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FILSAFAT ILM U

JILID 1

UHAR SUHARSAPUTRA, Drs.,M.Pd.

UNIVERSITAS KUNINGAN
PENGANTAR FILSAFAT ILMU/UHAR SUHARSAPUTRA

2004
DAFTAR ISI
Hal KATA PENGANTAR DAFTAR ISI BAB 1. MANUSIA, BERFIKIR, DAN PENGETAHUAN A. Ma !a "#!$adi Ma!%sia &. Ma !a &#r'i ir ). Ma !a P#!*#+a,%a! D. &#r'i ir da! P#!*#+a,%a! BAB 2. F I L S A F A T A. P#!*#r+ia! Filsa'a+ &. )iri./iri Filsa'a+ ). 01$# Filsa'a+ D. Sis+i"a+i a Filsa'a+ E. )a1a!*./a1a!* Filsa'a+ F. P#!d# a+a! dala" "#"3#la$ari Filsa'a+ G. S%d%+ 3a!da!* +#r,ada3 Filsa'a+ H. S#$ara, si!* a+ Filsa'a+ BAB 3. ILMU PENGETAHUAN A. P#!*#r+ia! Il"% 5Il"% P#!*#+a,%a!6 &. )iri./iri Il"% ). F%!*si da! T%$%a! Il"% D. S+r% +%r Il"% 1. 'a +a da! K8!s#3 2. *#!#ralisasi da! T#8ri -. 3r838sasi da! As%"si 4. d#'i!isi:&a+asa! 2. 3aradi*"a E. 01$# Il"% F. P#"1a*ia!:3#!*#l8"38 a! Il"% G. P#!$#lasa! Il"% 5s/i#!+i'i/ #;3la!a+i8!6 H. Si a3 Il"ia, BAB 4. F I L S A F A T I L M U A. 0ri#!+asi Filsa'a+ Il"% &. P#r #"1a!*a! Filsa'a+ Il"% ). )iri./iri Il"% "8d#r! D. Paradi*"a Il"% "8d#r! "#!%r%+ 1#1#ra3a Alira! E. H%1%!*a! Filsa'a+ d#!*a! Il"% F. P#!*#r+ia! Filsa'a+ Il"% G. &ida!* a$ia! da! "asala,."asala, Filsa'a+ Il"% H. K#1#!ara! Il"% I. K#+#r1a+asa! Il"% J. Ma!'aa+ "#"3#la$ari Filsa'a+ Il"% DAFTAR PUSTAKA i 1 ( 11 11( 20 22 222 24 -0 -1 42 47 44 20 22 22 29 71 74 72 77 (0 (1 (4 (4 44 42 44 90 94 9( 100 10104

PENGANTAR FILSAFAT ILMU/UHAR SUHARSAPUTRA

&A& 1

MANUSIA, &ERFIKIR DAN PENGETAHUAN


Tanpa saudara kandungnya Pengetahuan, Akal (Instrumen berfikir Manusia) bagaikan si miskin yang tak berumah, sedangkan Pengetahuan tanpa akal seperti rumah yang tak terjaga. Bahkan, Cinta, Keadilan, dan Kebaikan akan terbatas kegunaannya jika akal tak hadir (Kahlil Gibran) Pengetahuan merupakan suatu kekayaan dan kesempurnaan. .. ese!rang yang tahu lebih banyak adalah lebih baik kalau dibanding dengan yang tidak tahu apa"apa (Louis Leahy) Mengetahui merupakan kegiatan yang menjadikan subjek berk!munikasi eksistensi dan k!drat dari $ada% benda"benda (Sartre) e#ara dinamik dengan

A. MAKNA MENJADI MANUSIA Kemampuan manus a un!u" men##una"an a"a$ %a$am mema&am $ n#"un#ann'a me(upa"an p)!ens %asa( 'an# memun#" n"an manus a Be(* " (, %en#an Be(* " ( manus a men+a% mampu me$a"u"an pe(u,a&an %a$am % ( n'a, %an meman# se,a# an ,esa( pe(u,a&an %a$am % ( manus a me(upa"an a" ,a! %a( a"! - !as Be(* " (, )$e& "a(ena !u san#a! .a+a( apa, $a Be(* " ( me(upa"an ")nsep "un/ "e%u%u"an manus a % pe(na& a%a. Be(* " ( +u#a mem,e( "emun#" nan manus a un!u" mempe()$e& pen#e!a&uan, %a$am !a&apan se$an+u!n'a pen#e!a&uan !u %apa! men+a% *)n%as pen! n# ,a# "e# a!an ,e(* " ( 'an# $e, & men%a$am. Ke! "a A%am % / p!a"an %an "emu% an ALLAH men#a+a("an nama0nama, pa%a %asa(n'a men# n% "as "an ,a&.a A%am 1Manus a2 me(upa"an Ma"&$u" 'an# , sa Be(* " ( %an ,e(pen#e!a&uan, %an %en#an pen#e!a&uan !u A%am %apa! me$an+u!"an "e& %upann'a % Dun a. Da$am ")n!e"s 'an# $e, & $uas, pe( n!a& Iqra 1,a/a$a&2 'an# !e(!uan# %a$am A$ 3u(4an %apa! % pa&am %a$am "a !an %en#an %)()n#an Tu&an pa%a Manus a un!u" ,e(pen#e!a&uan % samp n#
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%a$am se! ap % s"u(sus men#ena n ,e(a(! ,a&.a !anpa Be(* " (,

mu"a ,um ,

"emanus aan manus a pun ! %a" pun'a ma"na ,a&"an mun#" n !a" a"an

"a!a Yatafakkarun 1,e(* " ($a&5#una"an a"a$2 'an# ,an'a" !e(se,a( %a$am A$ 3u(4an. Semua n % ma"su%"an a#a( manus a %apa! ,e(u,a& %a( ! %a" !a&u men+a% !a&u, %en#an !a&u % a ,e(,ua!, %en#an ,e(,ua! % a ,e(ama$ ,a# "e& %upan. semua n pen%asa(ann'a a%a$a& pen##unaan a"a$ me$a$u "e# a!an ,e(* " (. Den#an ,e(* " ( manus a mampu men#)$a& pen#e!a&uan, %en#an pen#)$a&an !e(se,u!, pem " (an manus a men+a% ma" n men%a$am %an ma" n ,e(ma"na, %en#an pen#e!a&uan manus a men#a+a("an, %en#an ,e(p " ( manus a men#em,an#"an, %an %en#an men#ama$"an se(!a men#ap$ "as "ann'a manus a mampu me$a"u"an pe(u,a&an %an pen n#"a!an "e a(a& "e& %upan 'an# $e, & ,a ", semua !u !e$a& mem,a.a "ema+uan 'an# ,esa( %a$am ,e(,a#a , %an# "e& %upan manus a 1su%u! pan%an# p)s ! *5n)(ma! *2. Den#an %em " an "emampuan un!u" ,e(u,a& %an pe(u,a&an 'an# !e(+a% pa%a manus a me(upa"an ma"na p)")" 'an# !e("an%un# %a$am "e# a!an Be(* " ( %an ,e(pen#e!a&uan. D se,a,"an "emampuan Be(* " ($a&, ma"a manus a %apa! ,e("em,an# $e, & +au& % ,an% n# ma"&$u" $a nn'a, se& n##a %apa! !e(,e,as %a( "eman%e#an *un#s "e"&a$ *a&an % mu"a ,um , ,a&"an %en#an Be(* " ( manus a mampu men#e"sp$)(as , mem $ & %an mene!ap"an "epu!usan0"epu!usan pen! n# un!u" "e& %upann'a. Pe(n'a!aan % a!as pa%a %asa(n'a men##am,a("an "ea#un#an manus a ,e("a !an %en#an "a(a"!e( s! " e"s s!ens a$ manus a se,a#a upa'a mema"na "e& %upann'a %an se,a#a ,a# an %a( A$am n . Da$am ")n!e"s pe(,an% n#an %en#an ,a# an0,a# an a$am $a nn'a, pa(a a"&$ !e$a& ,an'a" men#"a+ pe(,e%aan an!a(a manus a %en#an ma"&$u"0ma"&$u" $a nn'a !e(u!ama %en#an ma"&$u" 'an# a#a" %e"a! %en#an manus a 'a !u &e.an. Se/a(a umum ")mpa(as manus a %en#an &e.an %apa! % $ &a! %a( su%u! pan%an# Na!u(a$ s5, )$)# s %an su%u! pan%an# s)s )ps ")$)# s. Se/a(a , )$)# s pa%a %asa(n'a manus a ! %a" ,an'a" ,e(,e%a %en#an &e.an, ,a&"an Ernst Haeckel 11634 7 18182 men#emu"a"an ,a&.a manus a %a$am
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se#a$a &a$ sun##u&0sun##u& a%a$a& , na!an# ,e(uas !u$an# ,e$a"an#, 'a"n , na!an# men'usu , %em m " an +u#a Lamettrie 119:8 7 19;12 men'a!a"an ,a&.a ! %a"$a& !e(%apa! pe(,e%aan an!a(a , na!an# %an manus a %an "a(enan'a ,a&.a manus a !u a%a$a& sua!u mes n. Ka$au manus a !u sama %en#an &e.an, !ap "enapa manus a , sa ,e(mas'a(a"a! %an ,e(pe(a%a,an 'an# ! %a" , sa % $a"u"an )$e& &e.an <, pe(!an'aan n !e$a& me$a& ("an ,e(,a#a pema"naan !en!an# manus a, sepe(! manus a a%a$a& ma"&$u" 'an# ,e(mas'a(a"a! 1S)s )$)# s2, manus a a%a$a& ma"&$u" 'an# ,e(,u%a'a 1An!()p)$)# s2, manus a a%a$a& &e.an 'an# "e!a.a, sa%a( % ( , %an me(asa ma$u 1Ps ")$)# s2, semua !u "a$au % /e(ma! ! %a" $a n "a(ena manus a a%a$a& &e.an 'an# ,e(* " (5,e(na$a( (the animal that reason) a!au Homo Sapien. Den#an mema&am u(a an % a!as, nampa" ,a&.a a%a su%u! pan%an# 'an# /en%e(un# me(en%a&"an manus a, %an a%a 'an# men#a#un#"ann'a, semua su%u! pan%an# !e(se,u! meman# % pe($u"an un!u" men+a#a "ese m,an#an mema"na manus a. Blaise Pascal 11=23 7 1==22 men'a!a"an ,a&.a a%a$a& ,e(,a&a'a , $a " !a menun+u"an manus a se,a#a ma"&$u" 'an# mempun'a s *a!0s *a! , na!an# %en#an ! %a" menun+u"an "e,esa(an manus a se,a#a manus a. Se,a$ "n'a a%a$a& ,a&a'a un!u" menun+u"an manus a se,a#a ma"&$u" 'an# ,esa( %en#an ! %a" menun+u"an "e(en%a&an, %an $e, & ,e(,a&a'a $a# , $a " !a ! %a" menun+u"an su%u! "e,esa(an %an "e$ema&ann'a sama se"a$ 1Ras+ % . 189: > 62. Guna mema&am $e, & +au& s apa !u manus a, ,e( "u! n a"an % "emu"a"an ,e,e(apa %e* n s 'an# % "emu"a"an )$e& pa(a a"&$ > P$a!) 1429 7 3462. Da$am pan%an#an P$a!) manus a % $ &a! se/a(a %ua$ s! " 'a !u unsu( +asa% %an unsu( + .a, +asa% a"an musna& se%an#"an + .a ! %a", + .a mempun'a ! #a *un#s 1"e"ua!an2 'a !u logystikon 1,e(* " (5(as )na$, thymoei es 1Ke,e(an an2, %an epithymetikon 1Ke n# nan2 !ristoteles 1364 7 322 SM2. Manus a !u a%a$a& &e.an 'an# ,e(a"a$ se&a!, 'an# men#e$ua("an pen%apa!n'a, 'an# ,e(, /a(a 5

PENGANTAR FILSAFAT ILMU/UHAR SUHARSAPUTRA

,e(%asa("an a"a$ * " (ann'a. Manus a !u a%a$a& &e.an 'an# ,e(p)$ ! " 1?))n P)$ ! /)n5P)$ ! /a$ An ma$2, &e.an 'an# mem,an#un mas'a(a"a! % a!as *am $ 0*am $ men+a% pen#e$)mp)"an mpe(s)na$ %a( pa%a "ampun# %an ne#a(a. I"nu Sina 186: 01:39 M2. manus a a%a$a& ma"&$u" 'an# mempun'a "esan##upan > 12 ma"an, 22 !um,u&, 32 ,e(0"em,an# , a", 42 pen#ama!an &a$0&a$ 'an# s! me.a, ;2 pe(#e(a"an % ,a.a& "e"uasaan, =2 "e!a&uan 1pen#e!a&uan !en!an#2 &a$0&a$ 'an# umum, %an 92 "e&en%a" ,e,as. Menu(u! % a, !um,u&an &an'a mempun'a "esan##upan 1, 2, %an 3, se(!a &e.an mempun'a "esan##upan 1, 2, 3, 4, %an ;. I"nu #hal un 11332 7 14:=2. Manus a a%a$a& &e.an %en#an "esan##upan ,e(p " (, "esan##upan n me(upa"an sum,e( %a( "esempu(naan %an pun/a" %a( se#a$a "emu$'aan %an "e! n## an % a!as ma"&$u"0ma"&$u" $a n. I"nu $iska%aih. Men'a!a"an ,a&.a manus a a%a$a& ma"&$u" 'an# mempun'a "e"ua!an0"e"ua!an 'a !u > 12 A$ 3u..a!u$ A@$ 'a& 1"e"ua!an ,e(* " (5a"a$2, 22 A$ 3u..a!u$ G)%&, ''a& 1Ma(a&, 32 A$ 3u..a!u S'a&. 'a& 1sa&.a!2. Harol H. &itus men'a!a"an > $an is an animal organism' it is true "ut he is a"le to stu y himself as organism an to compare an interpret li(ing forms an to inquire a"out the meaning of human e)istence. Se$an+u!n'a D a men'e,u!"an ,e,e(apa *a"!)( 'an# ,e("a !an 1men*a i karakteristik + pen) %en#an manus a se,a#a p( ,a% 'a !u > i. Self conscioueness ii. ,eflecti(e thinking' a"stract thought' or the po%er of generali-ation iii. Ethical iscrimination an the po%er of choice i(. !esthetic appreciation (. .orship an faith in a higher po%er (i. /reati(ity of a ne% or er .illiam E. Hocking men'a!a"an > $an can "e efine as the animal %ho thinks in term of totalities. /.E.$. 0oa . Men'a!a"an > e(ery thing an e(ery creature in the %orl e)cept man acts as it must' or act as it please ' man alone act on occasion as he ought ,.1. Beerling. Men'a!a"an ,a&.a manus a !u !u"an# ,e(!an'a.

Da( u(a an %an ,e(,a#a %e* n s !e(se,u! % a!as %apa!$a& % !a( " ,e,e(apa "es mpu$an !en!an# s apa !u manus a 'a !u > 1. Se/a(a * s "a$, manus a se+en s &e.an +u#a
PENGANTAR FILSAFAT ILMU/UHAR SUHARSAPUTRA

2. Manus a pun'a "emampuan un!u" ,e(!an'a 3. Manus a pun'a "emampuan un!u" ,e(pen#e!a&uan 4. Manus a pun'a "emauan ,e,as ;. Manus a , sa ,e(p( $a"u sesua n)(ma 1,e(m)(a$2 =. Manus a a%a$a& ma"&$u" 'an# ,e(mas'a(a"a! %an ,e(,u%a'a 9. Manus a pun'a "emampuan ,e(* " ( (e*$e"! * %a$am !)!a$ !as %en#an sa%a( % ( 6. Manus a a%a$a& ma"&$u" 'an# pun'a "emampuan un!u" pe(/a'a pa%a Tu&an apa, $a % ,a#an"an %en#an men#a/u pa%a pen%apa! % a!as a"an nampa" se,a#a ,e( "u! > MANUSIA

HE<ANI:&ASARI 0!S!231ISI#3BI4L45I S $!#!7 $I76$ &6$B6H BE,#E$B!75BI!#

INSANI:MANUSIA<I 0I.!3!#!L3,6H!7I BE,1I#I, BE,PE75E&!H6!7 BE,$!SY!,!#!& BE,B62!Y!3BE,E&I# !3 BE,&6H!7

5am"ar 8.8. 2imensi9 imensi manusia Den#an %em " an nampa"n'a !e(%apa! pe(,e%aan se"a$ #us

pe(samaan an!a(a manus a %en#an ma"&$u" $a n "&ususn'a &e.an, se/a(a * s "a$5, )$)# s pe(,e%aan manus a %en#an &e.an $e, & ,e(s *a! #(a%ua$ %an ! %a" p( ns p $, se%an#"an %a$am aspe" "emampuan ,e(* " (, ,e(mas'a(a"a! %an ,e(,u%a'a, se(!a ,e(!u&an pe(,e%aann'a san#a! asas 5p( ns p $, n ,e(a(! + "a manus a %a$am "e& %upann'a &an'a ,e"u!a! %a$am u(usan0
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u(usan * s " , )$)# s sepe(! ma"an, m num, ,e( s! (a&a!, ma"a "e%u%u"ann'a ! %a"$a& +au& ,e(,e%a %en#an &e.an, sa!u0sa!un'a 'an# , sa men#an#"a! manus a $e, & ! n## a%a$a& pen##unaan a"a$ un!u" ,e(* " ( %an ,e(pen#e!a&uan se(!a men#ap$ "as "an pen#e!a&uann'a ,a# "epen! n#an "e& %upan se& n##a ,e("em,an#$a& mas'a(a"a! ,e(a%a, %an ,e(,u%a'a, % samp n# !u "emampuan !e(se,u! !e$a& men%)()n# manus a un!u" ,e(* " ( !en!an# sesua!u 'an# me$e, & pen#a$amann'a sepe(! "e'a" nan pa%a Tu&an 'an# me(upa"an n! %a( se$u(u& a+a(an A#ama. A$e& "a(ena !u /a( $a& $mu %an ,e(* " ($a& !e(us a#a( p)s s " !a se,a#a manus a men+a% sema" n +au& %a( p)s s &e.an %a$am ")ns!e$as "e& %upan % a$am n . Mes" pun %em " an pen##am,a(an % a!as &a(us % pan%an# se,a#a sua!u pen%e"a!an sa+a %a$am mem,e( ma"na manus a, se,a, manus a !u sen% ( me(upa"an ma"&$u" 'an# san#a! mu$! % mens , se& n##a #am,a(an 'an# seu!u&n'a a"an !e(us men+a% pe(&a! an %an "a+ an 'an# mena( ", un!u" !u ! %a" ,e($e, &an apa, $a Louis Leahy ,e(pen%apa! ,a&.a manus a !u se,a#a ma"&$u" pa(a%)"sa$ %an se,ua& m s!e( , &a$ n menun+u"an ,e!apa ")mp$e"s n'a mema"na manus a %en#an se$u(u& % mens n'a. &. MAKNA &ERFIKIR Semua "a(a"!e( s! " manus a 'an# men##am,a(#a"an "e! n## an %an "ea#un#an pa%a %asa(n'a me(upa"an a" ,a! %a( mem,e( "an !u#as "e"&a$ *a&an 1'an# !e(, n#"a anu#(a& a"a$ 'an# %a$am pe( n!a& %an % m $ " n'a, se(!a peman*aa!ann'a un!u" "e# a!an ,e(* " (, ,a&"an Tu&an pun $a(an#an2 % mu"a ,um pa%a manus a ! %a" !e($epas %a( "apas !as a"a$ un!u" ,e(* " (, ,e(pen#e!a&uan, se(!a mem,ua! "epu!usan un!u" me$a"u"an %an a!au ! %a" me$a"u"an 'an# !an##un#+a.a,n'a n&e(en pa%a manus a, se& n##a pe($u % m n!a pe(!an##un#+a.a,an. Sutan &ak ir !lis*ah"ana. Men'a!a"an ,a&.a p " (an mem,e( manus a pen#e!a&uan 'an# %apa! % pa"a n'a se,a#a pe%)man %a$am pe(,ua!ann'a, se%an#"an "emauan$a& 'an# men+a% pen%)()n# pe(,ua!an
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me(e"a. A$e& "a(ena !u ,e(* " ( me(upa"an a!( ,u! pen! n# 'an# men+a% "an manus a se,a#a manus a, ,e(* " ( a%a$a& *)n%as %an "emauan a%a$a& pen%)()n#n'a. Ka$au ,e(* " ( 1pen##unaan "e"ua!an a"a$2 me(upa"an sa$a& sa!u / ( pen! n# 'an# mem,e%a"an manus a %en#an &e.an, se"a(an# apa 'an# % ma"su% ,e(* " (, apa"a& se! ap pen##unaan a"a$ %apa! % "a!e#)( "an ,e(* " (, a!au"a& pen##unaan a"a$ %en#an /a(a !e(!en!u sa+a 'an# % se,u! ,e(* " (. Pa(a a"&$ !e$a& men/),a men%e* n s "an ma"na ,e(* " ( %en#an (umusann'a sen% ( 0sen% ( , namun 'an# +e$as !anpa a"a$ nampa"n'a "e# a!an ,e(* " ( ! %a" mun#" n %apa! % $a"u"an, %em " an +u#a pem $ "an a"a$ se/a(a * s "a$ ! %a" se(!a me(!a men# n% "as "an "e# a!a ,e(* " (. Menu(u! 0.$. Bochenski ,e(* " ( a%a$a& pe("em,an#an %e %an ")nsep, %e* n s n nampa" san#a! se%e(&ana namun su,s!ans n'a /u"up men%a$am, ,e(* " ( ,u"an$a& "e# a!an * s " namun me(upa"an "e# a!an men!a$, , $a sese)(an# se/a(a men!a$ se%an# men# "a!"an % ( %en#an sesua!u %an sesua!u !u !e(us ,e(+a$an %a$am n#a!ann'a, ma"a )(an# !e(se,u! , sa % "a!a"an se%an# ,e(* " (. B "a %em " an ,e(a(! ,a&.a ,e(* " ( me(upa"an upa'a un!u" men/apa pen#e!a&uan. Upa'a men# "a!"an % ( %en#an sesua!u me(upa"an upa'a un!u" men+a% "an sesua!u !u a%a %a$am % ( 1#am,a(an men!a$2 sese)(an#, %an + "a !u !e(+a% !a&u$a& % a, n ,e(a(! ,a&.a %en#an ,e(* " ( manus a a"an mampu mempe()$e& pen#e!a&uan, %an %en#an pen#e!a&uan !u manus a men+a% $e, & mampu un!u" me$an+u!"an !u#as "e"&a$ *a&ann'a % mu"a ,um se(!a mampu memp)s s "an % ( $e, & ! n## % ,an% n# ma"&$u" $a nn'a. Semen!a(a !u Partap Sing $ehra mem,e( "an %e* n s ,e(* " ( 1pem " (an2 'a !u men/a( sesua!u 'an# ,e$um % "e!a&u ,e(%asa("an sesua!u 'an# su%a& % "e!a&u . De* n s n men# n% "as "an ,a&.a sua!u "e# a!an ,e(* " ( ,a(u mun#" n !e(+a% + "a a"a$5p " (an sese)(an# !e$a& men#e!a&u sesua!u, "emu% an sesua!u !u % pe(#una"an un!u" men#e!a&u sesua!u 'an#
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$a n, sesua!u 'an# % "e!a&u !u , sa me(upa"an %a!a, ")nsep a!au se,ua& %ea, %an &a$ n "emu% an ,e("em,an# a!au % "em,an#"an se& n##a % pe()$e& sua!u 'an# "emu% an % "e!a&u a!au , sa +u#a % se,u! "es mpu$an. Den#an %em " an "e%ua %e* n s 'an# % "emu"a"an a"&$ !e(se,u! pa%a %asa(n'a ,e(s *a! sa$ n# me$en#"ap . Be(* " ( me(upa"an upa'a un!u" mempe()$e& pen#e!a&uan %an %en#an pen#e!a&uan !e(se,u! p()ses ,e(* " ( %apa! !e(us ,e($an+u! #una mempe()$e& pen#e!a&uan 'an# ,a(u, %an p()ses !u ! %a" ,e(&en! se$ama upa'a pen/a( an pen#e!a&uan !e(us % $a"u"an. Menu(u! 0u*us S Suriasumantri Be(* " ( me(upa"an sua!u p()ses 'an# mem,ua&"an pen#e!a&uan. P()ses n me(upa"an se(an#"a an #e(a" pem " (an %a$am men# "u! +a$an pem " (an !e(!en!u 'an# a"& (n'a sampa pa%a se,ua& "es mpu$an 'an# ,e(upa pen#e!a&uan. Den#an %em " an ,e(* " ( mempun'a #(a%as 'an# ,e(,e%a %a( ,e(* " ( se%e(&ana sampa ,e(* " ( 'an# su$ !, %a( ,e(* " ( &an'a un!u" men# "a!"an su,+e" %an ),+e" sampa %en#an ,e(* " ( 'an# menun!u! "es mpu$an ,e(%asa("an "a!an !e(se,u!. Semen!a(a !u Partap Sing $ehra men'a!a"an ,a&.a p()ses ,e(* " ( men/a"up &a$0&a$ se,a#a ,e( "u! 'a !u > C)n/ep! )n 1pem,en!u"an #a#asan2 Bu%#emen! 1menen!u"an sesua!u2 Reas)n n# 1Pe(! m,an#an pem " (an5pena$a(an2 , $a sese)(an# men#a!a"an ,a&.a % a se%an# ,e(* " ( !en!an# sesua!u, n mun#" n ,e(a(! ,a&.a % a se%an# mem,en!u" #a#asan umum !en!an# sesua!u, a!au se%an# menen!u"an sesua!u, a!au se%an# mempe(! m,an#"an 1men/a( a(#umen!as 2 ,e("a !an %en#an sesua!u !e(se,u!. Ca"upan p()ses ,e(* " ( se,a#a mana % se,u!"an % a!as men##am,a("an ,en!u" su,s!ans pen/apa an "es mpu$an, %a$am se! ap /a"upan !e(,en!an# sua!u p()ses 1u(u!an2 ,e(* " ( !e(!en!u sesua %en#an su,s!ans n'a. Menu(u! 0ohn 2e%ey p()ses ,e(* " ( mempu'a u(u!an0u(u!an 1p()ses2 se,a#a ,e( "u! >
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T m,u$ (asa su$ !, ,a " %a$am ,en!u" a%ap!as !e(&a%ap a$a!, su$ ! men#ena s *a!, a!aupun %a$am mene(an#"an &a$0&a$ 'an# mun/u$ se/a(a ! ,a0! ,a.

Kemu% an (asa su$ ! !e(se,u! % ,e( pe(masa$a&an.

%e* n s

%a$am ,en!u"

T m,u$ sua!u "emun#" nan peme/a&an 'an# ,e(upa (e"a0(e"a, & p)!esa, n*e(ens a!au !e)( . I%e0 %e peme/a&an % u(a "an se/a(a (as )na$ me$a$u pem,en!u"an mp$ "as %en#an +a$an men#umpu$"an ,u"! 0,u"! 1%a!a2. Men#ua!"an pem,u"! an !en!an# %e0 %e % a!as %an men' mpu$"ann'a ,a " me$a$u "e!e(an#an0"e!e(an#an a!aupun pe(/),aan0pe(/),aan.

