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A pure semiconductor.

Its conductivity is low.

It has thermally generated current carries.

Examples of pure or intrinsic semiconductor

used frequently
are germanium and silicon.
 At 0 K, all the covalent bonds is complete . Therefore, no
free electron is available in the crystal for the conduction of
current . Hence, silicon crystal behaves as an insulator at 0

 At room temperature, a covalent bond breaks, an electron

becomes free. The electron which leave the bonds is called
free electron and the vacancy created in the covalent bond
due to the release of electron is called a hole.

 If the potential difference is applied across an intrinsic

semiconductor, electrons will moves towards the positive
terminal, while the holes will drift toward the negative
 N e = N h = Ni
Ne- Number of free electrons per unit volume
Nh- Number of holes per unit volume
Ni – Number density of intrinsic carries

 Total current inside the semiconductor = currents

due to free electron + currents due to holes

 The process of adding suitable impurities in the

intrinsic is called doping. The impurities added in the
intrinsic semiconductor to increased its conductivity
are known as dopant.

 A semiconductor obtained after adding impurities

atoms in the intrinsic semiconductor is called extrinsic
or doped semiconductor.

• Pentavalent Impurities - The elements whose each atom

has five valence electrons. For example Arsenic, Antimony,
Phosphorus etc.

• Trivalent Impurities – The elements whose each atom has

three valence electorns. For example , Indium, Gallium ,
Aluminium etc.

 When Trivalent Impurity is added to pure germanium or

silicon crystal , we get extrinsic semiconductor known as p-
type semiconductor. Majority charge carries in p-type
semiconductor are holes and minority charge carries are
electrons which are thermally generated.

 Since each trivalent impurities atom accepts one electron

from the neighboring silicon atom, so it is known as acceptor
oWhen pentavalent impurities is added to the pure
germanium or silicon crystal, we get an extrinsic
semiconductor known as n-type semiconductor.

o Majority charge carries in n-type semiconductor

are electrons and minority charge carries are holes
which are thermally generated. Since each
pentavalent impurity atom dontes one electron to
the crystal, so it is known as donor impurities.

 N e = N h = Ni
 Nh > Ne . In p-type semiconductor
 Ne > Nh . In n-type semiconductor
It is pure elements It is impure elements.
like Ge and Silicon.  N e ≠ Nh
Ne = Nh High conductivity
Conductivity depends
Low conductivity
on the temperature as
Conductivity well as the amount of
mainly depend on impurity added in them.
their temperature.