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Thought questions to help you understand cell structure and function Biology I Hillis Chapter 4: Cells

(with hints)

Each learning team will have 15 minutes to answer questions 1 through 7. If you finish early, start to work on other questions. Then we will share answers. For up to 5 points extra credit and part of studying for Exam 2, answer the rest of the questions. Extra credit is due by Wednesday, October 16, at the beginning of class. 1. How are prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells similar? List as many structural and functional similarities as you can.

2. How are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells different? List as many structural and functional differences as you can.

3. What problems do larger cells encounter that limit cell size? Eukaryotic cells are, in general, much larger than prokaryotic cells. How have eukaryotic cells overcome some of the problems that limit cell size? See pp 57-58 and

4. Describe the structure of ribosomes. Where are ribosomes located in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? What is the function of ribosomes? p. 64

5. Compare and contrast prokaryotic (p. 60) and eukaryotic (p. 73 for plants) cell walls. How are they similar? How are they different?

6. Compare and contrast eukaryotic and prokaryotic flagella. How are they similar? How are they different?

pp. 70-72 (eukaryotes) and p. 61 (prokaryotes)

7. How are Archaea different from Bacteria? Answer in one sentence. (Hint: the long answer is in Chapter 19, but the short answer is in Chapter 1.)

8. Eukaryotic cells have several membrane-bound organelles. Membranes segregate space within the cell into different compartments in which significantly different conditions can exist. Why is cellular compartmentalization adaptive? Use real examples of subcellular compartments in your answer. This video explains the importance of compartmentalization in eukaryotic cells, including examples of functions of specific subcellular compartments:

9. Describe the structure of the nuclear membranes. How do things enter and exit the nucleus and why is this important? What occurs within the nucleus? What is stored and accessed within the nucleus? Why might it be advantageous to separate this from the rest of the cell?

10. What organelles make up the endomembrane system? How are they linked structurally? How are they related functionally? Hillis Figure 4.8 and pp. 64-67

11. Compare and contrast the rough ER and smooth ER. How are they similar? How are they different? pp. 65-66

12. The Golgi apparatus has sometimes been compared to the FedEx distribution center in Atlanta, GA. Why does this comparison make sense? All FedEx packages go to Atlanta, then are sorted and sent to their destinations. This is easier than trying to work out various distribution patterns among all possible locations where people ship and receive packages. See also Animated Tutorial 4.2 on the Hillis website.

13. Read the Apply the Concept box on page 67 and answer the two questions.

The experiment describes a method for pulse labeling lipase protein. The location of the labeled protein is then identified at various time points (in minutes) after the pulse labeling.

14. How do vesicles move between the ER, Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes or the plasma membrane? Compare this movement to the shipping of goods by train. This video shows how the protein kinesin moves along microtubules: Another protein, dyenin, moves the other direction along microtubules and can tow organelles or vesicles. Myosin dimers (the same molecule we met in muscles) can move along actin filaments and tow organelles or vesicles.

15. Which two eukaryotic organelles, besides the nucleus, contain DNA? How are the functions of these organelles similar? p. 68

16. Make a table listing the structures and functions of the three types of cytoskeletal filaments. Which of these is also present in a rudimentary form in prokaryotic cells? Fig. 4.10 and pp. 69-72 (eukaryotes) and p. 61 (prokaryotes)

17. Compare a eukaryotic cell wall to a eukaryotic extracellular matrix. How are they similar? How are they different? Summarize the functions of each. pp. 73-74

18. Describe the structures and functions of the three animal cell junctions. How is one of these like plasmodesmata of plants? pp. 74-75 and Activity 4.3 on the Hillis website

See this very cool animation from Harvard U. to see various parts of a eukaryotic cell (a white blood cell) in action: Next time Cell Jeopardy: Will your learning team win? 7