Semen!a(a !u #elly men#emu"a"an ,a&.a p()ses ,e(* " ( men# "u! $an#"a&0$an#"a& se,a#a ,e( "u! > T m,u$ (asa su$ ! Rasa su$ ! !e(se,u! % %e* n s "an Men/a( sua!u peme/a&an semen!a(a Menam,a& "e!e(an#an !e(&a%ap peme/a&an !a% 'an# menu+u "epa%a "epe(/a'aan ,a&.a peme/a&an !e(se,u! a%a$a& ,ena(. Me$a"u"an peme/a&an $e, & $an+u! %en#an -e( * "as e"spe( men!a$ Men#a%a"an pene$ ! an !e(&a%ap penemuan0penemuan

e"spe( men!a$ menu+u peme/a&an se/a(a men!a$ un!u" % !e( ma a!au % !)$a" se& n##a "em,a$ men m,u$"an (asa su$ !. Mem,e( "an sua!u pan%an#an "e %epan a!au #am,a(an men!a$ !en!an# s !uas 'an# a"an %a!an# un!u" %apa! men##una"an peme/a&an !e(se,u! se/a(a !epa!. U(u!an $an#"a& 1p()ses2 ,e(* " ( sepe(! !e(se,u! % a!as $e, & men##am,a("an sua!u /a(a "erfikir ilmiah, 'an# pa%a %asa(n'a me(upa"an
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#(a%as !e(!en!u % samp n# "erfikir "iasa 'an# se%e(&ana se(!a "erfikir ra ikal filosofis, namun u(u!an !e(se,u! %apa! mem,an!u ,a#a mana sese)(an# ,e(* " ( %en#an /a(a 'an# ,ena(, ,a " un!u" &a$0&a$ 'an# se%e(&ana %an ")n"( ! maupun &a$0&a$ 'an# (um ! %an a,s!(a", %an semua n % pen#a(u& )$e& pen#e!a&uan 'an# % m $ " )$e& )(an# 'an# ,e(* " ( !e(se,u!. ). MAKNA PENGETAHUAN Be(* " ( mens'a(a!"an a%an'a pen#e!a&uan 1 #no%le ge2 a!au sesua!u 'an# % "e!a&u a#a( pen/apa an pen#e!a&uan ,a(u $a nn'a %apa! ,e(p()ses %en#an ,ena(, se"a(an# apa 'an# % ma"su% %en#an pen#e!a&uan <, menu(u! Lange(el pen#e!a&uan a$a& "esa!uan su,+e" 'an# men#e!a&u !empa! $a n % a men#emu"a"an ,a&.a %an ),+e" 'an# % "e!a&u , %

pen#e!a&uan me(upa"an "esa!uan su,+e" 'an# men#e!a&u %en#an ),+e" 'an# % "e!a&u , sua!u "esa!uan %a$am mana ),+e" !u % pan%an# )$e& su,+e" se,a#a % "ena$ n'a. Den#an %em " an pen#e!a&uan se$a$u ,e("a !an %en#an ),+e" 'an# % "e!a&u , se%an#"an 1ei"leman men'e,u!n'a &u,un#an su,+e" %an ),+e" 1#no%le ge : relation "et%een o"*ect an su"*ect 2. Su,+e" a%a$a& n% - %u 'an# pun'a "emampuan men#e!a&u 1,e(a"a$2 %an ),+e" a%a$a& ,en%a0,en%a a!au &a$0&a$ 'an# n# n % "e!a&u . In% - %u 1manus a2 me(upa"an sua!u (ea$ !as %an ,en%a0,en%a me(upa"an (ea$ !as 'an# $a n, &u,un#an "e%uan'a me(upa"an p()ses un!u" men#e!a&u %an , $a ,e(sa!u +a% $a& pen#e!a&uan ,a# manus a. D s n !e($ &a! ,a&.a su,+e" mes! ,e(pa(! s pas a"! * %a$am p()ses pen'a!uan se%an# ),+e" pun &a(us ,e(pa(! s pas %a$am "ea%aann'a, su,+e" me(upa"an sua!u (ea$ !as %em " an +u#a ),+e", "e %ua (ea$ !as n ,e(p()ses %a$am sua!u n!e(a"s pa(! s pa! *, !anpa semua n mus!a& $ pen#e!a&uan !e(+a% , &a$ n se+a$an %en#an pen%apa! $a) Scheler 'an# men'a!a"an ,a&.a pen#e!a&uan se,a#a pa(! s pas )$e& sua!u (ea$ !a %a$am sua!u (ea$ !a 'an# $a n, !e!ap !anpa m)% * "as 0m)% * "as %a$am "ua$ !as 'an# $a n !u. Se,a$ "n'a su,+e" 'an# men#e!a&u !u % pen#a(u& )$e& ),+e" 'an# % "e!a&u n'a.
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Pen#e!a&uan pa%a &a" "a!n'a me(upa"an se#enap apa 'an# % "e!a&u !en!an# ),+e" !e(!en!u, !e(masu" "e %a$amn'a $mu 1 0u*un S Suriasumantri'2, Pen#e!a&uan !en!an# ),+e" se$a$u me$ ,a!"an %ua unsu( 'a"n unsu( (ep(esen!as !e!ap %an !a" !e($u" s"an se(!a unsu( penaps (an ")nsep 'an# menun+u"an (esp)n pem " (an. Unsu( ")nsep % se,u! unsu( *)(ma$ se%an# unsu( !e!ap a%a$a& unsu( ma!e( a$ a!au s 1 $aurice $an el"aum2. In!e(a"s an!a(a ),+e" %en#an su,+e" 'an# mena*s ("an, men+a% "an pema&aman su,+e" 1manus a2 a!as ),+e" men+a% +e$as, !e(a(a& %an s s! ma! s se& n##a %apa! mem,an!u meme/a&"an ,e(,a#a masa$a& 'an# % &a%ap . Pen#e!a&uan !um,u& se+a$an %en#an ,e(!am,a&n'a pen#a$aman, un!u" !u % pe($u"an n*)(mas 'an# ,e(ma"na #una men##a$ pem " (an un!u" men#&a%ap (ea$ !as %un a % mana se)(an# !u & %up 1 Harol H &itus2. D. &ERFIKIR DAN PENGETAHUAN Be(* " ( %an pen#e!a&uan me(upa"an %ua &a$ 'an# men+a% / ( "eu!amaan manus a, !anpa pen#e!a&uan manus a a"an su$ ! ,e(* " ( %an !anpa ,e(* " ( pen#e!a&uan $e, & $an+u! ! %a" mun#" n %apa! % /apa , )$e& "a(ena !u nampa"n'a ,e(* " ( %an pen#e!a&uan mempun'a &u,un#an 'an# s *a!n'a s "$ "a$, , $a % #am,a("an nampa" se,a#a ,e( "u! >

BERFIKIR

PENGETAH AN

Gambar 1.2. Hubungan berfikir dengan pengetahuan

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13

Ge(a" s ("u$e( an!a(a ,e(* " ( %an pen#e!a&uan a"an !e(us mem,esa( men# n#a! pen#e!a&uan pa%a %asa(n'a ,e(s *a! a"umu$a! !, sema" n ,an'a" pen#e!a&uan 'an# % m $ " sese)(an# sema" n (um ! a"! - !as ,e(* " (, %em " an +u#a sema" n (um ! a"! - !as ,e(* " ( sema" n "a'a a"umu$as pen#e!a&uan. Sema" n a"umu$a! * pen#e!a&uan manus a sema" n (um !, namun sema" n memun#" n"an %a$am sua!u un!u" "e(an#"a me$ &a! p)$a umum se(!a mens s! ma! s (n'a !e(!en!u, se& n##a $a& ($a&

pen#e!a&uan $m a& 1 $mu2, % samp n# !u !e(%apa! pu$a )(an#0)(an# 'an# ! %a" &an'a puas %en#an men#e!a&u , me(e"a n men/),a mem " ("an &a"e"a! %an "e,ena(an 'an# % "e!a&u n'a se/a(a (a% "a$ %an men%a$am, ma"a $a& ($a& pen#e!a&uan * $sa*a!, )$e& "a(ena !u ,e(* " ( %an pen#e!a&uan % $ &a! %a( / ( p()sesn'a %apa! % ,a# "e %a$am > Be(* " ( , asa %an se%e(&ana men#&as $"an pen#e!a&uan , asa 1pen#e!a&uan e"s s!ens a$2 Be(* " ( s s!ema! s *a"!ua$ !en!an# ),+e" !e(!en!u men#&as $"an pen#e!a&uan $m a& 1 $mu2 Be(* " ( (a% "a$ !en!an# &a"e"a! sesua!u men#&as $"an pen#e!a&uan * $)s)* s 1* $sa*a!2 Semua +en s ,e(* " ( %an pen#e!a&uan !e(se,u! % a!as mempun'a p) s s %an man*aa!n'a mas n#0mas n#, pe(,e%aan &an'a$a& ,e(s *a! #(a%ua$, se,a, semuan'a !e!ap me(upa"an s *a! 'an# n&e(en %en#an manus a. S *a! n&e(en ,e(* " ( %an ,e(pen#e!a&uan pa%a manus a !e$a& men+a% pen%)()n# ,a# upa'a0upa'a un!u" $e, & mema&am "a %a&0"a %a& ,e(* " ( ,ena( 1$)# "a2, %an semua n ma" n meme($u"an "ea"&$ an, se& n##a ma" n (um ! ! n#"a!an ,e(* " ( %an pen#e!a&uan ma" n se% " ! 'an# mempun'a "emampuan !e(se,u!, namun se(en%a& apapun #(a%as ,e(p " ( %an ,e(pen#e!a&uan 'an# % m $ " sese)(an# !e!ap sa+a me(e"a , sa men##una"an a"a$n'a un!u" ,e(* " ( un!u" mempe()$e& pen#e!a&uan, !e(u!ama %a$am men#&a%ap masa$a&0masa$a& "e& %upan, se& n##a manus a %apa! mempe(!a&an"an
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& %upn'a 1pen#e!a&uan ma/am % ,a#an"an se,a#a ,e( "u! >

% se,u! pen#e!a&uan e"s s!ens a$2.

G(a%as ,e(* " ( %an ,e(pen#e!a&uan se,a#a % "emu"a"an !e(%a&u$u %apan

Be(* " (5 Pen#e!a&uan F $)s)* s

Be(* " (5Pen#e!a&uan I$m a&

Be(* " (5Pen#e!a&uan B asa 1C)mm)n Sense2

Ga"1ar 1.-. Hirar i *radasi 1#r'i ir Be(pen#e!a&uan me(upa"an s'a(a! mu!$a" ,a# manus a un!u" mempe(!a&an"an & %upn'a, %an un!u" !u %a$am % ( manus a !e$a& !e(%apa! a"a$ 'an# %apa! % pe(#una"an ,e(* " ( un!u" $e, & men%a$am manus a meme($u"an pen#e!a&uan5 $mu 'a !u > 1. manus a ! %a" , sa & %up %a$am a$am 'an# ,e$um !e()$a&, semen!a(a , na!an# s ap & %up % a$am as$ %en#an ,e(,a#a "emampuan ,a.aann'a. 2. manus a me(upa"an ma"&$u" 'an# se$a$u ,e(!an'a ,a " mp$ s ! maupun e"sp$ s ! %an "emampuan ,e(* " ( se(!a pen#e!a&uan me(upa"an sa(ana un!u" men+a.a,n'a.
PENGANTAR FILSAFAT ILMU/UHAR SUHARSAPUTRA

%an

mempe($uas pen#e!a&uan. Pa$ n# ! %a" !e(%apa! %ua a$asan men#apa

15

Den#an %em " an ,e(* " ( %an pen#e!a&uan ,a#

manus a me(upa"an

ns!(umen pen! n# un!u" men#a!as ,e(,a#a pe(s)a$a& 'an# % &a%ap %a$am & %upn'a % %un a, !anpa !u mun#" n 'an# a"an !e($ &a! &an'a "emusna&an manus a (meski kenyataan menun*ukan "ah%a iri sen iri le"ih cepat) engan "erfikir an pengetahuan manusia le"ih mampu mem"uat kerusakan an memusnahkan

PERTAN=AAN UNTUK &AHAN DISKUSI 1. +e$as"an ma"na Manus a< 2. +e$as"an pe(,e%aan manua a %en#an &e.an< 3. apa 'an# % ma"su% %en#an ,e(* " (< 4. apa 'an# % ma"su% %en#an pen#e!a&uan< ;. +e$as"an &u,un#an an!a(a ,e(* " ( %an pen#e!a&uan< =. men#apa manus a pe($u ,e(* " ( %an ,e(pen#e!a&uan< 9. se,u!"an %an+e$as"an +en s0+en s ,e(* " ( %an pen#e!a&uan< 6. men#apa manus a me(upa"an sa!u0sa!un'a ma"&$u" % %un a 'an# , sa ,e(a#ama<

&A& 2

FILSAFAT
Aku tidak b!leh mengatakan bah&a mereka bijaksana, sebabkebijaksanaan adalah sesuatu yang luhur, dan hanya dimiliki !leh 'uhan sendiri. ebutan yang bersahaja, yaitu yang selayaknya diberikan kepada mereka adalah pen#inta kebijaksanaan atau akhli (ilsafat (So!rates "ala#
Phae"rus $arya Plato)

A. PENGERTIAN FILSAFAT
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Se/a(a e! m)$)# s * $sa*a! ,e(asa$ %a( ,a&asa Dunan %a( "a!a E philoF ,e(a(! / n!a %anF sophiaF 'an# ,e(a(! "e,ena(an, semen!a(a !u menu(u! I.,. Pu *a%i*atna 118=3 > 12 EFilo a(! n'a / n!a %a$am a(! 'an# se$uas0$uasn'a, 'a !u n# n %an "a(ena n# n $a$u ,e(usa&a men/apa 'an# % n# n"ann'a !u . Sofia a(! n'a "e, +a"sanaan , , +a"sana a(! n'a pan%a , men#e(! %en#an men%a$am, +a% menu(u! naman'a sa+a F $sa*a! ,)$e& % ma"na"an n# n men#e(! %en#an men%a$am a!au / n!a %en#an "e, +a"sanaan. Ke/ n!aan pa%a "e, +a"sanaan &a(us$a& % pan%an# se,a#a sua!u ,en!u" p()ses, a(! n'a se#a$a upa'a pem " (an un!u" se$a$u men/a( &a$0&a$ 'an# , +a"sana, , +a"sana % %a$amn'a men#an%un# %ua ma"na 'a !u ,a " %an ,ena(, ,a " a%a$a& sesua!u 'an# ,e(% mens e! "a, se%an#"an ,ena( a%a$a& sesua!u 'an# ,e(% mens (as )na$, +a% sesua!u 'an# , +a"sana a%a$a& sesua!u 'an# e! s %an $)# s. Den#an %em " an ,e(* $sa*a! ,e(a(! se$a$u ,e(usa&a un!u" ,e(* " ( #una men/apa "e,a "an %an "e,ena(an, ,e(* " ( %a$am * $sa*a! ,u"an sem,a(an# ,e(* " ( namun ,e(p " ( se/a(a (a% "a$ sampa "e a"a(0a"a(n'a, )$e& "a(ena !u mes" pun ,e(* $sa*a! men#an%un# "e# a!an ,e(* " (, !ap ! %a" se! ap "e# a!an ,e(* " ( ,e(a(! * $sa*a! a!au ,e(* $sa*a!. Sutan &ak ir !lis*ah"ana 118612 men'a!a"an ,a&.a pe"e(+aan ,e(* $sa*a! !u a$a& ,e(* " (, %an &an'a manus a 'an# !e$a& ! ,a % ! n#"a! ,e(* " (, 'an# ,e(* $sa*a!. Guna $e, & mema&am men#ena ma"na * $sa*a! ,e( "u! n a"an % "emu"a"an %e* n s * $sa*a! 'an# % "emu"a"an )$e& pa(a a"&$ >
8. Plato salah seorang muri Socrates yang hi up antara ;<= + >;= se"agai pengetahuan tentang

Se"elum $asehi mengartikan filsafat yang asli.

segala yang a a' serta pengetahuan yang "erminat mencapai ke"enaran

<. Aristoteles (>?< + ><< S.$) muri Plato' men efinisikan filsafat se"agai ilmu pengetahuan yang meliputi ke"enaran yang terkan ung i alamnya ilmu9ilmu metafisika' logika' retorika' etika' ekonomi' politik an estetika.

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2ia *uga "erpen apat "ah%a filsafat itu menyeli iki se"a" segala "en a.

an asas

>. Cicero (8@A + ;> S.$). filsafat a alah pengetahuan tentang sesuatu yang maha agung an usaha9usaha mencapai hal terse"ut. ;. Al Farabi (?=@ + BC@ $). seorang 1ilsuf $uslim men efini ikan 1ilsafat se"agai ilmu pengetahuan tentang alam mau*u ' "agaimana hakikatnya yang se"enarnya. C. Immanuel ant (8=<; + 8?@;). $en efinisikan 1ilsafat se"agai ilmu pokok an pangkal segala pengetahuan yang mencakup i alamnya empat persoalan yaitu : a. $etafisika (apa yang apat kita ketahui). ". Etika (apa yang "oleh kita ker*akan). c. !gama ( sampai imanakah pengharapan kita) . !ntropologi (apakah yang inamakan manusia). A. H.C !ebb alam "ukunya History of Philosophy menyatakan "ah%a

filsafat mengan ung pengertian penyeli ikan. &i ak hanya penyeli ikan hal9hal yang khusus an tertentu sa*a' "ahkan le"ih9le"ih mengenai sifat + hakekat "aik ari unia kita' maupun ari cara hi up yang seharusnya kita selenggarakan i unia ini. =. Harold H. "itus alam "ukunya Li(ing Issues in Philosophy

mengemukakan "e"erapa pengertian filsafat yaitu : a. Philosophy is an attitu e to%ar life an uni(erse (1ilsafat a alah sikap terha ap kehi upan an alam semesta). ". Philosophy is a metho of reflecti(e thinking an reasone inquiry (1ilsafat a alah suatu meto e "erfikir reflektif secara rasional) c. Philosophy is a group of pro"lems (1ilsafat a alah sekelompok masalah) . Philosophy is a group of systems of thought (1ilsafat a alah serangkaian sistem "erfikir)
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an pengka*ian

18

Da( ,e,e(apa pen#e(! an % a!as nampa" ,a&.a a%a a"&$ 'an# mene"an"an pa%a su,!ans %a( apa 'an# % * " ("an %a$am ,e(* $sa*a! sepe(! pen%apa! P$a!) %an pen%apa! A$ Fa(a, , A( s!)!e$es $e, & mene"an"an pa%a /a"upan apa 'an# % * " ("an %a$am * $sa*a! %em " an +u#a Kan! se!e$a& men'e,u!"an s *a! * $sa*a!n'a !u sen% ( se,a#a $mu p)")", semen!a(a !u C /e() % samp n# mene"an"an pa%a su,s!ans +u#a pa%a upa'a0upa'a pen/apa ann'a. Dem " an +u#a H./. .e"" me$ &a! * $sa*a! se,a#a upa'a pen'e$ % "an !en!an# su,s!ans 'an# ,a " se,a#a sua!u "e&a(usan %a$am & %up % %un a. De* n s 'an# nampa"n'a $e, & men'e$u(u& a%a$a& 'an# % "emu"a"an )$e& T !us, 'an# mene"an"an pa%a % mens 0% mens * $sa*a! %a( mu$a s "ap, me!)%e ,e(* " (, su,s!ans masa$a&, se(!a s s!em ,e(* " (. Mes" pun %em " an, , $a % pe(&a! "an se/a(a se"sama, nampa" pen#e(! an0pen#e(! an !e(se,u! $e, & ,e(s *a! sa$ n# me$en#"ap , se& n##a %apa! % "a!a"an ,a&.a ,e(* $sa*a! ,e(a(! pen'e$e% "an !en!an# !panya, Bagaimananya, %an untuk apanya, %a$am ")n!e"s / ( 0/ ( ,e(* " ( * $sa*a!, 'an# , $a % "a !"an %en#an !e(m n)$)# * $sa*a! !e(/a"up %a$am ontologi 1apan'a2, epistemologi 1,a#a manan'a2, %an a)iologi 1un!u" apan'a2 &. )IRI.)IRI FILSAFAT B $a % $ &a! %a( a"! - !asn'a * $sa*a! me(upa"an sua!u /a(a ,e(* " ( 'an# mempun'a "a(a"!e( s! " !e(!en!u. Menu(u! Sutan &ak ir !lis*ah"ana s'a(a!0 s'a(a! ,e(* " ( 'an# % se,u! ,e(* $sa*a! 'a !u > a) Berfikir engan teliti' an ") Berfikir menurut aturan yang pasti . Dua / ( !e(se,u! menan%a"an ,e(* " ( 'an# nsa*, %an ,e(* " ( 'an# %em " an$a& 'an# % se,u! ,e(* $sa*a!. Semen!a(a !u Si i 5a-al"a 1189=2 men'a!a"an ,a&.a / ( ,e(0F $sa*a! a!au ,e(* " ( F $sa*a! a%a$a& > radi al, sis+#"a+i , %an %!i>#rsal. ,a ikal ,e(ma"na ,e(* " ( sampa !an##un# "e a"a(0a"a(n'a 1Ra% G a(! n'a a"a(2, ! %a" !an##un#0 %en#an ,e(,a#a ")nse".ens n'a %en#an ! %a" sampa

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!e(,e$en##u )$e& ,e(,a#a pem " (an 'an# su%a& % !e( ma umum ' Sistematik a(! n'a ,e(* " ( se/a(a !e(a!u( %an $)# s %en#an u(u!an0u(u!an 'an# (as )na$ %an %apa! % pe(!an##un#+a.a,"an, 6ni(ersal a(! n'a ,e(* " ( se/a(a men'e$u(u& ! %a" pa%a ,a# an0,a# an "&usus 'an# s *a!n'a !e(,a!as. Semen!a(a !u Su arto 1188=2 men'a!a"an ,a&.a F $sa*a! a%a$a& > a. M#+8dis > men##una"an me!)%e, /a(a, 'an# $aH m % #una"an )$e& * $su* 1a"&$ * $sa*a!2 %a$am p()ses ,e(* " ( ,. Sis+#"a+is > ,e(* " ( %a$am sua!u "e!e("a !an an!a( unsu(0unsu( %a$am sua!u "ese$u(u&an se& n##a !e(susun sua!u p)$a pem " (an F $su* s. /. K8,#r#! > % an!a(a unsu(0unsu( 'an# % p " ("an ! %a" !e(+a% sesua!u 'an# ,e(!en!an#an %an !e(susun se/a(a $)# s %. Rasi8!al > men%asa("an pa%a "a %a& ,e(* " ( 'an# ,ena( %an $)# s 1sesua %en#an "a %a& $)# "a2 e. K8"3r#,#!si' > ,e(* " ( !en!an# sesua!u %a( ,e(,a#a su%u! 1mu$! % mens 2. *. Radi al > ,e(* " ( se/a(a men%a$am sampa "e a"a(0a"a(n'a a!au sampa pa%a ! n#"a!an esens 'an# se%a$am0%a$amn'a #. U!i>#rsal > mua!an "e,ena(ann'a ,e(s *a! un -e(sa$, men#a(a& pa%a (ea$ !as "e& %upan manus a se/a(a "ese$u(u&an Den#an %em " an ,e(* $sa*a! a!au ,e(* " ( * $sa*a! ,u"an$a& sem,a(an# ,e(* " ( !ap ,e(* " ( %en#an men#a/u pa%a "a %a&0"a %a& !e(!en!u se/a(a % s p$ n %an men%a$am. Pa%a %asa(n'a manus a a%a$a& homo sapien, &a$ n ! %a" se(!a me(!a semua manus a men+a% F $su*, se,a, ,e(* " ( * $sa*a! meme($u"an $a! &an %an pem, asaan 'an# !e(us mene(us %a$am "e# a!an ,e(* " ( se& n##a se! ap masa$a&5su,s!ans men%apa! pen/e(ma!an 'an#
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/ ( 0/ ( ,e(* " (

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men%a$am un!u" men/apa "e,ena(an +a.a,an %en#an /a(a 'an# ,ena( se,a#a man *es!as "e/ n!aan pa%a "e,ena(an. ). 0&JEK FILSAFAT Pa%a %asa(n'a * $sa*a! a!au ,e(* $sa*a! ,u"an$a& sesua!u 'an# as n# %an !e($epas %a( "e& %upan se&a( 0&a( , "a(ena se#a$a sesua!u 'an# a%a %an 'an# mun#" n se(!a %apa! % * " ("an , sa men+a% ),+e" * $sa*a! apa, $a se$a$u % pe(!an'a"an, % * " ("an se/a(a (a% "a$ #una men/apa "e,ena(an. Louis #attsoff men'e,u!"an ,a&.a $apan#an "e(+a * $sa*a! !u ,u"an ma n $uasn'a 'a !u me$ pu! se#a$a pen#e!a&uan manus a se(!a se#a$a sesua!u 'an# n# n % "e!a&u manus a, Lange(el 118;;2 men'a!a"an ,a&.a * $sa*a! !u ,e(pan#"a$ pa%a pem " (an "ese$u(u&an se(.a se"a$ an se/a(a (a% "a$ %an menu(u! s s!em, semen!a(a !u $ul er 118==2 men+e$as"an ,a&.a ! ap0! ap manus a 'an# mu$a ,e(* " ( !en!an# % ( sen% ( %an !en!an# !empa!0 !empa!n'a %a$am %un a a"an men#&a%ap ,e,e(apa pe(s)a$an 'an# ,e# !u pen! n#, se& n##a pe(s)a$an0pe(s)a$an !u ,)$e& % ,e( nama pe(s)a$an0 pe(s)a$an p)")" 'a !u > 12 A%a"a& A$$a& %an %an s apa"a& s apa"an A$$a& !u <, 22 apa manus a <, %an 32 Apa"a& &a"e"a! %a( se#a$a (ea$ !as,

apa"a& ma"nan'a, %an apa"a& n! sa( n'a <. Le, & +au& E./. E%ing %a$am ,u"un'a 1un amental Duestions of Philosophy 118=22 men'a!a"an ,a&.a pe(!an'aan0pe(!an'aan p)")" * $sa*a! 1secara tersirat menun*ukan o"*ek filsafat2 a$a& > &ruth (ke"enaran)' $atter (materi)' $in matter an (ruang min (hu"ungan antara materi (pikiran)' &he ,elation of &ime an pikiran)' Space an

an %aktu)' /ause (se"a"9se"a")' 1ree om (ke"e"asan)' $onism Pen%apa!0pen%apa! !e(se,u! % a!as men##am,a("an ,e!apa $uas %an

(ersus Pluralism (ser"a tunggal la%an ser"a *amak)' an 5o (&uhan) men/a"upn'a ),+e" * $sa*a! ,a " % $ &a! %a( su,s!ans masa$a& maupun su%u! pan%an# n'a !e(&a%ap masa$a&, se& n##a %apa! % s mpu$"an ,a&.a ),+e" * $sa*a! a%a$a& se#a$a sesua!u 'an# mau+u% %a$am su%u! pan%an# %an "a+ an 'an# men%a$am 1(a% "a$2. Se/a(a $e, & s s!ema! s pa(a a"&$ mem,a# ),+e"
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* $sa*a! "e %a$am ),+e" ma!e( a$ %an ),'e" *)(ma$. A,'e" ma!e( a$ a%a$a& ),+e" 'an# se/a(a .u+u%n'a %apa! % +a% "an ,a&an !e$aa&an %a$am ,e(* " (, se%an#"an ),'e" *)(ma$ a%a$a& ),+e" 'an# men'an#"u! su%u! pan%an# %a$am me$ &a! ),'e" ma!e( a$ !e(!en!u. Menu(u! En ang Saefu in !nshori 118612 ),+e" ma!e( a$ * $sa*a! a%a$a& sa(.a 'an# a%a 1se#a$a sesua!u 'an# ,e(.u+u%2, 'an# pa%a #a( s ,esa(n'a %apa! % ,a# a!as ! #a pe(s)a$an p)")" 'a !u > 12. Ha"e"a! Tu&anI 22. Ha"e"a! A$amI %an 32. Ha"e"a! manus a, se%an#"an ),+e" *)(ma$ * $sa*a! a$a& usa&a men/a( "e!e(an#an se/a(a (a% "a$ !e(&a%ap ),+e" ma!e( a$ * $sa*a!. Den#an %em " an ),+e" ma!e( a$ * $sa*a! men#a/u pa%a su,s!ans 'an# a%a %an mun#" n a%a 'an# %apa! % * " ("an )$e& manus a, se%an#"an ),+e" *)(ma$ * $sa*a! men##am,a("an !en!an# /a(a %an s *a! ,e(* " ( !e(&a%ap ),+e" ma!e( a$ !e(se,u!, %en#an "a!a $a n ),+e" *)(ma$ * $sa*a! men#a/u pa%a su%u! pan%an# 'an# % #una"an %a$am mem " ("an ),+e" ma!e( a$ * $sa*a!. D. SISTIMATIKA FILSAFAT a%apun B %an#0, %an# "a+ an5s s! ma! "a * $sa*a! an!a(a $a n a%a$a& > 1. 4ntologi. B %an# * $sa*a! 'an# mene$ ! &a" "a! .u+u%5a%a 1)n J ,e n#5a%aI $)#)s J pem " (an5 $mu5!e)( 2. 2. Epistemologi. F $sa*a! 'an# men'e$ % " !en!an# sum,e(, s'a(a! se(!a p()ses !e(+a% n'a pen#e!a&uan 1ep s!eme J pen#e!a&uan5"n).$e%#eI $)#)s J $mu5!e)( 5pem " (an2 3. !)iologi. B %an# * $sa*a! 'an# mene$aa& !en!an# &a" "a! n $a 0n $a 1aG )s J -a$ueI $)#)s J !e)( 5 $mu5pem " (an2 Semen!a(a !u menu(u! Ga&(a$ A% an, Pen%e"a!an * $sa*a! me$a$u s s! ma! "a %apa! % $a"u"an %en#an men#a/u pa%a ! #a pe(n'a!aan 'an# % "emu"a"an )$e& Immanuel #ant 'a !u > 8. !pa yang apat saya ketahui E 22

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<. >.

!pa yang apat saya harapkan E !pa yang apat saya lakukan E

"e! #a pe(!an'aan !e(se,u! men#&as $"an ! #a . $a'a& ,esa( * $sa*a! 'a !u . $a'a& pen#e!a&uan, . $a'a& a%a, %an . $a'a& n $a . Ke! #a . $a'a& ,esa( !e(se,u! "emu% an % ,a# $a# "e%a$am . $a'a&0. $a'a& ,a# an 'an# $e, & spes * ". K $a'a& n $a men/a"up n $a etika 1"e,a "an2 %an n $a estetika 1"e n%a&an2, . $a'a& ! a % "e$)mp)"an "e %a$am 4ntologi %an $etafisika, %an . $a'a& pen#e!a&uan % ,a# "e %a$am empa! . $a'a& 'a !u filsafat Ilmu' Epistemologi' $eto ologi' !e(se,u! % s"ema"an s,, > %an Logika. $e, & $an+u! "e! #a . $a'a&

ANTALAGI ADA FILSAFAT ILMU EPISTEMALAGI METADALAGI LAGIKA I


PENGETAHUAN

METAFISIKA

ETIKA M NILA

ESTETIKA

Gambar 2.1. Skema !ila#ah Filsafat

E. )A&ANG.)A&ANG FILSAFAT
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Den#an mema&am B %an#0, %an# "a+ an5s s! ma! "a * $sa*a!, nampa" ,a&.a ,e!apa $uas /a"upan * $sa*a! men# n#a! se#a$a sesua!u 'an# a%a %apa! % +a% "an su,s!ans ,a# pem " (an * $sa*a!, namun %em " an %a$am pe("em,an#ann'a pa(a a"&$ men/),a men#e$)mp)"an /a,an#0/a,an# F $sa*a! "e%a$am ,e,e(apa pen#e$)mp)"an se& n##a nampa" $e, & *)"us %an s s!ema! s. Pen/a,an#an n pa%a %asa(n'a me(upa"an pe("em,an#an se$an+u!n'a %a( pem, %an#an5s s!ema! "a * $sa*a!, se ( n# ma" n ,e("em,an#n'a pem " (an manus a %a$am me$ &a! su,s!ans ),+e" ma!e( a$ * $sa*a! %en#an ! ! " !e"an pene$aa&an 'an# ,e(-a( as . Be( "u! n a"an % "emu"a"an pen%apa! ,e,e(apa pa"a( !en!an# /a,an#0/a,an# * $sa*a!.

