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Universitatea Lucian Blaga din Sibiu Economice

Facultatea de tiine

Referat Englez
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Universitatea Lucian Blaga din Sibiu Economice

Facultatea de tiine

Presentation
My name is Vlcan Ramona, I am 31 years old, from Romania. I am a student at the University Finance Banks ar!u Mures year " are married have a !irl) I must say a lot a#out me. I am a hi!h thin $oman $ith #ro$n eyes $ear stylish clothes. I !raduated a#out my moral %ualities must say that I am o&timistic and friendly character. I have a lot of friends #ecause I am soci#le

Negotiations
'e!otiation is not a science nor is it a #ranch of technolo!y. lt is a life skill. (e start to nc!otiate $hen $e are very youn! and as $c !ro$ older $e #uild u& &atterns of #ehaviour that reflect $hat $e feel )$orks for us*. +nd this $ill #e #ased &artly u&on the kind of &ersonality $e may have inherited and &artly u&on the kind of &ersonality $e have lived and !ro$n u&. 'e!otiation in #usiness is no dou#t a#out facts, costs, &rofits, lo!ical decision makin! #ut also a#out &eo&le, their emotions,-oy, sur&rise, fear, dou#t, an!cr, sorro$. , !oals and the kind of human #ein!s they are. +n understandin! of &eo&le s motivation and ho$ their &ersonalities can aiffect their #ehaviour can #e vital in discoverin! ho$ you can do #usiness $ith them #etter and #etter. o ne!otiate effeetively one must communicate as such. he messa!e has to #e convcyed, received, understood, acce&ted in order to entail the ri!ht actions or res&onses. he &rocess of transmission is very im&ortant/ not all ne!otiations are eonducted face to face #ut there are other choices too0 letters, the fa1, the electronic mail, the &hone. 2till there mi!ht #e some &ro#lems such as0 they may !et missed or misunderstood. o many &ersonncl mana!ers, ne!otiation im&lies 3ollective #ar/ !ainin!. o a sales e1ecutive, it $ill #e thou!ht ofin terms of makin! a commercial deal. 4uantity su$eyors, &urchasin! mana!ers and la$yers all have their o$n s&ecialist inter&retations of $hat, in essenee, is a &rocess common to all mana!erial $ork. In reality, all mana!ers ne!otiate, if not $ith outside &aities then $ith each other. hc &rocedures and lan!ua!e of formal ne!otiation vary $ith the ty&e of ne!otiation involved. + set/&iece &ay #ar!ainin! session has its o$n system and -ar!on that diffcr from those of a meetin! of solicitors to scttle a

Universitatea Lucian Blaga din Sibiu Economice

Facultatea de tiine

elaim for li#el dama!es. 5et the underlyin! &rinci&les and much ol6 the &sycholo!y ofthe &rocess are the same for all tomis ofne!otiation. It is also easy for mana!ers to overlook the fact that much of their informal daily activity is, in effect, ne!otiation. +ll mana!ers s&end a lar!e &ro&ortion oftheir time tryin! to influence and &ersuade other mana!ers over $hom they have no e1ecutive authority. 3onsider t$o e1am&les0 + &ersonnel mana!er attem&ts to 7sell6 the need for a more systematie form ofem&loyee consultation to a reluctant ,iffiee mana!er. he com&any has a !eneral &olicy of su&&ort for em&loyee involvemcnt &ractices, #ut has not laid do$n any s&ecific system or &rocedure. 'either the e1tcnt to $hich the &ersonnel mana!er can use the !eneral &olicy to re%uire the office mana!ers coo&eration, nor the ri!ht of the office mana!er to re-ect the &ersonnel mana!er7s 2u!!estions is clearly defined. he outcome $ill #e influenced #y their &ossi#ly differin! &erce&tions of the formal &osition, and #y the &o$ers of ar!ument or &crsuasion ofthe &ersonne8 mana!er. + sales e1ecutive tries to &ersuade the &roduction mana!er to chan!e a manufacturin! 2chedule to fit in a small order for a s&ecial customer. he &roduction mana!er has full authority to decide &roduction schedules a!ainst a (eekly out&ut &lan set #y to& mana!ement. 9ffrcially, the sales mana!er should make a re%uest throu!h the sales director for an ur!ent variation to this &lan #ut #ecause the order is only a small one, he a&&roaches the &roduction mana!er informally and must, therefore, rely on &ersuasion. 'e!otiatin! skills are, therefore, a very im&ortant element in the effective mana!efs &ortfolio of &ersonal com&etencies. Reeo!ni:in! $hen ne!otiation is oecurrin! is the first ste& to$ards ae%uirin! the necessary skills, and this is aided #y an understandin! of the #asic &rinci&les involved. 'c!otiation is a &rocess, not a sin!le skill. + ran!e of skills are involved in handlin! this &rocess effectively, #ut to identify the skills relevant to any ne!otiatin! e&isode, it is im&ortant to reeo!ni:e $hich elements or &rinci&les of ne!otiation are involved. here are seven &rinci&les common to all forms of ne!otiation0

