Anda di halaman 1dari 10

JUNE 2009 YEAR: 2 VOLUME: 2 NO: 3

JUNE 2009 YEAR: 2 VOL: 2 NO: 3

www.tjme.net

Turkish Journal Music Education


The Refereed Scholarly journal of the

JUNE 2009 YEAR: 2 VOLUME: 2 NO: 3

The Refereed Scholarly journal of the

Fatih YAYLA, Editor Ayegl ATAK YAYLA, Copy Editor Mehmet TOZLUTEPE, Layout Editor Sleyman TARMAN, Proofreader, Publishing Editor

Electronic Article The SONATA: ANALYSIS of MOZART SONATA in G (KV 283) Metin MUNZUR

2008 All rights reserved. The content artical is the sole responsibity of the autpor. The TJME, is not liable for any legal actions that may aribe involving the articles content, including bun not limited to, copyright infringament. ISSN: 1307-3389 This article is part of an issue of online journal TJME (Turkish Journal of Music Education) www.tjme.net Mzik Eitimi Yaynlar www.muzikegitimi.net

ISSN: 13073389

www.tjme.net

JUNE 2009 YEAR: 2 VOLUME: 2 NO: 3

The SONATA: ANALYSIS of MOZART SONATA in G (KV 283)

Metin MUNZUR

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to understand the form of Sonata Allegro, which is counted as the rst movement of classicial sonatas. In this contest, it aims to comprehend the formal and the harmonic srtucture of the rst movement of W.A. Mozarts Piano Sonata; Nr. 5 in G Major(KV282) by detailed analysis. Pianists would be able to ponder more contiously on the formal structure by examining the structure. This would enable them to add much more frear soul to their interpretations. In this study the Sonata Allegro form and its schematic diagram were explained. Next, the rst movement of the Piano Sonata; Nr. 5 in G Major(KV282) by W. A. Mozart was analysed in details.

zet: Bu almann amac, klasik sontalarn birinci blm olan Sonat Allegrosu formunu kavramak ve bu balamda W.A.Mozartn, Sol majr (KV. 283) 5 numaral sonatnn birinci blmnn formal ve armonik kurgusunu, yaplan analizler dorultusunda daha iyi anlayabilmektir. rneklerde gsterilen detaylar, piyanistlerin eserin formal yaps zerinde daha bilinli dnmelerini ve yorumlarna daha zgn ifadeler katmalarna olanak

salayacaktr. almada ncelikle Sonat Allegrosu formu anlatlm ve ematik kurgusu verilmitir. Sonrasnda ise Sol majr (KV. 283) 5 numaral sonatnn birinci blm detayl olarak analiz edilmitir.

ISSN: 13073389

www.tjme.net

JUNE 2009 YEAR: 2 VOLUME: 2 NO: 3

The sonata is a highly expressive instrumental work written for one or two instruments, composed of three or four successive movements with various characteristics. (CANGAL, 2004). This term, which is derived from the word sonus, Latin for sound and tone, is sonata in Italian and sonate in German and French. It entered the Turkish vocabulary as sonat t with the French pronunciation. The sonata and the sonata-allegro are two concepts that should not be confused. The sonata is not a form but a mixed genre like the symphony, quartet, suite, etc Whereas the sonata-allegro is called thus because it is usually encountered in the rst allegro movement of works such as the sonata; the sonata-allegro is a form and structure and furthermore, it can be used in works other than the sonata, in every sort of movement, fast or slow (USMANBA 1974). In the classical sense, a sonata is generally composed of three or four movements: 1st Movement: In sonata-allegro form and with a quick tempo. 2nd Movement: Slow tempo, usually in the lied form. 3rd Movement: A minuet in extended ThreePart Song-Form. After Beethoven this movement became a scherzo. 4th Movement: This movement, which has a lively character, is generally in rondo form.

