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Piping dan Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) merupakan skema dari ,jalur pipa, equipment, instrumentasi, control system,dari suatu

sistem proses yang terdapat di Oil Refinery, Chemical Plant, Paper Mill, Cement Plant, dll. Simbol-simbol yang terdapat dalam P&ID mewakili peralatan seperti actuator, sensor-sensor dan kontroler. P&ID menjelaskan secara detail mengenai flow process (Diagram Alir), terkecuali parameter-parameter seperti temperatur, tekanan, dan besarnya arus tidak dapat dijelaskan dalam P&ID. Alat-alat process seperti valve (katup), instrument,dan Saluran pipa diidentifikasikan dengan kode. Kode-kode tersebut berdasarkan ukuran, jenis cairan yang dialirkan, jenis sambungan pipa (Seperti dengan menggunakan Bolt atau Flang), dan keadaan Status Valve (Normally Close atau Normally Open).

menggunakan software yang didesain untuk P&ID yaitu Cadworx P&ID dari COADE Beberapa software P&ID ini tidak menunjukan ukuran aktual dan posisi dari peralatanperalatan seperti sensor, valve, dan equipment, akan tetapi untuk menampilkan sebuah diagram hubungan dari suatu sistem process yang disimpan sebagai data elektronik dan dapat dilihat di PC. Software Cadworx P&ID dapat menyimpan Database dan menghasilkan Report equipment table list dari komponen-komponen / instrument yang terdapat dalam P&ID suatu process. Pada bagian berikutnya dari artikel ini kita akan membuat suatu P&ID dengan menggunakan software Cadworx P&ID

Diagram P&ID pada suatu Process System P&ID dapat digambarkan dengan tangan (gambar biasa diatas kertas) atau dengan menggunakan komputer. Software dalam membuat P&ID untuk PC atau Mac, antara lain dapat menggunakan Microsoft Visio (PC), Omni Grafle (Mac), atau Representasi dari Line Process pada P&ID Line Symbol Line Symbol digunakan untuk menggambarkan hubungan antara unit-unit yang berbeda dalam sistem yang

dikontrol. Tabel berikut di bawah ini merupakan Line Simbol yang pada umumnya sering digunakan.

proses dengan proses lainnya,serta signal yang digunakan dalam sistem instrumentasi, sepertielectrical signal,pneumatic signal,data, dll.

Gambar 1 Kode-kode yang terdapat pada Piping Line menunjukan Diameter Pipa, Fluid Service, material, dan isolasi. Diameter pipa dalam Inch. Fluid service memberi keterangan jenis fluida yang dialirkan. Material memberikan informasi mengenai bahan pembuat pipa. Sebagai contoh CS untuk Carbon Steel atau stainless steel SS. Pengunaan kode-kode pada Process Line sebagai contoh gambar 1, pada aliran pipa no 39 menunjukan pipa dengan diameter 4 Inch, dengan Fluid Service mengalirkan bahan kimia N, berbahan material CS (Carbon Steel) , dan tanpa insulasi (No Insulation)

Tabel 1. Line Symbol Dari table 1, Piping line merupakan proses utama dimana pipa mengalirkan bahan kimia yang diidentifikasikan dengan menggunakan kode. Simbol linelainnya menjelaskan bagaimana system terhubung antara satu

Simbol untuk Valves

Simbol untuk Valves Actuator

Simbol untuk Equipment Instrumentation Symbol Kode-kode Instrumentasi yang tertera di P&ID adalah sebagai berikut, huruf pertama mengidentifikasikan parameter yang dikontrol, huruf selanjutnya mengidentifikasikan tipe perangkat control

Simbol untuk Fitting dan Representasi

/ Shared Displays dan dapat diakses oleh operator

Huruf Pertama A C D Berdasarkan contoh diagram P&ID di atas, FT101, huruf pertama F mempunyai arti kode (berdasarkan kode ISA) yaitu Flow. Huruf kedua T mempunyai artiTransmitter,kode FT101 dapat diartikan sebagai Flow Transmitter,Lingkaran menunjukan FT101 terpasang (mounted) di Field Area, yang dihubungkan olehelectric signal (Garis putusputus). Pada FIC101, berarti (Flow Indicator Controller), simbol berupa kotak dan lingkaran menunjukan FIC101, terletak diShared Control E F I L M P T