8. Plato (;<= + >;= S.$). mem"e akan lapangan atau "i ang9"i ang 1ilsafat ke alam : 8) 2ialektika (yang mengan ung persoalan i ea9i ea atau pengertian9 pengertian umum)' <) 1isika (yang mengan ung persoalan Etika (yang mengan ung persoalan "aik an "uruk). <. Aristoteles (>?< + ><< S.$)."erpen apat "ah%a 1ilsafat apat i"agi ke alam empat ca"ang yaitu : a. Logika. $erupakan ilmu pen ahuluan "agi 1ilsafat ". 1ilsafat &eoritis. Yang mencakup tiga "i ang: 8) 1isika' <) $atematika' >) $etafisika. c. 1ilsafat Praktis. $encakup tiga "i ang yaitu 8) Etika' <) Ekonomi' >) Politik. . Poetika (kesenian) unia materi)' >)

3. Al Ki!di. Mem,a# F $sa*a! "e %a$am ! #a , %an# 'a !u >


a. ". c. Ilmu &ha"iiyat (1isika)99merupakan tingkatan teren ah Ilmu ,iya hi (matematika)Fmerupakan tingkatan menengah Ilmu ,u"u"iyat (#etuhanan)Fmerupakan tingkatan tertinggi

4. Al Fara1i. Mem,a# F $sa*a! "e %a$am %ua ,a# an 'a !u >


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a. 1ilsafat &eori. $eliputi matematika' 1isika' an $etafisika. ". 1ilsafat Praktis. $eliputi etika an politik

;. H. D# V8s. Men##)$)n#"an F $sa*a! "e %a$am >


a. ". c. . e. f. g. h. i. $etafisika (pemikiran i luar ke"en aan) Logika (cara "erfikir "enar) !*aran tentang Ilmu Pengetahuan 1ilsafat !lam 1ilsafat #e"u ayaan 1ilsafat se*arah Etika (masalah "aik an "uruk) Estetika (masalah kein ahan' seni) !ntropologi (masalah yang "erkaitan engan manusia)

=. Has1%lla, &a r? 118962. Men'a!a"an ,a&.a % Haman m)%e(n n pem,a# an5/a,an# * $sa*a! !e(% (
a. 1ilsafat &eoritis yang ter iri ari: logika' $etafisika' filsafat alam' filsafat manusia. ". 1ilsafat praktis. &er iri ari : etika' filsafat !gama' filsafat ke"u ayaan

9. Pr8'.H.Is"a%! 12:::2. Mem,a# /a,an#0/a,an# F $sa*a! se,a#a ,e( "u! >


a. ". c. . e. f. g. h. i. *. k. Epistemologi (filsafat pengetahuan) Etika (filsafat moral. Estetika (filsafat seni) $etafisika Politik (filsafat pemerintahan3negara) 1ilsafat !gama 1ilsafat pen i ikan 1ilsafat ilmu 1ilsafat hukum 1ilsafat se*arah 1ilsafat matematika

6. Ri/,ard A. H83 i!. Mem,a&as F $sa*a! "e %a$am !u+u& /a,an# pene$aa&an 'a !u >
a. Etics (etika) ". Political Philosophy (filsafat politik) c. $etaphisics (metafisika) . Philosophy of ,eligion (filsafat !gama) e. &heory of #no%le ge (teori pengetahuan) f. Logics (logika)

8. Al1%r#? )as+#ll. Mem,a# * $sa*a! "e %a$am >


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. #etuhanan (theological pro"lem) e. $etafisika (methaphysical pro"lem) f. Epistemologi (epistemological pro"lem) g. Etika (ethical pro"lem) h. Politik (political pro"lem) i. Se*arah (historical pro"lem)

1:. E!da!* Sai'%ddi! A!s,8ri. Mem,a# se,a#a ,e( "u! >

/a,an#0/a,an# * $sa*a!
i"alik fisika' tentang i atas *angkauan

a. $etafisika. 1ilsafat tentang hakekat yang a a hakekat yang "ersifat transen en' pengalaman manusia. i luar atau

". Logika. 1ilsafat tentang pikiran yang "enar an yang salah. c. Etika. 1ilsafat tentang tingkah laku yang "aik an yang "uruk. . Estetika. 1ilsafat tentang kreasi yang in ah an yang *elek e. Epistemologi. 1ilsafat tentang ilmu pengetahuan f. 1ilsafat9filsafat khusus lainnya seperti: filsafat hukum' filsafat se*arah' filsafat alam' filsafat agama' filsafat manusia' filsafat pen i ikan an lain se"againya

Pen/a,an#an * $sa*a! se,a#a mana !e(se,u! % a!as ama! pen! n# % pa&am #una me$ &a! pe("em,an#an "e$uasan %a( su,s!ans 'an# % "a+ %an % !e$aa& %a$am * $sa*a!, %an se/a(a !e)( ! s &a$ !u mas & mun#" n ,e("em,an# se+a$an %en#an "emen%a$aman pen#"a+ an !e(&a%ap ),+e" ma!e( * $sa*a!. F. PENDEKATAN DALAM MEMPELAJARI FILSAFAT Upa'a mema&am apa 'an# % ma"su% %en#an * $sa*a! %apa! % $a"u"an me$a$u ,e(,a#a pen%e"a!an, se/a(a umum, pen%e"a!an 'an# % am, $ %apa! % "a!e#)( "an ,e(%asa("an su%u! pan%an# !e(&a%ap * $sa*a!, 'a"n * $sa*a! se,a#a p()%u" %an * $sa*a! se,a#a p()ses. Se,a#a p()%u" a(! n'a me$ &a! * $sa*a! se,a#a "umpu$an pem " (an %an pen%apa! 'an# % "emu"a"an )$e&

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* $su*, se%an#"an se,a#a p()ses, * $sa*a! se,a#a sua!u ,en!u"5/a(a ,e(* " ( 'an# sesua %en#an "a %a&0"a %a& ,e(* " ( * $sa*a!. Menu(u! 2onny 5ahral ! ian 12::22, !e(%apa! empa! pen%e"a!an %a$am me$ &a!5mema&am * $sa*a! 'a !u> A. Pen%e"a!an De* n s . B. Pen%e"a!an S s! ma! "a. C. Pen%e"a!an T)")& D. Pen%e"a!an Se+a(a& Pendekatan $efinisi. Da$am pen%e"a!an n * $sa*a! % /),a % *a&am me$a$u ,e(,a#a %e* n s 'an# % "emu"a"an )$e& pa(a a"&$ , %an %a$am &u,un#an n pene$usu(an asa$ "a!a men+a% pen! n#, men# n#a! "a!a * $sa*a! !u sen% ( pa%a %asa(n'a me(upa"an "( s!a$ sas 5(ep(esen!as %a( ")nsep0 ")nsep 'an# !e(%apa! %a$am %e* n s !u sen% ( , se& n##a pema&aman a!as "a!a * $sa*a! !u sen% ( a"an san#a! mem,an!u %a$am mema&am %e* n s * $sa*a!. Pendekatan Sistimatika. A,+e" ma!e( a$ F $sa*a! a%a$a& se(.a 'an# a%a %en#an ,e(,a#a -a( as su,s!ans %an ! n#"a!an. A,+e" ma!e( a$ n , sa % !e$aa& %a( ,e(,a#a su%u! sesua %en#an *)"us "e!e(an#an 'an# % n# n"an. La( as s s! ma! "a, Pendekatan "okoh. Pa%a umumn'a pa(a * $su* +a(an# mem,a&as se/a(a !un!as se$u(u& . $a'a& * $sa*a!, se)(an# * $su* , asan'a mempun'a *)"us u!ama %a$am pem " (an * $sa*a!n'a. Da$am pen%e"a!an n sese)(an# men/),a men%a$am * $sa*a! me$a$u pene$aa&an pa%a pem " (an0pem " (an 'an# % "emu"a"an )$e& pa(a F $su*, 'an# !e("a%an# mempun'a "e"&asan !e(sen% ( , se& n##a mem,en!u" sua!u a$ (an * $sa*a! !e(!en!u, )$e& "a(ena !u *)"us !e$aa&an 'an# men#a/u pa%a ),+e" *)(ma$

me$a& ("an ,e(,a#a , %an# "a+ an %a$am * $sa*a! 'an# men##am,a("an

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pen%e"a!an !)")& +u#a %apa! % "e$)mp)"an se,a#a pen%e"a!an A$ (an, mes" pun ! %a" semua F $su* mem $ " a$ (an !e(sen% ( . Pendekatan Se%arah. Pen%e"a!an n ,e(usa&a mema&am * $sa*a! %en#an me$ &a! aspe" se+a(a& %an pe("em,an#an pem " (an * $sa*a! %a( .a"!u "e .a"!u %en#an me$ &a! "e/en%e(un#an0"e/en%e(un#an umum sesua %en#an seman#a! Hamann'a, "emu% an % $a"u"an pe( )% sas un!u" me$ &a! pe("em,an#an pem " (an * $sa*a! se/a(a "()n)$)# s. Da( pen%e"a!an0pen%e"a!an !e(se,u! % a!as, nampa" se"a$ ,a&.a un!u" mema&am * $sa*a! sese)(an# %apa! memasu" n'a me$a$u empa! p n!u, namun %em " an ,a# pemu$a, p n!u0p n!u !e(se,u! &a(us % $a$u se/a(a !e(u(u!, men# n#a! p n!u pen%e"a!an T)")& %an pen%e"a!an H s!)( s pe($u % %asa( %en#an pema&aman a.a$ !en!an# * $sa*a! 'an# %apa! % pe()$e& me$a$u p n!u pen%e"a!an %e* n s %an pen%e"a!an s s!ema! "a. G. SUDUT PANDANG TERHADAP FILSAFAT Te(%apa! ! #a su%u! pan%an# %a$am me$ &a! F $sa*a!, su%u! pan%an# n men##am,a("an -a( as pema&aman %a$am men##una"an "a!a F $sa*a!, se& n##a %a$am pen##unaann'a mempun'a ")n)!as 'an# ,e(,e%a. A%apun su%u! pan%an# !e(se,u! a%a$a& > 8. 1ilsafat se"agai meto e "erfikir (Philosophy as a metho thought) <. 1ilsafat se"agai pan angan hi up (Philosophy as a %ay of life) >. 1ilsafat se"agai Ilmu (Philosophy as a science) F $sa*a! se,a#a me!)%e ,e(* " ( ,e(a(! * $sa*a! % pan%an# se,a#a sua!u /a(a manus a %a$am mem " ("an !en!an# se#a$a sesua!u se/a(a (a% "a$ %an men'e$u(u&, F $sa*a! se,a#a pan%an#an & %up men#a/u pa%a sua!u "e'a" nan 'an# men+a% %asa( %a$am "e& %upan ,a " n!e$e"!ua$, em)s )na$, maupun p(a"! "a$, se%an#"an * $sa*a! se,a#a I$mu a(! n'a me$ &a! * $sa*a! of

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se,a#a sua!u % s p$ n $mu 'an# mempun'a "a(a"!e( s! " 'an# "&as sesua %en#an s *a! sua!u $mu. H. SEJARAH SINGKAT FILSAFAT Se+a(a& * $sa*a! %apa! % pe( )% sas "e %a$am empa! pe( )%e 1Su%a(!). 188=2 'a !u > 1. Ta&ap5masa Dunan "un) 1A,a% "e0= S.M sampa a"& ( a,a% "e03 S.M2 2. Ta&ap5masa A,a% Pe(!en#a&an 1a"& ( a,a% "e03 S.M sampa a.a$ a,a% "e01; Mase& 2
3. Ta&ap5masa M)%e(n 1a"& ( a,a% "e01; M sampa a,a% "e018 Mase& 2

4. Ta&ap5masa %e.asa n 5* $sa*a! ")n!emp)(e( 1a,a% "e02: Mase& 2 semen!a(a !u #. Bertens %a$am ,u"un'a ,ingkasan Se*arah 1ilsafat 1189=2 men'usun !)p "0!)p " pem,a&asann'a se,a# ,e( "u! > 1. 2. 3. Masa Pu(,a Dunan Masa Pa!( s! " %an A,a% pe(!en#a&an Masa M)%e(n

Pem,a# an pe( )% sas 'an# nampa"n'a $e, & ( n/ , % "emu"a"an )$e& Susane #. Langer 1D)nn' Ga&(a$ A% an, 2::22 'an# mem,a# se+a(a& * $sa*a! "e %a$am enam !a&apan 'a !u > 1. 2. 3. 4. ;. =. Dunan Kun) 1M =:: SM2 F $su*0* $su* Manus a Dunan A,a% Pe(!en#a&an 13:: SM 713::M2 F $sa*a! M)%e(n 119018 M2 P)s ! - sme 1A,a% 2: M2 A$am S m,)$ s

"emu% an 5ahral ! ian menam,a&"an "epa%a enam !a&apan !e(se,u! %en#an sa!u !a&apan $a# 'a !u
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pe(,e%aan %a$am pe( )% sas se+a(a& * $sa*a!, namun semua !u nampa"n'a $e, & menun+u"an pe( n/ an %en#an men##una"an s *a! pem " (an se(!a pen#a(u&n'a %a$am "e& %upan mas'a(a"a!. &asa 'unani uno. Pa%a !a&ap a.a$ "e$a& (ann'a * $sa*a!

menampa""an % ( se,a# sua!u ,en!u" m !)$)# , se(!a %)n#en#0%)n#en# 'an# % pe(/a'a )$e& Ban#sa Dunan , ,a(u sesu%a& &hales 1=240;46 S.M2 men#emu"a"an pe(!an'aan ane& pa%a .a"!u !u, * $sa*a! ,e(u,a& men+a% sua!u ,en!u" pem " (an (as )na$ 1$)#)s2. Pe(!an'aan T&a$es 'an# men##am,a("an (asa "e n# n!a&uan ,u"an$a& pe(!an'aan , asa sepe(! apa (asa ")p <, a!au pa%a !a&un "e,e(apa !anaman ")p ,e(,ua& <, pe(!an'aan T&a$es 'an# me(upa"an pe(!an'aan * $sa*a!, "a(ena mempun'a ,),)! 'an# %a$am sesua!u 'an# ultimate 1,e(ma"na %a$am2 'an# mempe(!an'a"an !en!an# !pa se"enarnya "ahan alam semesta ini 1.hat is the nature of the %orl stuff <2, a!as pe(!an'aan n n%(a ! %a" , sa men+a.a,n'a, sa ns +u#a !e(% am, namun F $su* ,e(usa&a men+a.a,n'a. T&a$es men+a.a, A ( 1 .ater is the "asic principle of the uni(erse 2, %a$am pan%an#an &hales a ( me(upa"an p( ns p %asa( a$am semes!a, "a(ena a ( %apa! ,e(u,a& men+a% ,e(,a#a .u+u% Kemu% an s $ & ,e(#an! F $su* mem,e( "an +a.a,an !e(&a%ap ,a&an %asa( 1A(/&e2 %a( semes!a (a'a n %en#an a(#umen!as n'a mas n#0mas n#. !na)iman ros 1=1:0;4: S.M2 men#a!a"an A(/&e s !) !peiron, Ape ()n a%a$a& sesua!u 'an# pa$ n# a.a$ %an a,a% , Pythagoras 1;6:0;:: S.M2 men'a!a"an ,a&.a &a"e"a! a$am semes!a a%a$a& "ilangan, 2emokritos 14=:039: S.M2 ,e(pen%apa! &a"e"a! a$am semes!a a%a$a& !tom' !na)imenes 1;6;0;26 S.M2 men'a!a"an u ara, %an Herakleitos 1;440464 S.M2 men+a.a, asa$ &a"e"a! a$am semes!a a%a$a& api' % a ,e(pen%apa! ,a&.a % %un a n !a" a%a 'an# !e!ap, semuan'a men#a$ ( . La( as +a.a,an 'an# % "emu"a"an pa(a * $su* menan%a % nam "a pem " (an 'an# men/),a men%),(a" %)m nas m !)$)# , me(e"a mu$a se/a(a n!ens mem " ("an
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!en!an# A$am5Dun a, se& n##a se( n# % +u$u" se,a#a Philosopher a!au a"&$ !en!an# F $sa*a! A$am 17atural Philosopher2, 'an# %a$am pe("em,an#an se$an+u!n'a me$a& ("an I$mu0 $mu "ea$aman. Pa%a pe("em,an#an se$an+u!n'a, % samp n# pem " (an !en!an# A$am, pa(a a"&$ * " ( Dunan pun ,an'a" 'an# ,e(upa'a mem " ("an !en!an# & %up " !a 1manus a2 % Dun a. Da( ! ! " !)$a" n $a& ( $a& F $sa*a! m)(a$ 1a!au * $sa*a! s)s a$2 'an# pa%a !a&apan ,e( "u!n'a men%)()n# $a& (n'a I$mu0 $mu s)s a$. D an!a(a * $su* !e("ena$ 'an# ,an'a" men/u(a&"an pe(&a! ann'a pa%a "e& %upan manus a a%a$a& Socrates menen!an# a+a(an "aum S)* s Dan# /en%e(un# mempe(ma n"an "e,ena(an, S)/(a!es ,e(usa&a me'a" n"an ,a&.a "e,ena(an %an "e,a "an se,a#a n $a 0n $a 'an# 149:0388 S.M2, %a san#a!

aum Sofis
Kaum alam# Sofis adalah golongan yang tida malain an a an m!latih t!ta%i to ohnya !mahi"an untu m!"! a $agi $!"a"gum!ntasi lagi m!mi i" an manusia !$!na"an dalam itu yang m!m%!"tahan an

$!"%idato# !$!na"an# Salah

sifatnya "!latif t!"gantung s!o"ang

!mam%uan $!"a"gum!ntasi& adalah Protagoras

$!"%!nda%at $ah'a Man is the measure of all things

),+e"! * 'an# &a(us % !e( ma %an % +un+un# ! n## )$e& semua )(an#. D a men#a+u"an pe(!an'aan pa%a s apa sa+a 'an# % !emu % +a$an un!u" mem,u"a"an ,a! n .a(#a A!&ena "epa%a "e,ena(an 1'an# ,ena(2 %an "e,a "an 1'an# ,a "2. Da( p( $a"un'a n peme( n!a& A!&ena men#an##ap S)/(a!es se,a#a pen#&asu!, %an a"& (n'a % a % &u"um ma! %en#an +a$an mem num (a/un.

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Sesu%a& Socrates menn##a$, * $sa*a! Dunan

!e(us ,e("em,an#

%en#an T)")&n'a Plato 14290349 S.M2, sa$a& se)(an# mu( % S)/(a!es. D an!a(a pem " (an Plato 'an# pen! n# a%a$a& ,e("a !an %en#an pem,a# an (e$a !as "e %a$am %ua ,a# an 'a !u (ea$ !as5%un a 'an# &an'a !e(,u"a ,a# (as ), %an %un a 'an# !e(,u"a ,a# pan/a n%(a, %un a pe(!ama !e(% ( %a( %ea0 %ea, %an %un a "e %ua a%a$a& %un a +asman 1pan/a n%(a2, %un a %e s *a!n'a sempu(na %an !e!ap, se%an#"an %un a +asman se$a$u ,e(u,a&. Den#an pen%apa!n'a !e(se,u!, menu(u! #ees Berten 1189=2, P$a!) ,e(&as $ men%ama "an pen%apa!n'a He(a"$e !)s %en#an pen%apa!n'a Pe(men %es, menu(u! He(a"$e !)s se#a$a sesua!u se$a$u ,e(u,a&, n ,ena( "a!a P$a!), !ap &an'a ,a# %un a 0asmani (Pancain ra), semen!a(a menu(u! Pe(men %es se#a$a sesua!u sama se"a$ sempu(na %an ! %a" %apa! ,e(u,a&, n +u#a ,ena( "a!a P$a!), !ap &an'a ,e($a"u pa%a %un a i ea sa+a. Da$am se+a(a& F $sa*a! Dunan , !e(%apa! se)(an# * $su* 'an# san#a! $e#en%a( s 'a !u !ristoteles 13640322 S.M2, se)(an# 'an# pe(na& ,e$a+a( % A"a%em a P$a!) % A!&ena. Se!e$a& P$a!) men n##a$ A( s!)!e$es men+a% #u(u p( ,a% n'a !le)an er !gung se$ama %ua !a&un, sesu%a& !u % a "em,a$ $a# "e A!&ena %an men% ( "an Lykeion' % a san#a! men#a#um pem " (an0 pem " (an P$a!) mes" pun %a$am * $sa*a!, A( s!)!e$es men#am, $ +a$an 'an# ,e(,e%a (!ristoteles pernah mengatakan9a a *uga yang "erpen apat "ah%a ini "ukan
ucapan !ristoteles9 Amicus Plato( magis amica )eritas + Plato memang saha"atku' tapi ke"enaran le"ih akra" "agiku + ungkapan ini terka ang iter*emahkan "e"as men*a i GSaya mencintai Plato' tapi saya le"ih mencintai ke"enaranH)

!ristoteles men#"( ! " !a+am pen%apa! Plato !en!an#

%ea0 %ea,

menu(u! D a 'an# umum %an !e!ap ,u"an$a& %a$am %un a %ea a"an !e!ap %a$am ,en%a0,en%a +asman !u sen% ( , un!u" !u A( s!)!e$es men#emu"a"an !e)( H $em)(* sme 1H'$e J Ma!e( , M)(p&e J ,en!u"2, menu(u! !e)( n , se! ap ,en%a +asman mem $ " %ua &a$ 'a !u ,en!u" %an ma!e( , se,a#a /)n!)&, se,ua& pa!un# pas! mem $ " %ua &a$ 'a !u ma!e( a!au ,a&an ,a"u pa!un#
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m sa$n'a "a'u a!au ,a!u, %an ,en!u" m sa$n'a ,en!u" "u%a a!au ,en!u" manus a, "e%uan'a ! %a" mun#" n $epas sa!u sama $a n, /)n!)& !e(se,u! &an'a$a& un!u" memu%a&"an pema&aman, se,a, %a$am pan%an#an A( s!)!e$es ma!e( %an ,en!u" !u me(upa"an p( ns p0p( ns p me!a* s "a un!u" mempe("u"u& % m n#" n"ann'a I$mu pen#e!a&uan a!as %asa( ,en!u" %a$am se! ap ,en%a ")n"( !. Te)( & $em)(* sme +u#a men+a% %asa( ,a# pan%an#ann'a !en!an# manus a, manus a !e(% ( %a( ma!e( %an ,en!u", ,en!u" a%a$a& + .a, %an "a(ena ,en!u" ! %a" pe(na& $epas %a( ma!e( , ma"a ")nse".ens n'a a%a$a& ,a&.a apa, $a manus a ma! , + .an'a 1,en!u"2 +u#a a"an &an/u(. D samp n# pen%apa! !e(se,u! A( s!)!e$es +u#a % "ena$ se,a#a Bapa" L)# "a 'a !u sua!u /a(a ,e(p " ( 'an# !e(a!u( menu(u! u(u!an 'an# !epa! a!au ,e(%asa("an &u,un#an se,a, a" ,a!. D a a%a$a& 'an# pe(!ama "a$ mem,en!an#"an /a(a ,e(p " ( !e(a!u( %a$am sua!u s s!em, 'an# n! sa( n'a a%a$a& Sylogisme (masalah ini akan iuraikan khusus alam topik Logika) 'a !u mena( " "es mpu$an %a( "en'a!aan umum a!as &a$ 'an# "&usus 1M)&amma% Ha!!a, 18=42. Abad Pertengahan. Semen+a" men n##a$n'a A( s!)!e$es, * $sa*a! !e(us ,e("em,an# %an men%apa! "e%u%u"an 'an# !e!ap pen! n# %a$am "e& %upan pem " (an manus a mes" pun %en#an /)(a" %an ! ! " !e"an 'an# ,e(,e%a. Pe( )%e se+a" men n##a$n'a A( s!)!e$es 1a!au sesu%a& men n##a$n'a !le)an er !gung 1323 S.M2 sampa men+e$an# $a& (n'a A#ama K( s!en )$e& 2roysen 1A&ma% Ta*s (. 18822 % se,u! pe( )%e He$$en s! " (Hellenisme a alah
istilah yang menun*ukan ke"u ayaan ga"ungan antara "u aya Yunani an !sia #ecil' Siria' $esopotamia' an $esir #uno).

Da$am masa n F $sa*a! % !an%a an!a(a $a n

%en#an pe(&a! an pa%a &a$ 'an# $e, & ap$ "a! *, se(!a "u(an# mempe(&a! "an Me!a* s "a, %en#an seman#a! 'an# E"$e"! " (mensintesiskan pen apat yang
"erla%anan)

%an ,e(/)(a" M s! ".

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Menu(u! !. Epping. at al (18632' / ( manus a 1pem " (an * $sa*a!2 a,a% pe(!en#a&an a%a$a& >

8. <. >.

/iri "erfilsafatnya ipimpin oleh 5ere*a Berfilsafat i alam lingkungan a*aran !ristoteles "erfilsafat engan pertolongan !ugustinus

pa%a masa n * $sa*a! /en%e(un# "e& $an#an )!)n)m n'a, pem " (an * $sa*a! a,a% pe(!en#a&an ,e(/ ( "an &eosentris 1"e,ena(an ,e(pusa! pa%a .a&'u Tu&an2, &a$ n ! %a" men#&e(an"an men# n#a! pa%a masa n pen#a(u& A#ama K( s!en san#a! ,esa( %a$am "e& %upan manus a, !e(masu" %a$am , %an# pem " (an. F $sa*a! a,a% pe(!en#a&an se( n# +u#a % se,u! * $sa*a! scholastik' 'a"n * $sa*a! 'an# mempun'a /)(a" sema!a0ma!a ,e(s *a! "ea#amaan, %an men#a,% pa%a !e)$)# . Pa%a masa n meman# !e(%apa! upa'a0upa'a pa(a * $su* un!u" mema%u"an an!a(a pem " (an Ras )na$ 1!e(u!ama pem " (an0 pem " (an A( s!)!e$es2 %en#an Ka&'u Tu&an se& n##a %apa! % pan%an# se,a#a upa'a s n!esa an!a(a "epe(/a'aan %an a"a$. Kea%aan n pun !e(+a% % "a$an#an uma! Is$am 'an# men/),a me$ &a! a+a(an Is$am %en#an su%u! pan%an# F $sa*a! 1(as )na$2, &a$ n % mun#" n"an men# n#a! ,e# !u "ua!n'a pen#a(u& pem " (an0pem " (an a&$ * $sa*a! Dunan 5&e$$en sme %a$am %un a pem " (an saa! !u, se& n##a "e'a" nan A#ama pe($u % /a( "an $an%asan * $)s)* sn'a a#a( men+a% sua!u "e'a" nan 'an# (as )na$. Pem " (an0pem " (an 'an# men/),a me$ &a! A#ama %a( pe(spe"! * * $)s)* s !e(+a% ,a " % %un a Is$am maupun K( s!en, se& n##a pa(a a&$ men#e$)mp)"an * $sa*a! s")$as! " "e %a$am * $sa*a! s")$as! " Is$am %an * $sa*a! s")$as! " K( s!en.

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D %un a Is$am 1Uma! Is$am2 $a& ( * $su*0* $su* !e("ena$ sepe(! !l #in i 16:106=; M2, !l 1ara"i 169:08;: M2, I"nu Sina 186:01:39 M2, !l 5ha-ali 11:;601111 M2, %an I"nu ,usy 1112=011862, semen!a(a !u % %un a K( s!en $a& ( F $su*0* $su* an!a(a $a n sepe(! % samp n# se,a#a Peter !"elar us 11:980116:2, !l"ertus a+a(an $agnus 112:30126: M2, %an &homas !quinas 1122;012942. Me(e"a n F $su* +u#a )(an#0)(an# 'an# men%a$am a#aman'a mas n#0mas n#, se& n##a /)(a" pem " (ann'a men#a/u pa%a upa'a mempe(!a&an"an "e'a" nan a#ama %en#an +a$an * $)s)* s, mes" pun %a$am ,an'a" &a$ !e("a%an# a+a(an A#ama % +a% "an Ha" m un!u" mem*)n s ,ena( ! %a"n'a sua!u &as $ pem " (an F $sa*a! 1Pem " (an Ras )na$2. &asa &odern. Pa%a masa n pem " (an * $)s)* s sepe(! % $a& ("an "em,a$ % mana se,e$umn'a %)m nas #e(e+a san#a! %)m nan 'an# ,e(a" ,a! pa%a upa'a mens n"()n"an an!a(a a+a(an #e(e+a %en#an pem " (an * $sa*a!. Ke,an#" !an "em,a$ (as ) me.a(na Haman m)%e(n %en#an sa$a& se)(an# pe$)p)(n'a "e manan. D an!a(a pem " (an 2esacartes 11;8=01=;:2 'an# pen! n# a%a$a& % "!um "esan#s an, %en#an men#a!a"an /ogito ergo sum, 'an# , asa % a(! "an sa'a ,e(* " (, ma"a sa'a a%a. Den#an un#"apan n p)s s (as )5* " (an se,a#a sum,e( pen#e!a&uan men+a% sema" n "ua!, a+a(ann'a pun'a pen#a(u& 'an# /u"up ,esa( ,a# pe("em,an#an $mu pen#e!a&uan, se#a$a sesua!u , sa % san#s "an !ap su,+e" 'an# ,e(* " ( men#ua!"an "epa%a "epas! an. Da$am pe("em,an#nn'a a(#umen Des/a(!es 1(as )na$ sme2 men%apa! !an!an#an "e(as %a( pa(a * $)s)* pen#anu! Emp ( sme sepe(! Da- % Hume 119110199=2, B)&n L)/"e 11=32019:42. Me(e"a ,e(pen%apa! ,a&.a pen#e!a&uan &an'a % %apa!"an %a( pen#a$aman $e.a! pen#ama!an emp ( s. 35 a%a$a& 2escartes, %a ,e(+asa %a$am me(e&a, $ !as , men#)!)n)m sas "em,a$ (as ) 'an# se,e$umn'a &an'a men+a% ,u%a"

PENGANTAR FILSAFAT ILMU/UHAR SUHARSAPUTRA

Pe(!en!an#an !e(se,u! !e(us ,e($an+u! sampa mun/u$ Immanue$ Kan! 119240 16:42 'an# ,e(&as $ mem,ua! s n!es s an!a(a (as )na$ sme %en#an emp ( sme, Kan! +u#a % an##ap se,a#a !)")& sen!(a$ %a$am Haman m)%e(n %en#an pe(n'a!aann'a 'an# !e("ena$ sapere au e1,e(an ,e(* " ( sen% ( 2, pe(n'a!aan n +e$as ma" n men%)()n# upa'a0upa'a ,e(* " ( manus a !anpa pe($u !a"u! !e(&a%ap "e"an#an %a( Ge(e+a. Pan%an#an emp ( sme sema" n "ua! pen#a(u&n'a %a$am /a,an# $mu pen#e!a&uan se!e$a& mun/u$n'a pan%an#an Au#us! C)m!e 11986016;92 !en!an# P)s ! - sme. Sa$a& sa!u ,ua& p " (ann'a 'an# san#a! pen! n# %an ,e(pen#a(u& a%a$a& !en!an# ! #a !a&apan5! n#"a!an /a(a ,e(p " ( manus a %a$am ,e(&a%apan %en#an a$am semes!a 'a !u > ! n#"a!an Te)$)# , ! n#"a!an Me!a* s ", %an ! n#"a!an P)s ! * &ingkatan &eologi 1Etat &heologique2. Pa%a ! n#"a!an n manus a ,e$um , sa mema&am &a$0&a$ 'an# ,e("a !an %en#an se,a, a" ,a!. Se#a$a "e+a% an % a$am semes!a me(upa"an a" ,a! %a( sua!u pe(,ua!an Tu&an %an manus a &an'a ,e(s *a! pas(a&, %an 'an# %apa! % $a"u"an a%a$a& mem)&)n pa%a Tu&an a#a( % +au&"an %a( ,e(,a#a ,en/ana. Ta&apan n !e(% ( %a( ! #a !a&apan $a# 'an# ,e(e-)$us 'a"n %a( !a&ap an m sme, !a&ap p)$ !e sme, sampa %en#an !a&ap m)n)!e sme. &ingkatan $etafisik 1Etat $etaphisique2. Pa%a %asa(n'a ! n#"a!an n me(upa"an sua!u -a( as %a( /a(a ,e(* " ( !e)$)# s, % mana Tu&an a!au De.a0 %e.a % #an! %en#an "e"ua!an0"e"ua!an a,s!(a" m sa$n'a %en#an s! $a& "e"ua!an a$am. Da$am !a&apan n manus a mu$a menemu"an "e,e(an an %an me(asa ,a&.a "e"ua!an 'an# men m,u$"an ,en/ana %apa! % /e#a& %en#an mem,e( "an ,e(,a#a sa+ an0sa+ an se,a#a pen)$a" ,a$a5,en/ana. &ingkatan Positif 1Etat Positi(e2. Pa%a !a&apan n manus a su%a& menemu"an pen#e!a&uan 'an# /u"up un!u" men#uasa a$am. B "a pa%a !a&apan pe(!ama manus a se$a$u % & n##ap (asa "&a.a! ( ,e(&a%apan %en#an a$am semes!a, pa%a !a&ap "e%ua manus a men/),a mempen#a(u&
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"e"ua!an 'an# men#a!u( a$am semes!a, ma"a pa%a !a&apan p)s ! * manus a $e, & pe(/a'a % ( , %en#an % !emu"ann'a &u"um0&u"um a$am, %en#an ,e"a$ !u manus a mampu menun%u"an5men#a!u( 1pernyataan ini mengin ikasikan a anya pemisahan antara su"yek yang mengetahui iketahui2 engan o"yek yang a$am se(!a meman*aa!"ann'a un!u" "epen! n#an manus a,

!a&apan n me(upa"an !a&apan % mana manus a %a$am & %upn'a $e, & men#an%a$"an pa%a $mu pen#e!a&uan. Den#an mempe(&a! "an !a&apan0!a&apan sepe(! % "emu"a"an % a!as nampa" ,a&.a s! $a& p)s ! - sme men#a/u pa%a !a&apan "e! #a 1!a&apan p)s ! *5pen#e!a&uan p)s ! *2 %a( pem " (an /omte. Ta&apan p)s ! * me(upa"an !a&apan !e(! n## , n ,e(a(! %ua !a&apan se,e$umn'a me(upa"an !a&apan 'an# (en%a& %an p( m ! *, )$e& "a(ena !u * $sa*a! P)s ! - sme me(upa"an * $sa*a! 'an# an! me!a* s ", &an'a *a"!a0*a"!a sa+a 'an# %apa! % !e( ma. Se#a$a sesua!u 'an# ,u"an *a"!a a!au #e+a$a 1*en)m n2 ! %a" mempun'a a(! , )$e& "a(ena !u 'an# pen! n# %an pun'a a(! &an'a sa!u 'a !u men#e!a&u 1*a"!a5#e+a$a2 a#a( s ap ,e(! n%a" 1sa(oir pour pre(oir2. Manus a &a(us men'e$ % " %an men#"a+ ,e(,a#a #e+a$a 'an# !e(+a% ,ese(!a &u,un#an0&u,un#ann'a % an!a(a #e+a$a0#e+a$a !e(se,u! a#a( %apa! me(ama$"an apa 'an# a"an !e(+a% , /omte men'e,u! &u,un#an0&u,un#an !e(se,u! %en#an ")nsep0")nsep %an &u"um0&u"um 'an# ,e(s *a! p)s ! * %a$am a(! ,e(#una un!u" % "e!a&u "a(ena ,ena(0,ena( n'a!a ,u"an ,e(s *a! spe"u$as sepe(! %a$am me!a* s "a. Pen#a(u& p)s ! - sme 'an# san#a! ,esa( %a$am Haman m)%e(n sampa se"a(an# n, !e$a& men#un%an# pa(a pem " ( un!u" a.a$n'a mempe(!an'a"ann'a, "e$a& (an p)s! m)%e(n sme 'an# na(as

% "emu"a"an )$e& 2aniel Bell %a$am ,u"un'a &he cultural contra iction of capitalism, 'an# sa$a& sa!u p)")" * " (ann'a a%a$a& ,a&.a e! "a "ap !a$ sme 'an# mene"an"an "e(+a "e(as, n% - %ua$ !as, %an p(es!as !e$a& ,e(u,a& men+a% &e%)n s ")nsume( s! s.
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P)s!m)%e(n sme

pa%a

%asa(n'a

me(upa"an

pan%an#an

'an#

! %a"5"u(an# mempe(/a'a na(as 0na(as un -e(sa$ se(!a "esamaan %a$am se#a$a &a$, *a&am n $e, & mem,e( "an !empa! pa%a na(as 0na(as "e/ $ %an $)"a$ 'an# ,e(a(! $e, & mene"an"an pa%a "e,e(a#aman %a$am mema"na "e& %upan.