The Exposition 1. This is a musical idea that can be expressed in various ways and can be long or short according to the length of the theme. It generally has two parts but its main quality is that it has a specic air suitable for multiple treatments further on in the piece. 2. Transition to the theme can be done in two ways: With an original transitional phrase,

With the last phrase of the main theme leading into the bridge The secondary theme is in a dierent key and in marked contrast to the main theme, which at the same time is consistent with it. It is followed by the codetta. The Exposition ends on a perfect cadence. The Development The middle Division of the sonata allegro is called the Development. Here, previously exhibited thematic motifs are freely treated, elaborated, and developed. Some of the requirements of the Exposition do not apply here: The choice, sequence and form of the material to be treated are not subject to any rules. Due to these characteristics, this Division presents a perfect contrast between the Exposition and the Recapitulation. The Recapitulation Here, the Exposition is repeated in a slightly enlarged and altered form. In sonatas in which the Exposition is prolonged the main theme may be shortened. Here the transitional passage to the secondary theme is modied. Furthermore, the secondary theme generally enters in the key of the main theme. The codetta is preserved unchanged enabling the transition to the CODA. The CODA

SONATA ALLEGRO
A classical sonata-allegro form is as follows:
EXPOSITION DEVELOPMENT RECAPITULATION Secondary Theme (in tonic)

Transitional Passage

Secondary Theme

Main Theme

Development

Main Theme

Codetta

Codetta

CODA

Bridge

Bridge

The general purpose of codas is to conclude the entire movement, secure balance between
www.tjme.net

ISSN: 13073389

JUNE 2009 YEAR: 2 VOLUME: 2 NO: 3

the movements and perhaps reach a second climax, and achieve a bright ending. Still, it revolves around a main tone and there is an attempt to reinforce the feeling of tonality. In some instances the CODA may act as a second development due to these characteristics, and can, in these cases, more or less follow the rst development. This is usually the case when the sonata allegro is especially long. (Usmanba, 1974).
REFERENCES CANGAL, Nurhan: Mzik Formlar, Arkada Yaynevi, Ankara 2004 SAY, Ahmet: Mzik Szl, Mzik Ansiklopedisi Yaynlar, Ankara 2002 USMANBA, lhan: Mzikte Biimler, Milli Eitim Yaynlar, Istanbul 1974

W.A. MOZART
ANALYSIS of PIANO SONATA No.5 in G Major (KV 283) Mozart composed this sonata in 1775 in Munich. The sonata is in the key of G major. Looking at the general outline of this sonata, which begins with a short measure, the characteristic gure that stands out is the dotted eighth and the sixteenth note.

This gurative structure is rhythmically repeated at specic points of the work. The rst group of themes ends with a cadence of sixteen measures and in the key of G major.

The main theme is periodic in nature and is composed of two parts. The second Part, consisting of six measures, is repeated after the cadence but starting an octave lower. The bridge commences with sixteenth-note motion on the second eighth of the second beat of the measure with which the Principal theme ends. Though this bridge seems to be derived from the sixteenth notes in the rst group of themes, it actually has a dierent characteristic form of its own.

ISSN: 13073389

www.tjme.net

JUNE 2009 YEAR: 2 VOLUME: 2 NO: 3

transition (in the dominant key) from the rst group of themes to the second. This bridge has been used again in full without modications in the Recapitulation. The second group of themes is syncopated and is in the dominant key (D major). This theme is periodic as well, and in its second phrase the same structure has been treated in sixteenth notes.

Like the Principal theme, the Subordinate theme is also composed of two sections. The rst section is the theme beginning with syncopation and followed by sixteenth notes, and the second section is the theme which begins by reinforcing the tonality, followed by repeated motifs. The succession of eighths in the second section of the Principal theme forms a contrast to the use of eighths predominating the Principal theme. The subordinate theme is longer than to the Principal theme. The Subordinate theme, consisting of twenty two measures, leads into the closing group with a brief connecting passage of two measures.

When this structure is simplied and the ornamentation is removed, the following composition emerges:
ISSN: 13073389 www.tjme.net

JUNE 2009 YEAR: 2 VOLUME: 2 NO: 3

D to G in the right hand is imitated between A and D in the left hand. The same measure is repeated once more, thus reinforcing the tonic-dominant eect before leading into the closing group. We had encountered a similar use in the left hand part of the main bridge between the main and secondary themes. The material of the main bridge, which functions via sequences, is used in the second brief connecting passage as well.

Above is the left hands ascent through eighth notes. The actual material of the closing group is the Subordinate theme and is derived from the secondary theme, to which it is highly similar within this context due to its syncopated structure.

