +b(b+2c)-2x
=
24 EI
( (

` ( (
)

( )
2
wb 2a+b
R =
2L


2
max
10wL
M =
96

( )
4
max
4wL
=
384 EI

1 2
wL
R = R =
3


o
a
M a
M = +
L

o
b
M b
M = -
L

( )
2 3
o
x
M 3
= 6 2
6 EI
a x
a L x
L L
( | |

( |
\ .

o
1
M
R = +
L

o
2
M
R = -
L


o
M = M
( )
2
o
max
M L
=
8 EI

-
Simple beam formulas
FORMULAS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
64 DESIGN AIDES

Case Moment Deflection Reactions
L/2 L/2
A B

max A B
PL
M = M = M = -
8

centre
PL
M =
8

( )
3
max
PL
=
192 EI

A B
P
R = R =
2

a
A B
b

2
A 2
Pab
M = -
L
max. when a < b
2
B 2
Pa b
M = -
L
max. when a > b
2 2
P 3
2Pa b
M =
L
@ point of load
( )
3 2
max 2
2Pa b
=
3 EI (3a+b)
2aL
@ x = , for a > b
3a+b

( )
3 3
P 3
Pa b
=
3 EI L
@ point of load
2
A 3
Pb
R = (3a+b)
L

2
B 3
Pa
R = (3b+a)
L

L
a
A B
a

A B
Pa(L a)
M = M = -
L


2
P
Pa
M =
L
@ point of load
( )
2 3
3
max
PL a a
= 3 4
24 EI L L
(
| | | |

(
| |
\ . \ . (


A B
R = R = P
L
n
A B
L
n
L
n
L
n
L
n
(n-1) forces

2
A B
PL(n 1)
M = M = -
12n



when n is odd:
( )
3
max 2
PL 1 1 1
= n 1 1
192 EI n 2 n
( | | | |

| | (
\ . \ .

when n is even:
( )
3
max 2
PL 1 4 1
= 3 1+ n 2 n
192 EI 2 n n
( | | | |

`
| | (
\ . \ . )

L
A B

2
max A B
wL
M = M = M = -
12

2
centre
wL
M =
24

( )
4
max
wL
=
384 EI

( )
( )
2
2 wx
= L x
24 EI

A B
wL
R = R =
2

L
A B
L/2

2
A
5wL
M = -
192

2
max B
11wL
M = M = -
192

( )
4
centre
wL
=
768 EI

A
wL
R =
8

B
3wL
R =
8

L
A B

2
A
wL
M = -
30

2
max B
wL
M = M = -
20

( )
4
centre
wL
=
768 EI

A
wL
R =
6

B
wL
R =
3

L
A B
w
L/2 L/2

2
A B
5wL
M = M = -
96

( )
4
centre
7wL
=
3840 EI

A B
wL
R = R =
4

A B

2
A B
wL
M = M = -
15

2
centre
3wL
M =
80

( )
4
max
2wL
=
384 EI

A B
wL
R = R =
3

L
A B
a b
M

A
Mb 3a
M = -1
L L
| |
|
\ .
B
Ma 3b
M = - -1
L L
| |
|
\ .

2
A
a a a
M ' M 1 1 3 +6
L L L
(
| | | | | |
=
(
| | |
\ . \ . \ . (


2 2
2
M
a a 2a
ML 1 1
L L L
=
2(EI)
| | | | | |

| | |
\ . \ . \ .

@ load
A A
A B
M -M '
R = R =
a

L
A
B


A 2
6(EI)
M = -
L


B 2
6(EI)
M =
L


-
A
12(EI)
R =
L


B
12(EI)
R = -
L


Fixed-end beam formulas
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES FORMULAS
DESIGN AIDES 65

Case Moment Deflection & rotation Reactions

L

max
M = PL
( )
3
PL
=
3 EI

( )
2
PL
=
2 EI

R = P

a

max
M = Pa
( )
( )
2
Pa
= 3L-a
6 EI

( )
2
PL
=
2 EI

R = P

L

2
max
wL
M =
2


( )
4
wL
=
8 EI

( )
3
wL
=
6 EI

R = wL

a b

2
max
wa
M =
2


( )
4
wa 4b
= 1+
8 EI 3a
| |
|
\ .