PERTAN=AAN UNTUK &AHAN DISKUSI


1. 2. 3. 4. ;. =. 9. +e$as"an pen#e(! an * $sa*a!< +e$as"an pen%e"a!an0pen%e"a!an %a$am mempe$a+a( * $sa*a!< +e$as"an me!)%e ,e(* " ( * $sa*a!< apa 'an# % ma"su% %en#an ,e(* " ( (a% "a$< +e$as"an ),+e" * $sa*a!< +e$as"an apa 'an# % ma"su% %en#an p)s ! - sme< +e$as"an ,a#a mana pen%apa! Immanue$ Kan! !en!an# (as ) %an pen#a$aman< 6. apa"a& * $sa*a! % pe($u"an ,a# "e& %upan manus a, /),a +e$as"an<

&A& -

ILMU PENGETAHUAN
'here #an be n! li)ing s#ien#e unless there is a &idespread instin#ti)e #!n)i#ti!n in the e*i*ten#e !f an !rder !f things, and in parti#ular, !f an !rder !f nature ( Al%re" North &hitehea") Barang siapa menginginkan dunia, hendaklah berilmu, barang siapa menginginkan akhirat, hendaklah berilmu, dan barang siapa menginginkan keduanya, hendaklah berilmu ( Al Ha"ist)

A. PENGERTIAN ILMU 5ILMU PENGETAHUAN6 I$mu me(upa"an "a!a 'an# ,e(asa$ %a( ,a&asa A(a,, mas%a( %a( Nalima + yaIlamu 'an# ,e(a(! !a&u a!au men#e!a&u , semen!a(a !u se/a(a s! $a& $mu % a(! "an se,a#a I roku syai "i haqiqotih1men#e!a&u sesua!u se/a(a &a" " 2. Da$am ,a&asa In##e( s I$mu , asan'a % pa%an"an %en#an "a!a science, se%an# pen#e!a&uan %en#an kno%le ge. Da$am ,a&asa 38

PENGANTAR FILSAFAT ILMU/UHAR SUHARSAPUTRA

In%)nes a "a!a s/ en/e1"erasal ari "ahasa lati ari kata Scio( Scire yang "erarti tahu2 umumn'a % a(! "an Ilmu !ap se( n# +u#a % a(! "an %en#an Ilmu Pengetahuan, mes" pun se/a(a ")nsep!ua$ men#a/u pa%a ma"na 'an# sama. Un!u" $e, & mema&am pen#e(! an Il"% 5s/i#!/#6 % ,a.a& n a"an % "emu"a"an ,e,e(apa pen#e(! an > Ilmu a alah pengetahuan tentang sesuatu "i ang yang isusun secara "ersistem menurut meto e9meto e tertentu yang igunakan untuk menerangkan ge*ala9ge*ala tertentu (pengetahuan) itu ( amus *esar *ahasa Indonesia) S/i#!/# s "n).$e%#e a((an#e% n a s's!em, espe/ a$$' ),!a ne% ,' ),se(-a! )n an% !es! n# )* *a/! (An +nglish reader,s dictionar#) Science is a systemati-e /ffice $ictionar#) Science is the complete an consistent escription of facts an kno%le ge o"taine "y stu y' apat i"i ang

o"ser(ation' e)perimentH ( !ebster,s super -e. School and

e)perience in the simplest possi"le termH( arl Pearson) Science is a sistemati-e stu y' an kno%le ge eri(es from o"ser(ation' eterminethe

e)perimentation carrie

on in or er to

nature or principles of %hat "eing stu ie H ( Ashle# &ontagu) Science is the system of manIs kno%le ge on nature' society an thought. It reflect the %orl in concepts' categories an la%s' the correctness an truth of %hich are (erifie "y practical e)perience(0. A)anas#e)) semen!a(a !u &he Liang 5ie men'a!a"an % $ &a! %a( (uan# $ n#"upn'a pen#e(! an $mu a%a$a& se,a#a ,e( "u! >

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Ilmu merupakan se"uah istilah umum untuk menye"utkan segenap pengetahuan ilmiah yang ipan ang se"agai suatu ke"ulatan. 0a i ilmu mengacu pa a ilmu seumumnya.

Ilmu menun*uk pa a masing9masing "i ang pengetahuan ilmiah yang mempela*ari pokok soal tertentu' ilmu "erarti ca"ang ilmu khusus

se%an#"an + "a % $ &a! %a( se# ma"nan'a &he Liang 5ie men#emu"a"an ! #a su%u! pan%an# ,e("a !an %en#an pema"naan $mu5 $mu pen#e!a&uan 'a !u > Ilmu se"agai pengetahuan' artinya ilmu a alah sesuatu kumpulan yang sistematis' atau se"agai kelompok pengetahuan teratur mengenai pokok soal atau su"*ect matter. 2engan kata lain "ah%a pengetahuan menun*uk pa a sesuatu yang merupakan isi su"stantif yang terkan ung alam ilmu. Ilmu se"agai akti(itas' artinya suatu akti(itas mempela*ari sesuatu secara aktif' menggali' mencari' menge*ar atau menyeli iki sampai pengetahuan itu iperoleh. 0a i ilmu se"agai akti(itas ilmiah apat "er%u*u penelaahan (Stu y)' penyeli ikan (inquiry)' usaha asarnya a alah suatu yang mana ilmu itu menemukan (attempt to fin )' atau pencarian (Search). Ilmu se"agi meto e' artinya ilmu pa a penelaahan atau proses penelitian meto e untuk menangani masalah9masalah' atau suatu kegiatan mengan ung prose ur' yakni serangkaian cara ini alam unia keilmuan ikenal se"agai meto e Harsoyo men%e* n s "an $mu %en#an me$ &a! pa%a su%u! p()ses & s!)( s %an pen%e"a!ann'a 'a !u > I$mu me(upa"an a"umu$as pen#e!a&uan 'an# % s s!ema! s"an a!au "esa!uan pen#e!a&uan 'an# !e()(#an sas "an
PENGANTAR FILSAFAT ILMU/UHAR SUHARSAPUTRA

an langkah

tertentu yang me%u*u kan pola tetap. ,angkaian cara an langkah

40

I$mu %apa! pu$a % $ &a! se,a#a sua!u pen%e"a!an a!au sua!u me!)%e pen%e"a!an !e(&a%ap se$u(u& %un a emp ( s, 'a !u %un a 'an# !e( "a! )$e& *a"!)( (uan# %an .a"!u, %un a 'an# pa%a p( ns pn'a %apa! % ama! )$e& pan/a n%(a manus a.

%a( pen#e(! an % a!as nampa" ,a&.a I$mu meman#

men#an%un# a(!

pen#e!a&uan, !ap ,u"an sem,a(an# pen#e!a&uan me$a n"an pen#e!a&uan %en#an / ( 0/ ( "&usus 'a !u 'an# !e(susun se/a(a s s!ema! s, %an un!u" men/apa &a$ !u % pe($u"an upa'a men/a( pen+e$asan a!au "e!e(an#an, %a$am &u,un#an n $oh Hatta men'a!a"an ,a&.a Pen#e!a&uan 'an# % %apa! %en#an +a$an "e!e(an#an % se,u! I$mu, %en#an "a!a $a n $mu a%a$a& pen#e!a&uan 'an# % pe()$e& me$a$u pen+e$asan. Le, & +au& %en#an mempe(&a! "an pen#e(! an0pen#e(! an ,e("a !an %en#an pen#e(! an $mu 'a !u > I$mu a%a$a& se+en s pen#e!a&uan Te(susun a!au % susun se/a(a s s!ema! s S s! ma! sas % $a"u"an %en#an men##una"an me!)%e !e(!en!u Peme()$e&ann'a e"spe( men. Den#an %em " an sesua!u 'an# ,e(s *a! pen#e!a&uan , asa %apa! men+a% sua!u pen#e!a&uan ,e("em,an# $m a& , $a !e$a& % susun se/a(a s s!ema! s se(!a n me(upa"an a"umu$as %a( mempun'a me!)%e ,e(* " ( 'an# +e$as, "a(ena pa%a %asa(n'a $mu 'an# %e.asa pen#a$aman5pen#e!a&uan manus a 'an# !e(us % * " ("an, % s s! ma! sas "an, se(!a % )(#an s ( se& n##a !e(,en!u" men+a% sua!u % s p$ n 'an# mempun'a "e"&asan %a$am ),+e"n'a &. )IRI.)IRI ILMU 5ILMU PENGETAHUAN6
PENGANTAR FILSAFAT ILMU/UHAR SUHARSAPUTRA

upa'a men/a(

"e!e(an#an a!au

I$mu

se,a,a#a mana % un#"ap"an % a!as, %apa!$a& % !a( " ,e,e(apa "es mpu$an

% $a"u"an

%en#an

/a(a

s!u% ,

),se(-as ,

41

Se/a(a umum %a( pen#e(! an $mu %apa! % "e!a&u apa se,ena(n'a 'an# men+a% / ( %a( $mu, mes" pun un!u" ! ap %e* n s mem,e( "an ! ! " ,e(a! 'an# ,e($a nan. Menu(u! &he Liang 5ie se/a(a $e, & "&usus men'e,u!"an / ( 0/ ( $mu se,a#a ,e( "u! > Emp ( s 1,e(%asa("an pen#ama!an %an pe(/),aan2 S s!ema! s 1!e(susun se/a(a $)# s se(!a mempun'a &u,un#an sa$ n# ,e(#an!un# %an !e(a!u(2 A,+e"! * 1!e(,e,as %a( pe(san#"aan %an "esu"aan p( ,a% 2 Ana$ ! s 1men#u(a "an pe(s)a$an men+a% !e( n/ 2 Le( * "a! * 1%apa! % pe( "sa "e,ena(ann'a2 Semen!a(a !u Beerling men'e,u!"an / ( $mu 1pen#e!a&uan $m a&2 a%a$a& > Mempun'a %asa( pem,ena(an Be(s *a! s s!ema! " Be(s *a! n!e(su,+e"! * ,a# an0,a# an 'an#

I$mu pe($u %asa( emp ( s, apa, $a sese)(an# mem,e( "an "e!e(an#an $m a& ma"a "e!e(an#an !u &a(us memmun#" n!an un!u" % "a+ %an % ama! , + "a ! %a" ma"a &a$ !u ,u"an$a& sua!u $mu a!au pen#e!a&uan $m a&, me$a n"an sua!u pe(" (aan a!au pen#e!a&uan , asa 'an# $e, & % %asa("an pa%a "e'a" nan !anpa pe%u$ apa"a& *a"!an'a %em " an a!au ! %a". Upa'a0upa'a un!u" me$ &a! *a"!a0*a"!a meman# me(upa"an / ( emp ( s %a( $mu, namun %em " an ,a#a mana *a"!a0*a"!a !u % ,a/a a!au % pe$a+a( +e$as meme($u"an /a(a 'an# $)# s %an s s!ema! s, %a$am a(! men#"a+ n'a !e(!a!a %en#an $)# s u(u!an /a(a ,e(* " ( %an se! ap )(an# %apa! se& n##a

men##una"ann'a %a$am me$ &a! (ea$ !as *a"!ua$ 'an# a%a. D samp n# !u $mu +u#a &a(us ),+e"! * %a$am a(! pe(asaan su"a0! %a" su"a, senan#0! %a" senan# &a(us % & n%a( , "es mpu$an a!au pen+e$asan $m a& &a(us men#a/u &an'a pa%a *a"!a 'an# a%a, se& n##a se! ap )(an#

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%apa! me$ &a!n'a se/a(a sama pu$a !anpa me$ ,a!"an pe(asaan p( ,a% 'an# a%a pa%a saa! !u. Ana$ ! s me(upa"an / ( $mu $a nn'a, a(! n'a ,a&.a pen+e$asan $m a& pe($u !e(us men#u(a masa$a& se/a(a ( n/ sepan+an# &a$ !u mas & ,e("a !an %en#an %un a emp ( s, se%an#"an -e( * "a! * ,e(a(! ,a&.a $mu a!au pen+e$asan $m a& &a(us mem,e( "emun#" nan un!u" % $a"u"an pen#u+ an % $apan#an se& n##a "e,ena(ann'a , sa ,ena(0,ena( mem,e( "e'a" nan. Da( u(a an % a!as, nampa" ,a&.a $mu , sa % $ &a! %a( %ua su%u! pen n+auan, 'a !u $mu se,a#a p()%u"5&as $, %an $mu se,a#a sua!u p()ses. Se,a#a p()%u" $mu me(upa"an "umpu$an pen#e!a&uan 'an# !e(s s!ema! s ( %an !e()(#an sas "an se/a(a $)# s, sepe(! + "a " !a mempe$a+a( $mu e")n)m , s)s )$)# , , )$)# . Se%an#"an $mu se,a#a p()ses a%a$a& $mu % $ &a! %a( upa'a pe()$e&ann'a me$a$u /a(a0/a(a !e(!en!u, %a$am &u,un#an n $mu se,a#a p()ses se( n# % se,u! me!)%)$)# %a$am a(! ,a#a mana /a(a0/a(a 'an# mes! % $a"u"an un!u" mempe()$e& sua!u "es mpu$an a!au !e)( !e(!en!u un!u" men%apa!"an, mempe("ua!5men)$a" sua!u !e)( %a$am $mu !e(!en!u, %en#an %em " an + "a me$ &a! $mu se,a#a p()ses, ma"a % pe($u"an upa'a pene$ ! an un!u" me$ &a! *a"!a0*a"!a, ")nsep 'an# %apa! mem,en!u" sua!u !e)( !e(!en!u. ). FUNGSI DAN TUJUAN ILMU 5ILMU PENGETAHUAN6 La& (n'a %an ,e("em,an#n'a I$mu Pen#e!a&uan !e$a& ,an'a" mem,a.a pe(u,a&an %a$am "e& %upan manus a, !e($e, & $a# %en#an ma" n n!ensn'a pene(apan I$mu %a$am ,en!u" Te"n)$)# 'an# !e$a& men+a% "an manus a $e, & mampu mema&am ,e(,a#a #e+a$a se(!a men#a!u( Ke& %upan se/a(a $e, & e*e"! * %an e* s en. Ha$ !u ,e(a(! ,a&.a $mu mempun'a %ampa" 'an# ,esa( ,a# "e& %upan manus a, %an n ! %a" !e($epas %a( *un#s %an !u+uan $mu !u sen% ( #erlinger %a$am me$ &a! *un#s $mu, !e($e, & %a&u$u men#e$)mp)"an %ua su%u! pan%an# !en!an# $mu 'a !u pan%an#an statis %an pan%an#an
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inamis. Da$am pan%an#an s!a! s, $mu me(upa"an a"! - !as 'an# mem,e( sum,an#an ,a# s s! ma! sas n*)(mas ,a# %un a, !u#as $mu.an a%a$a& menemu"an *a"!a ,a(u %an menam,a&"ann'a pa%a "umpu$an n*)(mas 'an# su%a& a%a, )$e& "a(ena !u $mu % an##ap se,a#a se"umpu$an *a"!a, se(!a me(upa"an sua!u /a(a men+e$as"an #e+a$a0#e+a$a 'an# % ),se(-as , ,e(a(! ,a&.a %a$am pan%an#an n pene"anann'a !e($e!a" pa%a "ea%aan pen#e!a&uan5 $mu 'an# a%a se"a(an# se(!a upa'a penam,a&ann'a ,a " &u"um, p( ns p a!aupun !e)( 0!e)( . Da$am pan%an#an n , *un#s $mu $e, & ,e(s *a! p(a"! s 'a"n se,a#a % s p$ n a!au a"! - !as un!u" mempe(,a " sesua!u, mem,ua! "ema+uan, mempe$a+a( *a"!a se(!a mema+u"an pen#e!a&uan un!u" mempe(,a " sesua!u 1, %an#0, %an# "e& %upan2. Pan%an#an "e %ua !en!an# $mu a%a$a& pan%an#an % nam s a!au pan%an#an &eu( s! " 1a(! &eu( s! " a%a$a& menemu"an2, %a$am pan%an#an n $mu % $ &a! $e, & %a( se"e%a( a"! - !as, pene"anann'a !e(u!ama pa%a !e)( %an s"ema ")nsep!ua$ 'an# sa$ n# ,e("a !an 'an# san#a! pen! n# ,a# pene$ ! an. Da$am pan%an#an n *un#s a!au ),+e" emp ( s 'an# men+a% $mu a%a$a& un!u" mem,en!u" &u"um0&u"um umum 'an# me$ n#"up p( $a"u %a( "e+a% an0"e+a% an emp ( s pe(&a! ann'a se& n##a mem,e( "an "emampuan men#&u,un#"an ,e(,a#a "e+a% an 'an# !e(p sa&0p sa& se(!a %apa! se/a(a !epa! memp(e% "s "e+a% an0"e+a% an masa %a!an#, sepe(! % "emu"a"an )$e& Braith%aite %a$am ,u"un'a Scientific E)planation ,a&.a the function of scienceJ is to esta"lish general la%s co(ering the "eha(iour of the empirical e(ents or o"*ects %ith %hich the science in question is concerne ' an there"y to ena"le us to connect together our kno%le ge of the separately kno%n e(ents' an to make relia"le pre ictions of e(ents as yet unkno%n. Den#an mempe(&a! "an pen+e$asan % a!as nampa"n'a $mu mempun'a *un#s 'an# ama! pen! n# ,a# "e& %upan manus a, I$mu %apa! mem,an!u un!u" mema&am , men+e$as"an, men#a!u( %an memp(e% "s
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,e(,a#a "e+a% an ,a " 'an# ,e(s *a! "ea$aman maupun s)s a$ 'an# !e(+a% %a$am "e& %upan manus a. Se! ap masa$a& 'an# % &a%ap manus a se$a$u % upa'a"an un!u" % pe/a&"an a#a( %apa! % pa&am , %an se!e$a& !u manus a men+a% mampu un!u" men#a!u(n'a se(!a %apa! memp(e% "s 1sampa ,a!as !e(!en!u2 "emun#" nan0"emun#" nan 'an# a"an !e(+a% ,e(%asa("an pema&aman 'an# % m $ " n'a, %an %en#an "emampuan p(e% "s !e(se,u! ma"a pe(" (aan masa %epan %apa! % %esa n %en#an ,a " mes" pun &a$ !u ,e(s *a! p(),a, $ s! ", men# n#a! %a$am "en'a!aann'a se( n# !e(+a% &a$0&a$ 'an# ,e(s *a! unp(e% /!a,$e. Den#an %asa( *un#s !e(se,u!, ma"a %apa!$a& % *a&am !en!an# !u+uan %a( $mu, apa se,ena(n'a 'an# n# n % /apa )$e& $mu. Shel on 5. Le(y men'a!a"an ,a&.a science has three primary goals. &he first is to "e a"le to un erstan %hat is o"ser(e in the %orl . &he secon is to "e a"le to pre ict the e(ents an relationships of the real %orl . &he thir is to control aspects of the real %orl ' semen!a(a !u #erlinger men'a!a"an ,a&.a the "asic aim of science is theory.%en#an %em " an %apa!$a& % "a!a"an ,a&.a !u+uan %a( $mu a%a$a& un!u" mema&am , memp(e% "s , %an men#a!u( ,e(,a#a aspe" "e+a% an % %un a, % samp n# un!u" menemu"an a!au mem*)(mu$as "an !e)( , %an !e)( !u sen% ( pa%a %asa(n'a me(upa"an sua!u pen+e$asan !en!an# sesua!u se& n##a %apa! % pe()$e& "e*a&aman, %an %en#an "epa&aman ma"a p(e% "s "e+a% an %apa! % $a"u"an %en#an p(),a, $ !as 'an# /u"up ! n## , asa$"an !e)( !e(se,u! !e$a& !e(u+ "e,ena(ann'a D. STRUKTUR ILMU S!(u"!u( $mu men##am,a("an ,a#a mana $mu !u !e(s s! ma! s ( %a$am sua!u $ n#"un#an 1,)un%a( es2, % mana "e!e("a !an an!a(a unsu(0unsu( nampa" se/a(a +e$as. Menu(u! Sa(age K !mstrong, s!(u"!u( $mu me(upa"an ! scheme that has "een concepts' an e(i e to illustrate relationship among facts' generali-ation . Den#an %em " an s!(u"!u( $mu me(upa"an

$us!(as &u,un#an an!a(a *a"!a, ")nsep se(!a #ene(a$ sas , "e!e("a !an
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!e(se,u! mem,en!u" sua!u ,an#un s!(u"!u( $mu, semen!a(a !u menu(u! H.E. #usmana s!(u"!u( $mu a%a$a& sepe(an#"a! pe(!an'aan "un/ %an me!)%a pene$ ! an 'an# a"an mem,an!u mempe()$e& +a.a,ann'a, se(!a ,e(,a#a *a"!a, ")nsep, #ene(a$ sas %an !e)( 'an# mem $ " "a(a"!e( s! " 'an# "&as 'an# a"an men#an!a( " !a un!u" mema&am %e0 %e p)")" %a( sua!u % s p$ n $mu 'an# ,e(san#"u!an. Den#an %em " an nampa" %a( %ua pen%apa! % a!as ,a&.a !e(%apa! %ua &a$ p)")" %a$am sua!u s!(u"!u( $mu 'a !u > ! "o y of #no%le ge 1"e(an#"a $mu2 'an# !e(% ( %a( *a"!a, ")nsep, #ene(a$ sas , %an !e)( 'an# men+a% / ( "&as ,a# $mu 'an# ,e(san#"u!an sesua %en#an ,)un%a(' 'an# % m $ " n'a ! mo e of inquiry. A!au /a(a pen#"a+ an5pene$ ! an 'an# men#an%un# pe(!an'aan %an me!)%e pene$ ! an #una mempe()$e& +a.a,an a!as pe(masa$a&an 'an# ,e("a !an %en#an $mu !e(se,u!. Ke(an#"a $mu !e(% ( %a( unsu(0unsu( 'an# ,e(&u,un#an, %a( mu$a 'an# ")n"( ! 'a !u *a"!a sampa $e-e$ 'an# a,s!(a" 'a !u !e)( , ma" n "e *a"!a ma" n spes * ", semen!a(a ma" n men#a(a& "e !e)( ma" n a,s!(a" "a(ena $e, & ,e(s *a! umum. B $a % #am,a("an a"an nampa" se,a#a ,e( "u! >
Increasing transfer (alue Increasing specificity

TEARI GENERALISASI KANSEP0KANSEP FAKTA0FAKTA Gambar 2.1. *agan Stuktur Ilmu Da( #am,a( !e(se,u! nampa" ,a&.a ,a# an 'an# pa$ n# %asa( a%a$a& *a"!a0*a"!a, *a"!a0*a"!a !e(se,u! a"an men+a% ,a&an a!au % #una"an un!u"
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men#em,an#"an ")nsep0")nsep, , $a ")nsep0")nsep menun+u"an / ( "eumuman ma"a !e(,en!u"$a& #ene(a$ sas , un!u" "emu% an %apa! % *)(mu$as "an men+a% !e)( . Fa"!a0*a"!a san#a! % ,a!as )$e& n $a !(ans*e( .a"!u, !empa! %an "e+a% an. K)nsep %an #ene(a$ sas mem $ " n $a !(ans*e( 'an# $e, & $uas %an %a$am, semen!a(a !u !e)( mempun'a +an#"auan 'an# $e, & un -e(sa$, "a(ena /en%e(un# % an##ap ,e($a"u umum !anpa !e( "a! )$e& .a"!u %an !empa!, se& n##a , sa ,e($a"u un -e(sa$ a(! n'a , sa ,e($a"u % mana sa+a (hal ini se"enarnya "anyak ikritisi para akhli). Namun %em " an "e,e($a"uann'a meman# pe($u +u#a mempe(&a! "an +en s $mun'a. 1. Fakta dan onsep. 1akta me(upa"an Buil ing Blocks un!u" men#em,an#"an ")nsep, #ene(a$ sas 1Schuncke : facts are "uil ing "locks from %hich concept an generali-ation are constructe 2 %an !e)( . Menu(u! Bertran ,ussel *a"!a a%a$a& se#a$a sesua!u 'an# ,e(a%a % %un a, n ,e(a(! #e+a$a apapun ,a " #e+a$a a$am maupun #e+a$a &uman me(upa"an *a"!a 'an# , sa men+a% ,a&an ,a"u ,a# pem,en!u"an ")nsep0")nsep, namun %em " an "a(ena $uasn'a, ma"a ! ap0! ap $mu a"an men'e$e"s *a"!a0*a"!a !e(se,u! sesua %en#an )( en!as $mun'a. Fa"!a mempun'a pe(anan 'an# pen! n# ,a# !e)( , %an mempun'a n!e(a"s 'an# !e!ap %en#an !e)( , menu(u! $oh. 7a-ir pe(anan *a"!a !e(&a%ap !e)( a%a$a& > Fa"!a men)$)n# memp(a"a(sa !e)( Fa"!a mem,e( +a$an %a$am men#u,a& a!au mem*)(mu$as "an !e)( ,a(u Fa"!a %apa! mem,ua! pen)$a"an !e(&a%ap !e)( Fa"!a mempe(!e(an# %an mem,e( %e* n s "em,a$ !e(&a%ap !e)( . #onsep a%a$a& $a,e$ a!au penamaan 'an# %apa! mem,an!u sese)(an# mem,ua! a(! n*)(mas %a$am pen#e(! an 'an# $e, & $uas se(!a memun#" n"an % $a"u"an pen'e%e(&anaan a!as *a"!a0*a"!a se& n##a p()ses
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,e(* " (

%an peme/a&an masa$a& $e, & mu%a&. Menu(u! Bruner ")nsep

me(upa"an a,s!(a"s a!as "esamaan a!au "e!e(&u,un#an %a( se"e$)mp)" ,en%a a!au s *a!. Menu(u! pen%apa! Bruner, 5oo no% %an !ustin se,a#a mana % "u! p )$e& Hami Hasan 1188=2 men'a!a"an ,a&.a %a$am $mu0 $mu s)s a$ % "ena$ ! #a +en s ")nsep 'a !u > a. K)nsep ")n+un#! *. Da !u ")nsep 'an# pa$ n# (en%a& 'an# men##am,a("an ,en%a a!au s *a! 'an# men+a% an##)!a ")nsep %en#an ! n#"a! pe(samaan 'an# ! n## %en#an +um$a& a!( ,u! 'an# ,an'a". C)n!)& ")nep Buku Pengantar $ana*emen Perkantoran 'a !u ,u"u 'an# % !u$ s un!u" ma&as s.a !e,a$n'a 2:: &a$aman. ,. K)nsep % s+un#! *. A%a$a& ")nsep 'an# mem $ " an##)!a %en#an a!( ,u! 'an# mem $ " n $a ,e(a#am, ")nsep +en s n pun'a "e%u%u"an $e, & ! n## . S)n!)& ")nsep alat kantor. A!( ,u! un!u" ")nsep n /u"up ,e(a#am %en#an mas n#0mas n# pun'a ,en!u" %an *un#s "&usus sepe(! "e(!as un!u" % pa"a menu$ s, mes n ! " un!u" men#e! ", pe(*)(a!)(, &e"!e( 'an# mempun'a ,e(,e%a0,e%a.
/. #onsep relasional. Da !u ")nsep 'an# menun+u"an "e,e(samaan

'an# ,a(u ,e$a+a(

mana+emen pe("an!)(an )$e& pen#a(an# A, .a(na sampu$ , (u,

*un#s

an!a(a an##)!an'a %a$am sua!u a!( ,u! ,e(%asa("an "( !e( a 'an# a,s!(a" %an se$a$u %a$am &u,un#an %en#an "( !e( a !e(!en!u. K)nsep n !e(,en!u" "a(ena a%an'a (e$as 5&u,un#an 'an# % / p!a"an %a$am pen#e(! an 'an# % "an%un#n'a. C)n!)& ")nsep 0arak. K)nsep n % "em,an#"an ,e(%asa("an "e%u%u"an %ua ! ! ", 'an# apa, $a % & !un# se/a(a ),+e"! * a"an % pe()$e& an#"a 'an# men##am,a("an p)s s % "e!a&u +au& %e"a!n'a "e%ua ! ! " !e(se,u!, se& n##a %apa!
(contoh' tam"ahan ari Penulis)

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Semen!a(a !u menu(u!

