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Abstract

Wireless technology improvement has become follower in todays modern life. One of the greatest improvements made on wireless technology field was inventing a new Wireless Technology (Gi-Fi). Gi-Fi or Gigabit Wireless is the worlds first transceiver integrated on a single chipthat operates at 60GHz on CMOS process. Gi-Fi is a wireless transmission system which is ten times faster than Wi-Fi and its chip delivers short-range multi-gigabit data transfer in an indoor environment. It will allow wireless transfer of audio and video data up to 5 gigabits per second, low power consumption, usually within a range of 10 meters .This technology providing low-cost, high broadband access, with very high speed large files exchange within seconds. It is required that Gi-Fi to be the preferred next generation wireless technology used in home and offices. Keywords WI-FI; Wireless Technology; Gi-Fi; Gigabit wireless; Bluetooth

1. INTRODUCTION
Melbourne University researchers have achieved up to 5Gbps data transfer rates on a wireless chip. This is a lot faster than any current Wi-Fi speeds. The world's first Gi-Fi wireless network chip developed at Australia's peak federal technology incubator has entered its commercialisation phase. The NICTA (National ICT Australia Limited) Gi-Fi research team has succeeded in taking complex 60GHz transmission technology and shrinking it to the point where it can be built on a single silicon chip. The NICTA teams expertise in wireless transmission technology means this technology is now at the point where it can have a dramatic impact on the way consumer electronic devices are used in the home. The GiFi chip is a good news for personal area networking because there is no internet infrastructure available to cop it with. It can have a span of 10 meters. With the help of Gi-Fi chips the videos sharing can be possible without any hurdles. The Gi-Fi chip is one of Australia's most lucrative technology. Integrated

on a single chip that operates at 60GHz on the CMOS process. Gi-Fi is a wireless transmission system which is ten times faster than WiFi and its chip delivers short-range multi-gigabit data transfer in an indoor environment. It will allow wireless transfer of audio and video data up to 5 gigabits per second, low power consumption, usually within a range of 10 meters. The size of the Gi-Fi chip is 55 millimetre and can be placed in different devices such as mobile phones. The best part about this new technology Gi-Fi is its cost effectiveness and power consumption, it only consumes 2 watts of power for its operation with antenna (1mm) included and the development of Gi-Fi chip costs approximately $10 (Rs380) to manufacture.

2. NETWORK EVOLUTION
The Fig.1 characterize the network evolution which gives the abbreviation of the paper.

D. Bluetooth

Fig.5 Bluetooth

E. WI-FI
Wi-Fi is based on the IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network (WLAN) specification. Actually it was designed to be used indoors at close range for example home user and office environment. The main goal of Wi-Fi technology is to provide service for mobile computing device like laptop.

F. Wi-Max
IEEE standard 802.16, also known as Wi-MAX, is a technology for last-mile wireless broadband as an alternative to cable and DSL and where the cost is high. Its intended to deliver high speed data communication.

Fig 7. Wi-Max

G. Gi-Fi
Gi-Fi technology provides many features such as ease of deployment, small form factor, enabling the future of information management, high speed of data transfer, low power consumption etc. With growing consumer adoption of High- Definition (HD) television, low cost chip and other interesting features and benefits of this new technology it can be predicted that the anticipated worldwide market for this technology is vast

Fig.8 High speed data transmission through Gi-Fi

3. TECHNOLOGY USED BY GIFI 3.1 CMOS


GiFi uses CMOS technology. Complementary metaloxide semiconductor (CMOS) is a technology for constructing integrated circuits. CMOS technology is used in microprocessors, microcontrollers, static RAM, and other digital logic circuits. CMOS technology is also used for several analog circuits such as image sensors,data converters, and highly integrated transceivers for many types of communication. Frank Wanlass patented CMOS in 1967 (US patent 3,356,858). CMOS is also sometimes referred to as complementarysymmetry metaloxidesemiconductor (or COS-MOS). The words "complementary-symmetry" refer to the fact that the typical digital design style with CMOS uses complementary and symmetrical pairs of p-type and n-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) for logic functions. CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) is the semiconductortechnology used in the transistors that are manufactured into most of today's computer microchips. Semiconductors are made of silicon and germanium, materials which "sort of" conduct electricity, but not enthusiastically. Areas of these materials that are "doped" by adding impurities become full-scale conductors of either extra electrons with a negative charge (N-type transistors) or of positive charge carriers (P-type transistors). In CMOS technology, both kinds of transistors are used in a complementary way to form a current gate that forms an effective means of electrical control. CMOS transistors use almost no power when not needed. As the current direction changes more rapidly, however, the transistors become hot. This characteristic tends to limit the speed at which microprocessors can operate Two important characteristics of CMOS devices are high noise immunity and low static power consumption. Significant power is only drawn while the transistors in the CMOS device are