R = wa
a b
L


max
b
M = wa a+
2
| |
|
\ .


( )
( )
3 2 2 3
wa 8a +18a b+12ab +3b
=
24 EI

R = wb

a c b

max
b
M = wa a+
2
| |
|
\ .


( )
( )
3 2 2 3 2 2
wa 8a +18a b+12ab +3b +12a c+12abc+4b c
=
24 EI

R = wb


L

2
max
wL
M =
6


( )
4
wL
=
30 EI

( )
3
wL
=
24 EI

wL
R =
2

a b

2
max
wa
M =
3


( )
4
wa 5b
= 1+
15 EI 4a
| |
|
\ .

wa
R =
2


2
max
2wL
M =
3


( )
4
11wL
=
60 EI

wL
R =
2

a b


max
2b
M = wb a+
3
| |
|
\ .


( )
( )
3 2 2 3
wb 20a +50a b+40ab +11b
=
60 EI

wb
R =
2


L
M

max
M = M
( )
2
ML
=
2 EI

( )
ML
=
EI

M
R =
L

a b

max
M = M
( )
2
Ma 2b
= 1+
2 EI a
| |
|
\ .

M
R =
a

Note:
( )
2
ML
=
n+2 EI
&
( )
ML
=
n+1 EI
where M = moment at support and n = degree of moment curve.
Cantilever beam formulas
FORMULAS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
66 DESIGN AIDES

Case Moment Deflection Reactions
L/2 L/2
A B

max- A
3PL
M = M = -
16

max
5PL
M =
32
+
@ centre
( )
3
max
PL
= 0.009317 , @ x = 0.447L
EI

( )
3
centre
7PL
=
768 EI

A
5P
R =
16

B
11P
R =
16

B
a b
A

max- A 2
Pab
M = M = - (b+L)
2L

2
max+ 3
Pa b
M = (b+2L)
2L
@ load
when a < 0.586 L:
( )
2
max
Pa b b b
= , @x=L 1
6 EI 3L- a 3L-a
| |

|
|
\ .

when a > 0.586 L:
( )
( )( )
( )
3
2 2 2 2
max 2 2 2
2 2
Pb L b 2L L b
= ,@x=
3L b
3 EI 3L b


2
A 3
Pa
R = (b+2L)
2L

3 2
B 3
Pb
R = (3L b )
2L

B
L
A

2
max- A
wL
M = M = -
8

2
max
9wL 3
M = , @ x = L
128 8
+

( )
4
max
wL
= , @ x = 0.4215L
185 EI

A
3wL
R =
8

B
5wL
R =
8

C
L
A
a b
B

2
2
A
wa a
M = - 2
8 L
| |

|
\ .

( )
( )
4
2 3
C
wa
= 6 12p+7p p
48 EI

( )
2
2
2
C
8 p (4 p)
wa
M = - +4 p 4 p
8 16

(



`

)
where:
a
p =
L

( )
2
A
wa
R = 8 p 4 p
8
(


( )
2
B
wap
R = 4 p
8

C
L
A
a b
B

2
2
A
wb b
M = - 2
8 L
| |

|
\ .

( )
2
3
C
wb
M = 6q q 4
8

where:
b
q =
L

( )
( )
4 3
4 2
C
wL q
= q +9q 14q+6
48 EI
( )
2
A
wbq
R = 6 q
8

( )
3
B
wb
R = q 6q+8
8

A B
a c b

( )( )
2 2 2 2 2
A 2
w
M = - d c 2L c d
8L


( )
A
A
M wb
R = 2c+b
2L L
+
( )
A
B
M wb
R = 2a+b
2L L

B A

2
A
wL
M = -
15

( )
4
max
0.00235wL
= , @ x = 0.447L
EI

2
max
M = 0.0298wL @ x = 0.447L

A
2wL
R =
5

B
wL
R =
10

A B

2
A
7wL
M = -
120

( )
4
max
0.003wL
= , @ x = 0.598L
EI

2
max
M = 0.0423wL @ x = 0.67L

A
9wL
R =
40

B
11wL
R =
40

A B
a b

( )
2
2 2
A 2
wa
M = - 3a 15aL+20L
120L

( )
3
x B
w
M = R x x b
6a

2
max
a a
M @ x = b+ 1
2L 5L

( )
2
A 3
a 5L a wa
R = 1
2 20L
(

(
(

( )
3
B 3
wa
R = 5L a
40L

a b
A B

( )
2
2 2
A 2
wb
M = - 10L 3b
120L

( )
3
x A A
w
M = R x+M x a
6b


A B
wb
R = R
2


( ) ( )
4
B 3
w
R = L 11L 15a +a4 5L a
40bL
(


Propped cantilever beam formulas
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES FORMULAS
DESIGN AIDES 67
Case Moment Deflection Reactions
L
B A C
a
b

