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# Introduction to Robotics Analysis, Systems, Applications

Saeed B. Niku
Mechanical Engineering Department California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo

## Technische Urw/carsMt Darmstadt FACHBEREfCH IWFOR^ATiK

B I B L I O T H E K
Inventar-Nf.:
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Prentice Hall

## Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Contents

Fundamentals

1.1. Introduction 1 1.2. What is a Robot? 2 1.3. Classification of Robots 2 1.4. What is Robotics? 4 1.5. History of Robotics 4 1.6. Advantages and Disadvantages of Robots 5 1.7. Robot Components 6 1.8. Robot Degrees of Freedom 8 1.9. Robot Joints 11 1.10. Robot Coordinates 11 1.11. Robot Reference Frames 12 1.12. Programming Modes 13 1.13. Robot Characteristics 15 1.14. Robot Workspace 16 1.15. Robot Languages 16 1.16. Robot Applications 20 1.17. Other Robots and Applications 24
vii

viii

Contents

## 1.18. Social Issues 25 1.19. Summary 25 References 26 Problems 27

2 Robot Kinematics: Position Analysis 29

## 2.1. Introduction 29 2.2. Robots as Mechanisms 29 2.3. Matrix Representation 31

2.3.1. Representation of a point in space 31 2.3.2. Representation of a vector in space 32 2.3.3. Representation of a frame at the origin of a reference frame 33 2.3.4. Representation of a frame in a reference frame 34 2.3.5. Representation of a Rigid Body 35 2.4. 2.5. Homogeneous Transformation Matrices 38

Representation of Transformations 38 2.5.7. Representation of a pure translation 39 2.5.2. Representation of a pure rotation about an axis 40 2.5.3. Representation of combined transformations 43 2.5.4. Transformations relative to the rotating 46 Inverse of Transformation Matrices 48

2.6. 2.7.

Forward and Inverse Kinematics of Robots 53 2.7.1. Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations for Position 54 2.7.2. Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations for Orientation 59 2.7.3. Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations for Position and Orientation 67 Denavit-Hartenberg Representation of Forward Kinematic Equations of Robots 67 The Inverse Kinematic Solution of Robots 76 80

2.8. 2.9.

## 2.10. Inverse Kinematic Programming of Robots 2.11. Degeneracy and Dexterity 82

2.12. The Fundamental Problem with the Denavit-Hartenberg Representation 83 2.13. Design Project 1: A three-degree-of-freedom Robot 2.14. Summary References Problems 86 87 88 85

Contents 3 Differential Motions and Velocities 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. Introduction 95 95

ix 95

## Differential Relationships Jacobian 97

Differential Motions of a Frame 99 3.4.1. Differential Translations 100 3.4.2. Differential Rotations 100 3.4.3. Differential Rotation about a general axis k 101 3.4.4. Differential Transformations of a Frame 102

## Interpretation of the Differential Change Differential Changes Between Frames

104

104 106

Differential Motions of a Robot and Its Hand Frame Calculation of the Jacobian 107

How to Relate the Jacobian and the Differential Operator 111 115

110

3.10. Inverse Jacobian 3.11. Design Project 3.12. Summary References Problems 4 116 116 117

Dynamic Analysis and Forces 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. Introduction 119 120

119

## Lagrangian Mechanics: A Short Overview Effective Moments of Inertia 127

Dynamic Equations for Multiple-Degree-of-Freedom Robots 4.4.1. Kinetic Energy 128 4.4.2. Potential Energy 132 4.4.3. The Lagrangian 133 4.4.4. Robot's Equations of Motion 133 Static Force Analysis of Robots 139

128

## 4.5. 4.6. 4.7. 4.8.

Transformation of Forces and Moments Between Coordinate Frames 141 Design Project Summary 143 143

Contents

## References 144 Problems 144

5 Trajectory Planning 147

5.1. Introduction 147 5.2. Path vs. Trajectory 147 5.3. Joint-Space vs. Cartesian-Space Descriptions 148 5.4. Basics of Trajectory Planning 150 5.5. Joint-Space Trajectory Planning 153
5.5.1. 5.5.2. 5.5.3. 5.5.4. 5.5.5. Third-Order Polynomial Trajectory Planning 154 Fifth-Order Polynomial Trajectory Planning 157 Linear Segments with Parabolic Blends 157 Linear Segments with Parabolic Blends and Via Points Higher Order Trajectories 161 165

160

## 5.5.6. Other Trajectories

5.6. Cartesian-Space Trajectories 5.8. Design Project 5.9. Summary 171 References
6 Actuators

165

171
173

Problems 172

## 6.1. Introduction 173 6.2. Characteristics of Actuating Systems 174

6.2.7. Weight, Power-to-Weight Ratio, Operating Pressure 6.2.2. Stiffness vs. Compliance 174 6.2.3. Use of Reduction Gears 175 174

6.3. Comparison of Actuating Systems 178 6.4. Hydraulic Devices 178 6.5. Pneumatic Devices 184 6.6. Electric Motors 186
6.6.1. 6.6.2. 6.6.3. 6.6.4. DC Motors 188 AC Motors 189 Brushless DC motors 189 Direct Drive Electric Motors

189

Contents 6.6.5. Servomotors 190 6.6.6. Stepper Motors 191 6.7. Microprocessor Control of Electric Motors 6.7.7. Pulse Width Modulation. 209 207