switching between on and off states. Consequently, CMOS devices do not produce as much waste heat as other forms of logic, for example transistor-transistor logic (TTL) or NMOS logic, which uses all n-channel devices without p-channel devices. CMOS also allows a high density of logic functions on a chip. It was primarily this reason why CMOS won the race in the eighties and became the most used technology to be implemented in VLSI chips. The phrase "metaloxidesemiconductor" is a reference to the physical structure of certain field-effect transistors, having a metal gate electrode placed on top of an oxide insulator, which in turn is on top of a semiconductor material. Aluminum was once used but now the material is polysilicon. Other metal gates have made a comeback with the advent of high-k dielectric materials in the CMOS process, as announced by IBM and Intel for the 45 nanometer node and beyond.

2. In CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) technology, both N-type and P-type transistors are used to realize logic functions. Today, CMOS technology is the dominant semiconductor technology for microprocessors, memories and application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). The main advantage of CMOS over NMOS and bipolar technology is the much smaller power dissipation. Unlike NMOS or bipolar circuits, a CMOS circuit has almost no static power dissipation. Power is only dissipated in case the circuit

actually switches. This allows to integrate many more CMOS gates on an IC than in NMOS or bipolar technology, resulting in much better performance. The following applets demonstrate the N-type and P-type transistors used in CMOS technology, the basic CMOS inverter, NAND and NOR gates, and an AOI32 complex gate. Finally, it demonstrates the CMOS transmission-gate and a transmissongate D-latch. The first applet illustrates the function of both Ntype and P-type MOS transistors. The source and gate contacts of the transistors to toggle the corresponding voltage levels and watch the resulting output value on the drain contacts. The applet uses colors to display the different voltages. (1) A logical '1' corresponding to electrical level VCC (typical values for current technolgies are +5V or +3.3V) is shown in red,
(2) A logical '0' (corresponding to 0V or GND) in blue.

(3) A floating wire (not connected to either VCC or GND) is shown in orange. N-type transistor is conducting when its input is '1', while the P-type transistor is conducting when its input is '0'. The applet displays the channel of a conducting transistor as a rectangle filled with color of its source voltage. The channel of a nonconducting transistor is shown as rectangle outline in black. The most important CMOS gate is the CMOS inverter. It consists of only two transistors, a pair of one N-type and one Ptype transistor. The applet demonstrates how the inverter works. If the input voltage is '1' (VCC) the P-type transistor on top is nonconducting, but the N-type transistor is conducting and provides a path from GND to the output Y. The output level therefore is '0'. On the other hand, if the input level is '0', the Ptype transistor is conducting and provides a path from VCC to the output Y, so that the output level is '1', while the N-type transistor is blocked. If the input is floating, both transistors may

be conducting and a short-circuit condition is possible.

3.2 Transmission of image in GiFi


CMOS uses image sensor for transferring image and those image sensors can have much more functionality on-chip than CCDs. In addition to converting photons to electrons and transferring them, the CMOS sensor might also perform image processing, edge detection, noise reduction, and analog to digital conversion. What's more, sensor and digital camera designers can make the various CMOS functions programmable, providing for a very flexible device. This functional integration onto a single chip is CMOS' main advantage over the CCD. It also reduces the number of external components needed.

Fig 2. Image Sensor Using an integrated CMOS sensor allows the digital camera to devote less space to other chips, such as digital signal processors (DSPs) and ADCs. In addition, because CMOS devices consume less power than CCDs, there's less heat, so thermal noise can be reduced. The breakthrough for CMOS sensor technology came in the early 1990s, when Active Pixel Sensors (APS) were successfully implemented by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). A theoretical technology that was understood for decades but not effectively used until 1993, APS

adds a readout amplifier transistor to each pixel. This allows the conversion of the charge to voltage to happen at the pixel. It also provides for random access to the sensor's pixels, similar to the row-column memory cell access in RAM technology.