Sofian Effen i' + "a % $ &a! &u,un#ann'a %en#an

(ea$ !as5*a"!a, a"an % !emu %ua +en s ")nsep 'a !u pertama ")nsep0")nsep 'an# +e$as &u,un#ann'a %en#an (ea$ !as 1M sa$n'a > Me+a, Lema( , Ku(s 2 %an ke ua ")nsep0")nsep 'an# $e, & a,s!(a" %an $e, & "a,u( &u,un#ann'a %en#an (ea$ !as 1m sa$n'a > Em)s , Ke/e(%asan, K)m !men2. Semen!a(a !u Prof. 2r. H. Bam"ang Su%arno' $! . Gu(u Besa( 6PI Ban ung !e$a& $ama me(umus"an pen+a,a(an0pen+a,a(an K)nsep un!u" "epen! n#an sua!u pene$ ! an "e%a$am ! #a ! n#"a!an 'a !u konsep &eori' konsep empiris %an konsep !nalitis, K)nsep !e)( mempun'a ! n#"a! a,s!a("s 'an# ! n## %an me(upa"an pen#e(! an esens $ %a( sua!u *en)mena, ")nsep emp ( s me(upa"an #am,a(an ")nsep 'an# su%a& %apa! % ),se(-as , semen!a(a ")nsep ana$ ! s me(upa"an ")nsep 'an# menun+u"an apa %an ,a#a mana ")nsep emp ( s !e(se,u! %apa! % "e!a&u un!u" "epe($uan ana$ sa, se,a#a /)n!)& %apa! % $ &a! %a$am !a,e$ ,e( "u!> Ta1#l -.1. P#!$a1ara! K8!s#3 N8 1. K8!s#3 T#8ri Pen% % "an K8!s#3 E"3iris
0 Asa$ Se")$a& 0 Ka"!u men'e$esa "an SLA 0 I+aHa& !e(a"& ( 'an# % m $ "

K8!s#3 A!ali+is
Ba.a,an (esp)n%en !en!an# asa$ se")$a&, .a"!u men'e$esa "an se")$a& %an +aHa& !e(a"& ( 'an# % m $ "

2. Generalisasi dan "eori 1"heor#2 5eneralisasi. A%a$a& "es mpu$an umum 'an# % !a( " ,e(%asa("an &a$0 &a$ "&usus 1 n%u"s 2, #ene(a$ sas men##am,a("an sua!u "e!e(&u,un#an ,e,e(apa ")nsep %an me(upa"an &as $ 'an# su%a& !e(u+ se/a(a emp ( s (empirical generali-ation), 5eneralisasi empiris a alah pernyataan suatu hu"ungan "er asarkan in uksi an ter"entuk "er asarkan o"ser(asi tentang a anya hu"ungan terse"ut. "e,ena(an sua!u #ene(a$ sas % !en!u"an )$e& a"u(as ")nsep %an (e*e(ens pa%a *a"!a0*a"!a. Gene(a$ sas 'an# % a"u "e,ena(ann'a pa%a sa!u saa! memun#" n"an
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un!u" % m)% * "as , $a 49

% pe()$e& *a"!a ,a(u a!au ,u"! 0,u"! ,a(u, ,a&"an mun#" n +u#a % ! n##a$"an + "a $e, & ,an'a" ,u"! 'an# men# n#"a( n'a . Gene(a$ sas ,e(,e%a %en#an !e)( se,a, !e)( mempun'a ! n#"a! "e,e($a"uan $e, & un -e(sa$ %an $e, & ")mp$e"s, se& n##a !e)( su%a& %apa! % #una"an un!u" men+e$as"an %an ,a&"an memp(e% "s "e+a% an0"e+a% an, pe(n'a!aan !e(se,u! menun+u"an ,a&.a apa, $a sua!u #ene(a$ sas !e$a& ,e(!a&an %a( u+ -e( * "as ma"a #ene(a$ sas !e(se,u! %apa! ,e("em,an# men+a% !e)( , se,a#a mana % "emu"a"an )$e& 5oet- O Le/ompte ,a&.a !e)( a%a$a& ")mp)s s 'an# % &as $"an %a( pen#em,an#an se+um$a& p()p)s s a!au #ene(a$ sas 'an# % an##ap mem $ " "e!e(&u,un#an se/a(a s s!ema! s. #erlinger %a$am Bu"un'a 1oun ation of Beha(ioural ,esearch constructs (concepts)' men%e* n s "an !e)( se,a#a a set of interrelate

efinition' an proposition that present a systematic (ie% of phenomena "y specifying relation (aria"les' %ith the purpose of e)plaining an pre icting the phenomena. Semen!a(a !u #enneth 2. Bailey %a$am ,u"un'a $etho s of Social ,esearch men'a!a"an ,a&.a !e)( me(upa"an sua!u upa'a un!u" men+e$as"an #e+a$a0#e+a$a !e(!en!u se(!a &a(us %apa! % u+ , sua!u pe(n'a!aan 'an# ! %a" %apa! men+e$as"an %an memp(e% "s sesua!u ,u"an$a& !e)( , $e, & +au& Bailey men'e,u!"an ,a&.a ")mp)nen0")mp)nen %asa( %a( !e)( a%a$a& K)nsep 1/oncept2 %an -a( a,e$ 1Laria"le2. Te)( !e(% ( %a( se"umpu$an ")nsep 'an# umumn'a % "u! )$e& (e$as an!a( ")nsep se& n##a !e(#am,a( &u,un#ann'a se/a(a $)# s %a$am sua!u "e(an#"a ,e(p " ( !e(!en!u. K)nsep pa%a %asa(n'a me(upa"an sua!u #am,a(an men!a$ a!au pe(seps 'an# men##am,a("an a!au menun+u"an sua!u *en)mena ,a " se/a(a !un##a$ a!aupun %a$am sua!u ")n! num, ")nsep +u#a se( n# % a(! "an se,a#a a,s!(a"s %a( sua!u *a"!a 'an# men+a% pe(&a! an I$mu, ,a " ,e(upa "ea%aan, "e+a% an, n% - %u a!aupun "e$)mp)". Umumn'a ")nsep ! %a" mun#" n5san#a! su$ ! un!u" % ),se(-as se/a(a $an#sun#, )$e& "a(ena !u un!u" "epe($uan pene$ ! an pe($u a%an'a 50

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pen+a,a(an0pen+a,a(an "e ! n#"a!an 'an# $e, & ")n#"( ! a#a( ),se(-as %an pen#u"u(an %apa! % $a"u"an. Da$am sua!u !e)( , ")nsep0")nsep se( n# % n'a!a"an %a$am sua!u (e$as a!au &u,un#an an!a(a %ua ")nsep a!au $e, & 'an# !e(susun se/a(a $)# s, pe(n'a!aan 'an# men##am,a("an &u,un#an an!a( ")nsep % se,u! proposisi' %en#an %em " an ")nsep me(upa"an & mpunan 'an# mem,en!u" p()p)s s , se%an#"an p()p)s s me(upa"an & mpunan 'an# mem,en!u" !e)( . A%apun !e)( menu(u! Re%+a Mu%'a&a(%+) %apa! % ,a# menu(u! ! n#"a!ann'a "e %a$am !e)( n%u", !e)( *)(ma$, %an !e)( su,s!an! * %en#an pen+e$asan se,a#a ,e( "u! > a. Te)( n%u" %an m)%e$5pa(a% #ma !e)( ! s. Da !u s s!em pe(n'a!aan 'an# sa$ n# ,e(&u,un#an e(a! %an ")nsep0")nsep a,s!(a" 'an# men##am,a("an, %apa! % u"u( memp(e% "s a!au mene(an#"an 1m sa$n'a se/a(a !e)( 0!e)( ")mp(e&ens * &a$0&a$ 'an# $uas !en!an# #e+a$a0#e+a$a 'an# ! %a" ! n#"a! "emun#" nannn'a mana+emen2. Te)( ")nsep a!au %apa! % "em,an#"an5% +a,a("an "e %a$am 'an# sa$ n# ,e("a !an e(a! 'an#

m)%e$0m)%e$ !e)( ! s 'an# men##am,a("an sepe(an#"an asums , pe(n'a!aan mem,en!u" se,ua& pan%an#an !en!an# "e& %upan 1sua!u

masa$a&2. M)%e$ !e)( ! s , asan'a %apa! % n'a!a"an se/a(a - sua$ %a$am ,en!u" ,a#an. ,. Te)( *)(ma$ %an ! n#"a! menen#a&. Da !u pe(n'a!aan0pe(n'a!aan 'an# sa$ n# ,e(&u,un#an, 'an# % (an/an# un!u" mene(an#"an sua!u "e$)mp)" ! n#"a& $a"u se/a(a s n#"a! 1m sa$n'a !e)( mana+emen menu(u! F.K. Ta'$)(2 /. Te)( su,s!an! *. Da !u pe(n'a!aan0pe(n'a!aan a!au ")nsep0")nsep 'an# sa$ n# ,e(&u,un#an, 'an# ,e("a !an %en#an aspe"0aspe" "&usus !en!an# sua!u "e# a!an 1m sa$n'a *un#s pe(en/anaan2

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Semen!a(a !u 5oet'a !u >

an Le/ompte mem,a# !e)( "e %a$am empa! +en s

a. G(an% T&e)(' 1!e)( ,esa(2. Da !u s s!em 'an# se/a(a "e!a! men#"a !"an p()p)s s 0p()p)s s %an ")nsep0")nsep 'an# a,s!(a" se& n##a %apa! % #una"an men#u(a "an, men+e$as"an %an memp(e% "s se/a(a ")mp(e&ens * se+um$a& *en)mena ,esa(

se/a(a n)n0p(),a, $ !as. ,. T&e)( ! /a$ m)%e$ 1m)%e$ !e)( ! s, 'a !u "e!e(&u,un#an 'an# $)n##a( 1! %a" "e!a!2 an!a(a se+um$a& asums , ")nsep, %an p()p)s s 'an# mem,en!u" pan%an#an $mu.an !en!an# %un a. /. F)(ma$ an% m %%$e0(an#e !&e)(' 1!e)( menen#a&2. Da !u p()p)s s 'an# *)(ma$ %an ! n#"a! ,e(&u,un#an, 'an#

% "em,an#"an un!u" men+e$as"an ,e,e(apa "e$)mp)" ! n#"a& $a"u manus a 'an# a,s!(a". %. Su,s!an! -e !&e)(' 1!e)( su,s!an! *2. A%a$a& !e)( 'an# pa$ n# (en%a& ! n#"a!an a,s!(a"s %an san#a! !e(,a!as %a$am "eumuman #ene(a$ sas n'a 1Ham % Hasan. 188=2 Te)( pa%a %asa(n'a me(upa"an a$a! ,a# Te)( men%e* n s "an )( en!as $mu 1 tool of science2, %an u!ama $mu %en#an /a(a ,e(pe(an %a$a& &a$0&a$ ,e( "u! 1M)&. NaH (. 186;2 > mem,e( "an %e* n s !e(&a%ap +en s0+en s %a!a 'an# a"an % ,ua! a,s!(a"s n'a Te)( mem,e( "an (en/ana ")nsep!ua$, (e$e-an %en#an (en/ana mana*en)mena0*en)mena 'an# % s s!ema! s"an,

% "$as * "as "an %an % &u,un#0&u,un#"an Te)( mem,e( ( n#"asan !e(&a%ap *a"!a %a$am ,en!u" #ene(a$ sas emp ( s %an s s!em #ene(a$ sas Te)( mem,e( "an p(e% "s !e(&a%ap *a"!a Te)( mempe(+e$as /e$a&0/e$a& %a$am pen#e!a&uan " !a
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3. p()p)s s me(upa"an

Proposisi dan asumsi Proposisi. K)ns!(u"s se,ua& !e)( !e(,en!u" %a( p()p)s s , %an sua!u pe(n'a!aan men#ena sa!u a!au $e, &

")nsep5-a( a,e$, p()p)s s

'an# men'a!a"an -a( a,e$ !un##a$ % se,u!

p()p)s s un -a( a!e, , $a men#&u,un#"an %ua -a( a,e$ % se,u! p()p)s s mu$! -a( a! se%an# , $a p()p)s s !u men#&u,un#"an $e, & %a( %ua -a( a,e$ % se,u! p()p)s s mu$! -a( a!. A%apun +en s0+en s p()p)s s 1su, ! pe p()p)s s 2 a%a$a& > a. H p)!es s. Da !u p()p)s s 'an# % n'a!a"an un!u" % $a"u"an pen#u+ an, menu(u! "amus Ke,s!e(4s 118=62 H'p)!&es s a%a$a& a tentati(e assumption ma e in or er to ra% out an testits logical or empirical consequences' sementara itu Bailey men%e* n s "an & p)!es s se,a#a a tentati(e e)planation for %hich the e(i ence necessary for testing' %en#an %em " an & p)!es s %apa! % pa&am se,a#a an##apa a!au pen+e$asan semen!a(a 'an# mas & meme($u"an pen#u+ an % $apan#an' +a% + "a " !a ,e(pen%apa! ,a&.a !e(%apa! &u,un#an an!a(a ")nsep5-a( a,e$ P %en#an -a( a,e$ D, ma"a pe(!ama % n'a!a"an se,a#a & p)!es s un!u" "emu% an men#u+ & p)!es s !e(se,u! % $apan#an 1%a$am pene$ ! an2, apa"a& *a"!a $apan#an mene( ma a!au men)$a"n'a. A%apun %asa( & p)!es s %apa! % pe()$e& %a( ,e(,a#a sum,e( m sa$n'a %a( pen#ama!an se&a( 0&a( , %a( &as $ pene$ ! an 'an# su%a& a%a, %a( ana$ s s %a!a $apan#an, a!au %a( !e)( . ,. Gene(a$ sas emp ( s. Pe(n'a!aan &u,un#an 'an# % %asa("an pa%a &as $ pene$ ! an $apan#an 1 n%u"s 2. Gene(a$ sas *a"!a0*a"!a 'an# !e(%apa! % $apan#an. /. A"s )ma. P()p)s s 'an# "e,ena(ann'a men#a/u pa%a p()p)s s 0 p()p)s s $a nn'a, a"s )ma !e("a%an# % se,u! !e)( %e%u"! *, %en#an
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me(upa"an

"eumuman s *a! a!au p)$a 'an# % s mpu$"an %a( pene$ ! an a!as

53

")n)!as ma!ema! s %an p()p)s s +en s n , asan'a mempun'a ! n#"a! a,s!(a"s 'an# ! n## , san%a(an a"s )ma a%a$a& (as )na$ $)# s ,e(%asa("an &u"um ,e(* " ( 'an# ,ena( %. P)s!u$a!. emp ( s. e. Te)(ema. P()p)s s 'an# % %asa("an pa%a se(an#"a an a"s )ma a!au p)s!u$a! a%apun "a(a"!e( s! " %a( p()p)s s !e(se,u! % a!as &u,un#ann'a %en#an pe()$e&an %an "emun#" nan pen#u+ ann'a %apa! % $ &a! %a( !a,e$ ,e( "u! > Ta1#l -.2. Ti3# 3r838sisi, 3#r8l#,a! da! 3#!*%$ia!!?a -ama proposisi Perolehan Pengu%ian langsung De%u"s a!au H'p)!&es s B sa ,e(%asa("an %a!a Gene(a$ sas emp ( s Be(%asa("an %a!a B sa A"s )ma Bena( "a(ena %e* n s T %a" P)s!u$a! D an##ap ,ena( T %a" Te)(ema De%u"s %a( a"s )ma B sa a!au p)s!u$a!
2ia aptasi ari #enneth 2. Bailey (8B?<)

P()p)s s 'an# pun'a ma"na &amp ( sama %en#an

a"s )ma namun "e,ena(an pe(n'a!aann'a !e$a& !e(u+ se/a(a

!sumsi , asan'a % pa%an"an %en#an s! $a& an##apan %asa(, menu(u! K)ma(u%% n 11866 > 222, ,a&.a > EAsums a%a$a& sesua!u 'an# % an##ap ! %a" ,e(pen#a(u& a!au % an##ap ")ns!an. Asums %apa! ,e(&u,un#an %en#an s'a(a!0s'a(a!, ")n% s 0")n% s %an !u+uan. Asums mem,e( "an &a"e"a!, ,en!u" %an a(a& a(#umen!as . Dan asums ,e(ma"su% mem,a!as masa$a&.F %a$am se! ap +u%#men! %an a!au "es mpu$an %a$am , %an# $mu % %a$amn'a !e(s (a! sua!u an##apan %asa( !e(!en!u 'an# men)pan# "e"ua!an "es mpu$an5+u%#men !e(!en!u. Da$am $mu e")n)m % "ena$ s! $a& /eteris Pari"us a(! n'a "ea%aan $a n % an##ap !e!ap, n me(upa"an asums 'an# %apa! mempe("ua! sua!u "es mpu$an a!au !e)( , m sa$n'a &u"um pe(m n!aan men'a!a"an ,a&.a , $a pe(m n!aan na " ma"a &a(#a a"an na ", &u"um n +e$as ! %a" a"an ,e($a"u
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, $a m sa$n'a pena.a(an na ", un!u" !u *a"!)( pena.a(an na " % an##ap ! %a" a%a a!au ! %a" ,e(pen#a(u& !e(&a%ap &a(#a 1/e!e( s pa( ,us2, n ,e(a(! ,a&.a asums , sa % pan%an# se,a#a s'a(a! ,e($a"un'a sua!u "es mpu$an 1a!au ")n% s !e(!en!u2 Den#an %em " an asums me(upa"an &a$ 'an# san#a! pen! n# un!u" % pa&am , men# n#a! ! %a" s! ap pe(n'a!aan5"es mpu$an $m a& men'a!a"an %en#an +e$as5e"sp$ s ! asums n'a, mes" pun se,a "n'a %a$am penu$ san "a('a $m a& sepe(! s"( ps % n'a!a"an se/a(a e"sp$ s !. 4. me$a"u"an $ n#"up $definisi5batasan I$mu &a(us ,ena(0,ena( ,e(/ ( "an "e $m a&an, % a pe($u !e(us pen#"a+ an, men#umpu$"an D %a$amn'a *a"!a0*a"!a ")nsep0")nsep % "em,an#"an "emu% an %an (e$as &u"um0 an!a( &u"um5p( ns p0p( ns p umum, ! %a" mem &a" %a$am men#em,an#"an (uan# pen#e!a&uan. mene$ ! ")nsep5-a( a,e$, un!u" % "em,an#"an

#ene(a$ sas %an !e)( 0!e)( se(!a pe($u % $a"u"an upa'a -e( * "as un!u" men#u+ -a$ % !as !e)( 5 $mu %en#an men##una"an me!)%e0me!)%e !e(!en!u sesua %en#an a(a& "a+ ann'a, %an un!u" men#& n%a( ,e(,a#a pen%apa! 'an# , sa men#a,u("an a!as sua!u a"! - !as ")( %)( un!u" men/apa pema&aman 'an# !epa!. Is %a( sua!u ")nsep ,a(u +e$as apa, $a ")nsep !e(se,u! % %e* n s "an, % samp n# men#& n%a( sa$a& pema&aman men# n#a! sua!u ")nsep a%a$a& !e("a%an# mempun'a ,an'a" ma"na %an pen#e(! an. De* n s $m a&, ma"a ")nsep0 ")nsep5-a( a,e$0-a( a,e$ pe($u % ,e( "an pem,a!asan a!au %e* n s se,a#a

pe(n'a!aan !en!an# ma"na a!au a(! 'an# !e("an%un# %a$am se,ua& s! $a& a!au ")nsep. Da$am se! ap "a('a $m a& menen!u"an %e* n s men+a% &a$ 'an# san#a! pen! n#. Apa, $a % ! n+au %a( su%u! ,en!u" pe(n'a!aann'a menu(u! ,e *a $u yahar *o12::12 %e* n s %apa! % ,e%a"an %a$am %ua ma/am 'a !u > 1. De* n s ")n)!a! *. Da !u %e* n s 'an# men'a!a"an se/a(a +e$as5e"sp$ s ! !en!an# s 'an# !e("an%un# %a$am s! $a&5")nsep
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'an# % %e* n s "an. De* n s ")n)!a! * %apa! % ,e%a"an "e %a$am %ua "e$)mp)" 'a !u %e* n s $e"s "an5%e* n s menu(u! "amus, %an %e* n s s! pu!a! * 'a !u %e* n s 'an# men'e,u!"an s'a(a!0s'a(a! 'an# men+a% ma"na ")nsep !e(se,u!, a!au "e!en!uan %a( sua!u p &a" men#ena a(! apa 'an# &en%a"n'a % ,e( "an. Da$am %e* n s s! pu$a! * !e(%apa! ,e,e(apa +en s %e* n s 'a !u 12 %e* n s n)m nan a!au %e* n s -e(,a$ 'a !u %e* n s 'an# mempe("ena$"an s! $a&0 s! $a& ,a(u %a$am men'a!a"an ")nsep 'an# % %e* n s "anI 22 %e* n s %es"( p! * 'a !u %e* n s 'an# men##am,a("an $e, & $an+u! %an ( n/ %a( %e* n s $e"s "a$I 32 %e* n s )pe(as )na$5%e* n s "e(+a 'a !u %e* n s 'an# men##am,a("an p()ses "e(+a a!au "e# a!an 'an# spes * " %an ( n/ 'an# % pe($u"an un!u" men/ap)pa !u+uan 'an# men+a% ma"na ")nsep 'an# % %e* n s "anI %e* n s !e)( ! s 'a !u %e* n s 'an# men'a!a"an se/a(a !e(su(a! "a(a"!e( s! " 'an# !epa! !en!an# sus!u s! $a& a!au ")nsep. 2. %e* n s %en)!a! *. Da !u %e* n s 'an# men'a!a"an se/a(a !e(su(a! $uas pen#e(! an %a( s! $a&5")nsep 'an# % %e* n s "an, $uas pen#e(! an a%a$a& &a$0&a$ 'an# me(upa"an ,a# an "e$as %a( ")nsep 'an# % %e* n s "an. Ca(a un!u" men%e* n s "an ")nsep se/a(a %en)!a! * a%a$a& %en#an +a$an men'e,u!"an "ese$u(u&an ,a# an a!au sa$a&sa!u ,a# an 'an# !e(masu" %a$am "e$as %a( ")nsep 'an# % %e* n s "an. Semen!a(a !u menu(u! Has"ulah Bakry, !e(%apa! $ ma ma/am %e* n s 'a !u > 1. A,s!ens -e %e* n ! )n, 'a !u %e* n s 'an# mene(an#"an sesua!u se/a(a %em ns!(a! *, m sa$n'a Ku(s a%a$& n 1a!au !u2 sam, $ menun+u" pa%a "u(s n'a, )$e& "a(ena %em " an ma"a %e* n s ma/am n se( n# +u#a % se,u! %em)ns!(a! -e %e* n ! )n. 2. , -e(,a$ %e* n ! )n. Da !u %e* n s 'an# men+e$as"an sesua!u %en#an mem,e( "an s n)n m n'a, m sa$n'a sap a%a$a& $em,u.
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3. eG!ens -e %e* n ! )n, 'a !u %e* n s

'an# mene(an#"an sesua!u "an a%a$a&

%en#an mem,e( "an /)n!)&0/)n!)&n'a, m sa$n'a se,a#a n'a. 4. ana$'! / %e* n ! )n. Da !u %e* n s

&e.an 'an# & %up %a$am a ( sepe(! mu+a (, n $a, #u(ame, %an 'an# mene(an#"an sesua!u

%en#an men#u(a "an ,a# an0,a# ann'a, m sa$n'a ne#a(a a%a$a& sua!u . $a'a& 'an# pun'a peme( n!a&an, (a"'a! %an ,a!as0,a!as %ae(a&n'a. ;. %es/( p! -e %e* n ! )n, 'a !u %e* n s 'an# mene(an#"an sesua!u %en#an me$u" s"an s *a!0s *a!n'a 'an# men/)$)", m saa$n'a Ga+a& a%a$a& , na!an# 'an# !u,u&n'a ,esa( sepe(! #e(,)n#, "a" n'a ,esa( sepe(! p)&)n n' u(. 6. m)%e$, se,a#a Paradigma Menu(u! Ke,s!e(4s D /! )na(', pa(a% #ma a%a$a&, p)$a, /)n!)& a!au s! $a& %a$am , %an# $mu 1s)s a$2 pa(a% #ma a%a$a& pe(spe"! * a!au "e(an#"a a/uan un!u" meman%an# %un a, 'an# !e(% ( %a( se(an#"a an ")nsep %an asums . Se,ena(n'a ")nsep pa(a% #ma ,u"an &a$ 'an# ,a(u, namun sema" n men%apa! pene"anan se+a" !e(, !n'a ,u"u "a('a &homas #uhn 118=22 'an# ,e(+u%u$ &he structure of scientific re(olution' imana #uhn sen iri men%e* n s "an pa(a% #ma an!a(a $a n se,a#a "ese$u(u&an ")ns!e$as %a( pa%a "epe(/a'aan, n $a , !e"n)$)# %an se,a#a n'a 'an# % m $ " ,e(sama )$e& an##)!a0an##)!a %a( sua!u "e$)mp)" !e(!en!u. De* n s Ku&n n ,an'a" % "( ! " "a(ena % an##ap ! %a" +e$as, namun pa%a e% s "e%ua %a( ,u"un'a #uhn mem,e( "an %e* n s 'an# $e, & spes * " 'an# mempe(sama"an pa(a% #ma %en#an /)n!)& 1eGemp$a(s2. Ka('a Ku&n %a$am pe("em,an#ann'a !e$a& mem,an#" !"an % s"us % "a$an#an pa(a a&$ men#ena pa(a% #ma %a$am &u,un#ann'a %en#an pe("em,an#an pen#e!a&uan. $mu

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5eorge ,itter men'a!a"an ,a&.a pa(a% #ma me(upa"an / !(a %asa( , %an# "a+ an % %a$am sua!u $mu 1 fun amental image of the su"*ect matter %ithina science)' $e, & $an+u! % a men#a!a"an ,a&.a!e(%apa! empa! ")mp)nen p)")" 'an# mem,en!u" sua!u pa(a% #ma 'a !u > /ontoh suatu penelitian alam "i ang ka*ian' Suatu citra tentang "i ang ka*ian' &eori' serta $eto e an alat penelitian . Semen!a(a !u Ba $e' men%e* n s "an pa(a% #ma se,a#a +en%e$a men!a$ sese)(an# un!u" me$ &a! %un a. Den#an %asa( pen#e(! an % a!as, ma"a sua!u masa$a& 'an# sama a"an men#&as $"an ana$ s s %an "es mpu$an 'en# ,e(,e%a , $a pa(a% #ma 'an# % #una"an ,e(,e%a, se,a#a /)n!)& masa$a& Kem s" na 1$e%a"an pen%u%u"2, menu(u! Ma$!&us &a$ !u !e(+a% "a(ena pen%u%u" ,e(!am,a& menu(u! %e(e! u"u( se%an#"an ,a&an ma"anan ,e(!am,a& menu(u! %e(e! & !un#, %an un!u" men#a!as n'a pe($u % $a"u"an p)pu$a! )n /)n!()$I semen!a(a menu(u! Ma(G, &a$ %an !u !e(+a% "a(ena "ap !a$ sme a%a$a& 'an# men#e"sp$)!as manus a, un!u" men#a!as n'a %en#an

pem,en!u"an mas'a(a"a! s)s a$ s. Te(+a% n'a pe(,e%aan !e(se,u! ! %a" $a n "a(ena pe(,e%aan pa(a% #ma an!a(a $althus %en#an $ar) E. 0&JEK ILMU Se! ap $mu mempun'a ),+e"n'a sen% ( 0sen% ( , ),+e" $mu !u sen% ( a"an menen!u"an !en!an# "e$)mp)" %an /a(a ,a#a mana $mu !u ,e"e(+a %a$am mema n"an pe(ann'a me$ &a! (ea$ !as. Se/a(a umum ),+e" $mu a%a$a& a$am %an manus a, namun "a(ena a$am !u sen% ( !e(% ( %a( ,e(,a#a ")mp)nen, %an manus apun mempun'a "e$uasan %an "e%a$am 'an# ,e(,e%a0,e%a, ma"a men#"$as * "as "an ),+e" ama! % pe($u"an. Te(%apa! %ua ma/am ),+e" %a( $mu 'a !u ),+e" ma!e( a$ %an ),+e" *)(ma$. 4"*ek material a%a$a& se$u(u& , %an# a!au ,a&an 'an# % +a% "an !e$aa&an $mu, se%an#"an o"*ek formal a%a$a& ),+e" 'an# ,e("a !an %en#an ,a#a mana ),+e" ma!e( a$ !u % !e$aa& )$e& sua!u $mu, pe(,e%aan ),+e" se! ap $mu !u$a& 'an# mem,e%a"an $mu sa!u %en#an $a nn'a !e(u!ama
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),+e" *)(ma$n'a. M sa$n'a $mu e")n)m %an s)s )$)# mempun'a ),+e" ma!e( a$ 'an# sama 'a !u manus a, namun ),+e" *)(ma$n'a +e$as ,e(,e%a, e")n)m me$ &a! manus a %a$am "a !ann'a %en#an upa'a memenu& & %upn'a, se%an#"an s)s )$)# %a$am "a !ann'a %en#an "e,u!u&an

&u,un#an an!a( manus a. F. PEM&AGIAN:PENGEL0MP0KAN ILMU Sema" n $ama pen#e!a&uan manus a sema" n ,e("em,an#, %em " an +u#a pem " (an manus a sema" n !e(se,a( %a$am ,e(,a#a , %an# "e& %upan, &a$ n !e$a& men%)()n# pa(a a"&$ un!u" men#"$as * "as "an $mu "e %a$am ,e,e(apa "e$)mp)" %en#an su%u! pan%an#n'a sen% ( 0sen% ( , namun sea(a umum pem,a# an $mu $e, & men#a/u pa%a ),'e" *)(ma$ %a( $mu !u sen% ( , se%an#"an +en s0+en s % %a$am sua!u "e$)mp)" men#a/u pa%a ),'e" *)(ma$n'a. Pa%a !a&ap a.a$ pe("em,an#ann'a $mu !e(% ( %a( %ua ,a# an 'a !u > 1. !( - um 'an# !e(% ( %a( > a. #(ama! "a, !a!a ,a&asa a#a( )(an# ,e(, /a(a ,ena( ,. % a$e"! "a, a#a( )(an# ,e(* " ( $)# s /. (e!)( "a, a#a( )(an# ,e(, /a(a n%a& 2. @ua%( - um 'an# !e(% ( %a( > a. a( !me! "a, $mu & !un# ,. #e)me!( "a, $mu u"u( /. mus "a, $mu mus " %. as!()n)m s, $mu pe(, n!an#an pem"agian terse"ut i atas pa a asarnya sesuai engan "i ang9"i ang ilmu yang men*a i telaahan utama pa a masanya' sehingga ketika pengetahuan manusia "erkem"angan $mu pen#e!a&uan "e %a$am > a. $mu a$am 1!e(,a# %a$am !e)( ! "a %an p(a"! "a2
PENGANTAR FILSAFAT ILMU/UHAR SUHARSAPUTRA

an lahir ilmu9ilmu "aru maka

pem"agian ilmupun turut "eru"ah' sementara itu $ohamma Hatta mem,a#

59

,. $mu s)s a$ 1+u#a !e(,a# %a$am !e)( ! "a %an p(a"! "a2 /. $mu "u$!u( 1"e,u%a'aan2 semen!a(a !u Stuart /hase mem,a# $mu pen#e!a&uan se,a#a ,e( "u! > 1. $mu0 $mu pen#e!a&uan a$am 1na!u(a$ s/ en/es2 a. , )$)# ,. an!()p)$)# * s " /. $mu "e%)"!e(an %. $mu *a(mas e. $mu pe(!an an *. $mu pas! #. $mu a$am &. #e)$)# . %an $a n se,a#a n'a 2. I$mu0 $mu "emas'a(a"a!an a. I$mu &u"um ,. I$mu e")n)m /. I$mu + .a s)s a$ %. I$mu ,um s)s a$ e. S)s )$)# *. An!()p)$)# ,u%a'a an s)s a$ #. I$mu se+a(a& &. I$mu p)$ ! " . I$mu pen% % "an +. Pu,$ s s! " %an +u(na$ s! " ". Dan $a n se,a#a n'a 3. Human )(a a. I$mu a#ama ,. I$mu * $sa*a! /. I$mu ,a&asa
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%. I$mu sen e. I$mu + .a *. Dan $a n se,a#a n'a %a$am pem,a# an $mu se,a#a mana % "emu"a"an % a!as ' En ang Saifu in !nshori men'a!a"an ,a&.a &a$ !u &en%a"n'a +an#an % an##ap !e#as %em " an5mu!$a", se,a, mun#" n sa+a a%a $mu 'a# masu" sa!u "e$)mp)" namun !e!ap ,e(sen!u&an %en#an $mu %a$am "e$)mp)" $a nn'a. !.$. !mpere ,e(pen%apa! ,a&.a pem,a# an $mu pen#e!a&uan se,a "n'a % %asa("an pa%a ),+e"n'a a!au sasa(an pe(s)a$ann'a, % a mem,a# $mu "e %a$am %ua "e$)mp)" 'a !u > 1. $mu 'an# /)sm)$)# s, 'a !u $mu 'an# ),+e" ma!e( $n'a ,e(s *a! +asa% , m sa$n'a * s "a, " m a %an $mu &a'a!. 2. $mu 'an# n))$)# s, 'a !u $mu 'an# ),+e" ma!e( $n'a ,e(s *a! ()&an a& sepe(! $mu + .a. Au#us! C)m!e mem,a# ma!e( $n'a 'an# !e(% ( %a( > 1. $mu pas! 2. $mu , na!an# 3. $mu a$am 4. $mu " m a ;. $mu &a'a! =. s)s )$)# Her"ert Spencer, mem,a# $mu a!as %asa( ,en!u" pem " (ann'a5),+e" *)(ma$, a!au !u+uan 'an# &en%a" % /apa , % a mem,a# $mu "e %a$am %ua "e$)mp)" 'a !u > 1. $mu mu(n 1pu(e s/ en/e2. I$mu mu(n a%a$am $mu 'an# ma"su% pen#"a+ ann'a &an'a sema!a0ma!a mempe()$e& p( ns 0p( ns p umum a!au !e)( ,a(u !anpa mempe(&a! "an %ampa" p(a"! s %a( $mu !u sen% ( , %en#an "a!a $a n $mu un!u" $mu !u sen% ( .
PENGANTAR FILSAFAT ILMU/UHAR SUHARSAPUTRA