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6.7.2. Direction Control of DC Motors with an H-Bridge 210 6.8. 6.9. Magnetostrictive Actuators Shape-Memory Type Metals 212 210 211

## 6.10: Speed Reduction

6.11. Design Project 1 215 6.12. Design Project 2 6.13. Summary References Problems 7 Sensors 7.1. 7.2. 7.3. Introduction 219 219 216 217 218 219 215

Sensor Characteristics

Position Sensors 222 7.3.1. Potentiometers 222 7.3.2. Encoders 223 7.3.3. Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDT) 226 7.3.4. Resolvers 228 7.3.5. Time-of-Travel Displacement Sensor 229 Velocity Sensors 229 7.4.7. Encoders 230 7.4.2. Tachometers 230 7.4.3. Differentiation ofposition signal 230 Acceleration Sensors 230 231

7.4.

7.5. 7.6.

## Force and Pressure Sensors

7.6.7. Piezoelectric 231 7.6.2. Force Sensing resistor 7.6.3. Strain gauges 231

231

1.1. Torque Sensors 233 7.8. Microswitches 233 7.9. Light and Infrared Sensors 233 7.10. Touch and Tactile Sensors 234

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Contents
7.11. Proximity Sensors 236 7.11.1. Magnetic Proximity Sensors 236 7.11.2. Optical Proximity Sensors 236 7.11.3. Ultrasonic Proximity Sensors 237 7.11.4. Inductive Proximity Sensors 237 7.11.5. Capacitive Proximity Sensors 237 7.11.6. Eddy Current Proximity Sensors 238

## 7.12. Range-finders 238

7.12.1. Ultrasonic Range Finders 7.12.2. Light Based Range Finders 239 240

7.13. Sniff Sensors 241 7.14. Vision Systems 241 7.15. Voice Recognition Devices 241 7.16. Voice Synthesizers 242 7.17. Remote Center Compliance (RCC) Device 242 7.18. Design Project 245 7.19. Summary 246 References 246
8 Image Processing and Analysis with Vision Systems 248

8.1. Introduction 248 8.2. Image Processing versus Image Analysis 248 8.3. Two- and Three-Dimensional Image Types 249 8.4. ' What is an Image 249 8.5. Acquisition of Images 250 5.5.7. Vidicon Camera 250 8.5.2. Digital Camera 252 8.6. Digital Images 254 8.7. Frequency Domain vs. Spatial Domain 254 8.8. Fourier Transform of a Signal and its Frequency Content 255 8.9. Frequency Content of an Image; Noise, Edges 257 8.10. Spatial Domain Operations: Convolution Mask 259 8.11. Sampling and Quantization 262 8.12. Sampling Theorem 263 8.13. Image-Processing Techniques 267

Contents

xiii

8.14. Histogram of Images 267 8.15. Thresholding 268 8.16. Connectivity 269 8.17. Noise Reduction 271
8.17.1 Convolution Masks 272 8.17.2. Image Averaging 273 8.17.3. Frequency Domain 274 8.17.4. Median Filters 274

8.18. Edge Detection 275 8.19. Hough Transform 8.20. Segmentation 282 8.21. Segmentation by Region Growing and Region Splitting 282 8.22. Binary Morphology Operations 284
8.22.1. 8.22.2. 8.22.3. 8.22.4. 8.22.5. 8.22.6. 8.22.7. Thickening Operation 284 Dilation 285 Erosion 285 Skeletonization 286 Open Operation 287 Close Operation 287 Fill Operation 287 288 288

279

## 8.23. Gray Morphology Operations 288

8.23.1. Erosion 8.23.2. Dilation

## 8.24. Image Analysis 288 8.25. Object Recognition by Features 288

8.25.1. 8.25.2. 8.25.3. 8.25.4. 8.25.5. 8.26.1. 8.26.2. 8.26.3. 8.26.4. Basic Features Used for Object Identification Moments 290 Template Matching 297 Discrete Fourier Descriptors 297 Computed Tomography 297 Scene Analysis vs. Mapping 298 Range Detection and Depth Analysis 299 Stereo Imaging 299 Scene Analysis with Shading and Sizes 300 289

## 8.27. Specialized Lighting 301 8.28. Image Data Compression 302

8.28.1. Intraframe Spatial Domain Techniques 8.28.2. Interframe Coding 303 302

xiv

## Contents 8.30. Heuristics 304 305

8.31. Applications of Vision Systems 8.32. Design project 8.33. Summary References Problems 9 306 307 308 306

## Fuzzy Logic Control 9.1. Introduction 311 313 314 314

311

9.2. Fuzzy Control: What is needed 9.3. 9.4. Crisp Values vs. Fuzzy Values

## Fuzzy Sets: Degrees of Membership and Truth 315 316

9.5. Fuzzification

## 9.6. Fuzzy Inference Rule Base 9.7.

Defuzzification 318 P.7.7. Center-of-Gravity Method 318 9.7.2. Mamdani's Inference Method 318 Simulation of Fuzzy Logic Controller 322 323

9.8. 9.9.

## Applications of Fuzzy Logic in Robotics 327

9.10. Design Project 9.11. Summary References Problems APPENDIX A 328 328 328

## A.I. Matrix Algebra and Notation: A Review

A.2. Calculation of an Angle From its Sine, Cosine, or Tangent Problems INDEX 338

339