3.3 Color creation in GiFi


All image sensors are grayscale devices that record the intensity of light from full black to white, with the appropriate intervening gray. To add color to a digital camera image, a layer of color filters is bonded to the silicon using a photolithography process to apply color dyes.
3.3.1 Photolithography :

Photolithography (or "optical lithography") is a process used in micro fabrication to selectively remove parts of a thin film or the bulk of asubstrate. It uses light to transfer a geometric pattern from a photo mask to a light-sensitive chemical "photoresist", or simply "resist," on the substrate. A series of chemical treatments then either engraves the exposure pattern into, or enables deposition of a new material in the desired pattern upon, the material underneath the photo resist. In complex integrated circuits, for example a modern CMOS, a wafer will go through the photolithographic cycle up to 50 times. Photolithography shares some fundamental principles with photography in that the pattern in the etching resist is created by exposing it to light, either directly (without using a mask) or with a projected image using an optical mask. This procedure is comparable to a high precision version of the method used to make printed circuit boards. Subsequent stages in the process have more in common with etching than to lithographic printing. It is used because it can create extremely small patterns (down to a few tens of nanometers in size), it affords exact control over the shape and size of the objects it creates, and because it can create patterns over an entire surface costeffectively. Its main disadvantages are that it requires a flat substrate to start with, it is not very effective at creating shapes

that are not flat, and it can require extremely clean operating conditions. A single iteration of photolithography combines several steps in sequence. Modern cleanrooms use automated, robotic wafer track systems to coordinate the process. The procedures followed are mentioned here :(i)Cleaning If organic or inorganic contaminations are present on the wafer surface, they are usually removed by wet chemical treatment, e.g. the RCA clean procedure based on solutions containing hydrogen peroxide (ii)Preparation The wafer is initially heated to a temperature sufficient to drive off any moisture that may be present on the wafer surface. Wafers that have been in storage must be chemically cleaned to removecontamination. A liquid or gaseous "adhesion promoter", such as Bis(trimethylsilyl)amine ("hexamethyldisilazane", HMDS), is applied to promote adhesion of the photoresist to the wafer. (iii)Photoresist application The wafer is covered with photoresist by spin coating. A viscous, liquid solution of photoresist is dispensed onto the wafer, and the wafer is spun rapidly to produce a uniformly thick layer. The spin coating typically runs at 1200 to 4800 rpm for 30 to 60 seconds, and produces a layer between 0.5 and 2.5 micrometres thick. The spin coating process results in a uniform thin layer, usually with uniformity of within 5 to 10 nanometres. (iv)Photoresist removal After a photoresist is no longer needed, it must be removed from the substrate. This usually requires a liquid "resist stripper", which chemically alters the resist so that it no longer adheres to the substrate.

(v)Etching In etching, a liquid ("wet") or plasma ("dry") chemical agent removes the uppermost layer of the substrate in the areas that are not protected by photoresist. In semiconductor fabrication, dry etching techniques are generally used, as they can be made anisotropic, in order to avoid significant undercutting of the photoresist pattern. (vi)Light sources Photolithography has used ultraviolet light from gas-discharge lamps using mercury, sometimes in combination with noble gases such as xenon. These lamps produce light across a broad spectrum with several strong peaks in the ultraviolet range. This spectrum is filtered to select a single spectral line.

Fig 5. Color creation in image during transmission through GiFi

4. FEATURES OF GIFI
1. Multi-gigabit wireless technology that removes the need for cables between consumer electronic devices. 2. More than 100 times faster than current short-raqnge wireless technologies. 3. Allows wireless streaming of uncompressed high-definition content. 4. Operates over a range of 10 metres without interference. 5. Entire transmission system can be built on a cost effective single silicon chip. 6. Operates in the unlicensed, 57-64 GHz spectrum band.