$mu

a!as %asa( ")mp$e"s !as ),+e"

61

2. $mu !e(apan 1app$ e% s/ en/e2, $mu 'an# % ma"su%"an un!u" % !e(ap"an %a$am "e& %upan pa(a"! s % mas'a(a"a!. Pem,a# an $mu se,a#a mana % "emu"a"an % a!as mes! % pan%an# se,a#a "e(an#"a %asa( pema&aman, &a$ n ! %a" $a n "a(ena pen#e!a&uan manus a !e(us ,e("em,an# se& n##a memun#" n"an !um,u&n'a $mu0 $mu ,a(u, se& n##a pen#e$)mp)"an $mu pun a"an !e(us ,e(!am,a& se ( n# %en#an pe("em,an#an !e(se,u!, 'an# +e$as , $a % $ &a! %a( ),+e" ma!e( $n'a $mu %apa! % "e$)mp)"an "e %a$am %ua "e$)mp)" sa+a, 'a !u $mu 'an# men#"a+ 5mene$aa& a$am %an $mu 'an# mene$aa& manus a, %emen!a(a -a( as penamaann'a !e(#an!un# pa%a ),+e" *)(ma$ %a( $mu !u sen% ( . G. PENJELASAN ILMIAH 5SCI+-"IFIC +7P8A-A"I/-6 Sesua %en#an *un#s n'a un!u" mem,e( "an pen+e$asan !en!an# ,e(,a#a #e+a$a, ,a " !u #e+a$a a$am maupun #e+a$a s)s a$, ma"a $mu mempun'a ,e(,a#a pe(anan pen! n# %a$am mem,e( "an pema&aman !en!an# #e+a$a !e(se,u!. Semua )(an# pun'a "e/en%e(un#an un!u"

men/),a men+e$as"an sesua!u #e+a$a, namun ! %a" semua pen+e$asan !e(se,u! me(upa"an pen+e$asan $m a& 1s/ en! * / eGp$ana! )n2, men# n#a! pen+e$asan $m a& 1pen+e$asan 'an# men#a/u pa%a $mu2 Pen+e$asan $m a& a%a$a& a%a$a& pe(n'a!aan0pe(n'a!aan men#ena mas n#0mas n# "a(a"!e( s! " sesua!u se(!a &u,un#an0&u,un#an 'an# /a(a !e(%apa! % an!a(a "a(a"!e( s! " !e(se,u!, 'an# % pe()$e& me$a$u

s s!ema! s, $)# s, %apa! % pe(!an##un# +a.a,"an, se(!a !e(,u"a5%apa! % u+ "e,ena(ann'a. Den#an %em " an pen+e$asan $m a& me(upa"an pen+e$asan 'an# me(u+u" pa%a sua!u "e(an#"a $mu, ,a " !u !e)( maupun *a"!a 'an# su%a& men#a$am p()ses n%u"s . Te(%apa! ,e,e(apa +en s pen+e$asan $m a& 'a !u > 1. #ene! / eGp$ana! )n. Da !u pen+e$asan !en!an# sesua!u #e+a$a %en#an /a(a me$a/a" sesua!u !e(se,u! %a( a.a$n'a a!au asa$n'a.
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2. n!en! )na$ eGp$ana! )n. Da !u pen+e$asan !en!an# sesua!u #e+a$a %en#an me$ &a! &a$0&a$ 'an# men%asa( n'a a!au 'an# men+a% !u+uann'a. 3. % sp)s ! )na$ eGp$ana! )n. Da !u pen+e$asan !en!an# sua!u #e+a$a %en#an me$ &a! "a(a"!e( s! " a!au s *a! %a( #e+a$a !e(se,u!. 4. (eas)n n# eGp$ana! )n 1eGp$ana! )n !&()u#& (eas)n2. Da !u

pen+a$asan 'an# % &u,un#"an %en#an a$asan men#apa sesua!u !u !e(+a% a!au sesua!u !u % $a"u"an. ;. *un/! )na$ eGp$ana! )n. Da !u pen+e$asan 'an# $e, & $uas =. eGp$ana! )n !&()u#& emp ( /a$ #ene(a$ Ha! )n. Da !u pen+e$asan 'an# % ,ua! %en#an /a(a men' mpu$"an &u,un#an an!a(a se+um$a& #e+a$a. 9. eGp$ana! )n !&()u#& *)(ma$ !&e)('. Da !u pen+e$asan 'an# %en#an me$ &a! sua!u

#e+a$a %a$am ")n!e"s "ese$u(u&an %a( sua!u s s!em a!au #e+a$a

mene"an"an pa%a a%an'a a!u(an , &u"um a!au p( ns p 'an# umumn'a !e(,en!u" mema$u %e%u"s . Da$am mem,e( "an sua!u pen+e$asan sese)(an# , sa sa+a men##una"an ,e(,a#a +en s pen+e$asan un!u" ma" n mempe("ua! a(#umen!as n'a, %an &a$ n !e(#an!un# pa%a #e+a$a a!au masa$a& 'an# n# n % +e$as"ann'a. H. SIKAP ILMIAH S "ap $m a& me(upa"an s "ap 'an# &a(us % m $ " )$e& $mu.an, a!au pa(a pen/a( $mu. Menu(u! Ha(s)'), s "ap $m a& men/a"up &a$0&a$ se,a#a ,e( "u! > 1. s "ap ),+e"! * 1),+e"! - !as2 2. s "ap se(,a (e$a! * 3. s "ap s"ep! s
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4. "esa,a(an n!e!e$e"!ua$ ;. "ese%e(&anaan =. s "ap !a" mem &a" pa%a e! " semen!a(a !uT n Gan! n %a$am ,u"un'a Me!)%)$)# R se! men'e,u!"an %e$apan / ( %a( s "ap $m a& 'a !u > 1. mempun'a %)()n#an n# n !a&u, 'an# men%)()n# "e#e$ sa&an un!u" mene$ ! *a"!a0*a"!a ,a(u 2. ! %a" ,e(a! se,e$a& %an ,e(pan%an#an $uas !e(&a%ap "e,ena(an 3. a%a "esesua an an!a(a apa 'an# % ),se(-as %en#an $ap)(ann'a 4. "e(as &a! %an (a+ n %a$am men/a( "e,ena(an ;. mempun'a s *a! (a#u, se& n##a !e(us men%)()n# upa'a pen/a( an "e,ena(an5! %a" pes m s =. (en%a& &a! %an !)$e(an !e(&a%ap &a$ 'an# % "e!a&u %an 'an# ! %a" % "e!a&u 9. "u(an# mempun'a "e!a"u!an 6. p " (an !e(,u"a !e(&a%ap "e,ena(an0"e,ena(an ,a(u. Da( pen%apa! % a!as %apa! % !a( " ,e,e(apa p)")" 'an# men+a% / ( s "ap $m a& 'a !u > ),+e"! *, !e(,u"a, (a+ n, sa,a(, ! %a" s)m,)n#, %an ! %a" memu!$a"an sua!u "e,ena(an $m a&. In ,e(a(! ,a&.a $mu.an %an pa(a pen/a( $mu pe($u !e(us memupu" s "ap !e(se,u! %a$am ,e(&a%apan %en#an $mu, "a(ena se$a$u !e(+a% "emun#" nan ,a&.a apa 'an# su%a& % an##ap ,ena( &a( n sepe(! sua!u !e)( , mun#" n sa+a pa%a sua!u .a"!u a"an % #an! "an )$e& !e)( $a n 'an# mempun'a a!au menun+u"an "e,ena(an ,a(u.

PERTAN=AAN UNTUK &AHAN DISKUSI


8. <. *elaskan secara rinci apa yang emaksu engan ilmuE

*elaskan pengertian ilmu ilihat ari ruang lingkupnya E

PENGANTAR FILSAFAT ILMU/UHAR SUHARSAPUTRA

64

>. ;. C. A. =. ?. B. 8@. 88. 8<.

*elaskan apa yang *elaskan ilmuE 0elaskan apa yang

imaksu

engan Ilmu se"agai akumulasi engan ciri9ciri ilmu untuk

pengetahuan yang tersistematisir an terorganisirE an "erikan contoh9contohnya "erkaitan imaksu engan fungsi

mempre iksiE *elaskan per"e aan antara fakta' konsep' generalisasi an teoriE *elaskan hu"ungan antara fakta engan teori' an "uat gam"arnya E *elaskan kenapa suatu konsep atau (aria"el perlu i efinisikanE *elaskan apa yang 0elaskan apa yang formal ilmu *elaskan apa yang imaksu engan pen*elasan ilmiah serta se"utkan macam9macamnya "eserta contoh9contohnya *elaskan masing9masing ciri sikap ilmiahE' serta *elaskan sikap apa yang paling penting untuk menuntut ilmuE imiliki oleh seseorang yang se ang imaksu imaksu engan asumsi an apa perlunya an o"*ek alam suatu akti(itas ilmiah engan o"*ek material

&A& 4

FILSAFAT

ILMU

Met!de"met!de dan penemuan"penemuan sains m!dern telah mend!minasi dunia, dan filsafat hanya dianggap sebagai pelayan sains. Kesuksesan dan kemajuan ilmiah telah diterima sebagai kebenaran, + k!nsepsi dunia ilmiah mendikte apa yang b!leh diterima se#ara fil!s!fis, karena filsafat diturunkan menjadi peran sekunder, tugas justifikasi sains tidak lagi dianggap esensial. ain menentukan apa yang dimaksud dengan kebenaran, dan tidak ada ruang untuk mempertanyakan apakah sain satu"satunya kebanaran atau hanya sebuah jalan menuju kebenaran.( R' Tri(() "ala#
Rationality an" S!ien!e)

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G. 0RIENTASI FILSAFAT ILMU Se!e$a& men#ena$ pen#e(! an %an ma"na apa !u * $sa*a! %an apa ! $mu, ma"a pema&aman men#ena * $sa*a! $mu ! %a" a"an !e($a$u men#a$am "esu$ !an. Ha$ n ! %a" ,e(a(! ,a&.a %a$am mema"na * $sa*a! $mu ! n##a$ men##a,un#"an "e%ua pen#e(! an !e(se,u!, se,a, se,a#a sua!u s! $a&, * $sa*a! $mu !e$a& men#a$am pe("em,an#an pen#e(! an se(!a pa(a a"&$ pun !e$a& mem,e( "an pen#e(! an 'an# ,e(-a( as , namun %em " an pema&aman !en!an# ma"na * $sa*a! %an ma"na $mu a"an san#a! mem,an!u %a$am mema&am pen#e(! an %an ma"na * $sa*a! $mu 1Philosophy of science2. Pa%a %asa(n'a * $sa*a! $mu me(upa"an "a+ an * $)s)* s !e(&a%ap &a$0&a$ 'an# ,e("a !an %en#an $mu, %en#an "a!a $a n * $sa*a! $mu me(upa"an upa'a pen#"a+ an %an pen%a$aman men#ena $mu 1I$mu Pen#e!a&uan5Sa ns2, ,a " !u / ( su,s!ans n'a, peme()$e&ann'a, a!aupun man*aa! $mu ,a# "e& %upan manus a. Pen#"a+ an !e(se,u! ! %a" !e($epas %a( a/uan p)")" * $sa*a! 'an# !e(/a"up %a$am , %an# ontologi, epistemologi, %an a)iologi %en#an ,e(,a#a pen#em,an#an %an pen%a$aman 'an# % $a"u"an )$e& pa(a a"&$ . Se/a(a & s!)( s * $sa*a! % pan%an# se,a#a the mother of sciences a!au n%u" se#a$a $mu, &a$ n se+a$an %en#an pen#a"uan 2escartes 'an# men'a!a"an ,a&.a p( ns p0p( ns p %asa( $mu % am, $ %a( * $sa*a!. F $sa*a! a$am men%)()n# $a& (n'a $mu0 $mu "ea$aman, * $sa*a! s)s a$ me$a& ("an $mu0 $mu s)s a$, namun %a$am pe("em,an#ann'a %)m nas $mu san#a! men)n+)$, ,a&"an a%a 'an# men'a!a"an !e$a& !e(+a% upa'a pe(/e(a an an!a(a * $sa*a! %en#an $mu, mes" &a$ !u se,ena(n'a &an'a upa'a men'em,un' "an asa$ usu$n'a a!au pe(pa%uann'a sepe(! !e($ &a! %a( un#"ap"an 1188=2 ,a&.a > meskipun sains mo ern men eklarasikan in epen ensinya ari aliran filsafat tertentu' namun ia sen iri tetap "er asarkan se"uah i alamnya 66 pemahaman filosofis partikular "aik tentang karakteristik alam maupun pengetahuan kita tentangnya'
PENGANTAR FILSAFAT ILMU/UHAR SUHARSAPUTRA

Husein 7asr

an unsur terpenting

a alah /artesianisme yang tetap "ertahan se"agai "agian inheren ari pan angan unia ilmiah mo ern %)m nas $mu !e(u!ama ap$ "as n'a %a$am ,en!u" !e"n)$)# !e$a& men+a% "an

pem " (an0pem " (an * $)s)* s /en%e(un# !e(p n## ("an, &a$ n ,e(%ampa" pa%a /a(a ,e(* " ( 'an# san#a! p(a#ma! s0emp ( s %an pa(! a$, se(!a /en%e(un# men#an##ap pem " (an (a% "a$ * $)s)* s se,a#a sesua!u 'an# as n# %an !e(asa ! %a" p(a"! s, pa%a&a$ $mu 'an# ,e("em,an# %e.asa n % %a$amn'a !e(%apa! pema&aman * $)s)* s 'an# men%asa( n'a se,a#a mana "a!a 7asr . Pe("em,an#an $mu meman# !e$a& ,an'a" pen#a(u&n'a ,a# "e& %upan manus a, ,e(,a#a "emu%a&an & %up !e$a& ,an'a" % (asa"an, semua n !e$a& menum,u&"an "e'a" nan ,a&.a $mu me(upa"an sua!u sa(ana 'an# pen! n# ,a# "e& %upan, ,a&"an $e, & +au& $mu % an##ap se,a#a %asa( ,a# sua!u u"u(an "e,ena(an. A"an !e!ap "en'a!aan menun+u"an ,a&.a ! %a" semua masa$a& %apa! % %e"a! %en#an pen%e"a!an $m a&, se"ua! apapun upa'a !u % $a"u"an, sepe(! "a!a Leenhou%ers 'an# men'a!a"an> .alaupun ilmu pengetahuan mencari pengertian menero"os realitas sen iri' pengertian itu hanya icari i tataran empiris an eksperimental. Ilmu pengetahuan mem"atasi kegiatannya hanya pa a fenomena9fenomena' yang entah langsung atau ti ak langsung' ialami ari pancain ra. 2engan kata lain ilmu pengetahuan ti ak menero"os kepa a inti o"*eknya yang sama sekali tersem"unyi ari o"ser(asi. $aka ia ti ak mem"eri *a%a"an prihal kausalitas yang paling alam. pe(n'a!aan % a!as men# n% "as "an ,a&.a a%a$a& su$ ! ,a&"an ! %a" mun#" n $mu mampu menem,us ,a!as0,a!as 'an# men+a% . $a'a&n'a 'an# san#a! ,e(!umpu pa%a *a"!a emp ( s, meman# ! %a" , sa % an##ap se,a#a "e#a#a$an , $a %em " an se$ama "$a m "e,ena(an 'an# % san%an#n'a

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% ,e($a"u"an %a$am . $a'a&n'a sen% ( , namun + "a &a$ !u menu!up p n!u (e*$e"s (a% "a$ !e(&a%ap $mu ma"a &a$ n mun#" n , sa men+a% an/aman ,a# upa'a mema&am "e& %upan se/a(a u!u& %an "e"a'aan % mens % %a$amn'a. Mes" pun %a$am !a&ap a.a$ pe("em,an#an pem " (an manus a "&ususn'a +aman Dunan "un) / "a$ ,a"a$ $mu !e(pa%u %a$am * $sa*a!, namun pa%a !a&ap se$an+u!n'a !e(n'a!a !e$a& me$a& ("an ,e(,a#a % s p$ n $mu 'an# mas n#0mas n# mempun'a asums * $)s)* sn'a 1"&ususn'a !en!an# manus a2 mas n#0mas n#. I$mu e")n)m meman%an# manus a se,a#a homo economicus 'a"n ma"&$u" 'an# memen! n#"an % ( sen% ( %an &e%)n s, semen!a(a s)s )$)# meman%an# manus a se,a#a homo socius 'a"n ma"&$u" 'an# se$a$u n# n ,e(")mun "as %an ,e"e(+asama %en#an 'an# $a n, &a$ n menun+u"an sua!u pan%an#an manus a 'an# *(a#men!a( s %an ")n!(a% "! *, meman# % a"u ,a&.a %en#an asums m)%e$ n $mu0 $mu !e(us ,e("em,an# %an ma" n !e(spes a$ sas , %an %en#an ma" n !e(spes a$ sas ma"a ana$ s sn'a ma" n !a+am, namun se ( n# %en#an !u &as $0&as $ pene$ ! an $m a& se$a$u ,e(usa&a un!u" mampu mem,ua! #ene(a$ sas , &a$ n nampa" sepe(! contra ictio in terminis (pertentangan alam istilah) Den#an %em " an e"s s!ens $mu mes! n'a ! %a" % pan%an# se,a#a sesua!u 'an# su%a& * na$, %a pe($u % "( ! s , % "a+ , ,u"an un!u" me$ema&"ann'a !ap un!u" memp)s s "an se/a(a !epa! %a$am ,a!as

. $a'a&n'a, &a$ n pun %apa! mem,an!u !e(& n%a( %a( memu!$a"an $mu %an men#an##ap $mu %an "e,ena(an $m a& se,a#a sa!u0sa!un'a "e,ena(an, % samp n# pe($u !e(us % upa'a"an un!u" me$ &a! %a$am mempe(a%a, manus a. Da$am &u,un#an n $mu se/a(a * $sa*a! n!e#(a$ ,e(#an%en#an %en#an % mens %an , %an# $a n 'an# & %up %an ,e("em,an# $mu a"an mem,u"a"an .a.asan !en!an# ,a#a mana se,ena(n'a su,s!ans $mu !u, &a$ n "a(ena * $sa*a! $mu me(upa"an pen#"a+ an $an+u!an, 'an# menu(u! Beerleng' se"agai Re*$e"s se"un%e( a!as $$mu %an n me(upa"an s'a(a!
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mu!$a" un!u" menen!an# ,a&a'a 'an# men+u(us "epa%a "ea%aan /e(a ,e(a se(!a pe(!um,u&an 'an# ! %a" se m,an# %a( $mu0 $mu 'an# a%a, me$a$u pema&aman !en!an# asas0asas, $a!a( ,e$a"an# se(!a &u,un#an 'an# % m $ " 5% $a"sana"an )$e& sua!u "e# a!an $m a&. H. PERKEM&ANGAN FILSAFAT ILMU Se/a(a umum %apa! % "a!a"an ,a&.a se+a" pe(an# %un a "e 2, 'an# !e$a& men#&an/u("an "e& %upan manus a, pa(a I$mu.an ma" n men'a%a( ,a&.a pe("em,an#an $mu %an pen/apa ann'a !e$a& men#a" ,a!"an ,an'a" pen%e( !aan manus a , n ! %a" !e($epas %a( pen#em,an#an $mu %an !e"n)$)# 'an# ! %a" % $an%as )$e& n $a 0n $a m)(a$ se(!a ")m !men e! s %an a#am s pa%a nas , manus a , pa%a&a$ !l"ert Einstein pa%a !a&un 1836 %a$am pesann'a pa%a Ma&as s.a Ca$ *)(n a Ins! !u!e )* Te/&n)$)#' men#a!a"an E Pe(&a! an "epa%a manus a !u sen% ( %an nas ,n'a &a(us se$a$u me(upa"an pe(&a! an pa%a masa$a& ,esa( 'an# !a" "un+un# !e(pe/a&"an %a( pen#a!u(an "e(+a %an peme(a!aan ,en%a, a#a( ,ua& / p!aan %a( pem " (an " !a a"an me(upa"an ,e("a& %an ,u"an "u!u"an !e(&a%ap "emanus aan 1Bu+un S Su( asuman!( , 1888 > 248 2. A"an !e!ap pen+a!u&an ,)m % H ()s ma %an Na#asa" !a&un 184; menun+u"an ,a&.a pe("em,an#an p!e" !e$a& men#a" ,a!"an "esen#sa(aan manus a , mes" % sa%a( ! %a" semua &as $ pen/apa an p!e" %em " an, namun &a$ !u !e$a& men/)(en# $mu %an men' mpan# %a( pesan !l"ert

Einstein, se& n##a &a$ !u !e$a& men m,u$"an "ep( &a! nan * $)s)* !en!an# a(a& "ema+uan pe(a%a,an manus a se,a#a a" ,a! pe("em,an#an $mu 1Ip!e"2 . Un!u" !u nampa"n'a pa(a * $)s)* %an $muan pe($u me(enun# apa 'an# % "emu"a"an Harol H &itus %a$am ,u"un'a L - n# Issues n P $)s)p&' 118;82, ,e$ au men#u! * ,e,e(apa pen%apa! /en% " a.an sepe(! 7orthrop 'an# men#a!a"an E it %oul seem that the more ci(ili-e %e "ecome ' the more incapa"le of maintaining ci(ili-ation %e are F, %em " an +u#a pe(n'a!aan 69

PENGANTAR FILSAFAT ILMU/UHAR SUHARSAPUTRA

Le%is $umfor

'an# ,e(, /a(a !en!an# E the in(isi"le "reak o%n in our

ci(ilio-ation : erosion of (alue' the issipation of human purpose' the enial of any ictinction "et%een goo an "a ' right or %rong' the re(ersion to su" human con uctH (Harol H &itus' 8BCB : >) Un#"apan !e(se,u! % a!as &an'a un!u" menun+u"an ,a&.a memasu" %asa.a(sa 18=:0an "e/en%e(un#an mempe(!an'a"an man*aa! $mu men+a% &a$ 'an# pen! n#, se& n##a pa%a pe( )%e n 118=:0189:2 % mens a"s )$)# s men+a% pe(&a! an pa(a * $)s)*, &a$ n !a" $a n un!u" men up"an (u& e! s %an a#am s pa%a $mu, a#a( peman*aa!ann'a %apa! men+a% ,e("a& ,a# manus a %an "emanus aan , se& n##a !e$aa& pa%a *a"!a emp ( s ,e("em,an# "e pen/a( an ma"na % ,a$ "n'a a!au sepe(! 'an# % "emu"a"an oleh Prof. 2r. H. Ismaun' $.P 12::: > 1312 %a( !e$aa& p)s ! - s! " "e !e$aa& me!a0s/ en/e 'an# % mu$a se+a" !a&un 18=;. Memasu" !a&un 189:0an , pen/a( an ma"na $mu mu$a ,e("em,an# "&ususn'a % "a$an#an pem " ( mus$ m , ,a&"an pa%a %asa.a(sa n $a& ( #e(a"an s$am sas $mu, &a$ n ! %a" !e($epas %a( s "ap ap)$)#e! " uma! s$am !e(&a%ap "ema+uan ,a(a!, sampa 0sampa a%a %e un!u" me$a"u"an se"u$a( sas , sepe(! 'an# % $)n!a("an )$e& 7urcholis $a*i pa%a !a&un 1894 'an# "emu% an ,an'a" men%apa! (ea"s "e(as %a( pem " (0pem " ( Is$am sepe(! %a( Prof. H.$ ,asyi i an En ang Saifu in !nshori . Mu$a a.a$ !a&un 186:0an, ma" n ,an'a" "a('a /en%e" a.an mus$ m 'an# ,e(, /a(a sepe(! !en!an# n!e#(as $mu %an a#ama a!au s$am sas -a( as $mu, $mu sepe(! !e($ &a! %a( ,e(,a#a "a('a me(e"a 'an# men/a"up

karya Ilyas Ba Yunus !en!an# S)s )$)# Is$am, se(!a "a('a0"a('a

% , %an# e")n)m , seperti karya Sye Hai er 7aq(i Etika an Ilmu Ekonomi' karya 6mar /hapra !l DurIan' menu*u sistem moneter yang a il' %an "a('a0 "a('a $a nn'a , 'an# pa%a n! n'a semua !u me(upa"an upa'a penu$ sn'a un!u" men+a% "an $mu0 $mu !e(se,u! mempun'a $an%asan n $a s$am. 70

PENGANTAR FILSAFAT ILMU/UHAR SUHARSAPUTRA

Memasu" !a&un 188:0an , "&ususn'a % In%)ses a !e(&a%ap m)%e(n sme 'an# ,e(,as s p)s ! - sme a#ama.

pe(, n/an#an

* $sa*a! % (ama "an %en#an .a/ana p)s! m)%e(n sme, se,a#a sua!u "( ! " 'an# se( n# men#"$a m un -e(sa$ !as $mu, +u#a % s"u(sus p)s! m)%e(n sme memasu" "a+ an0"a+ an

P)s! m)%e(n sme 'an# se( n# % &u,un#"an %en#an $ichael 1occault %an 2erri a %en#an ,e,e(apa ")nsep5pa(a% #ma 'an# ")n!(a% "! * %en#an m)%e(n sme sepe(! %e")ns!(u"s , %esen!(a$ sas , n & $ sme %s,, 'an# pa%a "e! m,an# na(as 0na(as %asa(n'a n# n menempa!"an na(as 0na(as "e/ $ %a$am ,u"un'a Post mo ernism' ,eason an

,esa(, namun p)s! m)%e(n sme men%apa! "( ! " "e(as %a( Ernest 5ellner ,eligion 'an# !e(, ! pa%a !a&un1882. D a men'a!a"an ,a&.a p)s! m)%e(n sme a"an men+u(us pa%a (e$a! - sme %an un!u" !u % a men#a+u"an ")nsep *un%amen!a$ sme (as )na$ s, "a(ena (as )na$ !as me(upa"an s!an%a( 'an# ,e($a"u $ n!as ,u%a'a. D samp n# !u #e(a"an men up"an n $a 0n $a a#ama pa%a $mu ma" n ,e("em,an#, ,a&"an un!u" In%)nes a % sam,u! &an#a! )$e& u$ama %an mas'a(a"a! !e($ &a! %a( ,e(% ( n'a BMI, 'an# pa%a %asa(n'a &a$ n ! %a" !e($epas %a( #e(a"an s$am sas $mu, "&ususn'a %a$am , %an# $mu e")n)m . Dan pa%a pe( )%e n pu$a !e"n)$)# n*)(mas san#a! $ua( , asa ,

,e(a" ,a! pa%a ma" n p$u(a$n'a pe(, n/an#an5% s"u(sus * $sa*a!, se& n##a su$ ! menen!u"an % s"u(sus mana 'an# pa$ n# men)n+)$, &a$ n mun#" n sesua %en#an apa 'an# % #am,a("an )$e& !l(in &ofler se"agai &he thir .a(e' % mana n*)(mas ma" n /epa! memasu" ,e(,a#a ,e$a&an %un a 'an# pa%a # $ (ann'a a"an men#a" ,a!"an "e+u!an0"e+u!an ,u%a'a !a" !e("e/ua$ , %an# pem " (an * $sa*a!. Mes" pun nampa"n'a p("em,an#an F $sa*a! $mu e(a! "a !an %en#an % mens aG )$)# a!au n $a 0n $a peman*aa!an $mu, namun %a$am pe("em,an#ann'a "ea%aan !e(se,u! !e$a& +u#a men%)()n# pa(a a"&$ un!u"
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$e, & men/e(ma! apa se,ena(n'a $mu !u a!au apa &a"e"a! $mu, men# n#a! % mens )n!)$)# s se,ena(n'a pun'a "a !an %en#an % mens 0% mens $a nn'a sepe(! )n!)$)# %an ep s!em)$)# , se& n##a %ua % mens 'an# !e(a"& ( pun men%apa! e-a$uas u$an# %an pen#"a+ an 'an# se( us. D an!a(a !)n##a" pen! n# %a$am , %an# "a+ an $mu 1* $sa*a! $mu2 a%a$a& !e(, !n'a Bu"u &he Structure of Scientific ,e(olution 'an# % !u$ s )$e& &homas S #uhn, 'an# un!u" pe(!ama "a$ n'a !e(, ! !a&un 18=2, ,u"u n me(upa"an se,ua& "a('a 'an# m)numen!a$ men#ena pe("em,an#an se+a(a& %an * $sa*a! sa ns, % mana % %a$amn'a pa(a% #ma men+a% ")nsep sen!(a$, % samp n# ")nsep sa ns5 $mu n)(ma$. Da$am pan%an#an Ku&n $mu pen#e!a&uan ! %a" &an'a pen#umpu$an *a"!a un!u" mem,u"! "an sua!u !e)( , se,a, se$a$u a%a an)ma$ 'an# %apa! mema!a&"an !e)( 'an# !e$a& %)m nan. Pen/apa an0pen/apa an manus a %a$am , %an# pem " (an $m a& !e$a& men#&as $"an !e)( 0!e)( , "emu% an !e)( 0!e)( !e(spes * "as "an ,e(%asa("an "a(a"!e( s! " !e(!en!u "e %aLam sua!u I$mu. I$mu 1!e)( 2 !e(se,u! "emu% an % "em,an#"an , % u+ se& n##a men+a% mapan %an men+a% %asa( ,a# ( se!0 ( se! se$an+u!n'a , ma"a I$mu 1sa ns2 !e(se,u! men+a% sa ns n)(ma$ 'a !u ( se! 'an# %en#an !e#u& ,e(%asa( a!as sua!u pen/apa an $m a& 'an# $a$u, pen/apa an 'an# )$e& mas'a(a"a! % n'a!a"an se,a#a pem,e( *un%as 1 T&)mas S Ku&n, 2::: >1: 2 . Pen/apa an pem " (an $m a& !e(se,u! %an !e(,en!u"n'a sa ns 'an# n)(ma$ "emu% an men+a% pa(a% #ma, 'an# ,e(a(! Eapa 'an# % m $ " ,e(sama )$e& an##)!a sua!u mas'a(a"a! sa ns %an se,a$ "n'a mas'a(a"a! sa ns !e(% ( a!as )(an# 'an# mem $ " sua!u pa(a% #ma !e(!en!u 1 T&)mas S Ku&n, 2::: > 191 2. Pa(a% #ma %a( sa ns 'an# n)(ma$ "emu% an men%)()n# ( se! n)(ma$ 'an# /en%e(un# se% " ! se"a$ % !u+u"an un!u" men#&as $"an penemuan ,a(u 'an# ")nsep!ua$ a!au 'an# &e,a! 1. T&)mas S Ku&n, 2::: > 72 $m a& !e(!en!u pa%a sua!u "e! "a ,a# p(a"!e" 1( se!2 se$an+u!n'a

PENGANTAR FILSAFAT ILMU/UHAR SUHARSAPUTRA

134 2. In ,e(a" ,a! ,a&.a sa ns 'an# n)(ma$, "e#unaann'a

san#a!