Parameter yang dikontrol Analysis Conductivity Density Voltage Flow Rate Current Level Moisture(Humidity) Pressure or Vacuum Temperature

V Huruf Selanjutnya A C I T V E IC FC R HS HV Q IQ XV Y FY SL SH AL ALL AH AHH

Viscosity Tipe Peralatan Kontrol Alarm Controller Indicator Transmitter Control Valve Element Indicator Controller Ratio Controller Recorder Hand Switch Hand Valve Totalizer Indicating Totalizer Solenoid Valve Calculation Ratio Callculation Switch Low Switch High Alarm Low Alarm Low Low Alarm High Alarm High High

Pumps and tanks come in a variety of designs and shapes.

Pumps is a mechanical device using suction or pressure to raise or move liquids, compress gases, or force air into inflatable objects such as tires. The symbols for pumps may closely resemble those for compressors. Centrifugal pump is rotodynamic pump that use a revolving impeller to add to the force and pressure of fluids. Gear pump provide continuous, non-pulsing flow making it ideal in chemical installations. Sump pump is widely used to remove accumulated water from a sump pit or other location. Vacuum pump is used to improve the efficiency of steam heating systems in many ways. The most important consideration is the rapid and efficient removal.

Process and Instrumentation Symbols Equipments

Screw pump is the Archimedes screw pump that is still used in irrigation and agricultural applications.

Tank is used to store process fluids of various types, under different process conditions. Onion tank is an open top collapsible bladder designed for use as a mobile storage solution when recovering contaminants. Compressor is a mechanical device that takes in a medium and compresses it to a smaller volume. A mechanical or electrical drive is typically connected to a pump that is used to compress the medium. Axial compressor is widely used in gas turbines, such as jet engines, high speed ship engines, and small scale power stations. Reciprocation compressor is typically used where high compression ratios are required per stage without high flow rates, and the process fluid is relatively dry.

Mixing vessel is a container that is used to blend several components together. Heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat energy between two process flows. Heat exchangers transfer heat energy through conductive and convective heat transfer. Cooling towers transfer heat energy to the outside air through the principle of evaporation. Cooler is a device, container or room that cools air through the evaporation of water or keeps cool. Turbine driver is used to drive pumps and fans at petrochemical plants. Furnace is a device for heating a continuous current of air by means of a fire contained within the apparatus and without mingling the fresh air with the products of combustion. Boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated.

Rotary compressor is a type of gas compressor which uses a rotary type positive displacement mechanism. Mixing is a device that combine or put together to form one substance or mass. Oil burnerl is engineered from the ground up exclusively to burn waste oils.

Automatic stoker s used to supply hot water to central heating systems. Plate tower is used widely in many processes and industrial applications. Packed tower is a type of packed bed used to perform separation processes. Elevator is used to control the position of the nose of the aircraft and the angle of attack of the wing. Mixing reactor is widely used in the chemical industry to promote mixing. Process and Instrumentation Symbols Valves

Ball valve is a valve with a spherical disc, the part of the valve which controls the flow through it. Butterfly valve is installed between two flanges using a separate set of bolts for each flange. Angle valve is oriented at an angle 90 deg of gate valve. Process and Instrumentation Symbols Piping Lines Process flow diagrams use special piping lines to represent how signals are transmitted between equipments. These symbols are used to identify how the instruments in the process connect to each other. And what type of signal is being used. (electrical, pneumatic, data, etc)

Gate valve is a device used to control the flow of liquids and gases. Check valve, also known as one-way valve, is to prevent the line of medium back. Globe valve is a mechanism used to control or stop the flow of liquid or gas through a pipe. All lines to be fine in relation to process piping lines. Major pipeline is used to connect the equipment in any position.

Major Straight line is sued to connect the equipment in the same horizontal or Vertical position. Process connection help create the process flow between equipments. Double click process connection to edit description.

These instrumentation symbols can easily change types by clicking the quick action button while designing.

Process and Instrumentation Symbols Instruments Process Flow Diagram use symbols and circles to represent each instrument and how they are inter-connected in the process.