( )
max
Pb L b
M =
L


@ load

( )
2
C
Pab b
= 2L+ 3b
6 EI L
| |

|
\ .

( )
( )
3
2
2 2
2 2
max+
Pb L
L
= @ x =
3 9 3 EI
b
b



A
Pb
R =
L

( )
B
P L b
R =
L



B
L
A C
a

B
M = Pa
( )
( )
2
C
Pa
= L+a
3 EI

( )
2
max+
PaL L
= @ x =
9 3 EI 3

A
Pb
R =
L

( )
B
P L b
R =
L


a
B
L
A C

2
B
wa
M =
2

a
p =
L

( )
3
3 2
C
waL
= 3p 4p 1
24 EI
( +



( )( )
A
w L+a L a
R =
2L

( )
2
B
w L+a
R =
2L

w
a
B
L
A

2
max
wL
M =
8

( )
3
C
waL
=
24 EI
;
( )
4
max+
5wL
=
384 EI

A B
wL
R = R =
2

B A C

2
B
wa
M =
2

( )
( )
3
C
wa
= 4L+3a
24 EI

( )
2 2
max-
wa L L
= @ x =
18 3 EI 3

2
A
wa
R =
2L

( )
B
wa
R = 2L+a
2L

B C A

A
Pa
M =
2

B
M = Pa
( )
3 2 3
C 2 3
PL a a
= +
EI 4L 3L
| |
|
\ .


A
3a
R = P 1
2L
| |
+
|
\ .
B
3Pa
R =
2L

B C D A

A
Pa
M =
2

B
M = Pa
where:
a
p =
L
;
b
q =
L

( )
( )
3
2
C
PL
= 4p +6pq+3p+3q
12 EI

( )
2
max+
PaL L
= @ x =
27 EI 3

A
3Pa
R =
2L

B
3a
R = P 1
2L
| |
+
|
\ .


B D A
a b L

( )
2 2
A
w
M = L 2a
8

2
B
wa
M =
2

where:
x
n =
L

( )
( )( )
4
3 2 4
C
wL
= 8p +6p 1 p+q 2p
48 EI
(


( )
( ) ( )
4
4 2 3 2 2
x
2 4 2
max+
wL
= 2n + 6p 5 n 6p 3 n
48 EI
@ x = 15 18p 324p 156p +33
(


(



2
A
5 3p
R = wL
8 4
| |

|
\ .

2
B
3p 3
R = wL p
4 8
| |
+ +
|
\ .

L a
A
b
B C D

2
A
wa
M =
4

2
B
wa
M =
2

( )
( ) ( )
4
2 3
C
wL
= p 8p+6 q+6p p+1
48 EI
(

( )
4 2
max-
wL p
=
54 EI

2
A
3wa
R =
4L

B
3a
R = wa 1
4L
| |
+
|
\ .

B
a
C A
L

2
A
wa
M =
12

2
B
wa
M =
6


2
A
wa
R =
4L

B
wa a
R = 1
2 2L
| |
+
|
\ .

B
a b
C D A
L
M

A
M
M =
2

B
M = M
( )
( )
2
C
M 4b
= L a+b +a 2+
4 EI a
( | |
| (
\ .

( )
2
max-
ML L
= - @ x =
27 EI 3

A
3Pa
R =
2L

B
3a
R = P 1
2L
| |
+
|
\ .