,e(man*aa! %an ,e(s *a! "umu$a! *. Te)( 'an# mempe()$e& pen#a"uan s)s a$ a"an men+a% pa(a% #ma, %an ")n% s n me(upa"an pe( )%e $mu n)(ma$. Kema+uan $mu ,e(a.a$ %a( pe(+uan#an ")mpe! s ,e(,a#a !e)( un!u" men%apa! pen#a"uan n!e(su,+e"! * %a( sua!u mas'a(a"a! $mu. Da$am pe( )%e sa n n)(ma$ $mu &an'a$a& me(upa"an pem,ena(an0pem,ena(an sesua %en#an asums 0asums paa(a% #ma 'an# % anu! mas'a(a"a! !e(se,u!, n ! %a" $a n % "a(ena"an pa(a% #ma 'an# ,e($a"u !e$a& men+a% pa!)"an ,a# $mu un!u" me$a"u"an pene$ ! an, meme/a&"an masa$a&, a!au ,a&"an men'e$e"s masa$a&0masa$a& 'an# $a'a" % , /a(a"an %an % "a+ A"an !e!ap % %a$am pe("em,an#an se$an+u!n'a $mu.an ,an'a"

menemu"an &a$0&a$ ,a(u 'an# se( n# men#e+u!"an, semua n % a.a$ %en#an "esa%a(an a"an an)ma$ a!as p(e% "s 0p(e% "s pa(a% #ma sa ns n)(ma$, "emu% an pan%an#an 'an# an)ma$ n % "em,an#"an sampa a"& (n'a n se( n# san#a! % !emu"an pa(a% #ma ,a(u 'an# mana pe(u,a&an 'an# ,a(u sampa % !emu"an $a#

(e-)$us )ne(. Pa(a% #ma ,a(u !e(se,u! "emu% an me$a& ("an sa n n)(ma$ pa(a% #ma ,a(u ,e( "u!n'a. B $a % #am,a("an nampa" se,a#a ,e( "u! >

Pen/apa an Manus a %a$am pem " (an $m a& Sa ns N)(ma$ Pa(a% #ma An)ma$ Pe(u,a&an pa(a% #ma5 (e-)$us sa ns Sa ns N)(ma$ 'an# ,a(u
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Pa(a% #ma Ba(u Gambar 4.2( Struktur perubahan ke9Ilmuan Pen/apa an sa n n)(ma$ %an pa(a% #ma ,a(u ,u"an$a& a"& ( , !ap men+a% a.a$ ,a# p()ses pe(u,a&an pa(a% #ma %an (e-)$us sa ns ,e( "u!n'a, , $a !e(%apa! an)ma$ a!as p(e% "s sa ns n)(ma$ 'an# ,a(u !e(se,u!. Pen%apa! Ku&n !e(se,u! pa%a %asa(n'a men# n% "as "an ,a&.a se/a(a su,s!ans a$ "e,ena(an $mu ,u"an$a& sesua!u 'an# !a" !e(#)'a&"an, sua!u pa(a% #ma 'an# ,e($a"u pa%a sua!u saa!, pa%a saa! 'an# $a n , sa !e(#an! "an %en#an pa(a% #ma ,a(u 'an# !e$a& men%apa! pen#a"uan %a( mas'a(a"a! $m a&, !u ,e(a(! sua!u !e)( s *a!n'a san#a! !en!a! * se"a$ . I. )IRI.)IRI ILMU M0DERN Da$am ,a, !e(%a&u$u !e$a& % "emu"a"an / ( 0/ ( %a( sua!u $mu, / ( 0/ ( !e(se,u! pa%a p( ns pn'a me(upa"an sua!u 'an# n)(ma! * %a$am sua!u % s p$ n "e $muan. Namun %a$am pe("em,an#ann'a $mu "&ususn'a !e"n)$)# se,a#a ap$ "as %a( $mu !e$a& ,an'a" men#a$am pe(u,a&an 'an# san#a!a /epa!, pe(u,a&an n ,e(%ampa" pa%a pan%an#an mas'a(a"a! !en!an# &a"e"a! $mu, pe()$e&an $mu, se(!a man*aa!n'a ,a# mas'a(a"a!, se& n##a $mu /en%e(un# % an##ap se,a#a sa!u0sa!un'a "e,ena(an %a$am men%asa( ,e(,a#a "e, +a"an "emas'a(a"a!an, se(!a !e$a& men+a% %asa( pen! n# 'an# mempen#a(u& penen!uan p( $a"u manus a. Kea%aan n ,e(a" ,a! pa%a "a(a"!e( sas / ( $mu m)%e(n, a%apun / ( 0/ ( !e(se,u! a%a$a& > 1. Be(!umpu pa%a pa(a% #ma p)s ! - sme. C( n !e($ &a! %a( pen#em,an#an $mu %an !e"n)$)# 'an# "u(an# mempe(&a! "an aspe" n $a ,a " e! s maupun a#am s, "a(ena meman# sa$a& sa!u a"s )ma p)s ! - sme a%a$a& (alue free 'an# men%)()n# !um,u&n'a p( ns p science for science.

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2. Men%)()n# pa%a !um,u&n'a s "ap &e%)n sme %an ")nsume( sme. Be(,a#a pen#em,an#an $mu %an !e"n)$)# se$a$u men#a/u pa%a upa'a un!u" men n#"a!"an "en "ma!an & %up , mes" pun &a$ !u %apa! men%)()n# #e(san#n'a (u&an manus a a" ,a! ma" n memas'a(a"a!n'a ,u%a'a ")nsume( sme 'an# !e(us % pupu" )$e& me% a !e"n)$)# m)%e(n sepe(! "$an ,esa(0,esa(an 'an# %apa! men/ p!a"an "e,u!u&an semu 'an# 'an# )$e& He(,e(! Ma(/use % %e* n s "an se,a#a "e,u!u&an !e(!en!u %a$am (ep(es n'a 1M. Sas!(apa!e%+a, 1862 > 12;2 3. Pe("em,an#ann'a san#a! /epa! . Pen/apa an sa n %%an !e"n)$)# m)%e(n menun+u"an pe(/epa!an 'an# mena"+u,"an , ,e(u,a& ! %a" %a$am .a"!u !a&unan $a# ,a&"an mun#" n %a$am & !un#an &a( , n +e$as san#a! ,e(,e%a %enn#an pe("em,an#an p!e" se,e$umn'a 'an# "a$au menu(u! A$* n T)*$e( %a( 1(e-)$us #e$)m,an# pe(!ama 1(e-)$us pe(!an an2 meme($u"an .a"!u ( ,uan !a&un un!u" men/apa #e$)m,an# "e %ua n%us!( , % mana se,a#a mana % "e!a&u #e$)m,an# !e(se,u! !e(+a% a" ,a! pen/apa an sa ns %an !e"n)$)# . 4. Be(s *a! e"sp$) !a! * !e(&a%ap $ n#"un#an. Be(,a#a "e(usa"an $ n#"un#an & %up%e.asa n ! %a" !e($epas %a( pen/apa an p!e" 'an# "u(an# mempe(&a! "an %ampa" $ n#"un#an. J. PARADIGMA ILMU M0DERN MENURUT &E&ERAPA ALIRAN Se/a(a & s!)( s pa(a% #ma sa ns !e$a& men#a$am !a&apan0!a&apan pe(u,a&an se,a#a mana % "emu"a"an )$e& S Nasu! )n %a$am "ukunya G$eto e penelitian naturalistik kualitatif (8BBA : >). Ta&ap pe(!ama % se,u! masa p(a0p)s ! - sme, 'an# % a.a$ %a( +aman A( s! !e$es sampa Da- % Hume, % mana ap$ "as n'a %a$am pene$ ! an a%a$a& men#ama! se/a(a pas *, ! %a" a%a upa'a meman pu$as $ n#"un#an %an me$a"u"an e"spe( men !e(&a%ap $ n#"un#an . Ta&apan n "emu% an ,e(#an! %en#an !a&apan p)s ! - sme, % mana pa(a% #ma n men+a% %asa( ,a# me!)%e $m a& %en#an
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,en!u" pene$ ! an "uan! !a! * , 'an# men/),a men/a( p( ns p0p( ns p a!au &u"um0&u"um umum !en!an# %un a "en'a!aan . Pa(a% #ma ,e( "u!n'a 'an# mun/u$ a%a$a& pa(a% #ma p)s! p)s ! - sme se,a#a (ea"s a!as pen% ( an p)s ! - sme, % mana %a$am pan%an#an n , "e,ena(an ,u"an sesua!u 'an# !un##a$ 1 ! s an n/(eas n# /)mp$eG !'2 se,a#a mana % 'a" n p)s ! - sme. Namun %em " an pa(a% #ma 'an# pa$ n# men)n+)$ % +aman m)%e(n n nampa"n'a a%a$a& p)s ! - sme, mes" pun a%a ,e,e(apa sempa$an %a$am p)s ! - sme !u 1A&ma% Sanus , Ma+a$a& Ma!a&a( > 122. Un!u" $e, & men#e!a&u ,e(,a#a pa(a% #ma sa ns m)%e(n, penu$ s sa+ "an !a,e$ ,e( "u! 'an# % "u! p )$e& A&ma% Sanus %a$am Ma+a$a& Ma!a&a( &a$aman 12 se,a#a ,e( "u! > "abel 4.2. &acam9macam Paradigma Ilmu
ALIRAN PARADIGMA WACANA ILMU POSITIVISTIK SUMBER/DAYA / POTENSI PENGERTIAN DAN TUGASNYA Akal sehat a! "elak#ka! $%se&'as( Nala& &e+lekt(+ a! Me!e"#ka! Mak!a I!t#(s( a! Me!e"#ka! Met$ a BENTUK PENGETAHUAN DAN TUGASNYA E")(&(kal Stat(s* t(k a! "e"(l(h "et$ a E")(&(kal stat(st(kal a! Me!,#s#! +akta Te$&(t(kal F(l$s$+(s S#%,ekt('(tas T&a!se! e!tal. a! "e!/elaska! te$&( Te$&(t(kal F(l$s$+(s Me!e"#ka! Mak!a Pe&s$!al S$s(al a! Melak#ka! O%se&'as( Pe&s$!al S$s(al a! Me!e"#ka! Fakta Te$&( K$hes( Te$&(t(k TITIK BERAT PADA +akta MODEL VERIFIKASI MODALITAS MENYELURUH ESENSI ONTOLOGIS

K$!s(ste!s( a! Ke)ast(a! ,a!e")(&(kal. &as($!al/l$-(s K$!s(ste!s( e")(&(kal K$hes( te$&(t(k

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Pa(a% #ma0pa(a% #ma 'an# !e(/an!um %a$am !a,e$ !e(se,u! mas & %apa! % "e$)mp)"an pa%a "a!e#)( 'an# sama a!au men%e"a! . D $ &a! %a( esens )n!)$)# sn'a pa(a% #ma p)s ! - s! " sama %en#an pen#ama! pa(! s pan 'a"n ,a&.a (ea$ !as !u !e(p sa&, pa(a% #ma !e)( ! s sama %en#an pa(a% #ma "( ! s, se%an# pa(a% #ma *)(ma$ s! " s!(u"!u(a$ s sama %en#an pa(a% #ma n!e(p(e!a! *. D $ &a! %a( sum,e(, p)s ! - s! " sama %en#an pen#ama! pa(! s pan %an men%e"a! pa(a% #ma n!e(p(e!a! * se(!a *)(ma$ s! " s!(u"!u(a$ s, se%an#"an pa(a% #ma !e)( ! s sama %en#an pa(a% #ma "( ! s. Da( se# ,en!u" pen#e!a&uan, p)s ! - s! " sama %en#an *)(ma$ s! ", n!e(p(e!a! * sama %en#an !e)( ! s, se%an#"an pa(a% #ma "( ! s sama %en#an pa(a% #ma pen#ama! pa(! s pan , %em " an +u#a % $ &a! %a( se# m)%e$ -e( * "as ,an'a" "esamaann'a, &an'a %a( !u#as %an ! ! " ,e(a! "eenam pa(a% #ma !u ,e(,e%a. Namun %em " an pa(a% #ma 'an# pa$ n# men)n+)$ se"a(an# n a%a$a& pa(a% #ma p)s ! - s! ", % mana "en'a!aan menun+u"an pa(a% #ma n ,an'a" mem,e( "an sum,an#an ,a# pe("em,an#an !e"n)$)# %e.asa n , a"an !e!ap ! %a" ,e(a(! pa(a% #ma $a nn'a ! %a" ,e(pe(an , pe(anann'a !e!ap a%a !e(u!ama %a$am &a$0&a$ 'an# !a" %apa! % +e$as"an )$e& pa(a% #ma p)s ! - s! " , &a$ n !e($ &a! %en#an ,e("em,an#n'a pa(a% #ma na!u(a$ s! " 'an# !e$a& men%)()n# ,e("em,an#n'a pene$ ! an "ua$ !a! * . )$e& "a(ena !u nampa"n'a pa(a% #ma0pa(a% #ma !e(se,u! ! %a" ,e(s *a! sa$ n# men#& $an#"an !ap $e, & ,e(s pa! sa$ n# me$en#"ap , &a$ n % %asa( "e'a" nan ,e!apa ")mp$e"sn'a (ea$ !as %un a %an "e& %upan % %a$amn'a. K. HU&UNGAN FILSAFAT DENGAN ILMU
Mes" pun se/a(a & s!)( s an!a(a $mu %an * $sa*a! pe(na& me(upa"an sua!u "esa!uan, namun %a$am pe("em,an#ann'a men#a$am % -e(#ens , % mana %)m nas $mu $e, & "ua! mempen#a(u& pem " (an manus a, ")n% s n men%)()n# pa%a upa'a un!u" memp)s s "an "e %uan'a se/a(a !epa! sesua %en#an ,a!as . $a'a&n'a

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mas n#0mas n#, ,u"an un!u" men# s)$as n'a me$a n"an un!u" $e, & +e(n & me$ &a! &u,un#an "e%uan'a %a$am ")n!e"s $e, & mema&am "&aHana& n!e$e"!uan manus a Harol H. &itus men#a"u "esu$ !an un!u" men'a!a"an se/a(a !e#as %an

( n#"as men#ena &u,un#an an!a(a $mu %an * $sa*a!, "a(ena !e(%apa! pe(samaan se"a$ #us pe(,e%aan an!a(a $mu %an * $sa*a!, % samp n# % "a$an#an $mu.an sen% ( !e(%apa! pe(,e%aan pan%an#an %a$am &a$ s *a! %an "e!e(,a!asan $mu, % m " an +u#a % "a$an#an * $su* !e(%apa! pe(,e%aan pan%an#an %a$am mem,e( "an ma"na %an !u#as * $sa*a!.

A%apaun pe(samaan 1$e, & !epa!n'a pe(sesua an2 an!a(a $mu %an * $sa*a! a%a$a& ,a&.a "e%uan'a men##una"an ,e(* " ( (e*$e"! * %a$am upa'a men#&a%ap 5mema&am *a"!a0*a"!a %un a %an "e& %upan, !e(&a%ap &a$0&a$ !e(se,u! ,a " * $sa*a! maupun $mu ,e(s "ap "( ! s, ,e(* " (an !e(,u"a se(!a san#a! ")nse(n pa%a "e,ena(an, % samp n# pe(&a! ann'a pa%a pen#e!a&uan 'an# !e()(#an s s( %an s s!ema! s. Semen!a(a !u pe(,e%aan * $sa*a! %en#an $mu $e, & ,e("a !an %en#an ! ! " !e"an, % mana $mu men#"a+ , %an# 'an# !e(,a!as, $mu $e, & ,e(s *a! ana$ ! s %an %es"( p! * %a$am pen%e"a!ann'a, $mu men##una"an ),se(-as , e"spe( men %an "$as * "as %a!a pen#a$aman n%(a se(!a ,e(upa'a un!u" menemu"an &u"um0&u"um a!as #e+a$a0#e+a$a !e(se,u!, se%an#"an * $sa*a! ,e(upa'a men#"a+ pen#a$aman se/a(a men'e$u(u& se& n##a $e, & ,e(s *a! n"$us * %an men/a"up &a$0&a$ umum %a$am ,e(,a#a , %an# pen#a$aman manus a, * $sa*a! $e, & ,e(s *a! s n!e! s %an s n)p! s %an "a$aupun ana$ ! s ma"a ana$ san'a memasu" % mens "e& %upan se/a(a men'e$u(u& %an u!u&, * $sa*a! $e, & !e(!a( " pa%a pe(!an'aan "enapa %an ,a#a mana %a$am &u,un#an an!a(a !emuan0 mempe(!an'a"an masa$a& &u,un#an an!a(a *a"!a "&usus %en#an s"ema masa$a& 'an# $e, & $uas, * $sa*a! +u#a men#"a+ !emuan $mu %en#an "$a m a#ama, m)(a$ se(!a sen . Den#an mempe(&a! "an un#"apan % a!as nampa" ,a&.a * $sa*a! mempun'a ,a!asan 'an# $e, & $uas %an men'e$u(u& "e! m,an# $mu, n ,e(a(! ,a&.a apa 'an# su%a& ! %a" , sa % +a.a, )$e& $mu, ma"a * $sa*a!
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,e(upa'a men/a( +a.a,ann'a, ,a&"an $mu !u sen% ( , sa % pe(!an'a"an a!au % +a% "an ),+e" "a+ an * $sa*a! 1F $sa*a! I$mu2, namun %em " an * $sa*a! %an $mu mempun'a "esamaan %a$am men#&a%ap ),+e" "a+ ann'a 'a"n ,e(* " ( (e*$e"! * %an s s!ema! s, mes" %en#an ! ! " !e"an pen%e"a!an 'an# ,e(,e%a.
2engan emikian' Ilmu men#"a+ &a$0&a$ 'an# ,e(s *a! emp ( s %an %apa! % ,u"! "an, filsafat men/),a men/a( +a.a,an !e(&a%ap masa$a&0masa$a& 'an# ! %a" , sa % +a.a, )$e& I$mu %an +a.a,ann'a ,e(s *a! spe"u$a! *, se%an#"an !gama me(upa"an +a.a,an !e(&a%ap masa$a&0masa$a& 'an# ! %a" , sa % +a.a, )$e& * $sa*a! %an +a.a,ann'a ,e(s *a! mu!$a"5%)#ma! s. Menu(u! Si i 5a-l"a 1189=2, Pen#e!a&uan $mu $apan#ann'a se#a$a sesua!u 'an# %apa! % !e$ ! 1( se! %an5a!au e"spe( men2 I ,a!asn'a sampa "epa%a 'an# ! %a" a!au ,e$um %apa! % $a"u"an pene$ ! an. Pen#e!a&uan * $sa*a! > se#a$a sesua!u 'an# %apa! % p " ("an )$e& ,u% 1(as )2 manus a 'an# a$am 1,e(s *a! a$am2 %an n s, I ,a!asn'a a$a& ,a!as a$am namun %em " an a +u#a men/),a mem " ("an sesua!u 'an# % $ua( a$am, 'an# % se,u! )$e& a#ama E&uhanH. Semen!a(a !u 4emar !min Hoesin 118=42 men#a!a"an ,a&.a $mu mem,e( "an "epa%a " !a pen#e!a&uan, %an * $sa*a! mem,e( "an & "ma!. Da( s n nampa" +e$as ,a&.a $mu %an * $sa*a! mempun'a . $a'a& "a+ ann'a sen% ( 0 sen% (

Mes" pun * $sa*a! $mu mempun'a su,s!ans n'a 'an# "&as, namun % a me(upa"an , %an# pen#e!a&uan /ampu(an 'an# pe("em,an#ann'a !e(#an!un# pa%a &u,un#an ! m,a$ ,a$ " %an sa$ n# pen#a(u& an!a(a * $sa*a! %an $mu, )$e& "a(ena !u pema&aman , %an# * $sa*a! %an pema&aman $mu men+a% san#a! pen! n#, !e(u!ama &u,un#ann'a 'an# ,e(s *a! ! m,a$ ,a$ ", mes" %a$am pe("em,an#ann'a * $sa*a! $mu !u !e$a& men+a% % s p$ n 'an# !e(sen% ( %an )!)n)m % $ &a! %a( ),+e" "a+ an %an !e$aa&ann'a L. PENGERTIAN FILSAFAT ILMU D $ &a! %a( se# "a!an'a * $sa*a! $mu %apa! % ma"na se,a#a * $sa*a! 'an# ,e("a !an %en#an a!au !en!an# $mu. F $sa*a! $mu me(upa"an ,a# an %a( * $sa*a! pen#e!a&uan se/a(a umum, n % "a(ena"an $mu !u sen% ( me(upa"an sua!u ,en!u" pen#e!a&uan %en#an "a(a"!e( s! " "&usus, namun
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%em " an un!u" mema&am se/a(a $e, & "&usus apa 'an# % ma"su% %en#an * $sa*a! $mu, ma"a % pe($u"an pem,a!asan 'an# %apa! men##am,a("an %an mem,e( ma"na "&usus !en!an# s! $a& !e(se,u!. Pa(a a"&$ !e$a& ,an'a" men#emu"a"an %e* n s 5pen#e(! an * $sa*a! $mu %en#an su%u! pan%an#n'a mas n#0mas n#, %an se! ap su%u! pan%an# !e(se,u! ama! pen! n# #una pema&aman 'an# ")mp(e&ens * !en!an# ma"na * $sa*a! $mu, ,e( "u! n a"an % "emu"a"an ,e,e(apa %e* n s * $sa*a! $mu > &he philosophy of science is a part of philosophy %hich attempts to o for science %hat philosophy in general human e)perience (Peter /a%s) &he philosophy of science attemt' first' to eluci ate the elements in(ol(e in the process of scientific inquiry9o"ser(ational so on' an then to proce ures' patterns of argument' metho s of representation an calculation' metaphysical presupposition' an e(aluate the groun s of their (ali ity from the points of (ie% of formal logic' practical metho ology anf metaphysics (Ste(en ,. &oulmin). Philosophy of science questions an e(aluates the metho s of scientific thinking an tries to etermine the (alue an significance of scientific enterprise as a %hole (L. .hite Beck) Philosophy of science.. that philosophic its concepts an presupposition' an iscipline %hich is the systematic stu y of the nature of science' especially of its metho s' its place in the general scheme of intelectual iscipline (!./. Benyamin) Philosophy of science.. the stu y of the inner logic of scientific theories' an the relations "et%een e)periment an theory' i.e of scientific metho ($ichael L. Berry) Pen#e(! an0pen#e(! an % a!as men##am,a("an -a( as pan%an#an ,e,e(apa a"&$ !en!an# ma"na * $sa*a! $mu. Peter /a% mem,e( "an ma"na * $sa*a! $mu
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oes for the %hole of

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se,a#a ,a# an %a( * $sa*a! 'an# "e# a!ann'a mene$aa& $mu %a$am ")n!e" "ese$u(u&an pen#a$aman manus a, Ste(en ,. &oulmin mema"na * $sa*a! $mu se,a#a sua!u % s p$ n 'an# % a(a&"an un!u" men+e$as"an &a$0&a$ 'an# ,e("a !an %en#an p()se%u( pene$ ! an $m a&, penen!uan a(#umen, %an an##apan0an##apan me!a* s " #una men $a %asa(0%asa( -a$ % !as $mu %a( su%u! pan%an# $)# "a *)(ma$, %an me!)%)$)# p(a"! s se(!a me!a* s "a. Semen!a(a !u .hite Beck $e, & me$ &a! * $sa*a! $mu se,a#a "a+ an %an e-a$uas !e(&a%ap me!)%e $m a& un!u" %apa! % *a&am ma"na $mu !u sen% ( se/a(a "ese$u(u&an, masa$a& "a+ an a!as me!)%e $m a& +u"a % "emu"a"an )$e& $ichael L. Berry se!e$a& men#un#"ap"an %ua "a+ an $a nn'a 'a !u $)# "a !e)( $m a& se(!a &u,un#an an!a(a !e)( %an e"spe( men, %em " an +u#a $mu !u sen% ( %a$am ")ns!e$as umum % s p$ n &a$n'a Benyamin 'an# memasu"an masa$a& me!)%)$)# %a$am "a+ an * $sa*a! $mu % samp n# p)s s n!e$e"!ua$ 1"e $muan2. Menu(u! &he Liang 5ie' * $sa*a! $mu a%a$a& se#enap pem " (an (e*$e"! * !e(&a%ap pe(s)a$an0pe(s)a$an men#ena se#a$a &a$ 'an# men'an#"u! $an%asan $mu maupun &u,un#an $mu %en#an se#a$a se# "e& %upan manus a. Pen#e(! an n san#a! umum %an /a"upann'a $uas, &a$ 'an# pen! n# un!u" % *a&am a%a$a& ,a&.a * $sa*a! $mu !u me(upa"an !e$aa& "e* $sa*a!an !e(&a%ap &a$0&a$ 'an# ,e("a !an5men'an#"u! $mu, %an ,u"an "a+ an % %a$am s!(u"!u( $mu !u sen% ( . Te(%apa! ,e,e(apa s! $a& %a$am pus!a"a 'an# % pa%an"an %en#an F $sa*a! $mu sepe(! > &heory of science' meta science' metho ology' an science of science , semua s! $a& !e(se,u! nampa"n'a menun+u"an pe(,e%aan %a$am ! ! " !e"an pem,a&asan, namun semua !u pa%a %asa(n'a !e(/a"up %a$am "a+ an * $sa*a! $mu . Semen!a(a !u 5ahral ! ian men%e* n s "an * $sa*a! $mu se,a#a /a,an# * $sa*a! 'an# men/),a men#"a+ $mu pen#e!a&uan 1 $mu2 %a( se# / ( 0/ ( %an /a(a peme()$e&ann'a. F $sa*a! $mu se$a$u men#a+u"an pe(!an'aan0pe(!an'aan 'an# men%asa(5(a% "a$ !e(&a%ap $mu sepe(! !en!an#
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apa / ( 0/ ( spes * " 'an# men'e,a,"an sesua!u % se,u! $mu, se(!a apa ,e%an'a $mu %en#an pen#e!a&uan , asa, %an ,a#a mana /a(a peme()$e&an $mu, pe(!an'aan 0 pe(!an'aan !e(se,u! % ma"su%"an un!u" mem,)n#"a( se(!a men#"a+ asums 0asums $mu 'an# , asan'a % !e( ma ,e# !u sa+a 1!a"en *)( #(an!e%2, Den#an %em " an * $sa*a! $mu me(upa"an +a.a,an * $sa*a! a!as pe(!an'aan $mu a!au * $sa*a! $mu me(upa"an upa'a pen+e$asan %an pene$aa&an se/a(a men%a$am &a$0&a$ 'an# ,e("a !an %en#an $mu, apa, $a % #am,a("an &u,un#an !e(se,u! nampa" se,a#a ,e( "u! > &en%a.ab FILSAFAT FILSAFAT ILMU *ertan#a Gambar 4.1. Hubungan Filsafat( Ilmu dan Filsafat Ilmu Se/a(a & s!)( s * $sa*a! me(upa"an n%u" $mu, %a$am pe("em,an#ann'a $mu ma" n !e(spes * "as %an man% ( , namun men# n#a! ,an'a"n'a masa$a& "e& %upan 'an# ! %a" , sa % +a.a, )$e& $mu, ma"a * $sa*a! men+a% !umpuan un!u" men+a.a,n'a, * $sa*a! mem,e( pen+e$asan a!au +a.a,an su,s!ans a$ %an (a% "a$ a!as masa$a& !e(se,u!, semen!a(a $mu !e(us men#em,an#a"an % ( n'a %a$am ,a!as0,a!as . $a'a&n'a, %en#an !e!ap % "( ! s se/a(a (a% "a$, p()ses a!au n!e(a"s !e(se,u! pa%a %asa(n'a me(upa"an , %an# "a+ an F $sa*a! I$mu, )$e& "a(ena !u * $sa*a! $mu %apa! % pan%an# se,a#a upa'a men+em,a!an +u(an# pem sa& an!a(a * $sa*a! %en#an $mu, se& n##a $mu ! %a" men#an##ap (en%a& pa%a * $sa*a!, %an * $sa*a! ! %a" meman%an# $mu se,a#a sua!u pema&aman a!as a$am se/a(a %an#"a$. M. &IDANG KAJIAN DAN MASALAH.MASALAH DALAM FILSAFAT ILMU B %an# "a+ an * $sa*a! $mu (uan# $ n#"upn'a !e(us men#a$am ILMU

pe("em,an#an, &a$ n ! %a" !e($epas %en#an n!e(a"s an!a(a * $sa*a! %an $mu
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'an# ma" n n!ens. B %an# "a+ an 'an# men+a% !e$aa&an * $sa*a! $mu pun ,e("em,an# %an % an!a(a pa(a a"&$ !e($ &a! pe(,e%aan %a$am menen!u"an $ n#"up "a+ an * $sa*a! $mu, mes" pun , %an# "a+ an %u"n'a /en%e(un# sama, se%an# pe(,e%aan $e, & !e($ &a! %a$am pe( n/ an !)p " !e$aa&an. Be( "u! n ,e,e(apa pen%apa! a"&$ !en!an# $ n#"up "a+ an * $sa*a! $mu > 1. E %ar $a $mu a%a$a&> a. P(),a, $ !as ,. In%u"s /. H p)!es s en men'a!a"an ,a&.a $ n#"up5, %an# "a+ an * $sa*a!