5. BENEFITS
1. Removes need for cables to connect consumer electronics devices 2. Low-cost chip allows technology to be readily incorporated into multiple devices 3. Secure encryption technology ensures privacy and security of content 4. Simple connection improves the consumer experience 5. Enhancements to next generation gaming technology

6. USES OF GIFI
(A) Wireless video transmission using GiFi chip
Electrical Engineerings Professor Stan Skafidas (BE Elec. Eng) 1993; MEngSc 1996; PhD 1998) has successfully demonstrated a transmission of wireless video using the world-first Gigabit Wireless (GiFi) technology. The demonstration, attended by Victorian Government Minister for Innovation, Gavin Jennings earlier this year, was the first time it has been on public display. The GiFi chip is the worlds first transceiver integrated on a single chip operating at 60GHz on the CMOS (complementary metaloxidesemiconductor) process, the most common semiconductor technology. The breakthrough will lead to wirelessly connected environments that will enjoy audio and video transfer rates of up to 5 gigabits per second, ten times the current maximum wireless transfer rate, at one-tenth the cost. In the future, Gigabit wireless technology will be used to show DVD movies on High Definition Digital TV without a wired connection and for very fast downloads of content from devices such as PDAs, games consoles and wireless digital cameras. The Gigabit Wireless Project was recently selected as a finalist

in the INNOVIC 2009 Next Big Thing Award .

(B) For communication process


GiFi provides 5 Gbits per second it better be able to transmit 10 videos without buffer delays.

(C) GiFi wireless chip to bring 5Gb per second speed


The University of Melbourne announced on Friday a new technology they are calling GiFi, which promises some serious game-changing wireless transfer speeds for all types of consumer gadgets. The tiny silicon chip invented by professor Stan Skafidas is able to move data through the air as fast as 5 gigabits per second at a distance of just over 30 feet. This short-range wireless technology would potentially be a competitor or more than likely a replacement for WiFi, and things like Bluetooth might want to look out as well. The transfer speeds combined with the constantly increased storage capacities of small handheld devices could really take media down some new avenues as well. The Age newspaper uses an example of transferring a high- definition movie from a kiosk at a store to your mobile phone in seconds. Then that same movie can be transferred just as quickly from the phone to your home computer or entertainment system to watch

(D) Provides high resolution


The higher megapixel count on our cameras, the increased bitrate on our music files, the higher resolution of our video files, and so on. We demand more than ever, but we also want this content to be transfered in the most expedient manner possible. 802.11g and 802.11n are fine and all, but some people want to push the envelope even further.

(E) Provides short-range wireless


A new wireless technology has been developed that should serve as an extremely fast replacement for technologies such as Bluetooth and ultra-wideband (UWB), says Australian research

group NICTA. Nicknamed GiFi, the process would use a chip (not pictured) that transmits at an extremely high 60GHz frequency versus the 5GHz used for the fastest forms of Wi-Fi. The sheer density of the signal would allow a chip to send as much as five gigabits per second. While the spectrum would limit the device to the same 33-foot range as Bluetooth or UWB, it could theoretically transfer an HD movie to a cellphone in seconds, the researchers claim. The technology could also be used for beaming full HD video in real-time and could be used by notebooks and other computers to wirelessly connect virtually all the expansion needed for a docking station, including a secondary display and storage.

(F) A Tiny GiFi Chip provides Big Wireless Capabilities


The "GiFi" chip, which measures 0.2 of an inch on each side, was developed at Melbourne University- based labs of the National Information and Communications Technology research center,The Age reported. The high transmission rate of the chip would make it possible, for example, to transfer a highdefinition movie from a video kiosk to a mobile device in a few seconds. Skafidas and his team claim to be the first to demonstrate a working transceiver-on-a-chip that uses CMOS, or complementary metal oxide semiconductor. CMOS is a particular style of digital circuitry design used in microprocessors. The chip uses an antenna 0.04 of an inch wide, less than two watts of power, and would cost about $9.20 U.S. The device transmits over the 60-GHz spectrum, which the researchers said is nearly unused. Wi-Fi technology, in contrast, shares its spectrum with other devices such as cordless phones, which can cause disruptions. In addition, GiFi is faster than the average Wi-Fi device. However, Wi-Fi can transmit over longer distances.

The chip is about a year away from being ready for market, Skafidas told the newspaper. As to its uses, the researcher said the processor could be used to transfer video and other dataintensive content between storage and display devices in the home. It also could be used to turn a mobile device into a "shopping cart" for digital movies and other content that could be bought elsewhere and played in the home.The 27-member team developing the new chip worked with companies such as IBM in the research.

7.FUTURE ASPECTS:
1. The GiFi team is looking for partners interested in commercialising its 60GHz chips 2. Demonstrations of the technology can be arranged showing the huge potential it has to change the way consumers use their in-home electronic devices 3. With growing consumer adoption of highdefinition television, the anticipated worldwide market for this technology is vast.