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thomas (amt2529) – HW 3.

4 – Pozuc – (10001) 1
This print-out should have 8 questions. vx2 = −2 g h1
Multiple-choice questions may continue on p
vx = −2 g h1
the next column or page – find all choices q
before answering. = −2 (−9.81 m/s2 ) (1.8 m)
This assignment is due October 19th (Mon-
day) at 10 pm. Solutions immediately follow. = 5.94273 m/s .

001 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points


002 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points
A block starts at rest and slides down a fric-
What horizontal distance does the block
tionless track. It leaves the track horizontally,
travel in the air?
flies through the air, and subsequently strikes
the ground.
Correct answer: 4.15692 m.
579 g Explanation:
v
b b b b Let : h2 = −2.4 m .
4.2 m

b b
b
b With the point of launch as the origin,
2.4 m

b
b
b 1 2
b h2 = gt
x 2
s
What is the speed of the ball when it leaves 2 h2
t= .
the track? The acceleration of gravity is g
9.81 m/s2 .
Thus
Correct answer: 5.94273 m/s. s
2 h2
Explanation: x = vx t = vx
g
s
2 (−2.4 m)
Let : g = −9.81 m/s2 , = (5.94273 m/s)
−9.81 m/s2
m = 579 g , and
h1 = 1.8 m . = 4.15692 m .

m 003 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points


v What is the speed of the block when it hits
h1

b b b b the ground?
b b
b
h

b
b Correct answer: 9.07766 m/s.
h2

b
b
b Explanation:
4.2 m
Let : h = 2.4 m .
Choose the point where the block leaves the
track as the origin of the coordinate system. Now choose ground level as the origin. En-
While on the ramp, ergy conservation gives us

Kb = Ut Kf = Ui
1 1
m vx2 = −m g h1 m vf2 = −m g h
2 2
thomas (amt2529) – HW 3.4 – Pozuc – (10001) 2
p
vf = −2 g h hence
q p
= −2 (−9.81 m/s2 ) (2.4 m) vf = 2 g (h − y)
q
= 2 (9.8 m/s2 ) (1.79 m − 0.873 m)
= 9.07766 m/s .
= 4.23948 m/s .
Alternate Solution:
p
vy = −2 g h2 005 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
q A girl swings on a playground swing in such
= −2 (−9.81 m/s2 ) (2.4 m) a way that at her highest point she is 3.4 m
= 6.86207 m/s , so from the ground, while at her lowest point she
q is 0.6 m from the ground.
vf = vx2 + vy2 The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .
q
= (5.94273 m/s)2 + (6.86207 m/s)2
= 9.07766 m/s .
9m