Beam with one side over-hang
FORMULAS STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES
68 DESIGN AIDES
Case Moment / Deflection Reactions
L
L/2
C
L/2 L/2 L/2
L
B A

max B
6PL
M = M = -
32
;
P
5PL
M =
32
@ load
A C
5P
R = R =
16
;
B
11P
R =
8

B A
L/3
C
L/3 L/3 L/3 L/3 L/3

max B
PL
M = M = -
3
;
P1
2PL
M =
9
@ first load
A C
2P
R = R =
3
;
B
8P
R =
3

L
B A
L
L/2
C
L/2

B
3PL
M =
32

max
13PL
M =
64
@ load
( )
3
max-
0.96PL
= @ x = 0.48L
64 EI

A
13P
R =
32
;
B
11P
R =
16
;
C
3P
R =
32

B A
b
C
a

( )
B 2
Pab
M = L+a
4L

( )
max 2
Pab
M = 4L2 a L+a
4L
(


( )
2
A 3
Pb
R = 4L a L+a
4L
(


( )
2
B 3
Pa
R = 2L +b L+a
2L
(

; ( )
C 3
Pab
R = L+a
4L

L
B A
L
C

2
max B
wL
M = M =
8
;
2
max+
9wL
M =
128

( )
4
max
wL
= 0.00541 @ x = 0.4215L
EI


A C
3wL
R = R =
8
;
B
5wL
R =
4

B A C

2
B
wL
M =
16
;
2
max+
49wL 7L
M = @ x =
512 16


A
7wL
R =
16
;
B
5wL
R =
8
;
C
wL
R =
16

Three equal spans Four equal spans





Continuous beam formulas
More continuous beam formulas
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES FORMULAS
DESIGN AIDES 69
G.5 Arc formulas
Diagram Distance Expression
V
W
Y
X
C
A
Q
L
B

2
R R


Approximate formulas for R > 5x:

R > 5x'
R
y'

2
x'
y'
2R

x'

R

Ratio, N

R
0.25
2Q

L
2Q

2
2
R
0.25
C

2 2
R + R L
2L

Included angle,

L
sin =
R

V
cos = 1
2R

2 2
R L
cos =
R

2 2
L
tan =
R L

Arc length, S R (radians)
Chord length, C
2
R
N + 0.25

2RQ
2 2
L + Q

Distance at tangent, L RN
N + 0.5

2QN 2
2RQ Q
2 2
C Q
Offset from tangent, Q
( )
2
R
2 N + 0.25

2
C
2R

L
2N

2 2
R R L
2 2
C L
Radius, R
C N + 0.5
( ) 2Q N + 0.5
2
C
2Q

2
2
L + Q
2Q

2
L N + 0.25
N

2
C V
+
8V 2

Versine or middle
ordinate, V
2 2
1
R 4R C
2

R CN
2
N
R 1
N + 0.25
| |
|
|
\ .

2
R C
for >5: V
C 8R

External distance,
W
2
N + 0.25
R 1
N
| |
|
|
\ .

R
for >5: W V
C

A QC
L


B R
N

2
C
L

2
Q
L +
L

R
for >5: A 4V
C

Ordinate at any point, Y 2 2
V R + R X


Circular arc formulas
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS FAADE NOTES FORMULAS
DESIGN AIDES 71
G.6 Cable structures
Material Youngs modulus, E
[N/mm
2
]
Ultimate tensile strength, Fu
[N/mm
2
]
Solid steel 210 000 400 - 2000
Strand 150 000 2000
Wire rope 112 000 2000
Polyester fibres 7 500 910
Aramid fibres 112 000 2800
Mode Values Notes
Circular arc
loaded radially
T PR = == =
2
S d
R
8d 2
= + = + = + = +

Tension [kN]

Radius of cable [m]

Catenary
loaded
vertically
2
WS
H
8d
= == =
WS
V
2
= == =
2 2
T H V = + = + = + = +

Prestressed
cable*
Solve T by iteration:
1 0
T T 2T SW
sin 1
EA SW 2T


| | | | | | | |
= = = =
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

1
S
L 2Rsin
2R

| | | | | | | |
= == =
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

( (( ( ) )) ) L S

S

= == =
0
T T AE = + = + = + = +
R T W = == =
Solve d by iteration:
2 2
4d 8Rd S 0 + = + = + = + =

Note: *The straight cable (or flat fabric) is a special problem. To be straight, the cable must have an initial or
prestress tension and theoretically zero weight. In order to carry load the cable must stretch and sag to a radius R.




Properties of cable materials SCI Steel detailers manual Table 5.1
Elementary cable mathematics SCI Steel detailers manual 5.3.2.1