Universitatea Lucian Blaga din Sibiu Economice

Facultatea de tiine

'e!otiation involves t$o or more &arties (ho need or think they need each other6s involvement in achievin! some desired outcome. here must #e some common interest, either in the su#-ect matter of the ne!otiation or in the ne!otiatin! conte1t that &uts or kee&s the &arties in contact. +lthou!h sharin! a de!ree of interest, the &arties start $ith different o&inions or o#-eetives, and these differenees initially &revent the achievement of an outcome. +t least initially, the &arties consider that ne!otiation is a more satisfaetory $ay of tryin! to resolve their differenees than alternatives such as eoereion or ar#itration. ;ach &arty considers that there is some &ossi#ility of &ersuadin! the other to modify their ori!inal &osition. It is not essential / thou!h it is usually hi!hly desira#le for each &arty to #c $illin! to com&romise. But ne!otiation can #e!in $hen &arties have an initial intention of maintainin! their o&enin! &ositions, #ut each has some ho&e of &ersuadin! the other to chan!e. 2imilarly even $hen their ideal outeomes &rove unattaina#le, #oth &arties rctain ho&e of an accc&ta#le final a!reement. ;ach &arty has some influence or &o$er / real or assumed /over the other7s a#ility to act. lf one &arty is entirely &o$erless, there may he no &oint in the other7 &arty committin! itself to a ne!otiatin! &rocess. he matter can #e settled unilaterally #y the &arty $ith the untrammeled &o$er to act. his &o$er or influence may, ho$ever, #e indirect and #ear on issues other than those that are the direct su#-ect of ne!otiation. he ne!otiatin! &rocess itself is one of interaction #et$een &eo&le in most cases #y direct, ver#al interchan!e. ;ven $hen the ne!otiation is #ein! conducted throu!h corres&ondence, there is an essential underlyirr! human element. he &ro!ress of all ty&es of ne!otiation is stron!ly intluenced #y emotion and attitudes, not -ust #y the facts or lo!ic of each &arty7s ar!uments. 'c!otiation is a &rocess of intcraction #y $hich t$o or more &arties $ho consider they need to #e -ointly involved in an outcome, #ut $ho initially have different o#-ectives, seek #y the use of ar!ument and &ersuasion to rcsolvc their ditlercnces in order to achieve a mutually acce&ta#le solution.

Universitatea Lucian Blaga din Sibiu Economice

Facultatea de tiine

It $ill &ro#a#ly #e readily aeee&ted that this definition is relevant to formal ne!otiations such as &ay #ar!ainin! or the settlernent ofa le!al claim 7tor dama!es. rade unions and em&loyers or the solicitors re&resentin! t$o &arties to liti!ation o#viously acce&t that they need -ointly to evolve a mutually satisfactory outcome, startin! from diflerin! &ositions. ;ach &arty kno$s that the other has some &o$er to intluence the outcome. + trade union mi!ht a&&ly the sanction of industrial action0 an em&loycr mi!ht reduce the la#or force0 the clairnanfs solicitors mi!ht sto& nc!otiatin! and take the case to court0 the res&ondent has some defense if this oceurs. In the second of these e1am&les, the sales e1ecutive has no direct &o$er to re%uire the &roduction mana!er to alter &roduction 2chedules0 the &roduction mana!er can -ust say no / so $here does ne!otiation come in< + $illin!ness at least to consider the re%uest and there#y #ecome involved in a discussion a#out a &ossi#le -ointly satisfactory outcome / $ill stem from several as&ects of common interest, or from a reco!nition of more su#tlc forms of &o$er. he sales e1ecutive $ants the &roduction 2chedules altered, the &roduction mana!er does not, #ut #oth rnana!ers, it is to #e ho&cd, share an interest in the success of the #usiness. o disa&&oint an im&ortant customer may #e of more immediate concern to the sales e1ecutive than to the &roduction mana!er, #ut a !ood &roduction mana!er $ill &ay heed to the im&ortance of !ood customer service. 2imilarly, the sales e1ecutive $ill rcco!ni:e the costs and &erha&s dclays to other orders that a chan!e in the &roduction schedule mi!ht !ive rise to. 2o a common interest in the !ood of the #usiness ena#les #oth to see somethin! in the other7s &oint ofvie$, and thus cncoura!es a dialo!ue, rather than the sim&le e1ercise of formal :iuthority. It may #e that the sales e1ecutive ,&or the customer on $hose #ehalf the re%uest is #ein! made. is kno$n #y the &roduction mana!er to #c hi!hly re!arded #y the mana!in! director. lt mi!ht thus #e un$ise, in terms of

Universitatea Lucian Blaga din Sibiu Economice

Facultatea de tiine

com&any &olitics, for the &roduction mana!er to mn the risk of #ein! considered unhel&ful. Both mana!ers also kno$ that they have to continue to $ork to!ether. (ithout anythin! #ein! said, #oth $ill &ro#a#ly #e in=uenccd #y kno$in! that this lon!/term (orkin! relationshi& could #e adversely atfectetl #y mishandlin! the &articular incident. he &roduction mana!er may have the ri!ht to say no in other $ords, not to ne!otiate #ut $ill (onder $hether this $ould cause avoida#le friction. here may also #e the thou!ht that #y a!rccin! some concession, an o#li!ation may #e created that mi!ht #c ea&itali:ed on at some future date. In the other e1am&le, considerations ofa similar kind mi!ht also lead to the office mana!er>s #ein! $illin ! to discuss the &ersonnel mana!crs advice. Both have an interest in the smooth runnin! of the com&any and in com&liance $ith the com&any &olicy0 the &ersonnel mana!er may #c kno$n to have to& mana!ement #ackin!0 the mana!ers have to !o on $orkin! to!ether, and therefore the office mana!er $ill have to consider the im&lications of rc-cetin! the &ersonnel mana!er6s advice if em&loyee relations arc then seen to deteriorate.

Minat Terkait