004 10.0 points


A ball of mass 0.19 kg is dropped from a 3.4 m
height 1.79 m above the ground. 0.6 m
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .
Neglecting air resistance, determine the What is her maximum speed?
speed of the ball when it is at a height 0.873 m
above the ground. Correct answer: 7.4081 m/s.
Explanation:
Correct answer: 4.23948 m/s. Basic Concepts: Conservation of energy
Explanation: 1
K = m v2
Since the ball is in free-fall, the only force 2
acting on it is the gravitational force. There- Ugr = m g h .
fore, we can use the principle of constancy
of mechanical energy. Initially, the ball has
potential energy and no kinetic energy. As Let : r = 9 m ,
it falls, its total energy (the sum of kinetic htop = 3.4 m , and
and potential energies) remains constant and hbot = 0.6 m .
equal to its initial potential energy. When
the ball is released from rest at a height h, its Solution: We can solve this by using the
kinetic energy is Ki = 0 and its potential en- principle of conservation of energy. We need
ergy is Ui = mgh, where the y coordinate is to know the kinetic and potential energies at
measured from ground level. When the ball is two points in time. The girl will be moving
at a distance y above the ground, its kinetic the fastest when her kinetic energy is largest
1 which occurs when her potential energy is
energy is Kf = mv 2 and its potential energy smallest. This means that she will be mov-
2
is Uf = mgy. Applying the equation ing fastest at the bottom of the swing. By
conservation of energy,
Ki + Ui = Kf + Uf ,
Etop = Ebot
we obtain Ktop + Utop = Kbot + Ubot
1 1 1
0 + mgh = m v2 + m g y , 2
m vtop 2
+ m g htop = m vbot + m g hbot .
2 2 2
thomas (amt2529) – HW 3.4 – Pozuc – (10001) 3
Since vtop = 0, 1
h1/2 = [3 htop + hbot ]
4
1 2 1
m vbot = m g (htop − hbot ) so = [3 (3.4 m) + (0.6 m)]
2 4
vmax = vbot = 2.7 m .
q
= 2 g [htop − hbot ]
q
= 2 (9.8 m/s2 )[(3.4 m) − (0.6 m)] 007 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
= 7.4081 m/s . A small metal ball is suspended from the ceil-
ing by a thread of negligible mass. The ball
is then set in motion in a horizontal circle so
006 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points that the thread describes a cone.
Given: In the following choices, htop is the The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .
height of the highest point and hbot is the
height of the lowest point.
At what height above the ground will the
girl be moving at a speed half of her maximum

30
speed? 9.8 m/s2

1. 3
Correct answer: 2.7 m.

m
Explanation:
Let h1/2 = the height, where v = v1/2 = v
1 6.6 kg
vmax . What is the speed of the ball when it is in
2
circular motion?

Correct answer: 1.91774 m/s.


r
v1 Explanation:
/2

h1/2 v htop
hbottom Let : ℓ = 1.3 m ,
θ = 30◦ ,
From conservation of energy, g = 9.8 m/s2 , and
m = 6.6 kg .
K1/2 + U1/2 = Ktop + Utop
1 2
m v1/2 + m g h1/2 = 0 + m g htop Use the free body diagram below.
2  
1 1 2
m g h1/2 = m g htop − v . θ
2 4 max
T
From Part 1,
1 2
m vmax = m g [htop − hbot ] .
2 mg
Substitution yields
The tension on the string can be decom-
1 posed into a vertical component which bal-
m g h1/2 = m g htop − m g [htop − hbot ] ances the weight of the ball and a horizontal
4
thomas (amt2529) – HW 3.4 – Pozuc – (10001) 4
component which causes the centripetal ac- Equating both expressions for vball , we have
celeration, acentrip that keeps the ball on its
horizontal circular path at radius r = ℓ sin θ. 2 π ℓ sin θ p
= vball = g ℓ tan θ sin θ
If T is the magnitude of the tension in the Tperiod
string, then
s
2 π ℓ sin θ g ℓ sin2 θ
=
Tvertical = T cos θ = m g (1) Tperiod cos θ

and s
Thoriz = m acentrip ℓ cos θ
Tperiod = 2 π
or g
2
m vball s
T sin θ = . (2) (1.3 m) cos 30◦
ℓ sin θ = 2π
Solving (1) for T yields 9.8 m/s2
= 2.12963 s .
mg
T = (3)
cos θ as sin θ cancels.
and substituting (3) into (2) gives
2
m vball
m g tan θ = .
ℓ sin θ
Solving for v yields
p
v = g ℓ tan θ sin θ
q
= (9.8 m/s2 ) (1.3 m) tan 30◦ sin 30◦
= 1.91774 m/s .

008 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points


How long does it take Tperiod for the ball to
rotate once around the axis?

Correct answer: 2.12963 s.


Explanation:
Basic Concept:

d = vt.

Solution: Because the tangential speed of


the ball around the circle is constant, we have
s
vball = .
Tperiod

s is the distance the ball travels in one revo-


lution, which is the perimeter of the circle of
radius ℓ sin θ, therefore, we have

s = 2 π ℓ sin θ .