After a phrase of three measures, this structure, as in the second phrase of the secondary theme, is repeated using an ornamentation of sixteenth notes, forming a cadence in the dominant key (D major r). This cadence has been prolonged two measures using an epilogue cadence. This prolongation enhances the eect of the D major r key. The descent in parallel thirds between quarter notes in the right and left hands had previously been used in syncopation in the secondary theme, but was not as noticeable due to the syncopation. Reintroducing it on the same beats in the closing group highlights this structure.

ISSN: 13073389

www.tjme.net

JUNE 2009 YEAR: 2 VOLUME: 2 NO: 3

The section to follow the cadence in the dominant key is no doubt the Development. In most classical sonatas the Development has been conceived in the dominant key. In this article, the Development has been analyzed in two sections, A and B. The Development begins with an ascent that starts in the tonic in D major and ends in the dominant. The rhythmic structure here forms a contrast to both the Principal and Subordinate themes. The fact that the measure of three quarter notes contains one quarter in its upper part and two quarters in its lower part produces a typical waltz-like eect. In the Development the composer has created new ideas by modifying rhythmic and harmonic elements taken from the main or secondary themes. All of these make up the Development. These ideas are generally periodic in nature. The composer has kept the sonatas Development brief and has used motivic materials quite economically. The rst eight measures, that is section A, have a periodic structure. Functionally they resemble the I V I of the main theme. The second phrase of the second period is a version of the rst phrase treated through variations. Structurally it is the same, but in the second phrase, the left hand part enters an octave lower. Though it may be a remote comparison the way adjacent notes are used is also similar. Naturally these adjacent notes are used with dierent times and values.

Below is shown the functional structure and a detailed analysis of the Development:

ISSN: 13073389

www.tjme.net

JUNE 2009 YEAR: 2 VOLUME: 2 NO: 3

ISSN: 13073389

www.tjme.net

JUNE 2009 YEAR: 2 VOLUME: 2 NO: 3

Section B, the second section, uses a pedal D note and, as can be unmistakably understood in the last four measures, it exhibits a structure that prepares the Recapitulation, i.e., the re-exposition. In any case, the tonality of the Development provides the dominant chord for the main theme. In section B we encounter a triplet ornamentation which we had not met with previously.

This ornamentation is built around the D note and the same motion enters two measures later embellishing the C note. Another similarity is the use of descent between the left hand notes of the secondary theme, shown in circles below, and the other notes shown in circles.

This use of descent is also similar to the syncopated descent of the secondary theme. In the last four measures of section B, sounding the tone colors of the chord of the dominant seventh prepares the G major tonality, which is the main tonality, and by sounding the main theme, the Recapitulation begins. The ornamentation in C sharp before the D note, which is the rst point of the Recapitulation, recalls the C sharp used in the triplets of the Development. In this Part what is rather used is the material of the main theme, and it is repeated with modulations. The characteristic motif of the main theme, which is a motion composed of the dotted eighth and the sixteenth note, reappears immediately afterward in the A minor r tonality. Shifting later to C major r, it returns to G major via the subdominant of the main tonality of the work. The bridge between the main and secondary themes is introduced with exactly the same structure it had in the Exposition. Though the secondary theme entered the Exposition in the dominant tonality, in the Recapitulation it enters in the main tonality of the work, which is G major.

Just as in the Exposition, it is followed by ornamentation in sixteenth notes.

ISSN: 13073389

www.tjme.net

JUNE 2009 YEAR: 2 VOLUME: 2 NO: 3

an octave higher. Below is shown, accompanied by a functional analysis, the closing section of the development and how it leads into the re-exposition:

The works Subordinate theme after the bridge and what follows after that is introduced with exactly the same structure as in the Exposition and this time the same cadence is reintroduced in the main tonality (G major). In conclusion, it has been observed that the Development in this sonata is not very long, and that the rhythmic and harmonic structure formed by the Development consists of a group of new ideas comprising small motifs and ornamentations derived from the Principal and Subordinate themes. Small modulations are performed in the Recapitulation, and subsequently the work ends with a cadence in the main tonality, in line with the sonata concept. Score Writings: Metin Munzur, Finale 2006
ISSN: 13073389 www.tjme.net

10