<. Ernest 7agel a. L)# /a$ pa!!e(n eG& , !e% ,' eGp$ana! )n n !&e s/ en/es ,. C)ns!(u/! )n )* s/ en! * / /)n/ep!s /. La$ %a! )n )* s/ en! * / /)n/$us )ns >. Scheffer a. T&e ()$e )* s/ en/e n s)/ e!' ,. T&e .)($% p /!u(e% ,' s/ en/e /. T&e *)un%a! )ns )* s/ en/e Da( ,e,e(apa pen%apa! % a!as nampa" ,a&.a Su( asuman!( men'a!a"an ,a&.a * $sa*a! semua !u $e, & ,e(s *a!

menam,a& !e(&a%ap $ n#"up "a+ an * $sa*a! $mu, semen!a(a !u Bu+un S. $mu me(upa"an ,a# an %a( ep s!em)$)#' 'an# se/a(a spes * " men#"a+ &a"e"a! $mu. Da$am ,en!u" pe(!an'aan, pa%a %asa( * $sa*a! $mu me(upa"an !e$a&aan ,e("a !an %en#an ),+e" apa 'an# % !e$aa& )$e& $mu 1)n!)$)# 2, ,a#a mana p()ses peme()$e&an $mu 1ep s!em)$)# 2, %an ,a#a mana man*aa! $mu 1aG )$)# 2, )$e& "a(ena !u $ n#"up n%u" !e$aa&an * $sa*a! $mu a%a$a& >
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1. )n!)$)# 2. ep s!em)$)# 3. aG )$)# )n!)$)# ,e("a !an !en!an# apa ),'e" 'an# % !e$aa& $mu, %a$am "a+ an n men/a"up masa$a& (ea$ !as %an penampa"an 1(ea$ !' an% appea(an/e2, se(!a ,a#a mana &u,un#an "e %ua &a$ !e(se,u! %en#an su,+e"5manus a. Ep s!em)$)# ,e("a !an %en#an ,a#a mana p()ses % pe()$e&n'a $mu, ,a#a mana p()se%u(n'a un!u" mempe()$e& pen#e!a&uan $m a& 'an# ,ena(. AG )$)# ,e("a !an %en#an apa man*aa! $mu, ,a#a mana &u,un#an e! "a %en#an $mu, se(!a ,a#a mana men#ap$ "as "an $mu %a$am "e& %upan. Ruan# $ n#"up !e$aa&an * $sa*a! $mu se,a#a mana % un#"ap"an % a!as % %a$amn'a se,ena(n'a menun+u"an masa$a&0masa$a& 'an# % "a+ %a$am * $sa*a! $mu, masa$a&0masa$a& %a$am * $sa*a! $mu pa%a %asa(n'a menun+u"an !)p "0!)p " "a+ an 'an# pas! n'a %apa! masu" "e %a$am sa$a&sa!u $ n#"up * $sa*a! $mu. A%apun masa$a&0masa$a& 'an# ,e(a%a %a$am $ n#"up * $sa*a! $mu a%a$a& 1Ismaun2 > 1. masa$a&0masa$a& me!a* s s !en!an# $mu 2. masa$a&0masa$a& ep s!em)$)# s !en!an# $mu 3. masa$a&0masa$a& me!)%)$)# s !en!an# $mu 4. masa$a&0masa$a& $)# s !en!an# $mu ;. masa$a&0masa$a& e! s !en!an# $mu =. masa$a&0masa$a& !en!an# es!e! "a me!a* s "a me(upa"an !e$aa&an a!au !e)( !en!an# 'an# a%a, s! $a& me!a* s "a n !e("a%an# % pa%an"an %en#an )n!)$)# + "a %em " an, "a(ena se,ena(n'a me!a* s "a +u#a men/a"up !e$aa&an $a nn'a sepe(! !e$aa&an !en!an# ,u"! 0 ,u"! a%an'a Tu&an. Ep s!em)$)# me(upa"an !e)( pen#e!a&uan %a$am a(! umum ,a " !u "a+ an men#ena pen#e!a&uan , asa, pen#e!a&uan $m a&, maupun pen#e!a&uan * $)s)* s, me!)%)$)# $mu a%a$a& !e$aa&an a!as me!)%e 'an# % pe(#una"an )$e& sua!u $mu, ,a " % $ &a! %a( s!(u"!u( $)# "an'a,
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maupun %a$am &a$ -a$ % !as me!)%en'a. Masa$a& $)# s ,e("a !an %en#an !e$aa&an men#ena "a %a&0"a %a& ,e(* " ( ,ena(, !e(u!ama ,e("enaan %en#an me!)%e %e%u"s . P(),$em e! s ,e("a !an %en#an aspe"0aspe" m)(a$ %a( sua!u $mu, apa"a& $mu !u &an'a un!u" $mu, a!au"a& $mu +u#a pe($u mempe(&a! "an "eman*aa!ann'a %an "a %a&0"a %a& m)(a$ mas'a(a"a!. Semen!a(a !u masa$a& es!e! s ,e("a !an %en#an % mens "e n%a&an a!au n $a 0n $a "e n%a&an %a( sua!u $mu, !e(u!ama , $a ,e("a !an %en#an aspe" ap$ "as n'a %a$am "e& %upan mas'a(a"a!. N. KE&ENARAN ILMU I$mu pa%a %asa(n'a me(upa"an upa'a manus a un!u" men+e$as"an ,e(,a#a *en)mena emp ( s 'an# !e(+a% % a$am n , !u+uan %a( upa'a !e(se,u! a%a$a& un!u" mempe()$e& sua!u pema&aman 'an# ,ena( a!as *en)mena !e(se,u!. Te(%apa! "e/en%e(un#an 'an# "ua! se+a" ,e(+a'an'a "em,a$ a"a$ pem " (an manus a a%a$a& "e'a" nan ,a&.a $mu me(upa"an sa!u0sa!un'a sum,e( "e,ana(an, se#a$a sesua!u pen+e$asan 'an# ! %a" %apa! a!au ! %a" mun#" n % u+ , % !e$ ! , a!au % ),se(-as a%a$a& sesua!u 'an# ! %a" ,ena(, %an "a(ena !u ! %a" pa!u! % pe(/a'a . A"an !e!ap "en'a!aan menun+u"an ,a&.a ! %a" semua masa$a& %apa! % +a.a, %en#an $mu, ,an'a" se"a$ &a$0&a$ 'an# me(upa"an ")nse(n manus a, su$ !, a!au ,a&"an ! %a" mun#" n % +e$as"an )$e& $mu sepe(! masa$a& Tu&an, H %up sesu%a& ma! , %an &a$0&a$ $a n 'an# ,e(s *a! n)n 7 emp ( s. A$e& "a(ena !u , $a manus a &an'a mempe(/a'a "e,ena(an $m a& se,a#a sa!u0sa!un'a "e,ena(an, ma"a % a !e$a& mempe(semp ! "e& %upan %en#an &an'a men# "a!"an % ( %en#an %un a emp ( s, un!u" !u % pe($u"an pema&aman !en!an# apa !u "e,ena(an ,a " % $ &a! %a( +a$u(n'a 1#(a%as ,e(* " (2 maupun ma/amn'a. B $a % $ &a! %a( #(a%as ,e(* " ( "e,ena(an %apa! % "e$)mp)"an "e%a$am empa! #(a%as ,e(* " ( 'a !u >

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1. ke"enaran "iasa. Da !u "e,ena(an 'an# %asa(n'a a%a$a& /)mm)n sense a!au a"a$ se&a!. Ke,ena(an n , asan'a men#a/u pa%a pen#a$aman 'an# n% - %ua$ ! %a" !e(!a!a %an sp)(a% s se& n##a Namun %em " an sese)(an# , sa /en%e(un# san#a! su,+e"! * sesua %en#an -a( as pen#a$aman % a$am n'a. men#an##apn'a se,a#a "e,ena(an apa, $a !e$a& % (asa"an

man*aa! p(a"! sn'a ,a# "e& %upan n% - %u5)(an# !e(se,u!. 2. #e"enaran Ilmu. Da !u "e,ena(an 'an# s *a!n'a p)s ! * "a(ena men#a/u pa%a *a"!a0*a"!a emp ( s, se(!a memun#" n"an semua )(an# un!u" men#u+ n'a %en#an me!)%e !e(!en!u %en#an &as $ 'an# sama a!au pa$ n# ! %a" (e$a! * sama. 3. #e"enaran 1ilsafat. Ke,ena(an m)%e$ n s *a!n'a spe"u$a! *, men# n#a! su$ !5! %a" mun#" n % ,u"! "an se/a(a emp ( s, namun , $a me!)%e ,e(* " (n'a % *a&am ma"a sese)(an# a"an men#a"u "e,ena(ann'a. Sa!u &a$ 'an# su$ ! a%a$a& ,a#a mana se! ap )(an# %apa! mempe(/a'a n'a, "a(ena /a(a ,e(* " ( % $ n#"un#an * $sa*a!pun san#a! ,e(-a( as . 4. ke"enaran !gama. Da !u "e,ena(an 'an# % %asa("an "epa%a n*)(mas "e,ena(an 'an# n %a!an#n'a s *a!n'a %a( Tu&an a(! n'a me$a$u "e! "a u!usann'a, ! %a" a%a sua!u %)#ma! s,

"e*a&aman a!as sesua!u &a$ 'an# ,e("a !an %en#an a#ama, ma"a )(an# !e(se,u! !e!ap &a(us mempe(/a'a n'a se,a#a "e,ena(an. Da( u(a an % a!as nampa" ,a&.a mas$a& "e,ena(an ! %a"$a& se%e(&ana, ! n#"a!an0! n#"a!an5#(a%as ,e(* " ( a"an menen!u"an "e,ena(an apa 'an# % m $ " a!au % 'a" n n'a, %em " an +u#a s *a! "e,ena(ann'a +u#a ,e(,e%a. Ha$ n menun+u"an ,a&.a , $a sese)(an# ,e(, /a(a men#ena sesua!u &a$, %an apa"a& &a$ !u ,ena( a!au ! %a", ma"a pe(!ama0!ama pe($u % ana$ s s !en!an# !a!a(an ,e(* " (n'a, se& n##a ! %a" se(!a me(!a 86

PENGANTAR FILSAFAT ILMU/UHAR SUHARSAPUTRA

men'a$a&"an a!as sesua!u pe(n'a!aan, "e/ua$ apa, $a pem, /a(aann'a meman# su%a& men#a/u pa%a !a!a(an ,e(* " ( !e(!en!u. Da$am ")n!e"s I$mu, "e,ena(an pun men%apa!"an pe(&a! an 'an# s( us, pem, /a(aan masa$a& n ,e("a !an %en#an -a$ % !as pen#e!a&uan5 $mu, apa"a& pen#e!a&uan 'an# % $ " sese)(an# !u ,ena(5-a$ % a!au ! %a", un!u" !u pa(a a"&$ men#emu"a"an ,e(,a#a !e)( "e,ena(an 1T&e)(' )* T(u!&2, 'an# %apa! % "a!e#)( "an "e %a$am ,e,e(apa +en s !e)( "e,ena(an 'a !u > 1. T#8ri 8r#s38!d#!si 1T&e C)((esp)n%en/e !&e)(' )* !(u!&2. n "e,ena(an, a!au sesua!u !u % "a!a"an ,ena( Menu(u! !e)(

apa, $a !e(%apa! "esesua an an!a(a sua!u pe(n'a!aan %en#an *a"!an'a (a proposition 9 or meaning 9 is true if there is a fact to %hich it correspon ' if it e)presses %hat is the case) . Menu(u! K& !e Pa!( /" Gtruth is that %hich conforms to fact' %hich agrees %ith reality' %hich correspon s to the actual situation. &ruth' then can "e efine as fi elity to o"*ecti(e realityH. Semen!a(a !u menu(u! R)#e(s, "ea%aan ,ena( 1"e,ena(an2 !e($e!a" %a$am "esesua an an!a(a esens a!au a(! 'an# " !a ,e( "an %en#an esens 'an# !e(%apa! % %a$am ),+e"n'a. C)n!)& > "a$au sese)(an# men'a!a"an ,a&.a Kua$a$umpu( a%a$a& ,u")!a Ma$a'as a, ma"a pe(n'a!aan !u ,ena( "a$u %a$am "en'a!aann'a meman# ,u")!a Ma$a'as a !u Kua$a$umpu(. 2. T#8ri K8!sis+#!si 1T&e /)&e(en/e !&e)(' )* !(u!&2. Menu(u! !e)( n "e,ena(an a%a$a& "ea+e#an an!a(a sua!u pe(n'a!aan %en#an pe(n'a!aan $a nn'a 'an# su%a& % a"u "e,ena(ann'a, +a% sua!u p()p)s s !u ,ena( + "a sesua 5a+e# a!au ")&e(en %en#an p()p)s s $a nn'a 'an# ,ena(. Ke,ena(an +en s n , asan'a men#a/u pa%a &u"um0&u"um ,e(* " ( 'an# ,ena(. M sa$n'a Semua manus a pas! ma! , U&a( a%a$a& Manus a, ma"a U&a( pas! ma! , "es mpu$an u&a(

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pas! ma! san#a! !e(#an!un# pa%a "e,ena(an pe(n'a!aan pe(!ama 1semua manus a pas! ma! 2. 3. T#8ri Pra*"a+is 1T&e P(a#ma! / !&e)(' )* !(u!&2. Menu(u! !e)( n "e,ena(an a%a$a& sesua!u 'an# %apa! ,e($a"u, a!au %apa! mem,e( "an "epuasan, %en#an "a!a $a n sesua!u pe(n'a!aan a!au p()p)s s % "a!a"an ,ena( apa, $a %apa! mem,e( man*aa! p(a"! s ,a# "e& %upan, sesua!u !u ,ena( , $a ,e(#una. Te)( 0!e)( "e,ena(an !e(se,u! pa%a %asa(n'a menun+u"an ! ! " ,e(a! "( !e( a 'an# ,e(,e%a, !e)( ")(esp)n%ens men##una"an "( !e( a *a"!a, )$e& "a(ena !u !e)( n , sa % se,u! !e)( "e,ena(an emp ( s, !e)( ")&e(ens men##una"an %asa( * " (an se,a#a "( !e( a, se& n##a , sa % se,u! se,a#a "e,ena(an (as )na$, se%an#"an !e)( p(a#ma! s men##una"an "e#unaan se,a#a "( !e( a, se& n##a , sa % se,u! !e)( "e,ena(an p(a"! s. 0. KETER&ATASAN ILMU Hu,un#an an!a(a * $sa*a! %en#an $mu 'an# %apa! !e( n!e#(as %a$am * $sa*a! $mu, % mana * $sa*a! men/),a men+a.a, pe(!an'aan0pe(!an'aan 'an# % a+u"an $mu, menun+u"an a%an'a "e!e(,a!asan $mu %a$am men+e$as"an ,e(,a#a *en)mena "e& %upan. D samp n# !u % $ n#"un#an . $a'a& $mu !u sen% ( se( n# !e(+a% sesua!u 'an# % an##ap ,ena( pa%a sa!u saa! !e(n'a!a % saa! $a n !e(,u"! sa$a&, se& n##a ! m,u$ pe(!an'aan apa"an "e,ena(an $mu !u sesua!u 'an# mu!$a" <, %an apa"a& se$u(u& pe(s)a$an manus a %apa! % +e$as"an )$e& $mu <. pe(!an'aan0pe(!an'aan !e(se,u! se,ena(n'a men##am,a("an ,e!apa !e(,a!asn'a Un!u" men+a.a, pe(!an'aan % an!a(a $a n a%a$a& > 1. 0ean Paul Sartre men'a!a"an ,a&.a $mu ,u"an$a& sesua!u 'an# su%a& se$esa !e(* " ("an, sesua!u &a$ 'an# ! %a" pe(na& mu!$a",
PENGANTAR FILSAFAT ILMU/UHAR SUHARSAPUTRA

$mu %a$am men#un#"ap m s!e( a!as, a%a ,a "n'a % un#"ap"an

"e& %upan se(!a ,e!apa !en!a! *n'a "e,ena(an $mu. pen%apa! pa(a a"&$ ,e("a !an %en#an "e!e(,a!asan $mu, pa(a a"&$ !e(se,u!

88

se,a, se$a$u a"an % s s &"an )$e& &as $0&as $ pene$ ! an %an pe(/),aan ,a(u 'an# % $a"u"an %en#an me!)%e0me!)%e ,a(u a!au "a(ena a%an'a pe($en#"apan0pe($en#"apan 'an# $e, & sempu(na, %an penemuan ,a(u ! u a"an % s s &"an pu$a )$e& a"&$ 0a"&$ $a nn'a. 2. 2./ $ul er men'a!a"an ,a&.a ! ap0! ap a"&$ $mu men#&a%ap s)a$0s)a$ 'an# !a" %apa! % pe/a&"an %en#an me$u$u mema"a $mu !u sen% ( , a%a s)a$0s)a$ p)")" a!au s)a$0s)a$ %asa( 'an# me$ampau ")mpe!ens $mu, m sa$n'a apa"a& &u"um se,a, a" ,a! !u <, % mana"a& ,a!as0,a!as $apan#an 'an# sa'a se$ % " n <, % mana"a& !empa!n'a %a$am "en'a!aan se$u(u&n'a n <, sampa % mana "e,e($a"uan me!)%e 'an# % #una"an<. Be$as$a& ,a&.a un!u" men+a.a, pe(!an'aan0pe(!an'aan !e(se,u! $mu meme($u"an ns!ans $a n 'an# me$e, & $mu 'a"n * $sa*a!. 3. Harsoyo men'a!a"an ,a&.a $mu 'an# % m $ " uma! manus a %e.asa n ,e$um$a& se,e(apa % ,an% n#"an %en#an (a&as a a$am semes!a 'an# me$ n%un# manus a. I$mu.an0 $mu.an ,esa( , asan'a % #an##u )$e& pe(asaan a#un# sema/am "e#e$ sa&an ,a! n un!u" n# n !a&u $e, & ,an'a", ,a&.a 'an# % "e!a&u !u mas & me(a#u0(a#u"an, se(,a ! %a" pas! 'an# men'e,a,"an $e, & #e$ sa& $a# , %an , asan'a me(e"a a%a$a& )(an#0)(an# (en%a& &a! 'an# ma" n ,e( s ma" n menun%u". Se$a n !u Ha(s)') +u#a men#emu"a"an ,a&.a "e,ena(an $m a& !u ! %a"$a& a,s)$u! %an * na$ s *a!n'a. Ke,ena(an0"e,ena(an $m a& se$a$u !e(,u"a un!u" pen n+auan "em,a$ ,e(%asa("an a!as a%an'a *a"!a0*a"!a ,a(u 'an# se,e$umn'a ! %a" % "e!a&u . 4. 0. Boeke men'a!a"an ,a&.a ,a#a manapun !e$ ! n'a " !a men'e$ % " pe( s! .a0pe( s! .a 'an# % pe(!un+u"an )$e& Ha! & %up !u, ,a#a manapun+u#a " !a men/),a mempe()$e& pan%an#an 'an#
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+ !u !en!an# "ea%aan s *a!Ha! & %up

!u 'an# ,e(sama0sama

!e(susun, namun asas & %up 'an# se,ena(n'a a%a$a& (a&as a& a,a% ,a# " !a, )$e& "a(ena !u " !a &a(us men'e(a& %en#an pe(asaan sa$e& %an !e(&a(u. Den#an mempe(&a! "an pen+e$asan % a!as, nampa" ,a&.a $mu !u ! %a" %apa! % pan%an# se,a#a %asa( mu!$a" ,a# pema&aman manus a !en!an# a$am, %em " an +u#a "e,ena(an $mu &a(us % pan%an# se/a(a !en!a! *, a(! n'a se$a$u s ap ,e(u,a& , $a % !emu"an !e)( 0!e)( ,a(u 'an# men'an#"a$n'a. Den#an %em " an %pa!$a& % !a( " "es mpu$an ,e("a !an %en#an "e!e(,a!asan $mu 'a !u >
1.

$mu &an'a men#e!a&u *en)mena ,u"an (ea$ !as, a!au men#"a+ (ea$ !as se,a#a sua!u *en)mena 1 science can only kno% the phenomenal' or
kno% the real through an as phenomenal 0 R. Tennan!2

2. I$mu

&an'a

men+e$as"an

se,a# an

"e/ $

%a(

*en)mena

a$am5"e& %upan manus a %an $ n#"un#ann'a 3. "e,ena(an $mu ,e(s *a! semen!a(a %an ! %a" mu!$a" "e!e(,a!asan !e(se,u! se( n# "u(an# % sa%a( )$e& )(an# 'an# mempe$a+a( sua!u /a,an# $mu !e(!en!u, &a$ n % se,a,"an $mu.an /en%e(un# ,e"e(+a &an'a %a$am ,a!as . $a'a&n'a sen% ( %en#an sua!u % s p$ n 'an# san#a! "e!a!, %an "e!e(,a!asan $mu !u sen% ( ,u"an me(upa"an ")nse(n u!ama $mu.an 'an# ,e(a%a %a$am . $a'a& $mu !e(!en!u. P. MANFAAT MEMPELAJARI FILSAFAT ILMU F $sa*a! $mu ,e(usa&a men#"a+ &a"e"a! $mu 'an# mempun'a &a$ !e(se,u! #una men+e$as"an ,an'a" "e!e(,a!asan, se& n##a %apa!

% pe()$e& pema&aman 'an# pa%u men#ena ,e(,a#a *en)mena a$am 'an# !e$a& men+a% ),+e" $mu !u sen% ( , %an 'an# /en%e(un# !e(*(a#men!as . Un!u" !u * $sa*a! $mu ,e(man*aa! un!u" > Me$a! & ,e(* " ( (a% "a$ !en!an# &a"e"a! $mu Me$a! & ,e(* " ( (e*$e"! * % %a$am $ n#"up $mu
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Men#& n%a("an % ( %a( memu!$a"an "e,ena(an $m a&, %an men#an##ap ,a&.a $mu se,a#a sa!u0sa!un'a /a(a mempe()$e& "e,ena(an Men#& %a("an % ( %a( e#) sme $m a&, 'a"n ! %a" men#&a(#a su%u! pan%an# $a n % $ua( , %an# $mun'a.

PERTAN=AAN UNTUK &AHAN DISKUSI


1. men#apa $mu meme($u"an !e$aa&an "( ! s %an (a% "a$ %a( * $sa*a!< 2. Be$as"an &u,un#an * $sa*a! %en#an $mu < 3. +e$as"an ma"na * $sa*a! $mu< 4. apa 'an# % ma"su% %en#an pe(n'a!aan ,a&.a * $sa*a! $mu me(upa"an (e*$e"s se"un%e(< ;. +e$as"an %ampa" %a( pe("em,an#an $mu 'an# ! %a" mempe(&a! "an % mens e! "a< =. +e$as"an ,a#a mana $mu.an Mus$ m men' "ap ,e(,a#a pe("em,an#an $mu 'an# !e(+a% ,e$a"an#an n < 9. Be$as"an ,a#a mana pan%an#an T&)mas Ku&n men#ena (e-)$us $m a&< 6. Be$as"an / ( u!ama %an pa(a% #ma %a( $mu m)%e(n< 8. +e$as"an $ n#"up %an , %an# "a+ an * $sa*a! $mu< 1:. +e$as"an pe(sesua an %an pe(,eaan an!a(a * $sa*a! %en#an $mu< 11. Be$as"an &u,un#an an!a(a F $sa*a!, I$mu %an F $sa*a! $mu< 12. +e$as"an pen#e(! an An!)$)# , ep s!em)$)# %an aG )$)# < 13. Be$as"an p)s s * $sa*a! $mu %a$am ep s!em)$)# < 14. Be$as"an apa 'an# "e,ena(an< 1;. +e$as"an apa 'an# % ma"su% %en#an "e!e(,a!asan $mu, %an apa sa+a p)")"0p)")" "e!e(,a!asann'a 1=. Be$as"an %en#an ,a&asa sen% ( man*aa! mempe$a+a( * $sa*a! $mu, %an ,a#a mana ap$ "as n'a ,a# "e& %upan sau%a(a< 19. +e$as"an apa 'an# se%an# Sau%a(a * " ("an pa%a saa! mem,a/a s)a$ n)m)( !u+u& ,e$as<
PENGANTAR FILSAFAT ILMU/UHAR SUHARSAPUTRA

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DAFTAR

PUSTAKA

A,u A&ma% . 1862. 1ilsafat Islam. Sema(an#. T)&a Pu!(a. A,u,a"a( A/e&, 1862. Se*arah 1ilsafat Islam, Su(a"a(!a. Rama%&an Sa$a Achmad Charris Zubair 2002 Dimensi Etik dan Asketik Ilmu Pengetahuan Manusia. !"#$a%ar&a L'SFI Ahmad Fuad A( Ah)a*i+ 1985 Filsafat Islam. ,a%ar&a -us&a%a Firdaus A&ma% S'a%a$ O Mu%Ha" (, 1889. 1ilsafat 6mum, Ban%un#. Pus!a"a Se! a Ahmad Ta.sir 1992 Filsafat Umum /a*du*# 01ma2a 0"sda%ar$a A( 3ha4a(i+ 1986 Tahafut Al Falasifah+ Kerancuan Para Filosuf. ,a%ar&a -us&a%a -a*2imas 5&1r2 Ahmadi1 Thaha6 77777777777+ && Miyarul Ilmi+ /1iru& 8aru( Fi%ri 77777777777+1978 Al Mun id!u Min Addolal+ ,a%ar&a Ti*&amas 5&1r2 Abdu(ah /i* 9uh A '::i*# ; F M 1& a( 1983 Filsafat Ensie /a*du*# ,1mmar Ahmad 8aud$ 1984 "egi#segi Pemikiran Filsafi dalam Islam+ ,a%ar&a /u(a* /i*&a*# A S"**$ <1ra.+ Mi%ha1( 8ua 2001. Ilmu Pengetahuan+ !"#$a%ar&a <a*isius Abuba%ar Ac1h 1982 "e$arah Filsafat Islam+ Sa(a 0amadha*i /1r&ra*d 0uss1( 2002 Persoalan#%ersoalan se%utar Filsafat !"#$a%ar&a I<;9+ 5&1r2 Ahmad As*a)i6 A*&"* /a%%1r+ A C Zubair+ 1990 Metodologi Penelitian Filsafat+ !"#$a%ar&a <a*isius A$* 0a*d 2003 Pengantar E%istemologi &'$ektif !"#$a%ar&a /1*&a*# /uda$a 5&1r2 Cu% A*a*&a =i2a$a6 /11r(i*#+ 1& a( 1997 Pengantar Filsafat Ilmu+ !"#$a%ar&a Tiara =aca*a C A >a* -1urs1*+ &rientasi di Alam Filsafat+ ,a%ar&a 3ram1dia 81scar&1s+ 2003 Diskursus Metode+ &1r2 A F Ma?ru.+ !"#$a%ar&a+ I0CiS"8 8"**$ 3ahra( Adia*+ 2002 Menyoal &'$ekti(isme Ilmu Pengetahuan ,a%ar&a T1ra2u En%an# Sa *u% n Ans&)( . 1898. Ilmu' 1ilsafat an !gama, Su(a,a'a> B na I$mu,
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F( !&+)* S/&u)n. 1884. Islam an 1ilsafat Perenial. Ban%un#. M Han. 1!e(+. Ra&man As!u! 2 Fuad @asa* 1985 )erkenalan dengan Eksistensialisme ,a%ar&a -us&a%a ,a$a 7777777777+1986 A%ologia* Pidato Pem'elaan "ocrates yang dia'adikan Plato 5sadura*6 ,a%ar&a /u(a* /i*&a*# 7777777777 1977 @1&1r"*"mia ,a%ar&a -us&a%a ,a$a @aru* 9asu&i"*+ 1978 Filsafat dan Mistisisme dalam Islam+ ,a%ar&a /u(a* /i*&a*# 7777777777 1979 Islam Ditin$au Dari )er'agai As%eknya ,a%ar&a UI -r1ss @ C =1bb+ 1960 "e$arah Filsafat+ ,"#2a%ar&a+ T1rba* Tama* 12 H.M. Ras+ % , 189:. 1ilsafat !gama, Ba"a(!a> Bu$an B n!an#, Ha()$% H T !us. 18;8, Li(ing issues in philosophy, Ne. D)(", Ame( /an B))" @arr$ @am1rsma 1984 Tokoh#Tokoh Filsafat )arat Modern ,a%ar&a 3ram1dia @usai* @1ri$a*&" 2003 Paradigma +olistik /a*du*# T1ra2u Ismaun, 2:::. /atatan #uliah 1ilsafat Ilmu (0ili 8 an <), Ban%un#. UPI Bu+un S Su( asuman!( , 188=. 1ilsafat Ilmu' Se"uah Pengantar Populer , Ba"a(!a Pus!a"a S na( Ha(apan, 7777777777+1996. Ilmu dalam Pers%ektif. ,a%ar&a !a$asa* ;b"r ,=M /a%%1r+ S! 1978 "e$arah Filsafat dalam Islam+ !"#$a%ar&a <a*isius < /1r&1*+ 1976 ,ingkasan "e$arah Filsafat+ !"#$a%ar&a <a*isius 7777777777+ 1990 "e$arah Filsafat !u*a*i+ !"#$a%ar&a <*isius <1i&h =i(%1s+ 1977 Agama dan Ilmu Pengetahuan+ ,a%ar&a !a$asa* Ci:&a L"%a Cara%a <"1*&2ara*i*#ra& 1& a( 1991 Metode#Metode Penelitian Masyarakat ,a%ar&a 3ram1dia Len#e-e$%. T!. $enu*u ke Pemikiran 1ilsafat, !e(+. G.B. C$aessen, Ba"a(!a, PT Pem,an#unan. L"uis L1ah$ 1984 Manusia "e'uah Misteri. "intesis Filosofis tentang Makhluk Paradoksal ,a%ar&a 3ram1dia Mahdi 3hu(s$a*i 1995 Filsafat "ains menurut Al -uran /a*du*# Mi4a* 5&1r2 A#us '..1*di6 M Ari.i* 1995 A#ama+ I(mu da* T1%*"("#i ,a%ar&a 3"(d1* T1ra$"* -r1ss M"hamud @amid ZaA4uA 1987 Al .ha!ali. "ang "ufi "ang Filosof /a*du*# -us&a%a 5&1r2 Ahmad 0".i? U&sma*i6 Mau( /e Man%e$,aum, e! a$. 18;6, Philosophic Pro"lems, Ne. D)(",M/ M $$an C), M.A.K. B()u.e(. 1863. Psikologi 1enomenologis. Ba"a(!a. G(ame% a Me&% Ha4 ( DaH% .1884. Ilmu Hu uri' Prinsip9prinsip Epistemologi Ban%un#. M Han alam 1ilsafat Islam.

M"hammad @a&&a 1964 Alam Pikiran /unani 01ilid 2 dan 34. ,a%ar&a Ti*&amas M T Z1* 51d6 Sai*s+ 1981 Teknologi dan +ari de%an Manusia ,a%ar&a 3ram1sia Muhammad /aAir Ash Shadr Falsafatuna+ /a*du*# Mi4a* 5&1r2 M 9ur Mu.id /i* A(i6 Mur&hadh" Mu&hahhari+ 2002 Filsafat +ikmah+ /a*du*# Mi4a* 9urch"(is Mad2id 1978 Kha!anah Intelektual Islam. ,a%ar&a /u(a* /i*&a*# ;1mar Ami* @"1s1* 1964 Filsafat Islam ,a%ar&a /u(a* /i*&a*# ;sma* /a%ar 1998 +ierarki Ilmu. Mem'angun ,angka Pikir Islamisasi Ilmu /a*du*# Mi4a* 5&1r2 -ur)a*&"6 -ar&a: Si*# M1hra+ 2001 Pengantar 5ogika Tradisional /a*du*# -u&ra /ardi* -1rB14 @""dbh"$ 1997 Islam dan "ains. Pertarungan menegakan ,asionalitas. /a*du*# -us&a%a 5&r2 LuAma*6 -"1d2a)i2a&*a+ 1980 Pem'im'ing ke arah Alam Filsafat+ ,a%ar&a -T -1mba*#u*a* 7777777777+1975 Filsafat "ana 6 "ini 0$ilid 2 dan 34. !"#$a%ar&a !a$asa* <a*isius Sas&ra:ra&1d2a 51d6 1982 Manusia Multi Dimensional ,a%ar&a 3ram1dia

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Sidi 3a4a(ba+ 1976 "istimatika Filsafat 01ilid 2 sam%ai 74+ ,a%ar&a /u(a* /i*&a*# 7777777777+1978 Ilmu* Filsafat dan Islam* tentang Manusia dan Agama. ,a%ar&a /u(a* /i*&a*# Si*dhu*a&a 1982 Dilema Usaha Manusia ,asional+ ,a%ar&a 3ram1dia Si&i @a*dar"h 1& a( 1998 The -uran and Philoso%hic ,eflections !"#$a%ar&a Ti&ia* I(ahi -r1ss S"1r2a*&" C < /1r&1*s 1983 "ekitar Manusia. )unga ,am%ai tentang Filsafat Manusia ,a%ar&a 3ram1dia Sudar&"+ 1996 Metodologi Penelitian Filsafat+ ,a%ar&a 0a2a3ra.i*d" Su&a* Ta%dir A(is2ahba*a+ 1981 Pem'im'ing ke Filsafat+ ,a%ar&a+ 8ia* 0a%$a& 77777777777 1& a( 2001 "um'angan Islam ke%ada "ains dan Perada'an Dunia+ ,a%ar&a 9ua*sa 77777777777+ 1986 Antro%ologi )aru+ ,a%ar&a+ 8ia* 0a%$a& =hi&1h1ad A(.r1d 9"r&h 1960 "cience and The Modern 8orld.91) !"r% Th1 91) Am1rica* Librar$ ". ="r(d Li&1ra&ur1

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